WorldWideScience

Sample records for herpes simple genital

  1. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  2. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital herpes? ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital herpes? ...

  3. Genital herpes.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment.

  4. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be can be considerable embarrassment, shame, and stigma associated with a herpes diagnosis that can substantially ... complications for a pregnant woman and her newborn child. See “ How does herpes infection affect a pregnant ...

  5. Genital herpes simplex.

    OpenAIRE

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and canc...

  6. Genital herpes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... Genital herpes cannot be cured. Antiviral medicine (acyclovir and related drugs) may relieve pain and discomfort and help ...

  7. Genital herpes simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummon, I S; Dudley, D K; Walters, J H

    1981-07-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history.

  8. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against STDs. Using douche can actually increase a female's risk of contracting STDs because it can change the natural flora (healthy bacteria) of the vagina and may flush STD pathogens higher into the genital tract. A teen who is being treated for herpes ...

  9. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.

  10. Genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M S

    1979-09-01

    In recent years, a great increase in interest in genital herpes has been stimulated partly by the rising prevalence of this disease and partly by observations suggesting that genital herpes is a cause of cervical cancer. The clinical pictures produced by genital herpes simplex virus infections are similar in men and women. In contrast to recurrent attacks, initial episodes of infection are generally more extensive, last longer, and are more often associated with regional lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Genital herpes in pregnancy may pose a serious threat to the newborn infant. Although the data suggesting genital herpes simplex virus infection is a cause of cervical cancer are quite extensive, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In spite of these more serious aspects of genital herpes simplex virus infection, episodes of genital herpes are almost always self-limited and benign. Frequent recurrences pose the major therapeutic and management problem. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus in fection. Many of the suggested therapies, although some sound very promising, are potentially dangerous and should be used only under carefully controlled conditions.

  11. Current thinking on genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Annika M; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2014-02-01

    Genital herpes has a high global prevalence and burden of disease. This manuscript highlights recent advances in our understanding of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Studies demonstrate a changing epidemiological landscape with an increasing proportion of genital herpes cases associated with HSV type 1. There is also growing evidence that the majority of infected individuals exhibit frequent, brief shedding episodes that are most often asymptomatic, which likely contribute to high HSV transmission rates. Given this finding as well as readily available serological assays, some have proposed that routine HSV screening be performed; however, this remains controversial and is not currently recommended. Host immune responses, particularly local CD4 and CD8 T cell activity, are crucial for HSV control and clearance following initial infection, during latency and after reactivation. Prior HSV immunity may also afford partial protection against HSV reinfection and disease. Although HSV vaccine trials have been disappointing to date and existing antiviral medications are limited, novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities are currently in development. Although much remains unknown about genital herpes, improved knowledge of HSV epidemiology, pathogenesis and host immunity may help guide new strategies for disease prevention and control.

  12. No. 207-Genital Herpes: Gynaecological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Deborah; Steben, Marc

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide recommendations to gynaecology health care providers on optimal management of genital herpes. More effective prevention of complications and transmission of genital herpes. Medline was searched for articles published in French and English related to genital herpes and gynaecology. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  14. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  15. The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.

  16. Primary Genital Herpes Diseases in İnfancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gümüş Pekacar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic primary genital herpes infection is very rare in early childhood. Herpes simplex virus 1 type is the infectious agent in 20-50% percent of primery infections. Sexual abuse should be considered when genital herpes is seen in a person before sexual active age. It is mild and self limiting unless the patient is immune compramised. In this paper we discussed a 17 months old patient with genital herpes and approach to genital herpes in children.

  17. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  18. Genital herpes simplex virus infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, G; Corey, L

    1984-02-01

    With the decline in prevalence of childhood-acquired oral-labial herpes simplex type 1 infections in some populations and the increasing incidence of genital herpes infections in adults, clinicians are more likely to see patients with severe primary, first-episode genital herpes infections. Complications of these primary infections may include aseptic meningitis and urine retention secondary to sacral radiculopathy or autonomic dysfunction. Presented are the clinical course of first-episode and recurrent infections, complications, diagnostic laboratory methods, and results of controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of topical, intravenous, and oral preparations of acyclovir.

  19. Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-10-01

    Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  1. Hyperaesthesia following genital herpes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Catriona; Zawar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride.

  2. Hyperaesthesia Following Genital Herpes: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Catriona; Zawar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride.

  3. [Primary genital herpes with sacral meningoradiculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, P-N; Anguenot, J-L; Dubuisson, J-B

    2004-02-01

    Herpetic genital infection is a common sexually transmitted disease, caused in most cases by type 2 Herpes simplex virus (HSV2). This virus is characterized by its neurotropic properties and its ability to establish latency in sacral sensory ganglions. Some cases of genital primo-infection are complicated by viral replication dissemination to neigbhoring nerve structures like meninges and radicular terminations. In such cases muco-cutaneous manifestations are associated with peripheral neurological impairment in the form of meningo-radiculitis. Physicians should be familiar with these neurological symptoms knowing that they always regress completely. The present report illustrates these complications and reviews the potential neurological implications described in the literature.

  4. Hyperaesthesia Following Genital Herpes: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Ooi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride.

  5. Knowledge of genital herpes infection among antenatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a major cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide and a significant factor for increased risk of acquisition and transmission of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV). The determination of the level of knowledge of genital herpes is necessary for the design and implementation of ...

  6. Status of prophylactic and therapeutic genital herpes vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-06-01

    A half billion people have genital herpes infections worldwide. Approximately one-fifth of American women between ages 14 and 49 are HSV-2 seropositive. The development of an effective genital herpes vaccine is a global health necessity based on the mental anguish genital herpes causes for some individuals, the fact that pregnant women with genital herpes risk transmitting infection to their newborn children, and the observation that HSV-2 infection is associated with a 3-fold to 4-fold increased probability of HIV acquisition. We review the strengths and limitations of preclinical animal models used to assess genital herpes vaccine candidates and the goals of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. We also discuss the current pipeline of vaccine candidates and lessons learned from past clinical trials that serve as a stimulus for new strategies, study designs and endpoint determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing recurrent genital herpes with acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedi T

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients of recurrent genital herpes (RGH treated with oral or topical acyclovir and placebo were compared and followed for periods ranging 4 to 8 years in a prospective study. Oral acyclovir definitely helps RGH patients; it shortens healing time; postpones recurrences and instills confidence in the patients. There is sufficient evidence that RGH dies a natural death with time as seen after 8 years follow up in placebo group patients. Topical use of acyclovir cream is not as useful as believed.

  8. [Laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes--direct immunofluorescence method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Zareba-Szczudlik, Julia; Kilijańczyk, Marek; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the study was to determine clinical usefulness of direct immunofluorescence method in the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women. Overall 187 anogenital swabs were collected from 120 women. Using a dacron-tipped applicator 83 swabs were collected from women suspected of genital herpes and 104 from patients with no signs of genital infection. All samples were tested using cell culture (Vero cell line) and then direct immunofluorescence method (DIF) for the identification of antigens of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of alphaherpesvirus infection, was observed in 43.4% of cultures with clinical specimens collected from women with suspected genital herpes and in 29.8% of cultures of clinical specimens taken from patients with no clinical symptoms of genital herpes. Herpes simplex viruses were determined in 73 samples by direct immunofluorescence method after amplification of the virus in cell culture. The DIF test confirmed the diagnosis based on the microscopic CPE observation in 85%. In 15% of samples (taken from pregnant women without clinical signs of infection) we reported positive immunofluorescence in the absence of CPE. The frequency of antigen detection was statistically significantly higher in samples that were positive by culture study (chi-square test with Yates's correction, p genital herpes in swabs taken from the vestibule of the vagina and the vulva. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection of Herpes Simplex Virus antigens in specimens from different parts of the genital tract in both groups of women (chi-square test, p > 0.05). In our study HHV-1 was the main causative agent of genital herpes. The growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes, challenges with the clinical diagnosis, and availability of effective antiviral therapy are the main reasons for a growing interest in rapid, proper laboratory diagnosis of infected

  9. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... Statistics page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  11. Newer trends in the management of genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of genital herpes is complex. Apart from using the standard antivirals, an ideal management protocol also needs to address various aspects of the disease, including the psychological morbidity. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir are recommended for routine use. Long-term suppressive therapy is effective in reducing the number of recurrences and the risk of transmission to others. Severe or disseminated disease may require intravenous therapy. Resistant cases are managed with foscarnet or cidofovir. Genital herpes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals usually needs a longer duration of antiviral therapy along with continuation of highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART. Genital herpes in late pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal herpes. Antiviral therapy and/or cesarean delivery are indicated depending on the clinical circumstance. Acyclovir appears to be safe in pregnancy. But, there is limited data regarding the use of valacyclovir and famciclovir in pregnancy. Neonatal herpes requires a higher dose of acyclovir given intravenously for a longer duration. Management of the sex partner, counseling and prevention advice are equally important in appropriate management of genital herpes. Vaccines till date have been marginally effective. Helicase-primase inhibitors, needle-free mucosal vaccine and a new microbicide product named VivaGel may become promising treatment options in the future.

  12. Genital herpes simplex virus infection: clinical course and attempted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L G; Keeney, R E

    1981-06-01

    The epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis, and attempted treatments of herpes genitalis are reviewed. Herpes genitalis is an increasingly common sexually transmitted disease for which there is no effective treatment. It can occur in either sex and is mot commonly first found in patients 14 to 29 years old. Initial exposure to the virus may result in prolonged local symptoms (pain, itching, discharge) and signs (ulcerative lesions) as well as fever, malaise, myalgias, and fatigue. After the initial exposure, the virus may be found in a latent stage in the dorsal nerve root ganglia in the sacral area, and recurrences of disease may ensue. The frequency and clinical course of recurrent genital herpes can be of varying duration and severity. Although antiviral substances, immune potentiators, topical surfactants, and photodynamic inactivation have been used to treat genital herpes infections, there is no proven effective therapy.

  13. Genital herpes simplex virus infections: clinical manifestations, course, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, L; Adams, H G; Brown, Z A; Holmes, K K

    1983-06-01

    The clinical course and complications of 268 patients with first episodes and 362 with recurrent episodes of genital herpes infection were reviewed. Symptoms of genital herpes were more severe in women than in men. Primary first-episode genital herpes was accompanied by systemic symptoms (67%), local pain and itching (98%), dysuria (63%), and tender adenopathy (80%). Patients presented with several bilaterally distributed postular ulcerative lesions that lasted a mean of 19.0 days. Herpes simplex virus was isolated from the urethra, cervix, and pharynx of 82%, 88%, and 13% of women with first-episode primary genital herpes, and the urethra and pharynx of 28% and 7% of men. Complications included aseptic meningitis (8%), sacral autonomic nervous system dysfunction (2%), development of extragenital lesions (20%), and secondary yeast infections (11%). Recurrent episodes were characterized by small vesicular or ulcerative unilaterally distributed lesions that lasted a mean of 10.1 days. Systemic symptoms were uncommon and 25% of recurrent episodes were asymptomatic. The major concerns of patients were the frequency of recurrences and fear of transmitting infection to partners or infants.

  14. 2017 European guidelines for the management of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajul; Kennedy, Oliver J; Clarke, Emily; Geretti, Anna; Nilsen, Arvid; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Green, John; Donders, Gilbert; van der Meijden, Willem; Gomberg, Mikhail; Moi, Harald; Foley, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Genital herpes is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Using the best available evidence, this guideline recommends strategies for diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the condition as well as for minimising transmission. Early recognition and initiation of therapy is key and may reduce the duration of illness or avoid hospitalisation with complications, including urinary retention, meningism, or severe systemic illness. The guideline covers a range of common clinical scenarios, such as recurrent genital herpes, infection during pregnancy, and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

  15. Elsberg syndrome: a neurologic basis for acute urinary retention in patients with genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemrika, D J; Schutte, M F; Bleker, O P

    1986-09-01

    Three patients with genital herpes simplex type II primoinfection and acute urinary retention are described. All patients showed pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid, substantiating central nervous involvement. The association of genital herpes and sacral (myelo-) radiculitis has gained little attention in gynecologic literature, yet it is not an uncommon finding in female patients suffering from herpes. The present report emphasizes the importance of urinary symptoms in genital herpes and reviews the literature on similar cases.

  16. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  17. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines.

  18. Isolation of herpes simplex virus from the genital tract during symptomatic recurrence on the buttocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkering, Katrina; Gardella, Carolyn; Selke, Stacy; Krantz, Elizabeth; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the frequency of isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from the genital tract when recurrent herpes lesions were present on the buttocks. Data were extracted from a prospectively observed cohort attending a research clinic for genital herpes infections between 1975 and 2001. All patients with a documented herpes lesion on the buttocks, upper thigh or gluteal cleft ("buttock recurrence") and concomitant viral cultures from genital sites including the perianal region were eligible. We reviewed records of 237 subjects, 151 women and 86 men, with a total of 572 buttock recurrences. Of the 1,592 days with genital culture information during a buttock recurrence, participants had concurrent genital lesions on 311 (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14-27%) of these days. Overall, HSV was isolated from the genital region on 12% (95% CI 8-17%) of days during a buttock recurrence. In the absence of genital lesions, HSV was isolated from the genital area on 7% (95% CI 4%-11%) of days during a buttock recurrence and, among women, from the vulvar or cervical sites on 1% of days. Viral shedding of herpes simplex virus from the genital area is a relatively common occurrence during a buttock recurrence of genital herpes, even without concurrent genital lesions, reflecting perhaps reactivation from concomitant regions of the sacral neural ganglia. Patients with buttock herpes recurrences should be instructed about the risk of genital shedding during such recurrences. II-2.

  19. Associations between individual and relationship characteristics and genital herpes disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jaime L; Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie; Daley, Ellen; Dedrick, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure is often a challenge for individuals living with genital herpes. This study explores determinants of genital herpes disclosure with one's most recent sexual partner using an online questionnaire (n = 93). The majority of participants reported (80.4%) disclosure. Among non-disclosers, fear of negative partner reactions was the primary reason for non-disclosure. Age, relationship commitment, time in relationship, and expectations of partner's reaction were statistically significant predictors at the bivariate level. Reaction expectations and relationship commitment remained significant in the multivariate logistic regression model. Findings indicate that future disclosure research should focus on relationship context and managing negative expectations to increase disclosure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. [Factual approach to the treatment of genital herpes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2000-05-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. After the primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sacral dorsal root ganglia. Recurrences may occur at an unpredictable rate. The clinical signs are not always easy to recognize and viral identification techniques may be helpful such as immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on Tzanck smears and muco-cutaneous biopsies. The treatment of genital herpes can follow one of three strategies using antiviral drugs, non-specific immunomodulators, and vaccination. The new oral antiviral drugs decrease the severity of clinical manifestations without, however, providing a definitive cure. In this article recent knowledge about the clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, diagnostic methods, treatment options and management is reviewed.

  1. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is the leading cause of genital herpes in New Brunswick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garceau, Richard; Leblanc, Danielle; Thibault, Louise; Girouard, Gabriel; Mallet, Manon

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the role of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV1) in the epidemiology of genital herpes in Canada. Data on herpes viral cultures for two consecutive years obtained from L'Hôpital Dr GL Dumont, which performs all the viral culture testing in New Brunswick, were reviewed. It was hypothesized that HSV1 was the main cause of genital herpes in New Brunswick. Samples of genital origin sent to the laboratory for HSV culture testing between July 2006 and June 2008 were analyzed. Samples from an unspecified or a nongenital source were excluded from analysis. Multiple positive samples collected from the same patient were pooled into a single sample. HSV was isolated from 764 different patients. HSV1 was isolated in 62.6% of patients (male, 55%; female, 63.8%). HSV1 was isolated in 73.2% of patients 10 to 39 years of age and in 32% of patients ≥40 years of age. The difference in rates of HSV1 infection between the 10 to 39 years of age group and the ≥40 years of age group was statistically significant (Pgenital site. Significant rate differences were demonstrated between the groups 10 to 39 years of age and ≥40 years of age. Little is known about the role of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV1) in the epidemiology of genital herpes in Canada. Data on herpes viral cultures for two consecutive years obtained from L’Hôpital Dr GL Dumont, which performs all the viral culture testing in New Brunswick, were reviewed. It was hypothesized that HSV1 was the main cause of genital herpes in New Brunswick. Samples of genital origin sent to the laboratory for HSV culture testing between July 2006 and June 2008 were analyzed. Samples from an unspecified or a nongenital source were excluded from analysis. Multiple positive samples collected from the same patient were pooled into a single sample. HSV was isolated from 764 different patients. HSV1 was isolated in 62.6% of patients (male, 55%; female, 63.8%). HSV1 was isolated in 73.2% of patients 10 to

  2. DNA immunization against experimental genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I; Lew, D

    1996-04-01

    A nucleic acid vaccine, expressing the gene encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 glycoprotein D (gD2) under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter, was used to immunize guinea pigs against genital HSV-2 infection. The vaccine elicited humoral immune responses comparable to those seen after HSV-2 infection. Immunized animals exhibited protection from primary genital HSV-2 disease with little or no development of vesicular skin lesions and significantly reduced HSV-2 replication in the genital tract. After recovery from primary infection, immunized guinea pigs experienced significantly fewer recurrences and had significantly less HSV-2 genomic DNA detected in the sacral dorsal root ganglia compared with control animals. Thus, immunization reduced the burden of latent infection resulting from intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, and a nucleic acid vaccine expressing the HSV-2 gD2 antigen protected guinea pigs against genital herpes, limiting primary infection and reducing the magnitude of latent infection and the frequency of recurrent disease.

  3. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  5. Cesarean Delivery in Women With Genital Herpes in Washington State, 1989–1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M. Marrazzo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the proportion of cesarean deliveries in pregnant women with a history of genital herpes and no active lesions at birth is higher than that in women with no history of genital herpes, and to determine whether this risk was modified by birth facilities' underlying prevalence of cesarean delivery.

  6. Evolution of rational vaccine designs for genital herpes immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Johanna Katharina; Flechtner, Jessica Baker

    2016-04-01

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines have emerged as a novel treatment modality for genital herpes, a sexually transmitted disease mainly caused by herpes simplex virus type 2. The approaches to identify potential vaccine antigens have evolved from classic virus attenuation and characterization of antibody and T cell responses in exposed, but seronegative individuals, to systematic screens for novel T cell antigens. Combined with implementation of novel vaccine concepts revolving around immune evasion and local recruitment of immune effectors, the development of a safe and effective therapeutic vaccine is within reach. Here, we describe the vaccine approaches that currently show promise at clinical and pre-clinical stages and link them to the evolving scientific strategies that led to their identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-27

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  8. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  9. Laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of herpes simplex 1 and 2 genital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinšek Biškup, Urška; Uršič, Tina; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. Slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of HSV-2. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respectively. In most cases, genital herpes is asymptomatic. Primary genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 can be manifested by a severe clinical picture, involving the vesicular skin and mucosal changes and ulcerative lesions of the vulva, vagina, and cervix in women and in the genital region in men. Direct methods of viral genome detection are recommended in the acute stage of primary and recurrent infections when manifest ulcers or lesions are evident. Serological testing is recommended as an aid in diagnosing genital herpes in patients with reinfection in atypical or already healed lesions. When herpes lesions are present, all sexual activities should be avoided to prevent transmission of infection. Antiviral drugs can reduce viral shedding and thus reduce the risk of sexual transmission of the virus.

  10. Recurrent genital herpes treatments and their impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-01-01

    Herpes genitalis is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence in the US of greater than 20%. Two viruses of the same family cause herpes genitalis: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. After the resolution of primary infection, the virus persists in the nerve roots of the sacral plexus, often causing recurrent (though generally less severe) outbreaks. These outbreaks, as well as the infectious potential to the patient's sexual partners, results in significant psychological stress on the patient, and has a tremendous negative impact on QOL. Current treatment modalities may result in a reduction in the number of outbreaks and viral shedding, but no cure exists. Although studies have clearly demonstrated the negative impact of recurrent genital herpes on QOL, an assessment scale specific to herpes was not developed until recently. Earlier studies indicated that patients did not perceive a significant benefit from episodic treatment with antivirals, but studies using the Recurrent Genital Herpes Quality of Life Questionnaire (RGHQoL) have now demonstrated that suppressive antiviral therapy improves quality of life in patients with frequent recurrences of genital herpes. However, not all patients with recurrent genital herpes need suppressive therapy, and proposed factors to consider include frequency of recurrence, physical and psychological distress caused by recurrences, and the potential for transmission to the patient's sexual partner. Newer therapeutic modalities, including the topical immune response modifier resiquimod and herpes vaccines, may eventually be shown to further decrease the psychological morbidity of recurrent genital herpes.

  11. Herpes Simplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin diseases Athlete's foot Chickenpox Cold sores Genital herpes Genital warts Head lice Herpes simplex Impetigo Molluscum contagiosum ... swollen lymph nodes (glands) in the neck (oral herpes) or groin (genital herpes) are possible. Problems urinating . People (most often ...

  12. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  13. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Alami Chentoufi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2 are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed.

  14. Potential risk of developing herpes simplex encephalitis in patients treated with sildenafil following primary exposure to genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, A; Mccoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Lonky, N

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As a consequence of HSE, up to 75% of infected individuals die or experience irreversible neurological damage. While the pathogenesis of the disease is unknown, it is traditionally hypothesized that the viral infection occurs by neuronal transmission directly from peripheral sites. Non-neuronal modes of infection have generally been overlooked as the brain is protected by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). The BBB poses an effective barrier to pathogens as well as to drugs such as chemotherapies. In the pursuit to deliver chemotherapeutic agents to the brain, several studies demonstrated that phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil, may increase the permeability of the BBB enabling successful delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the brain. In this communication, we report a case of HSE infection in a 62-year-old man, which we suspect was facilitated by the use of sildenafil during a primary genital herpes simple virus (HSV) infection. Due to large number of patients treated with PDE5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction and the high incidence of genital HSV infection in the general population, a larger study should examine the potential risk of developing HSE in patients treated with PDE5 inhibitors.

  15. Associação de aciclovir oral e imiquimode no tratamento de herpes simples genital hipertrófico em paciente com sida: relato de dois casos Association of oral acyclovir and imiquimod for the treatment of hypertrophic genital herpes simplex in HIV positive patients: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia do Nascimento Barbosa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simples crônico é doença capaz de gerar apresentações exuberantes, principalmente em pacientes com sida. O provável mecanismo da formação dessas lesões hiperplásicas consiste na invasão viral dos linfócitos T CD4 situados na epiderme. Diante das dificuldades terapêuticas e da grande taxa de insucesso do tratamento nesses pacientes, novas terapias têm sido citadas na literatura atualmente. O conhecimento da imunopatologia ratificou o mecanismo pelo qual o imiquimode poderia ser eficaz como terapia adjuvante aos antivirais. Relatamos aqui dois casos de pacientes tratados com aciclovir associado ao imiquimode tópico que obtiveram resposta clínica excepcional.Chronic herpes simplex can present as exuberant clinical lesions, especially in HIV patients. The most probable mechanism of formation of these lesions is the invasion of the epidermal CD4 T cells by the herpes simplex virus. Due to the therapeutic difficulties and the high rates of treatment failure amongst these patients, new drugs are currently being discussed on the literature. Studies based on the immunophatology of these lesions have suggested that imiquimod might work as an adjuvant therapy to the antiviral drugs. Here we present two cases of excellent response to treatment with topical imiquimod as an adjuvant drug to acyclovir.

  16. Genital herpes in children under 11 years and investigations for sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Richard; Hughes, Gwenda; Hill, Julia; Debelle, Geoff

    2011-08-01

    The implications for sexual abuse investigation of genital herpes in a child are uncertain because of a lack of good quality research evidence. The incidence, presenting features, history of exposure, indicators of child maltreatment and outcomes of child protection investigations in children with genital herpes are described. Ascertainment of all cases of genital herpes in children herpes simplex type 1, eight were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and only one had a full STI screen. Three cases had other clinical features suggestive of sexual abuse. Six cases were referred for child protection investigation, but no sexual abuse was substantiated. Genital herpes in children under 11 years is rare. Almost a third of children diagnosed with genital herpes did not have appropriate virological investigation and few were screened for other STIs. Around a quarter of cases were referred to child protection agencies for further investigation, which limits any inferences in this study about mode of transmission in children. Sexual abuse guidance should emphasise the need for thorough assessment and investigation in cases of genital herpes in children.

  17. Attitudes and Willingness to Assume Risk of Experimental Therapy to Eradicate Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseso, Linda; Magaret, Amalia S; Jerome, Keith R; Fox, Julie; Wald, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment of genital herpes is focused on ameliorating signs and symptoms but is not curative. However, as potential herpes simplex virus (HSV) cure approaches are tested in the laboratory, we aimed to assess the interest in such studies by persons with genital herpes and the willingness to assume risks associated with experimental therapy. We constructed an anonymous online questionnaire that was posted on websites that provide information regarding genital herpes. The questions collected demographic and clinical information on adults who self-reported as having genital herpes, and assessed attitudes toward and willingness to participate in HSV cure clinical research. Seven hundred eleven participants provided sufficient responses to be included in the analysis. Sixty-six percent were women; the median age was 37 years, and the median time since genital HSV diagnosis was 4.7 years. The willingness to participate in trials increased from 59.0% in phase 1 to 68.5% in phase 2, and 81.2% in phase 3 trials, and 40% reported willingness to participate even in the absence of immediate, personal benefits. The most desirable outcome was the elimination of risk for transmission to sex partner or neonate. The mean perceived severity of receiving a diagnosis of genital HSV-2 was 4.2 on a scale of 1 to 5. Despite suppressive therapy available, persons with genital herpes are interested in participating in clinical research aimed at curing HSV, especially in more advanced stages of development.

  18. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  19. [Herpes simplex virus and malignancies of female genital organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokić-Damjanović, J; Horvat, E; Balog, A

    2001-01-01

    Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of female genital tract usually end with remission, while the virus remains in the organism--almost in the sacral ganglion in a latent form, protected from humoral and cellular immunity. Stress induces the virus and the result is recurrent genital infection. Frequent exacerbations damage some parts of vital cellular structures without cytolysis, but stimulate malignant transformations. Vulvar (portio vaginalis uteri) and endometrial tumor tissue samples were analyzed for HSV by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Pre and postoperative sera samples were analyzed for presence of anti-HSV antibodies--IgM and IgG by Elisa-Enzygnost method. Acellular filtrates obtained by ultrasonic destruction of malignant tissues were used as inoculum for rabbit corneal scarification. Out of 63 tissue samples, 42 were positive for HSV antigen i.e. 67.3%. According to location 50% of vulvar, 76% PVU and 65% of endometrial tissues were positive. This antigen induces production of virus specific antibodies. Two types of antigens are known: the so-called T-antigen persisting in the cell nucleus and cell-surface antigen--product of the viral genome and can be evidenced by immunofluorescence method. Anti HSV antibodies were present in 63 preoperative serum samples and belonged to IgG group, but not one to IgM, implying a long and chronic course of infection excluding acute primary. Out of 38 postoperative serums the titer of antibodies decreased in 36 evidently, but in two samples remained unchanged. Two samples of endometrial and one from PVU origin contained HSV antigen type one. In the remaining 16 samples HSV 2 antigen was present. Rabbit corneal scarification was the proof of complete infectious virus in malignant tissues. Acellular filtrate of malignant tissues served as inoculum. Corneas of examined rabbits showed a mild inflammation after 24 hours which disappeared in the next 24 hours. We could not isolate the

  20. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Diagnosis of Genital Herpes – Beyond Culture: An Evidence-Based Guide for the Utilization of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Herpes Simplex Virus Type-Specific Serology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ratnam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of persons with genital herpes is necessary for optimal patient management and prevention of transmission. Because of inherent inaccuracies, clinical diagnosis of genital herpes should be confirmed by laboratory testing for the causative agents herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and HSV type 2 (HSV-2. Further identification of the HSV type is valuable for counselling on the natural history of infection and risk of transmission. Laboratory methods include antigen detection, culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and conventional and type-specific serology (TSS. PCR has, by far, the greater sensitivity and should be the test of choice for symptomatic cases. HSV-2 TSS is indicated for patients with genital lesions in whom antigen detection, culture or PCR fail to detect HSV, and for patients who are asymptomatic but have a history suggestive of genital herpes. HSV-2 TSS is further indicated for patients infected with HIV. HSV-2 TSS along with HSV-1 TSS may be considered, as appropriate, in evaluating infection and/or immune status in couples discordant for genital herpes, women who develop their first clinical episode of genital herpes during pregnancy, asymptomatic pregnant women whose partners have a history of genital herpes or HIV infection, and women contemplating pregnancy or considering sexual partnership with those with a history of genital herpes. The above should be performed in conjunction with counselling of infected persons and their sex partners.

  3. A trivalent subunit antigen glycoprotein vaccine as immunotherapy for genital herpes in the guinea pig genital infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Hook, Lauren M; Shaw, Carolyn E; Friedman, Harvey M

    2017-12-02

    An estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. Some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. A vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a closely related member of the Herpesviridae family. The success of the VZV vaccine has stimulated renewed interest in a therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes. We have been evaluating a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for prevention of genital herpes. Here, we assess the trivalent vaccine as immunotherapy in guinea pigs that were previously infected intravaginally with HSV-2. The trivalent vaccine contains HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) subunit antigens administered with CpG and alum as adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that antibodies to gD2 neutralize the virus while antibodies to gC2 and gE2 block their immune evasion activities, including evading complement attack and inhibiting activities mediated by the IgG Fc domain, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the trivalent vaccine significantly boosts ELISA titers and neutralizing antibody titers. The trivalent vaccine reduces the frequency of recurrent genital lesions and vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA by approximately 50% and almost totally eliminates vaginal shedding of replication-competent virus, suggesting that the trivalent vaccine is a worthy candidate for immunotherapy of genital herpes.

  4. Understanding perceptions of genital herpes disclosure through analysis of an online video contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallozzi, Marina; Ebel, Sophia C; Chávez, Noé R; Shearer, Lee S; Mindel, Adrian; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine pre-existing videos in order to explore the motivation for, possible approaches to, and timing and context of disclosure of genital herpes infection as described by the lay public. A thematic content analysis was performed on 63 videos submitted to an Australian online contest sponsored by the Australian Herpes Management Forum and Novartis Pharmaceuticals designed to promote disclosure of genital herpes. Videos either provided a motivation for disclosure of genital herpes or directed disclosure without an explicit rationale. Motivations included manageability of the disease or consistency with important values. Evaluation of strategies and logistics of disclosure revealed a variety of communication styles including direct and indirect. Disclosure settings included those that were private, semiprivate and public. Disclosure was portrayed in a variety of relationship types, and at different times within those relationships, with many videos demonstrating disclosure in connection with a romantic setting. Individuals with genital herpes are expected to disclose to susceptible partners. This analysis suggests that understanding lay perspectives on herpes disclosure to a partner may help healthcare providers develop counselling messages that decrease anxiety and foster disclosure to prevent transmission.

  5. A comparative analysis of polymerase chain reaction and direct fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Patwardhan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA.

  6. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  7. Interferon status at the women with recurrent genital herpes in combined liposomal RNA treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Makhmutkhodzhayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the estimation of the influence of liposomal ribonucleic acid (RNA medicine «Liprina» on interferon status of women with recurrent genital herpes. In this study 60 women were included, who combined (acyclovir and Liprina, n = 40 or monoterapy with acyclovir (n = 20 were received. The levels of serum interferon alpha and gamma along with cervical virus elimination were estimated. The medicine «Liprina» increased the therapy efficiency of the women with genital herpes, that perhaps related with endogen interferon production amplification.

  8. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  9. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Usoro BSN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  10. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

    2013-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery.

  11. Serologic Screening for Genital Herpes Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Davidson, Karina W; Epling, John W; García, Francisco A R; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phillips, William R; Phipps, Maureen G; Pignone, Michael P; Silverstein, Michael; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2016-12-20

    Genital herpes is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the United States, occurring in almost 1 in 6 persons aged 14 to 49 years. Infection is caused by 2 subtypes of the herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2. Antiviral medications may provide symptomatic relief from outbreaks but do not cure HSV infection. Neonatal herpes infection, while uncommon, can result in substantial morbidity and mortality. To update the 2005 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for genital herpes. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy, benefits, and harms of serologic screening for HSV-2 infection in asymptomatic persons, including those who are pregnant, as well as the effectiveness and harms of preventive medications and behavioral counseling interventions to reduce future symptomatic episodes and transmission to others. Based on the natural history of HSV infection, its epidemiology, and the available evidence on the accuracy of serologic screening tests, the USPSTF concluded that the harms outweigh the benefits of serologic screening for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adolescents and adults, including those who are pregnant. The USPSTF recommends against routine serologic screening for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adolescents and adults, including those who are pregnant. (D recommendation).

  12. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

  13. Pregnancy and herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and may pass the virus to their baby. Herpes type 2 (genital herpes) is the most common cause of herpes infection ... prenatal visit if you have a history of genital herpes. If you have frequent herpes outbreaks, you'll ...

  14. Sacral myeloradiculitis complicating genital herpes in a HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, I; Quereda, C; Navas, E; Pérez-Elias, M J; Jover, F; Moreno, S

    2005-02-01

    Myeloradiculitis is a rare neurological complication of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection, frequently associated with a fatal outcome. Among patients with HIV infection, HSV-2 myeloradiculitis has occasionally been reported, always associated with advanced immunosuppression and AIDS. We report a patient with HIV infection but no history of previous opportunistic infections, who developed sacral myeloradiculitis immediately after an episode of genital herpes. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium showed necrotizing myelitis in the conus medullaris and enhancement of sacral roots. CD4 lymphocyte count was 530/mm3. Other possible causes of myeloradiculitis in HIV-infected patients were appropriately excluded. Acyclovir therapy resulted in partial clinical improvement. This report shows that myeloradiculitis as a complication of genital herpes may occur in the early stages of HIV infection and may have a favourable outcome with antiviral treatment.

  15. Transient urinary retention and chronic neuropathic pain associated with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haanpää, Maija; Paavonen, Jorma

    2004-10-01

    Genital herpes (GH) causes genital ulcer disease, severe transient pain, and often paresthesias. Whether or not GH can cause urinary retention or chronic neuropathic pain is not well known. We present two immunocompetent patients with GH associated with neuropathic symptoms. We also review the literature on GH and associated neurologic problems. Patient 1 had primary herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 infection with transient urinary retention and chronic bilateral neuropathic pain in the sacral area. Patient 2 had recurrent HSV-1 associated with unitaleral chronic neuropathic pain in the sacral area. Although transient urinary retention associated with GH is not uncommon, chronic neuropathic pain has not been reported previously. Our cases show that chronic neuropathic pain, that is "pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system," can follow genital HSV infection.

  16. Factors affecting the purpose suppressive antiviral therapy for patients with recurrent genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Коlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the factors that influence the destination of suppressive antiviral therapy in patients with recurrent genital herpes doctors of different specialties.Material and Methods: The study was conducted based on an anonymous survey of professionals providing medical care to patients with genital herpes. The survey involved 67 experts – 44 dermatologist, 13 obstetricians and 10 urologists working in Skin and Venereal Diseases, Women’s consuitation post and Saint Petersburg clinics.Results: Most respondents indicated that among patients with genital herpes, seeking an appointment, dominated by patients with relapsing nature of the disease. Suppressive antiviral therapy is recommended 68,7% of specialists, including dermatologists 61,3%, 84,6% of obstetricians and gynecologists, and 80% of urologists. The main indications for its experts consider high frequency of relapses, the patient’s tendency to promiscuity, the desire of the patient with fewer relapses, and the emotional response of the patient for the presence of the disease. Do not prescribe suppressive therapy for recurrent genital herpes 31,4% of the doctors surveyed. Among the reasons for which are not appointed by the type of treatment, the patient is dominated by the rejection of this type of treatment, the lack of experience of the destination suppressive therapy, as well as the uncertainty of specialists in its effectiveness.Conclusion: Suppressive antiviral therapy is recommended 68,7% of specialists. Do not prescribe this type of treatment for recurrent genital herpes 31,4% of the doctors surveyed. The proportion of professionals who refuse the appointment of suppressive antiviral therapy, the highest among dermatologists (38,7% compared with 15,4% among obstetricians and 20% of urologists. The most frequent grounds for refusal from this type of treatment is the lack of confidence in its effectiveness. 

  17. Genital herpes stigma: Toward the Measurement and Validation of a highly prevalent yet hidden public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Merin, Abigail; Rendina, H Jonathon; Pachankis, John E

    2018-02-01

    Despite its highly prevalent and stigmatizing nature, genital herpes has received little attention from stigma researchers relative to other sexually transmitted infections. This limitation is of great relevance to researchers and practitioners in both clinical and healthcare settings, given that stigma can cause psychological distress and hinder disclosure to sexual partners, hence contributing to the spread of genital herpes. The present research developed and examined the psychometric properties of a quantitative measure of genital herpes stigma. Two hundred individuals diagnosed with genital herpes recruited through online genital herpes support groups completed a survey containing 37 items adapted from the HIV Stigma Scale, questions about demographic and herpes-related characteristics, and measures of relevant psychosocial variables. A confirmatory factor analysis yielded an 18-item scale with four factors: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. All subscales demonstrated good internal consistency, with Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.74 to 0.87. Construct validity was supported by correlations with relevant psychosocial variables, including negative affect, rumination, and perceived social support. As a psychometrically sound assessment tool, the Genital Herpes Stigma Scale can be used in both clinical and research settings to facilitate future efforts to alleviate the negative psychological consequences of this incurable viral infection.

  18. Therapeutic Vaccine for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Infection: Findings From a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Wald, Anna; Warren, Terri; Fife, Kenneth; Tyring, Stephen; Lee, Patricia; Van Wagoner, Nick; Magaret, Amalia; Flechtner, Jessica B; Tasker, Sybil; Chan, Jason; Morris, Amy; Hetherington, Seth

    2017-03-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes recurrent lesions and frequent viral shedding. GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing HSV-2 gD2∆TMR and ICP4.2, and Matrix-M2 adjuvant. Persons with genital herpes were randomized into 3 dose cohorts to receive 3 intramuscular doses 21 days apart of 10 µg, 30 µg, or 100 µg of GEN-003, antigens without adjuvant, or placebo. Participants obtained genital swab specimens twice daily for HSV-2 detection and monitored genital lesions for 28-day periods at baseline and at intervals after the last dose. One hundred and thirty-four persons received all 3 doses. Reactogenicity was associated with adjuvant but not with antigen dose or dose number. No serious adverse events were attributed to GEN-003. Compared with baseline, genital HSV-2 shedding rates immediately after dosing were reduced with GEN-003 (from 13.4% to 6.4% for 30 μg [P genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. NCT01667341 (funded by Genocea). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Persistent genital herpes simplex virus-2 shedding years following the first clinical episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Warren; Saracino, Misty; Magaret, Amalia; Selke, Stacy; Remington, Mike; Huang, Meei-Li; Warren, Terri; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-01-15

    Patients with newly acquired genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection have virus frequently detected at the genital mucosa. Rates of genital shedding initially decrease over time after infection, but data on long-term viral shedding are lacking. For this study, 377 healthy adults with history of symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection collected anogenital swabs for HSV-2 DNA polymerase chain reaction for at least 30 consecutive days. Time since first genital herpes episode was significantly associated with reduced genital shedding. Total HSV shedding occurred on 33.6% of days in participants <1 year, 20.6% in those 1-9 years, and 16.7% in those ≥10 years from first episode. Subclinical HSV shedding occurred on 26.2% of days among participants <1 year, 13.1% in those 1-9 years, and 9.3% in those ≥10 years from first episode. On days with HSV detection, mean quantity was 4.9 log₁₀ copies/mL for those <1 year, 4.7 log₁₀ copies/mL among those 1-9 years, and 4.6 log₁₀ copies/mL among those ≥10 years since first episode. Rates of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding decrease after the first year following the initial clinical episode. However, viral shedding persists at high rates and copy numbers years after infection, and therefore may pose continued risk of HSV-2 transmission to sexual partners.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA.

  1. Molecular diagnostics and newborns at risk for genital herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Caroline; Arnolds, Marin; Niklas, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the newborn carries a high mortality rate and can result in lifelong neurologic impairment. The severity of HSV infection in the newborn has always dictated conservative management when prodromal symptoms or active genital lesions (or those suggestive of genital herpes) are present during labor and delivery. The risk of intrapartum infection, however, is related to the presence or absence of maternal immunity (neutralizing antibody) to HSV. The most significant risk of transmission is in first-episode primary infections with active lesions at delivery. Recent recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committees on Infectious Diseases and the Fetus and Newborn use rapid serologic and virologic screening in the management of asymptomatic infants born to mothers with active genital herpes. The revised guidelines highlight infants at greatest risk for HSV disease but do not apply to asymptomatic infants born to mothers with a history of HSV but no genital lesions at delivery. The current guidelines also stipulate that maternal serologic screening and molecular assays for HSV in newborn blood and cerebrospinal fluid must be available and reported in a timely fashion. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Bases teóricas del estigma, aproximación en el cuidado de personas con herpes genital Theoretical approaches of stigma, analysis in persons with genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hernández Cortina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo principal: analizar las diferentes perspectivas teóricas sobre el estigma y su aplicación en el dominio del herpes genital. Metodología: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura enfocada en una búsqueda de artículos en las bases datos EBSCO, CINHAL, SCIELO, MEDLINE y Social Science full text. Resultados principales: se encuentran escasos estudios en la revisión bibliográfica realizada donde validen intervenciones educativas basadas en los marcos teóricos sobre el estigma en personas con herpes genital. Conclusión principal: los diferentes marcos teóricos revisados sobre el estigma pueden ser útiles como marco de referencia en investigaciones de personas que padecen herpes genital.Objective: the aim of this manuscript is to analyze different stigma's theories in the context of persons with genital herpes. Methods: reviews of the literature were searched in the EBSCO, CINHAL, SCIELO, MEDLINE and Social Science full text databases. Results: there is a little evidence in the literature review about educational intervention in patient with genital herpes base on stigma's theories. Conclusions: stigma's theories can be useful as a framework in the researches of persons with genital herpes.

  3. Overlapping reactivations of herpes simplex virus type 2 in the genital and perianal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Sunitha; Johnston, Christine; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2010-02-15

    Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 occurs frequently. Anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 reactivation have not been intensively studied. Four HSV-2-seropositive women with symptomatic genital herpes attended a clinic daily during a 30-day period. Daily samples were collected from 7 separate genital sites. Swab samples were assayed for HSV DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Anatomic sites of clinical HSV-2 recurrences were recorded. HSV was detected on 44 (37%) of 120 days and from 136 (16%) of 840 swab samples. Lesions were documented on 35 (29%) of 120 days. HSV was detected at >1 anatomic site on 25 (57%) of 44 days with HSV shedding (median, 2 sites; range, 1-7), with HSV detected bilaterally on 20 (80%) of the 25 days. The presence of a lesion was significantly associated with detectable HSV from any genital site (incident rate ratio [IRR], 5.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-23.50; P= .02) and with the number of positive sites (IRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1. 01-1.40; P=.03). The maximum HSV copy number detected was associated with the number of positive sites (IRR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.44-1.82; Pgenital tract. To prevent HSV-2 reactivation, suppressive HSV-2 therapy must control simultaneous viral reactivations from multiple sacral ganglia.

  4. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  5. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  6. Virologic and Immunologic Evidence of Multifocal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic

  7. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir in patient initiated treatment of recurrent genital herpes: A randomised, double blind clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Bodsworth; R.J. Crooks; S. Borelli; G. Vejlsgaard; J. Paavonen; A.M. Worm; N. Uexkull; J. Esmann; A. Strand; A.J. Ingamells; A. Gibb (A.); S.E. Barton (Simon); C. Beylot (C.); J. Bingham (J.); G. Bojs (G.); D. Cheetham (D.); E. Curless (E.); B. Czarnetzki (B.); S. Davies (S.); A. Eichmann (A.); B. Goh; D. Goldmeir (D.); G. Gross; U.F. Haustein; G. Kinghorn (G.); J. Lauharanta; C. Law; G. Luzzi (G.); A. McMillan (A.); J. Meaden (J.); U. Montemagno (U.); P. Morel; M. Negosanti; J.E. Nielsen (Jorgen); A. Nilsen; E-K. Ong; J.P. Ortonne; R. Patel; J. Patten; D. Petzold; T. Rufli; S. Saari; M. Shahmanesh; A. Simpanen (A.); J. Soltz-Szots; J.P. Stahl; E. Stolz (Ernst); I. Thelin; N. von Uexkull; A. Wikstrom; P. Woolley

    1997-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the efficacy and safety of twice daily valaciclovir with five times daily aciclovir in the treatment of an episode of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in immunocompetent individuals. Methods: 739 patients with a history of recurrent genital HSV

  8. Using centralized laboratory data to monitor trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 infection in British Columbia and the changing etiology of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Li, Xuan; Petric, Martin; Krajden, Mel; Isaac-Renton, Judith L; Ogilvie, Gina; Rekart, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the regional epidemiology of genital Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infections is important for clinical and public health practice, due to the increasing availability of type-specific serologic testing in Canada and the contribution of genital HSV-2 infection to ongoing HIV transmission. We used centralized laboratory data to describe trends in viral identifications of genital HSV in BC and assess the utility of these data for ongoing population surveillance. Records of viral identifications (1997-2005) were extracted from the Provincial Public Health Microbiology & Reference Laboratory database. Classification as genital or other site was based on documented specimen site. We conducted a descriptive analysis of trends over time, and calculated odds of HSV-1 infection among individuals with genital herpes. Of 48,183 viral identifications, 56.8% were genital, 10.0% were peri-oral and 9.1% cutaneous; site was unknown for 22.9%. Among genital identifications, HSV-1 infection was more likely in females, younger age groups, and later time periods. The proportion of genital herpes due to HSV-1 increased over time from 31.4% to 42.8% in BC. Our analysis of population-level laboratory data demonstrates that the proportion of genital herpes due to HSV-1 is increasing over time in BC, particularly among women and younger age groups; this has implications for clinical practice including the interpretation of type-specific serology. Provincial viral identification data are useful for monitoring the distribution of genital HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections over time. Improving clinical documentation of specimen site would improve the utility of these data.

  9. Effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, Longdanxiegan formula granule, on Toll-like receptor pathway in female guinea pigs with recurrent genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Lin; Deng, Yihui; Liu, Xiaodan; Zou, Zhixiang; Mi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Longdanxiegan formula granule (LDXGFG), a Chinese traditional medicine on Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway in recurrent genital herpes. An experimental recurrent genital herpes model was constructed using herpes guinea pig model. The effect of LDXGFG on expression levels of TLR pathway genes were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the dendritic cells and Langerhans cells were isolated and the TLR pathway genes of these cells were assayed after LDXGFG treatment. The result suggested two different expression patterns of TLR pathway genes in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes, including upregulated genes and downregulated genes. TLR1, TLR4, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, and TLR10 showed a significant decrease while, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR5 increased in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes guinea pigs. Meanwhile, the downregulated genes in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes were stimulated by LDXGFG. By contrast, the upregulated genes decreased significantly after LDXGFG treatment. In both dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, the TLR pathway genes exhibited same pattern: the LDXGFG corrected the abnormal expression of TLR pathway genes. The present results suggest that LDXGFG is an alternative, inexpensive, and lasting-effect medicine for herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Chancroid, primary syphilis, genital herpes, and lymphogranuloma venereum in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behets, F M; Andriamiadana, J; Randrianasolo, D; Randriamanga, R; Rasamilalao, D; Chen, C Y; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S

    1999-10-01

    Ulcer material from consecutive patients attending clinics in Antananarivo, Madagascar, was tested using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to detect Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and herpes simplex virus. Sera were tested for syphilis and for IgG and IgM antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by microimmunofluorescence testing (MIF). By M-PCR, 33% of 196 patients had chancroid, 29% had syphilitic ulcers, and 10% had genital herpes; 32% of the ulcer specimens were M-PCR negative. Compared with M-PCR, syphilis serology was 72% sensitive and 83% specific. The sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes was 93%, 53%, and 0% and specificity was 20%, 52%, and 99%, respectively. Less schooling was associated with increased prevalence of syphilitic ulcers (P=.001). Sixteen patients (8%) were clinically diagnosed with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV); 1 plausible case of LGV was found by MIF. In Madagascar, primary care of genital ulcers should include syndromic treatment for syphilis and chancroid.

  11. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  12. Virologic and immunologic evidence of multifocal genital herpes simplex virus 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J; McClurkan, Christopher M; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4(+) T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8(+) T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4(+) T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract.

  13. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital herpes. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ... person has ever been infected with oral or genital herpes . It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus ...

  14. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystle A Lang Kuhs

    Full Text Available IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815 genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS. WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported oral herpes, (self-reported genital sores and (clinician-observed genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons; oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35; genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71; genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53; detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49; HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68. In this large prospective study, IFNL4

  15. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Kuniholm, Mark H; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R; Peters, Marion G; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B; Strickler, Howard D; Villacres, Maria C; Quinn, Thomas C; Gange, Stephen J; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M; O'Brien, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large prospective study, IFNL4-

  16. Genital Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Among Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Persons with HSV-2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronstein, Elizabeth; Johnston, Christine; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Warren, Terri; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Context Since HSV-2 antibody tests have become commercially available, an increasing number of persons learn that they have genital herpes through serologic testing. The course of natural history of HSV-2 in asymptomatic, seropositive persons is uncertain. Objective To evaluate the virologic and clinical course of HSV genital shedding among participants with symptomatic and asymptomatic HSV-2 infection. Design, Setting and Participants Cohort of 498 immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive persons enrolled in prospective studies of genital HSV shedding at the University of Washington Virology Research Clinic, Seattle, Washington, and Westover Heights Clinic in Portland, Oregon, between 1992 and 2008. Each participant obtained daily self-collected swabs of genital secretions for ≥ 30 days. Main Outcome Measurement The rate of viral shedding measured by quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV DNA from genital swabs. Results HSV was detected on 4,753 of 23,683 days (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.3 to 22.0) in persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 519 of 5,070 days (10.2%; 95% CI, 7.7 to 13.6) in persons with asymptomatic infection, pgenital viral shedding among persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 85 of 519 days (16.4%; 95% CI, 11.2 to 23.9) among persons with asymptomatic infection, pgenital tract less frequently than persons with symptomatic infection, but much of the difference is attributable to less frequent genital lesions, as lesions are accompanied by frequent viral shedding. PMID:21486977

  17. Interventions for men and women with their first episode of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Rachel; Roberts, Helen; Flower, Deralie; Jordan, Vanessa

    2016-08-30

    Genital herpes is incurable, and is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). First-episode genital herpes is the first clinical presentation of herpes that a person experiences. Current treatment is based around viral suppression in order to decrease the length and severity of the episode. To determine the effectiveness and safety of the different existing treatments for first-episode genital herpes on the duration of symptoms and time to recurrence. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (from inception to April 2016), MEDLINE (from inception to April 2016), the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Infections Review Group (from inception to April 2016), EMBASE (from inception to April 2016), PsycINFO (from inception to April 2016), CINAHL (from inception to April 2016), LILACS (from inception to April 2016), AMED (from inception to April 2016), and the Alternative Medicines Specialised Register (from inception to April 2016). We handsearched a number of relevant journals, searched reference lists of all included studies, databases of ongoing trials, and other Internet databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on participants with first-episode genital herpes. We excluded vaccination trials, and trials in which the primary objective assessed a complication of HSV infection. All studies written in English were independently assessed by at least two review authors for inclusion, risk of bias for each trial, and to extract data. Studies requiring translation were assessed for inclusion, trial quality, and data extraction by external translators. We included 26 trials with 2084 participants analysed. Most of the studies were conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US), and involved men and women experiencing their first episode of genital herpes, with the exception of three studies which included only women. We rated the majority of these studies as having an unclear risk of bias

  18. [Investigation on the incidence of genital herpes in different professional groups in Qingdao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, L

    1993-10-01

    Genital herpes is one of 8 legally reportable sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in China. Using a HSV antigen ELISA kit we detected and typed HSV antigen in 1,148 clinical specimens collected from the genital organs (penis, cervix, vagina and vulva) of 446 men and 702 women in Qindao and divided into 11 different professional and 2 special groups (patients with cervical cancer and pregnant women). The highest positive rate of HSV antigen was found among long-distance transport drivers (48.0%). The second and third high positive rates were among waiters and waitresses in private, restaurants (39.2%) and patients with cervical cancer (38.2%). The positive rates among self-employed retailers and employees in private inns and restaurants were notably higher than those among employees in state-run shops, restaurants and hotels. And, the positive rate among workers was higher than that among peasants. There was no notable difference between the positive rate of HSV antigen among men (24.2%) and that among women (21.5%). But the incidence of HSV-2 infection was much higher than that of HSV-1 infection. The results indicate that some special professional groups have high rates of genital HSV infection. More attention needs to be paid to these special groups in order to control sexually transmitted herpes diseases.

  19. Intra-vaginal Zinc Oxide Tetrapod Nanoparticles as Novel Immunoprotective Agents against Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Thessicar E.; Hadigal, Satvik R.; Yakoub, Abraam; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Bhattacharya, Palash; Haddad, Christine; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Adelung, Rainer; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all efforts to generate an effective protection against the life-long, recurrent genital infections caused by Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) have failed. Apart from sexual transmission, the virus can also be transmitted from mothers to neonates, and is a key facilitator of HIV co-acquisition. Here, we uncover a nanoimmunotherapy using specially designed Zinc Oxide Tetrapod Nanoparticles (ZOTEN) with engineered oxygen vacancies. We demonstrate that ZOTEN, when used intravaginally as a microbicide, is an effective suppressor of HSV-2 genital infection in female BALB/c mice. The strong HSV-2 trapping ability of ZOTEN significantly reduced the clinical signs of vaginal infection and effectively decreased animal mortality. In parallel, ZOTEN promoted the presentation of bound HSV-2 virions to mucosal antigen presenting cells, enhancing T cell- mediated and antibody-mediated responses to the infection, and thereby, suppressing a re-infection. We also found that ZOTEN exhibits strong adjuvant-like properties, which is highly comparable to alum, a commonly used adjuvant. Overall, our study provides very first evidence for the protective efficacy of an intravaginal microbicide/vaccine or microbivac platform against primary and secondary female genital herpes infections. PMID:27183601

  20. Emergence of herpes simplex type 1 as the main cause of recurrent genital ulcerative disease in women in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P V; O'Neill, H J; Wyatt, D E; McCaughey, C; Quah, S; McBride, M O

    2003-05-01

    Genital herpes is a common infection affecting some 20% of sexually active people. Although herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 can both establish genital latency, reactivation from the sacral ganglia favours HSV-2. Over the past decade the incidence of type 1 genital infection in women has greatly increased. To determine whether the increased prevalence of HSV-1 genital infection was benign or influencing the pattern of virus recovery in recurrent infection. A retrospective analysis of laboratory computer records was undertaken. Patients attending six genitourinary medicine (GUM) departments, over an 80 months period, were identified. Recurrent infection was confirmed where virus was recovered from at least two separate episodes of genital ulceration that were separated by an interval of 12 or more weeks. Episodes were further analysed for frequency, age, gender and virus type. Sixty nine patients with recurrent genital herpetic infection were identified. HSV-1 and HSV-2 were predominantly recovered from recurrent genital infections in females (34 HSV-1 vs. ten HSV-2) and males (one HSV-1 vs. 24 HSV-2), respectively (P>0.001). The mean age of females and males, at the initial diagnosis, was 26 and 39 years. There was no difference in the recurrence rate by type. HSV-1 has become the commonest cause of recurrent genital ulceration in Northern Ireland, almost entirely due its recent increased prevalence in women over the last decade. Women are experiencing genital herpetic infections at an earlier age than men.

  1. Bases teóricas del estigma, aproximación en el cuidado de personas con herpes genital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hernández Cortina

    Full Text Available Objetivo principal: analizar las diferentes perspectivas teóricas sobre el estigma y su aplicación en el dominio del herpes genital. Metodología: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura enfocada en una búsqueda de artículos en las bases datos EBSCO, CINHAL, SCIELO, MEDLINE y Social Science full text. Resultados principales: se encuentran escasos estudios en la revisión bibliográfica realizada donde validen intervenciones educativas basadas en los marcos teóricos sobre el estigma en personas con herpes genital. Conclusión principal: los diferentes marcos teóricos revisados sobre el estigma pueden ser útiles como marco de referencia en investigaciones de personas que padecen herpes genital.

  2. Role of type-specific herpes simplex virus-1 and 2 serology as a diagnostic modality in patients with clinically suspected genital herpes: A comparative study in Indian population from a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena

    2016-01-01

    Type-specific serology (TSS) test for herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been used as a research tool in seroepidemiological studies for some years. However, TSS as a diagnostic modality for diagnosis of current episode of genital herpes is not well documented. To measure the seroprevalence of type-specific HSV Type 1 (HSV-1) and Type 2 (HSV-2) IgG antibodies in cases provisionally diagnosed as primary and recurrent genital herpes and to evaluate the role of TSS as a diagnostic modality for diagnosis of genital herpes versus polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A cross-sectional study was performed over a period of 10 months in which 44 adult patients with clinically suspected genital herpes were recruited. An in-house glycoprotein G gene base PCR was performed directly from the genital lesion specimen for simultaneous detection and typing of HSV. TSS was performed to detect IgG antibody against HSV-1 and 2 in all patients using commercially available kits, and the results were compared. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 IgG was 43% among primary and 65% among recurrent genital herpes cases (P = 0.22). Whereas that of HSV-2 IgG was found to be 14% and 83% in respective patient group (P = 0.0001). When compared to PCR results HSV-1 IgG detection in both primary and recurrent genital herpes diagnosis had poor specificity, positive predictive value, and sensitivity. Whereas, HSV-2 serology had a sensitivity of 13.33% and 73.33% in primary and recurrent genital herpes and specificity of 83.33% and 85.71%, respectively. HSV-2 IgG detection helps in strengthening the diagnosis of recurrent HSV-2 disease, whereas the absence of HSV-2 IgG antibody helps in excluding genital herpes as a likely cause of recurrent genital ulceration. However, detection of HSV-1 IgG antibody may not be useful for diagnosis in patients of genital ulcer disease.

  3. Evaluation of the activity and safety of CS21 barrier genital gel® compared to topical aciclovir and placebo in symptoms of genital herpes recurrences: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemis, A; Duteil, L; Tillet, Y; Dereure, O; Ortonne, J-P

    2014-09-01

    Topical or systemic antiviral drugs reduce the duration of genital herpes recurrences but may not always alleviate functional symptoms. To assess the efficacy and safety of oxygenated glycerol triesters-based CS21 barrier genital gel(®) vs. topical aciclovir and placebo (vehicle) in resolving functional symptoms and in healing of genital herpes recurrences. A prospective randomized controlled, investigator-blinded trial of CS21 barrier genital gel(®) vs. topical aciclovir (reference treatment) and placebo (vehicle) was designed. The primary endpoint was the cumulative score of four herpes-related functional symptoms (pain, burning, itching and tingling sensations). Secondary endpoints included objective skin changes (erythema, papules, vesicles, oedema, erosion/ulceration, crusts), time to heal, local tolerance and overall acceptability of the treatment as reported by a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 61 patients were included. CS 21 barrier genital gel(®) was significantly more efficient than topical aciclovir and vehicle for subjective symptoms and pain relief in genital herpes recurrences; additionally, time to heal was significantly shorter with CS 21 than with vehicle, whereas no significantly difference was observed between patients receiving topical aciclovir and vehicle. The treatments under investigation were well tolerated and the adverse events were comparable in the three treatment groups. Overall, these results support the interest of using of CS 21 barrier genital gel(®) in symptomatic genital herpes recurrences. Accordingly, this product offers a valuable alternative in topical management of recurrent genital herpes. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. The potential of immunostimulatory CpG DNA for inducing immunity against genital herpes: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harandi, Ali M

    2004-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) invades human genital tract mucosa and following local replications can be rapidly transmitted via peripheral nerve axons to the sacral ganglia where it can establish latency. Reactivation of the latent viral reservoir results in recurrent ulcers in the genital region. Innate immunity, the first line of defence during both primary and recurrent genital herpes infections, is crucial during the period of acute infection to limit early virus replication and to facilitate the development of an appropriate specific acquired immunity. Recent developments in immunology reveal that the mammalian innate immune systems use Toll-like receptor (TLR) to specifically sense evolutionary conserved molecules such as bacterial DNA in pathogens. Recently, local-vaginal delivery of CpG containing oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), a synthetic mimic of bacterial DNA, holds substantial promise as a strong inducer of innate immunity against genital herpes infections in the animal models of the disease. These preclinical observations provide a scientific ground work for introduction of this novel intervention strategy to clinic. This review aims to highlight recent developments and future challenges in use of immunostimulatory CpG ODN for inducing immunity against genital herpes infection and disease.

  5. Mimicking herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 mucosal behavior in a well-characterized human genital organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steukers, Lennert; Weyers, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyun; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, Sarah; Cornelissen, Maria; Van den Broeck, Wim; Temmerman, Marleen; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-07-15

    We developed and morphologically characterized a human genital mucosa explant model (endocervix and ectocervix/vagina) to mimic genital herpes infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Subsequent analysis of HSV entry receptor expression throughout the menstrual cycle in genital tissues was performed, and the evolution of HSV-1/-2 mucosal spread over time was assessed. Nectin-1 and -2 were expressed in all tissues during the entire menstrual cycle. Herpesvirus entry mediator expression was limited mainly to some connective tissue cells. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 exhibited a plaque-wise mucosal spread across the basement membrane and induced prominent epithelial syncytia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A Study of Associated Factors, Including Genital Herpes, in Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-08-24

    Aug 24, 1974 ... examined for evidence of trichomoniasis. Though not as reliable a method as direct culture, the Papanicolaou smear is a simple method of showing a difference between the study and control groups." Evidence of HSV I and 2 infection was derived from direct viral culture and sero- logy. The cervical swabs.

  7. Prevention and management of genital herpes simplex infection during pregnancy and delivery: Guidelines from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénat, Marie-Victoire; Anselem, Olivia; Picone, Olivier; Renesme, Laurent; Sananès, Nicolas; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Sellier, Yann; Laplace, Jean-Pierre; Sentilhes, Loïc

    2018-05-01

    Identify measures to diagnose, prevent, and treat genital herpes infection during pregnancy and childbirth as well as neonatal herpes infection. Bibliographic search from the Medline and Cochrane Library databases and review of international clinical practice guidelines. Genital herpes lesions are most often due to HSV-2 (LE2). The risk of HSV seroconversion during pregnancy is 1-5% (LE2). Genital herpes lesions during pregnancy in a woman with a history of genital herpes is a recurrence. In this situation, there is no need for virologic confirmation (Grade B). In pregnant women with genital lesions who report they have not previously had genital herpes, virological confirmation by PCR and identifying the specific IgG type is necessary (professional consensus). A first episode of genital herpes during pregnancy should be treated with aciclovir (200 mg 5 times daily) or valaciclovir (1000 mg twice daily) for 5-10 days (Grade C), and recurrent herpes during pregnancy with aciclovir (200 mg 5 times daily) or valaciclovir (500 mg twice daily) (Grade C). The risk of neonatal herpes is estimated at between 25% and 44% if a non primary and primary first genital herpes episode is ongoing at delivery (LE2) and 1% for a recurrence (LE3). Antiviral prophylaxis should be offered to women with either a first or recurrent episode of genital herpes during pregnancy from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery (Grade B). Routine prophylaxis is not recommended for women with a history of genital herpes but no recurrence during pregnancy (professional consensus). A cesarean delivery is recommended if a first episode of genital herpes is suspected (or confirmed) at the onset of labor (Grade B) or if it occured less than 6 weeks before delivery (professional consensus) or in the event of premature rupture of the membranes at term. When a recurrence of genital herpes is underway at the onset of labor, cesarean delivery is most likely to be considered when the membranes are

  8. Epidemiological impact of a genital herpes type 2 vaccine for young females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Lou

    Full Text Available Genital Herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 or -2 (HSV-1, -2, predominantly HSV-2 is a sexually transmitted infection (STI that causes a chronic latent infection with outbreak episodes linked to transmission. Antiviral therapies are effective in reducing viral shedding during these episodes, but are ineffective as a whole since many outbreaks are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Thus, the development of a vaccine for genital herpes is needed to control this disease. The question of how to implement such a vaccine program is an important one, and may be similar to the vaccination program for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV for young females. We have developed a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination targeting young females against HSV-2. The model population is delineated with respect to age group, sexual activity and infection status including oral infection of HSV-1, which may affect vaccine efficacy. A threshold parameter R(C, which determines the level of vaccine uptake needed to eradicate HSV-2, is found. Computer simulation shows that an adolescent-only vaccination program may be effective in eliminating HSV-2 disease, however, the success of extinction greatly depends on the level of vaccine uptake, the vaccine efficacy, the age of sexual maturity and safe sex practices. However, the time course of eradication would take many years. We also investigate the prevalence of infection in the total population and in women between 16-30 years of age before and after vaccination has been introduced, and show that the adolescent-only vaccination program can be effective in reducing disease prevalence in these populations depending on the level of vaccine uptake and vaccine efficacy. This will also result in a decrease of maternal-fetal transmission of HSV-2 infection. Another important, if commonsense, conclusion is that vaccination of some females reduces infection in men, which then reduces infection in women.

  9. Near instrument-free, simple molecular device for rapid detection of herpes simplex viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Bertrand; Li, Ying; Kong, Huimin; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2012-06-01

    The first near instrument-free, inexpensive and simple molecular diagnostic device (IsoAmp HSV, BioHelix Corp., MA, USA) recently received US FDA clearance for use in the detection of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) in genital and oral lesion specimens. The IsoAmp HSV assay uses isothermal helicase-dependent amplification in combination with a disposable, hermetically-sealed, vertical-flow strip identification. The IsoAmp HSV assay has a total test-to-result time of less than 1.5 h by omitting the time-consuming nucleic acid extraction. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity are comparable to PCR and are superior to culture-based methods. The near instrument-free, rapid and simple characteristics of the IsoAmp HSV assay make it potentially suitable for point-of-care testing.

  10. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  11. [Management of pregnant women with first episode of genital herpes. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French college of gynecologists and obstetricians (CNGOF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananès, N

    2017-12-01

    To provide guidelines for the management of first episode genital herpes during pregnancy and in the immediate postpartum period. MedLine and Cochrane Library databases search and review of the main foreign guidelines. In case of first episode genital herpes during pregnancy, antiviral treatment with acyclovir (200mg 5 times daily) or valacyclovir (1000mg twice daily) for 5 to 10 days is recommended (grade C). The patient should be tested for HIV if not previously done (grade B). Daily suppressive antiviral treatment with acyclovir (400mg 3 times daily) or valacyclovir (500mg twice daily) is recommended from 36 weeks for women who have had a first episode genital herpes during pregnancy (grade B). A cesarean section should be performed in case of suspicion of first episode genital herpes at the onset of labor (grade B) or premature rupture of the membranes at term (professional consensus), or in case of first episode genital herpes less than 6 weeks before delivery (professional consensus). In the event of first episode genital herpes highlighted in the postpartum period, the neonatologist should be informed (professional consensus). The patient may be treated according the scheme described above. A cesarean section should be performed in case of first episode genital herpes less than 6 weeks before delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge and Attitudes of University Health Service Clients about Genital Herpes: Implications for Patient Education and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, James R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Genital herpes virus infection can cause both psychological and medical consequences. A study surveyed knowledge and attitudes of college students to assess degree of familiarity with this disease. Findings suggest misconceptions that could be dealt with in health education programs. (Author/DF)

  13. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. [Genital herpes and pregnancy: Serological and molecular diagnostic tools. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauloup-Fellous, C

    2017-12-01

    To describe serological and molecular tools available for genital and neonatal herpes, and their use in different clinical situations. Bibliographic investigations from MedLine database and consultation of international clinical practice guidelines. Virological confirmation of genital herpes during pregnancy or neonatal herpes must rely on PCR (Professional consensus). HSV type-specific serology (IgG) will allow determining the immune status of a patient (in the absence of clinical lesions). However, there is currently no evidence to justify universal HSV serological testing during pregnancy (Professional consensus). In case of genital lesions in a pregnant woman that do not report any genital herpes before, it is recommended to perform a virological confirmation by PCR and HSV type-specific IgG in order to distinguish a true primary infection, a non-primary infection associated with first genital manifestation, from a recurrence (Grade C). HSV IgM is useless for diagnosis of genital herpes (Grade C). If a pregnant woman has personal history of genital herpes but no lesions, whatever the gestational age, it is not recommended to perform genital sampling nor serology (Professional consensus). In case of recurrence, if the lesion is characteristic of herpes, virological confirmation is not necessary (Professional Agreement). However, if the lesion is not characteristic, virological confirmation by PCR should be performed (Professional consensus). At birth, HSV PCR samples should be collected as soon as neonatal herpes is suspected (symptomatic neonate) (best before beginning antiviral treatment but must not delay the treatment), or after 24hours of life in case of asymptomatic neonate born to a mother with herpes lesions at delivery (Professional consensus). Clinical samples for virological confirmation should include at least blood and a peripheral location. In case of clinical manifestations of herpes in the neonate, first samples PCR positive, preterm birth, or

  15. STING agonists enable antiviral cross-talk between human cells and confer protection against genital herpes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouboe, Morten K; Knudsen, Alice; Reinert, Line S

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in immunomodulatory therapy as a means to treat various conditions, including infectious diseases. For instance, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been evaluated for treatment of genital herpes. However, although the TLR7 agonist imiquimod...... herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 replication and improved the clinical outcome of infection. More importantly, local application of CDNs at the genital epithelial surface gave rise to local IFN activity, but only limited systemic responses, and this treatment conferred total protection against disease...... to TLRs, STING is expressed broadly, including in epithelial cells. Here we report that natural and non-natural STING agonists strongly induce type I IFNs in human cells and in mice in vivo, without stimulating significant inflammatory gene expression. Systemic treatment with 2'3'-cGAMP reduced genital...

  16. Oral antiviral therapy for prevention of genital herpes outbreaks in immunocompetent and nonpregnant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cleach, Laurence; Trinquart, Ludovic; Do, Giao; Maruani, Annabel; Lebrun-Vignes, Benedicte; Ravaud, Philippe; Chosidow, Olivier

    2014-08-03

    Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2). Some infected people experience outbreaks of genital herpes, typically, characterized by vesicular and erosive localized painful genital lesions. To compare the effectiveness and safety of three oral antiviral drugs (acyclovir, famciclovir and valacyclovir) prescribed to suppress genital herpes outbreaks in non-pregnant patients. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the search portal of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and pharmaceutical company databases up to February 2014. We also searched US Food and Drug Administration databases and proceedings of seven congresses to a maximum of 10 years. We contacted trial authors and pharmaceutical companies. We selected parallel-group and cross-over randomized controlled trials including patients with recurrent genital herpes caused by HSV, whatever the type (HSV-1, HSV-2, or undetermined), with at least four recurrences per year (trials concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients or pregnant women were not eligible) and comparing suppressive oral antiviral treatment with oral acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir versus placebo or another suppressive oral antiviral treatment. Two review authors independently selected eligible trials and extracted data. The Risk of bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. Treatment effect was measured by the risk ratio (RR) of having at least one genital herpes recurrence. Pooled RRs were derived by conventional pairwise meta-analyses. A network meta-analysis allowed for estimation of all possible two-by-two comparisons between antiviral drugs. A total of 26 trials (among which six had a cross-over design) were included. Among the 6950 randomly assigned participants, 54% (range 0 to 100%) were female, mean age was 35 years (range 26 to 45.1), and the mean number of recurrences per year was 11

  17. Progressive Hypertrophic Genital Herpes in an HIV-Infected Woman despite Immune Recovery on Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Yudin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most HIV-infected individuals are coinfected by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. HSV-2 reactivates more frequently in HIV-coinfected individuals with advanced immunosuppression, and may have very unusual clinical presentations, including hypertrophic genital lesions. We report the case of a progressive, hypertrophic HSV-2 lesion in an HIV-coinfected woman, despite near-complete immune restoration on antiretroviral therapy for up to three years. In this case, there was prompt response to topical imiquimod. The immunopathogenesis and clinical presentation of HSV-2 disease in HIV-coinfected individuals are reviewed, with a focus on potential mechanisms for persistent disease despite apparent immune reconstitution. HIV-infected individuals and their care providers should be aware that HSV-2 may cause atypical disease even in the context of near-comlpete immune reconstitution on HAART.

  18. Genital sores - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  19. Lack of evidence for intertypic recombinants in the pathogenesis of recurrent genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, K H; Boggs, D

    1986-01-01

    Clinical observations indicate that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is significantly less likely than herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) to establish latency in (or reactivate from) sacral ganglionic tissue. In an effort to identify viral functions associated with latency, we analyzed HSV-1 isolates from three patients with established recurrent genital herpes and sought evidence of DNA sequences and proteins similar to those found in HSV-2. By restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns and by DNA hybridization analysis using either whole HSV-2 DNA or several cloned segments of HSV-2 DNA as probes, we found that the three HSV-1 isolates from patients with recurrent genital herpes showed no unusual homology to HSV-2 as compared with other HSV-1 isolates. Similarly, the proteins of these isolates could not be distinguished from those of other HSV-1 isolates and were distinct from those of HSV-2. At this level of resolution, there was no evidence to suggest that these recurrent genital HSV-1 isolates were intertypic recombinants, nor did they show any other unusual similarity to HSV-2.

  20. Clinical study in genital herpes: natural Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin versus acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Hanan; Javaherian, Adrian; Itzkovitz, Edan

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a clinical study that tested the effect of suppressive treatment with the botanical product Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin on the number of genital herpes outbreaks. The results in this study were compared to those published in clinical studies of acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. The framework was a retrospective chart review. The population included 139 participants. The treatment was one to four capsules of Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin per day. The duration of treatment was 2-48 months. The study included three controls recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA): baseline, no treatment, and dose response. The treatment decreased the number of outbreaks per year in 90.8% of the participants. The treatment also decreased the mean number of outbreaks per year from 7.27 and 5.5 in the control groups to 2.39 (Pgenital herpes outbreaks without any side effects. The study also showed that the clinical effects reported in this study are mostly better than those reported in the reviewed studies of acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir.

  1. Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Čeović, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding Among Adults With and Without HIV Infection in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Warren; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Kambugu, Fred; Orem, Jackson; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa, the natural history of infection among Africans is not well characterized. We evaluated the frequency of genital HSV shedding in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women in Uganda. Ninety-three HSV-2-seropositive Ugandan adults collected anogenital swab specimens for HSV DNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction 3 times daily for 6 weeks. HSV-2 was detected from 2484 of 11 283 swab specimens collected (22%), with a median quantity of 4.3 log10 HSV copies/mL (range, 2.2-8.9 log10 HSV copies/mL). Genital lesions were reported on 749 of 3875 days (19%), and subclinical HSV shedding was detected from 1480 of 9113 swab specimens (16%) collected on days without lesions. Men had higher rates of total HSV shedding (relative risk [RR], 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3-2.9]; P genital lesions (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2-3.4]; P = .005), compared with women. No differences in shedding rates or lesion frequency were observed based on HIV serostatus. HSV-2 shedding frequency and quantity are high among HSV-2-seropositive adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including persons with and those without HIV infection. Shedding rates were particularly high among men, which may contribute to the high prevalence of HSV-2 and early acquisition among African women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of genital herpes on cervicovaginal HIV shedding in women co-infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jim; Riedner, Gabriele; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Weiss, Helen A; Lyamuya, Eligius; Mabey, David; Rusizoka, Mary; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV. Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1) 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2) 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3) 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4) 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL), herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined. Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03). In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL) was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41-0.60, pgenital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility.

  4. Herpes Can Happen to Anyone: Share Facts, Not Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... promiscuous. Links Oral Herpes Sexually Transmitted Diseases Genital Herpes (CDC) Genital Herpes Fact Sheet (CDC) What You Need to Know About Genital Herpes Video (CDC) References Vaccination to Reduce Reactivation of ...

  5. Recurrences after oral and genital herpes simplex virus infection. Influence of site of infection and viral type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, W E; Coombs, R W; Benedetti, J; Critchlow, C; Corey, L

    1987-06-04

    We prospectively followed 39 adults with concurrent primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (12 with HSV type 1 and 27 with HSV type 2) of the oropharynx and genitalia, caused by the same virus in each person, to evaluate the influence of viral type (HSV-1 vs. HSV-2) and site of infection (oropharyngeal vs. genital) on the frequency of recurrence. The subsequent recurrence patterns of HSV infection differed markedly according to viral type and anatomical site. Oral-labial recurrences developed in 5 of 12 patients with HSV-1 and 1 of 27 patients with HSV-2 (P less than 0.001). Conversely, genital recurrences developed in 24 of 27 patients with HSV-2 and 3 of 12 patients with HSV-1 (P less than 0.01). The mean rate of subsequent genital recurrences (due to HSV-1 and HSV-2) was 0.23 per month, whereas the mean rate of oral-labial recurrences was only 0.04 per month (P less than 0.001). The mean monthly frequencies of recurrence were, in order, genital HSV-2 infections, 0.33 per month; oral-labial HSV-1 infections, 0.12 per month; genital HSV-1 infections, 0.020 per month; and oral HSV-2 infections, 0.001 per month (P less than 0.01 for each comparison). We conclude that the likelihood of reactivation of HSV infection differs between HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections and between the sacral and trigeminal anatomical sites. The sixfold more frequent clinical recurrence rate of genital HSV infections as compared with oral-labial HSV infections may account for the relatively rapid increase in the prevalence of clinically recognized genital herpes in recent years.

  6. Serologic Screening for Genital Herpes: An Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltner, Cynthia; Grodensky, Catherine; Ebel, Charles; Middleton, Jennifer C; Harris, Russell P; Ashok, Mahima; Jonas, Daniel E

    2016-12-20

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Vertical transmission of HSV can lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. To assess the evidence on serologic screening and preventive interventions for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adults and adolescents to support the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated recommendation statement. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through March 31, 2016. Surveillance for new evidence in targeted publications was conducted through October 31, 2016. English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing screening with no screening in persons without past or current symptoms of genital herpes; studies evaluating accuracy and harms of serologic screening tests for HSV-2; RCTs assessing preventive interventions in asymptomatic persons seropositive for HSV-2. Dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, and study quality; pooled sensitivities and specificities of screening tests using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve analysis when at least 3 similar studies were available. Accuracy of screening tests, benefits of screening, harms of screening, reduction in genital herpes outbreaks. A total of 17 studies (n = 9736 participants; range, 24-3290) in 19 publications were included. No RCTs compared screening with no screening. Most studies of the accuracy of screening tests were from populations with high HSV-2 prevalence (greater than 40% based on Western blot). Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the most commonly used test at the manufacturer's cutpoint were 99% (95% CI, 97%-100%) and 81% (95% CI, 68%-90%), respectively (10 studies; n = 6537). At higher cutpoints, pooled estimates were 95% (95% CI, 91%-97%) and 89% (95% CI, 82%-93%), respectively (7 studies; n = 5516). Use of this test at the manufacturer's cutpoint in a population of 100 000 with a prevalence of HSV-2 of 16% (the

  7. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A.; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M.; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Harandi, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes. PMID:28082979

  8. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Harandi, Ali M

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes.

  9. Rapid localized spread and immunologic containment define Herpes simplex virus-2 reactivation in the human genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Swan, David; Al Sallaq, Ramzi; Magaret, Amalia; Johnston, Christine; Mark, Karen E; Selke, Stacy; Ocbamichael, Negusse; Kuntz, Steve; Zhu, Jia; Robinson, Barry; Huang, Meei-Li; Jerome, Keith R; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2013-04-16

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is shed episodically, leading to occasional genital ulcers and efficient transmission. The biology explaining highly variable shedding patterns, in an infected person over time, is poorly understood. We sampled the genital tract for HSV DNA at several time intervals and concurrently at multiple sites, and derived a spatial mathematical model to characterize dynamics of HSV-2 reactivation. The model reproduced heterogeneity in shedding episode duration and viral production, and predicted rapid early viral expansion, rapid late decay, and wide spatial dispersion of HSV replication during episodes. In simulations, HSV-2 spread locally within single ulcers to thousands of epithelial cells in genital epithelium. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00288.001.

  10. [TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RECURRENT HERPES VIRUS INFECTION OF GENITAL LOCALIZATION: A CLINICAL STUDY OF FORTEPREN PREPARATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narovlyansky, A N; Sedov, A M; Pronin, A V; Shulzhenko, A E; Sanin, A V; Zuikova, I N; Schubelko, R V; Savchenko, A Yu; Parfenova, T M; Izmestieva, A V; Izmestieva, An V; Grigorieva, E A; Suprun, O V; Zubashev, I K; Kozlov, V S

    2015-01-01

    Selection of optimal dosage regimen, length of treatment course (frequency of administration), safety, tolerance and clinical effectiveness evaluation of the medical preparation fortepren in patients with chronical recurrent herpes virus infection of genital localization. The medical product of antiviral and immune modulating effect--fortepren (sodium polyprenyl phosphate) as a 4 mg/ml solution for injections combined with the base course of acyclic nucleoside acyclovir, 400 mg tablets, held studies. 40 male and female patients participated in the study. After a 10-day acyclovir course (400 mg x 3 times a day) for removing the acute phase, 4 groups of 10 individuals were formed: 1--5 ml (20 mg) of fortepren i/m once at day 13 ± 2 after the start of the study after the completion of the treatment of the acute phase of the disease; 2--5 ml (20 mg) fortepren i/m 3 times at an interval of 21 days; 3--2 ml (8 mg) fortepren i/m 3 times at an interval of 21 days; 4 (control)--5 ml of placebo i/m at remission stage 3 times at an interval of 21 days. Increase of the duration of inter-recurrence period, decrease of the severity of the recurrences, state of skin and mucous damage elements, improvements of immunologic parameters were considered during effectiveness evaluation. Significant differences in the frequency of recurrences of genital herpes were shown for 3 months of observation in experimental and control groups. A significant reduction of genital herpes recurrence frequency from 3.52 ± 0.09 (before treatment) to 2.89 ± 0.08 (after treatment) was noted in patients of group 3 (p genital herpes in the form of vesicle elements after treatment in groups 2 (p = 0.02) and 3 (p = 0.005) was found. Evaluation of local symptoms has established that burning have caused minimal discomfort for patients of groups 3 and 4 and itch and soreness--of groups 1 and 3. The least pronounced exacerbations were noted in patients of group 3. Intramuscular administration of fortepren

  11. Effect of genital herpes on cervicovaginal HIV shedding in women co-infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Todd

    Full Text Available To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV.Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL, herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined.Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03. In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41-0.60, p<0.001 and HSV shedding (β = 0.24 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95% CI:0.16-0.32, p<0.001 but not the presence of herpetic lesions (β = -0.10, 95%CI:-0.28-0.08, p = 0.27.HIV PVL and HSV shedding were more important determinants of genital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility.

  12. Herpes viruses and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations influence the virologic and immunologic milieu of the male genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Sara; Morris, Sheldon R; Anderson, Christy; Spina, Celsa A; Vargas, Milenka V; Young, Jason A; Richman, Douglas D; Little, Susan J; Smith, Davey M

    2013-01-02

    To further understand the role that chronic viral infections of the male genital tract play on HIV-1 dynamics and replication. Retrospective, observational study including 236 paired semen and blood samples collected from 115 recently HIV-1 infected antiretroviral naive men who have sex with men. In this study, we evaluated the association of seminal HIV-1 shedding to coinfections with seven herpes viruses, blood plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, CD4 T-cell counts, presence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in HIV-1 pol, participants' age and stage of HIV-infection using multivariate generalized estimating equation methods. Associations between herpes virus shedding, seminal HIV-1 levels, number and immune activation of seminal T-cells was also investigated (Mann-Whitney). Seminal herpes virus shedding was observed in 75.7% of individuals. Blood HIV-1 RNA levels (P herpes virus (HHV)-8 levels (P herpes viruses seminal shedding in our cohort. Shedding of CMV, EBV and HHV-8 and absence of DRM were associated with increased frequency of HIV-1 shedding and/or higher levels of HIV-1 RNA in semen, which are likely important cofactors for HIV-1 transmission.

  13. Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Herpes Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As Herpes Culture Herpes Simplex Viral Culture HSV DNA HSV ...

  14. Efficacy of genital T cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 2 resulting from immunization of the nasal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, Gregg N.; Dudley-McClain, Kristen L.; Chu Chinfun; Young, Christal G.

    2004-01-01

    Intravaginal (ivag) or intranasal (i.n.) immunization of C57BL/6J (B6) mice with a thymidine kinase-deficient strain (tk-) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) resulted in comparable protection of the genital epithelium and sensory ganglia against HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, protection of these sites was much reduced in i.n.-immunized compared to ivag-immunized B cell-deficient μMT mice. Fewer HSV-specific T cells were detected in the genital epithelium of i.n.-immunized compared to ivag-immunized μMT mice after HSV-2 challenge. Passive transfer of HSV-specific serum to immune μMT mice restored protection of these sites against HSV-2 challenge. These results suggest that protection of genital and neuronal sites may be conferred by i.n. immunization but may be more dependent on antibody-dependent mechanisms than the protection resulting from genital immunization. These results have implications for immunization strategies to elicit high levels of cell-mediated protection of the genital tract and sensory ganglia

  15. The occurrence of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 in skin and mucosal lesions in patients with suspicion of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Emilia; Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Machura, Paulina; Majewska, Anna; Dzieciqtkowski, Tomasz; Mlynarzyk, Grazyna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Majewski, Slawomir

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV 1 and 2 or Human herpesvirus HHV) are one of the most common infections in human. Real time PCR is a sensitive and specific method for diagnostics of HHV infections. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of HHV 1 and HHV 2 DNA in patient with clinical symptoms suggesting HHV infection. We used real time PCR to investigate swabs from genital and perianal lesions from 74 patients of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology Medical University Warsaw and of gynecological outpatient clinics in Warsaw 40 women and 34 men. The results were positive for HHV 2 in 25 cases (34%), for HHV 1 in 19 cases (26%) and for both viruses in 20 cases (27%). 10 samples were negative for both viruses. The results confirm that the main cause of symptomatic genital herpes is HHV 2, however the percentage of HHV 1 and specially of mixed HHV 1/HHV 2 infections was unexpectedly high.

  16. Topical SMIP-7.7, a toll-like receptor 7 agonist, protects against genital herpes simplex virus type-2 disease in the guinea pig model of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Cardin, Rhonda D; Bravo, Fernando J; Earwood, Julie; Clark, Jennifer R; Li, Yongkai; Mishra, Pranab; Li, Chun; Nayak, Bishnu P; Miller, Andrew T; Wu, Tom Y-H; Cooke, Michael P; Valiante, Nicholas M

    2014-04-11

    Development of more effective therapies for genital herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infections remains a priority. The toll-like receptors (TLR) are attractive targets for the immunomodulation of primary and recurrent genital herpes infection. The guinea pig model of genital HSV-2 disease was therefore used to evaluate the efficacy of a new TLR-7 agonist, SMIP-7.7. The effects of SMIP-7.7 at concentrations between 0.90% and 0.09% were compared to the vehicle control or Aldara(®) (3M Health Care Limited, Northridge, CA, USA) as treatment for genital HSV-2 infections. Following intravaginal inoculation of Hartley guinea pigs with 10(6) pfu HSV-2 (MS strain), animals were treated intravaginally beginning at 36 h post-infection. Animals were evaluated for acute disease, acute virus replication, recurrent disease and shedding, as well as infection of the dorsal root ganglia. Treatment with SMIP-7.7 significantly decreased mean total lesion scores during primary infection (all doses, P<0.01 compared with vehicle control, and similar to Aldara(®)). Vaginal virus titres were reduced in treated animals compared with vehicle control (P<0.001 for each treatment versus vehicle control on day 4). Treatment with SMIP-7.7 also significantly decreased the number of recurrent lesion days, the number of days with recurrent virus shedding and the infection of the dorsal root ganglia compared to the vehicle control, and was similar to Aldara(®). As opposed to Aldara(®), SMIP-7.7 did not induce fever or weight loss during treatment. SMIP-7.7 improves the outcome of primary and recurrent HSV-2 disease comparable to Aldara(®) but without some of the side effects associated with Aldara(®).

  17. Superior efficacy of helicase-primase inhibitor BAY 57-1293 for herpes infection and latency in the guinea pig model of human genital herpes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Judith; Fischer, Ruediger; Eckenberg, Peter; Henninger, Kerstin; Ruebsamen-Waigmann, Helga; Kleymann, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of BAY 57-1293, a novel non-nucleosidic inhibitor of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), bovine herpesvirus and pseudorabies virus, was studied in the guinea pig model of genital herpes in comparison with the licensed drug valaciclovir (Valtrex). Early therapy with BAY 57-1293 almost completely suppressed the symptoms of acute HSV-2 infection, and reduced virus shedding and viral load in the sacral dorsal root ganglia by up to three orders of magnitude, resulting in decreased latency and a greatly diminished frequency of subsequent recurrent episodes. In contrast, valaciclovir showed only moderate effects in this set of experiments. When treatment was initiated late during the course of disease after symptoms were apparent, that is, a setting closer to most clinical situations, the efficacy of therapy with BAY 57-1293 was even more pronounced. Compared with valaciclovir, BAY 57-1293 halved the time necessary for complete healing. Moreover, the onset of action was fast, so that only very few animals developed new lesions after treatment commenced. Finally, in a study addressing the treatment of recurrent disease in animals whose primary infection had remained untreated BAY 57-1293 was efficient in suppressing the episodes. In summary, superior potency and efficacy of BAY 57-1293 over standard treatment with valaciclovir was demonstrated in relevant animal models of human genital herpes disease in terms of abrogating an HSV infection, reducing latency and the frequency of subsequent recurrences. Furthermore, BAY 57-1293 shortens the time to healing even if initiation of therapy is delayed.

  18. Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mianmian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2 vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, "inactive ingredients" (or excipients used in topical products to formulate and deliver the active ingredient might also cause epithelial toxicities that increase viral susceptibility. However, excipients have not previously been tested in susceptibility models. Methods Excipients commonly used in topical products were formulated in a non-toxic vehicle (the "HEC universal placebo", or other formulations as specified. Twelve hours after exposure to the excipient or a control treatment, mice were challenged with a vaginal dose of HSV-2, and three days later were assessed for infection by vaginal lavage culture to assess susceptibility. Results The following excipients markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2 after a single exposure: 5% glycerol monolaurate (GML formulated in K-Y® Warming Jelly, 5% GML as a colloidal suspension in phosphate buffered saline, K-Y Warming Jelly alone, and both of its humectant/solvent ingredients (neat propylene glycol and neat PEG-8. For excipients formulated in the HEC vehicle, 30% glycerin significantly increased susceptibility, and a trend toward increased HSV-2 susceptibility was observed after 10% glycerin, and 0.1% disodium EDTA, but not after 0.0186% disodium EDTA. The following excipients did not increase susceptibility: 10% propylene glycol, 0.18%, methylparaben plus 0.02% propylparaben, and 1% benzyl alcohol. Conclusions As reported with other surfactants, the surfactant/emulsifier GML markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2. Glycerin at 30% significantly increased susceptibility, and, undiluted propylene glycol and PEG-8 greatly increased susceptibility.

  19. Circumcision status and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, genital ulcer disease, and HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Supriya D.; Moses, Stephen; Parker, Corette B.; Agot, Kawango; Maclean, Ian; Bailey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence. Design Two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven men aged 18–24 years living in Kisumu, Kenya were randomly assigned to circumcision (n=1391) or delayed circumcision (n =1393) and assessed by HIV and HSV-2 testing and medical examinations during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Methods Cox regression estimated the risk ratio of each outcome (incident HIV, GUD, HSV-2) for circumcision status and multivariable models estimated HIV risk associated with HSV-2, GUD, and circumcision status as time-varying covariates. Results HIV incidence was 1.42 per 100 person-years. Circumcision was 62% protective against HIV [risk ratio =0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22–0.67] and did not change when controlling for HSV-2 and GUD (risk ratio =0.39; 95% CI 0.23–0.69). GUD incidence was halved among circumcised men (risk ratio =0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). HSV-2 incidence did not differ by circumcision status (risk ratio =0.94; 95% CI 0.70–1.25). In the multivariable model, HIV seroconversions were tripled (risk ratio =3.44; 95% CI 1.52–7.80) among men with incident HSV-2 and seven times greater (risk ratio =6.98; 95% CI 3.50–13.9) for men with GUD. Conclusion Contrary to findings from the South African and Ugandan trials, the protective effect of MMC against HIV was independent of GUD and HSV-2, and MMC had no effect on HSV-2 incidence. Determining the causes of GUD is necessary to reduce associated HIV risk and to understand how circumcision confers protection against GUD and HIV PMID:22382150

  20. Distinct Effects of the Cervicovaginal Microbiota and Herpes Simplex Type 2 Infection on Female Genital Tract Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, B; Gajer, P; Yi, T J; Ma, B; Humphrys, M S; Thomas-Pavanel, J; Chieza, L; Janakiram, P; Saunders, M; Tharao, W; Huibner, S; Shahabi, K; Ravel, J; Kaul, R

    2017-05-01

    Genital inflammation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, and may increase HIV-susceptible target cells and alter epithelial integrity. Several genital conditions that increase HIV risk are more prevalent in African, Caribbean, and other black (ACB) women, including bacterial vaginosis and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection. Therefore, we assessed the impact of the genital microbiota on mucosal immunology in ACB women and microbiome-HSV-2 interactions. Cervicovaginal secretions and endocervical cells were collected by cytobrush and Instead Softcup, respectively. T cells and dendritic cells were assessed by flow cytometry, cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the microbiota by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing. The cervicovaginal microbiota of 51 participants were composed of community state types (CSTs) showing diversity (20/51; 39%) or predominated by Lactobacillus iners (22/51; 42%), L. crispatus (7/51; 14%), or L. gasseri (2/51; 4%). High-diversity CSTs and specific bacterial phyla (Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia) were strongly associated with cervicovaginal inflammatory cytokines, but not with altered endocervical immune cells. However, cervical CD4+ T-cell number was associated with HSV-2 infection and a distinct cytokine profile. This suggests that the genital microbiota and HSV-2 infection may influence HIV susceptibility through independent biological mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Blocking herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein E immune evasion as an approach to enhance efficacy of a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Huang, Jialing; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) subunit antigen vaccines targeting virus entry molecules have failed to prevent genital herpes in human trials. Our approach is to include a virus entry molecule and add antigens that block HSV-2 immune evasion. HSV-2 glycoprotein C (gC2) is an immune evasion molecule that inhibits complement. We previously reported that adding gC2 to gD2 improved vaccine efficacy compared to the efficacy of either antigen alone in mice and guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that HSV-2 glycoprotein E (gE2) functions as an immune evasion molecule by binding the IgG Fc domain. HSV-2 gE2 is synergistic with gC2 in protecting the virus from antibody and complement neutralization. Antibodies produced by immunization with gE2 blocked gE2-mediated IgG Fc binding and cell-to-cell spread. Mice immunized with gE2 were only partially protected against HSV-2 vaginal challenge in mice; however, when gE2 was added to gC2/gD2 to form a trivalent vaccine, neutralizing antibody titers with and without complement were significantly higher than those produced by gD2 alone. Importantly, the trivalent vaccine protected the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of 32/33 (97%) mice between days 2 and 7 postchallenge, compared with 27/33 (82%) in the gD2 group. The HSV-2 DNA copy number was significantly lower in mice immunized with the trivalent vaccine than in those immunized with gD2 alone. The extent of DRG protection using the trivalent vaccine was better than what we previously reported for gC2/gD2 immunization. Therefore, gE2 is a candidate antigen for inclusion in a multivalent subunit vaccine that attempts to block HSV-2 immune evasion. Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. Infection results in emotional distress for infected individuals and their partners, is life threatening for infants exposed to herpes during childbirth, and greatly increases the risk of individuals acquiring and transmitting HIV infection. A vaccine that prevents

  2. Development and evaluation of the quantitative real-time PCR assay in detection and typing of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junlian; Yi, Yong; Chen, Wei; Si, Shaoyan; Yin, Mengmeng; Jin, Hua; Liu, Jianjun; Zhou, Jinlian; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes (GH), which is caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1, remains a worldwide problem. Laboratory confirmation of GH is important, particularly as there are other conditions which present similarly to GH, while atypical presentations of GH also occur. Currently, virus culture is the classical method for diagnosis of GH, but it is time consuming and with low sensitivity. A major advance for diagnosis of GH is to use Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, to evaluate the significance of the real-time PCR method in diagnosis and typing of genital HSV, the primers and probes targeted at HSV-1 DNA polymerase gene and HSV-2 glycoprotein D gene fraction were designed and applied to amplify DNA from HSV-1 or HSV-2 by employing the real-time PCR technique. Then the PCR reaction system was optimized and evaluated. HSV in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes was detected by real-time PCR. The real-time PCR assay showed good specificity for detection and typing of HSV, with good linear range (5×10(2)~5×10(8) copies/ml, r=0.997), a sensitivity of 5×10(2) copies/ml, and good reproducibility (intra-assay coefficients of variation 2.29% and inter-assay coefficients of variation 4.76%). 186 swab specimens were tested for HSV by real-time PCR, and the positive rate was 23.7% (44/186). Among the 44 positive specimens, 8 (18.2%) were positive for HSV-1 with a viral load of 8.5546×10(6) copies/ml and 36 (81.2%) were positive for HSV-2 with a viral load of 1.9861×10(6) copies/ml. It is concluded that the real-time PCR is a specific, sensitive and rapid method for the detection and typing of HSV, which can be widely used in clinical diagnosis of GH.

  3. Effect of undecylenic acid as a topical microbicide against genital herpes infection in mice and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Ireland, J; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of topical microbicides to help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Undecylenic acid (UA), a monosaturated fatty acid, is the active ingredient in a number of over-the-counter (OTC) antifungal spray powders, that also exhibits in vitro antibacterial and antiviral activity, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity. We, therefore, evaluated UA as a topical microbicide against genital HSV infection using the murine and guinea pig models of genital herpes. Mice were administered a 20% solution of UA in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle, vehicle alone or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) intravaginally immediately prior to vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Pre-treatment with UA decreased the number of mice that became infected (P < 0.001 vs. PBS or vehicle control), developed symptoms (P <0.001) or died (P <0.001). However, when treatment was extended to either 5 min prior to or after viral inoculation, protection was lost. Similar findings were found using the guinea pig model, where UA treatment completely prevented HSV-2 vaginal infection when given immediately prior to HSV-2 inoculation (P<0.001 vs. PBS or vehicle control). Thus, UA, an approved OTC medication, provided significant protection against HSV disease and infection only when applied immediately before viral inoculation, indicating that better formulations were needed to extend the duration of protection.

  4. Prospective cohort study showing persistent HSV-2 shedding in women with genital herpes 2 years after acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Meena; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Barnum, Gail; Huang, Meei-Li Wu; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2017-11-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a prevalent infection with great variability in clinical and virological manifestations among individuals. This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate the natural history of HSV-2 reactivation in the genital area in the same group of women over time. Eighteen immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive women were evaluated for viral shedding for 70 consecutive days within a median of 8 months (range 1-24 months) of HSV-2 acquisition and again approximately 2.5 years later from the original study. Participants obtained daily swabs of genital secretions for HSV PCR and recorded genital symptoms. The viral shedding rate was 29% during the initial study and 19% in the follow-up study (32% reduction, P=0.019). Subclinical shedding rate also decreased from 24% to 13% (37% reduction, P=0.032), as did the rate of days with genital lesions from 22% to 15% (33% reduction, P=0.24). The mean copy number during viral shedding remained unchanged over time at 4.8 log 10 c/mL (SD=2.0 and 1.6 during each study, respectively, P=0.33). Women with high viral shedding rates in the past were likely to continue to have high shedding rates (r=0.63, P=0.005). Despite some reduction, high viral shedding rates persist in women with genital HSV-2 greater than 2 years after acquisition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. STING agonists enable antiviral cross-talk between human cells and confer protection against genital herpes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouboe, Morten K; Knudsen, Alice; Reinert, Line S; Boularan, Cedric; Lioux, Thierry; Perouzel, Eric; Thomsen, Martin K; Paludan, Søren R

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in immunomodulatory therapy as a means to treat various conditions, including infectious diseases. For instance, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been evaluated for treatment of genital herpes. However, although the TLR7 agonist imiquimod was shown to have antiviral activity in individual patients, no significant effects were observed in clinical trials, and the compound also exhibited significant side effects, including local inflammation. Cytosolic DNA is detected by the enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP (2'3'-cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) to stimulate antiviral pathways, mainly through induction of type I interferon (IFN)s. cGAS is activated upon DNA binding to produce the cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) 2'3'-cGAMP, which in turn binds and activates the adaptor protein Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), thus triggering type I IFN expression. In contrast to TLRs, STING is expressed broadly, including in epithelial cells. Here we report that natural and non-natural STING agonists strongly induce type I IFNs in human cells and in mice in vivo, without stimulating significant inflammatory gene expression. Systemic treatment with 2'3'-cGAMP reduced genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 replication and improved the clinical outcome of infection. More importantly, local application of CDNs at the genital epithelial surface gave rise to local IFN activity, but only limited systemic responses, and this treatment conferred total protection against disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. In direct comparison between CDNs and TLR agonists, only CDNs acted directly on epithelial cells, hence allowing a more rapid and IFN-focused immune response in the vaginal epithelium. Thus, specific activation of the STING pathway in the vagina evokes induction of the IFN system but limited inflammatory responses to allow control of HSV2 infections in vivo.

  6. Vaccination with the Secreted Glycoprotein G of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Induces Protective Immunity after Genital Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2016-04-22

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. After primary infection HSV-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. HSV-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. As clinical trials have failed to show protection against HSV-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. The secreted glycoprotein G (sgG-2) of HSV-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice using two different immunization and adjuvant protocols. The protocol with three intramuscular immunizations combining sgG-2 with cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs and alum induced almost complete protection from genital and systemic disease after intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers were detected with no neutralization activity. Purified splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when re-stimulated with the antigen in vitro. sgG-2 + adjuvant intra-muscularly immunized mice showed a significant reduction of infectious HSV-2 and increased IFN-γ levels in vaginal washes. The HSV-2 DNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in serum at day six or day 21 post challenge. We show that a sgG-2 based vaccine is highly effective and can be considered as a novel candidate in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against HSV-2 infection.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus Suppressive Therapy in Herpes Simplex Virus-2/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Coinfected Women Is Associated With Reduced Systemic CXCL10 But Not Genital Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen-Nissen, Erica; Chang, Joanne T; Thomas, Katherine K; Adams, Devin; Celum, Connie; Sanchez, Jorge; Coombs, Robert W; McElrath, M Juliana; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) may heighten immune activation and increase human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replication, resulting in greater infectivity and faster HIV-1 disease progression. An 18-week randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 500 mg valacyclovir twice daily in 20 antiretroviral-naive women coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 was conducted and HSV-2 suppression was found to significantly reduce both HSV-2 and HIV-1 viral loads both systemically and the endocervical compartment. To determine the effect of HSV-2 suppression on systemic and genital mucosal inflammation, plasma specimens, and endocervical swabs were collected weekly from volunteers in the trial and cryopreserved. Plasma was assessed for concentrations of 31 cytokines and chemokines; endocervical fluid was eluted from swabs and assayed for 14 cytokines and chemokines. Valacyclovir significantly reduced plasma CXCL10 but did not significantly alter other cytokine concentrations in either compartment. These data suggest genital tract inflammation in women persists despite HSV-2 suppression, supporting the lack of effect on transmission seen in large scale efficacy trials. Alternative therapies are needed to reduce persistent mucosal inflammation that may enhance transmission of HSV-2 and HIV-1.

  8. Nasal and skin delivery of IC31(®)-adjuvanted recombinant HSV-2 gD protein confers protection against genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizel, Benjamin; Persson, Josefine; Thörn, Karolina; Nagy, Eszter; Harandi, Ali M

    2012-06-19

    Genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) remains the leading cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Given the disappointing results of the recent genital herpes vaccine trials in humans, development of novel vaccine strategies capable of eliciting protective mucosal and systemic immune responses to HSV-2 is urgently required. Here we tested the ability of the adjuvant IC31(®) in combination with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) used through intranasal (i.n.), intradermal (i.d.), or subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization routes for induction of protective immunity against genital herpes infection in C57BL/6 mice. Immunization with gD plus IC31(®) through all three routes of immunization developed elevated gD-specific serum antibody responses with HSV-2 neutralizing activity. Whereas the skin routes promoted the induction of a mixed IgG2c/IgG1 isotype profile, the i.n. route only elicited IgG1 antibodies. All immunization routes were able to induce gD-specific IgG antibody responses in the vaginas of mice immunized with IC31(®)-adjuvanted gD. Although specific lymphoproliferative responses were observed in splenocytes from mice of most groups vaccinated with IC31(®)-adjuvanted gD, only i.d. immunization resulted in a significant splenic IFN-γ response. Further, immunization with gD plus IC31(®) conferred 80-100% protection against an otherwise lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge with amelioration of viral replication and disease severity in the vagina. These results warrant further exploration of IC31(®) for induction of protective immunity against genital herpes and other sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical study of Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin in genital herpes: suppressive treatment safely decreases the duration of outbreaks in both severe and mild cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Hanan; Itzkovitz, Edan; Javaherian, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a clinical study that tested the effect of suppressive treatment with the botanical product Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin on genital herpes. Our previous paper showed that the treatment decreased the number of genital herpes outbreaks without any side effects. It also showed that the clinical effects of Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin are mostly better than those reported in the studies that tested acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. The current paper reports the effect of suppressive treatment with Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin on the duration of outbreaks, in severe and mild genital herpes cases. The framework was a retrospective chart review. The population included 137 participants. The treatment was 1-4 capsules per day. The duration of treatment was 2-48 months. The study included three controls: baseline, no-treatment, and dose-response. The treatment decreased the duration of outbreaks in 87 % of participants and decreased the mean duration of outbreaks from 8.77 days and 6.7 days in the control groups to 2.87 days in the treatment group (P genital herpes outbreaks, in both severe and mild cases, without any side effects. Based on the results reported in this and our previous paper, we recommend suppressive treatment with Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin as a natural alternative to both suppressive and episodic treatments with current drugs, in both severe and mild genital herpes cases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02715752 Registered 17 March 2016 Retrospectively Registered.

  10. Immunological markers of frequently recurrent genital herpes simplex virus and their response to hypnotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P A; Henderson, D C; Barton, S E; Champion, A J; Rollin, M S; Catalan, J; McCormack, S M; Gruzelier, J

    1999-11-01

    Patients were recruited for hypnotherapy from a clinic for patients with frequently recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (rgHSV). Psychological and immunological parameters were measured 6 weeks prior to hypnotherapy and 6 weeks afterwards, during which time each patient kept a diary of symptoms of rgHSV. Following hypnotherapy there was a significant overall reduction in the number of reported episodes of rgHSV, accompanied by an increase in the numbers of CD3 and CD8 lymphocytes, which may represent a non specific effect of hypnosis. The improvers showed significant rises in natural killer (NK) cell counts, HSV specific lymphokine activated killer (LAK) activity, and reduced levels of anxiety when compared to non-improvers. NK cell numbers and HSV specific LAK activity may therefore be important in the reduction in rgHSV following hypnotherapy.

  11. Peripheral Blood CD4 T-Cell and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell (pDC) Reactivity to Herpes Simplex Virus 2 and pDC Number Do Not Correlate with the Clinical or Virologic Severity of Recurrent Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Nicholas J.; Magaret, Amalia; Laing, Kerry J.; Kask, Angela Shaulov; Wang, Minna; Mark, Karen E.; Schiffer, Joshua T.; Wald, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Leukocytes participate in the immune control of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Data from HIV coinfections, germ line mutations, and case reports suggest involvement of CD4 T cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). We investigated the relationships between these cells and recurrent genital herpes disease severity in the general population. Circulating CD4 T-cell responses to HSV-2 were measured in specimens from 67 immunocompetent individuals with measured genital lesion and HSV shedding rates. Similarly, pDC number and functional responses to HSV-2 were analyzed in 40 persons. CD4 responses and pDC concentrations and responses ranged as much as 100-fold between persons while displaying moderate within-person consistency over time. No correlations were observed between these immune response parameters and genital HSV-2 severity. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection was not correlated with differences in HSV-2-specific CD4 T-cell responses. The CD4 T-cell response to HSV-2 was much more polyfunctional than was the response to CMV. These data suggest that other immune cell subsets with alternate phenotypes or anatomical locations may be responsible for genital herpes control in chronically infected individuals. PMID:22761381

  12. A case of MOG antibody-positive bilateral optic neuritis and meningoganglionitis following a genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masataka; Iwasaki, Yuko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Kimihiko; Nakashima, Ichiro; Kunieda, Takenobu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2017-10-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-positive optic neuritis (ON) and myelitis are recognized as important differential diagnosis of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Similar to NMO/NMOSD associated with AQP4 antibodies, preceding infections have been reported in patients with MOG antibody-positive ON. This is the first report of bilateral ON following a herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection associated with a positive MOG antibody. A 41-year-old man who initially presented with genital herpes developed allodynia in the Th2-Th5 and Th8-L2 areas, urinary retention, and painful visual loss in the left eye. Ophthalmological evaluation and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral ON. A spinal MRI showed leptomeningeal enhancement from the thoracic to lumbar vertebrae and abnormal enhancement of the L3 to S3 dorsal root ganglia without a change in intramedullary signals. Following treatment with acyclovir and steroid pulse, he fully recovered. Serum anti-AQP4 antibodies were negative, but anti-MOG antibodies were positive. Finally, he was diagnosed with MOG antibody-positive bilateral ON and meningoganglionitis following an HSV infection. Our case supports a relationship between anti-MOG antibodies and ON triggered by an HSV infection. Clinicians should thus consider testing for MOG antibodies in patients with post-infectious neurological symptoms due to an HSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Herpes simplex virus-2 in the genital mucosa: insights into the mucosal host response and vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda J; Ashkar, Ali A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is the predominant cause of genital herpes and has been implicated in HIV infection and transmission. Thus far, vaccines developed against HSV-2 have been clinically ineffective in preventing infection. This review aims to summarize the innate and adaptive immune responses against HSV-2 and examines the current status of vaccine development. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are essential for an effective primary immune response and the generation of immunity. The innate response involves Toll-like receptors, natural killer cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and type I, II, and III interferons. The adaptive response requires a balance between CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells for optimal viral clearance. T-regulatory cells may be involved, although their exact function has yet to be determined. Current vaccine development involves the use of HSV-2 peptides or attenuated/replication-defective HSV-2 to generate adaptive anti-HSV-2 immune responses, however the generation of innate responses may also be an important consideration. Although vaccine development has primarily focused on the adaptive response, arguments for innate involvement are emerging. A greater understanding of the innate and adaptive processes underlying the response to HSV-2 infection will provide the foundation for the development of an effective vaccine.

  14. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Dhankani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and singular value decomposition (SVD to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density.

  15. Persistence of mucosal T-cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 2 in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Mueller, D E; Stevens, C E; Huang, M L; Wald, A; Corey, L

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the human T-cell response to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in the female genital tract, a major site of heterosexual HSV-2 acquisition, transmission, and reactivation. In order to understand the role of local mucosal immunity in HSV-2 infection, T-cell lines were expanded from serial cervical cytobrush samples from 30 HSV-2-infected women and examined for reactivity to HSV-2. Approximately 3% of the CD3+ T cells isolated from the cervix were HSV-2 specific and of these, a median of 91.3% were CD4+, whereas a median of 3.9% were CD8+. HSV-2-specific CD4+ T cells expanded from the cervix were not only more frequent than CD8+ T cells but also exhibited greater breadth in terms of antigenic reactivity. T cells directed at the same HSV-2 protein were often detected in serial cervical cytobrush samples and in blood. Thus, broad and persistent mucosal T-cell responses to HSV-2 were detected in the female genital tract of HSV-2+ women suggesting that these cells are resident at the site of HSV-2 infection. Understanding the role of these T cells at this biologically relevant site will be central to the elucidation of adaptive immune mechanisms involved in controlling HSV-2 disease.

  16. Efficacy of N-methanocarbathymidine against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding and infection in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Bravo, Fernando J; Pullum, Derek A; Shen, Hui; Wang, Mei; Rahman, Aquilur; Glazer, Robert I; Cardin, Rhonda D

    2015-02-01

    Current approved nucleoside therapies for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are effective but improved therapies are needed for treatment of both acute and recurrent diseases. The effects of N-methanocarbathymidine were evaluated and compared to acyclovir using guinea pig models of acute and recurrent infection. For acute disease following intravaginal inoculation of 10(6 )pfu HSV-2 (MS strain), animals were treated intraperitoneally beginning 24 h post-infection, and the effects on disease severity, vaginal virus replication, subsequent recurrences, and latent virus loads were evaluated. For evaluation of recurrent infection, animals were treated for 21 days beginning 14 days after infection and disease recurrence and recurrent shedding were evaluated. Treatment of the acute disease with N-methanocarbathymidine significantly reduced the severity of acute disease and decreased acute vaginal virus shedding more effectively than acyclovir. Significantly, none of the animals developed visible disease in the high-dose N-methanocarbathymidine group and this was the only group in which the number of days with recurrent virus shedding was reduced. Treatment of recurrent disease was equivalent to acyclovir when acyclovir was continuously supplied in the drinking water. N-methanocarbathymidine was effective as therapy for acute and recurrent genital HSV-2 disease in the guinea pig models. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. [Genital herpes and pregnancy: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, prevention and screening. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetrician (CNGOF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O

    2017-12-01

    To analyze the consequences of genital herpes infections in pregnant women. The PubMed database and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. The symptomatology of herpes genital rash is often atypical (NP2) and not different during pregnancy (Professional consensus). It is most often due to HSV2 (NP2). Seventy percent of pregnant patients have a history of infection with Herpes simplex virus, without reference to genital or labial localization, and this is in most cases type 1 (NP2). The prevalence of clinical herpes lesions at birth in the event of recurrence is about 16% compared with 36% in the case of initial infection (NP4). In HSV+ patients, asymptomatic herpetic excretion is 4 to 10%. The rate of excretion increases in HIV+ patients (20 to 30%) (NP2). The risk of HSV seroconversion during pregnancy is 1 to 5% (NP2), but can reach 20% in case of sero-discordant couple (NP2). Questioning is not always sufficient to determine the history of herpes infection of a patient and her partner (NP2) and the clinical examination is not always reliable (NP2). Herpetic hepatitis and encephalitis are rare and potentially severe (NP4). These diagnoses should be discussed during pregnancy and antiviral therapy should be started as soon as possible (Professional consensus). There is no established link between herpes infection and miscarriages (NP3). There appears to be an association between untreated herpes infection and premature delivery (NP3) but not in the case of treated infections (NP4). Herpetic fetopathies are exceptional (NP4). There is no argument for recommending specific prenatal diagnosis for herpes infection during pregnancy (Professional consensus). Condom use reduces the risk of initial infection in women who are not pregnant (NP3). There is no evidence to justify routine screening during pregnancy (Professional consensus). There is a strong discrepancy between the prevalence of herpetic excretion

  18. Application of shRNA-containing herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-based gene therapy for HSV-2-induced genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihong; Xiang, Yang; Wei, Zhun; Yu, Bo; Shao, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Hong; Li, Manmei; Guan, Ming; Wan, Jun; Zhang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    HSV-1-based vectors have been widely used to achieve targeted delivery of genes into the nervous system. In the current study, we aim to use shRNA-containing HSV-1-based gene delivery system for the therapy of HSV-2 infection. Guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with HSV-2 and scored daily for 100 days for the severity of vaginal disease. HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 was applied intravaginally daily between 8 and 14 days after HSV-2 challenge. Delivery of HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 had no effect on the onset of disease and acute virus shedding in animals, but resulted in a significant reduction in both the cumulative recurrent lesion days and the number of days with recurrent disease. Around half of the animals in the HSV-2 shRNA group did not develop recurrent disease 100 days post HSV-2 infection. In conclusion, HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 particles are effective in reducing the recurrence of genital herpes caused by HSV-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Episodic therapy for genital herpes in sub-saharan Africa: a pooled analysis from three randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen A Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A randomized controlled trial in South Africa found a beneficial effect of acyclovir on genital ulcer healing, but no effect was seen in trials in Ghana, Central African Republic and Malawi. The aim of this paper is to assess whether the variation in impact of acyclovir on ulcer healing in these trials can be explained by differences in the characteristics of the study populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled data were analysed to estimate the impact of acyclovir on the proportion of ulcers healed seven days after randomisation by HIV/CD4 status, ulcer aetiology, size and duration before presentation; and impact on lesional HIV-1. Risk ratios (RR were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Of 1478 patients with genital ulcer, most (63% had herpetic ulcers (16% first episode HSV-2 ulcers, and a further 3% chancroid, 2% syphilis, 0.7% lymphogranuloma venereum and 31% undetermined aetiology. Over half (58% of patients were HIV-1 seropositive. The median duration of symptoms before presentation was 6 days. Patients on acyclovir were more likely to have a healed ulcer on day 7 (63% vs 57%, RR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.98-1.18, shorter time to healing (p = 0.04 and less lesional HIV-1 RNA (p = 0.03. Small ulcers (<50 mm(2, HSV-2 ulcers, first episode HSV-2 ulcers, and ulcers in HIV-1 seropositive individuals responded best but the better effectiveness in South Africa was not explained by differences in these factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There may be slight benefit in adding acyclovir to syndromic management in settings where most ulcers are genital herpes. The stronger effect among HIV-1 infected individuals suggests that acyclovir may be beneficial for GUD/HIV-1 co-infected patients. The high prevalence in this population highlights that genital ulceration in patients with unknown HIV status provides a potential entry point for provider-initiated HIV testing.

  20. Tumores perianais provocados pelo herpes simples Perianal tumors provoked by herpes simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O Herpes simplex (HSV é um DNA vírus que provoca afecções perianais, sendo considerada a causa mais comum das úlceras na região. Apesar da forma ulcerativa ser a mais conhecida, a literatura relata o aparecimento de lesões tumorais, nodulares ou hipertróficas relacionadas ao vírus. O exame proctológico mostra tumores dolorosos, achatados, com superfície recoberta por ulceração rasa e com bordas bem delimitadas, elevadas e lobuladas, localizados na margem anal e/ou no sulco interglúteo, algumas vezes imitando condilomas virais ou carcinoma. A anamnese revela instalação insidiosa com crescimento lento e progressivo, além da história de tratamentos anteriores para úlceras herpéticas. O diagnóstico diferencial com carcinoma impõe a realização de biópsia para confirmação histológica. Esse exame revela hiperplasia epitelial moderada e denso processo inflamatório com linfócitos e plasmócitos. Células gigantes e multinucleadas são observadas na epiderme. Os testes imunohistoquímicos sugerem o HSV. A opção terapêutica inicial deve ser o tratamento medicamentoso. Importante definir o diagnóstico etiológico para aliviar o desconforto e evitar operação radical desnecessária, e introduzir medicação anti-retroviral nos portadores do HIV para melhora da imunidade.Herpes simplex is a DNA virus which provokes perianal lesions, and it is the most frequent etiology of anal ulcer. Despite the ulcerative herpes being known worldwide, literature relates a tumoral, or nodular, or hypertrophic form related to this virus. Proctological examination showed nodules with a verrucous appearance and an ulcerated surface at the anal margin, sometimes mimicking viral condylomas or carcinomas. Anamnesis reveals insidious installation, slow growth and prior treatments for herpetic ulcers. The differential diagnoses with cancer allow us to perform biopsies for histological confirmation. This exam reveals mild epithelial hyperplasia and

  1. Statistical analysis of Amenamevir (ASP2151) between pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacies with non-linear effect model for the treatment of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Akitsugu; Katashima, Masataka; Kaibara, Atsunori; Sawamoto, Taiji; Zhang, Wenhui; Keirns, James

    2014-09-01

    Amenamevir is the international non-proprietary name for ASP2151 synthesized by Astellas Pharma, Inc. It is a structurally novel class of helicase-primase inhibitor and demonstrated more potency in vitro anti-viral activity with low cytotoxicity against varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) than acyclovir (ACV). Phase II randomized trial assessed the safety and efficacy of ASP2151 for episodic therapy of recurrent genital herpes was conducted. Participants self-initiated with ASP2151 (100, 200, or 400 mg daily for 3 days), ASP2151 (1,200 mg as a single dose), placebo for 3 days, or Valacyclovir (500 mg twice daily for 3 days). We present a first population pharmacokinetic (PPK) modeling analysis of Amenamevir for genital herpes patients. The final model retained the effect of Weight and Albumin on CL. Statistical analysis between pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacies was done by using the time above 200 ng/mL (T200 ). T200 derived from the final PPK model to consider the correlation with Time to lesion healing and viral shedding. This finding suggested that it could be necessary to maintain the Amenamevir concentration above the threshold level to prevent the virus replication. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Targeting the Genital Tract Mucosa with a Lipopeptide/Recombinant Adenovirus Prime/Boost Vaccine Induces Potent and Long-Lasting CD8+ T Cell Immunity Against Herpes: Importance of Myeloid Differentiation Factor 881

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Dervillez, Xavier; Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Badakhshan, Tina; Bettahi, Ilham; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Targeting the mucosal immune system of the genital tract (GT) with subunit vaccines failed to induce potent and durable local CD8+ T cell immunity, crucial for protection against many sexually transmitted viral (STV) pathogens, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) that causes genital herpes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a novel lipopeptide/adenovirus type 5 (Lipo/rAdv5) prime/boost mucosal vaccine for induction of CD8+ T cell immunity to protect the female genital tract from herpes. The lipopeptide and the rAdv5 vaccine express the immunodominant HSV-2 CD8+ T cell epitope (gB498-505) and both were delivered intravaginally (IVAG) in the progesterone-induced B6 mouse model of genital herpes. Compared to its homologous lipopeptide/lipopeptide (Lipo/Lipo); the Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost immunized mice: (i) developed potent and sustained HSV-specific CD8+ T cells, detected in both the GT draining nodes (GT-DLN) and in the vaginal mucosa (VM); (ii) had significantly lower virus titers; (iii) had decreased overt signs of genital herpes disease; and (iv) did not succumb to lethal infection (p herpes infection and disease. PMID:23018456

  3. Targeting the genital tract mucosa with a lipopeptide/recombinant adenovirus prime/boost vaccine induces potent and long-lasting CD8+ T cell immunity against herpes: importance of MyD88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Dervillez, Xavier; Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Badakhshan, Tina; Bettahi, Ilham; Benmohamed, Lbachir

    2012-11-01

    Targeting of the mucosal immune system of the genital tract with subunit vaccines has failed to induce potent and durable local CD8(+) T cell immunity, which is crucial for protection against many sexually transmitted viral pathogens, including HSV type 2 (HSV-2), which causes genital herpes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a novel lipopeptide/adenovirus type 5 (Lipo/rAdv5) prime/boost mucosal vaccine for induction of CD8(+) T cell immunity to protect the female genital tract from herpes. The lipopeptide vaccine and the rAdv5 vaccine express the immunodominant HSV-2 CD8(+) T cell epitope (gB(498-505)), and both were delivered intravaginally in the progesterone-induced B6 mouse model of genital herpes. Compared with mice immunized with the homologous lipopeptide/lipopeptide (Lipo/Lipo) vaccine, the Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost immunized mice 1) developed potent and sustained HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells, detected in both the genital tract draining nodes and in the vaginal mucosa; 2) had significantly lower virus titers; 3) had decreased overt signs of genital herpes disease; and 4) did not succumb to lethal infection (p herpes infection and disease.

  4. Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H A; Thomas, S L; Munabi, S K; Hayes, R J

    2006-04-01

    Male circumcision is associated with reduced risk of HIV infection. This may be partly because of a protective effect of circumcision on other sexually transmitted infections (STI), especially those causing genital ulcers, but evidence for such protection is unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of the associations between male circumcision and infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Treponema pallidum, or Haemophilus ducreyi. Electronic databases (1950-2004) were searched using keywords and text terms for herpes simplex, syphilis, chancroid, ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases, or their causative agents, in conjunction with terms to identify epidemiological studies. References of key articles were hand searched, and data were extracted using standardised forms. Random effects models were used to summarise relative risk (RR) where appropriate. 26 articles met the inclusion criteria. Most syphilis studies reported a substantially reduced risk among circumcised men (summary RR = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.83), although there was significant between study heterogeneity (p = 0.01). The reduced risk of HSV-2 infection was of borderline statistical significance (summary RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.01). Circumcised men were at lower risk of chancroid in six of seven studies (individual study RRs: 0.12 to 1.11). This first systematic review of male circumcision and ulcerative STI strongly indicates that circumcised men are at lower risk of chancroid and syphilis. There is less association with HSV-2. Potential male circumcision interventions to reduce HIV in high risk populations may provide additional benefit by protecting against other STI.

  5. Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta‐analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H A; Thomas, S L; Munabi, S K; Hayes, R J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Male circumcision is associated with reduced risk of HIV infection. This may be partly because of a protective effect of circumcision on other sexually transmitted infections (STI), especially those causing genital ulcers, but evidence for such protection is unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta‐analyses of the associations between male circumcision and infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV‐2), Treponema pallidum, or Haemophilus ducreyi. Methods Electronic databases (1950–2004) were searched using keywords and text terms for herpes simplex, syphilis, chancroid, ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases, or their causative agents, in conjunction with terms to identify epidemiological studies. References of key articles were hand searched, and data were extracted using standardised forms. Random effects models were used to summarise relative risk (RR) where appropriate. Results 26 articles met the inclusion criteria. Most syphilis studies reported a substantially reduced risk among circumcised men (summary RR = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.83), although there was significant between study heterogeneity (p = 0.01). The reduced risk of HSV‐2 infection was of borderline statistical significance (summary RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.01). Circumcised men were at lower risk of chancroid in six of seven studies (individual study RRs: 0.12 to 1.11). Conclusions This first systematic review of male circumcision and ulcerative STI strongly indicates that circumcised men are at lower risk of chancroid and syphilis. There is less association with HSV‐2. Potential male circumcision interventions to reduce HIV in high risk populations may provide additional benefit by protecting against other STI. PMID:16581731

  6. A miniaturized and integrated gel post platform for multiparameter PCR detection of herpes simplex viruses from raw genital swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manage, Dammika P; Lauzon, Jana; Atrazhev, Alexey; Morrissey, Yuen C; Edwards, Ann L; Stickel, Alexander J; Crabtree, H John; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Zahariadis, George; Yanow, Stephanie K; Pilarski, Linda M

    2012-05-07

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most prevalent viruses, with acute and recurrent infections in humans. The current gold standard for the diagnosis of HSV is viral culture which takes 2-14 days and has low sensitivity. In contrast, DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be performed within 1-2 h. We here describe a multiparameter PCR assay to simultaneously detect HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA templates, together with integrated positive and negative controls, with product detection by melting curve analysis (MCA), in an array of semi-solid polyacrylamide gel posts. Each gel post is 0.67 μL in volume, and polymerized with all the components required for PCR. Both PCR and MCA can currently be performed in one hour and 20 min. Unprocessed genital swabs collected in universal transport medium were directly added to the reagents before or after polymerization, diffusing from atop the gel posts. The gel post platform detects HSV templates in as little as 2.5 nL of raw sample. In this study, 45 genital swab specimens were tested blindly as a preliminary validation of this platform. The concordance of PCR on gel posts with conventional PCR was 91%. The primer sequestration method introduced here (wherein different primers are placed in different sets of posts) enables the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens for the same sample, together with positive and negative controls, on a single chip. This platform accepts unprocessed samples and is readily adaptable to detection of multiple different pathogens or biomarkers for point-of-care diagnostics.

  7. A live-attenuated HSV-2 ICP0 virus elicits 10 to 100 times greater protection against genital herpes than a glycoprotein D subunit vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Halford

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein D (gD-2 is the entry receptor of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2, and is the immunogen in the pharmaceutical industry's lead HSV-2 vaccine candidate. Efforts to prevent genital herpes using gD-2 subunit vaccines have been ongoing for 20 years at a cost in excess of $100 million. To date, gD-2 vaccines have yielded equivocal protection in clinical trials. Therefore, using a small animal model, we sought to determine if a live-attenuated HSV-2 ICP0⁻ virus would elicit better protection against genital herpes than a gD-2 subunit vaccine. Mice immunized with gD-2 and a potent adjuvant (alum+monophosphoryl lipid A produced high titers of gD-2 antibody. While gD-2-immunized mice possessed significant resistance to HSV-2, only 3 of 45 gD-2-immunized mice survived an overwhelming challenge of the vagina or eyes with wild-type HSV-2 (MS strain. In contrast, 114 of 115 mice immunized with a live HSV-2 ICP0⁻ virus, 0ΔNLS, survived the same HSV-2 MS challenges. Likewise, 0ΔNLS-immunized mice shed an average 125-fold less HSV-2 MS challenge virus per vagina relative to gD-2-immunized mice. In vivo imaging demonstrated that a luciferase-expressing HSV-2 challenge virus failed to establish a detectable infection in 0ΔNLS-immunized mice, whereas the same virus readily infected naïve and gD-2-immunized mice. Collectively, these results suggest that a HSV-2 vaccine might be more likely to prevent genital herpes if it contained a live-attenuated HSV-2 virus rather than a single HSV-2 protein.

  8. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 genital shedding among co-infected women using self-collected swabs in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhan, S E; Dunne, E F; Sternberg, M R; Whitehead, S J; Leelawiwat, W; Thepamnuay, S; Chen, C; Evans-Strickfaden, Tt; McNicholl, J M; Markowitz, L E

    2012-08-01

    We analysed 528 genital self-collected swabs (SCS) from 67 HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infected women collected during the placebo month of a randomized crossover clinical trial of suppressive acyclovir in Chiang Rai, Thailand. In this first longitudinal study of HIV-1 and HSV-2 co-infected women using genital SCS specimens, we found frequent mucosal HIV-1 shedding. Overall, 372 (70%) swabs had detectable HIV-1 RNA with median HIV-1 viral load of 2.61 log(10) copies/swab. We found no statistically significant association between detectable HIV-1 RNA and HSV-2 DNA in the same SCS specimen (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.40; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.78-2.60, P = 0.25). Only baseline HIV-1 plasma viral load was independently associated with genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR, 7.6; 95% CI, 3.3-17.2, P genital sampling, and inclusion of genital sites other than the cervix.

  10. Treatment of relapse in herpes simplex on labial and facial areas and of primary herpes simplex on genital areas and "area pudenda" with low-power He-Ne laser or Acyclovir administered orally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Gonzalez, Mariano; Urrea-Arbelaez, Alejandro; Nicolas, M.; Serra-Baldrich, E.; Perez, J. L.; Pavesi, M.; Camarasa, J. M.; Trelles, Mario A.

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients (greater than 16 yrs old) suffering primary or relapse genital herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and relapse labial HSV were appointed for this study. Three or more relapses were experienced per year. Patients (under treatment) were divided into two groups (distribution areas), corresponding to either labial herpes or genital herpes. These groups were sub-divided into 3 groups. The total number of labial or facial HSV patients was 36 (10 in group 1, 12 in group 2, 14 in group 3) and 24 for genital, buttocks, or 'area pudenda' HSV patients (6 in group 1, 8 in group 2, 10 in group 3). The design was a randomized, double- blind study. The setting was hospital and outpatient. The patients diagnosed as having the HVS disease were sent to the dermatology department and were assigned to a group at random. Treatment was begun as follows: During the treatment signs and symptoms were assessed and after the treatment, the relapses were also assessed (biochemical and hematological tests before and after the treatment) and the diagnosis of the HSV type I and II. The statistical evaluation of the results was performed and carried out with the SPSS and BMDP program. The relapses of the herpes infection in the lips and the face were significantly reduced (p less than 0.026) in patients treated with laser He-Ne and laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. The interim between the relapses also increased significantly (p less than 0.005) in relation with the group treated with Acyclovir. The duration of the herpetic eruptions was clearly reduced in all locations in patients treated with laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. No differences were noted between patients treated with laser He-Ne only or Acyclovir only. Therefore it is probable that therapeutic synergism took place. In relation with this, laser He-Ne shows the same therapeutic efficacy as Acyclovir taken orally. The association of Acyclovir and laser Ne-Ne could be an alternative method for the treatment of HSV in the face. The number

  11. Once Daily Valacyclovir for Reducing Viral Shedding in Subjects Newly Diagnosed with Genital Herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. Martens

    2009-01-01

    Results. 52 subjects had at least one PCR measurement in both treatment periods and comprised the primary efficacy population. Valacyclovir significantly reduced HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.9% versus 13.5% of all days (P<.01, a 78% reduction. Valacyclovir significantly reduced subclinical HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.4% versus 11.0% of all days (P<.01, a 78% reduction. However, 79% of subjects had no GH recurrences while receiving valacyclovir compared to 52% of subjects receiving placebo (P<.01. Conclusion. In this study, the frequency of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding was greater than reported in earlier studies involving subjects with a history of symptomatic genital recurrences. Our study is the first to demonstrate a significant reduction in viral shedding with valacyclovir 1 g daily compared to placebo in a population of subjects newly diagnosed with HSV-2 infection.

  12. Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus co-infection presenting as exuberant genital ulcer in a woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, A I; Borges-Costa, J; Soares-Almeida, L; Sacramento-Marques, M; Kutzner, H

    2014-12-01

    In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), genital herpes can result in severe and atypical clinical presentations, and can become resistant to aciclovir treatment. Rarely, these manifestations may represent concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) with other agents. We report a 41-year-old black woman with HIV who presented with extensive and painful ulceration of the genitalia. Histological examination of a biopsy sample was suggestive of herpetic infection, and intravenous aciclovir was started, but produced only partial improvement. PCR was performed on the biopsy sample, and both HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected. Oral valganciclovir was started with therapeutic success. CMV infection is common in patients infected with HIV, but its presence in mucocutaneous lesions is rarely reported. This case exemplifies the difficulties of diagnosis of genital ulcers in patients infected with HIV. The presence of exuberant and persistent HSV genital ulcers in patients with HIV should also raise suspicions of the presence of co-infection with other organisms such as CMV. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. A Dual-Modality Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccine for Preventing Genital Herpes by Using Glycoprotein C and D Subunit Antigens To Induce Potent Antibody Responses and Adenovirus Vectors Containing Capsid and Tegument Proteins as T Cell Immunogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Mahairas, Gregory G; Shaw, Carolyn E; Huang, Meei-Li; Koelle, David M; Posavad, Christine; Corey, Lawrence; Friedman, Harvey M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a genital herpes prophylactic vaccine containing herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) to stimulate humoral immunity and UL19 (capsid protein VP5) and UL47 (tegument protein VP13/14) as T cell immunogens. The HSV-2 gC2 and gD2 proteins were expressed in baculovirus, while the UL19 and UL47 genes were expressed from replication-defective adenovirus vectors. Adenovirus vectors containing UL19 and UL47 stimulated human and murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Guinea pigs were either (i) mock immunized; (ii) immunized with gC2/gD2, with CpG and alum as adjuvants; (iii) immunized with the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors; or (iv) immunized with the combination of gC2/gD2-CpG/alum and the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors. Immunization with gC2/gD2 produced potent neutralizing antibodies, while UL19 and UL47 also stimulated antibody responses. After intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, the mock and UL19/UL47 adenovirus groups developed severe acute disease, while 2/8 animals in the gC2/gD2-only group and none in the combined group developed acute disease. No animals in the gC2/gD2 or combined group developed recurrent disease; however, 5/8 animals in each group had subclinical shedding of HSV-2 DNA, on 15/168 days for the gC2/gD2 group and 13/168 days for the combined group. Lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia were positive for HSV-2 DNA and latency-associated transcripts for 5/8 animals in the gC2/gD2 group and 2/8 animals in the combined group. None of the differences comparing the gC2/gD2-only group and the combined group were statistically significant. Therefore, adding the T cell immunogens UL19 and UL47 to the gC2/gD2 vaccine did not significantly reduce genital disease and vaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding compared with the excellent protection provided by gC2/gD2 in the guinea pig model. HSV-2 infection is a common cause of genital ulcer disease and a significant public health concern. Genital herpes increases the risk of transmission and

  14. The nervous system in genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in mice. Lethal panmyelitis or nonlethal demyelinative myelitis or meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J R; Stoner, G L

    1984-11-01

    Female mice were inoculated vaginally with the MS strain of herpes simplex virus type 2, and serially positive vaginal cultures were used to confirm infection. The proportion of mice infected and the mortality rate in infected mice decreased with increasing age. In mice 12 weeks old, clinical, neuropathologic, and virologic criteria defined four patterns of disease. Moribund mice had severe genital lesions, hindleg paralysis, and urinary and fecal retention, and most died during the second week of infection. These mice had a panmyelitis with a decreasing gradient of both viral antigen and lesions extending rostrally from the lumbosacral cord into the brain stem. Lesions were about equally distributed in gray and white matter and were characterized by neuronal loss and axonal demyelination, respectively. By contrast, mice with nonfatal infections had mild or no evident genital lesions and a small proportion had mild hindleg weakness. Of these, some mice had demyelinative lesions, particularly in the lower spinal cord but also at higher cord and brain stem levels, whereas others had leptomeningitis. Both of these groups had sacral sensory root abnormalities. A third group of survivors lacked both sensory root and central nervous system abnormalities. This report defines a broader spectrum of disease patterns following infection by a natural route than has been previously appreciated. It provides the first evidence that nonfatal herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by a peripheral route can produce central nervous system demyelination. It indicates that in aseptic meningitis with this agent, the route of virus spread to the central nervous system is neural and not hematogenous. Finally, the antigenic and pathologic observations presented here complement and confirm the virus isolation data and pathologic findings of others that genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection causes ascending infection in the peripheral and central nervous system.

  15. The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

  16. Immunization with a dominant-negative recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV type 1 protects against HSV-2 genital disease in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brans Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CJ9-gD is a novel dominant-negative recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 that is completely replication-defective, cannot establish detectable latent infection in vivo, and expresses high levels of the major HSV-1 antigen glycoprotein D immediately following infection. In the present study, CJ9-gD was evaluated as a vaccine against HSV-2 genital infection in guinea pigs. Results Animals immunized with CJ9-gD developed at least 700-fold higher titers of HSV-2-specific neutralization antibodies than mock-immunized controls. After challenge with wild-type HSV-2, all 10 control guinea pigs developed multiple genital lesions with an average of 21 lesions per animal. In contrast, only 2 minor lesions were found in 2 of 8 CJ9-gD-immunized animals, representing a 40-fold reduction on the incidence of primary genital lesions in immunized animals (p Conclusions Collectively, we demonstrate that vaccination with the HSV-1 recombinant CJ9-gD elicits strong and protective immune responses against primary and recurrent HSV-2 genital disease and significantly reduces the extent of latent infection.

  17. Herpes simplex virus specific T cell response in a cohort with primary genital infection correlates inversely with frequency of subsequent recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen-Röhl, Elisabeth; Schepis, Danika; Atterfelt, Fredrik; Franck, Kristina; Wikström, Arne; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke; Bergström, Tomas; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Kärre, Klas; Berg, Louise; Gaines, Hans

    2017-05-01

    During the last decades, a changing epidemiological pattern of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has emerged. Primary infection is now caused as often by HSV-1 as by HSV-2. Once established, HSV can be reactivated leading to recurrent mucocutaneous lesions as well as meningitis. Why some otherwise immune-competent individuals experience severe and frequent recurrences is not known, and the immunological mechanism underlying recurrent symptomatic HSV infection is not fully understood. In this study, we investigate and characterise the immune response of patients with first episode of HSV genital infection and its relation to the frequency of symptomatic recurrences. In this cohort study, clinical and immunological data were collected from 29 patients who were followed 1 year after presenting with a first episode of genital or meningeal HSV infection. They were classified by PCR and serology as those with primary HSV-1, primary HSV-2 and non-primary HSV-2 infection. HSV-specific interleukin(Il)-4 and Il-10 responses at first visit were higher in primary infected HSV-2 infected patients experiencing lower numbers of recurrences during subsequent year. The median number of recurrences following primary HSV-2 genital infection may partly be predicted by the strength of an early HSV-specific IL-4 and IL-10 response. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Efficacy of the Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Glycoprotein D/AS04 Vaccine against Genital HSV-2 and HSV-1 Infection and Disease in the Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhvalova, Marina; McKay, Jamall; Mbaye, Aissatou; Sanford-Crane, Hannah; Blanco, Jorge C G; Huber, Ashley; Herold, Betsy C

    2015-10-01

    Subunit vaccines based on the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD-2) have been the major focus of HSV-2 vaccine development for the past 2 decades. Based on the promising data generated in the guinea pig model, a formulation containing truncated gD-2, aluminum salt, and MPL (gD/AS04) advanced to clinical trials. The results of these trials, however, were unexpected, as the vaccine protected against HSV-1 infection but not against HSV-2. To address this discrepancy, we developed a Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-treated cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus model of HSV-2 and HSV-1 genital infection. The severity of HSV-1 genital herpes was less than that of HSV-2 genital herpes in cotton rats, and yet the model allowed for comparative evaluation of gD/AS04 immunogenicity and efficacy. Cotton rats were intramuscularly vaccinated using a prime boost strategy with gD/AS04 (Simplirix vaccine) or control vaccine formulation (hepatitis B vaccine FENDrix) and subsequently challenged intravaginally with HSV-2 or HSV-1. The gD/AS04 vaccine was immunogenic in cotton rats and induced serum IgG directed against gD-2 and serum HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies but failed to efficiently protect against HSV-2 disease or to decrease the HSV-2 viral load. However, gD/AS04 significantly reduced vaginal titers of HSV-1 and better protected animals against HSV-1 compared to HSV-2 genital disease. The latter finding is generally consistent with the clinical outcome of the Herpevac trial of Simplirix. Passive transfer of serum from gD/AS04-immunized cotton rats conferred stronger protection against HSV-1 genital disease. These findings suggest the need for alternative vaccine strategies and the identification of new correlates of protection. In spite of the high health burden of genital herpes, there is still no effective intervention against the disease. The significant gap in knowledge on genital herpes pathogenesis has been further highlighted by the recent failure of GSK

  19. False-negative type-specific glycoprotein G antibody responses in STI clinic patients with recurrent HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA positive genital herpes, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S; Roest, Wim; Hansen, Gino; Kwa, David; de Vries, Henry J C

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-discriminating antibody tests (glycoprotein G (gG) directed) are used to identify naïve persons and differentiate acute infections from recurrences. We studied test characteristics of three commercially available antibody tests in patients with recurrent (established by viral PCR tests) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital herpes episodes. Serum samples (at minimum 3 months after t=0) were examined for the presence of gG-1-specific or gG-2-specific antibodies using the HerpeSelect 1 and 2 Immunoblot IgG, the HerpeSelect 1 and 2 enzyme linked immunoassays IgG and the LIAISON HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG indirect chemiluminescence immunoassays. The immunoblot was HSV-1 positive in 70.6% (95% CI 44.0% to 89.7%), the LIAISON in 88.2% (95% CI 63.5% to 98.5%) and the ELISA in 82.4% (95% CI 56.6% to 96.2%) of the 17 patients with a recurrent HSV-1 episode. From 33 patients with a recurrent HSV-2 episode, the immunoblot was HSV-2 positive in 84.8% (95% CI 68.1% to 94.9%), the LIAISON in 69.7% (95% CI 51.3% to 84.4%) and the ELISA in 84.8% (95% CI 68.1% to 94.9%). Among 15/17 (88.2%; 95% CI 63.5% to 98.5%) patients with HSV-1 and 30/33 (90.1%; 95% CI 75.7% to 98.1%) patients with HSV-2, HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibodies, respectively, were detected in at least one of the three antibody tests. Commercial type-specific gG HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody assays were false negative in 12-30% of patients with recurrent HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA positive genital lesions. The clinical and epidemiological use of type-specific HSV serology can be hampered by false-negative results, especially if based on a single test. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Topical herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccination with human papillomavirus vectors expressing gB/gD ectodomains induces genital-tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells and reduces genital disease and viral shedding after HSV-2 challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Wang, Kening; Goodman, Kyle N; Pang, Yuk Ying; Thompson, Cynthia D; Lowy, Douglas R; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Schiller, John T

    2015-01-01

    No herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. HSV-2 glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and T cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HSV-2 gB and gD in adjuvants have not been effective. Here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-defective human papillomavirus pseudovirus (HPV PsV) expressing HSV-2 gB (HPV-gB) or gD (HPV-gD) constructs to target different subcellular compartments. HPV PsV expressing a secreted ectodomain of gB (gBsec) or gD (gDsec), but not PsV expressing a cytoplasmic or membrane-bound form, induced circulating and intravaginal-tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells that were able to secrete gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as moderate levels of serum HSV neutralizing antibodies. Combined immunization with HPV-gBsec and HPV-gDsec (HPV-gBsec/gDsec) vaccines conferred longer survival after vaginal challenge with HSV-2 than immunization with HPV-gBsec or HPV-gDsec alone. HPV-gBsec/gDsec ivag vaccination was associated with a reduced severity of genital lesions and lower levels of viral shedding in the genital tract after HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a soluble truncated gD protein (gD2t) in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and improved survival but did not reduce genital lesions and viral shedding. Vaccination combining ivag HPV-gBsec/gDsec and i.m. gD2t-alum-MPL improved survival and reduced genital lesions and viral shedding. Finally, high levels of circulating HSV-2-specific CD8(+) T cells, but not serum antibodies, correlated with reduced viral shedding. Taken together, our data underscore the potential of HPV PsV as a platform for a topical mucosal vaccine to control local manifestations of primary HSV-2 infection. Genital herpes is a highly prevalent chronic disease caused by

  1. In Situ Detection of Regulatory T Cells in Human Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Reactivation and Their Influence on Spontaneous HSV-2 Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Neta; Zhu, Jia; Johnston, Christine; Cheng, Anqi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M; Huang, Meei-Li; Jin, Lei; Klock, Alexis; Layton, Erik D; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivation is accompanied by a sustained influx of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that persist in genital tissue for extended periods. While CD4(+) T cells have long been recognized as being present in herpetic ulcerations, their role in subclinical reactivation and persistence is less well known, especially the role of CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). We characterized the Treg (CD4(+)Foxp3(+)) population during human HSV-2 reactivation in situ in sequential genital skin biopsy specimens obtained from HSV-2-seropositive subjects at the time of lesion onset up to 8 weeks after healing. High numbers of Tregs infiltrated to the site of viral reactivation and persisted in proximity to conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconvs) and CD8(+) T cells. Treg density peaked during the lesion stage of the reactivation. The number of Tregs from all time points (lesion, healed, 2 weeks after healing, 4 weeks after healing, and 8 weeks after healing) was significantly higher than in control biopsy specimens from unaffected skin. There was a direct correlation between HSV-2 titer and Treg density. The association of a high Treg to Tconv ratio with high viral shedding suggests that the balance between regulatory and effector T cells influences human HSV-2 disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in humanized HIV-transgenic mice triggers HIV shedding and is associated with greater neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Briana; Fakioglu, Esra; Stefanidou, Martha; Wang, Yanhua; Dutta, Monica; Goldstein, Harris; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-02-15

    Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Higher HIV-1 loads are observed in coinfected individuals, and conversely, HIV-1 is associated with more-severe herpetic disease. A small animal model of coinfection would facilitate identification of the biological mechanisms underlying this synergy and provide the opportunity to evaluate interventions. Mice transgenic for HIV-1 provirus and human cyclin T1 under the control of a CD4 promoter (JR-CSF/hu-cycT1) were intravaginally infected with HSV-2 and evaluated for disease progression, HIV shedding, and mucosal immune responses. HSV-2 infection resulted in higher vaginal HIV loads and genital tissue expression of HIV RNA, compared with HSV-uninfected JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice. There was an increase in genital tract inflammatory cells, cytokines, chemokines, and interferons in response to HSV-2, although the kinetics of the response were delayed in HIV-transgenic, compared with control mice. Moreover, the JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice exhibited earlier and more-severe neurological disease. The latter was associated with downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor expression in neuronal tissue, a molecule with antiinflammatory, antiviral, and neuroprotective properties. JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice provide a valuable model to study HIV/HSV-2 coinfection and identify potential mechanisms by which HSV-2 facilitates HIV-1 transmission and HIV modulates HSV-2-mediated disease.

  3. Oral and Vaginal Tenofovir for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding in Immunocompetent Women: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Cross-over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A; Perti, Tara; Magaret, Amalia S; Rajagopal, Sharanya; Stevens, Claire E; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Johnston, Christine; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Wald, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Tenofovir is a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agent that decreased risk of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquisition in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trials. Whether tenofovir has utility in established HSV-2 disease is unclear. We randomized immunocompetent women with symptomatic HSV-2 infection to oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/placebo vaginal gel, oral placebo/tenofovir (TFV) vaginal gel, or double placebo (ratio 2:2:1) in a one-way cross-over trial. Women collected genital swabs twice daily for HSV PCR during 4-week lead-in and 5-week treatment phases. The primary intent-to-treat end point was within-person comparison of genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. 64 women completed the lead-in phase and were randomized. Neither TDF nor TFV gel decreased overall shedding or lesion rate in the primary analysis; TFV gel decreased quantity of HSV DNA by -0.50 (-0.86-0.13) log10 copies/mL. In the per-protocol analysis, TDF reduced shedding (relative risk [RR] = 0.74, P = .006) and lesion rates (RR = 0.75, P = .032); quantity of virus shed decreased by 0.41 log10 copies/mL. Oral TDF modestly decreased HSV shedding and lesion rate, and quantity of virus shed when used consistently. Vaginal TFV gel decreased quantity of virus shed by 60%. In contrast to effects on HSV-2 acquisition, tenofovir is unlikely to provide clinically meaningful reductions in the frequency of HSV shedding or genital lesions. NCT01448616. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Novel Role for Interleukin-17 in Enhancing Type 1 Helper T Cell Immunity in the Female Genital Tract following Mucosal Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Puja; Anipindi, Varun C; Nguyen, Philip V; Vitali, Danielle; Stämpfli, Martin R; Kaushic, Charu

    2017-12-01

    It is well established that interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4 + T cells is critical for antiviral immunity against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) genital infection. However, the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production by CD4 + T cells in HSV-2 antiviral immunity is yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that IL-17A plays an important role in enhancing antiviral T helper type 1 (T h 1) responses in the female genital tract (FGT) and is essential for effective protection conferred by HSV-2 vaccination. While IL-17A did not play a critical role during primary genital HSV-2 infection, seen by lack of differences in susceptibility between IL-17A-deficient ( IL-17A -/- ) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, it was critical for mediating antiviral responses after challenge/reexposure. Compared to WT mice, IL-17A -/- mice (i) infected intravaginally and reexposed or (ii) vaccinated intranasally and challenged intravaginally demonstrated poor outcomes. Following intravaginal HSV-2 reexposure or challenge, vaccinated IL-17A -/- mice had significantly higher mortality, greater disease severity, higher viral shedding, and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in vaginal secretions. Furthermore, IL-17A -/- mice had impaired T h 1 cell responses after challenge/reexposure, with significantly lower proportions of vaginal IFN-γ + CD4 + T cells. The impaired T h 1 cell responses in IL-17A -/- mice coincided with smaller populations of IFN-γ + CD4 + tissue resident memory T (T RM ) cells in the genital tract postimmunization. Taken together, these findings describe a novel role for IL-17A in regulating antiviral IFN-γ + T h 1 cell immunity in the vaginal tract. This strategy could be exploited to enhance antiviral immunity following HSV-2 vaccination. IMPORTANCE T helper type 1 (T h 1) immunity, specifically interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4 + T cells, is critical for protection against genital herpesvirus (HSV-2) infection, and

  5. Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein H interacts with integrin αvβ3 to facilitate viral entry and calcium signaling in human genital tract epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B; González, Pablo A; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Jacobs, William R; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These

  6. Coping strategies and behavioural changes following a genital herpes diagnosis among an urban sample of underserved Midwestern women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Roth, Alexis; Brand, Juanita Ebert; Zimet, Gregory D; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on understanding the coping strategies and related behavioural changes of women who were recently diagnosed with herpes simplex virus type 2. In particular, we were interested in how coping strategies, condom use, and acyclovir uptake evolve over time. Twenty-eight women screening positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 were recruited through a public health STD clinic and the Indianapolis Community Court. Participants completed three semi-structured interviews with a woman researcher over a six-month period. The interviews focused on coping strategies for dealing with a diagnosis, frequency of condom use, suppressive and episodic acyclovir use, and the utilisation of herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups. Interview data were analysed using content analysis to identify and interpret concepts and themes that emerged from the interviews. Women employed a variety of coping strategies following an herpes simplex virus type 2 diagnosis. Of the women, 32% reported an increase in religious activities, 20% of women reported an increase in substance use, and 56% of women reported engaging in other coping activities. A total of 80% of women reported abstaining from sex immediately following the diagnosis, but 76% of women reported engaging in sex again by the six-month interview. Condom and medication use did not increase and herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups were not utilised by participants. All participants reported engaging in at least one coping mechanism after receiving their diagnosis. A positive diagnosis did not seem to result in increased use of condoms for the majority of participants and the use of acyclovir was low overall. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Decreasing seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Germany leaves many people susceptible to genital infection: time to raise awareness and enhance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korr, Gerit; Thamm, Michael; Czogiel, Irina; Poethko-Mueller, Christina; Bremer, Viviane; Jansen, Klaus

    2017-07-06

    Herpes simplex infections (HSV1/2) are characterized by recurrent symptoms, a risk of neonatal herpes, and the facilitation of HIV transmission. In Germany, HSV1/2 infections are not notifiable and data are scarce. A previous study found higher HSV1/2 seroprevalences in women in East Germany than in women in West Germany. We assessed changes in the HSV1/2 seroprevalences over time and investigated determinants associated with HSV1/2 seropositivity to guide prevention and control. The study was based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS; 2008-2011) and the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES; 1997-1999). We tested serum samples from DEGS participants for HSV1 and HSV2 immunoglobulin G. We used Pearson's χ 2 test to compare the HSV1/HSV2 seroprevalences in terms of sex, age, and region of residence (East/West Germany) and investigated potential determinants by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) with log-binomial regression. All statistical analyses included survey weights. In total, 6627 DEGS participants were tested for HSV1, and 5013 were also tested for HSV2. Overall, HSV1 seroprevalence decreased significantly from 1997-1999 (82.1%; 95%CI 80.6-83.6) to 2008-2011 (78.4%; 95%CI 77.8-79.7). In the same period, overall HSV2 seroprevalence decreased significantly from 13.3% (95%CI 11.9-14.9) to 9.6% (95%CI 8.6-10.8), notably in 18-24-year-old men (10.4 to 0%) in East Germany. Women were more likely than men to be seropositive for HSV1 (PR 1.1) or HSV2 (PR 1.6). A lower level of education, smoking, and not speaking German were associated with HSV1 in both sexes. Women of older age, who smoked, or had a history of abortion and men of older age or who had not attended a nursery school during childhood were more often seropositive for HSV2. The reduced seroprevalences of HSV1 and HSV2 leave more people susceptible to genital HSV1/2 infections. Practitioners should be aware of HSV infection as a differential

  8. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Herpes simplex virus: 'to disclose or not to disclose.' An exploration of the multi-disciplinary team's role in advising patients about disclosure when diagnosed with genital herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Pauline; Willis, Diane

    2017-07-01

    The first UK prosecution for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) transmission in 2011 attracted strong criticism from medical experts. To address the dearth of research on the topic, this study aimed to explore the nature of advice given to patients by the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the West of Scotland on HSV disclosure to partners. Ten semi-structured interviews with members of the MDT were conducted and the interviews were analysed using Burnard's Thematic Content Analysis. Four themes emerged which explored practitioners' knowledge of HSV and their feelings regarding the emotional aspects of the diagnosis on clients including the challenges of discussing disclosure. Within this framework, participants' attitudes to the legal prosecution were also surveyed. This study revealed that participants had good knowledge about HSV. Furthermore, participants believed disclosure to be the patient's choice and had not altered their practice to advise disclosure to all partners in accordance with local protocol. However, there was a general consensus that disclosure was not required due to the prevalence of HSV and prevalence was used to dissipate emotional reactions to HSV diagnosis.

  10. Two step culture for production of recombinant herpes simplex virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was the major cause of genital herpes in humans. The HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD2) had been proved to be a potentially effective vaccine for treatment of genital herpes. The present study was to develop a two step culture to express the recombinant gD2 protein using the immobilized ...

  11. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Pilar Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV.

  12. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M

    2017-09-01

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.

  13. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  14. Soroprevalência de anticorpos contra vírus herpes simples 1-2 no Brasil Seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra virus herpes simples 1-2 en Brasil Seroprevalence of herpes simplex 1-2 antibodies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Ann Costa Clemens

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a soroprevalência de anticorpos por vírus herpes simples (HSV-1 e HSV-2 e analisar fatores associados no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado entre 1996 e 1997 em 1.090 indivíduos com idade entre um e 40 anos da população geral, em quatro diferentes regiões geográficas no Brasil. Foram analisadas amostras sangüíneas para detecção de anticorpos para HSV-1 e HSV-2 com teste tipo-específico Elisa. Foram descritas freqüências e proporções, comparadas entre grupos utilizando o teste de Fisher bilateral exato. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística para avaliar influência das variáveis sociodemográficas e histórico de DST, sobre a soroprevalência de HSV-1 e/ou HSV-2. RESULTADOS: As soroprevalências de anticorpos para HSV-1 e HSV-2, ajustadas por idade, foram 67,2% e 11,3% respectivamente, sem diferença quanto ao sexo e maiores na Região Norte. As soroprevalências aumentaram com a idade, e para HSV-2 o maior aumento ocorreu na adolescência e entre adultos jovens. Indivíduos soropositivos para HSV-1 apresentaram maior risco de serem positivos para HSV-2 (15,7% quando comparados com os negativos para HSV-1 (4,7%. Na análise multivariada, o histórico de DST aumentou significativamente (OR=3,2 a probabilidade de soropositividade para HSV-2. CONCLUSÕES: As soroprevalências para HSV-1 e para HSV-2 variam com a idade e entre as regiões do Brasil. História pregressa de DST é importante fator de risco para aquisição de infecção por HSV-2.OBJETIVO: Estimar la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos por virus herpes simples (HSV-1 y HSV-2 en diferentes áreas geográficas en Brasil y analizar factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado entre 1996 y 1997 con individuos de la población en general en cuatro diferentes áreas geográficas en Brasil y estratificados por edad (de uno a 40 años y sexo, de los cuales 1.090 fueron incluidos en el análisis final. Fueron analizadas muestras

  15. Genital ulcers in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    Women who are in a low socioeconomic status are most vulnerable to genital ulcer disease (GUD). GUD is recognized as an important co-factor for acquisition of HIV. GUD etiology has been elucidated in the past decade, with the availability of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Worldwide, herpes

  16. Cutting Edge: Genetic Association between IFI16 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Resistance to Genital Herpes Correlates with IFI16 Expression Levels and HSV-2-Induced IFN-β Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kristina; Svensson, Alexandra; Hait, Alon S; Schlüter, Kerstin; Tunbäck, Petra; Nordström, Inger; Padyukov, Leonid; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke; Mogensen, Trine H; Paludan, Søren R

    2017-10-15

    IFN-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is an immunological DNA sensor proposed to act in the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of IFN genes pathway. Because mice do not have a clear ortholog of IFI16, this system is not suitable for genetic studies of IFI16. In this study, we have compared the dependency on IFI16, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, and stimulator of IFN genes for type I IFN induction by a panel of pathogenic bacteria and DNA viruses. The IFN response induced by HSV-2 was particularly dependent on IFI16. In a cohort of patients with genital herpes and healthy controls, the minor G allele of the IFI16 single nucleotide polymorphism rs2276404 was associated with resistance to infection. Furthermore, the combination of this allele with the C allele of rs1417806 was significantly overrepresented in uninfected individuals. Cells from individuals with the protective GC haplotype expressed higher levels of IFI16 and induced more IFN-β upon HSV-2 infection. These data provide genetic evidence for a role for IFI16 in protection against genital herpes. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Neonatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnest, G; de la Fuente Fonnest, I; Weber, Tom

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent neonatal herpes, women in labor with genital herpes infection are still delivered by Cesarean section. This policy is currently being debated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal herpes in Denmark and to evaluate the prevention practice. METHODS......: All newborns with perinatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991 were identified from hospital-records. RESULTS: Of 862,298 deliveries 136 possible cases were found but only 30 (22%) fulfilled the criteria for neonatal herpes. The incidence increased from 2.36 to 4.56 per 100,000 live births during 1977......-1984 through 1984-1991. Three mothers (10%) had recurrent herpes at delivery, three (10%) had primary herpes, and five (17%) had oral herpes. Seven infants (23%) were delivered by Cesarean section. Nine (30%) only had cutaneous herpes, four (13%) had CNS herpes, nine (30%) had disseminated disease. Six (20...

  18. Genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the genital area near the warts Increased vaginal discharge Genital itching Vaginal bleeding during or after sex ... have visible warts on your external genitals, itching, discharge, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. Keep in mind that genital warts may ...

  19. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Serostatus With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men: The HPV in Men Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2

  20. Vaccine-induced antibodies to herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread correlate with protection against genital disease in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Lauren M; Cairns, Tina M; Awasthi, Sita; Brooks, Benjamin D; Ditto, Noah T; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Friedman, Harvey M

    2018-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit antigen is included in many preclinical candidate vaccines. The rationale for including gD2 is to produce antibodies that block crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. HSV-2 gD2 was the only antigen in the Herpevac Trial for Women that protected against HSV-1 genital infection but not HSV-2. In that trial, a correlation was detected between gD2 ELISA titers and protection against HSV-1, supporting the importance of antibodies. A possible explanation for the lack of protection against HSV-2 was that HSV-2 neutralization titers were low, four-fold lower than to HSV-1. Here, we evaluated neutralization titers and epitope-specific antibody responses to crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread as correlates of immune protection against genital lesions in immunized guinea pigs. We detected a strong correlation between neutralizing antibodies and protection against genital disease. We used a high throughput biosensor competition assay to measure epitope-specific responses to seven crucial gD2 linear and conformational epitopes involved in virus entry and spread. Some animals produced antibodies to most crucial epitopes while others produced antibodies to few. The number of epitopes recognized by guinea pig immune serum correlated with protection against genital lesions. We confirmed the importance of antibodies to each crucial epitope using monoclonal antibody passive transfer that improved survival and reduced genital disease in mice after HSV-2 genital challenge. We re-evaluated our prior study of epitope-specific antibody responses in women in the Herpevac Trial. Humans produced antibodies that blocked significantly fewer crucial gD2 epitopes than guinea pigs, and antibody responses in humans to some linear epitopes were virtually absent. Neutralizing antibody titers and epitope-specific antibody responses are important immune parameters to

  1. Intravaginal infection with herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) generates a functional effector memory T cell population that persists in the murine genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vera A; Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2010-12-01

    Although the female genital tract is the main portal of entry for sexually transmitted infections in women, we still have limited understanding of the generation, maintenance and characteristics of memory T cells in the local tissue. Here, we utilized a mouse model of intravaginal HSV-2 infection and tetramers against the immunodominant HSV glycoprotein B epitope recognized by CD8+ T cells to examine the generation, maintenance and characteristics of anti-HSV memory T cells in the genital tract following acute infection. Our results show that the highest percentage of HSVgB-specific CD8+ T cells was found in the genital tract compared to the spleen or iliac lymphnode. Indeed, although the actual number of CD8+ T cells contracted following viral clearance, approximately one quarter of the CD8+ population that remained in the genital tissue was HSVgB-specific. Memory gB-tetramer+CD8 T cells in the genital tract were positive for CD127 and KLRG1 and negative for CD62L and CCR7, thus confirming that HSV-specific CD8 cells were effector memory T cells that lack the capacity for homing to lymphoid tissues. Functionally, both memory CD8+ and CD4+ HSV-specific populations in the genital tract produced IFNγ when stimulated in vitro and CD4+ cells also produced TNFα. Genital HSVgB-specific memory T cells expressed tissue-homing integrins CD103 (αE integrin) and CD49a (VLA-1 or α1 integrin). Our findings suggest that HSV-specific memory T cells are retained in the genital tract, poised to act as an early line of defense against future virus encounter. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Herpes Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Herpes Keratitis Sections What is Herpes Keratitis? Herpes Keratitis ... Herpes Keratitis Symptoms Herpes Keratitis Treatment What is Herpes Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la queratitis ...

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. False-negative type-specific glycoprotein G antibody responses in STI clinic patients with recurrent HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA positive genital herpes, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Roest, Wim; Hansen, Gino; Kwa, David; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-discriminating antibody tests (glycoprotein G (gG) directed) are used to identify naïve persons and differentiate acute infections from recurrences. We studied test characteristics of three commercially available antibody tests in patients with recurrent (established

  5. Presencia de anticuerpos IgG del virus de la rubéola, virus herpes simple y citomegalovirus en embarazadas residentes en Ciudad de La Habana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Acosta

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico con 207 gestantes, residentes en el municipio Marianao de Ciudad de la Habana, con la finalidad de conocer la presencia de anticuerpos IgG anti-rubéola, anti-citomegalovirus y anti-herpes simple (1 y 2; el nivel de positividad se expresó como la relación de la fluorescencia de la muestra con respecto a la del control positivo, para un nivel de corte de 0,3 para rubéola, 0,2 para citomegalovirus y 0,185 para herpes simple. Las seroconversiones se expresaron como el incremento de esta relación con respecto a la determinación realizada en el primer trimestre de embarazo. El 91,3% de las gestantes resultaron positivas para rubéola, el 92,7% para citomegalovirus y el 98,1% para herpes simple. Se sugiere la valoración de aspectos fundamentales relacionados con estas infecciones dentro del Programa Nacional de Atención a las Embarazadas.

  6. Update on Neonatal Herpes Simplex Epidemiology in the Netherlands: A Health Problem of Increasing Concern?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeffelen, Louise; Biekram, Manisha; Poeran, Jashvant; Hukkelhoven, Chantal; Galjaard, Sander; van der Meijden, Wim; Op de Coul, Eline

    2018-01-01

    This paper provides an update on the incidence of neonatal herpes, guideline adherence by health care professionals (HCP), and trends in genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy in the Netherlands.

  7. Genital herpes evaluation by quantitative TaqMan PCR: correlating single detection and quantity of HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage fluids with cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Christopher

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the utility of a single quantitative PCR (qPCR measurement of HSV (HSV-1&2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from women with predominantly chronic HSV-2 infection in assessing genital HSV shedding and the clinical course of genital herpes (GH within a cohort with semiannual schedule of follow up and collection of specimens. Methods Two previously described methods used for detection of HSV DNA in mucocutaneous swab samples were adapted for quantification of HSV DNA in CVLs. Single CVL specimens from 509 women were tested. Presence and quantity of CVL HSV DNA were explored in relation to observed cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical data. Results The PCR assay was sensitive and reproducible with a limit of quantification of ~50 copies per milliliter of CVL. Overall, 7% of the samples were positive for HSV-2 DNA with median log10 HSV-2 DNA copy number of 3.9 (IQR: 2.6-5.7. No HSV-1 was detected. Presence and quantity of HSV-2 DNA in CVL directly correlated with the clinical signs and symptoms of presence of active symptomatic disease with frequent recurrences. Conclusion Single qPCR measurement of HSV DNA in CVL fluids of women with chronic HSV-2 infection provided useful information for assessing GH in the setting of infrequent sampling of specimens. Observed positive correlation of the presence and quantity of HSV-2 DNA with the presence of active and more severe course of HSV-2 infection may have clinical significance in the evaluation and management of HSV-2 infected patients.

  8. Relación entre el herpes simple tipo 2 y las lesiones preinvasivas de cuello uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenddy Carrero

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la presencia y relación del virus herpes simple tipo 2 (VHS-2 en mujeres con diferentes grados de lesiones preinvasivas de cuello uterino. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron 176 mujeres con lesiones preinvasivas de cuello uterino y 40 mujeres como grupo control con cuello uterino sano, que asistieron a la consulta ginecológica en diferentes centros de salud, durante los años 2002-2005 en Maracaibo-Venezuela. A las pacientes se les tomó un hisopado del exocervix y una biopsia dirigida del sitio de la lesión por colposcopía. La determinación de VHS-2 se realizó a través de inmunofluorescencia directa. Resultados: La presencia de infección por VHS-2 fue 44 /176 (25%. El mayor número de VHS-2 se obtuvo en las pacientes con grado de lesión tipo NIC II (66,7%. El mayor porcentaje de infección por VHS-2 se determinó en las pacientes que iniciaron sus relaciones sexuales entre los 15 y 20 años (34,5%, las relaciones sexuales diarias (50%, así como relaciones de tipo orogenital fueron consideradas las conductas de mayor riesgo para adquirir la infección. Conclusiones: No se evidenció una relación directa entre VHS-2 y la presencia de cáncer. Los factores de riesgo asociados con la infección son similares a otras ITS, y están ligados con la conducta sexual y hábitos propios del individuo.

  9. Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide. Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected genitally with HSV, and most of them are unaware of this. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is HSV disease in the newborn. Although neonatal HSV infections remain uncommon, due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, HSV infection in the newborn is often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. This review summarizes the epidemiology and management of neonatal HSV infections and discusses strategies to prevent HSV infection in the newborn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Herpes simplex virus infections, an update for the practitioner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Pascal

    2011-04-27

    The herpesviruses HSV-1 and -2 classically infect the oral and genital area respectively. They descend from a common ancestor but have evolved separately since several million years, getting each adapted to these areas. Thus, while both can infect either site, HSV-1 reactivates often orally, while HSV-2 does so in the genital area. The followings facts are stressed, because we think they are new, or worth attention regarding HSV epidemiology (plateauing of the HSV-2 epidemic in the US, growing share of HSV-1 as a genital herpes agent), clinical expression (extra-oral and extra-genital lesions, severity of gingivostomatitis), diagnosis (confusing herpes and zoster in the trigeminal and sacral areas) and treatment (relative worth of suppressive and episodic treatments of genital herpes, as well as shortening of these latter, and treatment of gingivostomatitis and herpes labialis).

  11. Health care seeking among men with genital ulcer disease in South Africa: correlates and relationship to human immunodeficiency virus-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 detection and shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Lewis, David A; Sternberg, Maya; Habel, Melissa A; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2011-09-01

    Episodic acyclovir therapy has been added to genital ulcer disease (GUD) syndromic management guidelines in several sub-Saharan African countries with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics. We examined the correlates of health care seeking in men with GUD and its relationship to HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 outcomes. Men with GUD (n = 615) were recruited from primary health care clinics in Gauteng province, South Africa for a randomized controlled trial of episodic acyclovir therapy. We used baseline survey and sexually transmitted infection/HIV-testing data to examine delay in health care seeking (defined as time from ulcer recognition to baseline study visit). Median delay in health care seeking for GUD was 5 days, and one-quarter of men had previously sought care for the current ulcer. Previous care seekers were older, had more episodes of ulceration in the past year, and were more likely to test seropositive for HIV-1 and HSV-2. Delay in health care seeking was significantly associated with age, education level, and sex during the ulceration episode. Delays in care seeking were related to poorer HIV-1 outcomes; these findings were valid after controlling for advanced HIV. Interventions to help shorten the duration between ulcer recognition and health care seeking for men with GUD are needed.

  12. Neonatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnest, G; de la Fuente Fonnest, I; Weber, Tom

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent neonatal herpes, women in labor with genital herpes infection are still delivered by Cesarean section. This policy is currently being debated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal herpes in Denmark and to evaluate the prevention practice. METHODS...... herpes recurrence. Four infants had a serious infection in spite of Cesarean section. This study does not support a policy of Cesarean section in case of maternal recurrent herpes simplex infection at delivery.......BACKGROUND: To prevent neonatal herpes, women in labor with genital herpes infection are still delivered by Cesarean section. This policy is currently being debated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal herpes in Denmark and to evaluate the prevention practice. METHODS......: All newborns with perinatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991 were identified from hospital-records. RESULTS: Of 862,298 deliveries 136 possible cases were found but only 30 (22%) fulfilled the criteria for neonatal herpes. The incidence increased from 2.36 to 4.56 per 100,000 live births during 1977...

  13. Neonatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnest, G; de la Fuente Fonnest, I; Weber, Tom

    1997-01-01

    : All newborns with perinatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991 were identified from hospital-records. RESULTS: Of 862,298 deliveries 136 possible cases were found but only 30 (22%) fulfilled the criteria for neonatal herpes. The incidence increased from 2.36 to 4.56 per 100,000 live births during 1977...... herpes recurrence. Four infants had a serious infection in spite of Cesarean section. This study does not support a policy of Cesarean section in case of maternal recurrent herpes simplex infection at delivery.......BACKGROUND: To prevent neonatal herpes, women in labor with genital herpes infection are still delivered by Cesarean section. This policy is currently being debated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal herpes in Denmark and to evaluate the prevention practice. METHODS...

  14. The Changing Epidemiology of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection: The Associated Effects on the Incidence of Ocular Herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedi Kiasari, B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with a worldwide distribution has been reported in all human populations, resulting in a clinical spectrum of infections. Although HSV type 2 (HSV-2 is known as the most common cause of genital herpes, an increasing number of cases with genital herpes are caused by HSV-1. The present study aimed to discuss the changes in the epidemiology of HSV-1 infection including the decline in the general incidence of HSV-1 infection in childhood and the increased rate of genital herpes, caused by HSV-1. Moreover, changes in the epidemiology of ocular herpes, i.e., the reduced rate of primary ocular herpes in children and increased incidence of ocular HSV infection in adults, were discussed.

  15. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calore Edenilson Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid insufficiency. After a few days of hospitalization she was treated with Aciclovir and later with Ganciclovir. An open pulmonary biopsy revealed an interstitial inflammation, localized in the alveolar walls. Some pulmonary arteries had widened walls and focal hyaline degeneration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the nuclei had herpes simplex virus type 2 in many endothelial cells (including vessels with widened walls, macrophages in the alveolar septa and pneumocytes. There was clinical improvement after treatment for herpes. We concluded that as a consequence of herpes infection, endothelial involvement and interstitial inflammation supervene, with thickening of vascular walls and partial obliteration of the vessel lumen. A direct consequence of these changes in pulmonary vasculature was pulmonary hypertension followed by heart failure.

  16. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    Full Text Available Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid insufficiency. After a few days of hospitalization she was treated with Aciclovir and later with Ganciclovir. An open pulmonary biopsy revealed an interstitial inflammation, localized in the alveolar walls. Some pulmonary arteries had widened walls and focal hyaline degeneration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the nuclei had herpes simplex virus type 2 in many endothelial cells (including vessels with widened walls, macrophages in the alveolar septa and pneumocytes. There was clinical improvement after treatment for herpes. We concluded that as a consequence of herpes infection, endothelial involvement and interstitial inflammation supervene, with thickening of vascular walls and partial obliteration of the vessel lumen. A direct consequence of these changes in pulmonary vasculature was pulmonary hypertension followed by heart failure.

  17. Dual-strain genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in the US, Peru, and 8 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: A nested cross-sectional viral genotyping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Magaret, Amalia; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Greninger, Alexander L; Reeves, Daniel; Schiffer, Joshua; Jerome, Keith R; Sather, Cassandra; Diem, Kurt; Lingappa, Jairam R; Celum, Connie; Koelle, David M; Wald, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative estimation of the extent to which the immune system's protective effect against one herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection protects against infection with additional HSV-2 strains is important for understanding the potential for HSV-2 vaccine development. Using viral genotyping, we estimated the prevalence of HSV-2 dual-strain infection and identified risk factors. People with and without HIV infection participating in HSV-2 natural history studies (University of Washington Virology Research Clinic) and HIV prevention trials (HIV Prevention Trials Network 039 and Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study) in the US, Africa, and Peru with 2 genital specimens each containing ≥105 copies herpes simplex virus DNA/ml collected a median of 5 months apart (IQR: 2-11 months) were included. It is unlikely that 2 strains would be detected in the same sample simultaneously; therefore, 2 samples were required to detect dual-strain infection. We identified 85 HSV-2 SNPs that, in aggregate, could determine whether paired HSV-2 strains were the same or different with >90% probability. These SNPs were then used to create a customized high-throughput array-based genotyping assay. Participants were considered to be infected with more than 1 strain of HSV-2 if their samples differed by ≥5 SNPs between the paired samples, and dual-strain infection was confirmed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). We genotyped pairs of genital specimens from 459 people; 213 (46%) were men, the median age was 34 years (IQR: 27-44), and 130 (28%) were HIV seropositive. Overall, 272 (59%) people were from the US, 59 (13%) were from Peru, and 128 (28%) were from 8 countries in Africa. Of the 459 people, 18 (3.9%) met the criteria for dual-strain infection. HTS and phylogenetic analysis of paired specimens confirmed shedding of 2 distinct HSV-2 strains collected at different times in 17 pairs, giving an estimated dual-strain infection prevalence of 3.7% (95% CI = 2

  18. Dual-strain genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection in the US, Peru, and 8 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: A nested cross-sectional viral genotyping study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Johnston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative estimation of the extent to which the immune system's protective effect against one herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection protects against infection with additional HSV-2 strains is important for understanding the potential for HSV-2 vaccine development. Using viral genotyping, we estimated the prevalence of HSV-2 dual-strain infection and identified risk factors.People with and without HIV infection participating in HSV-2 natural history studies (University of Washington Virology Research Clinic and HIV prevention trials (HIV Prevention Trials Network 039 and Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study in the US, Africa, and Peru with 2 genital specimens each containing ≥105 copies herpes simplex virus DNA/ml collected a median of 5 months apart (IQR: 2-11 months were included. It is unlikely that 2 strains would be detected in the same sample simultaneously; therefore, 2 samples were required to detect dual-strain infection. We identified 85 HSV-2 SNPs that, in aggregate, could determine whether paired HSV-2 strains were the same or different with >90% probability. These SNPs were then used to create a customized high-throughput array-based genotyping assay. Participants were considered to be infected with more than 1 strain of HSV-2 if their samples differed by ≥5 SNPs between the paired samples, and dual-strain infection was confirmed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS. We genotyped pairs of genital specimens from 459 people; 213 (46% were men, the median age was 34 years (IQR: 27-44, and 130 (28% were HIV seropositive. Overall, 272 (59% people were from the US, 59 (13% were from Peru, and 128 (28% were from 8 countries in Africa. Of the 459 people, 18 (3.9% met the criteria for dual-strain infection. HTS and phylogenetic analysis of paired specimens confirmed shedding of 2 distinct HSV-2 strains collected at different times in 17 pairs, giving an estimated dual-strain infection prevalence of 3.7% (95% CI = 2

  19. Dual-strain genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in the US, Peru, and 8 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: A nested cross-sectional viral genotyping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Joshua; Sather, Cassandra; Diem, Kurt; Celum, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Background Quantitative estimation of the extent to which the immune system’s protective effect against one herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection protects against infection with additional HSV-2 strains is important for understanding the potential for HSV-2 vaccine development. Using viral genotyping, we estimated the prevalence of HSV-2 dual-strain infection and identified risk factors. Methods and findings People with and without HIV infection participating in HSV-2 natural history studies (University of Washington Virology Research Clinic) and HIV prevention trials (HIV Prevention Trials Network 039 and Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study) in the US, Africa, and Peru with 2 genital specimens each containing ≥105 copies herpes simplex virus DNA/ml collected a median of 5 months apart (IQR: 2–11 months) were included. It is unlikely that 2 strains would be detected in the same sample simultaneously; therefore, 2 samples were required to detect dual-strain infection. We identified 85 HSV-2 SNPs that, in aggregate, could determine whether paired HSV-2 strains were the same or different with >90% probability. These SNPs were then used to create a customized high-throughput array-based genotyping assay. Participants were considered to be infected with more than 1 strain of HSV-2 if their samples differed by ≥5 SNPs between the paired samples, and dual-strain infection was confirmed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). We genotyped pairs of genital specimens from 459 people; 213 (46%) were men, the median age was 34 years (IQR: 27–44), and 130 (28%) were HIV seropositive. Overall, 272 (59%) people were from the US, 59 (13%) were from Peru, and 128 (28%) were from 8 countries in Africa. Of the 459 people, 18 (3.9%) met the criteria for dual-strain infection. HTS and phylogenetic analysis of paired specimens confirmed shedding of 2 distinct HSV-2 strains collected at different times in 17 pairs, giving an estimated dual-strain infection

  20. Atypical extensive genital ulcer in full blown aids with slim disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct immunofluorescence detection on genital ulcer scraping was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum. Furthermore, the infections with Haemophilus ducreyi and Chlamydia trachomatis were excluded by PCR on genital swabs.Genital PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2.

  1. Coexistência de pênfigo vulgar e infecção pelo vírus herpes simples na mucosa oral Coexistence of pemphigus vulgaris and herpes simplex virus infection in oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Milagres

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O pênfigo vulgar é uma doença mucocutânea, imunomediada, caracterizada por lesões vesiculobolhosas, enquanto a infecção pelo vírus herpes simples (HSV é comum na cavidade oral. A coexistência das duas doenças tem sido relatada por alguns autores. Este artigo relata o caso de um paciente com múltiplas lesões em várias áreas da mucosa oral, cujo procedimento foi raspagem e biópsia incisional, que resultou no diagnóstico de pênfigo vulgar associado à infecção pelo HSV. Destaca-se a inusitada associação das doenças e a identificação citopatológica de duas populações celulares com aspectos morfológicos distintos e característicos, capazes de determinar o correto diagnóstico, sendo fundamental para a conduta e terapêutica adequada.Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease, characterized by vesiculobullous lesions. Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is common in the oral cavity and the coexistence of pemphigus vulgaris and HSV infection has been reported by some authors. In this work, we report a case of a patient with multiple lesions involving several areas of the oral mucous membrane. Based on scraping cytology and incisional biopsy findings, the diagnosis was pemphigus vulgaris associated with HSV infection. We call attention to the uncommon association of both diseases and the cytological identification of two cell populations with different and characteristic morphological aspects, able enough to establish the correct diagnosis and define an appropriate therapeutic approach.

  2. Comparison of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of genital herpes vaccine candidates herpes simplex virus 2 dl5-29 and dl5-29-41L in mice and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yo; Pesnicak, Lesley; Dowdell, Kennichi C; Lacayo, Juan; Dudek, Timothy; Knipe, David M; Straus, Stephen E; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2008-07-29

    A replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 vaccine, dl5-29, which is deleted for two essential early genes, UL5 and UL29, is highly immunogenic and protective in mice and guinea pigs. In a prior study, a derivative of HSV-2 dl5-29 termed dl5-29-41L, which has an additional deletion in UL41 (that encodes the virion-host shut-off protein), was more immunogenic and protective against challenge with wild-type HSV-2 in mice when compared with dl5-29. To determine if deletion of UL41 improves the efficacy of dl5-29 in protecting guinea pigs from HSV-2, animals were immunized with dl5-29, dl5-29-41L, or PBS. The geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers from the dl5-29 and dl5-29-41L recipients were comparable (10(1.97) and 10(2.19), respectively, p=0.15). After intravaginal challenge with wild-type HSV-2, the dl5-29-41L and dl5-29 recipients shed similar titers of HSV-2 from the vagina. Mean acute disease severity scores, numbers of recurrences during 3 months after infection, and latent viral loads in sacral ganglia were similar for dl5-29 and dl5-29-41L (all p values >0.05). dl5-29 and dl5-29-41L completely protected mice from lethal challenge with HSV-2 and induced virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in the spleens of the animals. Thus, dl5-29 was as immunogenic and protective as dl5-29-41L under these conditions. dl5-29 was at least 250,000-fold less virulent than parental virus by intracranial inoculation in healthy mice, and caused no disease in SCID mice. Both dl5-29-41L and dl5-29 are equally effective and immunogenic in guinea pigs, and dl5-29 is very safe in immunocompromised animals.

  3. Dorsal longitudinal foreskin cut is associated with reduced risk of HIV, syphilis and genital herpes in men: a cross-sectional study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Andrew J; MacLaren, David; David, Matthew; Toliman, Pamela; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Toto, Ben; Tommbe, Rachael; Kombati, Zure; Kaima, Petronia; Browne, Kelwyn; Manineng, Clement; Simeon, Lalen; Ryan, Claire; Wand, Handan; Hill, Peter; Law, Greg; Siba, Peter M; McBride, W John H; Kaldor, John M

    2017-04-03

    Various forms of penile foreskin cutting are practised in Papua New Guinea. In the context of an ecological association observed between HIV infection and the dorsal longitudinal foreskin cut, we undertook an investigation of this relationship at the individual level. We conducted a cross-sectional study among men attending voluntary confidential HIV counselling and testing clinics. Following informed consent, participants had a face-to-face interview and an examination to categorize foreskin status. HIV testing was conducted on site and relevant specimens collected for laboratory-based Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2), syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) testing. Overall, 1073 men were enrolled: 646 (60.2%) were uncut; 339 (31.6%) had a full dorsal longitudinal cut; 72 (6.7%) a partial dorsal longitudinal cut; and 14 (1.3%) were circumcised. Overall, the prevalence of HIV was 12.3%; HSV-2, 33.6%; active syphilis, 12.1%; CT, 13.4%; NG, 14.1%; and TV 7.6%. Compared with uncut men, men with a full dorsal longitudinal cut were significantly less likely to have HIV (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 0.25, 95%CI: 0.12, 0.51); HSV-2 (adjOR 0.60, 95%CI: 0.41, 0.87); or active syphilis (adjOR 0.55, 95%CI: 0.31, 0.96). This apparent protective effect was restricted to men cut prior to sexual debut. There was no difference between cut and uncut men for CT, NG or TV. In this large cross-sectional study, men with a dorsal longitudinal foreskin cut were significantly less likely to have HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis compared with uncut men, despite still having a complete (albeit morphologically altered) foreskin. The protective effect of the dorsal cut suggests that the mechanism by which male circumcision works is not simply due to the removal of the inner foreskin and its more easily accessible HIV target cells. Exposure of the penile glans and inner foreskin appear to be key mechanisms by which male circumcision confers

  4. The negative association between a history of recurrent herpes labialis and cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, M. P.; Wilterdink, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    We considered the possibility that herpetic recurrences and herpes virus associated neoplasia are mutually exclusive disorders because they are expressions of different herpes virus-host relationships. We assumed that the human body copes with orofacial and genital herpes infections in the same

  5. [Management of pregnant women with recurrent herpes. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynecologists, Obstetricians (CNGOF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselem, O

    2017-12-01

    To provide guidelines for the management of woman with genital herpes during pregnancy or labor and with known history of genital herpes. MedLine and Cochrane Library databases search and review of the main foreign guidelines. Genital herpes ulceration during pregnancy in a woman with history of genital herpes correspond to a recurrence. In this situation, there is no need for virologic confirmation (Grade B). In case of recurrent herpes during pregnancy, antiviral therapy with acyclovir or valacyclovir can be administered but provide low efficiency on duration and severity of symptoms (Grade C). Antiviral treatment proposed is acyclovir (200mg 5 times daily) or valacyclovir (500mg twice daily) for 5 to 10 days (Grade C). Recurrent herpes is associated with a risk of neonatal herpes around 1% (LE3). Antiviral prophylaxis should be offered for women with recurrent genital herpes during pregnancy from 36 weeks of gestation and until delivery (Grade B). There is no evidence of the benefit of prophylaxis in case or recurrence only before the pregnancy. There is no recommendation for systematic prophylaxis for women with history of recurrent genital herpes and no recurrence during the pregnancy. At the onset of labor, virologic testing is indicated only in case of genital ulceration (Professional consensus). In case of recurrent genital herpes at the onset of labor, cesarean delivery will be all the more considered if the membranes are intact and/or in case of prematurity and/or in case of HIV positive woman and vaginal delivery will be all the more considered in case of prolonged rupture of membranes after 37 weeks of gestation in an HIV negative woman (Professional consensus). In case of recurrent genital herpes at the onset of labor and intact membranes, cesarean delivery should be considered. In case of recurrent genital herpes and prolonged rupture of membranes at term, the benefit of cesarean delivery is more questionable and vaginal delivery should be considered

  6. Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital warts? ... Notice Language Assistance Available Accessibility Privacy Policy Disclaimers Freedom of Information Act ... A federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  7. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameeta Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2 cause genital herpes infections and are the most common cause of genital ulcer disease in industrialized nations. Although these infections are very common, the majority of them remain underdiagnosed because they are asymptomatic or unrecognized. A clinical diagnosis of genital herpes should always be confirmed by laboratory testing; this can be accomplished through the use of direct tests for viral isolation, the detection of antigen or, more recently, the detection of HSV DNA using molecular diagnostic techniques. Testing for serotypes is recommended because of the different prognostic and counselling implications. Type-specific HSV serology is becoming more readily available and will enhance the ability to make the diagnosis and guide clinical management in select patients.

  8. Neonatal herpes infections in The Netherlands in the period 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelaar, Steffannie J A L; Poeran, Jashvant; Steegers, Eric A P; van der Meijden, Willem I

    2015-05-01

    To monitor the incidence of neonatal herpes in The Netherlands between 2006 and 2011, as well as the adherence to the rather conservative Dutch prevention policy. Questionnaires were sent to all virology laboratories (n = 44), gynaecology and paediatrics departments of all hospitals in The Netherlands (n = 89). Questionnaires for the laboratories pertained to rates of proven cases of neonatal herpes; for the gynaecologists and paediatricians it pertained to rates of genital herpes during pregnancy and neonatal herpes, and their policy. For gynaecologists this concerned the risk of herpes simplex virus transmission in case of primary genital herpes during pregnancy or labour; for paediatricians it concerned the diagnostic policy in a neonate suspected of neonatal herpes. For the period 2006-2011 38 cases of neonatal herpes were reported, yielding an incidence of 4.7 per 100,000 births. The estimated annual number of pregnant women with primary or recurrent genital herpes was 278. Of the responding gynaecologists and paediatricians, only 59% and up to 39%, respectively, reported a policy in accordance with the national guideline. The incidence of neonatal herpes in The Netherlands seems to have increased in the period 2006-2011. Combined with suboptimal guideline adherence this warrants strategies to improve awareness and subsequent adherence.

  9. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in the Netherlands : seroprevalence, risk factors and changes during a 12-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J; Tjhie, Jeroen H T; de Melker, Hester E; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Bergen, Jan E A M; van der Sande, Marianne A B; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital herpes results in considerable morbidity, including risk of neonatal herpes, and is increasingly being caused by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1. Possibly children are less often HSV-1 infected, leaving them susceptible until sexual debut. We assessed changes in the Dutch HSV-1

  11. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in the Netherlands: seroprevalence, risk factors and changes during a 12-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; Tjhie, Jeroen H. T.; de Melker, Hester E.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes results in considerable morbidity, including risk of neonatal herpes, and is increasingly being caused by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1. Possibly children are less often HSV-1 infected, leaving them susceptible until sexual debut. We assessed changes in the Dutch HSV-1 and HSV-2

  12. Pediatric herpes simplex virus infections: an evidence-based approach to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jennifer E; Garcia, Sylvia E

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a common virus that causes a variety of clinical presentations ranging from mild to life-threatening. Orolabial and genital herpes are common disorders that can often be managed in an outpatient setting; however, some patients do present to the emergency department with those conditions, and emergency clinicians should be aware of possible complications in the pediatric population. Neonatal herpes is a rare disorder, but prompt recognition and initiation of antiviral therapy is imperative, as the morbidity and mortality of the disease is high. Herpes encephalitis is an emergency that also requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose. Herpes simplex virus is also responsible for a variety of other clinical presentations, including herpes gladiatorum, herpetic whitlow, eczema herpeticum, and ocular herpes. This issue reviews the common clinical presentations of the herpes simplex virus, the life-threatening infections that require expedient identification and management, and recommended treatment regimens.

  13. [Clinical, epidemiological, and etiological studies of adult aseptic meningitis: a report of 12 cases of herpes simplex meningitis, and a comparison with cases of herpes simplex encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Takahiro; Shiga, Yuji; Takeshima, Shinichi; Tachiyama, Keisuke; Kamimura, Teppei; Kono, Ryuhei; Takemaru, Makoto; Takeshita, Jun; Shimoe, Yutaka; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2018-01-26

    We treated 437 cases of adult aseptic meningitis and 12 cases (including 2 recurrent patients; age, 31.8 ± 8.9 years; 7 females) of herpes simplex meningitis from 2004 to 2016. The incidence rate of adult herpes simplex meningitis in the cases with aseptic meningitis was 2.7%. One patient was admitted during treatment of genital herpes, but no association was observed between genital herpes and herpes simplex meningitis in the other cases. The diagnoses were confirmed in all cases as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-DNA. For diagnosis confirmation, the DNA test was useful after 2-7 days following initial disease onset. Among other types of aseptic meningitis, the patients with herpes simplex meningitis showed relatively high white blood cell counts and relatively high CSF protein and high CSF cell counts. CSF cells showed mononuclear cell dominance from the initial stage of the disease. During same period, we also experienced 12 cases of herpes simplex encephalitis and 21 cases of non-hepatic acute limbic encephalitis. Notably, the patients with herpes simplex meningitis were younger and their CSF protein and cells counts were higher than those of the patients with herpes simplex encephalitis.

  14. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  15. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Somesh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  16. Apparent rarity of asymptomatic herpes cervicitis in a woman with intra-uterine contraceptive device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Fowotade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV remains a common viral sexually transmitted disease, often subclinical and a major worldwide problem of women of reproductive age group. Herpes cervicitis is an unusual presentation of Herpes simplex virus infection in females. The finding of herpes cervicitis on routine pap smear of an asymptomatic woman on Intrauterine contraceptive device still further supports the need for increased awareness on the possibility of Herpes simplex virus infection among women, particularly those on Intrauterine contraceptive device. The index case is a 28 years old Nigerian female who was referred to our Special Treatment Clinic on account of an abnormal pap smear cytology which was in keeping with Herpes cervicitis. There was no history of genital ulcer in this patient; however ELISA for HSV 2 IgM was positive in her. We therefore describe a case of herpes cervicitis in an asymptomatic woman on intrauterine contraceptive device. This case highlights to clinicians the need to be aware of the possibility of this association and to carry out relevant investigations so as to identify and treat these patients appropriately. Therefore, there is a need to put in place adequate public health intervention strategy to prevent genital herpes in women of reproductive age group with a view to preventing the possibility of congenital herpes in subsequent pregnancy.

  17. Herpes: a dilemma for client and clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, B J; Poteet, G W

    1987-01-01

    In the last 10 years genital herpes simplex has reached epidemic proportions, affecting 5 million Americans, with 500,000 new cases yearly. The incidence is highest among middle and upper socioeconomic groups and among whites. There are 2 antigenically distinct strains of the herpes simplex virus, and type II is the cause of 85% of the genital infections. The virus has an affinity for tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm -- skin, mucous membranes, eye, and central nervous system. Transmission is by personal contact with an infected area. The clinical course of the disease involves 4 stages. In the primary stage the typical lesions are vesicles, which rupture, leaving painful shallow ulcerations. The primary stage lasts from 2 to 4 weeks with approximately 10 days of viral shedding. In the latent stage the virus lies dormant in the sacral ganglion and is noninfectious. In the shedding stage the virus replicates and sheds in genital secretions. The recurrent stage is characterized by prodromal itching or tingling sensations prior to the eruption of the vesicles and by neuralgia. Recurrence occurs as often as 4 to 7 times a year and lasts from 7 to 10 days, with viral shedding for 4 or 5 days. Definitive diagnosis can be made from viral tissue culture or the Tzanck and Papanicolaou smears. There is no cure for herpes although acyclovir has been found to shorten the duration of the episodes. Except for pregnancy complications, the most serious complications of recurrent genital herpes are psychological. The disease is socially stigmatizing and inhibits sexual activity. The nurse should provide supportive care, information about the transmission and symptoms of the disease, and counseling as to precautions to take, such as condom and spermicide use, avoidance of oral sex, abstention when lesions are present, and limiting sex to one partner.

  18. Pesquisa do vírus herpes simples na saliva de pacientes com paralisia facial periférica de Bell Herpes simplex virus in the saliva of peripheral Bell’s palsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Lazarini

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os primeiros herpes-vírus a serem descritos foram os tipos 1 e 2, cuja denominação é herpes simplex 1 e 2 ou HSV-1 e HSV-2. Estes vírus possuem características biológicas particulares, tais como a capacidade de causar diferentes tipos de doenças, assim como estabelecer infecções latentes ou persistentes por toda a vida dos hospedeiros e de serem reativados causando lesões que podem se localizar no sítio da infecção primária inicial ou próxima a ele. Postula-se que a reativação deste vírus no gânglio geniculado esteja relacionada com a paralisia de Bell. Nesta situação, os vírus, que estariam latentes neste gânglio, sofreriam reativação e replicação difundindo-se pelo nervo facial e seus ramos, dentre eles o nervo corda do tímpano, que ao estimular a secreção salivar possibilitaria a identificação do DNA viral na saliva dos pacientes. Até recentemente, um grande número de pacientes eram diagnosticados como portadores de uma forma desta paralisia, chamada de idiopática ou de paralisia de Bell. Com o advento da técnica de estudo do DNA viral pelo método da reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR, diversos autores encontraram DNA do vírus herpes simplex tipo I no líquido cefalorraquidiano, na secreção lacrimal, na saliva e nos gânglios geniculados de pacientes com paralisia de Bell. OBJETIVO: observar a prevalência do vírus herpes simplex tipo I pela técnica de PCR, na saliva de pacientes com PFP de Bell, relacionando-a com a evolução clínica destes casos. METODOLOGIA: Avaliamos 38 pacientes portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica de Bell, que foram submetidos a anamnese, exame médico geral e otorrinolaringológico e coleta de saliva para detecção do DNA viral pela técnica de PCR. O grupo controle correspondeu a 10 adultos normais. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos positividade para o DNA viral em 11 casos dos 38 avaliados, o que corresponde a 29% da amostra. Este resultado foi estatisticamente significante

  19. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Herpes simplex virus type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    momtaz

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the main cause of recurrent genital infection (Slomka, 1996). Most infections are asymptomatic. The virus establishes latent infection in the local ganglia and is reactivated and shed frequently. Antibodies to HSV infections become detectable in serum samples (Koelle ...

  20. [Characteristics and role of the gluteal herpes in a female population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M; Saavedra, T; Briones, H

    1989-01-01

    Based on the fact that the gluteal herpes may constitute the clinical expression of the reactivation of a Herpes simplex virus latent at the sacral lymph node, we investigated a group of women who were carriers of gluteal herpetic infection, the characteristics of the infection, the virus type principally associated to it, and its possible relation with the genital herpes. Forty one women with gluteal herpes verified by virologic laboratory were studied. 75.7% of these women had had in addition to this herpetic infection in other places, mainly genital, with an average of 7.2 of recurrent episodes per year, (range: 1 to 18 episodes yearly). 78% of the isolated virus was typified as HSV-2 by the use of monoclonal antibodies. It is stand out the importance of considering the background of gluteal herpes as causative of classification of herpetic high risk.

  1. Update on Neonatal Herpes Simplex Epidemiology in the Netherlands: A Health Problem of Increasing Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oeffelen, Louise; Biekram, Manisha; Poeran, Jashvant; Hukkelhoven, Chantal; Galjaard, Sander; van der Meijden, Wim; Op de Coul, Eline

    2018-01-18

    This paper provides an update on the incidence of neonatal herpes, guideline adherence by health care professionals (HCP), and trends in genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were sent to all hospitals inquiring about numbers and characteristics of neonatal and maternal HSV infections, and guideline adherence between 2012 and 2015. Longitudinal trends were investigated from 1999 onwards using survey data and Perinatal Registry of the Netherlands data (Perined). Trends were smoothed with Poisson regression splines. Risk indicators for neonatal and maternal HSV infections were examined with Poisson regression analyses. Neonatal herpes incidence was 4.8/100,000 live births based on survey data (2012-2015) and 3.4/100,000 based on Perined (2012-2014). Mortality rate was 23% (7/30). Neonatal herpes incidence increased slightly over time as did the prevalence of genital HSV infection among pregnant women. Non-Western ethnicity (RR 1.9, 95%CI 1.5-2.5) and age herpes during pregnancy. In Perined, none of the neonatal herpes cases had a mother diagnosed with an active genital herpes infection during pregnancy. Preventive measures to reduce vertical herpes transmission (such as caesarean section) were less commonly reported by HCP in 2012-2015 compared to 2006-2011. Neonatal herpes incidence in the Netherlands slowly increased over the last 15 years. An increased genital HSV prevalence during pregnancy or, to lower extent, the decreased guideline adherence by HCP may be responsible. A rise in asymptomatic maternal HSV shedding is also plausible, emphasizing the challenges in preventing neonatal herpes.

  2. Validity of genito-urinary discharges, genital ulcers and genital rashes as indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Iche Kalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings.

  3. The Challenges and Opportunities for Development of a T-Cell Epitope-Based Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a half billion individuals worldwide. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. HSV-1 infections are more prevalent than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. While genital herpes in mainly caused by HSV-2 infections, in recent years, there is an increase in the proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 infections in young adults, which reach 50% in some western societies. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries their development has been notoriously difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One “common denominator” among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or whole viral proteins, which contain both pathogenic “symptomatic” and protective “asymptomatic” antigens/epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate that using an “asymptomatic” epitope-based vaccine strategy that selectively incorporates protective epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized, in vitro, by effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells from “naturally” protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect, in vivo, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models from ocular and genital herpes infections and diseases, could be the answer to many of the scientific challenges facing HSV vaccine

  4. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...

  5. Identification of ribonucleotide reductase mutation causing temperature-sensitivity of herpes simplex virus isolates from whitlow by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Tohru; Oyama, Yukari; Yajima, Misako; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Shimada, Yuka; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Miwa, Naoko; Okuda, Tomoko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 caused a genital ulcer, and a secondary herpetic whitlow appeared during acyclovir therapy. The secondary and recurrent whitlow isolates were acyclovir-resistant and temperature-sensitive in contrast to a genital isolate. We identified the ribonucleotide reductase mutation responsible for temperature-sensitivity by deep-sequencing analysis.

  6. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth / For Teens / Genital Warts (HPV) What's in ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  7. Avaliação da Soroprevalência dos Vírus Herpes Simples Tipos 1 e 2 em Parturientes Seroprevalence Evaluation of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 Among Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho Paschoini

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar a soroprevalência da infecção causada pelo HSV-2 entre as parturientes do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (HCFMRP-USP e padronizar técnicas laboratoriais para atender a este propósito. Métodos: foram avaliadas 1.500 amostras de sangue de parturientes atendidas no Centro Obstétrico do Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do HCFMRP-USP, entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de outubro de 1996. Para determinar a real prevalência da infecção por HSV-2 foi padronizada a técnica de ELISA, verificando-se que esta não apresentava especificidade suficiente para discriminar os dois tipos virais (75%, delineando a necessidade de utilizar-se técnica de maior poder discriminatório. A técnica padronizada para esta finalidade foi o Western blot, capaz de detectar a proteína viral específica do HSV-2. Resultados: a soroprevalência para infecção herpética, pelos dois tipos virais (HSV-1 e HSV-2, foi de 94,5%, utilizando a técnica de ELISA. Com o emprego da técnica de Western blot, encontrou-se a soroprevalência de 31,9% pelo HSV-2 na população avaliada, quer sintomática ou assintomática. Conclusão: verifica-se elevada prevalência do estado de portadora da infecção pelos HSV, evidenciada pelo alto índice de positividade para os anticorpos contra estes vírus. O teste ELISA não mostrou especificidade suficiente para discriminar os anticorpos anti-HSV-2 dos anti-HSV-1.Purpose: to evaluate the seroprevalence of infection caused by HSV-2 among pregnant women delivering at the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (UHFMRP-USP and to standardize laboratory techniques to be used for this purpose. Methods: a total of 1500 blood samples from pregnant women seen at the Obstetric Center of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, UHFMRP-USP, between January 1st and October 31st, 1996, were evaluated. To determine the real prevalence of HSV-2 infection, the ELISA

  8. A expressão da proteína p16 e herpes simples vírus tipo 2 em lesões pré-neoplásicas e neoplásicas do colo do útero

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo,Mila de Moura Behar Pontremoli; Silveira,Gustavo Py Gomes da; Zettler,Cláudio Galeano

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: demonstrar a expressão de biomarcadores, detectados por técnicas de imunohistoquímica, em tecidos sadios, lesões pré-neoplásicas e neoplásicas do colo do útero. MÉTODOS: para avaliação da reatividade imunohistoquímica de tecidos do colo do útero ao p16 e ao herpes simples vírus tipo 2 (HSV-2), foram avaliadas 187 amostras de lesões intra-epiteliais de baixo grau (LIE-BG) e lesões intra-epiteliais de alto grau (LIE-AG) e carcinoma do colo do útero, e comparadas com grupo de pacientes...

  9. Indirect micro-immunofluorescence test for detecting type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, T; Darougar, S

    1980-02-01

    A rapid indirect micro-immunofluorescence test capable of detecting and differentiating type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus is described. The test proved highly sensitive and, in 80 patients with active herpes ocular infection, antibody was detected in 94%. No anti-herpes antibody was detected in a control group of 20 patients with adenovirus infections. Testing of animal sera prepared against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and of human sera from cases of ocular and genital herpes infections showed that the test can differentiate antibodies to the infecting serotypes. Specimens of whole blood, taken by fingerprick, and eye secretions, both collected on cellulose sponges, could be tested by indirect micro-immunofluorescence. Anti-herpes IgG, IgM, and IgA can also be detected.

  10. Herpes Zoster Oticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Herpes Zoster Oticus Information Page Herpes Zoster Oticus Information Page What research is being ... neurotropic viruses and development of neurological diseases including herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses. × What research is ...

  11. Herpes zoster in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K C; Robson, W Lane M; Leong, Alexander G

    2006-01-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus that resides in a dorsal root ganglion. Herpes zoster can develop any time after a primary infection. Because varicella vaccine is a live attenuated virus, herpes zoster can develop in a vaccine recipient. The incidence of herpes zoster among vaccine recipients is about 14 cases per 100,000 person-years. In young children, herpes zoster has a predilection for areas supplied by the cervical and sacral dermatomes. The most common complications are secondary bacterial infection, depigmentation, and scarring. Although the diagnosis of herpes zoster is based on a distinct clinical appearance, viral DNA analysis of the lesion by polymerase chain reaction or restriction fragment length polymorphism is necessary to differentiate wild from vaccine-type viruses. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice for herpes zoster.

  12. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The biology of herpes simplex virus infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baringer, J R

    1976-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a frequent cause of recurrent ocular, oral, genital or cutaneous eruptions in man. Lesions are highly localized and tend to recur at the same site. Among the most consistent factors provoking recurrence is root section of the trigeminal nerve. Clinical and experimental data suggest that herpes simplex virus is commonly resident within the trigeminal ganglia of man, where it may be responsible for recurrent oral or lip lesions, and is less frequently a resident of the second or third sacral ganglia where it might be responsible for genital eruptions. Generally, the trigeminal virus is type 1 and the sacral virus is type 2; the virus is only rarely recoverable from other sensory ganglia. Factors provoking the reactivation from the virus' latent site and the mechanism for reactivation remain largely unknown. Further study is needed to understand the behavior of HSV and other viruses in nervous system tissue.

  14. Herpes Zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 26-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a burning rash over his left axilla and chest that started 2 days prior to presentation. The pain had been steadily worsening and was exacerbated by touch and the rubbing of his clothes over it. Patient denied fevers, chills, or weakness. Patient denied any past medical history, past surgical history or medications. He was unsure of his vaccination history and endorsed having chicken pox as a child. Significant findings: The patient was in mild distress, afebrile, with stable vital signs. His physical exam revealed an erythematous, grouped vesicular rash in various stages of progression including erythematous papules, clear vesicles, and pustular vesicles. Few lesions were scabbed over. No signs of crusting or scarring were appreciated. The distribution encompassed the entire left T4 dermatome both posteriorly and anteriorly. No other rashes were appreciated elsewhere on the body. Discussion: Herpes Zoster (HZ, also known as “shingles,” is a result of the reactivation Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV that emerges from latency in the sensory dorsal root ganglion. The reactivation causes the spreading of a classic rash of group vesicular lesions in various stages along the unilateral sensory dermatomal distribution over the first 3 days. Ulceration and crusting begin to occur after 3-5 days.1 The diagnosis is usually made clinically; however PCR testing of skin lesions is also available to differentiate between VZV, HSV1, and HSV2.2 The incidence of HZ increases with age due to immunosenesacence of cell mediated immunity, with the mean age between 43 and 53 years old.3 An immunocompromised state, due to factors like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, medications, and autoimmune disease, also increases the incidence of HZ.4-6 A routine HIV screening in this patient was negative. He was prescribed oral acyclovir 800 mg, five times per day for five days.

  15. Molecular diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum in patients with genital ulcer disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.D.J.; Moodley, P.; Govender, K.; Bohlken, L.; Vanmali, T.; Sturm, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    The detection of herpes, chancroid, and syphilis in genital ulcers is done by PCR. This is not so for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). We report on the use of a PCR with digestion that differentiates the LGV biovar from the trachoma biovar. Our findings suggest that the clinical description of LGV in

  16. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  17. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  18. Recurrent herpes labialis and HSV-1 herpes genitalis: which is the link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Sergio; Sidoti, Francesca; Ribero, Simone; Dal Conte, Ivano; Curtoni, Antonio; Ciccarese, Giulia; Stroppiana, Elena; Stella, Maria L; Costa, Cristina; Cavallo, Rossana; Rebora, Alfredo; Drago, Francesco

    2017-02-08

    Recently, Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 seroprevalence declined among adolescents, rendering young people lacking HSV-1 antibodies more susceptible to genital HSV-1 acquisition, if sexually exposed. The aim of the present study was to identify the possible risk factors for the development of HSV-1 related herpes genitalis (HG). From January 2012 to December 2015, patients with HG attending three Sexually Transmitted Infections Units in Northern Italy were recruited. A genital swab on the lesions for the search of HSV-1/2 DNA through Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a serum sample for HSV-1/2 specific serology were performed. Moreover, patients were asked whether they had personal history of herpes labialis (HL). Patients with PCR proved HSV-1 HG were included as cases; asymptomatic subjects attending STI Units for a blood check were recruited as controls and were checked for HSV-1/2 serology. 141 cases and 70 controls were enrolled. Specific HSV-1 antibodies were found in 34.7% of the cases and 67% of the controls. History of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) was found in 4% of the cases and 31% of the controls. The occurrence of RHL in HSV-1 seropositive patients resulted lower in the case group compared to the control group. We can speculate about a protective role for RHL against the clinical appearance of HSV-1 HG. The clinical usefulness of our study involved especially the counseling in serodiscordant couples. The presence of HSV-1 antibodies in asymptomatic sexual partners does appear protective for HG manifestation only in presence of RHL history.

  19. Unusual Initial Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus as Inguinal Lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Fleming

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy.

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Enhances HIV-1 Susceptibility by Affecting Langerhans Cell Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; de Witte, Lot; Taylor, Maureen E.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2010-01-01

    Genital herpes is the most prevalent viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide and is mainly caused by HSV type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 infection enhances HIV-1 susceptibility, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigated the effect of HSV-2 on HIV-1 transmission by mucosal

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  2. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffins O Manguro

    Full Text Available Genital ulcer disease (GUD prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART, followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment.At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period.Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation.

  3. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania.Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load.Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load.RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  4. Freqüência das infecções pelo HIV-1, rubéola, sífilis, toxoplasmose, citomegalovírus, herpes simples, hepatite B, hepatite C, doença de Chagas e HTLV I/II em gestantes, do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Frequency of HIV-1, rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, simple herpes virus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Chagas’ disease and HTLV I/II infection in pregnant women of State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Antonio Figueiró-Filho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a freqüência das infecções por sífilis, rubéola, hepatite B, hepatite C, toxoplasmose, doença de Chagas, HTLV I/II, herpes simples, HIV-1 e citomegalovírus em gestantes e relacionar a faixa etária das pacientes com a freqüência das infecções. Estudo transversal de 32.512 gestantes submetidas à triagem pré-natal no período de novembro de 2002 a outubro de 2003. As freqüências encontradas foram de 0,2% para infecção pelo vírus HIV-1, 0,03% para rubéola, 0,8% para sífilis, 0,4% para toxoplasmose, 0,05% para infecção aguda pelo citomegalovírus, 0,02% pelo vírus herpes simples, 0,3% para hepatite B (HBsAg, 0,1% para hepatite C, 0,1% para HTLV I/II e 0,1% para doença de Chagas. Houve associação significativa entre faixa etária e infecções por rubéola, citomegalovírus, doença de Chagas e herpes vírus. As freqüências de rubéola, sífilis, toxoplasmose, doença de Chagas e citomegalovírus nas gestantes encontram-se abaixo dos valores descritos na literatura.It was aimed to estimate the frequency of syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, toxoplasmosis, Chagas’ disease, HTLV I/II, simple herpes virus, HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus in pregnant women and to evaluate the relationship between age and the frequency of the infections studied. A transversal study of 32,512 pregnant women submitted to pre-natal sreening in the period of November 2002 to October 2003. The frequency of the tried infections among the pregnant women were 0.2% of HIV-1, 0.03% of rubella, 0.8% of syphilis, 0.4% of toxoplasmosis, 0.05% of cytomegalovirus, 0.02% of simple herpes virus, 0.3% of HBsAg, 0.1% of hepatitis C, 0.1% of HTLV and 0.1% of Chagas’ disease. There was significative statistical association between age and prenatal infection of rubella, cytomegalovirus, Chagas’ disease and herpes virus. The rates of frequency of rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, Chagas’ disease and cytomegalovirus in pregnant women

  5. Synthetic analogues of bovine bactenecin dodecapeptide reduce herpes simplex virus type 2 infectivity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Shestakov, Andrey; Hancock, Robert E. W

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential of four synthetic peptides (denoted HH-2, 1002, 1006, 1018) with a distant relationship to the host defense peptide bovine bactenecin dodecapeptide for their ability to prevent genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in mice. All four peptides...... infectious doses of HSV-2. These data show that peptides HH-2 and 1018 have antiviral properties and can be used to prevent genital herpes infection in mice. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... was introduced in human semen. Two of the peptides proved especially effective in reducing HSV-2 infection also in vivo. When admixed with virus prior to inoculation, both HH-2 and 1018 reduced viral replication and disease development in a genital model of HSV-2 infection in mice, and also when using very high...

  6. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  7. Pityriasis Lichenoides Chronica Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Javier González Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pityriasis lichenoides is a rare, acquired spectrum of skin conditions of an unknown etiology. Case Report. A 28-year-old man presented with recurrent outbreaks of herpes simplex virus associated with the onset of red-to-brown maculopapules located predominantly in trunk in each recurrence. Positive serologies to herpes simplex virus type 2 were detected. Histopathological examination of one of the lesions was consistent with a diagnosis of pityriasis lichenoides chronica. Discussion. Pityriasis lichenoides is a rare cutaneous entity of an unknown cause which includes different clinical presentations. A number of infectious agents have been implicated based on the clustering of multiple outbreaks and elevated serum titers to specific pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and herpes simplex virus. In our patient, resolution of cutaneous lesions coincided with the administration of antiviral drugs and clinical improvement in each genital herpes recurrence. In conclusion, we report a case in which cutaneous lesions of pityriasis lichenoides chronica and a herpes simplex virus-type 2-mediated disease have evolved concomitantly.

  8. A Study of Associated Factors, Including Genital Herpes, in Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpesvirus hominis antibodies were measured by a kinetic neutralisation test. Among Black patients in the Johannesburg area there is a high incidence of carcinoma of the cervix, and H. hominis type 2 infection. A correlation exists between carcinomas of the cervix on the one hand and antibodies to H. hominis type 2 on ...

  9. Evaluation of mixed infection cases with both herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hisatoshi; Kawana, Takashi; Ishioka, Ken; Ohno, Shigeaki; Aoki, Koki; Suzutani, Tatsuo

    2008-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is isolated principally from the upper half of the body innervated by the trigeminal ganglia whereas herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is generally isolated from the lower half of the body innervated by the sacral ganglia. However, recent reports suggest that HSV-1 and HSV-2 can each infect both the upper and lower half of the body causing a variety of symptoms and there is a possibility that HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections can occur simultaneously with both causing symptoms. HSV type in clinical isolates from 87 patients with genital herpes and 57 with ocular herpes was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and six cases of mixed infection with both HSV-1 and HSV-2 were identified. Of the six cases, three were patients with genital herpes and three were ocular herpes patients. Analysis of the copy number of the HSV-1 and HSV-2 genome by a quantitative real time PCR demonstrated that HSV-1 was dominant at a ratio of approximately 100:1 in the ocular infections. In contrast, the HSV-2 genome was present at a 4-40 times higher frequency in isolates from genital herpes patients. There was no obvious difference between the clinical course of mixed infection and those of single HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. This study indicated that the frequency of mixed infection with both HSV-1 and HSV-2 is comparatively higher than those of previous reports. The genome ratio of HSV-1 and HSV-2 reflects the preference of each HSV type for the target organ.

  10. Chemokine-mediated immune responses in the female genital tract mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruaz, Maud; Luster, Andrew D

    2015-04-01

    The genital tract mucosa is the site where sexually transmitted infections gain entry to the host. The immune response at this site is thus critical to provide innate protection against pathogens that are seen for the very first time as well as provide long-term pathogen-specific immunity, which would be required for an effective vaccine against sexually transmitted infection. A finely regulated immune response is therefore required to provide an effective barrier against pathogens without compromising the capacity of the genital tract to allow for successful conception and fetal development. We review recent developments in our understanding of the immune response in the female genital tract to infectious pathogens, using herpes simplex virus-2, human immunodeficiency virus-1 and Chlamydia trachomatis as examples, with a particular focus on the role of chemokines in orchestrating immune cell migration necessary to achieve effective innate and adaptive immune responses in the female genital tract.

  11. Herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, J.S.; Camenga, D.L.; Glazier, M.C.; Coughlan, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Early institution of therapy with acyclovir is essential for the successful outcome in herpes simplex encephalitis. Brain biopsy remains the only conclusive means of establishing the diagnosis, but many fear possible biobsy complications. Thus, therapy is often instituted when the diagnosis is clinically suspected, even though cerebral computed tomography and other diagnostic studies may be inconclusive. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) has proven to be a sensitive tool for diagnosing presumptive herpes simplex encephalitis. This case presentation demonstrates the superiority of cerebral NMR over computerized tomography for detecting early temporal lobe changes consistent with acute herpes simplex encephalitis

  12. Cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex in humans: lymphocyte cytotoxicity measured by 51Cr release from infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, A.S.; Percy, J.S.; Kovithavongs, T.

    1975-01-01

    We assessed cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus type 1 antigen in patients suffering from recurrent cold sores and in a series of healthy controls. Paradoxically, all those subject to recurrent herpetic infections had, without exception, evidence of cell-mediated immunity to herpes antigens. This was demonstrated by lymphocyte transformation and specific 51 Cr release from infected human amnion cells after incubation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Where performed, skin tests with herpes antigen were also positive. In addition, serum from these patients specifically sensitized herpes virus-infected cells to killing by nonimmune, control mononuclear cells. These tests were negative in the control patients except in a few cases, and it is suggested that these latter may be the asymptomatic herpes virus carriers previously recognized or that they may have experienced a genital infection. (U.S.)

  13. [Meningoradiculitis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, A E; Venema, A W; Veldkamp, K E

    2007-10-27

    A 24-year-old immune-competent woman was admitted to hospital with a three-day history of fever and headache. On examination bilateral facial nerve palsy, lumbosacral radicular pain, reduced sacral sensibility and urinary retention were found. Open perianal lesions were suspect for genital herpes. The symptoms were compatible with a meningoradiculitis including a sacral polyradiculitis. On testing, cerebrospinal fluid was found to be abnormal with a lymphocytic cell reaction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid and of the perianal lesions was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). An MRI scan showed colouration of part of the cauda equina. The patient was treated by intravenous injections of acyclovir 10 mg/kg t.i.d. for 21 days, after which she completely recovered. HSV-2 infection of the nervous system can cause lymphocytic, and sometimes recurrent meningitis as well as sacral polyradiculitis. It may also occur without any symptomatic genital herpes infection. A positive result from a PCR test of the cerebrospinal fluid confirms this diagnosis. Treatment with acyclovir should be started as soon as possible.

  14. Genital male piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body piercing has been practiced for thousands of years all over the world for beautification, religion, initiation rites or status reasons. Genital piercings also have a significant background and have been practiced for enhancing sexual pleasure, chastity, shocking or as a protest against a conservative society. As the popularity of genital piercings increased in the last years, the number of complications is also on the rise. It is therefore important for the medical professionals to have at least basic knowledge regarding this practice, as it might be required in the management of unpredictable complications.

  15. Compromiso vascular en la encefalitis herpética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Cañas

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos el caso de un paciente de 30 años de edad que desarrolla una encefalitis fatal par Herpes simple, en cuyos hallazgos de necropsia se destaca un compromiso vascular cerebral secundario. Se discute In posibilidad de que en la encefalitis herpética pueden presentarse dos tipos de compromiso vascular: uno reconocido desde hace tres décadas, la vasculomielinopatía diseminada, y otro, una forma de vasculitis séptica.

  16. Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalent and Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Looker

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated.We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital.We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440-3878 million aged 0-49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%, with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67-212 million people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific.The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection.

  17. Bovine herpes virus infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj; Manohar, M; Chauhan, R S

    2009-06-01

    Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is primarily associated with clinical syndromes such as rhinotracheitis, pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis, abortion, infertility, conjunctivitis and encephalitis in bovine species. The main sources of infection are the nasal exudates and the respiratory droplets, genital secretions, semen, fetal fluids and tissues. The BHV-1 virus can become latent following a primary infection with a field isolate or vaccination with an attenuated strain. The viral genomic DNA has been demonstrated in the sensory ganglia of the trigeminal nerve in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and in sacral spinal ganglia in pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis cases. BHV-1 infections can be diagnosed by detection of virus or virus components and antibody by serological tests or by detection of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing. Inactivated vaccines and modified live virus vaccines are used for prevention of BHV-1 infections in cattle; subunit vaccines and marker vaccines are under investigation.

  18. Persistent genital arousal disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI...

  19. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  20. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  1. Rise in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among highly sexual active homosexual men and an increasing association between herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV over time (1984-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Colette; Pfrommer, Christiaan; Mindel, Adrian; Taylor, Janette; Spaargaren, Joke; Berkhout, Ben; Coutinho, Roel; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are both highly prevalent. The rate of genital HSV-1 transmission is reportedly increasing over time. HSV-2 is considered to be an important risk factor for HIV transmission. We therefore studied changes in the HSV-1 and HSV-2

  2. Twenty years' delay of fellow eye involvement in herpes simplex virus type 2-associated bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Bruinenberg, M.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P.; Feron, E.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of acute retinal necrosis with concurrent encephalitis and determine the causative virus. The patient had a history of presumed acute retinal necrosis in the left eye at the age of 8 years and recurrent genital herpes. METHODS: Diagnostic anterior chamber puncture of the

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  4. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Esophagitis in a Young Immunocompetent Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K. Kadayakkara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE is commonly identified in immunosuppressed patients. It is rare among immunocompetent patients and almost all of the reported cases are due to HSV-1 infection. HSV-2 esophagitis is extremely rare. We report the case of a young immunocompetent male who presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed multitudes of white nummular lesions in the distal esophagus initially suspected to be candida esophagitis. However, classic histopathological findings of multinucleated giant cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions and positive HSV-2 IgM confirmed the diagnosis of HSV-2 esophagitis. The patient rapidly responded to acyclovir treatment. Although HSV-2 is predominantly associated with genital herpes, it can cause infections in other parts of the body previously attributed to only HSV-1 infection.

  6. Radiation therapy and herpes zoster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Itsuo; Matsushima, Hideno; Yamada, Teruyo; Moriya, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between herpes zoster and radiation therapy was discussed and the combination of herpes zoster with malignancies was observed. Reported were five cases of herpes zoster (four breast and one lung carcinoma) out of 317 cases of malignancies which were irradiated in our clinic and include considerations about the etiologic relationship. (J.P.N.)

  7. Topical therapy of recurrent herpes - acyclovir versus tromantidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bhushan

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty men with recurrent genital herpes were treated with either acyclovir 5% cream or tromantidine 1 % ointment applied topically. Acyclovir cream was applied 5 times and tromantidine cream 4 times daily for 5 days. At least one pre-treatment episode was observed by one of the authors. Self assessment charts were provided to the patients to record prodromal symptoms and healing time. For comparison at least 3 post treatment episodes were observed and com-pared with mean healing time of 3 pre-treatment episodes. Both acyclovir cream and tromantidine ointment significantly reduced the duration of prodrome, hastened healing and so reduced mean healing time.

  8. Female genital tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, M.P.; Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with cancers of the cervix uteri, the corpus uteri, the ovary, vulva, and vagina. Radiotherapy has an important place in the management of patients with cancers of the genital tract but the radiotherapist must collaborate closely with surgical colleagues, both gynaecological and urological. Each must appreciate the merits and limitations of surgery and radiation therapy, whether used alone or in combination, with curative intent or in a supportive role

  9. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  10. Detecção de Citomegalovírus Humano e Herpesvírus Simples tipo 2 em amostras cervicais Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 in cervical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Albuquerque Pires Rocha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Testar a presença de DNA de Citomegalovírus Humano (HCMV e Herpesvírus Simples tipo 2 (HSV-2 em amostras cervicais de mulheres atendidas em um serviço de atenção primária à saúde no município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 361 mulheres sexualmente ativas, variando entre 18 e 78 anos, atendidas em Unidades Básicas de Saúde para exame ginecológico de rotina. As amostras cervicais foram coletadas por meio de escova endocervical. A detecção dos vírus deu-se por meio de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR em tempo real. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das mulheres participantes foi de 36,4 anos (desvio-padrão (DP=13,4. Foi encontrado DNA de HCMV em amostras cervicais de 30 mulheres (8,3%; IC95% 5,8 - 11,8 e de HSV-2 em 2 mulheres (0,6%; IC95% 0,1 - 2,2. Duas mulheres relataram ser portadoras do HIV, estando uma delas infectada com o HCMV. Não foram encontradas associações estatisticamente significativas entre a infecção pelos patógenos estudados e as variáveis socioeconômicas, clínicas e comportamentais. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção pelo HCMV encontrada na amostra estudada chama a atenção para a necessidade do rastreio desse vírus na gestação e da vigilância nos pacientes imunocomprometidos. A baixa prevalência do HSV-2 deve-se provavelmente ao fato de a amostra cervical não ser adequada para este tipo de estudo por causa das características da biologia viral relacionadas à neurolatência.PURPOSE: To detect the presence of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2 DNA in cervical samples from women assisted in a primary health care clinic in the city of Coari, Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Participated in this study 361 sexually active women between 18 and 78 years. They were been assisted in a Basic Health Care Clinic for routine gynecological exam. The cervical samples were collected using endocervical brush. The viruses were detected

  11. The ESHRE/ESGE consensus on the classification of female genital tract congenital anomalies(,)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbizis, G.F.; Gordts, S.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Brucker, S.; De Angelis, C.; Gergolet, M.; Li, T.C.; Tanos, V.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Gianaroli, L.; Campo, R.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONWhat classification system is more suitable for the accurate, clear, simple and related to the clinical management categorization of female genital anomalies?SUMMARY ANSWERThe new ESHRE/ESGE classification system of female genital anomalies is presented.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYCongenital

  12. Development and Comparison of a Rapid Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Test for Typing of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 on a Portable Fluorescence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yanhong; McCarthy, Kaitlin; Kong, Huimin; Lemieux, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a rapid and simple molecular test, the IsoGlow HSV Typing assay, for the detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (type 1 and 2) from genital or oral lesions. Clinical samples suspended in viral transport mediums are simply diluted and then added to a helicase-dependent amplification master mix. The amplification and detection were performed on a portable fluorescence detector called the FireFly instrument. Detection of amplification products is based on end-point analysis using cycling probe technology. An internal control nucleic acid was included in the amplification master mix to monitor the presence of amplification inhibitors in the samples. Because the device has only two fluorescence detection channels, two strategies were developed and compared to detect the internal control template: internal control detected by melting curve analysis using a dual-labeled probe, versus internal control detection using end-point fluorescence release by a CPT probe at a lower temperature. Both have a total turnaround time of about 1 hour. Clinical performance relative to herpes viral culture was evaluated using 176 clinical specimens. Both formats of the IsoGlow HSV typing assay had sensitivities comparable to that of the Food and Drug Administration–cleared IsoAmp HSV (BioHelix Corp., Beverly MA) test and specificity for the two types of HSV comparable to that of ELVIS HSV (Diagnostic Hybrids, Athens, OH). PMID:22951487

  13. Herpes simplex-encefalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare disease, although it is the most common form of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. Recently, studies have provided important new insight into the genetic and immunological basis of HSE. However, even in the presence of antiviral treatment, mortality...

  14. Bilateral herpes zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh K

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bilateral herpes zoster of lumbosacral region is reported in association with diabetes mellitus in a 55 years old female. The case is of interest due to bilateral distribution which is rare and sacral region involvement which is quite uncommon.

  15. Bilateral herpes zoster

    OpenAIRE

    Singh K; Bajaj A; Dwivedi N; Merchery A

    1993-01-01

    A case of bilateral herpes zoster of lumbosacral region is reported in association with diabetes mellitus in a 55 years old female. The case is of interest due to bilateral distribution which is rare and sacral region involvement which is quite uncommon.

  16. Ultrastructural age-related changes in the sensory corpuscles of the human genital skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C

    2013-01-01

    In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.

  17. Rapid host immune response and viral dynamics in herpes simplex virus-2 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is episodically shed throughout the human genital tract. While high viral load correlates with development of genital ulcers, shedding also commonly occurs even when ulcers are not present, allowing for silent transmission during coitus and contributing to high seroprevalence of HSV-2 worldwide. Frequent viral reactivation occurs despite diverse and complementary host and viral mechanisms within ganglionic tissue that predispose towards latency, suggesting that viral replication may be constantly occurring in a small minority of neurons within the ganglia. Within genital mucosa, the in vivo expansion and clearance rates of HSV-2 are extremely rapid. Resident dendritic cells and memory HSV-specific T cells persist at prior sites of genital tract reactivation, and in conjunction with prompt innate recognition of infected cells, lead to rapid containment of infected cells. Shedding episodes vary greatly in duration and severity within a single person over time: this heterogeneity appears best explained by variation in the densities of host immunity across the genital tract. The fact that immune responses usually control viral replication in genital skin prior to development of lesions provides optimism that enhancing such responses could lead to effective vaccines and immunotherapies. PMID:23467247

  18. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S

    2017-01-01

    in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. Methods: WLWH between 18...

  19. Herpes Zoster Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Aaron R; Myers, Eileen M; Moster, Mark L; Stanley, Jordan; Kline, Lanning B; Golnik, Karl C

    2018-06-01

    Herpes zoster optic neuropathy (HZON) is a rare manifestation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). The aim of our study was to better characterize the clinical features, therapeutic choices, and visual outcomes in HZON. A retrospective chart review was performed at multiple academic eye centers with the inclusion criteria of all eyes presenting with optic neuropathy within 1 month of cutaneous zoster of the ipsilateral trigeminal dermatome. Data were collected regarding presenting features, treatment regimen, and visual acuity outcomes. Six patients meeting the HZON inclusion criteria were identified. Mean follow-up was 2.75 months (range 0.5-4 months). Herpes zoster optic neuropathy developed at a mean of 14.1 days after initial rash (range 6-30 days). Optic neuropathy was anterior in 2 eyes and retrobulbar in 4 eyes. Other manifestations of HZO included keratoconjunctivitis (3 eyes) and iritis (4 eyes). All patients were treated with systemic antiviral therapy in addition to topical and/or systemic corticosteroids. At the last follow-up, visual acuity in 3 eyes had improved relative to presentation, 2 eyes had worsened, and 1 eye remained the same. The 2 eyes that did not receive systemic corticosteroids had the best observed final visual acuity. Herpes zoster optic neuropathy is an unusual but distinctive complication of HZO. Visual recovery after HZON is variable. Identification of an optimal treatment regiment for HZON could not be identified from our patient cohort. Systemic antiviral agents are a component of HZON treatment regimens. Efficacy of systemic corticosteroids for HZON remains unclear and should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  20. [The Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of neonatal herpes simplex infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. There are evidence-based interventions in pregnancy to prevent the transmission to the newborn. Caesarean section should be performed in the presence of herpetic lesions, and antiviral prophylaxis in the last weeks of pregnancy is recommended to suppress genital tract herpes simplex virus at the time of delivery. The diagnosis and early treatment of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections require a high index of suspicion, especially in the absence of skin lesions. It is recommended to rule out herpes simplex virus infections in those newborns with mucocutaneous lesions, central nervous system involvement, or septic appearance. The prognosis of newborns with skin, eye, and/or mouth disease in the high-dose acyclovir era is very good. Antiviral treatment not only improves mortality rates in disseminated and central nervous system disease, but also improves the rates of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment in the cases of disseminated disease. Interestingly, a 6-month suppressive course of oral acyclovir following the acute infection has improved the neurodevelopmental prognosis in patients with CNS involvement. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Genital warts and HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilka, R; Dvorák, V; Fait, T

    2011-12-01

    To present and overview of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts. Review. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Palacky University and Faculty University, Olomouc; Office gynecology and primary care centre, Brno; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Charles university in Prague-First Faculty of Medicine and General Faculty Hospital, Prague. Literature review of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts in some european countries, North America and Australia. Genital warts exert a considerable impact on health services, a large proportion of which could be prevented through immunisation using the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine.

  2. Herpes viral culture of lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grow in the laboratory dish and the skin sample used in the test did not contain any herpes virus. Be aware that a normal (negative) culture does not always mean that you do not have a herpes infection or have not had one in the past.

  3. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  4. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  5. Etiology of genital ulcer disease. A prospective study of 278 cases seen in an STD clinic in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope-Rapp, Emilie; Anyfantakis, Vassili; Fouéré, Sebastien; Bonhomme, Philippe; Louison, Jean B; de Marsac, Thibault Tandeau; Chaine, Benedicte; Vallee, Pascale; Casin, Isabelle; Scieux, Catherine; Lassau, François; Janier, Michel

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the causes and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Paris. This study was a prospective investigation of GUD cases. Data were collected from 1995 to 2005. In each case, a Dark Field Examination (DFE), Gram stain, inoculation onto Thayer Martin agar, Columbia agar and chocolate agar with 1% isovitalex and 20% fetal calf serum, PCR Chlamydia trachomatis (Amplicor Roche), culture for herpes simplex virus (HSV) on MRC 5 cells and PCR HSV (Argene Biosoft) were obtained from the ulceration. First Catch Urine (FCU) PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and syphilis, HIV, HSV, and HBV serologies were also performed. A total 278 cases of GUD were investigated, 244 (88%) in men and 34 (12%) in women. Primary syphilis accounted for 98 cases (35%), genital herpes for 74 (27%), chancroid for 8 (3%), other infections for 12 (5%). In 91 (32%) patients, no identifiable microorganism was documented. Primary syphilis was more prevalent in MSMs (P chancroid were significantly associated with heterosexuality (both P 10 mm (OR: 9.2 [95% CI: 2.9-30.7], P chancroid and reemergence of infectious syphilis have led to a new distribution of pathogens, genital herpes, primary syphilis and GUD from unknown origin, accounting each for one third of cases. No clinical characteristic is predictive of the etiology, underlining the importance of performing a thorough microbiologic evaluation. Close association with HIV is still a major public health problem.

  6. The psychosocial impact of serological diagnosis of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, S L; Zimet, G D; Leichliter, J S; Stanberry, L R; Fife, K H; Tu, W; Bernstein, D I

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a positive herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serological test on psychosocial functioning among people with no known history of genital herpes. Individuals (age 14-30 years) without a history of genital herpes were recruited from an urban university setting and sexually transmitted diseases (STD), primary care, and adolescent clinics. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing psychological functioning, psychosocial adjustment, and perceived quality of sex and were offered free HSV-2 antibody testing. 33 HSV-2 positive people and 60 HSV-2 negative people demographically matched from the same source of recruitment were re-evaluated at a 3 month follow up visit. HSV-2 positive participants also completed a genital herpes quality of life (GHQOL) measure. Of the 33 who were HSV-2 seropositive, four did not recall their diagnosis. In comparing those who were HSV-2 positive with those who were negative, repeated measures analysis of variance indicated there were no significant differences over time on any of the measures. None the less, many HSV-2 positive individuals indicated that the diagnosis had a notable impact on their quality of life. Also, among the HSV-2 positive people, lower GHQOL at the 3 month follow up was predicted by higher interpersonal sensitivity (r = -0.44, p<0.05), lower social support (r = 0.40, p<0.05), and quality of sex (r = 0.62, p<0.01) at baseline. A diagnosis of asymptomatic HSV-2 infection does not appear to cause significant lasting psychological difficulties. Those for whom the diagnosis had the greatest impact were interpersonally vulnerable before the diagnosis. These results suggest that assessment of interpersonal distress may be important to include as part of pretest and post-test counselling.

  7. Male genital trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references

  8. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  9. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S

    2017-01-01

    in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. METHODS: WLWH between 18......-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes...... RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. CONCLUSION: In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies...

  10. Relationship between female genital tract infections, mucosal interleukin-17 production and local T helper type 17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Lindi; Salkinder, Amy L; Olivier, Abraham Jacobus; McKinnon, Lyle R; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Mlisana, Koleka; Scriba, Thomas J; Lewis, David A; Little, Francesca; Jaspan, Heather B; Ronacher, Katharina; Denny, Lynette; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-12-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in immunity to fungal and bacterial pathogens, although their role in the female genital tract, where exposure to these pathogens is common, is not well understood. We investigated the relationship between female genital tract infections, cervicovaginal interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentrations and Th17 cell frequencies. Forty-two cytokines were measured in cervicovaginal lavages from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Frequencies of Th17 cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) IL-17a(+)) were evaluated in cervical cytobrushes and blood by flow cytometry. Women were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus 2 by PCR, and candidal infections and bacterial vaginosis by Gram stain. Women with bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), specifically chlamydia and gonorrhoea, had higher genital IL-17 concentrations than women with no STI, whereas women with candidal pseudohyphae/spores had lower IL-17 concentrations compared with women without candidal infections. Viral STIs (herpes simplex virus 2 and HIV) were not associated with significant changes in genital IL-17 concentrations. Genital IL-17 concentrations correlated strongly with other inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Although Th17 cells were depleted from blood during HIV infection, cervical Th17 cell frequencies were similar in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Cervical Th17 cell frequencies were also not associated with STIs or candida, although few women had a STI. These findings suggest that IL-17 production in the female genital tract is induced in response to bacterial but not viral STIs. Decreased IL-17 associated with candidal infections suggests that candida may actively suppress IL-17 production or women with dampened IL-17 responses may be more susceptible to candidal outgrowth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Neonatal herpes: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and management. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renesme, L

    2017-12-01

    To describe the epidemiology of neonatal herpes and its risk factors, clinical and paraclinic manifestations, propose guidelines for a newborn at risk of neonatal herpes, describe treatment modalities, describe post-natal transmission and its prevention. Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines. Neonatal herpes is rare (about 20 cases per year in France) and mainly due to HSV 1 (level of evidence LE3). The main risk factors for mother-to-child transmission are maternal primary episode of genital herpes close to delivery and serotype HSV 1 (LE3). There are three clinical forms of neonatal herpes : SEM infection for skin, eyes and mucosa, central nervous system (CNS) associated infection, and the disseminated infection. Neurological mortality and morbidity depend on the clinical form and the HSV serotype (LE3). In most of the case of neonatal herpes, the mothers have no history of genital herpes (LE3). Fever and vesicular rash may be absent at the time of diagnosis (LE3). In case of suspicion of neonatal herpes, different samples (blood and cerebrospinal fluid) for HSV PCR must be carried out to confirm the diagnosis (Professional consensus). Any newborn suspected of neonatal herpes should be treated with intravenous aciclovir (Grade A) prior to the results of HSV PCR (Professional consensus). In case of maternal genital herpes at delivery, the management of an asymptomatic newborn depends on the evaluation of the risk of transmission. In case of maternal reactivation (low risk of transmission), HSV PCR samples are taken at 24hours of life and the newborn must be follow closely until results. In the case of maternal primary episode or non-primary infection first episode (high risk of transmission), the samples are taken at 24hours of life and intravenous treatment with aciclovir is started (Professional consensus). The treatment of neonatal herpes is based on intravenous aciclovir (60mg

  12. Human papillomavirus and genital cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapose Alwyn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections world-wide. Low-risk HPV-types are associated with genital warts. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV-types is associated with genital cancers. Smoking and HIV infection have consistently been associated with longer duration of HPV infection and risk for genital cancer. There is an increasing incidence of anal cancers, and a close association with HPV infection has been demonstrated. Receptive anal sex and HIV-positive status are associated with a high risk for anal cancer. Two HPV vaccines are now available and offer protection from infection by the HPV-types included in the vaccine. This benefit is maximally seen in young women who were uninfected prior to vaccination.

  13. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  14. HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes identified from herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Zhang, Xiuli; Lamberth, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Evidence obtained from both animal models and humans suggests that T cells specific for HSV-1 and HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) contribute to protective immunity against herpes infection. However, knowledge of gD-specific human T cell responses is limited to CD4+ T cell epitopes, with no CD8+ T cell ...... following ocular or genital infection with either HSV-1 or HSV-2. The functional gD CD8+ T cell epitopes described herein are potentially important components of clinical immunotherapeutic and immunoprophylactic herpes vaccines.......Evidence obtained from both animal models and humans suggests that T cells specific for HSV-1 and HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) contribute to protective immunity against herpes infection. However, knowledge of gD-specific human T cell responses is limited to CD4+ T cell epitopes, with no CD8+ T cell...

  15. Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barucca Valentina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with virus transmission from mother to foetus/newborn. Since the incidence of this sexually transmitted infection continues to rise and because the greatest incidence of herpes simplex virus infections occur in women of reproductive age, the risk of maternal transmission of the virus to the foetus or neonate has become a major health concern. On these purposes the Authors of this review looked for the medical literature and pertinent publications to define the status of art regarding the epidemiology, the diagnosis, the therapy and the prevention of HSV in pregnant women and neonate. Special emphasis is placed upon the importance of genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and on the its prevention to avoid neonatal HSV infections.

  16. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.

  17. The "Knife-Cut Sign" Revisited: A Distinctive Presentation of Linear Erosive Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2015-10-01

    The "knife-cut sign" is a distinctive presentation of linear erosive herpes simplex virus infection in immunocompromised patients. To describe a man whose herpes simplex virus infection-related skin lesions demonstrated the "knife-cut sign" and to review the characteristics of reported immunosuppressed individuals with "knife-cut" cutaneous herpes simplex virus lesions. A man with multiple myeloma and post-stem cell transplant cutaneous graft-versus-host disease managed with systemic prednisone and sirolimus developed disseminated cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection with virus-associated linear ulcers of the inguinal folds and the area between his ear and scalp; the lesions at both sites had a distinctive "knife-cut" appearance. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on herpes simplex virus, immunocompromised patient, and "knife-cut sign". Herpes simplex virus infection-associated skin lesions that demonstrate the "knife-cut sign" present in patients who are immunosuppressed secondary to either an underlying medical condition or a systemic therapy or both. The distinctive virus-related cutaneous lesions appear as linear ulcers and fissures in intertriginous areas, such as the folds in the inguinal area, the vulva, and the abdomen; in addition, other sites include beneath the breast, within the gluteal cleft, and the area between the ear and the scalp. Not only herpes simplex virus-2, but also herpes simplex virus-1 has been observed as the causative viral serotype; indeed, herpes simplex virus-1 has been associated with genital and inframammary lesions in addition to those above the neck. Direct fluorescent antibody testing is a rapid method for confirming the clinically suspected viral infection; however, since false-negative direct fluorescent antibody testing occurred in some of the patients, it may be prudent to also perform viral cultures and possibly lesional skin biopsies to establish the diagnosis. The herpes simplex

  18. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  19. Genital reconstruction in exstrophy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgery for bladder exstrophy has been evolving over the last four to five decades. Because survival has become almost universal, the focus has changed in the exstrophy-epispadias complex to improving quality of life. The most prevalent problem in the long-term function of exstrophy patients is the sexual activity of the adolescent and adult males. The penis in exstrophy patients appears short because of marked congenital deficiency of anterior corporal tissue. Many patients approach for genital reconstruction to improve cosmesis as well as to correct chordee. We report our series of male patients seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescent/adult male patients attended urology services during the period January 2000-December 2009 seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Results: Three patients underwent epispadias repair, four patients had chordee correction with cosmetic excision of skin tags and seven patients underwent chordee correction with penile lengthening. All patients reported satisfaction in the answered questionnaire. Patients undergoing penile lengthening by partial corporal dissection achieved a mean increase in length of 1.614 ± 0.279 cm dorsally and 1.543 ± 0.230 cm ventrally. The satisfactory rate assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 showed that irrespective of the different genital reconstructive procedures done, the patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusions: Surgical procedures have transformed the management in these patients with bladder exstrophy. Bladders can be safely placed within the pelvis, with most patients achieving urinary continence and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia. Genital reconstruction in the form of correction of chordee, excision of ugly skin tags and lengthening of penis can be performed to give the patients a satisfactory cosmetic and functional

  20. Helicase-primase inhibitor amenamevir for herpesvirus infection: Towards practical application for treating herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, K

    2017-11-01

    Valacyclovir and famciclovir enabled successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection by their phosphorylation with viral thymidine kinase. Helicase-primase inhibitors (HPIs) inhibit the progression of the replication fork, an initial step in DNA synthesis to separate the double strand into two single strands. The HPIs amenamevir and pritelivir have a novel mechanism of action, once-daily administration with nonrenal excretory characteristics, and clinical efficacy for genital herpes. Amenamevir exhibits anti-VZV and anti-HSV activity while pritelivir only has anti-HSV activity. A clinical trial of amenamevir for herpes zoster has been completed, and amenamevir has been licensed and successfully used in 20,000 patients with herpes zoster so far in Japan. We have characterized the features of the antiviral action of amenamevir and, unlike acyclovir, the drug's antiviral activity is not influenced by the viral replication cycle. Amenamevir is opening a new era of antiherpes therapy. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  1. Molecular diagnosis of visceral herpes zoster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M. D.; Weel, J. F.; van Oers, M. H.; Boom, R.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    Patients with disseminated herpes zoster may present with severe abdominal pain that results from visceral involvement of varicella-zoster-virus infection. In the absence of cutaneous eruptions of herpes zoster, visceral herpes zoster is extremely difficult to diagnose. This diagnostic difficulty

  2. Transient neuropathic bladder following herpes simplex genitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, R A; Williams, J J

    1979-08-01

    A case of transient bladder dysfunction and urinary retention concomitant with herpes genitalis is presented. The protean manifestations of the herpes simplex virus, the similar neurotropic behavior of simplex and zoster, and the neurologic sequelae of the cutaneous simplex eruption are discussed. The possibility of sacral radiculopathy after herpes genitalis must be considered when evaluating acute or episodic neurogenic bladders.

  3. Herpes simplex type 2 virus deleted in glycoprotein D protects against vaginal, skin and neural disease

    OpenAIRE

    Petro, Christopher; Gonz?lez, Pablo A; Cheshenko, Natalia; Jandl, Thomas; Khajoueinejad, Nazanin; B?nard, Ang?le; Sengupta, Mayami; Herold, Betsy C; Jacobs, William R

    2015-01-01

    eLife digest Herpes simplex virus 2 (or HSV-2) infects millions of people worldwide and is the leading cause of genital diseases. The virus initially infects skin cells, but then spreads to nerve cells where it persists for life. Often, the virus remains in a dormant state for long periods of time and does not cause any symptoms. However, HSV-2 can periodically re-activate, leading to repeated infections; this can be life-threatening in patients who suffer from a weak immune system. There is ...

  4. Female genital mutilation reversal: a general approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mallika; Stanhope, Todd J; Occhino, John A

    2014-07-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a violation of human rights; yet, more than 100 million females are estimated to have undergone the procedure worldwide. There is an increased need for physician education in treating FGM. Female pelvic surgeons have a unique opportunity to treat this population of patients. Here, we depict the classification of FGM and a general approach to FGM reversal. We specifically address the procedure of type III FGM reversal, or defibulation. In this video, we first highlight the importance of the problem of FGM. Next, we present the classification of FGM using an original, simple, schematic diagram highlighting they key anatomic structures involved in the four types of FGM. We then present a simple case of reversal of type III FGM, a procedure also known as defibulation. After depicting the surgical procedure, we discuss clinical results and summarize key principles of the defibulation procedure. Our patient was a 25-year-old woman who had undergone type III FGM as a child in Somalia. She desired restoration of vaginal function. We performed a reversal, and her postoperative course was uncomplicated. By 6 weeks postoperatively, she was able to engage in sexual intercourse without dyspareunia. FGM is a problem at the doorsteps of female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Our video demonstrates a basic surgical approach that can be applied to simple cases of type III FGM presenting to the female pelvic surgeon.

  5. Decreased management of genital warts in young women in Australian general practice post introduction of national HPV vaccination program: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional general practice study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Since the introduction of Australia's human papillomavirus vaccination program, the management rate of genital warts in sexual health clinics and private hospitals has decreased in women of vaccine-eligible age. However, most genital warts in Australia are managed in general practice. This study examines whether a similar decrease occurred in Australian general practice after the introduction of the program. METHODS: Analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional database of Australian general practice activity (1,175,879 patient encounters with 11,780 general practitioners. Genital warts management rates were estimated for the periods before and after introduction of the program (Pre-program, July 2002-June 2006; Post-program, July 2008-June 2012. Control conditions included genital herpes and gardnerella/bacterial vaginosis in female patients and genital herpes and urethritis in male patients. Trends in management rates by year, pre-vaccine (July 2000-June 2007 and post-vaccine (July 2007-June 2012 were also calculated. RESULTS: Management rate of genital warts among women potentially covered by program (aged 15-27 years decreased by 61% from 4.33 per 1,000 encounters in the Pre-program period to 1.67 in the Post-program period. Trend analysis of the post-vaccine period showed, among women of vaccine eligible age, a significant year-on-year reduction in the rate of genital warts management (p<0.0001 and a significant increase in the management rate of control conditions per year (p<0.0001. For all other age-sex groups there was no significant change in the management rate of genital warts between the Pre- and Post-program periods. CONCLUSION: The large decrease in general practice management of genital warts in women of vaccine-eligible age highlights the success of the program in the wider community.

  6. Herpes zoster: A clinicocytopathological insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Snehal; Singaraju, Sasidhar; Einstein, A; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster or shingles is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that had entered the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox traveled to the dorsal root ganglia and remained in a latent form. This condition is characterized by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration which shows a typical single dermatome involvement. In this case report, we present a patient with herpes zoster involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, with unilateral vesicles over the right side of lower third of face along the trigeminal nerve tract, with intraoral involvement of buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and the tongue of the same side. Cytopathology revealed classic features of herpes infection including inclusion bodies, perinuclear halo and multinucleated cells.

  7. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Wiafe MD MSc

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is a common infection caused by the human herpes virus 3, the same virus that causes chickenpox. It is a member of herpes viridae, the same family as the herpes simplex virus, Epstein- Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when a latent varicella zoster virus in the trigeminal ganglia involving the ophthalmic division of the nerve is reactivated. Of the three divisions of the fifth cranial nerve, the ophthalmic is involved 20 times more frequently than the other divisions.

  8. Do herpes e suas implicações audiológicas: uma revisao de literatura Herpes and its hearing implications: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Cristina Schuster

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: herpes e audiologia. OBJETIVO: realizar revisão teórica principalmente sobre os vírus herpes simples tipo 1, herpes simples tipo 2 e varicela-zoster, bem como sobre seus efeitos na audição humana. Esses se constituem nos tipos de vírus herpéticos humanos de maior relevância para a área da Audiologia dentro da ciência da Fonoaudiologia e, no entanto, são pouco conhecidos e estudados, especialmente no Brasil. MÉTODOS: realizou-se pesquisa em bases de dados eletrônicas nacionais e internacionais, incluindo SciELO, MEDLINE e LILACS, a partir da seguinte combinação de descritores: herpes simplex/zoster X hearing loss ou deafness. Foram selecionados estudos publicados desde a década de 90 até os dias atuais, relevando-se aqueles que contivessem maior valor informativo, contribuindo para os objetivos do presente trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: os vírus herpéticos estudados apresentam estreita relação com distúrbios auditivos, independentemente da idade em que o sujeito é acometido.BACKGROUND: herpes and audiology. PURPOSE: to promote a theoretical approach mainly on herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and varicella zoster virus, and their effects on human hearing. Although representing the most relevant human herpetic viruses for the area of Audiology within the Speech and Language Pathology Science, these viruses are little studied and known, especially in Brazil. METHODS: a research was carried out in national and international electronic databases, including SciELO, MEDLINE and LILACS, and using the following keyword combinations: herpes simplex/zoster X hearing loss or deafness. Studies published from the 90's until today were selected, revealing those that would contain the highest informative value, which would thus contribute for the objectives of this work. CONCLUSION: the studied herpetic viruses show strict relation with hearing disorders, regardless of the age in which the patient is affected.

  9. [Recurrent herpes zoster with neuralgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwickert, Myriam; Saha, Joyonto

    2006-06-01

    We present the case of a 40-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Herpes zoster has recurred several times per year for more than 15 years. At admission, rash localised on the right sacral region and accompanied by neuralgia had lasted for 3 months. Standard out-patient treatment remained unsuccessful. A multimodal integrative therapy regimen including fasting, hydrotherapy, leech application and treatment with autologous blood led to rapid healing of herpetic lesions and persistent pain relief. The case is discussed.

  10. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  11. Study of females genital tract microflora diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Vertelytė, Justina

    2016-01-01

    Study of females genital tract microflora diversity SUMMARY Study of female genital tract microflora diversity Authors of Master’s degree scientific research work: Justina Vertelytė Head of Master’s degree scientific research work: dr Silvija Kiverytė Vilnius, 2016 The aim of research work was to investigate and analyze the composition of the microflora of the female genital tract using the methods of microbiological smear, vaginal wet mount and PCR. The objectives of the work were to evaluat...

  12. antibodies against Herpes simplex virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    171. 5. Celum, C. L. The Interaction between Herpes Sim- plex Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Her- pes, 2004; 1: 36A-44A. 6. Brown, Z.A., Selke, S., Zeh, J., Kopelman, J., Maslow,. A., Ashley, R.L., Watts, D.H., Berry, S., Herd, M. and.

  13. An investigation of genital ulcers in Jackson, Mississippi, with use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay: high prevalence of chancroid and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Weiss, J B; Webb, R M; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Orle, K A; Totten, P A; Overbaugh, J; Morse, S A; Currier, M M; Fishbein, M; St Louis, M E

    1998-10-01

    In 1994, an apparent outbreak of atypical genital ulcers was noted by clinicians at the sexually transmitted disease clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Of 143 patients with ulcers tested with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, 56 (39%) were positive for Haemophilus ducreyi, 44 (31%) for herpes simplex virus, and 27 (19%) for Treponema pallidum; 12 (8%) were positive for > 1 organism. Of 136 patients tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by serology, 14 (10%) were HIV-seropositive, compared with none of 200 patients without ulcers (P chancroid were significantly more likely than male patients without ulcers to report sex with a crack cocaine user, exchange of money or drugs for sex, and multiple sex partners. The strong association between genital ulcers and HIV infection in this population highlights the urgency of preventing genital ulcers in the southern United States.

  14. Etiologic pattern of genital ulcers in Lusaka, Zambia: has chancroid been eliminated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makasa, Mpundu; Buve, Anne; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

    2012-10-01

    Genital ulcers are a public health problem in developing countries. The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic guidelines for sexually transmitted infection treatment in resource-constrained countries. Monitoring local etiologies provides information that may aid policy for sexually transmitted infection treatment. We investigated the etiology of genital ulcer disease among outpatients in Lusaka, Zambia. Swabs from genital ulcers of 200 patients were tested using polymerase chain reaction for Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Chlamydia trachomatis. The prevalence of the detected pathogens was as follows; HSV-2, 28%; T. pallidum, 11.5%; C. trachomatis, 3%; HSV-1, 0.5%; and H. ducreyi, 0%. Coinfection with HSV-2 and T. pallidum was 1.5%, and coinfection of HSV-2 and C. trachomatis was 1%. In 55% of the patients, no etiologic diagnosis could be established. H. ducreyi was not detected, whereas HSV-2 and T. pallidum were the commonest pathogens. Nondetection of H. ducreyi requires further studies. If the present findings are validated, treatment guidelines would require to be revised in Zambia.

  15. [Distribution of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 genomes in the human spinal ganglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Y

    1994-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is well known for its propensity to cause recurrent oral or genital mucosal infections in humans. HSV-1 is involved primarily in oral lesions, whereas HSV-2 is more frequently involved in genital lesions. Based on this, it is thought that HSV-1 may produce latent infections in trigeminal ganglia, and HSV-2 in the sacral ganglia. However the distribution pattern of latent HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections in spinal ganglia remains unknown. Using the polymerase chain reaction we detected latent herpes HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human spinal ganglia obtained from autopsy material. A pair of primers which were specific for a part of the HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA polymerase domain were employed. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNAs were detected in 11 of 40 (28%) and 15 of 40 (38%) cervical ganglia, respectively, 52 of 103 (50%) and 47 of 103 (46%) thoracic ganglia, 16 of 53 (30%) and 17 of 53 (32%) lumbar ganglia, and 3 of 20 (15%) and 3 of 20 (15%) sacral ganglia. These findings suggest that latent HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections have a widespread distribution from the cervical ganglia to sacral ganglia. Importantly this study demonstrated latent HSV-1 infection of both the lumbar and sacral ganglia for the first time.

  16. Associations of HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C Alleles Frequency with Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections and Diseases Across Global Populations: Implication for the Development of an Universal CD8+ T-Cell Epitope-Based Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandary, Sarah; Kridane-Miledi, Hédia; Sandoval, Jacqueline S.; Choudhury, Zareen; Langa-Vives, Francina; Spencer, Doran; Chentoufi, Aziz A.; Lemonnier, François A.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of the world’s population is infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 and/or type 2 (HSV-1 and/or HSV-2), that cause a wide range of diseases including genital herpes, oro-facial herpes, and the potentially blinding ocular herpes. While the global prevalence and distribution of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections cannot be exactly established, the general trends indicate that: (i) HSV-1 infections are much more prevalent globally than HSV-2; (ii) Over half billion people worldwide are infected with HSV-2; (iii) the sub-Saharan African populations account for a disproportionate burden of genital herpes infections and diseases; (iv) the dramatic differences in the prevalence of herpes infections between regions of the world appear to be associated with differences in the frequencies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. The present report: (i) analyzes the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections across various regions of the world; (ii) analyzes potential associations of common HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C alleles with the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections in the Caucasoid, Oriental, Hispanic and Black major populations; and (iii) discusses how our recently developed HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C transgenic/H-2 class I null mice will help validate HLA/herpes prevalence associations. Overall, high prevalence of herpes infection and disease appears to be associated with high frequency of HLA-A*24, HLA-B*27, HLA-B*53 and HLA-B*58 alleles. In contrast, low prevalence of herpes infection and disease appears to be associated with high frequency of HLA-B*44 allele. The finding will aid in developing a T-cell epitope-based universal herpes vaccine and immunotherapy. PMID:24798939

  17. Educating about female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Victoria; Farrington, Rebecca; Mulongo, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a 'requirement' of faith.

  18. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  19. Lymphogranuloma venereum causing a persistent genital ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Terrence; Lee, Yer; Pandori, Mark; Jain, Vivek; Cohen, Stephanie Elise

    2014-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy and proctocolitis. We report a patient with a persistent genital ulcer due to LGV (serovar L2b), an unusual presentation among US men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum should be considered when evaluating persistent genital ulcers, and LGV-specific testing should be sought.

  20. Female genital schistosomiasis : pathological features and density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the lower genital tract, the cervix accounted for thirty two (68%) cases. Interestingly fifteen (47%) of cases showed association with cervical dysplasia, invasive squamous cell carcinoma or human papilloma virus koliocytosis. Presentations in the lower genital tract were of ulceration, polyps or abnormal vaginal bleeding.

  1. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  2. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Laura J; Jernigan, Amelia M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  3. Herpes simplex virus following stab phlebectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Lum, Ying Wei; Heller, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection following surgery is an unusual postoperative phenomenon. Many mechanisms have been suggested, with the most likely explanation related to latent virus reactivation due to a proinflammatory response in the setting of local trauma. Here, we present a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation in an immunocompetent female following a conventional right lower extremity stab phlebectomy. Salient clinical and physical examination findings are described, and management strategies for herpes simplex virus reactivation are outlined. This is the first known case report of herpes simplex virus reactivation following lower extremity phlebectomy.

  4. Extracts of Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke show strong antiviral activity against the sexually transmitted pathogen herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churqui, Marianela Patzi; Lind, Liza; Thörn, Karolina; Svensson, Alexandra; Savolainen, Otto; Aranda, Katty Terrazas; Eriksson, Kristina

    2018-01-10

    Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke have been traditionally used by women of the Tacana tribe in the Bolivian Amazonas for genital hygiene and for treatment of genital infection/inflammation. To assess the ability of extracts from Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke to block genital viral infection by herpes simplex virus type 2. Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke were collected from the Amazon region of La Paz, Bolivia. Extracts were prepared and screened for anti-viral activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) using both in vitro and in in vivo models of infection. Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke efficiently blocked HSV-2 infection of cell cultures without major cell cytotoxic effects. Extracts of Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke could prevent HSV-2 disease development when administered together with virus in a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection. In vitro analyses revealed that both plant extracts exerted their anti-HSV-2 effects by interfering with viral cell attachment and entry, but could not block viral replication post entry. These studies show that extracts of Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke have potent antiviral activities against HSV-2 comparable to those two previously identified plants, Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC. These studies confirm that plants used by the Tacana tribe could be explored further for the development of novel topical antiviral microbicides. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Co-infection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women with reproductive tract infections (RTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Ksh Mamta; Devi, Kh Sulochana; Singh, Ng Brajachand; Singh, N Nabakishore; Singh, I Dorendra

    2008-09-01

    In India, HSV seroprevalence and its coinfection with HIV among female patients with reproductive tract infections (RTI) are sparse. We aim to ascertain the seroprevalence of HSV and its coinfection with HIV and common sexually transmitted infections attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology outpatient department, RIMS. The study included 92 female patients with RTI. Diagnostic serology was done for HSV-1 and HSV-2 using group specific IgM indirect immunoassay using ELISA, HIV by 3 ELISA/Rapid/Simple (E/R/S) test of different biological antigen. Diagnosis of RTI was made on clinical grounds with appropriate laboratory investigations--microscopy, Gram stain smear etc. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed using Nugent's criteria, Syphilis by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test and Chlamydia trachomatis by IgG ELISA. Out of 92 sera tested for HSV, 18 (19.6%) were IgM HSV positive and 9 (9.8%) were HIV positive. Co-infection rate of HSV in HIV positive was 16.7%. None of the patients had clinical herpes genitalis, all were subclinical cases. 55.5% of HSV positives belongs to age group 21 to 30 years. Of the HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgM positives 3 (15%) had HIV, 4 (22.2%) bacterial vaginosis, 2 (11.1%) were RPR positive, 4 (22.2%) Chlamydia trachomatis, 3 (15%) were pregnant. 16 (88.8%) were unemployed, 14 (77.7%) had education level below 10 standard. Our study suggest that every case of RTI, be it an ulcerative or nonulcerative must be thoroughly evaluated by laboratory testing for primary subclinical genital HSV coinfection as this has profound implications on their judicious management and aversion of complications. Early diagnosis and treatment of HSV infection together with prophylaxis for recurrent HSV disease will prevent progression and spread of HIV disease.

  6. Polyneuritis cranialis following herpes zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is a common clinical condition involving cranial nerves. We encountered 3 cases in which multiple cranial nerves were involved besides the commoner ones. All the three cases were treated with acyclovir and oral steroids. Recovery of motor function was only partial in all three cases when reviewed 2 months after discharge. The clinical details and a brief review of literature are presented.

  7. Perineal herpes simplex infection in bedridden geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, Arjen F; Piérard, Gérald E

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions are prone to reactivation and recurrence in response to various local or systemic triggering factors. To study the characteristics of five bedridden geriatric patients who presented with herpetic recurrences on the buttocks, gluteal cleft, and perianal region during hospitalization. Data were gathered regarding age, gender, reason for hospitalization, localization of lesions, clinical presentation, previous clinical diagnosis and topical treatments, immune status and immunosuppressant drug intake, as well as prior history of labial or genital herpes. A skin biopsy was taken for histologic examination and immunohistochemical viral identification. Viral culture and viral serology were performed and data regarding antiviral therapy were recorded. The five patients (three women, two men) were aged >80 years and hospitalized for either severe drug-induced renal insufficiency (one case), severe pneumonia (two cases), or stroke causing restricted mobility (two cases). Numerous well demarcated, painful ulcerations developed in the perianal region of these patients, and one patient also presented with some vesicular lesions. The lesions had been confused with mycotic and/or bacterial infections for 10-14 days. No inguinal lymphadenopathies were present and there was no fever. None of the patients had a previous history of recurrent labial or genital HSV infections or HIV infection. Histology was suggestive of HSV infection in two of five patients. Immunohistochemistry identified HSV type I (three patients) and HSV type II (two patients) infections. Viral culture with immunofluorescence viral identification revealed HSV type I in one of the four patients in whom a swab for viral culture was taken. Serology revealed past HSV infection. All lesions cured gradually after 10-14 days of intravenous acyclovir (aciclovir) treatment. Herpetic lesions of the perineal region represent a rare complication in bedridden geriatric patients in the absence

  8. Atypical Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection Refractory to Treatment With Acyclovir in 2 Hematologic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Rodríguez, D; Sendagorta Cudós, E; Rueda Carnero, J M; Herranz Pinto, P

    2017-12-01

    Herpesvirus infections are not uncommon in hematologic patients. Our first patient, diagnosed with chronic lymphatic leukemia, presented extensive genital herpes infection refractory to treatment with acyclovir and with a partial response to foscarnet, which had to be withdrawn due to systemic adverse effects. The second patient, diagnosed with follicular Hodgkin lymphoma, presented hypertrophic herpes infection refractory to treatment with acyclovir but that responded to intralesional cidofovir and topical imiquimod. As in other immunodepressed patients, herpesvirus infection in hematologic patients can present atypical manifestations, as well as resistance to treatments that act via the viral thymidine kinase. A high level of clinical suspicion is therefore needed to make an early diagnosis, together with extensive knowledge of the different treatments available. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Type-specific identification of anogenital herpes simplex virus infections by use of a commercially available nucleic acid amplification test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Pol, Barbara; Warren, Terri; Taylor, Stephanie N; Martens, Mark; Jerome, Keith R; Mena, Leandro; Lebed, Joel; Ginde, Savita; Fine, Paul; Hook, Edward W

    2012-11-01

    Herpes infections are among the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI), but diagnostic methods for genital herpes have not kept pace with the movement toward molecular testing. Here, we describe an FDA-approved molecular assay that identifies and types herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections for use in routine clinical settings. Paired samples from anogenital lesions were tested using the BD ProbeTec HSV Q(x) (HSVQ(x)) system, HSV culture and, a laboratory-developed PCR assay. Family planning, obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN), or sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the United States served as recruitment sites. Sensitivity and specificity estimates, head-to-head comparisons, measures of agreement, and latent-class analyses were performed to provide robust estimates of performance. A total of 508 participants (174 men and 334 women) with anogenital lesions were included; 260 HSV-2 and 73 HSV-1 infections were identified. No differences in test performance based on gender, clinic type, location of the lesion, or type of lesion were observed. The sensitivity of HSV-2 detection ranged from 98.4 to 100% depending on the analytical approach, while the specificity ranged from 80.6%, compared to the less sensitive culture method, to 97.0%, compared to PCR. For HSV-1, the sensitivity and specificity ranges were 96.7 to 100% and 95.1 to 99.4%, respectively. This assay may improve our ability to accurately diagnose anogenital lesions due to herpes infection.

  10. [Genes in the development of female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jing-he

    2013-12-01

    Female genital tract, which includes oviduct, uterus, and vagina, is critical for female reproduction. In recent years, animal experiments using knockout mice and genetic studies on patients with female genital malformations have contributed substantially to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the female genital tract development. Here we review genes that are involved in various stages of female genital tract formation and development.

  11. [Herpes zoster infection with acute urinary retention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, G; Komoly, S; Juhász, E

    1990-03-11

    The history of a young female patient is presented. She developed urine retention of sudden onset as a complication of herpes zoster infection manifested in the sacral dermatomes. Symptomatic and antiviral treatments were introduced with full recovery of bladder function. The correct diagnosis of this rare and benign complication of herpes zoster infection can help to avoid unnecessary and invasive examinations.

  12. Colposacrosuspension for severe genital prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronjé, H S

    2004-04-01

    A descriptive study of 140 patients with severe genital prolapse managed by colposacrosuspension with mesh interposition and a modified Burch colposuspension. A laparotomy was performed with mobilization of the rectum and exploration of the rectovaginal septum. Vaginally, a longitudinal incision was made in the posterior vaginal wall which was completely separated from the rectum. A perineal repair was done, whereafter a strip of Vypro (Johnson & Johnson, Brussels, Belgium) mesh was inserted from the perineum to the sacrum at S1. It was fixated to the perineum and vagina while the rectum was elevated and attached to the mesh. Where a perineal repair was deemed not necessary, the mesh extended from the mid-vagina to the sacrum. A second mesh strip was placed anteriorly of the vagina, covering the upper third of the vagina and extending to the sacrum. After closure of the pelvic peritoneum, covering the mesh, a modified Burch colposuspension was performed. Follow-up was done at 6 weeks, 6 months and yearly thereafter. The median age was 61 years with a median parity of 3. All patients presented with grade 2 (extending to the vaginal introitus) or 3 (outside the vaginal introitus) prolapse. Approximately one-third had urinary incontinence and a similar proportion complained of difficulty in defecation. All the patients underwent colposacrosuspension with the mesh extending to the perineum in 67% of the patients. A Burch colposuspension was performed in 79% of the women. Postoperatively, 97% of the patients were followed for 1-29 months with a median of 8.5 months (mean 10.2 months). Recurrent prolapse, grade 2 or 3, developed in 11 patients (8%) and 17 patients (12%) developed urinary incontinence, needing a transvaginal tape procedure. Removal of the mesh was necessary in one patient (0.7%). Colposacrosuspension for severe genital prolapse delivered satisfactory short-term results. It is, however, a major surgical procedure and elderly or compromised patients may

  13. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria ... practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. .... Table 1(b) 519 (92%) of the ..... Behrendt, A. and Moritz, S. Posttraumatic stress. 12.

  14. Direct Questioning of Genital Symptoms: Increasing Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    prompted and pelvic examination findings of genital symptoms. Against the ... Correspondence to: ABM Kharsany CAPRISA 2nd Floor Doris Duke Medical Research Institute Nelson R Mandela ..... training efforts should focus on health care.

  15. Diagnostic Challenges of Female Genital Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Vigi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: India accounts for one fifth of the global incidence of tuberculosis (TB annually. Genital tract TB is one of the extra pulmonary presentations of TB leading to infertility among Indian women. Genital TB is a chronic disease and often asymptomatic with very few specific complaints. Infertility is the most common clinical presentation of genital TB. Herein, we report a case of 32-year-old female patient suffering from abdominal pain and infertility for the last 8 months. Methods: Hysterosalpingography (HSG and ultrasonography (USG did not reveal characteristic radiological appearances of TB although USG detected the presence of a large fibroid in the right uterine wall. Histology, microscopy for acid fast bacilli, liquid culture and nucleic acid amplification assay targeting 64kDa protein encoding gene, the IS6110 element of endometrium biopsy were negative for tubercle bacilli. Results: Since the diagnosis of genital TB is elusive, antitubercular treatment (ATT using isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, and ethambutol was prescribed for two months followed by maintenance therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin for four months without any pregnancy outcome. Conclusion: However, the patient conceived spontaneously after surgical removal of fibroid. Relating infertility to female genital tuberculosis due to high prevalence of TB in the country and ignoring the presence of uterine fibroid might not have been the right decision taken by the gynaecologist. This suggests the urgent need for an accurate method intended for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis.

  16. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2018-04-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  19. Urinary retention associated with herpes zoster infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L M; Fowler, J F; Owen, L G; Callen, J P

    1993-01-01

    Herpes zoster infection particularly involving the sacral dermatomes has been associated with bladder and bowel dysfunction, most commonly urinary retention. We report two patients who developed acute urinary retention, one of whom also had constipation, within days of herpes zoster skin lesions of the S2-S4 dermatomes. Herpes zoster is a reversible cause of neurogenic bladder and bowel dysfunction and should be considered in a patient that presents with acute urinary retention and/or constipation. Sensory abnormalities and flaccid detrusor paralysis are most likely involved in the pathogenesis.

  20. A high resolution melting (HRM) technology-based assay for cost-efficient clinical detection and genotyping of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieveld, M; Carregosa, A; Benoy, I; Redzic, N; Berth, M; Vanden Broeck, D

    2017-10-01

    Genital herpes can be caused by two very similar viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 or HSV-2. These two HSV types cannot be distinguished clinically, but genotyping is recommended in the first-episodes of genital herpes to guide counselling and management. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the preferred diagnostic method for HSV typing. However, commercial qPCR methods use expensive fluorescent labeled probes for detection. Furthermore, most low-cost methods are not able to differentiate between HSV-1 and -2. The aim of this study was to develop a high resolution melting (HRM) technology-based assay for sensitive HSV-1 and HSV-2 detection and genotyping. Using a panel of 46 clinical specimens, the performance of the HRM assay was compared to two commercial HSV tests: the HRM assay detected HSV in all 23 positive samples, with no false positive results (100% concordance with HSV I/II Real-TM assay). Additionally, the HRM assay correctly genotyped both HSV types in a subset of these clinical samples, as determined by the Realstar HSV PCR Kit. The HSV HRM assay provides a cost-effective alternative method to conventional more expensive assays and can be used in routine clinical specimens, in cases where it is particularly necessary to detect and distinguish HSV-1 from -2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and Bell's Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The association between herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 infection and Bell palsy was determined in 47 children studied at Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY. Swabs of saliva and conjunctiva were taken for PCR testing.

  2. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  3. Herpes Genitalis: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbrei, A.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes genitalis is caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary or recurrent infection. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and due to associated physical and psychological morbidity it constitutes a considerable, often underestimated medical problem. In addition to providing the reader with basic knowledge of the pathogen and clinical presentation of herpes genitalis, this review article discusses important aspects of the laboratory diagnostics, antiviral therapy and prophylaxis. The article is aimed at all health-care workers managing patients with herpes genitalis and attempts to improve the often suboptimal counselling, targeted use of laboratory diagnostics, treatment and preventive measures provided to patients. PMID:28017972

  4. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam

    2006-03-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.

  5. Herpes Zoster in Two Healthy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Kökçam

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is an acute dermatomal viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus. The disease is commonly seen among elderly people and immunocompromised individuals, it is also rarely observed in immunocompetent children though. In this report, two herpes zoster cases with trigeminal-involvement in which no factors inducing the reactivation of the virus were detected are presented, as the disease is unusually seen during childhood.

  6. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujie; Tang, Weiming; Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04), respectively. Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  7. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Huang

    Full Text Available Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010.The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing.Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone, no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81, 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74, 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99 and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04, respectively.Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  8. Urinary retention due to herpes virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, T; Yasuda, K; Sakakibara, R; Hattori, T; Uchiyama, T; Minamide, M; Ito, H

    1998-01-01

    Urinary retention is uncommon in patients with herpes zoster and anogenital herpes simplex. Seven patients (four men, three women) with a mean age of 68.1 years (range, 35-84) with urinary retention due to herpes zoster (n = 6) or anogenital herpes simplex (n = 1) were studied. Six patients had unilateral skin eruption in the saddle area (S2-4 dermatome) and one patient with herpes zoster had a skin lesion in the L4-5 dermatome. All patients had detrusor areflexia without bladder sensation, and two of them had inactive external sphincter on electromyography at presentation. Clean intermittent catheterization was performed, and voiding function was recovered in 4-6 weeks (average, 5.4) in all patients. Urodynamic study was repeated after recovery of micturition in three patients, and they returned to normal on cystometrography and external sphincter electromyography. Acute urinary retention associated with anogenital herpes infection has been thought to occur when the meninges or sacral spinal ganglia were involved, and, in conclusion, this condition may be considered to be reversible.

  9. The frequency and pattern of female genital tract malignancies at the university of Nigeria teaching hospital, enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Tc; Onah, N; Ikeako, Lc; Ezenyeaku, Cct

    2013-07-01

    Female genital tract malignancy is common in our low resource setting. Options now exist for prevention, detection, treatment, and palliative care for the wide spectrum of female genital tract malignancies. Women will continue to die from these cancers unless health professionals and civil society adopt means to control female genital tract cancers in our low resource setting. The objective was to determine the frequency and patterns of female genital tract malignancy at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria. A 6-year retrospective study of female genital tract malignancies was conducted at the UNTH, Enugu. The case notes of patients admitted for female genital tract malignancy between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2008 were retrieved from the medical records and cancer registry of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu and relevant data were extracted. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 12 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and the results expressed in descriptive statistics by simple percentages. One hundred and sixty six (166) cases of genital malignancies were recorded during the 6-year review. Majority of the patients were in the fifth and sixth decades of life. Cancer of the cervix accounted for 66.3% (110/166) followed by ovarian cancer 21.1% (35/166). The other tumors seen during the period were tumors involving corpus uteri 9% (15/166) and vulva 3.6% (6/166). Tumors of fallopian tube and vagina were not seen during the study period. Despite the preventable nature of cancer of cervix, it remained the most common female genital tract malignancy in Enugu, South-East Nigeria. In our low resource setting in the developing countries, education and public enlightenment on the importance of routine screening and treatment of premalignant lesions of the cervix are necessary tools to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer.

  10. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  11. Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    House, Clarissa M.; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on ...

  12. Intraurethral condylomata acuminata associated with genital piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Hirano, Y; Kawamura, T; Homma, Y

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was referred to our institution with papillary masses at the urethral meatus and difficulty urinating. Genital examination showed two piercings on the frenulum, which were penetrating the external urethra. Endoscopic examination revealed papillary tumours over the entire circumference of the penile urethra and the piercing site. The tumours were resected transurethrally. Microscopic examination revealed condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 66 were detected in the lesions. Retrograde urethral viral infection is rare because of the protection provided by the mucosal immune system. Genital piercing may have facilitated spread of the human papillomavirus into the urethra.

  13. Herpes simplex-virus type 1 påvist hos patient med herpes zoster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia Louise; Schønning, Kristian; Larsen, Helle Kiellberg

    2012-01-01

    In this case report we present an otherwise healthy 63 year-old male patient with herpes zoster corresponding to the 2nd left branch of the trigeminal nerve. Real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses were positive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and varicella zoster virus (VZV......). The most probable explanation is that this reflects asymptomatic, latent expression of HSV-1 in a herpes zoster patient with no clinical relevance. Another hypothesis is that reactivation of a neurotropic herpes virus can reactivate another neurotropic virus if both types are present in the same ganglion....... If co-infection with HSV/VZV is suspected the treatment regimen for herpes zoster will sufficiently treat a possible HSV infection also....

  14. The Epidemiology of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria - A Twelve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prevalence. The practice has several negative health and economic consequences. Culture and tradition are important factors fuelling its persistence. Conclusion: Female genital ... Female genital mutilation (FGM) otherwise known as female genital cutting or female ... without medical indication. This contrasts with male.

  15. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in a Healthy Nigerian Child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Healthy child, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, ocular complications. INTRODUCTION. Herpes ... that the same virus in children cause varicella and may be giving .... performed to confirm the diagnosis promptly by identifying. VZV DNA ...

  16. CBO-richtlijn 'Seksueel overdraagbare aandoeningen en herpes neonatorum' (herziening)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O. P.; van der Meijden, W. I.; Wittenberg, J.; van Bergen, J. E. A. M.; Boeke, A. J. P.; van Doornum, G. J. J.; Henquet, C. J. M.; Galama, J. M. D.; Postma, M. J.; Prins, J. M.; van Voorst Vader, P. C.

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes' summarises the current scientific position on the diagnosis and treatment of a great number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and neonatal herpes. Symptomatic treatment of

  17. Efficacy of the anti-VZV (anti-HSV3 vaccine in HSV1 and HSV2 recurrent herpes simplex disease: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Goaster J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline Le Goaster,1 Sylvie Gonzalo,2 Patrice Bourée,1 Frederic Tangy,3 Anne-Lise Haenni41Department of Tropical Diseases, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire (CHU, University of Paris XI, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, 2Biomnis Laboratory, Ivry-sur-Seine, 3Retro-Virology, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, Pasteur Institute, Paris; 4Jacques Monod Institute, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, University of Paris VII, Paris, FranceBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using the anti-varicella zoster virus (anti-VZV, also known as anti-HSV3 vaccine against orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 and genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2. This was suggested by study of the phylogenetic tree of members of the herpes virus family, which showed a close relationship between VZV (HSV3 and the HSV1 and HSV2 herpes viruses.Methods: The present prospective study was conducted from January 2005 through January 2011. Twenty-four patients afflicted with HSV1 and HSV2 herpes recurrences over a period of years, numbering 6–8 and more recurrences per year, agreed to receive the anti-VZV vaccine. They were compared with 26 nonvaccinated patients presenting with herpes simplex diseases 2–5 times a year. All 50 patients were documented with anti-HSV1, anti-HSV2, and anti-VZV antibody serological testing.Results: From 2005 through 2011, for the 24 anti-VZV vaccinated patients, the average number of herpes relapses decreased to 0, correlated with an increased anti-VZV antibody level and clinical recovery of all patients, whereas no improvement was observed for the 26 nonvaccinated herpes patients.Conclusion: Data for the anti-VZV serological antibody levels tested before and after anti-VZV vaccination showed a significant (P < 0.001 increase among vaccinated patients. This suggests defective anti-VZV immune power in these patients. After 6 years of positive results for anti-VZV vaccine, this is a logical and

  18. Herpes simplex virus type 2-associated recurrent aseptic (Mollaret's meningitis in genitourinary medicine clinic: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Foul AK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad K Abou-Foul, Thajunisha M Buhary, Sedki L Gayed Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Blackburn Hospital, East Lancashire Hospitals NHS Trust, Blackburn, UK Introduction: Cases of idiopathic recurrent benign aseptic meningitis were first described by Mollaret. Today, herpes simplex virus (HSV is considered the cause of most cases of Mollaret's meningitis. Case report: A 40-year-old male was referred to our genitourinary medicine clinic with recurrent genital herpetic lesions. He had HSV-2-positive genital ulcers 8 years earlier. One year after the first infection, he developed severe recurrent attacks of headache associated with meningitis symptoms. The results of all radiological and biochemical tests were normal, but the patient reported a correlation between his attacks and genital herpes flare-ups. We diagnosed the patient with Mollaret's meningitis and started him on continuous suppressive acyclovir therapy, which resulted in marked clinical improvement. Discussion: Mollaret's meningitis is a rare form of idiopathic recurrent aseptic meningitis that has a sudden onset, short duration, and spontaneous remission with unpredictable recurrence. We believe that the presence of concurrent or recurrent mucocutaneous herpetic lesions can aid its diagnosis, prior to which, affected patients usually have many unnecessary investigations and treatments. Therefore, detailed sexual history should be sought in all patients with aseptic meningitis, and clinicians should also ask about history of recurrent headaches in all patients with recurrent herpetic anogenital lesions. Continuous suppressive acyclovir therapy may reduce the frequency and severity of attacks and can dramatically improve lifestyle. Keywords: HSV-2 virus, acyclovir, Mollaret's meningitis, recurrent aseptic meningitis, HSV-2 virus, viral meningitis, acyclovir

  19. Prodrugs of herpes simplex thymidine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanachkova, Milka; Xu, Wei-Chu; Dvoskin, Sofya; Dix, Edward J; Yanachkov, Ivan B; Focher, Federico; Savi, Lida; Sanchez, M Dulfary; Foster, Timothy P; Wright, George E

    2015-04-01

    Because guanine-based herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase inhibitors are not orally available, we synthesized various 6-deoxy prodrugs of these compounds and evaluated them with regard to solubility in water, oral bioavailability, and efficacy to prevent herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation from latency in a mouse model. Organic synthesis was used to prepare compounds, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to analyze hydrolytic conversion, Mass Spectrometry (MS) to measure oral bioavailability, and mouse latent infection and induced reactivation to evaluate the efficacy of a specific prodrug. Aqueous solubilities of prodrugs were improved, oxidation of prodrugs by animal cytosols occurred in vitro, and oral absorption of the optimal prodrug sacrovir™ (6-deoxy-mCF3PG) in the presence of the aqueous adjuvant Soluplus® and conversion to active compound N(2)-[3-(trifluoromethyl)pheny])guanine (mCF3PG) were accomplished in mice. Treatment of herpes simplex virus-1 latent mice with sacrovir™ in 1% Soluplus in drinking water significantly suppressed herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation and viral genomic replication. Ad libitum oral delivery of sacrovir™ was effective in suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in ocularly infected latent mice as measured by the numbers of mice shedding infectious virus at the ocular surface, numbers of trigeminal ganglia positive for infectious virus, number of corneas that had detectable infectious virus, and herpes simplex virus-1 genome copy numbers in trigeminal ganglia following reactivation. These results demonstrate the statistically significant effect of the prodrug on suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in vivo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection Progression to External Genital Lesions: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied; the biopsy specimens were subjected to pathologic evaluation and categorized by pathologic diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsy specimens. EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 mo were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV 6 infection developed an HPV 6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV 11 infections progressed to an HPV 11-positive condyloma. During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV 16 infection developed an HPV 16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. In this study, we looked at genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented by a vaccine. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s.

  2. Rectal Lipoma Associated with Genital Prolapse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    female genital prolapse. In the present case, as the patient is post‑menopausal and with co‑existing partial rectal prolapse, vaginal hysterectomy was carried out. Diagnostic approaches usually include endoscopy, contrast‑enhanced CT scan of the abdomen, and barium enema. Endoscopic biopsies usually fail to diagnose ...

  3. Medicalization of female genital mutilation/cutting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.I. Serour

    Globally 100–140 million women and girls have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting ... In some Muslim countries where FGM/C is prevalent it is often wrongly quoted that the basis for ..... ditional health care, community leaders, educators, social scientists, ... lators, mass media, religious leaders, and NGOs.

  4. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  5. Female genital mutilation: psychological and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...

  6. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus infections of the cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Maertzdorf (Jeroen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of human herpes virus (HHV) infections can be traced back to ancient Greece where Herpes simplex vims (HSV) infections in humans were first documented. Hippocrates used the word "herpes", meaning to creep or crawl, to describe spreading skin lesions. Although the

  7. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

  8. Female genital mutilation - from tradition to femicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation has been drawing international attention for the last couple of decades, but this phenomenon is almost unknown in Serbia. In this work we will point to its basic forms and its presence in the world as well as to the variety of consequences, especially those which are the most common causes of death. With this purpose in mind, the work represents the a review of theoretical debates and empirical studies, based on which relevant data may be gathered, related to the previously mentioned subject of the work. Female genital mutilation is a phenomenon mostly in Africa, but due to migrations has become a problem thoughout the whole world. Traditional and cultural norms of strict patriarchal societies along with deeply rooted inequality of genders have contributed to the maintenance of this custom up till today. This custom includes a sequence of different procedures which are used to injure female genitals even though there are no medical reasons for such acts. They are conducted by older women in insanitary conditions and by means such as scissors, razors or glass which bring numerous consequences which can result in death. Females subdued to infibulation are at greater risk of death, although each of the forms of mutilation may have this consequence. Female genital mutilation represents violence against women due to its inevitable physical consequences and its harmful effect on health. Girls and women are subdued to the procedure which in some cases results in death, for the purpose of the community acceptance, most of all the acceptance of the future husband. Namely, women are elligible for marriage only if they are virgins, which is achieved by genital mutilation, according to the opinion of the community in which this tradition is preserved. Beside that, marriage is of high importance for the economic stability of a woman, considering the fact that all the economic power is held by men. Genital mutilation has the purpose

  9. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Gottlieb, Sami L; Wald, Anna

    2016-06-03

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and -2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent global pathogens which commonly cause recurrent oral and genital ulcerations. Less common but more serious complications include meningitis, encephalitis, neonatal infection, and keratitis. HSV-2 infection is a significant driver of the HIV epidemic, increasing the risk of HIV acquisition 3 fold. As current control strategies for genital HSV-2 infection, including antiviral therapy and condom use, are only partially effective, vaccines will be required to reduce infection. Both preventive and therapeutic vaccines for HSV-2 are being pursued and are in various stages of development. We will provide an overview of efforts to develop HSV-2 vaccines, including a discussion of the clinical need for an HSV vaccine, and status of research and development with an emphasis on recent insights from trials of vaccine candidates in clinical testing. In addition, we will touch upon aspects of HSV vaccine development relevant to low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Antiviral and immunological effects of tenofovir microbicide in vaginal herpes simplex virus 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibholm, Line; Reinert, Line S; Søgaard, Ole S; Paludan, Søren R; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Melchjorsen, Jesper

    2012-11-01

    The anti-HIV microbicide, tenofovir (TFV) gel, has been shown to decrease HIV-1 acquisition by 39% and reduce herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) transmission by 51%. We evaluated the effect of a 1% TFV gel on genital HSV-2 infection in a mouse vaginal challenge model. In vitro plaque assays and luminex multiplex bead analysis were used, respectively, to measure postinfection vaginal viral shedding (day 1) and cytokine secretion (day 2). To further investigate the anti-HSV-2 properties, we evaluated the direct antiviral effect of TFV and the oral prodrug tenofovir disoproxil fumerate (TDF) in cell culture. Compared to placebo-treated mice, TFV-treated mice had significantly lower clinical scores, developed later genital lesions, and showed reduced vaginal viral shedding. Furthermore, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, and other cytokines were altered in the vaginal fluid following topical tenofovir treatment and subsequent HSV-2 challenge. Finally, we found that both TFV and TDF inhibited HSV-2 infection in vitro; TDF showed a 50-fold greater potency than TFV. In conclusion, we confirmed that the microbicide TFV had direct anti-HSV-2 effects in a murine vaginal challenge model. Therefore, this model would be suitable for evaluating present and future microbicide candidates. Furthermore, the present study warrants further investigation of TDF in microbicides.

  11. Molecular detection of cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 2, human papillomavirus 16-18 in Turkish pregnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Dinc

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common cause of viral intrauterine infections in the world. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 and human papillomavirus (HPV are the main agents of viral sexually transmitted diseases, which cause genital ulcers and genital warts, respectively. HPV infection has been linked to the majority of the anogenital malignancies. The aim of this study was to detect the existence of CMV, HSV-2 and HPV type 16-18 in Turkish pregnants by using sensitive molecular assays. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four women (18-41 years old; mean age ± SD: 27 ± 8 applied to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in between 18th - 22nd weeks of their pregnancy and a control group of 99 healthy women (15-39 years old; mean age ± SD: 24 ± 8 were included in the study. Cervical smear samples were used for DNA extraction. CMV, HSV-2 and HPV 16-18 detections were carried out by real time PCR and in house PCR method, respectively. RESULTS: Three patients (3/134; 2.2% were found to be positive for each HPV and HSV-2. Dual infection with HPV and HSV was found in just one patient. HPV 18 was detected in all positive samples. CMV was found to be positive in two patients (2/134; 1.4 %. CONCLUSION: HPV, HSV and CMV must be screened due to high prevalence of these viruses in pregnants by using sensitive molecular methods.

  12. Molecular detection of cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 2, human papillomavirus 16-18 in Turkish pregnants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Bedia; Bozdayi, Gulendam; Biri, Aydan; Kalkanci, Ayse; Dogan, Bora; Bozkurt, Nuray; Rota, Seyyal

    2010-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of viral intrauterine infections in the world. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the main agents of viral sexually transmitted diseases, which cause genital ulcers and genital warts, respectively. HPV infection has been linked to the majority of the anogenital malignancies. The aim of this study was to detect the existence of CMV, HSV-2 and HPV type 16-18 in Turkish pregnants by using sensitive molecular assays. One hundred thirty-four women (18-41 years old; mean age ± SD: 27 ± 8) applied to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in between 18th - 22nd weeks of their pregnancy and a control group of 99 healthy women (15-39 years old; mean age ± SD: 24 ± 8) were included in the study. Cervical smear samples were used for DNA extraction. CMV, HSV-2 and HPV 16-18 detections were carried out by real time PCR and in house PCR method, respectively. Three patients (3/134; 2.2%) were found to be positive for each HPV and HSV-2. Dual infection with HPV and HSV was found in just one patient. HPV 18 was detected in all positive samples. CMV was found to be positive in two patients (2/134; 1.4 %). HPV, HSV and CMV must be screened due to high prevalence of these viruses in pregnants by using sensitive molecular methods.

  13. Herpes simplex ulcerative esophagitis in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A; Fagih, Mosa A

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a common cause of ulcerative esophagitis in the immunocompromised or debilitated host. Despite a high prevalence of primary and recurrent Herpes simplex virus infection in the general population, Herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) appears to be rare in the immunocompetent host. We report three cases of endoscopically-diagnosed HSVE in apparently immunocompetent children; the presentation was characterized by acute onset of fever, odynophagia, and dysphagia. In two cases, the diagnosis was confirmed histologically by identification of herpes viral inclusions and culture of the virus in the presence of inflammation. The third case was considered to have probable HSVE based on the presence of typical cold sore on his lip, typical endoscopic finding, histopathological evidence of inflammation in esophageal biopsies and positive serologic evidence of acute Herpes simplex virus infection. Two cases received an intravenous course of acyclovir and one had self-limited recovery. All three cases had normal immunological workup and excellent health on long-term follow-up.

  14. Guidelines for the Standardization of Genital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joumblat, Natalie R; Chim, Jimmy; Sanchez Aguirre, Priscila Gisselle; Bedolla, Edgar; Salgado, Christopher J

    2018-02-06

    Plastic surgery relies on photography for both clinical practice and research. The Photographic Standards in Plastic Surgery laid the foundation for standardized photography in plastic surgery. Despite these advancements, the current literature lacks guidelines for genital photography, thus resulting in a discordance of documentation. The authors propose photographic standards for the male and female genitalia to establish homogeneity in which information can be accurately exchanged. All medical photographs include a sky-blue background, proper lighting, removal of distractors, consistent camera framing, and standard camera angles. We propose the following guidelines to standardize genital photography. In the anterior upright position, feet are shoulder-width apart and arms are placed posteriorly. The frame is bounded superiorly by the xiphoid-umbilicus midpoint and inferiorly by the patella. For circumferential documentation, frontal 180 degree capture via 45 degree intervals is often sufficient. Images in standard lithotomy position should be captured at both parallel and 45 degrees above the horizontal. Images of the phallus should include both the flaccid and erect states. Despite the increasing incidence of genital procedures, there lacks a standardized methodology in which to document the genitalia, resulting in a substantial heterogeneity in the current literature. Our standardized techniques for genital photography set forth to establish a uniform language that promotes more effective communication with both the patient as well as with colleagues. The proposed photography guidelines provide optimal visualization and standard documentation of the genitalia, allowing for accurate education, meaningful collaborations, and advancement in genital surgery. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Lactoferricin but not lactoferrin inhibit herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakov, Andrey; Jenssen, Håvard; Nordström, Inger; Eriksson, Kristina

    2012-03-01

    We have evaluated the potential of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin for their ability to prevent and/or treat genital HSV-2 infection in mice. We confirm previous data showing that both lactoferrin and lactoferricin have antiviral properties in vitro and can inhibit HSV-2 infection of GMK cells in a dose-dependent manner. When tested in vivo, lactoferricin but not lactoferrin was also a potent inhibitor of HSV-2 infection. When admixed with virus prior to inoculation, lactoferricin inhibited disease development and significantly reduced the viral load in a genital model of HSV-2 infection in mice. Lactoferrin and lactoferricin were also tested for their ability to stimulate the production of chemokines. Neither of the compounds induced the production of CCL3, CCL5, CXCL1 or CXCL2 by mouse splenocytes in vitro. However, when tested in vivo, both lactoferrin and lactoferricin were able to induce local vaginal production of CCL5. Lactoferrin also induced CXCL2 production. The prophylactic and/or therapeutic effects of lactoferrin or lactoferricin were also tested. But none of the compounds were efficient in blocking HSV-2 infection when given 24h prior to HSV-2 infection. Lactoferricin however showed promising results as a therapeutic agent and delayed both disease onset by 3days as well as reducing the viral load almost 15-fold when given as a single dose 24h post-infection. These data show that lactoferricin can block genital herpes infection in mice, and perhaps also be used for post-infection treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Peters

    Full Text Available Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity.

  18. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Cole; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity. PMID:26462293

  19. DIAGNOSIS DAN TATA LAKSANA ENSEFALITIS HERPES SIMPLEKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Yuliantini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infeksi Herpes simpleks pada susunan saraf pusat (SSP merupakan infeksi SSP yang paling beratdan sering berakibat fatal. Angka kejadiannya diperkirakan 1 kasus per 250 000 sampai 500 000orang per tahun, sepertiganya terjadi pada anak-anak. Gejala dan tanda klinis pada fase awal sangattidak khas. Pemberian terapi yang terlambat membawa dampak terjadinya kecacatan permanen.Deteksi virus Herpes simpleks (VHS di dalam cairan serebrospinal dengan polymerase chain reactionmerupakan modalitas pilihan untuk diagnosis ensefalitis herpes simpleks (EHS. Asiklovir intravenamerupakan obat pilihan pertama. Pengobatan segera diberikan kepada pasien yang dicurigai menderitaEHS, kemudian pengobatan dapat dilanjutkan atau dihentikan sesuai konfirmasi laboratorium atauhasil biopsi otak. Pasien yang tidak diberikan antivirus atau pengobatannya terlambat angkakematiannya cukup tinggi.

  20. Four Cases of Urinary Dysfunction Associated with Sacral Herpes Zoster

    OpenAIRE

    松尾, 朋博; 大庭, 康司郎; 宮田, 康好; 井川, 掌; 酒井, 英樹

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by the infection of Varicella-Zoster virus. The anatomical distribution of herpes zoster in the sacral area is only6. 9%1). Moreover, the onset rate of herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction is 0.6%1). The lesion sites of herpes zoster which cause urinary dysfunction are almost lumber and sacral areas. We describe four cases of sacral herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction in this report. All patients were elderly people (66-84 years old), and all patients were adminis...

  1. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-06

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radionuclide imaging in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, C.A.; Robinson, R.G.; Hinthorn, D.R.; Liu, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eight patients with herpes simplex encephalitis among the 10 cases diagnosed at the University of Kansas Medical Center from 1966 to 1976 were studied with /sup 99m/Tc early in their diagnostic work-up. The images were unilaterally positive in the temporal lobe area in all 8 patients. Radionuclide studies can suggest herpes simplex as the specific etiology in cases of encephalitis and can also indicate the best site for brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis by fluorescent antibody techniques. Appropriate antiviral therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to alter the course of this destructive form of viral encephalitis

  3. Neurogenic bladder from occult herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, J F; Walicke, P A; Swenson, M R

    1986-11-01

    Active infection with herpes zoster may cause acute urinary retention, especially when it involves sacral dermatomes. Although frank retention usually develops days to weeks after eruption of the typical rash, bladder incompetence infrequently develops first, raising concern over other, more ominous etiologies. In the case presented, rash appearance was delayed until six weeks after the initial onset of urinary retention, a much longer interval than previously reported. Occult herpes zoster infection should be considered in patients presenting with an acute neurogenic bladder of obscure cause.

  4. Unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a boxer: 'Boxing glove herpes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Begoña; Galache-Osuna, Cristina; Coto-Segura, Pablo; Suárez-Casado, Héctor; Mallo-García, Susana; Jiménez, Jorge Santos-Juanes

    2013-02-01

    Herein, we describe a patient with lesions of cutaneous herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection over the knuckles of both hands in the context of an outbreak among boxers. Interestingly, the infection had an unusually long duration (4 weeks), and was not acquired directly through skin-to-skin contact, as it usually does among athletes (herpes gladiatorum). In our case, transmission was acquired through the use of shared boxing gloves contaminated by HSV-1. To the best of our knowledge, herpes gladiatorum, or wrestler's herpes, has not been described previously in boxers and infection over the knuckles is not commonly reported. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2011 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  5. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genital elephantiasis due to donovanosis: forgotten but not gone yet ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, T; Kanwar, A J

    2012-11-01

    Genital elephantiasis is a disease that is characterized by massive enlargement of the genitalia. Early aetiological diagnosis is of paramount importance so that development of genital elephantiasis can be prevented; otherwise it is not completely reversible with medical therapy and often requires surgical intervention. Chronic mental distress and disability can result as it interferes with daily/routine activities of the affected individual. Over time, the infectious causes of genital elephantiasis have evolved, from syphilis in the pre-penicillin era to donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and recently filariasis, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, HIV and chromoblastomycosis. With a declining prevalence globally, donovanosis is at risk of being forgotten as a cause of genital swelling; however, it is known to persist for years without treatment and can lead to complications such as lymphoedema and genital mutilation. We herein present a case of genital elephantiasis that was eventually diagnosed as being due to donovanosis.

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION Serological profiles of Herpes simplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Mirambo

    Journal of Infectious Diseases, 185, 45-52. Watson-Jones, D., Weiss, H.A., Rusizoka, M., Changalucha, J., Baisley, K., Mugeye, K., Tanton, C.,. Ross, D., Everett, D. & Clayton, T. (2008) Effect of herpes simplex suppression on incidence of HIV among women in Tanzania. New England Journal of Medicine 358: 1560-1571.

  8. Recurrent Herpes Zoster- A Marker of AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Gautam

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32 year old female presented to us with herpes zoster involving the T 8 to T 10 dermatomes. She had a scar involving the same dermatomes on the other half of the body. Investigations revealed that both the patient and her husband were HIV positive with CD4 cell count less than 200.

  9. Herpes zoster: klinik, diagnostik og behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Rønholt, Finn; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful vesicular rash localized to one dermatome. Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is persistent pain three months after the rash started. In recent years several Cochrane reviews and clinical studies on how to treat HZ and PHN have been published. These studies show...

  10. Forebyggelse af herpes zoster med vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Rønholt, Finn; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) are frequently occurring diseases in elderly and in immuno-compromised persons. The live attenuated HZ vaccine boosts an existing immune response, so that the already established varicella-zoster virus infection is kept latent. Vaccination has...

  11. Herpes zoster-induced acute urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Ben; Harvey, Martyn

    2013-06-01

    Urinary retention is a common acute presentation for men in their later decades. Potential contributing pathologies are numerous. We report an unusual case of acute urinary retention requiring catheterisation secondary to sacral herpes zoster reactivation (S2-4) in an 88-year-old man with minimal preceding obstructive symptoms. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  13. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part II: Uterus

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB) is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonanc...

  15. Epidemiology, treatment and prevention of herpes zoster: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Elsam; Mengting, Lu; Kumar, Hanasha; Jianbo, Wu

    2018-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a major health burden that can affect individuals of any age. It is seen more commonly among individuals aged ≥50 years, those with immunocompromised status, and those on immunosuppressant drugs. It is caused by a reactivation of varicella zoster virus infection. Cell-mediated immunity plays a role in this reactivation. Fever, pain, and itch are common symptoms before the onset of rash. Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most common complication associated with herpes zoster. Risk factors and complications associated with herpes zoster depend on the age, immune status, and the time of initializing treatment. Routine vaccination for individuals over 60 years has shown considerable effect in terms of reducing the incidence of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia. Treatment with antiviral drugs and analgesics within 72 hours of rash onset has been shown to reduce severity and complications associated with herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia. This study mainly focuses on herpes zoster using articles and reviews from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and a manual search from Google Scholar. We cover the incidence of herpes zoster, gender distribution, seasonal and regional distribution of herpes zoster, incidence of herpes zoster among immunocompromised individuals, incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia following a zoster infection, complications, management, and prevention of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia.

  16. Mathematical Modeling Predicts that Increased HSV-2 Shedding in HIV-1 Infected Persons Is Due to Poor Immunologic Control in Ganglia and Genital Mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T Schiffer

    Full Text Available A signature feature of HIV infection is poor control of herpes virus infections, which reactivate from latency and cause opportunistic infections. While the general mechanism underlying this observation is deficient CD4+T-cell function, it is unknown whether increased severity of herpes virus infections is due primarily to poor immune control in latent or lytic sites of infection, or whether CD4+ immunodeficiency leads to more critical downstream deficits in humoral or cell-mediated immunologic responses. Here we compare genital shedding patterns of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 in 98 HIV infected and 98 HIV uninfected men matched on length of infection, HSV-1 serostatus and nationality. We demonstrate that high copy HSV-2 shedding is more frequent in HIV positive men, particularly in participants with CD4+ T-cell count <200/μL. Genital shedding is more frequent due to higher rate of shedding episodes, as well as a higher proportion of prolonged shedding episodes. Peak episode viral load was not found to differ between HIV infected and uninfected participants regardless of CD4+ T-cell count. We simulate a mathematical model which recapitulates these findings and identifies that rate of HSV-2 release from neural tissue increases, duration of mucosal cytolytic immune protection decreases, and cell-free viral lifespan increases in HIV infected participants. These results suggest that increased HSV-2 shedding in HIV infected persons may be caused by impaired immune function in both latent and lytic tissue compartments, with deficits in clearance of HSV-2 infected cells and extracellular virus.

  17. Genital piercings: what is known and what people with genital piercings tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Caliendo, Carol; Roberts, Alden E

    2006-06-01

    General and subjective information about those who chose to obtain genital piercings was presented. Particularly, the assumptions made from the literature are refuted by objective and subjective data collected from intimately pierced individuals themselves. Professional nurses must not base practice decisions on assumptions but on the "best evidence with clinical experience, research, (as well as) associated patient values" (Sackett, Strauss, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, 2001, p. 10). Thus, providing clinically competent care is driven by the latest knowledge and evidence from research and patient sources. Data found here provide further empirical evidence that may help to improve client outcomes by advancing evidence-based nursing practice in relation to people with genital piercings.

  18. Campilobacteriose genital bovina e tricomonose genital bovina: epidemiologia, diagnóstico e controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Alves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente atualização trata de duas das mais importantes doenças sexualmente transmitidas de bovinos, a campilobacteriose genital bovina e a tricomonose genital bovina. São abordados aspectos relacionados à epidemiologia destas doenças, principalmente em relação a sua distribuição no Brasil. Também são revisados aspectos importantes de diagnóstico, incluindo as técnicas e interpretação dos resultados, além de medidas de controle para ambas as doenças.

  19. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  20. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  1. Famciclovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repeat outbreaks and to prevent further outbreaks of genital herpes (a herpes virus infection that causes sores to ... when you are having an outbreak of genital herpes. However, genital herpes can be spread to others, even when ...

  2. What Are Some Types of STDs/STIs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to transmit the virus to someone else. 3 Genital Herpes Caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) 4 ... and type 2 (HSV-2). Both can cause genital herpes, although most cases of genital herpes are caused ...

  3. Activation of Herpes Simplex Infection after Tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begolli Gerqari, Antigona; Ferizi, Mybera; Kotori, Merita; Daka, Aferdita; Hapciu, Syzana; Begolli, Ilir; Begolli, Mirije; Gerqari, Idriz

    2018-04-01

    Tattooing is a procedure where ink is applied to an area of the skin, mostly intraepidermally (1). This procedure is carried out mainly for aesthetic purposes. Lately, it has been used as a corrective medical procedure following amputation of mammilla. The procedure is aggressive (2), and the fact that skin is punctured many times with the same needle which cannot be fully sterilized may cause infection of the treated area with bacterial, fungal, or viral agents that may lead to health consequences manifesting in the form of verrucae vulgaris, molluscum contagiosum, and herpes simplex. On the other hand, complications such as granulomas, allergic reactions, Koebner phenomenon, lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, lichen ruber planus, hepatitis C, and HIV infections should also be considered as potential consequences of tattooing (3-7). Even systemic reactions have been reported. Herein we describe a case of herpes infection activation after tattooing. Herein we present the case of a 46-year-old woman, employed in the medical sector, with a two-day history of herpes simplex in the labial area that manifested following application of a cosmetic tattoo meant to outline the lips (Figure 1). Two days after tattoo application, the vesicular lesions appeared along the area that was filled with ink, followed by sub-febrile temperature and fever and a subjective feeling of itching initially, followed by burning sensation and pain. The skin signs located on erythematous base were mainly grouped vesicles with sharply demarcated borders. Regional lymphatic nodes, mainly retro auricular, were enlarged. Within 48 hours, the patient was treated with acyclovir tablets in a dose of 800 mg three times a day and an antipyretic. Acyclovir ointment was administered during the first two days, as well as tetracycline ointment after the second day of the eruption. On the fifth day, we observed regression of the skin changes (Figure 2), and complete healing was achieved after one week. We

  4. [Four cases of urinary dysfunction associated with sacral herpes zoster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomohiro; Oba, Kojiro; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki

    2014-02-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by the infection of Varicella-Zoster virus. The anatomical distribution of herpes zoster in the sacral area is only 6. 9%1). Moreover, the onset rate of herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction is 0.6%1). The lesion sites of herpes zoster which cause urinary dysfunction are almost lumber and sacral areas. We describe four cases of sacral herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction in this report. All patients were elderly people (66-84 years old), and all patients were administered anti-virus drugs and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockers. Because of urinary retention, three patients have performed clean intermittent self-catheterization (CIC) for several weeks. As the lesions of herpes zoster healed, each patient recovered from urinary dysfunction.

  5. antibodies against Herpes simplex virus (HSV)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chi-square analysis was used to determine the association of infection with ... tibody. No statistical association existed between the prevalence of HSV-1&-2 IgG antibodies and the socio-demographic variables ... concern, established by the widespread of genital HSV .... Chi-square test was employed to define relationships.

  6. 2014 UK national guideline for the management of anogenital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Raj; Green, John; Clarke, Emily; Seneviratne, Kanchana; Abbt, Naomi; Evans, Ceri; Bickford, Jane; Nicholson, Marian; O'Farrell, Nigel; Barton, Simon; FitzGerald, Mark; Foley, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    These guidelines concern the management of anogenital herpes simplex virus infections in adults and give advice on diagnosis, management, and counselling of patients. This guideline replaces the 2007 BASHH herpes guidelines and includes new sections on herpes proctitis, key points to cover with patients regarding transmission and removal of advice on the management of HSV in pregnancy which now has a separate joint BASHH/RCOG guideline. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Genital tract malign ancies in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, F.; Jatoi, N.; Das, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The most common malignancy in women is breast carcinoma. The next common cancer is genital tract malignancies which constitute 14% of cancers in women. Objective of this study was to determine the type and frequency of genital tract malignancy in postmenopausal women and to find the age distribution of genital tract malignancies. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics ad Gynaecology Unit-II at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. All postmenopausal women, admitted in the unit due to various pathologies (abdominal masses, bleeding P/V etc.) from January 2005 to December 2007 were included in the study. Clinical evaluation and investigations were done on all patients. Those women who had benign diseases were excluded from the study. Malignancy was confirmed from histopathology report of biopsy specimen. These women were divided into 3 age groups: group I 70 years. Results: Out of 265 postmenopausal women admitted in ward during the study period, malignancy was confirmed in 68 cases (25.66%). The type of malignancy was cervical carcinoma (41, 60.28%), ovarian carcinoma (11, 16.17%), endometrial carcinoma (8, 11.76%), vulval carcinoma (5, 7.35%) vaginal carcinoma (2, 2.94%), and leiomyosarcoma of uterus (1, 1.47%). Increased frequency of cervical and endometrial carcinomas were seen in Group-I cases, while vulval carcinoma was seen more commonly in Group-II cases ( p =0.004). Conclusion: A very high frequency of cervical carcinoma was seen in our patients. There is need for more public awareness to integrate routine Gynae-Pap screening. (author)

  8. Genital anomalies in boys and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Virtanen, Helena E

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of male reproductive disorders, such as testicular cancer and impaired semen quality, is increasing in many, albeit not all, countries. These disorders are aetiologically linked with congenital cryptorchidism and hypospadias by common factors leading to perinatal disruption of normal...... testis differentiation, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). There is recent evidence that also the prevalence of genital malformations is increasing and the rapid pace of increase suggests that lifestyle factors and exposure to environmental chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties may play...... identified as potential risk factors for cryptorchidism. It may be the cocktail effect of many simultaneous exposures that result in adverse effects, especially during foetal life and infancy....

  9. Case of Herpes encephalitis followed-up by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Y.; Nagai, S.; Nishibayashi, Y.; Okamoto, H.; Goishi, J. (Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital, Ehime (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    A 9-month-old girl was admitted with lethargy, fever and convulsion. EGG showed localized slow waves in the right temporal region. CT showed a localized low density area accompanied by a hemorrhagic focus in the right frontal lobe. Herpes encephalitis was suspected, and cytosine arabinoside was administered. The antibody titers of the serum and cerebrospinal fluid against herpes simplex virus type I significantly rose. Clinically the patient recovered without serious sequelae. CT revealed marked cerebral atrophy and subdural hematoma which were surgically treated. The importance of CT in the diagnosis and prognosis of herpes encephalitis was argued, and CT findings of herpes encephalitis were discussed.

  10. A case of Herpes encephalitis followed-up by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Yukiko; Nagai, Shinya; Nishibayashi, Yohei; Okamoto, Hirofumi; Goishi, Junji

    1982-01-01

    A 9-month-old girl was admitted with lethargy, fever and convulsion. EGG showed localized slow waves in the right temporal region. CT showed a localized low density area accompanied by a hemorrhagic focus in the right frontal lobe. Herpes encephalitis was suspected, and cytosine arabinoside was administered. The antibody titers of the serum and cerebrospinal fluid against herpes simplex virus type I significantly rose. Clinically the patient recovered without serious sequelae. CT revealed marked cerebral atrophy and subdural hematoma which were surgically treated. The importance of CT in the diagnosis and prognosis of herpes encephalitis was argued, and CT findings of herpes encephalitis were discussed. (Chiba, N.)

  11. Genital infections and risk of premature rupture of membranes in Mulago Hospital, Uganda: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakubulwa, Sarah; Kaye, Dan K; Bwanga, Freddie; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Mirembe, Florence M

    2015-10-16

    Inflammatory mediators that weaken and cause membrane rupture are released during the course of genital infections among pregnant women. We set out to determine the association of common genital infections (Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus, Bacterial vaginosis, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and candidiasis) and premature rupture of membranes in Mulago hospital, Uganda. We conducted an unmatched case-control study among women who were in the third trimester of pregnancy at New Mulago hospital, Uganda. The cases had PROM and the controls had intact membranes during latent phase of labour in the labour ward. We used interviewer-administered questionnaires to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric and medical history. Laboratory tests were conducted to identify T. vaginalis, syphilis, N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus, Bacterial vaginosis, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and candidiasis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI of the association between genital infections and PROM. There was an association between PROM and abnormal vaginal discharge (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.70 and AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.18-4.47), presence of candidiasis (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.14-0.52 and AOR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.46) and T. vaginalis (OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.18-7.56 and AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.51-11.80). However, there was no association between PROM and presence of C. trachomatis (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 0.37-11.49) and HSV-2 serostatus (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.63-2.09). Few or no patients with Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Group B streptococcus or syphilis were identified among the cases and controls. Co-infection of Trichomoniasis and candidiasis was not associated with PROM (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.16-11.10). Co infection with T. vaginalis and C. trachomatis was associated with PROM (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.21-7.84 and AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1

  12. Herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript sequence downstream of the promoter influences type-specific reactivation and viral neurotropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertke, Andrea S; Patel, Amita; Krause, Philip R

    2007-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency in sensory nerve ganglia during acute infection and may later periodically reactivate to cause recurrent disease. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) reactivates more efficiently than HSV-2 from trigeminal ganglia while HSV-2 reactivates more efficiently than HSV-1 from lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) to cause recurrent orofacial and genital herpes, respectively. In a previous study, a chimeric HSV-2 that expressed the latency-associated transcript (LAT) from HSV-1 reactivated similarly to wild-type HSV-1, suggesting that the LAT influences the type-specific reactivation phenotype of HSV-2. To further define the LAT region essential for type-specific reactivation, we constructed additional chimeric HSV-2 viruses by replacing the HSV-2 LAT promoter (HSV2-LAT-P1) or 2.5 kb of the HSV-2 LAT sequence (HSV2-LAT-S1) with the corresponding regions from HSV-1. HSV2-LAT-S1 was impaired for reactivation in the guinea pig genital model, while its rescuant and HSV2-LAT-P1 reactivated with a wild-type HSV-2 phenotype. Moreover, recurrences of HSV-2-LAT-S1 were frequently fatal, in contrast to the relatively mild recurrences of the other viruses. During recurrences, HSV2-LAT-S1 DNA increased more in the sacral cord compared to its rescuant or HSV-2. Thus, the LAT sequence region, not the LAT promoter region, provides essential elements for type-specific reactivation of HSV-2 and also plays a role in viral neurotropism. HSV-1 DNA, as quantified by real-time PCR, was more abundant in the lumbar spinal cord, while HSV-2 DNA was more abundant in the sacral spinal cord, which may provide insights into the mechanism for type-specific reactivation and different patterns of central nervous system infection of HSV-1 and HSV-2.

  13. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital tract malignancy is common in our low resource setting. Options now exist for prevention, detection, treatment, and palliative care for the wide spectrum of female genital tract malignancies. Women will continue to die from these cancers unless health professionals and civil society adopt means ...

  14. factors associated with perceived continuation of females' genital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    It has a long-term physiological, sexual and psychological effect on women. Females' genital ... Muslim religion were predictors of continuation of females' genital mutilation. Key words: Female ... deeply entrenched in social, economic and cultural structures. FGM is .... have more access and exposure to media and advo-.

  15. Genital elephantiasis as a complication of chromoblastomycosis: A diagnosis overlooked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nidhi; Marfatia, Y. S.

    2009-01-01

    Over the decades, causes of genital elephantiasis have changed only to become elusive to etiological diagnosis. This is a case of 20 year old male who presented with genital elephantiasis occurring due to lymphatic obstruction caused by chromoblastomycosis and super added erysipelas. The diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis was clenched by biopsy. We describe this case for the rarity of its occurrence. PMID:21938115

  16. Preliminary observation of genital secretions, growth rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane rats are large terrestial rodents which have the potential to increase animal protein intake. There is paucity of information on the genital secretions and growth rate of caged cane rats. This study observed the genital secretions, growth rate, feeds, feeding and the behaviour of caged cane rats. When animals adjusted to ...

  17. Female genital tract cancers in Sagamu, southwest, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. Design: This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Setting: OOUTH is a ...

  18. Decompressive craniectomy in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hypertension is a common cause of morbidity in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE. HSE is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis. Hereby we report a case of HSE in which decompressive craniectomy was performed to treat refractory intracranial hypertension. A 32-year-old male presented with headache, vomiting, fever, and focal seizures involving the right upper limb. Cerebrospinal fluid-meningoencephalitic profile was positive for herpes simplex. Magnetic resonance image of the brain showed swollen and edematous right temporal lobe with increased signal in gray matter and subcortical white matter with loss of gray, white differentiation in T2-weighted sequences. Decompressive craniectomy was performed in view of refractory intracranial hypertension. Decompressive surgery for HSE with refractory hypertension can positively affect patient survival, with good outcomes in terms of cognitive functions.

  19. HERPES ZOSTER KRURIS DEXTRA: LAPORAN KASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Agus Bhakti Suputra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster adalah manifestasi klinis karena reaktivasi virus varisela zoster (VZV. Karakteristik penyakit ini ditandai dengan adanya ruam vesikular unilateral yang berkelompok dengan nyeri yang radikular sekitar dermatom. Dilaporkan kasus seorang laki-laki 45 tahun, diagnosis herpes zoster kruris dextra, gambaran klinis berupa vesikel bergerombol multipel, berbentuk bulat, dengan ukuran 0,3-0,5 cm diatas kulit eritematosus, unilateral, tidak menyilang garis tengah, umur vesikel dalam satu gerombolan sama, tetapi dengan gerombolan yang lain tidak sama, kulit diantara gerombolan normal. Pemeriksaan penunjang tes Tzank, hasilnya negatif dengan tidak ditemukannya sel giant multinukleat. Pengobatan diberikan asiklovir 5x800 mg per hari diminum secara oral selama 7 hari, bedak salisil 1% dan mentol 0,5 % dioleskan dua kali sehari pada lesi kering. Prognosis pasien baik.  

  20. Herpes zoster and HIV infection in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naburi, A E; Leppard, B

    2000-04-01

    Two hundred consecutive patients with herpes zoster attending the skin clinic at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) were examined and checked for HIV infection. They ranged in age from 10 months to 86 years with the majority in their 20s and 30s. The dermatomes involved were thoracic (97), trigeminal (50), cervical (37), lumbar (19) and sacral (3). Six (3%) had more than one dermatome involved and 2 (1%) had disseminated disease. Only 2 (1%) had severe ulceration of the skin and all healed in less than 4 weeks. In children under the age of 10 years and in adults between the ages of 20 and 49 years virtually 100% were HIV positive; even in the age group 50-59 more than three-quarters were HIV positive. We conclude that the presence of herpes zoster at any site is a good indication that the patient is HIV positive except in the teens and the very elderly.

  1. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, M.; Sawada, T.; Kuriyama, Y.; Kinugawa, H.; Yamaguchi, T. (National Cardivascular Center, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-10-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis.

  2. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masashi; Sawada, Tohru; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Kinugawa, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    1981-01-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemipare sis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. (author)

  3. Computed tomography of herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.; Backmund, H.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen

    1984-01-01

    Referring to 9 patients of our own material we report on the pattern of distribution and the development of CT-changes in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Our cases include the outstanding findings of a primarily hemorrhagic HSE and an extensive calcification at the residual stage on the borderline of widespread tissue necrosis on a baby. With respect to literature we receive a quite homogenous picture, reflecting the crucial characteristics of the disease as known from neuropathology. (orig.) [de

  4. Herpes simplex encephalitis: increased retention of Tc-99m HMPAO on acetazolamide enhanced brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Kwon Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyun; Cho, Suk Shin

    1998-01-01

    We present an interesting case of herpes simplex encephalitis, which showed increased upta unilateral temporal cortex on brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO, but in bilateral tem cortex after acetazolamide administration. A 42-year-old man was admitted via emergency room, due to rapidly progressing hea disorientation and mental changes. On neurologic examination, neck stiffness and Kernig sign noted. CSF examination showed pleocytosis with lymphcyte predominance. MRI showed swelling bilateral temporal lobe with left predominance, suggestive of herpes simplex encephalitis. Baseline/ Acetazolamide brain perfusion SPECT were acquired consecutively at the same position IV administration of 740MBq and additional 1480 MBq of Tc-99m HMPAO respectively. The temporal and inferior frontal cortex showed markedly increased perfusion on the baseline acetazolamide-enhanced SPECT images. The right temporal cortex showed normal uptake on the b SPECT images, and markedly increased uptake after acetazolamide administration, which seemed to the abundant vascularity at the acute inflammation site without marked brain damage. The fo brain perfusion SPECT after 6 months showed perfusion defect in left temporal cortex but norm perfusion in right temporal cortex. Therefore, we can conclude that baseline SPECT is helpful for the prediction of the prognosis acetazolamide SPECT for the evaluation of the extent of herpes simples encephalitis

  5. Facile preparation of a DNA sensor for rapid herpes virus detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh, E-mail: tampd-hast@mail.hut.edu.vn [Hanoi Advanced School of Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Technology (Viet Nam); Tuan, Mai Anh, E-mail: tuanma-itims@mail.hut.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Technology (Viet Nam); Huy, Tran Quang [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE), 01 Yersin, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Le, Anh-Tuan [Hanoi Advanced School of Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Technology (Viet Nam); Hieu, Nguyen Van, E-mail: hieu@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Technology (Viet Nam)

    2010-10-12

    In this paper, a simple DNA sensor platform was developed for rapid herpes virus detection in real samples. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences of the herpes simplex virus (DNA probe) were directly immobilized on the surface of interdigitated electrodes by electrochemical polymerization along with pyrrole monomers. The potential was scanned from - 0.7 to + 0.6 V, and the scanning rate was 100 mV/s. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to verify specific DNA sequence binding and the conducting polymer. The morphology of the conducting polymer doped with DNA strands was characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope. As-obtained DNA sensor was used to detect the herpes virus DNA in the real samples. The results show that the current DNA sensors detected the lowest DNA concentration of 2 nM. This sensitivity appears to be better than that of the DNA sensors prepared by immobilization of the DNA probe on the 3-aminopropyl-triethoxy-silance (APTS) membrane.

  6. Facile preparation of a DNA sensor for rapid herpes virus detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Tuan, Mai Anh; Huy, Tran Quang; Le, Anh-Tuan; Hieu, Nguyen Van

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a simple DNA sensor platform was developed for rapid herpes virus detection in real samples. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences of the herpes simplex virus (DNA probe) were directly immobilized on the surface of interdigitated electrodes by electrochemical polymerization along with pyrrole monomers. The potential was scanned from - 0.7 to + 0.6 V, and the scanning rate was 100 mV/s. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to verify specific DNA sequence binding and the conducting polymer. The morphology of the conducting polymer doped with DNA strands was characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope. As-obtained DNA sensor was used to detect the herpes virus DNA in the real samples. The results show that the current DNA sensors detected the lowest DNA concentration of 2 nM. This sensitivity appears to be better than that of the DNA sensors prepared by immobilization of the DNA probe on the 3-aminopropyl-triethoxy-silance (APTS) membrane.

  7. Herpes zoster oticus: A rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Gondivkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster oticus also known as Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a rare complication of herpes zoster in which reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection in the geniculate ganglion causes otalgia, auricular vesicles, and peripheral facial paralysis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is rare in children and affects both sexes equally. Incidence and clinical severity increases when host immunity is compromised. Because these symptoms do not always present at the onset, this syndrome can be misdiagnosed. Although secondary to Bell′s palsy in terms of the cause of acute atraumatic peripheral facial paralysis, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, with incidence ranged from 0.3 to 18%, has a worse prognosis. Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 12% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. The most advisable method to treat Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the combination therapy with acyclovir and prednisone but still not promising, and several prerequisites are required for better results. We present a case of 32-year-old man suffering from Ramsay Hunt syndrome with grade V facial palsy treated effectively with rehabilitation program, after the termination of the combination therapy of acyclovir and prednisone.

  8. Herpes simplex encephalitis : from virus to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Flore; Deback, Claire; Agut, Henri

    2011-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the cause of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), a devastating human disease which occurs in 2-4 cases per million/year. HSE results either from a primary infection or virus reactivation, in accordance with the common pattern of HSV infection which is a chronic lifelong process. However its pathophysiology remains largely unknown and its poor prognosis is in contrast with the usually good tolerance of most clinical herpetic manifestations. HSE is due to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) in most cases but HSV type 2 (HSV-2) may be also implicated, especially in infants in the context of neonatal herpes. Polymerase chain reaction detection of HSV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid is the diagnosis of choice for HSE. Acyclovir, a nucleoside analogue which inhibits viral DNA polymerase activity, is the reference treatment of HSE while foscarnet constitutes an alternative therapy and the efficacy of cidofovir is currently uncertain in that context. The emergence of HSV resistance to acyclovir, a phenomenon which is mainly observed among immunocompromised patients, is a current concern although no case of HSE due to an acyclovir-resistant HSV strain has been reported to date. Nevertheless the identification and development of novel therapeutic strategies against HSV appears to be a non dispensable objective for future research in virology.

  9. Intracerebral hematoma complicating herpes simplex encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sainz, Aida; Escalza-Cortina, Inés; Guio-Carrión, Laura; Matute-Nieves, Alexandra; Gómez-Beldarrain, Marian; Carbayo-Lozano, Guillermo; Garcia-Monco, Juan Carlos

    2013-10-01

    To describe two patients who developed an intracranial hematoma as a complication of temporal lobe encephalitis due to herpes simplex type 1 virus, and to review the literature. The first patient, a 45-year-old woman developed a brain hematoma in the location of the encephalitic lesion on day 9 after the onset of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) that required surgical evacuation. The second patient, a 53-year-old woman was being treated for HSE; on day 8 after admission a temporal lobe hematoma with midline shift was disclosed due to persistent headache. Both patients survived but were left with sequelae. We conducted a PubMed/MEDLINE search from 1986 to April 2013 on this topic. We have found 20 additional cases reported in the literature and review their characteristics. Hemorrhage was present on admission in 35% of pooled patients, and consistently involved the area of encephalitis. Clinical presentation of intracranial hemorrhage overlapped the encephalitic symptoms in two-thirds of the patients. Half of patients underwent surgery. Overall, mortality rate was low (5.2%), and half of patients fully recovered. Intracranial bleeding, although infrequent, can complicate the evolution of herpes simplex encephalitis and should be borne in mind since its presence may require neurosurgery. Although its presentation may overlap the encephalitic features, the lack of improvement or the worsening of initial symptoms, particularly during the second week of admission, should lead to this suspicion and to perform a neuroimaging study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In defence of genital autonomy for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    Arora and Jacobs (2016) assume that liberal societies should tolerate non-therapeutic infant male circumcision, and argue that it follows from this that they should similarly tolerate-or even encourage-what the authors regard as 'de minimis' forms of female genital mutilation (as defined by the World Health Organization). In this commentary, I argue that many serious problems would be likely to follow from a policy of increased tolerance for female genital mutilation, and that it may therefore be time to consider a less tolerant attitude toward non-therapeutic infant male circumcision. Ultimately, I suggest that children of whatever sex or gender should be free from having healthy parts of their most intimate sexual organs either damaged or removed, before they can understand what is at stake in such an intervention and agree to it themselves. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. [Emergencies of the external genital area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A; Sperling, H

    2016-04-01

    In addition to epididymitis and testicular torsion, emergencies of the external genital are rare. Rapid diagnosis and therapy are essential so that immediate therapy can be provided, which is important for survival (Fournier gangrene) of the patient or for the preservation of erectile function (priapism and penile fracture). A detailed patient history and clinical examination are generally sufficient for correct diagnosis. Under certain circumstances, it might be useful to perform ultrasound, computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging or retrograde urethrography. A urine analysis is obligatory. In case of penetrating injuries and genital trauma in females, additional imaging should be performed because these are often associated with concomitant injuries of the rectum, vagina, or bladder. Special cases are gunshot wounds, in which caliber and type of weapon play an important role for the degree of damage, and animal or human bites. For animal bites, the risk for rabies infection and in case of a human bite the risk for transmission of HIV and hepatitis should be taken into consideration and post-exposure prophylaxis should possibly be offered.

  12. Factors predicting the acceptance of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibody testing among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimet, Gregory D; Rosenthal, Susan L; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Brady, Rebecca C; Tu, Wanzhu; Wu, Jingwei; Bernstein, David I; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Stone, Katherine M; Leichliter, Jami S; Fife, Kenneth H

    2004-11-01

    The rates and determinants of acceptance of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) testing have not been adequately studied. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with acceptance of HSV-2 antibody testing in individuals with no history of genital herpes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study followed by the offer of free HSV-2 serologic testing at an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, 2 general adult medical clinics, an urban university campus, and an urban adolescent medicine clinic. A total of 1199 individuals aged 14 to 30 years completed the survey and were offered testing. A total of 68.4% accepted HSV-2 testing. Factors independently associated with acceptance were female sex, older age, having an STD history, having 1 or more sexual partners in the last 6 months, perceived vulnerability to HSV-2 infection, and perceived benefits of HSV-2 testing. Fear of needles predicted rejection of testing, as did attending a general medical clinic versus an STD clinic and nonwhite race. There is a substantial interest in HSV-2 antibody testing across a variety of settings. Those at greatest behavioral and historic risk for HSV-2 infection, women, and persons whose health beliefs are consistent with testing are more likely to accept serologic testing when it is offered.

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Glycoprotein Interaction with HVEM Influences Virus-Specific Recall Cellular Responses at the Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Kopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of susceptible cells by herpes simplex virus (HSV requires the interaction of the HSV gD glycoprotein with one of two principal entry receptors, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM or nectins. HVEM naturally functions in immune signaling, and the gD-HVEM interaction alters innate signaling early after mucosal infection. We investigated whether the gD-HVEM interaction during priming changes lymphocyte recall responses in the murine intravaginal model. Mice were primed with attenuated HSV-2 expressing wild-type gD or mutant gD unable to engage HVEM and challenged 32 days later with virulent HSV-2 expressing wild-type gD. HSV-specific CD8+ T cells were decreased at the genital mucosa during the recall response after priming with virus unable to engage HVEM but did not differ in draining lymph nodes. CD4+ T cells, which are critical for entry of HSV-specific CD8+ T cells into mucosa in acute infection, did not differ between the two groups in either tissue. An inverse association between Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells and CD8+ infiltration into the mucosa was not statistically significant. CXCR3 surface expression was not significantly different among different lymphocyte subsets. We conclude that engagement of HVEM during the acute phase of HSV infection influences the antiviral CD8+ recall response by an unexplained mechanism.

  14. Characterization of herpes simplex virus type 2 latency-associated transcription in human sacral ganglia and in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croen, K D; Ostrove, J M; Dragovic, L; Straus, S E

    1991-01-01

    The ability of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) to establish latency in and reactivate from sacral dorsal root sensory ganglia is the basis for recurrent genital herpes. The expression of HSV-2 genes in latently infected human sacral ganglia was investigated by in situ hybridization. Hybridizations with a probe from the long repeat region of HSV-2 revealed strong nuclear signals overlying neurons in sacral ganglia from five of nine individuals. The RNA detected overlaps with the transcript for infected cell protein O but in the opposite, or "anti-sense," orientation. These observations mimic those made previously with HSV-1 in human trigeminal ganglia and confirm the recent findings during latency in HSV-2-infected mice and guinea pigs. Northern hybridization of RNA from infected Vero cells showed that an HSV-2 latency-associated transcript was similar in size to the larger (1.85 kb) latency transcript of HSV-1. Thus, HSV-1 and HSV-2 latency in human sensory ganglia are similar, if not identical, in terms of their cellular localization and pattern of transcription.

  15. Laparoscopic findings in female genital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Roy, Kallol K; Pushparaj, M; Kumar, S; Malhotra, N; Mittal, S

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the laparoscopic findings in genital tuberculosis (TB). A total of 85 women of genital TB, who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for infertility or chronic pelvic pain were enrolled in this retrospective study conducted in our unit at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India from September 2004 to 2007. The mean age was 28.2 years and the mean parity was 0.24. Most women were from poor socioeconomic status (68.1%). Past history of TB was seen in 29 (34.1%) women with pulmonary TB in 19 (22.35%) women and extrapulmonary in 10 (11.7%) women. Most women presented with infertility (90.6% primary 72.9%; secondary 17.6%) while the rest had chronic pelvic pain (9.4%). The mean duration of infertility was 6.2 years. A total of 49 (57.6%) women had normal menses, while hypomenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea and menorrhagia were seen in 25 (30.1%), 3 (3.5%), 5 (5.9%), and 2 (2.4%) women respectively. Diagnosis of genital TB was made by histopathological evidence of TB granuloma in 16 (18.8%) (Endometrial biopsy in 12.9%, laparoscopy biopsy in 5.9%) women, demonstration of acid fast bacilli (AFB) on microscopy in 2(2.3%), positive AFB culture in 2 (2.3%), positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 55 (64.7%) and laparoscopic findings of genital TB in 40 (47.1%). The various findings on laparoscopy were tubercles on peritoneum (12.9%) or ovary (1.2%), tubovarian masses (7.1%), caseous nodules (5.8%), encysted ascitis in 7.1% women. Various grades of pelvic adhesions were seen in 56(65.8%) women. The various findings on fallopian tubes were normal looking tubes in (7.1%), inability to visualize in 12(14.1%), presence of tubercles on tubes in 3 (3.52%), caseous granuloma in 3 (3.52%), hydrosalpinx in 15 (17.6%) (Right tube 11.7%, left tube 5.9%), pyosalphinx in 3 (3.5%) on right tube and 2 (2.35%) in left tube, beaded tube in 3 (3.5%) on right tube, 4 (4.7%) in left tube with tobacco pouch appearance in 2 (2.35%) women. The right tube

  16. Simple prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Han M, Partin AW. Simple prostatectomy: open and robot-assisted laparoscopic approaches. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  17. Bilateral symmetrical herpes zoster in an immunocompetent patient (herpes zoster duplex symmetricus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfan-ul-bari; Iftikhar, N.; Rahman, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a common disease of adulthood. Its incidence is low in childhood and adolescence. Certain risk factors like hematological malignancies or immunosuppression due to any cause may lead to onset at an early age. There is a unilateral appearance of grouped vesicular eruption on an erythematous background which may involve contiguous dermatomes. Rarely the lesions may occur bilaterally in an otherwise healthy individual. We present a case of herpes zoster, with lesions having atypical distribution involving bilaterally symmetrical dermatomes over the lower chest.(author)

  18. [Pemphigus and herpes: Multicentre survey and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlant, M; Seta, V; Bernard, P; Fourati, S; Meritet, J-F; Wolkenstein, P; Dupin, N; Joly, P; Chosidow, O; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S

    2018-06-01

    Although herpes superinfection is a well-known complication of pemphigus, it has not been widely investigated. To investigate the frequency and features of herpes infection in patients with ongoing pemphigus. We carried out a multicenter retrospective study between 2008 and 2016 in patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus presenting active herpes infection. Clinical, virological, immunological and therapeutic data were collated. We performed a literature review for pemphigus and herpes. Among the 191 pemphigus patients, screening for herpes (PCR or culture) was carried out in 11 to 71 % of subjects, depending on the center in question. Twenty-four patients (12 women, mean age 58 years) presented at least one episode of herpes infection. The frequency of positivity ranged from 0 to 42 % by center. Twenty-one cases consisted of pemphigus vulgaris and infection occurred at a mucosal site in 19 patients. Herpes infection was identified at the time of diagnosis in 15 patients and 17 patients received no specific treatment for their pemphigus. The virus was identified using PCR in 23 cases. Ten patients subsequently received prophylactic treatment for herpes. The mean duration of follow-up was 36 months (0-89 months). Thirteen of the 24 patients had 23 relapses of pemphigus; PCR testing for herpes was performed 19 times and was positive in 6 cases (31.5 %). Our study showed wide variation in the incidence of herpes superinfection in patients with pemphigus, reflecting the different screening approach at each center (being performed either routinely or only in the event of strong suspicion). The prognostic value of routine screening for herpes in patients with active pemphigus lesions remains to be demonstrated by further prospective investigations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, W.A.; Zepeda, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present the results obtained from our systematic search of a simple Lie group that unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions in a single truly unified theory. We work with fractionally charged quarks, and allow for particles and antiparticles to belong to the same irreducible representation. We found that models based on SU(6), SU(7), SU(8) and SU(10) are viable candidates for simple unification. (author). 23 refs

  20. Amino acid substitutions in the thymidine kinase gene of induced acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Ainulkhir; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug of choice in healthcare setting to treat infections caused by herpes viruses, including, but not limited to genital herpes, cold sores, shingles and chicken pox. Acyclovir resistance has emerged significantly due to extensive use and misuse of this antiviral in human, especially in immunocompromised patients. However, it remains unclear about the amino acid substitutions in thymidine (TK) gene, which specifically confer the resistance-associated mutation in herpes simplex virus. Hence, acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 was selected at high concentration (2.0 - 4.5 μg/mL), and the TK-gene was subjected to sequencing and genotypic characterization. Genotypic sequences comparison was done using HSV-1 17 (GenBank Accesion no. X14112) for resistance-associated mutation determination whereas HSV-1 KOS, HSV-1 473/08 and HSV clinical isolates sequences were used for polymorphism-associated mutation. The result showed that amino acid substitutions at the non-conserved region (UKM-1: Gln34Lys, UKM-2: Arg32Ser & UKM-5: Arg32Cys) and ATP-binding site (UKM-3: Tyr53End & UKM-4: Ile54Leu) of the TK-gene. These discoveries play an important role to extend another dimension to the evolution of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 and suggest that selection at high ACV concentration induced ACV-resistant HSV-1 evolution. These findings also expand the knowledge on the type of mutations among acyclovir-resistant HSV-1. In conclusion, HSV-1 showed multiple strategies to exhibit acyclovir resistance, including amino acid substitutions in the TK gene.

  1. Operculum syndrome: unusual feature of herpes simplex encephalitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, J. C.; Haenggeli, C. A.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis in adults and young patients carries a high mortality and morbidity. Its presentation may be nonspecific, sometimes hampering early diagnosis. Two young children are reported with herpes simplex encephalitis in whom the operculum syndrome was an outstanding feature. This

  2. Herpes viruses, cytokines, and altered hemostasis in vital exhaustion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Diest, R. van; Hamulyak, K.; Maes, M.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Appels, A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections with herpes viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that vital exhaustion (VE) is associated with multiple herpesvirus infections, such as herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and

  3. Herpes Zoster ophthalmicus and HIV seropositivity in South-south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpes zoster is a painful vesiculobullous dermatitis which occurs as a result of previously established varicella zoster virus infection. It is a well established fact that Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is a well known marker of human immune deficiency virus infection even in Africans. The aim of this study is to determine if indeed ...

  4. The incidence of neonatal herpes in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeran, J.; Wildschut, H.; Gaytant, M.A.; Galama, J.M.D.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Meijden, W.I. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In The Netherlands the incidence of neonatal herpes was 2.0-2.9 per 100,000 live births during the period 1981-1998. The low incidence warranted a rather conservative prevention policy. OBJECTIVES: To monitor for potential changes in the incidence of neonatal herpes in The Netherlands

  5. Frequency of Herpes Zoster Recurrence in Central District of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae Won; Lee, Jin Yong; Her, Young; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Sang Seok

    2017-10-01

    Herpes zoster is characterized by unilateral grouped vesicles along the distribution of a dermatome. A global recurrence rate as low as 0.5%∼6.2% has been reported for herpes zoster. The recurrence of herpes zoster is higher in immunocompromised patients and older patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency of herpes zoster recurrence and factors that can influence its recurrence. From January 2005 to December 2015, 14,343 patients with herpes zoster were enrolled in this study. The patients were diagnosed at Hallym University Medical Centers and Kangwon National University Hospital in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Gangwon. Herpes zoster recurrence and patient characteristics were surveyed by medical record review and a telephonic survey. The overall frequency of herpes zoster recurrence was 1.18%. The frequency of recurrence was higher in women than in men. It was also higher in patients aged 50∼70 years than in patients who were younger or older than this. Additionally, we assessed that the frequency of recurrence was statistically higher in patients with a compromised immune system and in patients who experienced longer lasting pain during their first episode. The frequency of herpes zoster recurrence is more common in women, older age, patient with longer pain duration and immunocompromised patients.

  6. Clinical and morphological characteristics of herpes zoster in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubey Anand

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and seven cases (6 children and 101 adults of herpes zoster were recruited over a period of two years. The frequency of herpes zoster amongst skin OPD cases was found to be 0.34 per cent. The male to female ratio was 1.74:1. The most common prodromal symptom seen was paresthesia in 25 (23.36% cases followed by itching in 21 (19.62% cases.Most common presenting complaint was pain in 97 (90.65% cases. Ninety nine cases had classical herpes zoster followed by necrotic / ulcerated herpes zoster in 5 cases and hemorrhagic herpes zoster in 3 cases. Thoracic dermatome was the most common dermatome involved in 64 (59.8% cases followed by cervical in 17 (15.8% cases. Unidermatomal involvement was seen in 81 (75.7% cases, followed by multidermatomal in 18 (16.8% cases and disseminated in 8 (7.4% cases. Forty six cases were screened for HIV, out of them; six cases (4 males, 2 females were seropositive for HIV. Classical herpes zoster was a feature in four cases; however, one case each also had necrotic and hemorrhagic form of herpes zoster. To conclude, herpes zoster commonly occurs in young adults in India with presenting symptoms such as pain, itching and fever.

  7. Recidiverende erythema multiforme udløst af herpes simplex-virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård Grejsen, Dorthe; Henningsen, Emil

    2012-01-01

    We describe two cases of recurrent erythema multiforme, both associated to infection with herpes simplex virus. The importance of subclinical herpes is illustrated. Antiviral and additional treatment is described.......We describe two cases of recurrent erythema multiforme, both associated to infection with herpes simplex virus. The importance of subclinical herpes is illustrated. Antiviral and additional treatment is described....

  8. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G E; Rovnak, Joel; Badani, Hussain; Cohrs, Randall J

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; human herpesvirus 1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) are human neurotropic alphaherpesviruses that cause lifelong infections in ganglia. Following primary infection and establishment of latency, HSV-1 reactivation typically results in herpes labialis (cold sores), but can occur frequently elsewhere on the body at the site of primary infection (e.g. whitlow), particularly at the genitals. Rarely, HSV-1 reactivation can cause encephalitis; however, a third of the cases of HSV-1 encephalitis are associated with HSV-1 primary infection. Primary VZV infection causes varicella (chickenpox) following which latent virus may reactivate decades later to produce herpes zoster (shingles), as well as an increasingly recognized number of subacute, acute and chronic neurological conditions. Following primary infection, both viruses establish a latent infection in neuronal cells in human peripheral ganglia. However, the detailed mechanisms of viral latency and reactivation have yet to be unravelled. In both cases latent viral DNA exists in an 'end-less' state where the ends of the virus genome are joined to form structures consistent with unit length episomes and concatemers, from which viral gene transcription is restricted. In latently infected ganglia, the most abundantly detected HSV-1 RNAs are the spliced products originating from the primary latency associated transcript (LAT). This primary LAT is an 8.3 kb unstable transcript from which two stable (1.5 and 2.0 kb) introns are spliced. Transcripts mapping to 12 VZV genes have been detected in human ganglia removed at autopsy; however, it is difficult to ascribe these as transcripts present during latent infection as early-stage virus reactivation may have transpired in the post-mortem time period in the ganglia. Nonetheless, low-level transcription of VZV ORF63 has been repeatedly detected in multiple ganglia removed as close to death as possible. There is increasing

  9. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Rovnak, Joel; Badani, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; human herpesvirus 1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) are human neurotropic alphaherpesviruses that cause lifelong infections in ganglia. Following primary infection and establishment of latency, HSV-1 reactivation typically results in herpes labialis (cold sores), but can occur frequently elsewhere on the body at the site of primary infection (e.g. whitlow), particularly at the genitals. Rarely, HSV-1 reactivation can cause encephalitis; however, a third of the cases of HSV-1 encephalitis are associated with HSV-1 primary infection. Primary VZV infection causes varicella (chickenpox) following which latent virus may reactivate decades later to produce herpes zoster (shingles), as well as an increasingly recognized number of subacute, acute and chronic neurological conditions. Following primary infection, both viruses establish a latent infection in neuronal cells in human peripheral ganglia. However, the detailed mechanisms of viral latency and reactivation have yet to be unravelled. In both cases latent viral DNA exists in an ‘end-less’ state where the ends of the virus genome are joined to form structures consistent with unit length episomes and concatemers, from which viral gene transcription is restricted. In latently infected ganglia, the most abundantly detected HSV-1 RNAs are the spliced products originating from the primary latency associated transcript (LAT). This primary LAT is an 8.3 kb unstable transcript from which two stable (1.5 and 2.0 kb) introns are spliced. Transcripts mapping to 12 VZV genes have been detected in human ganglia removed at autopsy; however, it is difficult to ascribe these as transcripts present during latent infection as early-stage virus reactivation may have transpired in the post-mortem time period in the ganglia. Nonetheless, low-level transcription of VZV ORF63 has been repeatedly detected in multiple ganglia removed as close to death as possible. There is

  10. [Ritualistic female genital mutilation. The sentiment of the women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, F; Abboud, P; Mansour, G; Zanardi, M; Quéreux, C

    2001-11-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered as the most dangerous custom still ritually practiced and 2 million girls undergo the ordeal each year. This practice is anchored and fixed firmly in numerous African people's culture and Western countries are confronted to it through African immigrants. In order to understand the justifications and the consequences of FGM we interviewed 14 genitally mutilated African women living in France. Unfortunately and despite the conscious knowledge of consequences and absurd side of such practice, yet it seems to be perpetuated over the descendants. Educational approach is the best solution to fight female genital mutilation fixed firmly in numerous African people's culture.

  11. [Sarcoidosis of the female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šefčíková, A; Turková, M; Žurková, M

    To present the findings of sarcoidosis on female genital tract. Review. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital Opava. Overview of published findings from case studies. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear cause. It typically involves the lymph nodes of mediastinum, predominantly billateral and/or pulmonary infiltrates. We find extrapulmonary involvement in 30-50% of cases. Sarcoidosis of the female reproductive system is a rare, it represent less than 1% cases of sarcoidosis. Lesions there may affect any organ, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovary, but also for example placenta and breast. There is also recorded the incidence of multiple localization on female genitalia. Since sarcoidosis of this area is so rare, often proceeds asymptomatic and recognized only as an incidental finding, there are mention only the case histories in literature yet.Clinical symptoms may be non-specific, often imitating a tumor, or tend to be specific, depending on the localization of disability such as perineal pain, pain in the scar after the previous birth trauma, persistent pruritus, itching, irritation, dyspareunia, menstrual cycle disorders, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, amenorrhoe, abdominal pain, endometrial polypoid lesions, recurrent or persistent serometra or discharge. The diagnosis is made up of histologically - we are demonstrating noncaseating granulomas.The therapy is difficult, there are no available official guidelines. If the lesions are clinically silent, we can observed them because they may spontaneously disappear. If we are embarking on medical therapy, we start from a local application, and if this is unsuccessful then we approach the systemic administration. Corticosteroids are the drug of choice. If we diagnose the sarcoidosis of the female genital organs we must exclude systemic disease of sarcoidosis. The prognosis of disease is good.

  12. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S; Storgaard, Merete; Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Johansen, Isik S; Pedersen, Gitte; Nørregård Nielsen, Lars; Bonde, Jesper; Katzenstein, Terese L; Weis, Nina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-05-31

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. WLWH between 18-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (<40 copies/mL). BV was diagnosed in 32%. Overall, 11% had detectable vaginal HIV RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies that HIV shedding does not seem to be increased by BV.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Kostadinović

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 sorts of viruses are capable of causing diseases of the respiratory ways. The virus infections have become the cost to be paid for urbanization and industrialization. The acute virus infections jeopardize mankind by their complications with numerous consequences. They open up the way to super infections, they provoke endogenous infections and lead to insufficiency of the vital organs. The viruses penetrate the organism mainly through the respiratory ways, digestive and urinary-sexual organs and skin. Some viruses immediately at the place of their entrance into the organism find receptive cells in which they can multiply (herpes virus and etc.. Some viruses must get through the blood, through the lymph or the nerve fibers to the target organs that they have affinity for.The changes that primarily occur in the mouth with manifest lymphadenopathy of the surrounding area emerge with respect to the type of the acute infection dis-ease.The human herpes viruses are responsible for a great number of diseases in people; that is why it can be said that the infections they induce are a very frequent cause of people's diseases in the world. Man is natural and the only host for the types I and II of the herpes simplex virus (HSV; that is why the infected person is regarded as the source of infection. The infection transmission can be by direct contact or over the contaminated secretions during the sexual intercourse. The age and the socioeconomic status (living conditions, level of medical culture, habits, etc. affect to agreat extent epidemiology of the HSV infection. The HSV distribution in the region of Niš in the five-year period (from 1987 to 1992 was the highest in the early and late summer (June and September.

  14. Management of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozbahani, Mehdi; Hammersmith, Kristin M

    2018-04-24

    To review recent advancements in the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) epithelial keratitis. Trifluridine eye drop, acyclovir (ACV) ointment, ganciclovir gel, and oral ACV are still the main therapeutic agents. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane has been recently used as an adjuvant treatment. Resistance to ACV has become a concerning issue. The animal models of HSV vaccine are able to reduce HSV keratitis. New antivirals are under development. Current cases of HSV epithelial keratitis are manageable with available medications, but new advancements are required to decrease disease burden in the future. HSV vaccine can be revolutionary.

  15. Forebyggelse af herpes zoster med vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Rønholt, Finn; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    been shown to halve the risk of HZ, and the risk of PHN is reduced by two thirds in people = 60 years. The vaccine is approved for persons aged = 50 years. However, the clinical efficacy of the vaccine is best studied in people aged = 60 years. The vaccine has so far not shown any serious side-effects.......Herpes zoster (HZ) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) are frequently occurring diseases in elderly and in immuno-compromised persons. The live attenuated HZ vaccine boosts an existing immune response, so that the already established varicella-zoster virus infection is kept latent. Vaccination has...

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Herpes Simplex Virus Urethritis Compared With Chlamydial Urethritis Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason J; Morton, Anna N; Henzell, Helen R; Berzins, Karen; Druce, Julian; Fairley, Christopher K; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Read, Tim Rh; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus Y

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical characteristics associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) urethritis in men and to compare those with chlamydial urethritis. We compared clinical and laboratory data from men diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction confirmed HSV urethritis with those of men with chlamydial urethritis presenting to Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2000 and 2015. Eighty HSV urethritis cases were identified: 55 (68%, 95% confidence interval, 58-78) were by HSV-1 and 25 (32%, 95% confidence interval, 22-42) by HSV-2. Compared with chlamydial urethritis, men with HSV urethritis were significantly more likely to report severe dysuria (20% vs 0%, P < 0.01) or constitutional symptoms (15% vs 0%, P < 0.01). Men with HSV urethritis were significantly more likely to have meatitis (62% vs 23%, P < 0.01), genital ulceration (37% vs 0%, P < 0.01), or inguinal lymphadenopathy (30% vs 0%, P < 0.01) but less likely to have urethral discharge (32% vs 69%, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the proportion of men who had raised (≥5) polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-powered field between the two groups (P = 0.46). The clinical presentation of HSV urethritis in men may differ from those of chlamydial urethritis and guide testing for HSV in men presenting with non-gonococcal urethritis.

  17. Comparison of immunoassays for differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapper, Paul E.; Valley, Pam J.; Cleator, Gerham M.; Mandall, D.; Qutub, Mohammed O.

    2006-01-01

    To asses the commercial available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (Hs-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies. The study was performed between January 1997 to November 2002 in the Division ofVirology,Department of Pathological Sciences, Central Manchester Healthcare Trust and University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom. Assays based upon type-specific glycoprotein G-1 (gG-1) for HSV-1, and glycoprotein G-2 (gG-2) from HSV-2 were evaluated to differentiate between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies. Using 5 different ELISA tests, 2 panels of serum samples were tested. Panel one consisted of 88 sera, selected from the serum bank of the Clinical Virology Laboratory, Manchester Royal Infirmary; panel 2 comprised of 90 sera selected from samples collected from Bangladeshi female commercial workers.The data of this study showed that a high rate of gG-1 based immunoassays ranged from 87.9-100% for sensitivity and 51.5-100% specificity. Although there are several immunoassays were claimed to differentiate between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies, selection of these assays should be carefully interpreted with the overall clinical framework provided by detailed sexual history and genital examination. (author)

  18. Early events in herpes simplex virus lifecycle with implications for an infection of lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Sarah; Sheth, Urmi; Shukla, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Affecting a large percentage of human population herpes simplex virus (HSV) types -1 and -2 mainly cause oral, ocular, and genital diseases. Infection begins with viral entry into a host cell, which may be preceded by viral "surfing" along filopodia. Viral glycoproteins then bind to one or more of several cell surface receptors, such as herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), nectin-1, 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS), paired immunoglobulin-like receptor α, and non-muscle myosin-IIA. At least five viral envelope glycoproteins participate in entry and these include gB, gC, gD and gH-gL. Post-entry, these glycoproteins may also facilitate cell-to-cell spread of the virus, which helps in the evasion of physical barriers as well as several components of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The spread may be facilitated by membrane fusion, movement across tight junctions, transfer across neuronal synapses, or the recruitment of actin-containing structures. This review summarizes some of the recent advances in our understanding of HSV entry and cell-to-cell spread.

  19. The ultrasound research's results of the peri menopausal women's genitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodkhoeva, M.F.; Djonova, B.Yu.; Barieva, L.S.; Djonbekova, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The results of ultrasound research of the peri menopausal women's genitals revealed that the sizes of the ovaries of women with the climacteric syndrome are smaller that the size of ovaries of the women with the physiologic menopause

  20. Rectal and genital prolapse in Nigerian newborns: Case reports and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-16

    2] ... management includes manual reduction and use of Foleys catheter.[12] These ... discharged her against medical advice on the 7th day of admission .... Thus, digital reduction of prolapse was achieved in this case. Genital ...

  1. Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of Youth and ICTs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... Book cover Confronting Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of ... of an innovative research and action project carried out by ENDA Tiers ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows!

  2. Survey of Women's Opinions on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Background: Female genital mutilation is known to exist especially in many third world countries including Nigeria with ... of Women Journalists (NAWOJ) and Women ... There has also been .... profession and current civilization as injurious to.

  3. Surgical Treatment of Complication of Female Genital Mutilation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical Treatment of Complication of Female Genital Mutilation in Pikine Hospital, Senegal. Abdoul A Diouf, Moussa Diallo, Aissatou Mbodj, Omar Gassama, Mamour Guèye, Jean C Moreau, Alassane Diouf ...

  4. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Genital human papilloma virus, Pap smear, Risk factors. Access this article online .... their Pap smears taken and questionnaires on sexual attitudes, .... the high‑risk types, which mediate the response of the enhancer to steroid ...

  5. [Genital piercings: epidemiology, sociocultural aspects, sexuality and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Body piercing has gained tremendous popularity since the mid nineties. Genital piercings constitute a peculiar variant of piercing due to its sensitive localization. Health care providers are often very little informed about those piercings. Besides, negative stereotypes are often attributed to the bearers of such piercings. This review focuses not only on the medical aspects of genital piercings but also on the social, cultural and psychological background that surround those piercings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Genital donovanosis with malignant transformation: An interesting case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sri, K. Navya; Chowdary, A. Swetha; Reddy, B. S. N.

    2014-01-01

    Donovanosis is a chronic indolent sexually transmitted granulomatous ulceration of genito-inguinal region, caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. It became uncommon due to indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics. In recent years, much interest is being focused on this condition because genital ulcers facilitate HIV infection. We report an interesting episode of genital donovanosis complicated with squamous cell carcinoma in a middle aged female for its rarity and clinical interest.

  7. Genital lesions: An indication for changing ART regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Arun; Kumar, N; Kumarasamy, N

    2011-01-01

    Genital lesions are common in HIV positive patients and aetiology for these are mainly due to HSV, HPV or bacterial. They usually respond to HAART, antiviral or antimicrobials. We are presenting a young patient on HAART with non-healing genital ulcer lesions for sixteen months. He responded well to a change in ART regimen within a period of 15 days. This happened after a change to a more potent ART regimen.

  8. Influence of Body Odors and Gender on Perceived Genital Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Alho, Laura; Nobre, Pedro; Olsson, Mats J; Soares, Sandra C

    2018-04-01

    Olfaction is often linked to mating behavior in nonhumans. Additionally, studies in mating behavior have shown that women seem to be more affected by odor cues than men. However, the relationship between odor cues and sexual response-specifically, sexual arousal-has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the exposure to human body odors (from individuals of the opposite gender) on perceived genital arousal, while these were presented concomitantly to sexually explicit video clips. Eighty university students (40 women) rated their perceived genital arousal (perceived degree of erection/genital lubrication) in response to an audiovisual sexual stimulus, while simultaneously exposed to a body odor from an opposite-gender donor or no odor. Participants also rated each odor sample's (body odor and no odor) perceived pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. Findings indicated that odor condition had an effect on women's (but not men's) perceived genital arousal, with women showing higher levels of perceived genital arousal in the no odor condition. Also, results showed that women rated body odors as less pleasant than no odor. Notwithstanding, the odor ratings do not seem to explain the association between body odor and perceived genital arousal. The current results support the hypothesis that women, rather than men, are sensitive to odors in the context of sexual response. The findings of this study have relevance for the understanding of human sexuality with respect to chemosensory communication.

  9. [Pain in herpes zoster: Prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Mosquera, G; González-Cal, A; Calvo-Rodríguez, D; Primucci, C Y; Plamenov-Dipchikov, P

    Shingles is a painful rash that results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus in the dorsal root ganglia or cranial nerves. In this article an update is presented on the prevention and pharmacological treatment of the secondary pain from the virus infection. The most effective way to prevent post-herpetic neuralgia and its consequences is the prevention of herpes itself. A live attenuated vaccine (the Oka strain varicella zoster virus) has been available for several years, and is approved in adults aged 50 years old. Although this vaccine has shown to be effective against herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia, its effectiveness decreases with age and is contraindicated in patients with some form of immunosuppression. Today the recombinant vaccines provide an alternative, and may be administered to immunocompromised persons. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Herpes simplex encephalitis with thalamic, brainstem and cerebellar involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meenal; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Udwadia Hegde, Anaita

    2018-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a common and treatable cause of acute encephalitis in all age groups. Certain radiological features such as temporal parenchymal involvement facilitate the diagnosis. The use of herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction has expanded the clinical and imaging spectrum. We report the case of a young patient who presented with a movement disorder and predominant involvement of thalami, brainstem and cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging, and was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Differentiation from Japanese encephalitis may be difficult in these patients, especially in endemic areas, and may necessitate the use of relevant investigations in all patients.

  11. [The lysate and recombinant antigens in ELISA-test-systems for diagnostic of herpes simplex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganova, L A; Kovtoniuk, G V; Korshun, L N; Kiseleva, E K; Tereshchenko, M I; Vudmaska, M I; Moĭsa, L N; Shevchuk, V A; Spivak, N Ia

    2014-08-01

    The lysate and recombinant antigens of various production included informula of ELISA-test-systems were analyzed. The ELISA-test-systems are used for detection of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I and II. For testing the panel of serums PTH 201 (BBI Inc.) were used. The samples of this panel contain antibodies to Herpes simplex virus type I and II in mixed titers. The 69 serums of donors were used too (17 samples had IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I, 23 samples to Herpes simplex virus type II and 29 samples had no antibodies to Herpes simplex virus). The diagnostic capacity of mixture of recombinant antigens gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I and gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II (The research-and-production complex "DiaprofMed") was comparable with mixture of lysate antigen Herpes simplex virus type I and II (Membrane) EIE Antigen ("Virion Ltd."). In the test-systems for differentiation of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I the recombinant antigen gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I proved to be comparable with commercial analogue Herpes simplex virus-1 gG1M ("Viral Therapeutics Inc."'). At the same time, capacity to detect IgG to Herpes simplex virus type II in recombinant protein gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II is significantly higher than in its analogue Herpes simplex virus-2 gG2c ("Viral Therapeutics Inc.").

  12. [Update on congenital and neonatal herpes infections: infection due to cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero-Artigao, F

    2017-05-17

    Newborn infants are a population which is especially susceptible to viral infections that frequently affect the central nervous system. Herpes infections can be transmitted to the foetus and to the newborn infant, and give rise to severe clinical conditions with long-term sensory and cognitive deficits. Two thirds of newborn infants with encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus and half of the children with symptomatic congenital infection by cytomegalovirus develop sequelae, which results in high community health costs in the long term. Fortunately, the better knowledge about these infections gained in recent years together with the development of effective antiviral treatments have improved the patients' prognosis. Valganciclovir (32 mg/kg/day in two doses for six months) prevents the development of hypoacusis and improves the neurological prognosis in symptomatic congenital infection due to cytomegalovirus. Acyclovir (60 mg/kg/day in three doses for 2-3 weeks) prevents the development of severe forms in skin-eyes-mouth herpes disease, and lowers the rate of mortality and sequelae when the disease has disseminated and is located in the central nervous system.

  13. Most important etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of genital prolapse depends on numerous factors. The contribution of race, gender and genetic factors is significant. However, additional factors of initiation, promotion and decomposition are necessary if a person with the genetic predisposition to genital prolapse begins to suffer from it. At least 50% of parous women are believed to suffer from genital prolapse of various degrees. Moreover, the prevalence of genital prolapse increases with age. The prevalence of genital prolapse is expected to be even higher in the future due to the extension of the lifespan of women worldwide. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the most common etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse in the population of Serbia. Methods The study was conducted as prospective and included 50 women who underwent surgical treatment due to the problems caused by genital prolapse. Results Mean age of the women was 58.74 years. Twenty percent of the women had the menstrual cycle, while 80% were in menopause. Mean menopause period was 8.88 years. None of the women used hormone replacement therapy. Mean BMI was 27.395 kg/m2. Twenty-eight percent of the women were of normal weight, while 72% of the women were obese (42% were obese and 30% were severely obese. Ninety-eight percent of the women were parous, and mean parity was 2.08. Mean birth weight of neonates was 3682.77 g. Sixty-four percent of the women did physical labour and lifted heavy objects. Conclusion Vaginal childbirth is one of the most important initiating factors. The most significant promoting factor is obesity and heavy labour. Ageing and entering menopause are the most important factors of decomposition as well as the occurrence of clinical manifestations of the pelvic floor dysfunction. .

  14. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F. M., E-mail: gomez_fermun@gva.es; Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Radiologia (Spain); Santos, E. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology (United States); Forner, I. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Medicina Fisica y Rehabilitacion (Spain); Lloret, M.; Perez-Enguix, D.; Garcia-Marcos, R. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Radiologia (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4-8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  15. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, F. M.; Martínez-Rodrigo, J.; Martí-Bonmatí, L.; Santos, E.; Forner, I.; Lloret, M.; Pérez-Enguix, D.; García-Marcos, R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4–8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  16. Herpes zoster on segmental vitiligo: Wolf’s isotopic response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankesh Lal Gambhir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available “Wolf’s isotopic response” describes the occurrence of a new skin disorder at the site of another, unrelated and already healed skin disease. In most cases of isotopic response, the initial dermatosis is herpes zoster, herpes simplex, varicella, thrombophlebitis, scrofuloderma and striae distense. The most frequent second dermatoses are granulomatous reactions, particularly granuloma annulare, and lichenoid diseases. Various etiological reasons including viral, immunologic, neural and vascular have been put forth. We report here a case in which the second disease was herpes zoster that appeared over the same dermatomes of pre-existing segmental vitiligo. The occurrence of vitiligo as first and herpes zoster as second disease in the “Wolf’s isotopic response” has not, to the best of our knowledge, been reported previously.

  17. [Ulcerating Herpes simplex infections in intensive care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Wohlrab, J; Radke, J; Marsch, W C; Soukup, J

    2002-11-01

    Herpes simplex infections are potentially a life-threatening situation for immunocompromised as well as critically ill patients. The correct diagnosis is made more difficult in comatose patients by the fact that the characteristic symptom of extreme pain cannot be registered. The clinical dermatological findings (polycyclic configuration, easily bleeding ulcers) are thus especially important in patients under intensive care conditions. As examples, the cases of 3 critically ill patients (subarachnoid bleeding or head injury) developing therapy-resistant, flat sacral or perioral skin ulcers with peripheral blisters are presented. Herpes simplex virus was confirmed immunohistologically and in the smear test. All patients subsequently died. These cases emphasize that patients in the intensive care unit are in danger of developing a chronic persistent Herpes simplex infection due to latent immunosuppression. Chronic persistent Herpes infections may be underrated in intensive therapy, and must always be ruled out in case of therapy-resistant erosions or ulcerations.

  18. Loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Nagumo, Kiyomi; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Fujinawa, Naoto; Hashimoto, Tasuku

    2003-01-01

    A case of sacral herpes zoster infection in a 56-year-old man with the complication of loss of urinary voiding sensation is presented. He had typical herpes zoster eruption on the left S2 dermatome, hypalgesia of the S1-S4 dermatomes, and absence of urinary voiding sensation. There was no other urinary symptom at the first medical examination. Urinary complications associated with herpes zoster are uncommon, but two types, acute cystitis and acute retention, have been recognized. No cases of loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster have been reported. In this case, hypalgesia of the sacral dermatomes was mild compared to the marked loss of urethral sensation. This inconsistency is explained by the hypothesis that the number of urethral fibers is very small as compared to that of cutaneous fibers, therefore, urethral sensation would be more severely disturbed than cutaneous sensation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Nonoverlapping Clinical and Mutational Patterns in Melanomas from the Female Genital Tract and Atypical Genital Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yélamos, Oriol; Merkel, Emily A; Sholl, Lauren Meldi; Zhang, Bin; Amin, Sapna M; Lee, Christina Y; Guitart, Gerta E; Yang, Jingyi; Wenzel, Alexander T; Bunick, Christopher G; Yazdan, Pedram; Choi, Jaehyuk; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-09-01

    Genital melanomas (GM) are the second most common cancer of the female external genitalia and may be confused with atypical genital nevi (AGN), which exhibit atypical histological features but have benign behavior. In this study, we compared the clinical, histological, and molecular features of 19 GM and 25 AGN. We described chromosomal copy number aberrations and the mutational status of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in both groups. Our study showed that a pigmented lesion occurring in mucosal tissue, particularly in postmenopausal women, was more likely to be a melanoma than a nevus. GM had high levels of chromosomal instability, with many copy number aberrations. Furthermore, we found a completely nonoverlapping pattern of oncogenic mutations when comparing GM and AGN. In GM, we report somatic mutations in KIT and TP53. Conversely, AGN had frequent BRAF V600E mutations, which were not seen in any of the GM. Our results show that GM and AGN have distinct clinical and molecular changes and that GM have a different mutational pattern compared with AGN. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genital Culture: Exploring the Cultural Importance of Genital Surgeru in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Dodge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The assumed importance of genital surgery for intersex children as well as the rising popularity of cosmetic surgery for one’s genitals (namely for women exemplify the importance placed on gender distinction in Western culture. This paper will explore how these genital surgeries are tied to the idealized conception of the gender binary that exists in our culture. Despite the reality that genitals, especially the vulva, vary widely in appearance (size, shape, colour, the belief that there are norms of genital appearance that need to be adhered to continues to be propagated within Western culture. I will posit that genital surgeries in the West are a culturally imbued practice. This will be argued in light of Leti Volpp’s assertion that people in the West need to recognize how our own culture promotes patriarchal/normative practices that can be dangerous and degrading to individuals. For instance, Western discourse vilifies cultures that engage in female genital mutilation (FGM without realizing how Western culture itself pressures women to ‘mutilate’ their genitals through cosmetic surgery or intersex surgery. The cultural influence of the West must be acknowledged so that we can better perceive how the agency of Western subjects is also directed and confined by our cultural context. Western culture also acts upon its subjects and, in this case, pushes gender binaries and the ideal of the perfect ‘normal’ vagina. This paper will utilize queer theory to question the necessity of gender binaries and to reveal the way that binary gender is privileged in our society. L'importance majeure de la chirurgie génitale pour les enfants intersexués ainsi que la popularité croissante de la chirurgie esthétique pour les organes génitaux, particulièrement pour les femmes, illustrent l'importance accordée à la distinction entre les sexes dans la culture occidentale. Cet article examine comment ces interventions chirurgicales génitales sont