WorldWideScience

Sample records for heron island great

  1. Coral reef origins of atmospheric dimethylsulfide at Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Hilton B.; Jones, Graham B.; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth S. M.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMSa), continually derived from the world's oceans, is a feed gas for the tropospheric production of new sulfate particles, leading to cloud condensation nuclei that influence the formation and properties of marine clouds and ultimately the Earth's radiation budget. Previous studies on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, have indicated coral reefs are significant sessile sources of DMSa capable of enhancing the tropospheric DMSa burden mainly derived from phytoplankton in the surface ocean; however, specific environmental evidence of coral reef DMS emissions and their characteristics is lacking. By using on-site automated continuous analysis of DMSa and meteorological parameters at Heron Island in the southern GBR, we show that the coral reef was the source of occasional spikes of DMSa identified above the oceanic DMSa background signal. In most instances, these DMSa spikes were detected at low tide under low wind speeds, indicating they originated from the lagoonal platform reef surrounding the island, although evidence of longer-range transport of DMSa from a 70 km stretch of coral reefs in the southern GBR was also observed. The most intense DMSa spike occurred in the winter dry season at low tide when convective precipitation fell onto the aerially exposed platform reef. This co-occurrence of events appeared to biologically shock the coral resulting in a seasonally aberrant extreme DMSa spike concentration of 45.9 nmol m-3 (1122 ppt). Seasonal DMS emission fluxes for the 2012 wet season and 2013 dry season campaigns at Heron Island were 5.0 and 1.4 µmol m-2 day-1, respectively, of which the coral reef was estimated to contribute 4 % during the wet season and 14 % during the dry season to the dominant oceanic flux.

  2. Diel coral reef acidification driven by porewater advection in permeable sands, Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Maher, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how biogeochemical processes in permeable sediments affect the pH of coastal waters. We demonstrate that seawater recirculation in permeable sands can play a major role in proton (H+) cycling in a coral reef lagoon. The diel pH range (up to 0.75 units) in the Heron Island...... lagoon was the broadest ever reported for reef waters, and the night‐time pH (7.69) was comparable to worst‐case scenario predictions for seawater pH in 2100. The net contribution of coarse carbonate sands to the whole system H+ fluxes was only 9% during the day, but approached 100% at night when small...... scale (i.e., flow and topography‐induced pressure gradients) and large scale (i.e., tidal pumping as traced by radon) seawater recirculation processes were synergistic. Reef lagoon sands were a net sink for H+, and the sink strength was a function of porewater flushing rate. Our observations suggest...

  3. The relative abundance of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) among other zwitterions in branching coral at Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Hilton B; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth S M; Jones, Graham B; Eyre, Bradley D

    2017-07-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and eleven other target zwitterions were quantified in the branch tips of six Acropora species and Stylophora pistillata hard coral growing on the reef flat surrounding Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for sample analysis with isotope dilution MS applied to quantify DMSP. The concentration of DMSP was ten times greater in A. aspera than A. valida, with this difference being maintained throughout the spring, summer and winter seasons. In contrast, glycine betaine was present in significantly higher concentrations in these species during the summer than the winter. Exposure of branch tips of A. aspera to air and hypo-saline seawater for up to 1 h did not alter the concentrations of DMSP present in the coral when compared with control samples. DMSP was the most abundant target zwitterion in the six Acropora species examined, ranging from 44-78% of all target zwitterions in A. millepora and A. aspera, respectively. In contrast, DMSP only accounted for 7% in S. pistillata, with glycine betaine and stachydrine collectively accounting for 88% of all target zwitterions in this species. The abundance of DMSP in the six Acropora species examined points to Acropora coral being an important source for the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur throughout the GBR, since this reef-building branching coral dominates the coral cover of the GBR. Graphical Abstract HILIC-MS extracted ion chromatogram showing zwitterionic metabolites from the branching coral Acropora isopora.

  4. pH homeostasis during coral calcification in a free ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) experiment, Heron Island reef flat, Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Lucy; Falter, James; Trotter, Julie; Kline, David I; Holcomb, Michael; Dove, Sophie G; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2015-10-27

    Geochemical analyses (δ(11)B and Sr/Ca) are reported for the coral Porites cylindrica grown within a free ocean carbon enrichment (FOCE) experiment, conducted on the Heron Island reef flat (Great Barrier Reef) for a 6-mo period from June to early December 2010. The FOCE experiment was designed to simulate the effects of CO2-driven acidification predicted to occur by the end of this century (scenario RCP4.5) while simultaneously maintaining the exposure of corals to natural variations in their environment under in situ conditions. Analyses of skeletal growth (measured from extension rates and skeletal density) showed no systematic differences between low-pH FOCE treatments (ΔpH = ∼-0.05 to -0.25 units below ambient) and present day controls (ΔpH = 0) for calcification rates or the pH of the calcifying fluid (pHcf); the latter was derived from boron isotopic compositions (δ(11)B) of the coral skeleton. Furthermore, individual nubbins exhibited near constant δ(11)B compositions along their primary apical growth axes (±0.02 pHcf units) regardless of the season or treatment. Thus, under the highly dynamic conditions of the Heron Island reef flat, P. cylindrica up-regulated the pH of its calcifying fluid (pHcf ∼8.4-8.6), with each nubbin having near-constant pHcf values independent of the large natural seasonal fluctuations of the reef flat waters (pH ∼7.7 to ∼8.3) or the superimposed FOCE treatments. This newly discovered phenomenon of pH homeostasis during calcification indicates that coral living in highly dynamic environments exert strong physiological controls on the carbonate chemistry of their calcifying fluid, implying a high degree of resilience to ocean acidification within the investigated ranges.

  5. Growth rates of great egret, snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Peterson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Growth rates of Great Erget (Casmerodius albus), Snowy Erget (Egretta thula), and Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks to 18 days-of-age were estimated from repeated measurements of chicks in broods of three young. Weight gain (g/day) or increase in length (mm/day) of forearm, tarsus, or culmen did not between Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks at a colony in Rhode Island and a colony in Texas (USA). In Black-crowned night-Herons and Great Egrets, the last chick (C-chick) to hatch had lower growth rates than the first (A-) or second (B-) hatched chick. Black-crowned Night-Heron and Great Egret A-chicks gained weight faster than Snowy Egret A-chicks; however growth rates of the forearm, tarsus, or culmen each were not different among the three species. Equations based on the growth rate of culmen, forearm, or tarsus for repeatedly measured A-chicks estimated age of Great Egret, Snowy Egret, and Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks collected elsewhere to within two days of known age.

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from HERON ISLAND, KANGAROO ISLAND and others in the Coral Sea, Great Australian Bight and Tasman Sea from 2009-10-09 to 2012-11-28 (NODC Accession 0100062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100062 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from HERON ISLAND, KANGAROO ISLAND, MARIA ISLAND, MOORING_HERON...

  7. Productivity assessment of two great blue herons colonies in the Roanoke River Floodplain

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Conine Creek colony was comprised of a mix of great egrets and great blue herons. The great egrets outnumbered the great blue herons by at least two to one. We...

  8. Changes in heron and egret populations on the Laurentian Great Lakes and connecting channels, 1977-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Rush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Canadian and U.S. federal wildlife agencies completed four decadal surveys, spanning the years 1977 to 2009, to census colonial waterbirds breeding on the Great Lakes and adjoining bodies of water. In this paper, we reports abundance, distribution, and general population trends of three species: Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax, Great Egret (Ardea alba, and Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias. Estimates of nest numbers ranged from approximately 4000-6100 for the Black-crowned Night-Heron, 250-1900 for the Great Egret, and 3800-6400 for the Great Blue Heron. Average annual rates of change in nest numbers between the first (1977 and fourth (2008 census were âˆ'1% for the Black-crowned Night-Heron, +23% for the Great Egret, and âˆ'0.27% for the Great Blue Heron. Across the 30-year census, Black-crowned Night-Heron estimates decreased in U.S. (âˆ'57% but increased (+18% in Canadian waters, Great Egret nests increased 1381% in Canadian waters with a smaller, but still substantial increase in the number of nests at U.S. colonies (+613%, and Great Blue Heron numbers increased 148% in Canadian waters and 713% in U.S. waters. Although a single factor cannot be clearly linked to changes observed in each species' distribution, hydrological variation, habitat succession, nest competition with Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, and land use changes likely all contributed. Management activities should support both breeding and foraging conditions including restoration of early successional habitats and anticipate continued northward expansions in the distributions of these waterbirds.

  9. An Investigation into the Decline of Great Blue Heron Nestlings at the Seneca Pool Colony of Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An investigation into the decline of the Great Blue Heron's population at Iroquois is the main focus of this research. Specific issues such as the possible factors...

  10. Metal Concentrations, Foraging Distances, and Fledging Success of Great Blue Herons Nesting Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, Brett L.; Marco, Jeffrey D.; Rickard, William H.

    2005-05-01

    Excrement sample and livers of juvenile great blue herons were collected at nests at three widely separated colonies along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to test the validity of using excrement samples as indicators of metal concentrations in tissues of juvenile herons fed food collected by parent birds within a few kilometers of nests. There was no positive relation noted between metal concentrations in excrement and liver samples taken from the same nests. Statistically significant differences in metal concentrations were noted in excrement samples collected among the different heron colonies. Arsenic, Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations (dry wt.) were higher in excrement than in liver samples but the opposite was noted for Cu, Hg, and Zn. Mercury concentrations in heron liver samples were biomagnified to a greater extent than Cd and Cr. Fledging success and eggshell thickness measurements were used as indicators of population health. These values were equivalent to or better than those noted for heron colonies elsewhere in the United States.

  11. Productivity and PCDDs/PCDFs in eggs from two great blue heron rookeries near a pulp and paper mill on the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes nesting data. Observations include: 1. The Conine Creek colony was comprised of > 150 great egret and > 75 great blue heron nests. 2....

  12. Recent switch by the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini) in the Pacific northwest to associative nesting with Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) to gain predator protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, I.M.; Butler, R.W.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini Chapman, 1901) in the Pacific northwest appears to have modified nesting behaviour in response to the strong recent recovery of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) population. Previously undescribed, herons now often nest in close

  13. Perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Saxena, A.R.; Route, B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 archived great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs collected from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, IN, (Indiana Dunes) in 1993 were analyzed for 11 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, the major contributor to total PFC concentrations, were below the toxicity thresholds estimated for bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus). The ranking of PBDE congener concentrations by percent concentration (PBDE-47 > -99 > -100 > -153 > -154 > -28 > -183) was consistent with the Penta-PBDE formulation. Total PBDE concentrations in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes were elevated and probably reflect local contamination from highly urbanized and industrialized inputs into Lake Michigan. Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in other avian species and based on trends in other Great Lakes birds are probably higher today.

  14. Great Blue Heron Rookery Inventory for Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are raw data sheets with the results of a survey done at the Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge Blue Heron Rookery in February, March, June and July of 1995....

  15. Determination of hatching date for eggs of black-crowned night-herons, snowy egrets and great egrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Pendleton, G.W.; Roach, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Flotation of eggs in water and specific gravity of eggs of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus) were evaluated as methods to determine date of hatching. Length of incubation and duration of hatching period were also documented for each species. Although species gravity was a better predictor of hatching date than egg flotation, both techniques were imprecise. The regression between specific gravity and the number of days before hatching differed among clutches, but not among eggs within clutches. Specific gravity of eggs predicted hatching data only to within 3.8 d for Snowy Egrets, adn 4.7 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons and Great Egrets. The mean incubation period was 27.3 d for Great Egrets, 23.7 d for Snowy Egrets and 22.8 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons. For all three species, the A egg (first egg laid) had a longer incubation period than the B or C egg. For all three species, the number of days between hatching of A and B eggs was significantly less (median - 1 d) than between hatching of B and C eggs (median = 2 d).

  16. Delineation of the nature and extent of contamination at the former NAS Key West Skeet Club on Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) conducted a contaminants investigation at the former skeet range on Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge (NWR)....

  17. Investigation of Eggshell Thickness and Biochemical Indicators of Contaminant Exposure in Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) from Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge supports the largest great blue heron (Ardea herodias) rookery in the State of Virginia. The presence of bioaccumulative...

  18. Perfluorinated Compounds and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Great Blue Heron Eggs from Three Colonies on the Mississippi River, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Yun, S.-H.; Trowbridge, A.

    2010-01-01

    Archived Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) eggs (N = 16) collected in 1993 from three colonies on the Mississippi River in Minnesota were analyzed in 2007 for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). One of the three colonies, Pig's Eye, was located near a presumed source of PFCs. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of nine PFC concentrations differed significantly between Pig's Eye and the upriver (P = 0.002) and downriver (P = 0.02) colonies; but not between the upriver and downriver colonies (P = 0.25). Mean concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a major PFC compound, were significantly higher at the Pig's Eye colony (geometric mean = 940 ng/g wet weight) than at upriver (60 ng/g wet weight) and downriver (131 ng/g wet weight) colonies. Perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations from the Pig's Eye colony are among the highest reported in bird eggs. Concentrations of PFOS in Great Blue Heron eggs from Pig's Eye were well below the toxicity thresholds estimated for Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for White Leghorn Chickens (Gallus domesticus). The pattern of six PBDE congener concentrations did not differ among the three colonies (P = 0.08). Total PBDE concentrations, however, were significantly greater (P = 0.03) at Pig's Eye (geometric mean = 142 ng/g wet weight) than the upriver colony (13 ng/g wet weight). Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in two of six Great Blue Heron eggs from the Pig's Eye colony were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius).

  19. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-p-dioxin Concentrations in Double-crested Cormorant and Black-crowned Night-heron Eggs of Shooters Island and Isle of Meadows, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of eight Double-crested Cormorant and 10 Black-crowned Night-Heron eggs from Shooter's Island and the Isle of Meadows, respectively, were submitted for...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nitrate, phosphate, temperature and other variables collected from time series observations at Heron Island Reef Flat from 2010-06-01 to 2010-12-13 (NODC Accession 0127256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains carbonate chemistry and environmental parameters data that were collected from a 200-day time series monitoring on the Heron Island...

  1. Marine Bioinorganic Chemistry Workshop Held in Heron Island on 28 June - 2nd July 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-09

    PANDANUS LOUNGE FIRST AID: Use a sunscreen , wear a hat and avoid coral cuts. If you are cut see an Organizer as soon as possible to have the cut...from symbiotic coral algae (zooxanthelle) or seaweed, both of which make a number of arsenyl-ribosides. However, to date it has not been possible to...Pam’s Point 3. Sykes Reef 12. The Tenements 4. One Tree Island 13. The Coral Gardens 5. North East Reef Crest 14. The Gorgonean Hole 6. North Reef Crest

  2. Egg size and laying order of snowy egrets, great egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Frederick, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The nesting biology of the family Ardeidae (bitterns, herons, and egrets) has been intensively studied (e.g., Owen 1960, Milstein et al. 1970, Werschkul 1979), but egg size in relation to laying order bas not received attention. The last egg laid in gull and tern clutches is generally smaller than preceding eggs (e.g., Parsons 1970, Nisbet 1978). The relative size of the final egg in a clutch decreases with increased body size among bird species and this relationship may be correlated with an increased brood-reduction strategy (Slagsvold et al. 1984). Relative egg size could be an important component to brood reduction, because egg size can affect subsequent survival of young (Parsons 1970, Nisbet 1978, Lundberg and Vaisanen 1979).

  3. Fossilization of nanobes studied by transmission electron microscopy and constraints related to their population - recent and late quaternary reefbanks (San Salvador Island, the Bahamas; Heron Island, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladil, J.; Gemperle, A.; Carew, J. L.; Bosak, P.; Slavik, L.; Pruner, P.; Charvatova, K.; Mylroie, J. E.; Jell, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    boundaries. The X-ray diffraction data suggest that calcite prevails. The massive nanobe population corresponds to early stages of emergence of banks (according to diagenetic and microbial successions). The short-term nanobe bloom had to be concurrent with early fungal growth in corroded rock micropores. However, the residual nanobe populations survived a die off of the early bloom of nannobes and are still alive (˜ 3 × 103 /{mm3}). A small number of nanobes are spread by endolithic cyanobacteria even in situations, that are not favorable for expansion of nanobe populations (examples from the Heron Island, Australia). / Project A3013209 "Weathering products".

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Great Nicobar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, R; Mahadeva Swamy, H M; Birah, Ajanta; Thimmegowda, Geetha G

    2013-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soil samples of Great Nicobar Islands, one of the "hottest biodiversity hotspots," where no collection has been characterized previously. The 36 new Bt isolates were obtained from 153 samples analyzed by crystal protein production with light/phase-contrast microscopy, determination of cry gene profile by SDS-PAGE, evaluation of toxicity against Coleopteran, and Lepidopteran insect pests, finally cloning and sequencing. Majority of the isolates showed the presence of 66-35 kDa protein bands on SDS-PAGE while the rest showed >130, 130, 73, and 18 kDa bands. The variations in crystal morphology and mass of crystal protein(s) purified from the isolates of Bt revealed genetic and molecular diversity. Based on the toxicity test, 50 % of isolates were toxic to Ash weevils, 16 % isolates were toxic to cotton bollworm, 38 % isolates were toxic both to ash weevil as well as cotton bollworm, while 11 % of the isolates did not exhibit any toxicity. PCR analysis unveiled prepotency of cry1B- and cry8b-like genes in these isolates. This study appoints the first isolation and characterization of local B. thuringiensis isolates in Great Nicobar Islands. Some of these isolates display toxic potential and, therefore, could be adopted for future applications to control some agriculturally important insect pests in the area of integrated pest management for sustainable agriculture.

  5. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  6. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs; Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  7. A multi-omics based ecological analysis of coastal marine sediments from Gladstone, in Australia's Central Queensland, and Heron Island, a nearby fringing platform reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, D J; Crosswell, J; Karpe, A V; Ahmed, W; Williams, M; Morrison, P D; Metcalfe, S; Staley, C; Sadowsky, M J; Palombo, E A; Steven, A D L

    2017-12-31

    The impact of anthropogenic factors arising from point and non-point pollution sources at a multi commodity marine port and its surrounding ecosystems were studied using sediment samples collected from a number of onshore (Gladstone Harbour and Facing Island) and offshore (Heron Island and Fitzroy Reefs) sites in Australia's Central Queensland. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals, organic carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), emerging chemicals of concern (ECC) and sterols. Similarly, the biological and biochemical interaction between the reef and its environment was analyzed by the multi-omic tools of next-generation sequencing characterization of the bacterial community and microbial community metabolic profiling. Overall, the trace elements were observed at the lower end of the Australian environmental guideline values at the offshore sites, while higher values were observed for the onshore locations Nickel and copper were observed above the high trigger value threshold at the onshore sites. The levels of PAH were below limits of detection across all sites. However, some of the ECC and sterols were observed at higher concentrations at both onshore and offshore locations, notably, the cholesterol family sterols and 17α-ethynylestradiol. Multi-omic analyses also indicated possible thermal and photo irradiation stressors on the bacterial communities at all the tested sites. The observed populations of γ-proteobacteria were found in combination with an increased pool of fatty acids that indicate fatty acid synthesis and utilisation of the intermediates of the shikimate pathways. This study demonstrates the value of applying a multi-omics approach for ecological assessments, in which a more detailed assessment of physical and chemical contaminants and their impact on the community bacterial biome is obtained. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Study of Behavior and Nest Distribution in the Shad Island Rookery Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shad Island is one of the largest Great Blue Heron rookeries on Lake Champlain. Recent concern about the effects of invading Double-crested Cormorants has prompted...

  9. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island at...

  10. Air-sea energy exchanges measured by eddy covariance during a localised coral bleaching event, Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.

    2010-12-01

    Despite the widely claimed association between climate change and coral bleaching, a paucity of data exists relating to exchanges of heat, moisture and momentum between the atmosphere and the reef-water surface. We present in situ measurements of reef-water-air energy exchanges made using the eddy covariance method during a summer coral bleaching event at Heron Reef, Australia. Under settled, cloud-free conditions and light winds, daily net radiation exceeded 800 W m-2, with up to 95% of the net radiation during the morning partitioned into heating the water column, substrate and benthic cover including corals. Heating was exacerbated by a mid-afternoon low tide when shallow reef flat water reached 34°C and near-bottom temperatures 33°C, exceeding the thermal tolerance of corals, causing bleaching. Results suggest that local to synoptic scale meteorology, particularly clear skies, solar heating, light winds and the timing of low tide were the primary controls on coral bleaching.

  11. 78 FR 16287 - Great Lakes Islands Refuges, MI and WI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Great Lakes Islands Refuges, MI and WI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan... Island, Huron, and Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuges (Great Lakes Islands Refuges). In this.../GreatLakesIslands/index.html . A limited number of hard copies and CD-ROMs are available. You may...

  12. 77 FR 45988 - Anchorage Regulations; Great Chebeague Island, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Chebeague Island, improve the safety of anchored vessels, and provide for the overall safe and efficient... island starting at the west side of the northern tip of the island. All proposed coordinates are North... Federal Government and Indian tribes. Energy Effects We have analyzed this proposed rule under Executive...

  13. Salmonellosis in a captive heron colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.

    1974-01-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella typhimurium was one of several factors responsible for losses among young herons being held at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The infection was demonstrated in five black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), three common egrets (Casmerodius albus), two little blue herons (Florida caerulea), one cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), one snowy egret (Leucophoyx thula) and one Louisiana heron (Hydranassa tricolor). The disease was characterized by emaciation, focal liver necrosis, and frequently by a caseo-necrotic enteritis.

  14. Great Blue Heron Range - CWHR [ds609

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  15. The Great Depression and the New Deal on Long Island, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinskie-Huvane, Lorraine; Singer, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Presents information adapted from the introduction to "The Great Depression and the New Deal on Long Island: A Local History Curriculum Guide." Finds that even though people in Long Island, New York, were active participants in New Deal programs, there was still anti-Roosevelt opposition during the 1932 and 1936 presidential elections.…

  16. Actinosporeans (Myxozoa) from marine oligochaetes of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, S L; Erséus, C; Lester, R J

    1999-09-01

    Four species of actinosporeans are described from marine oligochaetes (all Tubificidae) from the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. They developed in the coelom of the oligochaete and produced spores in groups of eight in the pansporocysts. The new genus Endocapsa is proposed within the family Sphaeractinomyxidae Janiszewska, 1957 on the basis that mature spores have small valve cell processes and non-protruding polar capsules. The type-species, Endocapsa rosulata n. sp., has three valve cell processes, which resemble a rosette, and submerged polar capsules. It infected Heterodrilus cf. keenani from Heron Island and morphologically similar parasites occurred in Thalassodrilides cf. gurwitschi and Heronidrilus sp. from Lizard Island. E. stepheni n. sp. has asymmetrical valve cell processes and submerged polar capsules. It was found in H. cf. keenani and H. queenslandicus from Heron Island. Sphaeractinomyxon leptocapsula n. sp. has thin widely spaced polar capsules and is described from Heronidrilus sp. from Lizard Island. S. ersei Hallett, O'Donoghue & Lester, 1998 infected Tubificidae gen. sp. from Heron Island and S. cf. ersei occurred in Bathydrilus sp., Thalassodrilides cf. gurwitschi and Limnodriloides lateroporus from Lizard Island.

  17. Combined impacts of Black-crowned Night-Heron predation/disturbance and various management activities on Roseate Tern productivity in 2003, and testing of a video surveillance system for recording the diurnal and nocturnal behavior of terns and night-herons at Falkner Island, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Connecticut, in 2004: Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Westbrook, Connecticut and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5 Regional Office, Hadley, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendelow, J.A.; Kuter, M.

    2004-01-01

    Falkner Island (FICT), a unit of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (SBMNWR) since 1985, is located in Long Island Sound 5 km south of Guilford, CT. For more than three decades it has been the site of the only large breeding colony in Connecticut of the federally endangered Northwest Atlantic population of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) and the state's largest colony of Common Terns (S. hirundo). Both species have been studied at this site since 1978 as part of the Falkner Island Tern Project (FITP), and since 1987 also as part of a regional Cooperative Roseate Tern Metapopulation Dynamics and Ecology Project (CRTMP), both coordinated by Dr. Jeffrey A. Spendelow of the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (USGS-PWRC). From 1997-2002 the Roseate Tern breeding population at this site declined by more than 50% from about 150 to about 70 nesting pairs, mostly as a result of the nocturnal predation and disturbance of tern chicks and eggs by Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Here we report the results of research done with the goal of improving management of nocturnal predators and developing new practices/structures to reduce losses of tern eggs and chicks so as to prevent the abandonment of this site by Roseate Terns. Notification of release of the USGS 'Quick Response Funds' (QRF) that were to be used to support the part of this study entitled 'Nocturnal behavior/interactions of endangered Roseate Terns and Black-crowned Night-Herons', and final approval of the Study Plan for this research did not occur until after the breeding season in 2003 was well underway. As a result, some work will need to be completed during the 2004 field season. There are two major objectives of this study. The first is to collect basic information (a) on the nocturnal behavior and interactions of Roseate (and Common) Terns with predatory Black-crowned Night-Herons, and (b) on how the behavior of the

  18. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

  19. The History of Research and Development Islands Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr B. Kosolapov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of the discovery, research and development of the islands of Russian pioneers in Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan from the middle of the XIX century. The paper used in scientific papers and journalistic materials researchers Islands Peter the Great Bay, unpublished sources: Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East, Primorsky Region State Archives, Archives of Primorsky regional department of the All-Russian public organization "Russian Geographical Society" Society for the Study of the Amur region. The methodological basis of the work was the principle of historicism and objectivity, allowed to consider the issue of research and development of the islands of the Gulf of Peter the Great on a broad documentary basis in the process of development in the specific historical conditions. The history of hydrographic discoveries of natural and geographical studies. It touches upon the issues concerning the construction of Vladivostok fortress. In the periodical press materials recreated pages agricultural and industrial development of the islands. Examples of business entrepreneurs first edge (A.D. Startsev, M.I. Jankowski, O.V. Lindgolm. The Toponymic notes link the island territories with the names of their discoverers, explorers, industrialists. The authors conclude that the historical conditionality of development of the islands is linked mainly with the military interests of Russia on its southeastern edge, using the resources of the sea and the unique natural conditions suitable for the development of agricultural, industrial, recreation and tourism.

  20. Effects of habitat fragmentation on the use of nest site resources by great tits in Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Zhang; Jiji Sun; Yanping Wang; Pingping Jiang; Ping Ding; Gaofu Xu

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of habitat fragmentation on the use of nest site resources by a secondary cavity-nesting bird species, the great tit (Parus major), we placed 443 artificial nest boxes on 21 islands in Thousand Island Lake from February to August 2008. Among the nest boxes 72 (16.3%) were used by great tits. We analyzed the relationships between island area, island isolation, predator activity, vegetation cover and nest box orientation and the use of nest boxes by great tits. Great ...

  1. Gene flow and immigration rate in an island population of great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, S.; Van Eck, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    It is generally recognized that immigration and gene flow cannot be equated, but few detailed quantitative comparisons of these processes have been made over the entire lifetime of individual animals. We analyzed data collected in a longterm study of an island population of great tits Parus major,

  2. 77 FR 51552 - The Great Lakes Islands National Wildlife Refuges in Michigan and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Maintain Natural Integrity--The current management direction of the Great Lakes Islands NWRs would be... (Preferred Alternative): Enhanced Management To Promote Natural Integrity and Public Stewardship--This option... including your address, phone number, email address, or other personal identifying information in your...

  3. Shoreline and beach volume change between 1967 and 2007 at Raine Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, John L.; Smithers, Scott G.

    2010-06-01

    Raine Island is a vegetated coral cay located on the far northern outer Great Barrier Reef (GBR), recognised as a globally significant turtle rookery. Cay geomorphology, specifically the morphology of the beach and swale, dictate the availability of nesting sites and influence nesting success. Understanding short and long-term shoreline change is critical for managers charged with protecting the nesting habitat, particularly as climate change progresses. Historical topographic surveys, a simple numerical model and geographic information system (GIS) techniques were used to reconstruct a 40-year (1967-2007) shoreline history of Raine Island. Results show that significant shoreline change has occurred on 78% of the island's shoreline between 1967 and 2007; 34% experienced net retreat and 44% net progradation during the study interval. Shoreline retreat is mainly concentrated on the east-southeast section of the shoreline (average annual rate of - 0.3 ± 0.3 m/yr), while the shore on the western side of the island prograded at a similar rate (0.4 ± 0.2 m/yr). A seasonal signal was detected relating to oscillations in wind direction and intensity, with the southeast and west-southwest shorelines migrating an average of ˜ 17 m from season to season. The volume of sediment deposited on Raine Island between 1967 and 2007 increased by ˜ 68,000 m 3 net, but accretion rates varied significantly seasonally and from year to year. The largest volumetric changes have typically occurred over the last 23 years (1984-2007). Despite the recent concern that Raine Island is rapidly eroding, our data demonstrate net island growth (6% area, 4% volume) between 1967 and 2007. Perceptions of erosion probably reflect large morphological changes arising from seasonal, inter-annual and inter-decadal patterns of sediment redistribution rather than net loss from the island's sediment budget.

  4. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  5. Morphometric characteristics of black poplar (Populus nigra L. leaves in the area of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the morphometric characteristics of the leaves of 14 test black poplar (Populus nigra L. trees, from the region of Great War Island, indicating a satisfactory degree of intrapopulation genetic variability. The knowledge of the extent and nature of variability in natural populations is a starting point for the breeding and conservation of genetic resources of forest trees. To this end, it is necessary to begin with the implementation of appropriate measures of in situ and ex situ conservation that will enable long-term preservation and enhancement of the ecological adaptability and the evolutionary potential of the populations of black poplar on Great War Island.

  6. Flea (Siphonaptera) species richness in the Great Basin Desert and island biogeography theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    Numbers of flea (Siphonaptera) species (flea species richness) on individual mammals should be higher on large mammals, mammals with dense populations, and mammals with large geographic ranges, if mammals are islands for fleas. I tested the first two predictions with regressions of H. J. Egoscue's trapping data on flea species richness collected from individual mammals against mammal size and population density from the literature. Mammal size and population density did not correlate with flea species richness. Mammal geographic range did, in earlier studies. The intermediate-sized (31 g), moderately dense (0.004 individuals/m(2)) Peromyscus truei (Shufeldt) had the highest richness with eight flea species on one individual. Overall, island biogeography theory does not describe the distribution of flea species on mammals in the Great Basin Desert, based on H. J. Egoscue's collections. Alternatively, epidemiological or metapopulation theories may explain flea species richness. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Foraging movements of great frigatebirds from Aldabra Island: Relationship with environmental variables and interactions with fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Corre, Matthieu Le; Kai, Emilie Tew; Marsac, Francis

    2010-07-01

    Great Frigatebirds ( Fregata minor) are large tropical seabirds that rely primarily on sub-surface predators such as tunas or cetaceans to capture their prey. We studied the foraging movements of 14 Great Frigatebirds breeding on Aldabra Island (9.4°S, 46.4°E), the largest colony in the Indian Ocean. This colony is located at more than 500 km from the main fishing grounds of a very important industrial purse-seine fishery targeting surface-dwelling tunas. Despite their slow flight speeds (16 km h -1), frigatebirds are able to forage at more than 1000 km from the colonies when breeding, using 2500-4750 km long foraging loops over oceanic waters. All trips were directed to the north of the island up to the equator. Foraging bouts, indicated by reduced flight speeds, were rare and located throughout the trips. Foraging spots tended to be more frequent on higher surface chlorophyll concentration and in association with some cyclonic vortices. However, mesoscale activity is relatively weak between Aldabra and the equator and the chlorophyll variability is mostly the result of wind-mixing processes during the southwest monsoon. These results suggest that frigatebirds forage for widely distributed resources to the north of Aldabra. The northernmost foraging bouts were located in the vicinity of the purse-seine fishing grounds, but without a significant overlap between frigatebirds and tuna fleets. The results of the study are compared with those from another population at Europa Island (22.3°S, 40.3°E) where birds were foraging on predictable features, the edge of cyclonic eddies that are marked in the Mozambique Channel. We discuss the consequences of the reliance of populations on contrasted oceanographic conditions on foraging strategies and on the evolution of life histories in these long-lived animals in a changing climate, as well as the possible effects of overfishing on frigatebird populations.

  8. Orality and Agency: Reading an Irish Autobiography from the Great Blasket Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eastlake

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Islandman (1934 by Tomás Ó Criomhthain is the first autobiography to be published by a member of the Irish-speaking community on the Great Blasket Island. This book, whose author was a member of a largely oral community and a participant in many communal oral traditions, has often been read as the work of a passive informant rather than that of an active author. By examining the critical attitudes towards Ó Criomhthain and his work, particularly those that associate orality with passivity and communalism and deny textual authority to members of largely oral communities, this article identifies a crucial tension between opposing readings of this text: reading Ó Criomhthain as a representative type and reading Ó Criomhthain as an author. By developing the latter reading of the text, the reader may recognize the agency of the author-subject of a collaborative autobiography that has its roots in a life lived largely through orality.

  9. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Niel L

    2015-01-01

    The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota) is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  10. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niel L. Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  11. ÉXITO DE ANIDACIÓN DE LA GARZA REAL Egretta alba (Aves, Ardeidae EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA Nesting Success of the Great-White Heron (Egretta alba in the Department of Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER RODRÍGUEZ-BARRIOS

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El éxito de anidación de la garza real (Egretta alba durante un período reproductivo, se determinó en una camaronera en el departamento de Córdoba (Noroeste de Colombia entre los meses de julio y noviembre de 2001. Examinamos la influencia de la disposición de los nidos hacia el interior de la colonia y su localización vertical en los árboles, sobre el éxito de anidación de esta garza, encontrando que los dos factores están significativamente relacionados con el porcentaje de éxito de anidación. El análisis de regresión lineal mostró una relación positiva entre el éxito de anidación y la distancia hacia el interior del manglar. Al final del período de anidación el 52% de las parejas anidantes fueron exitosas, con un aumento en el tamaño de la población cercano al 100%.Between July and November 2001, we evaluated the nesting success of the Great-white Heron (Egretta alba during one breeding period at a shrimp pond in northeastern Colombia. We examined the relationship between nesting success and two nest variables: position within the colony (peripheral vs. central, and vertical location on sampled trees, finding a significant relationship between each pair of variables. Regression analysis showed a positive relation between nesting success and distance from the center of the mangrove. By the end of the nesting period, 52% of the nesting couples were successful, increasing the population size by 100%.

  12. Reverse-Flow Lateral Tarsal Island Flap for Covering the Great Toe Donor Site of Wraparound Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yachao; Xu, Jia; Kang, Qinglin; Zhang, Changqing; Chai, Yimin

    2016-10-01

    Coverage of the great toe donor site of wraparound flap remains a challenge. This report presents the results of using an innervated pedicled reverse-flow lateral tarsal island flap for covering the great toe donor site of wraparound flap. Between 2005 and 2010, 11 reverse-flow lateral tarsal island flaps were used to cover the great toe donor site of wraparound flap in 11 patients. This pedicled flap designed on the lateral tarsal area of foot was based distally on the dorsalis pedis artery; the lateral dorsal pedal cutaneous nerve was incorporated into the reverse-flow lateral tarsal island flap and coapted with the first plantar digital nerve. The donor sites of reverse-flow lateral tarsal island flap were covered with inguinal full-thickness skin grafts. All flaps achieved primary healing except for two that suffered from mild venous insufficiency which was managed by conservative intervention. All skin grafts covering the donor site of reverse-flow lateral tarsal island flap healed uneventfully. The mean follow-up was 24 months (range, 18-48 months). The mean hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale score was 92 points (range, 85-97 points) at 6 months postoperatively. The static 2-point discrimination of the reverse-flow lateral tarsal island flap ranged from 6 to 14 mm (mean 10 mm). None of the patients were restricted in standing or walking during follow-up. The reverse-flow lateral tarsal island flap based distally on the dorsalis pedis artery has a constant pedicle that is sufficiently long. This innervated pedicle flap is a reliable option to cover the great toe donor site of wraparound flap with satisfactory functional and cosmetic results and acceptable donor site morbidity.

  13. Hurricane Impacts on Small Island Communities: Case study of Hurricane Matthew on Great Exuma, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan Sealey, Kathleen; Bowleg, John

    2017-04-01

    Great Exuma has been a UNESCO Eco-hydrology Project Site with a focus on coastal restoration and flood management. Great Exuma and its largest settlement, George Town, support a population of just over 8.000 people on an island dominated by extensive coastal wetlands. The Victoria Pond Eco-Hydrology project restored flow and drainage to highly-altered coastal wetlands to reduce flooding of the built environment as well as regain ecological function. The project was designed to show the value of a protected wetland and coastal environment within a populated settlement; demonstrating that people can live alongside mangroves and value "green" infrastructure for flood protection. The restoration project was initiated after severe storm flooding in 2007 with Tropical Storm Noel. In 2016, the passing of Hurricane Matthew had unprecedented impacts on the coastal communities of Great Exuma, challenging past practices in restoration and flood prevention. This talk reviews the loss of natural capital (for example, fish populations, mangroves, salt water inundation) from Hurricane Matthew based on a rapid response survey of Great Exuma. The surprisingly find was the impact of storm surge on low-lying areas used primarily for personal farms and small-scale agriculture. Although women made up the overwhelming majority of people who attended Coastal Restoration workshops, women were most adversely impacted by the recent hurricane flooding with the loss of their small low-lying farms and gardens. Although increasing culverts in mangrove creeks in two areas did reduce building flood damage, the low-lying areas adjacent to mangroves, mostly ephemeral freshwater wetlands, were inundated with saltwater, and seasonal crops in these areas were destroyed. These ephemeral wetlands were designed as part of the wetland flooding system, it was not known how important these small areas were to artisanal farming on Great Exuma. The size and scope of Hurricane Matthew passing through the

  14. An assessment of an environmental gradient using coral geochemical records, Whitsunday Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S E; Brodie, J E; McCulloch, M T; Mallela, J; Jupiter, S D; Williams, H Stuart; Lough, J M; Matson, E G

    2012-01-01

    Coral cores were collected along an environmental and water quality gradient through the Whitsunday Island group, Great Barrier Reef (Australia), for trace element and stable isotope analysis. The primary aim of the study was to examine if this gradient could be detected in coral records and, if so, whether the gradient has changed over time with changing land use in the adjacent river catchments. Y/Ca was the trace element ratio which varied spatially across the gradient, with concentrations progressively decreasing away from the river mouths. The Ba/Ca and Y/Ca ratios were the only indicators of change in the gradient through time, increasing shortly after European settlement. The Mn/Ca ratio responded to local disturbance related to the construction of tourism infrastructure. Nitrogen isotope ratios showed no apparent trend over time. This study highlights the importance of site selection when using coral records to record regional environmental signals. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Haemoproteus iwa in Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor in the Islands of the Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Bastien

    Full Text Available Blood parasites of the sub-genus Haemoproteus have been reported in seabirds, in particular in species in the Suliformes order. These parasites are transmitted by hippoboscid flies of the genus Olfersia; strong specificity has been suggested between the vector and its vertebrate host. We investigated the prevalence of Haemoproteus infection in Suliformes and hippoboscid flies in two oceanic islands of the Western Indian Ocean: Europa and Tromelin. In total, 209 blood samples were collected from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor, masked boobies (Sula dactylatra and red-footed boobies (Sula sula. Forty-one hippoboscid flies were also collected from birds. Seventeen frigatebirds and one fly collected on Europa tested positive for the presence of Haemoproteus parasites by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the Cytochrome b gene showed that parasites were closely related to Haemoproteus iwa reported from frigatebirds in the Pacific Ocean and in the Caribbean. Plasmodium was also detected in a frigatebird on Europa; however, its placement on the phylogenetic tree could not be resolved. We provide strong support for transmission of blood parasites in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean and suggest that migrations between the Pacific and the Indian oceans could favor the large-scale distribution of Haemoproteus iwa in frigatebird populations.

  16. Genetic spatial structure of an anchialine cave annelid indicates connectivity within - but not between - islands of the Great Bahama Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Brett C; Martínez, Alejandro; Borda, Elizabeth; Iliffe, Thomas M; Fontaneto, Diego; Worsaae, Katrine

    2017-04-01

    Land-locked anchialine blue holes are karstic sinkholes and caves with tidally influenced, vertically stratified water bodies that harbor endemic fauna exhibiting variable troglomorphic features. These habitats represent island-like systems, which can serve to elucidate evolutionary and biogeographic processes at local scales. We investigated whether the 'continuous spelean corridor' hypothesis may elucidate the biogeographical distributions of the stygobitic annelid Pelagomacellicephala iliffei (Polynoidae) collected from the Great Bahama and Caicos Banks of the Bahamas Archipelago. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed using Bayesian Inference on individual and combined datasets of three molecular markers (16S rDNA, COI, 18S rDNA) and species delimitation employed three widely accepted methods in DNA taxonomy, namely GMYC, bPTP, and ABGD. Mantel tests were used to test the effect of geography on genetic structure. Using these analyses, we recovered five independently evolving entities of the focal species across four islands of the Great Bahama Bank including Cat, Eleuthera, Exumas, and Long. Genetic data yielded strong correlations between islands and phylogenetic entities, signifying independent evolutionary histories within anchialine caves across the platform. The island of Eleuthera showed intra-island gene flow and dispersal capabilities between blue holes separated by 115km, providing evidence of a crevicular spelean corridor within the island. However, no evidence of inter-island dispersal is present in the analyzed system. Consistent with previous biogeographic studies of cave crustaceans, the major barriers shaping the cave biota of the Bahamas Archipelago appears to be the deep trenches and channels separating the Bahamian banks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transport of Australian Continental Dust to Australia's Great Barrier Reef Region: First Results From Sampling, Remote Sensing, Synoptic and Trajectory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, N.; O'Loingsigh, T.; de Deckker, P.; Cohen, D.

    2009-04-01

    As part of a large multi-disciplinary project funded by the Australian Research Council and in collaboration with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, we established in mid-2008 three PM 2.5 samplers in eastern Australia to determine possible transport of continental dust from the major dust source region of the Lake Eyre Basin (LEB). These samplers were located at Fowlers Gap, New South Wales [NSW] (31.09S, 141.70E), Mount Stromlo, NSW (35.30S, 149.00E) and Heron Island, Queensland (23.44S, 151.83E). The latter location is of particular significance because of its proximity to the World Heritage Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and to the tropical rainforest of coastal North Queensland. In previous studies, dust and associated organic material of African origin has been associated with rainforest fertilisation in Amazonia and coral bleaching in the Carribean. In this presentation three case studies of continental dust transport to Heron Island that occurred in the first four months of sampling are examined. In each case transport of soil material from the LEB region and/or western NSW is confirmed by the nature of material sampled, by remote sensing of the dust, by forward and backward air parcel trajectory analysis and by synoptic analysis. In each case the dust arrived over Heron Island 3-7 days after passing over the southern samplers, generally having followed an anti-clockwise curved path to approach Heron Island from the southeast. The potential significance of this finding for the GBR is briefly discussed.

  18. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spionidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Aonides, Dipolydora, Polydorella, Prionospio, Pseudopolydora, Rhynchospio, and Tripolydora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radashevsky, Vasily I

    2015-09-18

    Nineteen species in seven genera of spionid polychaetes are described and illustrated based on new material collected from the intertidal and shallow waters around the Lizard Island Group, northern Great Barrier Reef. Only one of these species had been previously reported from the Reef. Six species are described as new to science, and the taxonomy of seven species should be clarified in the future. Prionospio sensu lato is the most diverse group with 11 species identified in the present study. One species is identified in each of the genera Dipolydora, Polydorella, Rhynchospio and Tripolydora, and two species are identified in each of the genera Aonides and Pseudopolydora. The fauna of spionid polychaetes of the Great Barrier Reef seems to be more diverse than previously described and more species are expected to be found in the future. An identification key is provided to 16 genera of Spionidae reported from or likely to be found on the Great Barrier Reef.

  20. A sedimentary record of middle Holocene precipitation and terrestrial vertebrates from Great Cistern Blue Hole (Abaco Island), The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Winkler, T. S.; Donnelly, J. P.; Albury, N. A.; Steadman, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Sinkholes and blueholes provide sheltered basins on carbonate landscapes for sediments and fossils to accumulate and remain protected from reworking by coastal processes. These sedimentary archives can span hundreds to thousands of years and may contain detailed records of environmental change and landscape evolution. Great Cistern Blue Hole on Great Abaco Island in the northern Bahamas provides such an archive. Today situated a few meters above sea level in the coastal zone, Great Cistern was likely located further inland prior to a geometric change to the local coastline and during lower sea-level. To explore the long-term record of environmental change in this region, sediment cores were collected between 2014 and 2015 that yielded an 8,000-year record of continuous sedimentation. Visual inspection of the core revealed multiple intervals dominated by coarse-grained sediment that subsequent microscopic examination identified as fragments of calcite rafts. Calcite rafts (common in caves) precipitate at an air-groundwater interface in quiescent environments from the offgassing of calcium carbonate saturated groundwater. The recurrent precipitation of calcite rafts in a sinkhole potentially reflects intervals of increased discharge of the local coastal aquifer in response to increased precipitation. The onset, peak, and decline of the calcite raft deposits are consistent with other precipitation proxy records from the Caribbean region, suggesting that the deposition is providing direct evidence for middle Holocene precipitation patterns in the northern Bahamas. In addition, numerous vertebrate bones have accumulated in Great Cistern including those of a Bahamian Boa (age: 7ka yBP), a species of crocodile no longer present on Abaco Island (age: 2ka yBP), and pre-European contact human remains (age: 600 yBP). As the project continues, other bones will be identified that may serve to enhance our knowledge of human and animal activity on the island.

  1. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  2. The ugly face of tourism: Marine debris pollution linked to visitation in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott P; Verlis, Krista M

    2017-04-15

    Marine debris is one of the most significant issues facing oceans worldwide. The sources of this debris vary depending on proximity to urban centres and the nature of activities within an area. This paper examines the influence of tourism in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and its contribution to litter levels in the region. By conducting beach debris surveys on occupied and unoccupied islands, this study found that debris was prevalent throughout the region with significant differences in material types between locations. The greatest source of debris from publically accessible islands was tourist-related, with this source also influencing debris loads on nearby uninhabited islands. A focus on debris at Heron Island, showed that sites close to amenities had greater levels of tourist-sourced items like cigarette butts. These findings indicate the contribution of tourists to this problem and that working with operators and managers is needed to minimise visitor impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devetaković Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

  4. Observations of indirect filial cannibalism in response to nest failure of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Brianne E.; Coates, Peter S.; Dwight, Ian; Young, Laura G.

    2017-01-01

    During 2011, four separate instances of indirect filial cannibalism, whereby adults consumed their young that died from unknown causes, were observed using video-monitoring techniques in a nesting colony of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) on Alcatraz Island. Though they were not observed actively killing their young, in all four observations adult Black-crowned Night-Herons consumed their young following death (i.e., indirect filial cannibalism). We could not determine cause of chick mortality, but parental neglect was likely a contributing factor in at least two instances. Indirect filial cannibalism is not commonly documented among birds, and understanding how cannibalism contributes to nest failure can help researchers better understand factors that limit nesting populations.

  5. Impact of an experimental eutrophication on the processes of bioerosion on the reef: One Tree Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazottes, Veronique; Hutchings, Pat; Osorno, Alicia

    2017-05-15

    The components of bioerosion were investigated during ENCORE (The Effect of Nutrient Enrichment on Coral Reefs) over 2years of controlled additions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. The study was carried out at One Tree Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Rates of microbioerosion and external erosion by grazing were significantly higher at the enriched sites than at the control sites. Rates of accretion by coralline algae were also significantly higher at enriched sites. In contrast, rates of macroboring were not significantly different between enriched and control sites. This study highlights the importance of improving water quality on the reef to reduce rates of bioerosion given that quantities of dead coral substrates have recently substantially increased as a result of coral bleaching (Hughes et al., 2015) and several Crown of Thorns plagues (Fabricius et al., 2010; De'ath et al., 2012), on the Great Barrier Reef. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Great Palm Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1872 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  7. ADAPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HERONS PLUMAGE FOR THEIR WAY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshelev V. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feather cover of each bird species reflects spectra of species, age, sex and environmental attributes defined the phylogeny of taxa, habitat and life patterns. In turn, many ecological phenomena in the birds’ life patterns are directly dependent on the state of plumage (e.g., time of breeding, seasonal migration, roost flights. For the first time the quantitative characterization of six heron species' plumage were done as well as the description of powder down feathers. The adaptive features of feathers and various types of heron’s plumages were discussed.The structure of contour feathers of herons is related to the peculiarities of species life pattern. All the species have a relatively small number of contour feathers, despite their large body size. According to this index the herons are more similar to typical wading birds (gulls, sandpipers than for waterfowl. The total number of heron feathers slightly increase in winter, because they are migratory species. Structure of contour feathers of herons corresponds to that of other waterbirds. The rod is not bent, the feathers are large, and the mounting angle to the surface of the body is little. The cores of abdominal feather fracts reduce heat transfer and can be regarded as an adaptation factor to aquatic environment.Buoyancy is provided by heron’s feathers insignificantly, in contrast to the typical waterfowl species. Significant subcutaneous fat stores are typical for herons in spring, autumn and winter, increased buoyancy and being the energy reserves provide thermoregulation in cold environment. Our data indicate weak adaptation of herons’ plumage to aquatic environments, but also confirm its insulating properties, which is prove the herons semi-aquatic rather than aquatic life patterns.Due to color of plumage some three groups of herons were considered: white, mottled and camouflaged. Coloration of second and third group performs a protective function. We didn’t found a clear

  8. The influence of sea level and cyclones on Holocene reef flat development: Middle Island, central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. J.; Smithers, S. G.; Lewis, S. E.; Clark, T. R.; Zhao, J. X.

    2016-09-01

    The geomorphology and chronostratigraphy of the reef flat (including microatoll ages and elevations) were investigated to better understand the long-term development of the reef at Middle Island, inshore central Great Barrier Reef. Eleven cores across the fringing reef captured reef initiation, framework accretion and matrix sediments, allowing a comprehensive appreciation of reef development. Precise uranium-thorium ages obtained from coral skeletons revealed that the reef initiated ~7873 ± 17 years before present (yBP), and most of the reef was emplaced in the following 1000 yr. Average rates of vertical reef accretion ranged between 3.5 and 7.6 mm yr-1. Reef framework was dominated by branching corals ( Acropora and Montipora). An age hiatus of ~5000 yr between 6439 ± 19 and 1617 ± 10 yBP was observed in the core data and attributed to stripping of the reef structure by intense cyclones during the mid- to late-Holocene. Large shingle ridges deposited onshore and basset edges preserved on the reef flat document the influence of cyclones at Middle Island and represent potential sinks for much of the stripped material. Stripping of the upper reef structure around the outer margin of the reef flat by cyclones created accommodation space for a thin (veneer of reef growth after 1617 ± 10 yBP that grew over the eroded mid-Holocene reef structure. Although limited fetch and open-water exposure might suggest the reef flat at Middle Island is quite protected, our results show that high-energy waves presumably generated by cyclones have significantly influenced both Holocene reef growth and contemporary reef flat geomorphology.

  9. A great volcanic eruption around AD 1300 recorded in lacustrine sediment from Dongdao Island, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongkang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Yi; Sun, Liguang

    2017-02-01

    The contents of Ti, Al and Fe 2 O 3 in a lacustrine sediment core (DY6) collected from Dongdao Island, South China Sea (SCS), were determined to be much higher than those in the three major sediment end-members (coral sand, guano and plants), and their likely sources include terrigenous dust and volcanic ash. At 61 cm (˜AD 1300), the contents of Ti, Al and Fe 2 O 3 have an abnormally high spike, which cannot be explained by terrigenous dust. The Sr and Nd isotope compositions at 61 cm are in excellent agreement with those in volcanic materials, but they are significantly different from those in terrigenous dust, implying a possible material input from historical volcanic eruptions in the lacustrine sediment DY6. The documented great Samalas volcanic eruption at AD 1257 in Indonesia is likely the candidate for this volcanic eruption.

  10. The value and vulnerability of small estuarine islands for conserving metapopulations of breeding waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Wilmers, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Compelling arguments for preserving large habitat 'islands' have been made for a number of animal groups, but most commonly for terrestrial birds. We argue that, for many species of waterbirds nesting in coastal estuaries, maintaining numerous small islands may be a more effective management strategy than maintaining larger islands or reserves. In this study, the number of great white heron Ardea herodias nests over a 5-year period (1986-91) was negatively correlated with island area in the Florida Keys, USA. Nest densities were highest in the 210 ha island size range and lowest for islands larger than 100 ha. These small islands also attract nesting black skimmers Rynchops niger, brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis, and several species of terns and gulls. Small estuarine islands are vulnerable to sea level rise, erosion from watercraft, and, for dredge material islands, lack of sufficient maintenance because of competing needs for beach nourishment. Managers need to enforce more buffering and protection of these islands and argue for more dredged material allocations in some areas.

  11. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Berkelmans, Ray; Peplow, Lesa M; Jones, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs surrounding the islands lying close to the coast are unique to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in that they are frequently exposed to disturbance events including floods caused by cyclonic rainfall, strong winds and occasional periods of prolonged above-average temperatures during summer. In one such group of islands in the southern GBR, the Keppel Island archipelago, climate-driven disturbances frequently result in major coral mortality. Whilst these island reefs have clearly survived such dramatic disturbances in the past, the consequences of extreme mortality events may include the loss of genetic diversity, and hence adaptive potential, and a reduction in fitness due to inbreeding, especially if new recruitment from external sources is limited. Here we examined the level of isolation of the Keppel Island group as well as patterns of gene flow within the Keppel Islands using 10 microsatellite markers in nine populations of the coral, Acropora millepora. Bayesian cluster analysis and assignment tests indicated gene flow is restricted, but not absent, between the outer and inner Keppel Island groups, and that extensive gene flow exists within each of these island groups. Comparison of the Keppel Island data with results from a previous GBR-wide study that included a single Keppel Island population, confirmed that A. millepora in the Keppel Islands is genetically distinct from populations elsewhere on the GBR, with exception of the nearby inshore High Peak Reef just north of the Keppel Islands. We compared patterns of genetic diversity in the Keppel Island populations with those from other GBR populations and found them to be slightly, but significantly lower, consistent with the archipelago being geographically isolated, but there was no evidence for recent bottlenecks or deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium. A high incidence of private alleles in the Keppel Islands, particularly in the outer islands, supports their relative isolation and contributes

  12. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine J.H. van Oppen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs surrounding the islands lying close to the coast are unique to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR in that they are frequently exposed to disturbance events including floods caused by cyclonic rainfall, strong winds and occasional periods of prolonged above-average temperatures during summer. In one such group of islands in the southern GBR, the Keppel Island archipelago, climate-driven disturbances frequently result in major coral mortality. Whilst these island reefs have clearly survived such dramatic disturbances in the past, the consequences of extreme mortality events may include the loss of genetic diversity, and hence adaptive potential, and a reduction in fitness due to inbreeding, especially if new recruitment from external sources is limited. Here we examined the level of isolation of the Keppel Island group as well as patterns of gene flow within the Keppel Islands using 10 microsatellite markers in nine populations of the coral, Acropora millepora. Bayesian cluster analysis and assignment tests indicated gene flow is restricted, but not absent, between the outer and inner Keppel Island groups, and that extensive gene flow exists within each of these island groups. Comparison of the Keppel Island data with results from a previous GBR-wide study that included a single Keppel Island population, confirmed that A. millepora in the Keppel Islands is genetically distinct from populations elsewhere on the GBR, with exception of the nearby inshore High Peak Reef just north of the Keppel Islands. We compared patterns of genetic diversity in the Keppel Island populations with those from other GBR populations and found them to be slightly, but significantly lower, consistent with the archipelago being geographically isolated, but there was no evidence for recent bottlenecks or deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium. A high incidence of private alleles in the Keppel Islands, particularly in the outer islands, supports their relative

  13. A new species of Numbakullidae Guţu & Heard, 2002 (Tanaidacea, Peracarida, Crustacea from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stępień

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Numbakulla Guţu & Heard, 2002 (Tanaidacea is described from Heron Island (southern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland collected during the Census of Coral Reefs Ecosystem (CReefs program. The new species is the third member of the family and can be recognized by the combination of characters as: length/width ratio of the body, which is 6:7, pereonite 4 longer than the rest, the presence of eyes, a blunt rostrum, antenna article 2 elongated, cheliped carpus with row of inner setae, pereopod 6 carpus with spines, pleopod endopod with denticles.

  14. An overlooked Heron of the javan ornis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    Meyer and Wiglesworth state in the »Birds of Celebes”, Vol. II, 1898, p. 857, that Ixobrychus eurhythma has been observed in Java, a specimen from that island received from von Schierbrand being in the Dresden Museum. It seems that this statement is overlooked by all authors who have written in

  15. Four new species of Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Faustulidae) from batfishes (Perciformes: Ephippidae) on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pablo E; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2017-03-01

    Examination of three species of batfishes (Teleostei: Epphippidae) from off Lizard and Heron Islands on the Great Barrier Reef led to the discovery of specimens of the trematode genus Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Faustulidae). Morphological analysis demonstrated that the new specimens represented four morphotypes which we interpret to be new species: Paradiscogaster martini n. sp., P. vichovae n. sp. and P. brayi n. sp. from Platax orbicularis (Forsskål) and P. pinnatus (Linnaeus) off Lizard Island, and P. nitschkei n. sp. from P. teira (Forsskål) off Heron Island. Published material was re-examined and the specimens identified as P. chaetodontis okinawensis Yamaguti, 1971 from P. pinnatus from Okinawa, Japan, actually represent the new species P. brayi n. sp., demonstrating that some species of Paradiscogaster have wide geographical distributions. ITS2 rDNA data for the four morphotypes differ by 4-39 base pairs confirming the delineation of the four species proposed. A feature of this study is the recognition of Platax spp. as an important host group for Paradiscogaster, with the new species placing them as the second richest host group for these parasites after the Chaetodontidae.

  16. Conservation status of white poplar (Populus alba L. and black poplar (Populus nigra L. in the territory of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available T he paper describes t he conservation status of white poplar (Populus alba L. and black poplar (Populus nigra L. in the territory of Great War Island. The activities of in situ and ex situ gene pool conservation have been defined in order to preserve and expand the populations of the above species, as carriers of complex wetland forest ecosystems.

  17. A new gnathiid (Crustacea: Isopoda) parasitizing two species of requiem sharks from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Maryke L; Smit, Nico J; Grutter, Alexandra S; Davies, Angela J

    2008-06-01

    Third-stage juveniles (praniza 3) of Gnathia grandilaris n. sp. were collected from the gill filaments and septa of 5 requiem sharks, including a white tip reef shark, Triaenodon obesus, and 4 grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, in March 2002. Some juvenile gnathiids were then maintained in fresh sea water until they molted to adults. Adult males appeared 19 days following detachment of juveniles from host fishes, but no juveniles molted successfully into females. The current description is based, therefore, on bright field and scanning electron microscopy observations of adult males and third-stage juveniles. Unique features of the male include the triangular-shaped inferior medio-frontal process, 2 areolae on the dorsal surface of the pylopod, and a slender pleotelson (twice as long as wide) with lateral concavities. The third-stage juvenile has distinctive white pigmentation on the black pereon when alive, while the mandible has 9 triangular backwardly directed teeth. This species has the largest male and third-stage juvenile of any Gnathia spp. from Australia and of any gnathiid isopods associated with elasmobranchs.

  18. Palaeoecological evidence of a historical collapse of corals at Pelorus Island, inshore Great Barrier Reef, following European settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, George; Clark, Tara R.; Reymond, Claire E.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yuexing; McCook, Laurence J.; Done, Terence J.; Pandolfi, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) have undergone significant declines in water quality following European settlement (approx. 1870 AD). However, direct evidence of impacts on coral assemblages is limited by a lack of historical baselines prior to the onset of modern monitoring programmes in the early 1980s. Through palaeoecological reconstructions, we report a previously undocumented historical collapse of Acropora assemblages at Pelorus Island (central GBR). High-precision U-series dating of dead Acropora fragments indicates that this collapse occurred between 1920 and 1955, with few dates obtained after 1980. Prior to this event, our results indicate remarkable long-term stability in coral community structure over centennial scales. We suggest that chronic increases in sediment flux and nutrient loading following European settlement acted as the ultimate cause for the lack of recovery of Acropora assemblages following a series of acute disturbance events (SST anomalies, cyclones and flood events). Evidence for major degradation in reef condition owing to human impacts prior to modern ecological surveys indicates that current monitoring of inshore reefs on the GBR may be predicated on a significantly shifted baseline. PMID:23135672

  19. Three new species of Calyptotheca (Bryozoa: Lanceoporidae) from the Great Barrier Reef, tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Pascal; Cumming, Robyn L

    2016-02-15

    The cheilostome bryozoans Calyptotheca wulguru n. sp. and Calyptotheca tilbrooki n. sp. (Lanceoporidae) are described from inter-reefal, sediment-dominated habitats of the Great Barrier Reef, and Calyptotheca churro n. sp. was washed up on a Heron Island beach, with uncertain origin. Calyptotheca wulguru n. sp. and C. churro n. sp. belong to a subgroup of Calyptotheca species with numerous small, oval, marginal adventitious avicularia and suboral nodular thickening or umbones. The vicarious avicularia of C. tilbrooki n. sp. are elongate-oval, unlike those of other known Calyptotheca species, and C. tilbrooki n. sp. has more pronounced orificial dimorphism than in any other known Calyptotheca species. Calyptotheca churro n. sp. has the most pronounced suboral umbo of all known Calyptotheca species. This study increases the known Calyptotheca species of the Great Barrier Reef to ten, and of tropical Australia to 14.

  20. ADAPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HERONS PLUMAGE FOR THEIR WAY OF LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Koshelev V. A.; Peresadko L. V.; Furmanova V. I.; Koshelev A. I.

    2011-01-01

    Feather cover of each bird species reflects spectra of species, age, sex and environmental attributes defined the phylogeny of taxa, habitat and life patterns. In turn, many ecological phenomena in the birds’ life patterns are directly dependent on the state of plumage (e.g., time of breeding, seasonal migration, roost flights). For the first time the quantitative characterization of six heron species' plumage were done as well as the description of powder down feathers. The adaptive feature...

  1. Philopatry drives genetic differentiation in an island archipelago: comparative population genetics of Galapagos Nazca boobies (Sula granti) and great frigatebirds (Fregata minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Iris I; Parker, Patricia G

    2012-11-01

    Seabirds are considered highly mobile, able to fly great distances with few apparent barriers to dispersal. However, it is often the case that seabird populations exhibit strong population genetic structure despite their potential vagility. Here we show that Galapagos Nazca booby (Sula granti) populations are substantially differentiated, even within the small geographic scale of this archipelago. On the other hand, Galapagos great frigatebird (Fregata minor) populations do not show any genetic structure. We characterized the genetic differentiation by sampling five colonies of both species in the Galapagos archipelago and analyzing eight microsatellite loci and three mitochondrial genes. Using an F-statistic approach on the multilocus data, we found significant differentiation between nearly all island pairs of Nazca booby populations and a Bayesian clustering analysis provided support for three distinct genetic clusters. Mitochondrial DNA showed less differentiation of Nazca booby colonies; only Nazca boobies from the island of Darwin were significantly differentiated from individuals throughout the rest of the archipelago. Great frigatebird populations showed little to no evidence for genetic differentiation at the same scale. Only two island pairs (Darwin - Wolf, N. Seymour - Wolf) were significantly differentiated using the multilocus data, and only two island pairs had statistically significant φ(ST) values (N. Seymour - Darwin, N. Seymour - Wolf) according to the mitochondrial data. There was no significant pattern of isolation by distance for either species calculated using both markers. Seven of the ten Nazca booby migration rates calculated between island pairs were in the south or southeast to north or northwest direction. The population differentiation found among Galapagos Nazca booby colonies, but not great frigatebird colonies, is most likely due to differences in natal and breeding philopatry.

  2. Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) diversity in reef-invertebrates along an offshore to inshore reef gradient near Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Linda; Sampayo, Eugenia M; LaJeunesse, Todd C; Schrameyer, Verena; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2014-06-01

    Despite extensive work on the genetic diversity of reef invertebrate-dinoflagellate symbioses on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR; Australia), large information gaps exist from northern and inshore regions. Therefore, a broad survey was done comparing the community of inshore, mid-shelf and outer reefs at the latitude of Lizard Island. Symbiodinium (Freudenthal) diversity was characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and sequencing of the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA. Thirty-nine distinct Symbiodinium types were identified from four subgeneric clades (B, C, D, and G). Several Symbiodinium types originally characterized from the Indian Ocean were discovered as well as eight novel types (C1kk, C1LL, C3nn, C26b, C161a, C162, C165, C166). Multivariate analyses on the Symbiodinium species diversity data showed a strong link with host identity, consistent with previous findings. Of the four environmental variables tested, mean austral winter sea surface temperature (SST) influenced Symbiodinium distribution across shelves most significantly. A similar result was found when the analysis was performed on Symbiodinium diversity data of genera with an open symbiont transmission mode separately with chl a and PAR explaining additional variation. This study underscores the importance of SST and water quality related variables as factors driving Symbiodinium distribution on cross-shelf scales. Furthermore, this study expands our knowledge on Symbiodinium species diversity, ecological partitioning (including host-specificity) and geographic ranges across the GBR. The accelerating rate of environmental change experienced by coral reef ecosystems emphasizes the need to comprehend the full complexity of cnidarian symbioses, including the biotic and abiotic factors that shape their current distributions. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Connectivity of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus Quoyanus) in a marine reserve in the Great Keppel Island Group

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Salamah, Manalle

    2014-12-01

    With a dramatic decrease of biodiversity as a result of the increase in exploitation of marine ecosystems, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) serves as an important means of protecting those resources. Although there is support for the effectiveness of these MPAs and MPA networks, there is room for improvement in terms of MPA management and design. For example, a better understanding of the dispersal dynamics of targeted species across these MPAs will serve as a more accurate means of reserve as well as fisheries management. While there have been many methods used to determine the larval dispersal of a certain species, parentage analysis is becoming the most robust. In this thesis, I attempt to determine the patterns of self-recruitment and larval dispersal of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus quoyanus) in one focal marine reserve within the Great Keppel Island group through the method of parentage. For this, I developed 14 microsatellite markers and with those, genotyped 610 adults as well as 478 juveniles from the study site. These genotypes allowed me to assign offspring to their potential parents, which then allowed me to measure the self-recruitment, local retention as well as larval dispersal percentages of this species from and within the reserve. My results indicate that there is 32% local retention to the reserve while 68% of the assigned juveniles were dispersed to other areas (4% of which dispersed to another reserve). Previous studies conducted in the same area showed higher reserve self-recruitment rates for both Plectropomus maculatus (~30%) and Lutjanus carponotatus (64%) despite their similar life history traits. The results from this study add to the growing evidence that dispersal patterns cannot be generalized across marine systems or even between species within a single system.

  4. Impact Of Coral Structures On Wave Directional Spreading Across A Shallow Reef Flat - Lizard Island, Northern Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, J. X.; Baldock, T.; Callaghan, D. P.; Hoegh-guldberg, O.; Mumby, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.; Saunders, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Coral reef hydrodynamics operate at several and overlapping spatial-temporal scales. Waves have the most important forcing function on shallow (stress, directly mixing water (temperature and nutrients) and transporting sediments, nutrients and plankton. Reef flats are very effective at dissipating wave energy and providing an important ecosystem service by protecting highly valued shorelines. The effectiveness of reef flats to dissipate wave energy is related to the extreme hydraulic roughness of the benthos and substrate composition. Hydraulic roughness is usually obtained empirically from frictional-dissipation calculations, as detailed field measurements of bottom roughness (e.g. chain-method or profile gauges) is a very labour and time-consuming task. In this study we measured the impact of coral structures on wave directional spreading. Field data was collected during October 2012 across a reef flat on Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. Wave surface levels were measured using an array of self-logging pressure sensors. A rapid in situ close-range photogrammetric method was used to create a high-resolution (0.5 cm) image mosaic and digital elevation model. Individual coral heads were extracted from these datasets using geo-morphometric and object-based image analysis techniques. Wave propagation was modelled using a modified version of the SWAN model which includes the measured coral structures in 2m by 1m cells across the reef. The approach followed a cylinder drag approach, neglecting skin friction and inertial components. Testing against field data included bed skin friction. Our results show, for the first time, how the variability of the reef benthos structures affects wave dissipation across a shallow reef flat. This has important implications globally for coral reefs, due to the large extent of their area occupied by reef flats, particularly, as global-scale degradation in coral reef health is causing a lowering of reef carbonate production that

  5. A taxonomic guide to the fanworms (Sabellidae, Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, including new species and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, María; Murray, Anna

    2015-09-18

    This comprehensive taxonomic work is the result of the study of fan worms (Sabellidae, Annelida) collected over the last 40 years from around the Lizard Island Archipelago, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Some species described herein are commonly found in Lizard Island waters but had not previously been formally reported in the literature. Most species appear to be not particularly abundant, and few specimens have been collected despite the sampling effort in the area over this time period. After this study, the overall sabellid diversity of the archipelago has been greatly increased (by more than 650%). Before this revision, only four sabellid species had been recorded for Lizard Island, and in this paper we report 31 species, 13 of which belong to nominal species, six are formally described as new species (Euchone danieloi n. sp., Euchone glennoi n. sp., Jasmineira gustavoi n. sp., Megalomma jubata n. sp., Myxicola nana n. sp., and Paradialychone ambigua n. sp.), and the identity of 12 species is still unknown (those referred as cf. or sp.). Two species are newly recorded in Australia and two in Queensland. The invasive species Branchiomma bairdi is reported for the first time at Lizard Island. The genus Paradialychone is reported for Australia for the first time. Standardised descriptions, general photographs of live and/or preserved specimens and distribution data are provided for all species. New species descriptions are accompanied by detailed illustrations and exhaustive morphological information. A dichotomous key for sabellid identification is also included.

  6. Will Coral Islands maintain their growth over the next century? A deterministic model of sediment availability at Lady Elliot Island, Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamylton, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A geomorphic assessment of reef system calcification is conducted for past (3200 Ka to present), present and future (2010-2100) time periods. Reef platform sediment production is estimated at 569 m3 yr-1 using rate laws that express gross community carbonate production as a function of seawater aragonite saturation, community composition and rugosity and incorporating estimates of carbonate removal from the reef system. Key carbonate producers including hard coral, crustose coralline algae and Halimeda are mapped accurately (mean R2 = 0.81). Community net production estimates correspond closely to independent census-based estimates made in-situ (R2 = 0.86). Reef-scale outputs are compared with historic rates of production generated from (i) radiocarbon evidence of island deposition initiation around 3200 years ago, and (ii) island volume calculated from a high resolution island digital elevation model. Contemporary carbonate production rates appear to be remarkably similar to historical values of 573 m3 yr-1. Anticipated future seawater chemistry parameters associated with an RCP8.5 emissions scenario are employed to model rates of net community calcification for the period 2000-2100 on the basis of an inorganic aragonite precipitation law, under the assumption of constant benthic community character. Simulations indicate that carbonate production will decrease linearly to a level of 118 m3 yr-1 by 2100 and that by 2150 aragonite saturation levels may no longer support the positive budgetary status necessary to sustain island accretion. Novel aspects of this assessment include the development of rate law parameters to realistically represent the variable composition of coral reef benthic carbonate producers, incorporation of three dimensional rugosity of the entire reef platform and the coupling of model outputs with both historical radiocarbon dating evidence and forward hydrochemical projections to conduct an assessment of island evolution through time

  7. Will Coral Islands maintain their growth over the next century? A deterministic model of sediment availability at Lady Elliot Island, Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hamylton

    Full Text Available A geomorphic assessment of reef system calcification is conducted for past (3200 Ka to present, present and future (2010-2100 time periods. Reef platform sediment production is estimated at 569 m3 yr-1 using rate laws that express gross community carbonate production as a function of seawater aragonite saturation, community composition and rugosity and incorporating estimates of carbonate removal from the reef system. Key carbonate producers including hard coral, crustose coralline algae and Halimeda are mapped accurately (mean R2 = 0.81. Community net production estimates correspond closely to independent census-based estimates made in-situ (R2 = 0.86. Reef-scale outputs are compared with historic rates of production generated from (i radiocarbon evidence of island deposition initiation around 3200 years ago, and (ii island volume calculated from a high resolution island digital elevation model. Contemporary carbonate production rates appear to be remarkably similar to historical values of 573 m3 yr-1. Anticipated future seawater chemistry parameters associated with an RCP8.5 emissions scenario are employed to model rates of net community calcification for the period 2000-2100 on the basis of an inorganic aragonite precipitation law, under the assumption of constant benthic community character. Simulations indicate that carbonate production will decrease linearly to a level of 118 m3 yr-1 by 2100 and that by 2150 aragonite saturation levels may no longer support the positive budgetary status necessary to sustain island accretion. Novel aspects of this assessment include the development of rate law parameters to realistically represent the variable composition of coral reef benthic carbonate producers, incorporation of three dimensional rugosity of the entire reef platform and the coupling of model outputs with both historical radiocarbon dating evidence and forward hydrochemical projections to conduct an assessment of island evolution

  8. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: II. Snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron reproduction on Lahontan Reservoir, 1997-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in the floodplain of the Carson River Basin in northwestern Nevada are some of the highest ever reported in a natural system. Thus, a portion of the basin including Lahontan Reservoir was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Natural Priorities List for research and cleanup. Preliminary studies indicated that reproduction in piscivorous birds may be at risk. Therefore, a 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction of snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting on Gull Island in Lahontan Reservoir. Special attention was given to the annual flow of the Carson River, the resultant fluctuation of this irrigation reservoir, and the annual exposure of snowy egrets and night-herons to methylmercury (MeHg). The dynamic character of the river due to flooding and drought (drought effect) influenced snowy egret and night-heron reproduction more so than did MeHg contamination of eggs. During an extended drought (2000-2004) in the middle of the study, snowy egret nests containing eggs with concentrations of MeHg (measured as total mercury [THg] ??? 100% MeHg) ???0.80 ??g THg/g, ww, all failed, but in 1997 and 2006 (wet years with general flooding), substantial numbers of young were produced (but fewer than at nests where eggs contained Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. U-Th age distribution of coral fragments from multiple rubble ridges within the Frankland Islands, Great Barrier Reef: Implications for past storminess history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Entao; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Leonard, Nicole D.; Clark, Tara R.; Roff, George

    2016-07-01

    Prograded coral rubble ridges have been widely used as archives for reconstructing long-term storm or storminess history. Chronologies of ridge systems in previous studies are often based on a limited number of low-resolution radiocarbon or optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages per ridge (usually only one age per ridge), which carry intrinsic age uncertainties and make interpretation of storm histories problematic. To test the fidelity of storm ridges as palaeo-storm archives, we used high-precision U-Th dating to examine whether different samples from a single ridge are temporally constrained. We surveyed three transects of ridge systems from two continental islands (Normanby Island and High Island) within the Frankland Islands, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and obtained 96 U-Th dates from coral rubble samples collected from within and between different ridges. Our results revealed significant differences in age ranges between the two islands. The steeper and more defined rubble ridges present on Normanby Island revealed that the majority of U-Th ages (over 60%) from a single ridge clustered within a narrow age range (∼100 years). By contrast, the lower and less defined ridges on High Island, which were more likely formed during both storm and non-storm high-energy events, revealed significant scatter in age distribution (>>200 years) with no notable clustering. The narrower age ranges obtained from the steeper and more defined rubble ridges suggest that previous approaches of using either limited samples from a single ridge or low-precision dating methods to establish chronologies are generally valid at centennial to millennial timescales, although caution must be taken to use such approaches for storm history reconstruction on shorter timescales (e.g. decadal). The correlation between U-Th mortality ages of coral rubble and historical stormy periods highlights the possibility of using coral rubble age distribution from rubble ridges to reconstruct the long

  10. Immunological and reproductive health assessment in herring gulls and black-crowned night herons in the Hudson–Raritan Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasman, Keith A.; Echols, Kathy R.; May, Thomas M.; Peterman, Paul H.; Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown inexplicable declines in breeding waterbirds within western New York/New Jersey Harbor between 1996 and 2002 and elevated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs. The present study assessed associations between immune function, prefledgling survival, and selected organochlorine compounds and metals in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in lower New York Harbor during 2003. In pipping gull embryos, lymphoid cells were counted in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius (sites of T and B lymphocyte maturation, respectively). The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response assessed T cell function in gull and heron chicks. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured in vitro in adult and prefledgling gulls. Reference data came from the Great Lakes and Bay of Fundy. Survival of prefledgling gulls was poor, with only 0.68 and 0.5 chicks per nest surviving to three and four weeks after hatch, respectively. Developing lymphoid cells were reduced 51% in the thymus and 42% in the bursa of gull embryos from New York Harbor. In vitro lymphocyte assays demonstrated reduced spontaneous proliferation, reduced T cell mitogen-induced proliferation, and increased B cell mitogen-induced proliferation in gull chicks from New York Harbor. The PHA skin response was suppressed 70 to 80% in gull and heron chicks. Strong negative correlations (r = –0.95 to –0.98) between the PHA response and dioxins and PCBs in gull livers was strong evidence suggesting that these chemicals contribute significantly to immunosuppression in New York Harbor waterbirds.

  11. Taxonomy, host specificity and dietary implications of Hurleytrematoides (Digenea: Monorchiidae) from chaetodontid fishes on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, M K A; Cribb, T H

    2011-09-01

    Five new and five previously described species of Hurleytrematoides are reported from 19 of 34 chaetodontid species examined from the Great Barrier Reef; new species are H. faliexae n. sp., H. galzini n. sp., H. loi n. sp., H. morandi n. sp., and H. sasali n. sp. Previously described species are H. coronatum, H. fijiensis, H. prevoti, H. bartolii, and H. zebrasomae. The genus is rediagnosed in the light of morphological variation of the new species; the degree of spination and shape of the terminal genitalia distinguish individual species. Species of Hurleytrematoides infect almost every clade of the family Chaetodontidae found on the Great Barrier Reef, but obligate corallivores are not infected. All ten species were found at Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef, but only six at Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef. For three of the four species not present at Lizard Island, the absence appears to be statistically significant. Although all species are apparently restricted to chaetodontids on the GBR, specificity within the family varies from oioxenous to euryxenous; a core/satellite host paradigm explains the distribution of several species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyrtodactylus rosichonariefi sp. nov. (Squamata: Gekkonidae), a new swamp-dwelling bent-toed gecko from Bunguran Island (Great Natuna), Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L

    2015-05-29

    Cyrtodactylus rosichonariefi sp. nov. is the second newly described species of Bent-toed gecko from Bunguran Island (Great Natuna), Indonesia. This species occurs in the Sekunyam Forest and is differentiated from all other species of the C. semenanjungensis species group of the Thai-Malay Peninsula by having the following unique combination of characteristics: intermediate size (SVL of adult male holotype 54.6 mm); enlarged femoral scales, no femoral pores, no precloacal groove, enlarged precloacal scales, no precloacal pores; subcaudals not enlarged; and dorsal pattern blotched but lacking paired, dark, semilunar-shaped blotches on upper nape. The new species is the sister species of C. majulah Grismer, Wood & Lim. [Corrected

  13. Variation in growth rates of branching corals along Australia's Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristen D; Cantin, Neal E; Heron, Scott F; Pisapia, Chiara; Pratchett, Morgan S

    2017-06-07

    Coral growth is an important component of reef health and resilience. However, few studies have investigated temporal and/or spatial variation in growth of branching corals, which are important contributors to the structure and function of reef habitats. This study assessed growth (linear extension, density, and calcification) of three branching coral species (Acropora muricata, Pocillopora damicornis and Isopora palifera) at three distinct locations (Lizard Island, Davies/Trunk Reef, and Heron Island) along Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Annual growth rates of all species were highest at Lizard Island and declined with increasing latitude, corresponding with differences in temperature. Within locations, however, seasonal variation in growth did not directly correlate with temperature. Between October 2012 and October 2014, the highest growth of A. muricata was in the 2013-14 summer at Lizard Island, which was unusually cool and ~0.5 °C less than the long-term summer average temperature. At locations where temperatures reached or exceeded the long-term summer maxima, coral growth during summer periods was equal to, if not lower than, winter periods. This study shows that temperature has a significant influence on spatiotemporal patterns of branching coral growth, and high summer temperatures in the northern GBR may already be constraining coral growth and reef resilience.

  14. Benthic Foraminifera from the Capricorn Group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Briony L

    2016-12-23

    Effective reef management and monitoring has become increasingly important as anthropogenic processes impact upon natural ecosystems. One locality that is under direct threat due to human activities is the Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Marine foraminifera represent an abundant and readily applicable tool that can be used in reef studies to investigate a variety of ecological parameters and assist in understanding reef dynamics and influence management protocols. The first step is to establish a baseline knowledge of taxonomic composition within the region to facilitate comparative studies and monitor how assemblages change in order to maximise effective management. A detailed taxonomic assessment is provided of 133 species of benthic foraminifera in 76 genera from Heron Island, One Tree Island, Wistari and Sykes Reefs, which form the core of the Capricorn Group (CG) at the southern end of the GBR. Of these 133 species, 46% belong to the order Miliolida, 34% to Rotaliida, 7% to Textulariida, 5% to Lagenida, 3% to Lituolida, 3% to Spirillinida, 1% to Loftusiida and 1% to Robertinida. Samples were collected from a variety of shallow shelf reef environments including reef flat, lagoonal and channel environments. Seventy species, representing the most abundant forms, are formally described with detailed distribution data for the remaining 63 species supplied.

  15. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: II. Snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron reproduction on Lahontan Reservoir, 1997--2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elwood F; Henny, Charles J; Grove, Robert A

    2008-02-01

    Mercury concentrations in the floodplain of the Carson River Basin in northwestern Nevada are some of the highest ever reported in a natural system. Thus, a portion of the basin including Lahontan Reservoir was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Natural Priorities List for research and cleanup. Preliminary studies indicated that reproduction in piscivorous birds may be at risk. Therefore, a 10-year study (1997--2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction of snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting on Gull Island in Lahontan Reservoir. Special attention was given to the annual flow of the Carson River, the resultant fluctuation of this irrigation reservoir, and the annual exposure of snowy egrets and night-herons to methylmercury (MeHg). The dynamic character of the river due to flooding and drought (drought effect) influenced snowy egret and night-heron reproduction more so than did MeHg contamination of eggs. During an extended drought (2000--2004) in the middle of the study, snowy egret nests containing eggs with concentrations of MeHg (measured as total mercury [THg] approximately 100% MeHg) > or =0.80 microg THg/g, ww, all failed, but in 1997 and 2006 (wet years with general flooding), substantial numbers of young were produced (but fewer than at nests where eggs contained snowy egret annual productivity. In contrast to snowy egrets, night-herons generally had fewer nests meeting the 0.80 microg THg/g criterion, and those above the criterion were less sensitive to mercury than were snowy egrets. Furthermore, night-herons appeared more tolerant of drought conditions than snowy egrets because they nested earlier, selected more protected nesting sites, and had a more generalist diet that provided additional food options including terrestrial organisms, which also reduced exposure to MeHg. A putative biological effect threshold of 2.0 microg THg/g in whole blood for young of both species was

  16. A Look at the Generalized Heron Problem through the Lens of Majorization-Minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Eric C; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    In a recent issue of this journal, Mordukhovich, Nam, and Salinas pose and solve an interesting non-differentiable generalization of the Heron problem in the framework of modern convex analysis. In the generalized Heron problem, one is given k + 1 closed convex sets in ℝ d equipped with its Euclidean norm and asked to find the point in the last set such that the sum of the distances to the first k sets is minimal. In later work, the authors generalize the Heron problem even further, relax its convexity assumptions, study its theoretical properties, and pursue subgradient algorithms for solving the convex case. Here, we revisit the original problem solely from the numerical perspective. By exploiting the majorization-minimization (MM) principle of computational statistics and rudimentary techniques from differential calculus, we are able to construct a very fast algorithm for solving the Euclidean version of the generalized Heron problem.

  17. Dioxin, PCB and PBDE exposure in grey heron (ardea cinerea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.; Thompson, H.; Dsilva, K.; White, S.; Rose, M. [Central Science Laboratory, York (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    In the United Kingdom recent investigations have detected elevated levels of mortality and bone disease in grey herons at an established colony in Nottinghamshire along the course of the river Trent (4). The causes of mortality are unclear but deformities recorded in the other birds include multiple fracture of the tarsus, tibia and metacarpal bones. These findings have prompted a pilot study into assessing the level of environmental contaminants in the tissue and eggs of these birds. Two classes of contaminants have the potential to cause the deformities observed in the birds - heavy metals such as selenium, cadmium, arsenic mercury and lead, and halogenated organic contaminants such as dioxins, and PCBs. This paper discusses levels of these contaminants in the samples of eggs taken from the colony. Additional samples of eggs were also collected from a colony in Hertfordshire and from a site in the north of the country. The discussion will be limited to the halogenated organic contaminants as the levels of heavy metals were similar in all sites and were generally at or above background levels. Given the increased utilisation of brominated flame retardant chemicals over the last decade and the similarities in structure and environmental persistence of some of these compounds to the dioxins and PCBs, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were also measured in the samples.

  18. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  19. Microbial photosynthesis in coral reef sediments (Heron Reef, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ursula; Blazejak, Anna; Bird, Paul; Eickert, Gabriele; Schoon, Raphaela; Abed, Raeid M. M.; Bissett, Andrew; de Beer, Dirk

    2008-03-01

    We investigated microphytobenthic photosynthesis at four stations in the coral reef sediments at Heron Reef, Australia. The microphytobenthos was dominated by diatoms, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, as indicated by biomarker pigment analysis. Conspicuous algae firmly attached to the sand grains (ca. 100 μm in diameter, surrounded by a hard transparent wall) were rich in peridinin, a marker pigment for dinoflagellates, but also showed a high diversity based on cyanobacterial 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Specimens of these algae that were buried below the photic zone exhibited an unexpected stimulation of respiration by light, resulting in an increase of local oxygen concentrations upon darkening. Net photosynthesis of the sediments varied between 1.9 and 8.5 mmol O 2 m -2 h -1 and was strongly correlated with Chl a content, which lay between 31 and 84 mg m -2. An estimate based on our spatially limited dataset indicates that the microphytobenthic production for the entire reef is in the order of magnitude of the production estimated for corals. Photosynthesis stimulated calcification at all investigated sites (0.2-1.0 mmol Ca 2+ m -2 h -1). The sediments of at least three stations were net calcifying. Sedimentary N 2-fixation rates (measured by acetylene reduction assays at two sites) ranged between 0.9 to 3.9 mmol N 2 m -2 h -1 and were highest in the light, indicating the importance of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In coral fingers no N 2-fixation was measurable, which stresses the importance of the sediment compartment for reef nitrogen cycling.

  20. Raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 19, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  1. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  2. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 20, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  3. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 19, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  4. Raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 20, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  5. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  6. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 21, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  7. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 25, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  8. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 24, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  9. Processed continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 23, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  10. Raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 21, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  11. Raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  12. Great Blue Heron, Double-crested Cormorant, and Great Egret Nesting, Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge, 2008-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During 2008-2014, the staff of Missisquoi NWR continued to observe and monitor the annual nesting activity of colonial nesting waterbirds, at the Shad and Metcalfe...

  13. Cholinesterase activity in black-crowned night-herons exposed to fenthion-treated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G.J.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    Fenthion, (O,O-Dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-(methylthio)phenyl) phosphorothioate), a widely used mosquito control agent, has caused wildlife mortality. To simulate a shallow wetland environment, an exposure chamber was used containing water treated with fenthion at 1 and 10 times the field application rate of 112 g active ingredient (AI)/ha. This system permitted an evaluation of exposure routes and the effects of fenthion in a representative species of wading bird, the black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax). The results suggested that herons received only a dermal exposure, and that their brain acetylcholinesterase activity was not significantly inhibited. In contrast, however, plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity was inhibited, suggesting the herons were exposed to the insecticide. The application rates and types of exposures were not life-threatening in this species.

  14. Colonial nesting Yellow-crowned Night Herons on the San Antonio River Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    Yellow-crowned Night Herons (Nyctinassa violacea) typically nest as single pairs or in small colonies of about four pairs with high internest distances. They are also reported as susceptible to disturbance and to avoid habitat with high human use. However, some Yellowcrowned Night Herons habituate to human-dominated landscapes and nest in residential areas. I located a colony of nesting Yellow-crowned Night Herons in San Antonio, Texas on the River Walk, a popular tourist destination with an estimated 2.5 million visitors annually. I located 68 and 71 active nests in 2008 and 2009, respectively. This suggests the breeding population of the colony was 142 adult birds (77 adult herons/linear km of River Walk) in 2009. Herons occurred in a colony with three nesting aggregations situated 241 (±14 SD) m apart. Aggregations averaged 23.7 (±8.7 SD) nests each with one–nine nests per tree; nest trees within each aggregation were usually adjacent. Nests averaged 16.7 m (±4.1 SD) above ground, with 56% of nests over the river, 23% over sidewalks, 17% over dining areas, and 3% over landscaping. Only bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) was used for nest trees, and these were significantly taller and larger in diameter than random bald cypress trees. The herons were habituated to pedestrian activities, often perching only a few meters over sidewalks or dining areas, and foraging along the water’s edge as pedestrians passed within 4–5 m. Nests located over dining areas and sidewalks do impose some management issues. It is apparent the species is capable of habituating to human activities to exploit suitable urban settings for nesting and foraging habitat.

  15. New and previously described dactylogyrid species (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea) and a gastrocotylinean pre-adult (Heteronchoinea) from pomacentrid and caesionid (Perciformes) fishes from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Binning, Sandra A; Roche, Dominique G

    2017-09-26

    During a parasitological survey of perciform fishes from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, we found the following gill monogenoidean species (Platyhelminthes): Euryhaliotrema lizardi n. sp. on Caesio caerulaurea Lacepède, 1801 (Caesionidae) (type host) and Haliotrema weberii n. sp. on Chromis weberi Fowler and Bean, 1928 (Pomacentridae) (type host), Chromis amboinensis (Bleeker, 1871), Chromis atripectoralis Welander and Schultz, 1951 and Caesio teres Seale, 1906. Euryhaliotrema lizardi n. sp. is characterized by having anchors with an elongated straight shaft and point as well as a vaginal canal with two loops before connecting to the seminal receptacle. Ha. weberii n. sp. is distinguished from other congeners by possessing a tubular male copulatory organ (MCO), partially straight. Two previously described dactylogyrids were also found: Haliotrematoides caesionis (Yamaguti, 1953) Kritsky, Yang and Sun 2009) on Caesio cuning (Bloch, 1791) and Ca. teres (new host record) and Haliotrematoides patellacirrus (Bychowsky and Nagibina, 1971) Kritsky, Yang and Sun 2009, on Ca. cuning (new host record). Finally, we provide the first report of a gastrocotylinean pre-adult on Ca. teres. We provide descriptions and illustrations of the new species and the gastrocotylinean pre-adult and include supplemental observations of Ht. caesionis and Ht. patellacirrus. The present findings expand the known spectrum of host species of Euryhaliotrema, Haliotrema and Haliotrematoides to include new caesionid and pomacentrid fishes.

  16. Great Lakes Islands NWR ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  17. Using DNA Barcoding and Standardized Sampling to Compare Geographic and Habitat Differentiation of Crustaceans: A Hawaiian Islands Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Julian Caley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Census of Marine Life has explored methods to assess coral reef diversity by combining standardized sampling (to permit comparison across sites with molecular techniques (to make rapid counts of species possible. To date, this approach has been applied across geographically broad scales (seven sites spanning the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, focusing on similar habitats at all sites (10–12 m forereef. Here we examine crustacean spatial diversity patterns for a single atoll, comparing results for four sites (comprising forereef, backreef, and lagoon habitats at French Frigate Shoals (FFS, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA, within the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. The Bray-Curtis index of similarity across these habitats at FFS was the same or greater than the similarity between similar habitats on Heron Island and Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef and much greater than similarity between more widely separated localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean (e.g., Ningaloo, Moorea, French Polynesia or the Line Islands. These results imply that, at least for shallow reefs, sampling multiple locations versus sampling multiple habitats within a site maximizes the rate at which we can converge on the best global estimate of coral reef biodiversity.

  18. The HERON Project - Multimedia Database Support for History and Human Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Kießling, Werner; Erber, Katharina; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Birke, Thomas; Wagner, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The interdisciplinary HERON project investigates the impact of multimedia applications from the humanities, in particular heraldry, on future database technology. We present first evaluation results of querying image databases by visual content. Also the requirements of a digital workbench for art historians are described. Here we present an approach how to tackle the complex problem of exchanging multimedia documents over the internet.

  19. Notes on nesting herons and other birds of interest at Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roosts of Swallows (Hirundo rustica) and House Martins. (Delichon urbica) during the migration in Tropical Africa. Ostrich 34: 99–101. Elizabeth Baker. P.O. Box 1605, Iringa, Tanzania. E-mail: tzbirdatlas@yahoo.co.uk. Scopus 29: 18–19, December 2009. Received: 20 August 2009. Notes on nesting herons and other birds ...

  20. Thermodynamics and NMR studies on Duck, Heron and Human HBV encapsidation signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girard, F.C.; Ottink, O.M.; Ampt, K.A.; Tessari, M.; Wijmenga, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is initiated by binding of its reverse transcriptase (P) to the apical stem-loop (AL) and primer loop (PL) of epsilon, a highly conserved RNA element at the 5'-end of the RNA pregenome. Mutation studies on duck/heron and human in vitro systems have shown

  1. 76 FR 80924 - Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Heron Hydro LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission..., at the Corps' Townshend Dam. Staff prepared a multi-project environmental assessment (EA), which...

  2. Growth rates and longevity of some gastropod mollusks on the coral reef at Heron Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Peter W

    1969-02-01

    Information on growth, gained from individually marked animals, is provided for at least one species of each of the families Trochidae, Neritidae, Strombidae, Cypraeidae, Thaisidae, Fasciolariidae, Vasidae and Conidae. Except in the cowries and strombs, which have determinate growth, shell growth is adequately described by a von Bertalanffy curve only to a certain point. Beyond this, growth continues slowly and at a rate that is independent of size. Size frequency distributions are characteristically negatively skew, mainly because early growth is fast relative to the total life span. Longevities seem to indicate that turnover rates are comparable to those of Prosobranch mollusks from colder seas.

  3. Integral Isosceles Triangle-Parallelogram and Heron triangle-Rhombus Pairs with a Common Area and Common Perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pradeep; Juyal, Abhishek; Moody, Dustin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we show that there are infinitely many pairs of integer isosceles triangles and integer parallelograms with a common (integral) area and common perimeter. We also show that there are infinitely many Heron triangles and integer rhombuses with common area and common perimeter. As a corollary, we show there does not exist any Heron triangle and integer square which have a common area and common perimeter.

  4. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  5. Flow cytometry for monitoring contaminant exposure in black-crowned night-herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Lyne, T.B.; Lewis, T.; Ruedas, L.A.; Custer, Christine M.; Melancon, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The flow cytometry method (FCM) was employed to determine cellular DNA content of black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos and 10-day-old chicks collected at sites differing in types of chemical contamination. The coefficient of variation of DNA content (CV) in blood collected from embryos suggested cytogenetic damage at a site in Louisiana known to be contaminated with petroleum. Blood CV from chicks suggested genetic damage at a site in Texas also known to be contaminated with petroleum. Spleen CVs in chicks were significantly lower than respective means from the reference site. The CVs of chick blood and liver and spleen negatively correlated, suggesting recovery of spleen and liver cells after exposure to a clastogenic compound. Thus, the lower CVs may also have been indicative of genetic damage. Based on the findings of this study, FCM is a potential indicator of certain environmental contaminants in black-crowned night-herons.

  6. Diet-related die-off of captive black-crowned night herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Spann, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Several species of herons, which are top-level consumers in aquatic food chains, have experienced population declines in certain areas o f their normal range (7,13) -- areas in which elevated levels of various environmental pollutants are known to occur. (6) To determine the effects of environmental contaminants on the Ardeidae, a colony of black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was established in 1972 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The night heron was selected as the model species because of its widespread occurrence and its ability to survive and reproduce in captivity. Birds for the colony were obtained from either the New York Zoological Park and Dallas Zoo or were wild-caught along the Maryland and Virginia coasts in 1972, 1973, and 1975. This report describes a die-off in the colony following a change in the origina of their food source. The data suggest that the mortality was diet-related, most likely caused by vitamin E deficiency. Excessive dietary thiaminase may have resulted in concurrent thiamine deficiency, but evidence for this is equivocal.

  7. Diazotroph diversity and nitrogen fixation in the coral Stylophora pistillata from the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Michael P; Morrow, Kathleen M; Pankey, Sabrina M; Noonan, Sam H C

    2017-12-08

    Diazotrophs, both Bacteria and Archaea, capable of fixing nitrogen (N2), are present in the tissues and mucous, of corals and can supplement the coral holobiont nitrogen budget with fixed nitrogen (N) in the form of ammonia (NH3). Stylophora pistillata from Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef collected at 5 and 15 m, and experimentally manipulated in the laboratory, showed that the rates of net photosynthesis, steady state quantum yields of photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence (∆Fv/Fm') and calcification varied based on irradiance as expected. Rates of N2 fixation were, however, invariant across treatments while the amount of fixed N contributing to Symbiodinium spp. N demand is irradiance dependent. Additionally, both the Symbiodinium and diazotrophic communities are significantly different based on depth, and novel Cluster V nifH gene phylotypes, which are not known to fix nitrogen, were recovered. A functional analysis using PICRUSt also showed that shallow corals were enriched in genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, and N2 fixation specifically. Corals have evolved a number of strategies to derive nitrogen from organic (e.g., heterotrophic feeding) and inorganic sources (e.g., N2 fixation) to maintain critical pathways such as protein synthesis to succeed ecologically in nitrogen-limited habitats.

  8. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  9. Isorchis cannoni n. sp. (Digenea: Atractotrematidae) from Great Barrier Reef rabbitfishes and the molecular elucidation of its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, D C; Cutmore, S C; Cribb, T H

    2017-11-02

    We describe Isorchis cannoni n. sp. from the rabbitfishes Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn) and Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) (Siganidae) collected off Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia and, using molecular data, demonstrate that 'Cercariae queenslandae II' of Cannon (1978) from the gastropod Clypeomorus batillariaeformis Habe & Kosuge (Cerithiidae) is the larval form of this new species. The cercariae of I. cannoni n. sp. develop in rediae, encyst in the environment after emergence, and are inferred to then be consumed by grazing rabbitfish. Additionally, we provide a new report of Isorchis currani Andres, Pulis & Overstreet, 2016 from the type host, Selenotoca multifasciata (Richardson) (Scatophagidae) collected in Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia, greatly expanding the known geographical range of this species. Molecular sequence data (ITS1, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) generated for I. cannoni n. sp. and the new specimens of I. currani, confirm the identification of I. currani and demonstrate a distinct genotype for I. cannoni n. sp. relative to other species of Isorchis Durio & Manter, 1969, for which molecular data are available. Isorchis cannoni n. sp. is morphologically distinct from all other species in the genus, and is further distinguished by utilizing species of Siganidae as definitive hosts, rather than species of Chanidae or Scatophagidae. Because haploporid and atractotrematid cercariae have well-developed reproductive organs, we find cercariae of these closely related families morphologically distinguishable in the same way as adult trematodes: atractotrematids have two symmetrical testes and haploporids have a single testis or, rarely, two tandem or oblique testes.

  10. Black-necked stilts share nesting in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A pair of black-necked stilts protect their grass-lined nest in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Stilts usually produce three or four brown-spotted buff eggs in a shallow depression lined with grass or shell fragments. In the nesting season they are particularly agressive. Stilts are identified by a distinct head pattern of black and white, very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. Their habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  11. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  12. Sea spray aerosol in the Great Barrier Reef and the presence of nonvolatile organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Marc; Cravigan, Luke; Miljevic, Branka; Vaattovaara, Petri; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth; Swan, Hilton; Jones, Graham; Ristovski, Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles produced from the ocean surface in regions of biological activity can vary greatly in size, number and composition, and in their influence on cloud formation. Algal species such as phytoplankton can alter the SSA composition. Numerous studies have investigated nascent SSA properties, but all of these have focused on aerosol particles produced by seawater from noncoral related phytoplankton and in coastal regions. Bubble chamber experiments were performed with seawater samples taken from the reef flat around Heron Island in the Great Barrier Reef during winter 2011. Here we show that the SSA from these samples was composed of an internal mixture of varying fractions of sea salt, semivolatile organics, as well as nonvolatile (below 550°C) organics. A relatively constant volume fraction of semivolatile organics of 10%-13% was observed, while nonvolatile organic volume fractions varied from 29% to 49% for 60 nm SSA. SSA organic fractions were estimated to reduce the activation ratios of SSA to cloud condensation nuclei by up to 14% when compared with artificial sea salt. Additionally, a sea-salt calibration was applied so that a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer could be used to quantify the contribution of sea salt to submicron SSA, which yielded organic volume fractions of 3%-6%. Overall, these results indicate a high fraction of organics associated with wintertime Aitken mode SSA generated from Great Barrier Reef seawater. Further work is required to fully distinguish any differences coral reefs have on SSA composition when compared to open oceans.

  13. Lichen Monitoring Delineates Biodiversity on a Great Barrier Reef Coral Cay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Rogers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral islands around the world are threatened by changing climates. Rising seas, drought, and increased tropical storms are already impacting island ecosystems. We aim to better understand lichen community ecology of coral island forests. We used an epiphytic lichen community survey to gauge Pisonia (Pisonia grandis R.BR., which dominates forest conditions on Heron Island, Australia. Nine survey plots were sampled for lichen species presence and abundance, all tree diameters and species, GPS location, distance to forest-beach edge, and dominant forest type. Results found only six unique lichens and two lichen associates. A Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP test found statistically distinct lichen communities among forest types. The greatest group differences were between interior Pisonia and perimeter forest types. Ordinations were performed to further understand causes for distinctions in lichen communities. Significant explanatory gradients were distance to forest edge, tree density (shading, and Pisonia basal area. Each of these variables was negatively correlated with lichen diversity and abundance, suggesting that interior, successionally advanced, Pisonia forests support fewer lichens. Island edge and presumably younger forests—often those with greater tree diversity and sunlight penetration—supported the highest lichen diversity. Heron Island’s Pisonia-dominated forests support low lichen diversity which mirrors overall biodiversity patterns. Lichen biomonitoring may provide a valuable indicator for assessing island ecosystems for conservation purposes regionally.

  14. Postseismic Gravity Change After the 2006-2007 Great Earthquake Doublet and Constraints on the Asthenosphere Structure in the Central Kuril Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin-Chan, Han; Sauber, Jeanne; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Large earthquakes often trigger viscoelastic adjustment for years to decades depending on the rheological properties and the nature and spatial extent of coseismic stress. The 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands resulted in significant postseismic gravity change in GRACE but without a discernible coseismic gravity change. The gravity increase of approximately 4 micro-Gal, observed consistently from various GRACE solutions around the epicentral area during 2007-2015, is interpreted as resulting from gradual seafloor uplift by (is) approximately 6 cm produced by postseismic relaxation. The GRACE data are best fit with a model of 25-35 km for the elastic thickness and approximately 10(exp 18) Pa s for the Maxwell viscosity of the asthenosphere. The large measurable postseismic gravity change (greater than coseismic change) emphasizes the importance of viscoelastic relaxation in understanding tectonic deformation and fault-locking scenarios in the Kuril subduction zone.

  15. Prey diversity for Three Species Herons in Pulau Dua Nature Reserve Serang Distrik, Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI ELFIDASARI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of prey consumed by three species herons (Casmerodius albus, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis was studied in Pulau Dua Nature Reserve Serang, Banten Province using video tapes by following a focal individual for five minutes. In the laboratory the film was analysed every minutes to select complete sequences of feeding behavior in foraging site. There were differences on diversity and size of prey that consumed by three species herons among the different feeding locations. Casmerodius albus which was feeding on mudflat and fisheries consumed Chanos chanos (15.6%, Oreochromis sp (9.4% and Periophtalmus sp. (7.3%, and 36.5% couldn’t be identified. Egretta garzetta was feeding on mudflat, fisheries and rice-field, consumed Periophtalmus sp (15.4%, Mugil dussumeieri (7.9%, Chanos chanos (4.7%, Oreochromis sp (0.5%, including small frog and crustacean (0.5%. Bubulcus ibis was feeding on rice-field and grassland, consumed many variety of insects (92 % and many variety of snail (1.9% in their diet. The insects that B. ibis consumed including grasshopper (26.8%, caterpillar (0.9% and other invertebrates (worm, crustacean that could not be identified (64.3%.

  16. Postseismic gravity change after the 2006–2007 great earthquake doublet and constraints on the asthenosphere structure in the central Kuril Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Large earthquakes often trigger viscoelastic adjustment for years to decades depending on the rheological properties and the nature and spatial extent of coseismic stress. The 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands resulted in significant postseismic gravity change in Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) but without a discernible coseismic gravity change. The gravity increase of ~4 μGal, observed consistently from various GRACE solutions around the epicentral area during 2007–2015, is interpreted as resulting from gradual seafloor uplift by ~6 cm produced by postseismic relaxation. The GRACE data are best fit with a model of 25–35 km for the elastic thickness and ~1018 Pa s for the Maxwell viscosity of the asthenosphere. The large measurable postseismic gravity change (greater than coseismic change) emphasizes the importance of viscoelastic relaxation in understanding tectonic deformation and fault-locking scenarios in the Kuril subduction zone.

  17. Influence of the heron colony on heavy metals accumulation in soil of Dniprovsko-Orilsky nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vovk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the settlements of heron on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. The author considers accumulation of trace elements in different soil horizons. The reasons of the prohibitions has been rate.

  18. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L Johansen

    Full Text Available Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.. Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m, mid-slope (6 m and deep-slope (9 m depth of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz, emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  19. A rescued pelican is released at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge near KSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A rescued white pelican, dubbed 'Fisheater' by his rescuers, takes a tentative step and stretches its wings after being let go at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Looking on is Mark Epstein, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, who had held the bird while Kat Royer, also with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, placed on it a leg band issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bird Banding Laboratory. The pelican was found covered in crude oil from a contaminated ditch in northern Indiana in November, and was rescued by a local Police Department, treated, and flown to the Back to Nature Wildlife Refuge in Orlando, Fla. for care and rest. It is being released to join a flock of about 30 other white pelicans that are wintering on the refuge. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  20. A rescued pelican flies to freedom at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge near KSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A white pelican named 'Fisheater' by its rescuers soars to open water in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge as it flies to freedom. The pelican was found covered in crude oil from a contaminated ditch in northern Indiana in November, and was rescued by a local Police Department, treated, and flown to the Back to Nature Wildlife Refuge in Orlando, Fla. for care and rest. It is being released today to join a flock of about 30 other white pelicans that are wintering on the refuge, some of which are nearby. Before its release, however, Kat Royer, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, placed on it a leg band issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bird Banding Laboratory. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  1. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  2. Swimming black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) Kleptoparasitize American coots (Fulica americana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid.......I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid....

  3. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 25, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  4. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  5. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 20, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  6. Ship tracklines along which continuous resistivity profile data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, in May and September 2008 (RESGPSLNS_GSBAY.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  7. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  8. Navigation, bathymetry, and water temperature points of ship position during continuous resistivity profile data collection by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, in May and September 2008 (RESGPSPNTS_GSBAY.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  9. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 23, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  10. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 24, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  11. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 21, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  12. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 24, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  13. Data acquisition logs in PDF format maintained on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activities 2008-007-FA and 2008-037-FA in Great South Bay, Long Island, New York in May and September, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  14. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 23, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  15. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 22, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  16. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 25, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  17. RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on May 19, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  18. Prevalence of virus-like particles within a staghorn scleractinian coral ( Acropora muricata) from the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, N. L.; Harrison, P. L.; Mitchell, J. G.

    2008-09-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine whether Acropora muricata coral colonies from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, harboured virus-like particles (VLPs). VLPs were present in all coral colonies sampled at Heron Island (southern GBR) and in tagged coral colonies sampled in at least two of the three sampling periods at Lizard Island (northern GBR). VLPs were observed within gastrodermal and epidermal tissues, and on rarer occasions, within the mesoglea. These VLPs had similar morphologies to known prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses in other systems. Icosahedral VLPs were observed most frequently, however, filamentous VLPs (FVLPs) and phage were also noted. There were no clear differences in VLP size, morphology or location within the tissues with respect to sample date, coral health status or site. The most common VLP morphotype exhibited icosahedral symmetry, 120-150 nm in diameter, with an electron-dense core and an electronlucent membrane. Larger VLPs of similar morphology were also common. VLPs occurred as single entities, in groups, or in dense clusters, either as free particles within coral tissues, or within membrane-bound vacuoles. VLPs were commonly observed within the perinuclear region, with mitochondria, golgi apparatus and crescent-shaped particles frequently observed within close proximity. The host(s) of these observed VLPs was not clear; however, the different sizes and morphologies of VLPs observed within A. muricata tissues suggest that viruses are infecting either the coral animal, zooxanthellae, intracellular bacteria and/or other coral-associated microbiota, or that the one host is susceptible to infection from more than one type of virus. These results add to the limited but emerging body of evidence that viruses represent another potentially important component of the coral holobiont.

  19. A new critical habitat for conservation of the White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis Hume, 1878 (Aves: Ardeidae from Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Wangdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its extremely small and rapidly dwindling population. Bhutan is home to the highest number of White-bellied Heron and the species is distributed patchily across 11 different sites in central and south-west Bhutan. In this note, we present the first evidence of the species in eastern Bhutan, on the Drangmechhu River in Trashi Yangtse district. The finding extends the distribution of the species in Bhutan and recognizes one more potentially critical habitat for immediate conservation attention. As elsewhere, the new site is found to be primarily threatened by hydropower development. The need for conservation initiatives for the species is immediate and highly recommended.

  20. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service get ready to release a rescued pelican at the Merritt Island National

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Mark Epstein, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, holds a white pelican that will be released under a rain-filled sky at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The bird was found covered in crude oil from a contaminated ditch in northern Indiana in November, and was rescued by a local Police Department, treated, and flown to the Back to Nature Wildlife Center in Orlando, Fla. for care and rest. After Kat Royer, who is with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, fits the bird with a leg band issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bird Banding Laboratory, the pelican will be let go to join a flock of about 30 other white pelicans that are wintering on the refuge. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  2. [Egg size variation in egrets and herons (Aves: Ardeidae) nesting in Birama's swamp, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis Avila, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    Intraclutch egg size variation in birds depends on many ecological factors and on the evolutive history of each species. In wading birds, a trend to smaller eggs with laying order has been described, but comparative reports are scarce. In this study, egg size variation patterns were described for nine Egrets and Heron species nesting in Birama' Swamp, Cuba. The patterns were described using external dimensions of 3142 eggs from 1875 nests of Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea and four Egretta species, taken in the field between 1998 and 2006. Results showed that eggs were 4.9-10% of adult weight and had volume variation coefficients between 6-9%. There were no general and consistent interspecies relationship between clutch size and egg sizes. Average volumes tend to get smaller with laying order, but it is not statistically detectable in Butorides and Bubulcus. Last egg was between 0.2% and 15% smaller than the first, showing an inverse relationship with it. Intraclutch asymmetry is light in E. thula and fluctuating around null in Bubulcus. Size only predicted laying or hatching order for the last egg, in nests with more than two eggs, with 72.4% of confidence.

  3. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  4. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  5. Narcotráfico, violencia y crisis social en el Caribe insular colombiano: El caso de la isla de San Andrés en el contexto del Gran Caribe Drug Traffiking, Violence and the Social Crisis in Colombian Caribbean Islands: The Case of San Andrés Island in the Context of the Great Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mantilla

    2011-06-01

    materials typically attributed to the Great Caribbean where patterns of security threats, geopolitical relations with the United States, and social and economic impacts of the narcotrafficking epidemic are commonly observed. The article presents San Andres Island (Colombia as a case that adheres more to the insular dynamics of the Great Caribbean region rather than one that mimics the tendencies of continental Colombia. This perspective permits the establishment of connections between both regional spaces -insular and continental-, and simultaneously evaluates the phenomenon´s regional impact by exploring the illegal connections formed in the archipelago with neighboring Caribbean countries. Finally, the hypothesis is sustained that the trafficking phenomenon on the island is a result of historical, cultural and socio­economic factors that explain the active participation of certain sectors of the island´s society in these illegal activities.

  6. Unravelling feeding territoriality in the Little Blue Heron, Egretta caerulea, in Cananéia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Moralez-Silva

    Full Text Available Habitat use by the Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea and discovery of feeding territoriality are discussed here. The results showed the existence of a territorial individual defending an area (2,564.46 ± 943.56 m² close to the mangrove, and non-territorial individuals (9.17 ± 2.54 in the rest of a demarcated area (mean area for the non-territorial: 893.25 ± 676.72. A weak positive correlation (r = 0.47, df = 46, p < 0.05 was found between the overlapping of territorial and non-territorial individuals (2.85 ± 3.07 m² and the mean overlapped area for territorial individuals (171.41 ± 131.40 m². Higher capture (1.52 ± 1.14 × 1.00 ± 1.37 catches/minutes and success rates (0.45 ± 0.31 × 0.21 ± 0.27 and lower energy expenditure rates (45.21 ± 14.96 × 51.22 ± 14.37 steps/minutes; and 3.65 ± 2.55 × 4.94 ± 3.28 stabs/minutes were observed for individuals foraging in areas close to the mangrove. The results suggest that the observed territorial behaviour is more related to a number of food parameters than to intruder pressure, and also that the observed territoriality might be related to defense of areas with higher prey availability.

  7. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  8. Great Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten S.; Kristensen, Per S.; Erichsen, Lars

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes aspects of the soil investigations and geotechnical evaluations for the foundation design of the 6.6 km long Great Belt West Bridge. The gravity foundations rest predominantly on glacial tills and pre-quaternary limestone. Special investigations for assessment of the soil...

  9. Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Although lead can attain high concentrations in feathers, interpretation of the biological significance of this phenomenon is difficult. As part of an effort to develop and validate non-invasive methods to monitor contaminant exposure in free-ranging birds, lead uptake by feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was evaluated in a controlled exposure study. Four to six day-old heron nestlings (one/nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, received a single intraperitoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control; n=7) or a dose of lead nitrate in water (0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 mg Pb/g body weight of nestling; n=6 or 7/dose) chosen to yield feather lead concentrations found at low to moderately polluted sites. Nestlings were euthanized at 15 days of age. Lead accumulation in feathers was associated with concentrations in bone, kidney, and liver (r = 0.32 - 0.74, p < 0.02), but exhibited only modest dose-dependence. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity was inhibited by lead, although effects on other biochemical endpoints were marginal. Tarsus growth rate was inversely related to feather lead concentration. Culmen growth rate was depressed in nestlings treated with the highest dose of lead, but not correlated with feather lead concentration. These findings provide evidence that feathers of nestling herons are a sensitive indicator of lead exposure and have potential application for the extrapolation of lead concentrations in other tissues and the estimation of environmental lead exposure in birds.

  10. Effects of lead in nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally dosed in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is a known environmental toxicant, and poisoning resulting from the ingestion of lead shot has been well-documented in many species of waterfowl. However, much less is known regarding exposure and effects of free environmental lead in species of birds other than waterfowl. In an attempt to evaluate toxicity of lead to herons and to determine the usefulness of feathers as a non-invasive exposure-monitoring tool, black-crowned night-heron nestlings were dosed with lead to determine its distribution among tissues, and its effects on biochemical biomarkers, growth, and survival. Five-day-old heron nestlings (one per nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control; N=7) or one of three lead solutions (as lead nitrate) (10, 50, or 250 mg/kg body weight of nestling; N=7 per dose) chosen to represent levels below, at, and above those found in moderately-polluted environments. All nestlings treated with lead exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to controls, and nestlings treated with the highest concentration showed a reduced carcass weight compared to controls. Of several measures of oxidative stress that were analyzed, significant differences were found between low- and high-dosed nestlings in hepatic total thiol and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. No differences in survival were detected between dosed nestlings, controls, or uninjected siblings. Lead concentrations in several matrices, including feathers, are being determined to assess distribution among tissues and will also be examined for relationships with measures of effect.

  11. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  12. GREAT optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Gentner, Armin; Graf, Urs U.; Philipp, Martin; Rabanus, David; Stutzki, Jürgen

    2004-10-01

    The German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) is a first generation PI instrument for the SOFIA telescope, developed by a collaboration between the MPIfR, KOSMA, DLR, and the MPAe. The first three institutes each contribute one heterodyne receiver channel to operate at 1.9, 2.7 and 4.7 THz, respectively. A later addition of a e.g. 1.4 THz channel is planned. The GREAT instrument is developed to carry two cryostats at once. That means that any two of the three frequencies can be observed simultaneously. Therefore, we need to be able to quickly exchange the optics benches, the local oscillator (LO) subsystems, and the cryostats containing the mixer devices. This demands a high modularity and flexibility of our receiver concept. Our aim is to avoid the need for realignment when swapping receiver channels. After an overview of the common GREAT optics, a detailed description of several parts (optics benches, calibration units, diplexer, focal plane imager) is given. Special emphasis is given to the LO optics of the KOSMA 1.9 THz channel, because its backward wave oscillator has an astigmatic output beam profile, which has to be corrected for. We developed astigmatic off-axis mirrors to compensate this astigmatism. The mirrors are manufactured in-house on a 5 axis CNC milling machine. We use this milling machine to obtain optical components with highest surface accuracy (about 5 microns) appropriate for these wavelengths. Based on the CNC machining capabilities we present our concept of integrated optics, which means to manufacture optical subsystems monolithically. The optics benches are located on three point mounts, which in conjunction with the integrated optics concept ensure the required adjustment free optics setup.

  13. Response of roseate tern to a shoreline protection project on Falkner Island, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Fischer, Richard A.; Pashley, David N.; Lott, Casey A.

    2007-01-01

    subterranean channels, especially in the main revetment area, made it difficult to measure chick growth and productivity as had been done for more than 12 years prior to construction. Also, observations of color-banded adults that were unable to locate and feed their young inside the main revetment, and of adults returning to courtship behavior and renesting after having hatched chicks from their initial clutches, indicated that a minimum of 20% of the chicks (mostly first hatched A-chicks, which usually have high rates of survival to fledging) that entered the main revetment died after doing so in 2001. The mortality rate of Roseate Tern chicks that entered the secondary revetment on the southwest shelf, however, was not unusually high in 2001. In an attempt to reduce the likelihood of nesting and chick losses in these sub-colonies, a research team led by the USGS in 2002-2003 did not put nest boxes on the northeast and east shelf areas where previous losses had been high. However, losses of tern eggs and young chicks to predatory Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were so great in 2002?2003 that few Roseate Tern chicks survived long enough to move into the main revetment area and little comparative survival data were collected. The USFWS continues to remove predatory night herons, to monitor the location and success of nesting Roseate Terns and to fill in some of problem areas near the tern nests in the main revetment. The extensive chick-searching fieldwork and observational procedures used by the USGS-led research team to determine the growth and survival of the Roseate Tern chicks at Falkner Island were not used in 2004?2005. The number of chicks lost in the revetment during these years is not known. Without additional fill, loss of chicks of this endangered species in the main revetment may rise again even though the night heron predation problem has been reduced.

  14. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  15. Breeding success of a colony of Boat-billed Herons Cochlearius cochlearius (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae) in pasturelands of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jaime; Gil-Delgado, José A; Monrós, Juan S

    2006-12-01

    The breeding success of a double-brooding colony of Boat-billed Herons Cochlearius cochlearius was studied in pasturelands of Costa Rica. Mean clutch size in the first clutches (2.9 eggs/nest) was higher than in second and repeat clutches (2.3 eggs/nest). Breeding success was similar in the first attempt and second attempts (20.7% and 21.7%, respectively). In both attempts earlier nests enjoyed a higher breeding success. Starvation of the youngest chicks within the nest and destruction of nests by bad weather conditions were the main factors related to nestling death. No effects of human activity on the reproduction of the breeding colony were observed.

  16. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  17. Apparent light requirement for activation of photosynthesis upon rehydration of desiccated beachrock microbial mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Gademann, Rolf; Bird, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Photosynthetic electron transport of beachrock microbial mats growing in the intertidal zone of Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) was investigated with a pulse amplitude modulation chl fluorometer providing four different excitation wavelengths for preferential excitation of the major...

  18. Utility of Photochemical Traits as Diagnostics of Thermal Tolerance amongst Great Barrier Reef Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Nitschke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Light availability is considered a key factor regulating the thermal sensitivity of reef building corals, where excessive excitation of photosystem II (PSII further exacerbates pressure on photochemical pathways already compromised by heat stress. Coral symbionts acclimate to changes in light availability (photoacclimation by continually fine-tuning the photochemical operating efficiency of PSII. However, how this process adjusts throughout the warmest months in naturally heat-tolerant or sensitive species is unknown, and whether this influences the capacity to tolerate transient heat stress is untested. We therefore examined the PSII photophysiology of 10 coral species (with known thermal tolerances from shallow reef environments at Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia, in spring (October-November, 2015 vs. summer (February-March, 2016. Corals were maintained in flow-through aquaria and rapid light curve (RLC protocols using pulse amplitude modulated (PAM fluorometry captured changes in the PSII photoacclimation strategy, characterized as the minimum saturating irradiance (Ek, and the extent of photochemical ([1 – C], operating efficiency vs. non-photochemical ([1 – Q] energy dissipation. Values of Ek across species were >2-fold higher in all coral species in spring, consistent with a climate of higher overall light exposure (i.e., higher PAR from lower cloud cover, rainfall and wind speed compared with summer. Summer decreases in Ek were combined with a shift toward preferential photochemical quenching in all species. All coral species were subsequently subjected to thermal stress assays. An equivalent temperature-ramping profile of 1°C increase per day and then maintenance at 32°C was applied in each season. Despite the significant seasonal photoacclimation, the species hierarchy of thermal tolerance [maximum quantum yields of PSII (Fv/Fm, monitored at dawn and dusk] did not shift between seasons, except for Pocillopora

  19. Pacific Island Polygons, Pacific Islands, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Islands for the United States. The Islands layer contains all islands within a NAVSTREETS coverage area. An island is represented as a polygonal feature. The...

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Big Island - The McKenzie River, Technical Report 1998-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglitz, Greg

    2001-03-01

    The Big Island site is located in the McKenzie River flood plain, containing remnant habitats of what was once more common in this area. A diverse array of flora and fauna, representing significant wildlife habitats, is present on the site. Stands of undisturbed forested wetlands, along with riparian shrub habitats and numerous streams and ponds, support a diversity of wildlife species, including neotropical migratory songbirds, raptors, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians (including two State-listed Sensitive Critical species). The project is located in eastern Springfield, Oregon (Figure 1). The project area encompasses 187 acres under several ownerships in Section 27 of Township 17S, Range 2W. Despite some invasion of non-native species, the site contains large areas of relatively undisturbed wildlife habitat. Over several site visits, a variety of wildlife and signs of wildlife were observed, including an active great blue heron rookery, red-Legged frog egg masses, signs of beaver, and a bald eagle, Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for the Willamette River Basin. Under this Plan, mitigation goals and objectives were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal hydroelectric facilities in the Willamette River Basin. Results of the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) will be used to: (1) determine the current habitat status of the study area and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area.

  1. National Key Deer, Key West, and Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuges, Florida Keys: A Wilderness Fellows Report on Wilderness Character Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the completed effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wilderness Fellows program to develop a monitoring strategy and evaluate the status of...

  2. Reef core insights into mid-Holocene water temperatures of the southern Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, James; Webb, Gregory E.; Leonard, Nicole D.; Nothdurft, Luke D.; Clark, Tara R.

    2016-10-01

    The tropical and subtropical oceans of the Southern Hemisphere are poorly represented in present-day climate models, necessitating an increased number of paleoclimate records from this key region to both understand the Earth's climate system and help constrain model simulations. Here we present a site-specific calibration of live collected massive Porites Sr/Ca records against concomitant in situ instrumental water temperature data from the fore-reef slope of Heron Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The resultant calibration, and a previously published Acropora calibration from the same site, was applied to subfossil coral material to investigate Holocene water temperatures at Heron Reef. U-Th-dated samples of massive Porites suggest cooler water temperatures with reduced seasonal amplitude at 5.2 ka (2.76-1.31°C cooler than present) and 7 ka (1.26°C cooler than present) at Heron Reef. These results contrast the previous suggestion of a mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum in the central GBR around 5.35 ka and 4.48 ka, yet may be explained by differences in temperature of the shallow ponded reef flat (central GBR) and the deeper reef slope waters (this study) and potential large reservoir correction errors associated with early radiocarbon dates. Combining coral-based water temperature anomaly reconstructions from the tropical and subtropical western Pacific indicates a coherent temperature response across the meridional gradient from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea down to the southern GBR. This similarity in reconstructed temperature anomalies suggests a high probability of an earlier expression of a mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum on the GBR between 6.8 and 6.0 ka.

  3. Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros, Laia [Institute of Molecular Biology (IBMB-CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Xavier; Sanpera, Carolina [Departament de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Departament de Salut Publica (Bioestadistica), Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin [Institute of Molecular Biology (IBMB-CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: bpcbmc@cid.csic.es

    2008-09-15

    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples from the reference area. Samples from the Delta showed intermediate values. Age, morphometric parameters (weight, tarsus size and bill-head length) and maturation status showed no significant differences among the different populations for each species; nor were they correlated with MN levels. The data suggest that elevated levels of MN in chicks in impacted areas reflected the chemical pollution of their nesting sites. The use of nestlings for this assay appears to be a convenient, non-destructive method to assess the impact of pollution in natural bird populations. - Frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of waterbird nestlings correlates with chemical pollution loads in their nesting sites.

  4. The Galapagos Islands: Darwin and Modern Conservation Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The author visited the Galapagos Islands in 2009 and here looks at their biodiversity through pictures taken then. The diverse habitats of the Islands are reflected in the great diversity of flora and fauna found on them, with many species endemic to the Islands. The stories of the land iguanas, control of introduced species and the giant…

  5. Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae from scombrids and carangids (Perciformes from the Great Barrier Reef, with the description of two new species Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae de escómbridos y carángidos (Perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera, con descripción de dos especies nuevas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Bray

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species and 4 Stephanostomum spp. as new host and/or locality records from Percifomes from the Great Barrier Reef are described: Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp. from Grammatorcynus bilineatus (type-host and G. bicarinatus, Lizard Island and Swain Reefs, is characterised by its 50-55 circum-oral spines and >than 20% of the hindbody length lacking vitelline follicles; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. from Caranx papuensis, Lizard Island, is characterised by its 34-36 circum-oral spines and Se describen 2 especies nuevas del género Stephanostomum y se redescriben 4 más parásitas de perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera australiana. Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp., parásito de Grammatorcynus bilineatus (hospedero-tipo y de G. bicarinatus, de la isla Lizard y de los arrecifes Swain, se caracteriza por sus 50-55 espinas circumorales y por carecer de folículos vitelinos en más del 20% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. de Caranx papuensis de la isla Lizard, exhibe como rasgos diagnósticos 34-36 espinas circumorales y folículos vitelinos en menos del 8% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum ditrematis (Yamaguti, 1939 se registra en Gnathanodon speciosus de las islas Heron y Lizard; Stephanostomum hawaiiense Yamaguti, 1970 y Stephanostomum carangi Liu, 1998 se recolectaron en Carangoides fulvoguttatus y finalmente, Stephanostomum nyoomwa Bray and Cribb, 2003 se encontró parasitando a Caranx sexfasciatus, ambos peces de la isla Lizard.

  6. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  7. Breeding success of a colony of Boat-billed Herons Cochlearius cochlearius (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae in pasturelands of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The breeding success of a double-brooding colony of Boat-billed Herons Cochlearius cochlearius was studied in pasturelands of Costa Rica. Mean clutch size in the first clutches (2.9 eggs/nest was higher than in second and repeat clutches (2.3 eggs/nest. Breeding success was similar in the first attempt and second attempts(20.7 % and 21.7 %, respectively. In both attempts earlier nests enjoyed a higher breeding success. Starvation of the youngest chicks within the nest and destruction of nests by bad weather conditions were the main factors related to nestling death. No effects of human activity on the reproduction of the breeding colony were observed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1131-1134. Epub 2006 Dec. 15Estudiamos el éxito reproductivo de una colonia del ave Cochlearius cochlearius en una zona ganadera de Costa Rica. El promedio de huevos por nido fue mayor durante el periodo de primeras puestas (2.9 huevos/nido que durante el periodo de segundas puestas y reposiciones (2.3 huevos/nido. El éxito reproductor de los dos periodos fue similar (20.7 % y 21.7 %, respectivamente. En ambos tuvieron más éxito las parejas que comenzaron la puesta antes. Las principales causas de mortandad fueron inanición de los pollos más jóvenes del nido y la destrucción de los nidos debido a condiciones climáticas adversas. No notamos efectos adversos por la actividad humana

  8. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  9. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model on a small tropical island (Great River Watershed, Jamaica as a tool in Integrated Watershed and Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orville P. Grey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Great River Watershed, located in north-west Jamaica, is critical for development, particularly for housing, tourism, agriculture, and mining. It is a source of sediment and nutrient loading to the coastal environment including the Montego Bay Marine Park. We produced a modeling framework using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and GIS. The calculated model performance statistics for high flow discharge yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE value of 0.68 and a R² value of 0.70 suggesting good measured and simulated (calibrated discharge correlation. Calibration and validation results for streamflow were similar to the observed streamflows. For the dry season the simulated urban landuse scenario predicted an increase in surface runoff in excess of 150%. During the wet season it is predicted to range from 98 to 234% presenting a significant risk of flooding, erosion and other environmental issues. The model should be used for the remaining 25 watersheds in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. The models suggests that projected landuse changes will have serious impacts on available water (streamflow, stream health, potable water treatment, flooding and sensitive coastal ecosystems.

  10. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemi...

  11. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    older to younger land masses, and syndromes including loss of dispersability and secondary woodiness in herbaceous plant lineages. Further developments in Earth system science, molecular biology, and trait data for islands hold continued promise for unlocking many of the unresolved questions...

  12. Coastal Changes in Temperature and Salinity Observed during Hurricane Isaac Recorded and Downloaded by NASA DRIFTERs Moored in Heron Bay and at Half Moon Island, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcic, Maria; Iturriaga, Rodolfo H.; Kuper, Philip D.; O'Neal, Stanford Duane; Underwood, Lauren; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Major changes in salinity (approx.14 ppt.) and temperature (approx.40C) were continuously registered by two prototype NASA DRIFTERs, surface moored floaters, that NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO) has developed. The DRIFTER floating sensor module is equipped with an Arduino open-source electronics prototyping platform and programming language (http://www.arduino.cc), a GPS (Global Positioning System) module with antenna, a cell phone SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card and a cellular antenna which is used to transmit data, and a probe to measure temperature and conductivity (from which salinity can be derived). The DRIFTER is powered by a solar cell panel and all the electronic components are mounted and sealed in [ waterproof encasement. Position and measurement data are transmitted via short message service (SMS) messaging to a Twitter site (DRIFTER 002@NASADRIFTER_002 and DRIFTER 004@NASADRIFTER_004), which provides a live feed. These data are the imported into a Google spreadsheet where conductivity is converted to salinity, and graphed in real-time. The spreadsheet data will be imported into a webpage maintained by ASTPO, where it will be displayed available for dO\\\\1lload.

  13. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  14. Processed continuous resistivity profile (CRP) data below the sediment water interface from Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from May 19 to May 22, 2008 (ALLGSB_RESBSED_MAY08.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  15. Processed continuous resistivity profile (CRP) data below the sediment water interface from Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Sept. 22 to Sept. 25, 2008 (ALLGSB_RESBSED_SEPT08.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  16. Island Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heinz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2010-2011, the Vancouver Island Transgender Needs Assessment, a community-based, applied research project, sought to identify the health and social needs of trans people on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. An advisory board consisting of trans-identified community members and trans-service providers guided this descriptive analysis. A total of 54 individuals identifying as transgender participated in a survey modeled after the TransPULSE Ontario instrument. Of the participants, 43% identified on the transmasculine spectrum, 39% on the transfeminine spectrum, and 18% as transgender/genderqueer only. Participants were surveyed in regard to education, employment, and income; housing; health care needs and services; suicidality; violence; life satisfaction and attitudes toward self; posttransition experiences; and community belonging. They reported health care, social support, and public education/acceptance as top needs. The article concludes with a specific needs profile and a community-generated set of recommendations stressing the need for an island-based information and resourcing center.

  17. The Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  18. 4-m Grid of the Combined Multibeam Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11922, H11995, H11996, H12009, H12010, H12011, H12015, H12023, H12033, H12137, H12139, H12296, H12298, and H12299 Offshore in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds (RICOMB_4MGEO, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research...

  19. 4-m Grid of the Combined Multibeam Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11922, H11995, H11996, H12009, H12010, H12011, H12015, H12023, H12033, H12137, H12139, H12296, H12298, H12299 Offshore in Rhode island and Block Island Sound (RICOMB_4MUTM, UTM Zone 19, NAD 83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research...

  20. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 553736430 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1385935:904 ... hypothetical protein Leptolyngbya sp. Heron Island J MLHPNPTQTYRHRKHDPAAGRWHEYEVVGIVEPWPEIPSGDVRTHWYFPQRYRHTGTGELVVLIGCGTKIYAEVNEPHIAYRNTRPDLCDPEWVFCLRQVSEFTDRRFSLIEP

  1. Night Heron Incubation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  2. Great Facts for September.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karen L.

    1992-01-01

    Offers answers to questions on this issue's September calendar of events for elementary students. Items addressed include the Viking 2 spacecraft, children's poetry, Ellis Island, the space shuttle Discovery, space satellites and space junk, ice cream cones, Dr. Seuss, and the praying mantis. (SM)

  3. The Great Unescape: Three Mile Island, Fukushima, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    During the Second World War, the Luftwaffe ran a maximum security prisoner of war (POW) camp called "Stalag Luft III," which imprisoned captured Allied air force servicemen. The story of the 1944 escape from Stalag Luft III is one of the most famous stories of the Second World War as described in the firsthand written account and…

  4. A new Phrynium (Matantaceae) from Great Nicobar Island, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Herbae erectae caespitosae 1.5—2.0 m altae; rhizoma suberectum 1—2 cm diametro. Folia multa apice rhizomatis spiratim aggregata; petioli usque ad 1 m longi basi vaginantes, sparsim pubescentes; laminae ellipticae oblongo-lanceolatae glabrae 18—35 cm longae, 8—15 cm latae, basi acutae vel cuneatae,

  5. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  6. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  7. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  8. A modern Sr/Ca-δ18O-sea surface temperature calibration for Isopora corals on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Logan D.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Potts, Donald C.

    2017-02-01

    Isopora (Acroporidae) is a genus of often encrusting, branching to submassive corals that are common in many shallow habitats on modern and fossil Indo-West Pacific reefs. Although abundant, Isopora is largely absent from paleoceanographic literature. The scarcity of large Porites and the abundance of Isopora retrieved from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 325 focused paleoceanographic attention on Isopora. Here we provide the first independent high-resolution calibration of both Sr/Ca and δ18O for temperature analyses based on Isopora and demonstrate its consistency with Porites records. We developed modern skeletal Sr/Ca- and δ18O-sea surface temperature (SST) calibrations based on five modern Isopora colonies from Heron Island in the southern GBR. Pairing the coral Sr/Ca record with monthly SST data yielded Sr/Ca-SST sensitivities from -0.061 ± 0.004 (centered) to -0.083 ± 0.007 (raw) mmol/mol °C-1 based on reduced major axis regressions. These sensitivities are in the middle of the range of published Porites values and overlap most published values for Isopora, -0.075 ± 0.011 to -0.065 ± 0.011 mmol/mol °C-1. The δ18O-SST sensitivities range from -0.184 ± 0.014 (centered) to -0.185 ± 0.014 (raw) ‰ °C-1, assuming that all seasonal variation in δ18O was due to SST. These δ18O-SST sensitivities are smaller than the widely accepted value of -0.23‰ °C-1 for biogenic aragonite but are at the upper end of high-resolution Porites-defined sensitivities that are consistently less than the aforementioned established value. Our results validate the use of Isopora as an alternative source of paleoceanographic records in habitats where large massive Porites are scarce or absent.

  9. Development and Application of Sr/Ca-δ18O-Sea Surface Temperature calibrations for Last Glacial Maximum-Aged Isopora corals in the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, L. D.; Linsley, B. K.; Potts, D. C.; Felis, T.; Mcgregor, H. V.; Gagan, M. K.; Inoue, M.; Tudhope, A. W.; Esat, T. M.; Thompson, W. G.; Tiwari, M.; Fallon, S.; Humblet, M.; Yokoyama, Y.; Webster, J.

    2016-12-01

    Isopora (Acroporidae) are sub-massive to massive corals found on most modern and fossil Indo-Pacific reefs. Despite their abundance, they are largely absent from the paleoceanographic literature but have the potential to provide proxy data where other commonly used corals, such as Porites, are sparse. The retrieval of Isopora fossils during International Ocean Discovery Program Leg 325 in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) signaled the need to evaluate their possible paleoceanographic utility. We developed modern skeletal Sr/Ca- and δ18O-sea surface temperature (SST) calibrations for six modern Isopora colonies collected at Heron Island in the southern GBR. Pairing the coral Sr/Ca record with monthly SST data yielded Reduced Major Axis Sr/Ca- and δ18O-SST sensitivities of -0.054 mmol/mol/°C and -0.152 ‰/°C, respectively, falling within the range of published Porites values. We applied our Isopora-based regressions and previously published sensitivities from other species to a suite (n=37) of fossil samples collected from IODP 32. The calibrations produced a range of 3-7°C of warming, averaging 5°C, in the GBR from 22 ka to modern climate. This SST change is similar or slightly larger than other coral studies and larger than planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca records. The planktonic Mg/Ca records from the Indonesian and Western Pacific Warm Pools indicate a warming of 3-3.5°C since 23ka (Linsley et al., 2010) while a fossil coral record from Tahiti indicates a warming of 3.2°C from 9.5ka to present (DeLong et al., 2010) and western Pacific coral records suggest a cooling of 5-6°C (Gagan et al., 2010; Guilderson et al., 1994: Beck et al., 1997), although these value might require rescaling (Gagan et al., 2012) resulting in slightly warmer temperature calculations. Our Isopora fossils from the GBR speak to the spatial heterogeneity of warming since the LGM and the continued need to develop more records for a more comprehensive understanding of the deglaciation.

  10. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the Combined 4-m Multibeam Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11922, H11995, H11996, H12009, H12010, H12011, H12015, H12023, H12033, H12137, H12139, H12296, H12298, and H12299 Offshore in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds (RICOMB_4MMB_GEO.TIF, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research...

  11. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the Combined 4-m Multibeam Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11922, H11995, H11996, H12009, H12010, H12011, H12015, H12023, H12033, H12137, H12139, H12296, H12298, and H12299 Offshore in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds (RICOMB_4MMB_UTM19.TIF, UTM Zone 19, NAD 83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research...

  12. Outline of the GeoTIFF Image of the Combined 4-m Multibeam Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11922, H11995, H11996, H12009, H12010, H12011, H12015, H12023, H12033, H12137, H12139, H12296, H12298, and H12299 offshore in Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds (RICOMBOUTLINE.SHP, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research...

  13. Island Biogeography Theory: Emerging Patterns and Human Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Islands are conventionally (and narrowly) referred to as isolated lands in surrounding waters. However, in broad senses and when loosely defined, ‘islands’ also include insular areas or entities such as mountain tops, lakes (e.g., potholes in northern Great Plains in North America), oasis (in deserts), and springs (especially in deserts) that support unique species...

  14. Marine flora of Nicobar group of islands in Anadman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    The marine flora of 4 islands comprised 66 species of marine algae, 7 of seagrasses, and 10 of mangroves. Maximum number of marine algae (6) and mangroves (9) were reported from Great Nicobar Island, whereas more (7) species of seagrasses were...

  15. The GREAT spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Page, R D; Appelbe, D E; Butler, P A; Freeman, S J; Greenlees, P T; Herzberg, R D; Jenkins, D G; Jones, G D; Jones, P; Joss, D T; Julin, R; Kettunen, H; Leino, M; Rahkila, P; Regan, P H; Simpson, J; Uusitalo, J; Vincent, S M; Wadsworth, R

    2003-01-01

    The GREAT spectrometer is designed to measure the decay properties of reaction products transported to the focal plane of a recoil separator. GREAT comprises a system of silicon, germanium and gas detectors optimised for detecting the arrival of the reaction products and correlating with any subsequent radioactive decay involving the emission of protons, alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X-rays or conversion electrons. GREAT can either be employed as a sensitive stand-alone device for decay measurements at the focal plane, or used to provide a selective tag for prompt conversion electrons or gamma rays measured with arrays of detectors deployed at the target position. A new concept of triggerless data acquisition (total data readout) has also been developed as part of the GREAT project, which circumvents the problems and limitations of common dead time in conventional data acquisition systems.

  16. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  17. The Great adventure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lemire, J; Plantanida, T; Suzuki, D

    2003-01-01

    .... We watch as the crew navigate a three-masted sailing ship through the legendary Northwest Passage - a treacherous, ice-choked route that has captured the imaginations of great explores for centuries...

  18. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  19. Potential distribution dataset of honeybees in Indian Ocean Islands: Case study of Zanzibar Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Muli, Eliud; Nkoba, Kiatoko; Nguku, Everlyn; Kilonzo, Joseph; Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M; Landmann, Tobias; Fakih, Asha; Raina, Suresh

    2017-10-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are principal insect pollinators, whose worldwide distribution and abundance is known to largely depend on climatic conditions. However, the presence records dataset on potential distribution of honeybees in Indian Ocean Islands remain less documented. Presence records in shape format and probability of occurrence of honeybees with different temperature change scenarios is provided in this article across Zanzibar Island. Maximum entropy (Maxent) package was used to analyse the potential distribution of honeybees. The dataset provides information on the current and future distribution of the honey bees in Zanzibar Island. The dataset is of great importance for improving stakeholders understanding of the role of temperature change on the spatial distribution of honeybees.

  20. The great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo is widely distributed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    on seabirds on islands in Algoa Bay and on estuarine birds in the nearby Swartkops River estuary, the diet of great cormorants was investigated at two colonies in very different breeding habitats. The main aim of this study was to gain an insight into possible ecological separation and breeding site selection of the species.

  1. Nestling Weight and Survival in Individual Great Tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Boerlijst, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    (1) The aim of this paper is to estimate the shape of the curve relating first year survival to nestling weight in individual great tits (Parus major) and to study the causality of this relationship. (2) Data were collected in a mainland and an island population. Nestlings were weighed and sexed in

  2. Reptiles from Timor and the neighbouring islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1895-01-01

    The study of the fauna of the Timor group is one of the most interesting subjects of zoogeography, the islands of this group having their own peculiar inhabitants besides a great many species which they have in common with Java and still other species that are strictly Australian forms. Wallace

  3. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  4. Great Leap into Famine

    OpenAIRE

    Ó Gráda, Cormac

    2011-01-01

    Frank Dikötter’s Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958-62 is the longest and most detailed study of the Great Leap Forward (GLF) famine to appear in English to date. Much of the story will be already familiar to western readers from works by Roderick McFarquhar (1983), Jasper Becker (1996), Ralph Thaxton (2008), and others, but Dikötter adds a lot that is new and valuable. For the past decade or so Chinese scholars have been publishing works based on pu...

  5. Journeys to greatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-02-01

    Readers, I hope, will forgive me for a shameless bit of self-publicity about my latest book, The Great Equations: Breakthroughs in Science from Pythagoras to Heisenberg (Norton). But then the book is partly yours too, inspired as it was by the responses of Physics World readers to my request for suggestions of great equations (October 2004 pp14-15). In the book, I chose to discuss not the most frequently mentioned equations, but those that seem to have engaged their discoverers in the most remarkable journeys.

  6. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Regulated area. All navigable waters of Great South Bay, NY within a 100 yard radius of each... the Fire Island Lighthouse Dock in approximate position 40°38′01″ N 073°13′07″ W, northerly through.... (1) No person or vessel may enter, transit, or remain within 100 yards of any swimmer or safety craft...

  7. Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  8. Great Experiments in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Great Experiments in Physics - Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Amit Roy. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 4-13 ...

  9. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  10. The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This introduction to the natural history of the Great Dismal Swamp is presented at a time when 50,000 acres of the Swamp are being converted from private holdings to...

  11. Great Experiments in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. Great Experiments in Physics - Measuring Diameters of Stars: The Hanbury Brown-Twiss Effect. Amit Roy. Series Article ... Author Affiliations. Amit Roy1. Nuclear Science Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502 New Delhi 110 067, India.

  12. Great Experiments in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Great Experiments in Physics - Birth of Quantum Electronics – Lasers. Amit Roy. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 10 ... Author Affiliations. Amit Roy1. Nuclear Science Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110 067, India.

  13. Great Experiments in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Great Experiments in Physics - Birth of Quantum Electronics – Masers. Amit Roy. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 9 ... Author Affiliations. Amit Roy1. Nuclear Science Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110 067, India.

  14. What great managers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  15. Marion Island and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    yellow-nosed albatross Thalassarche carteri breed at. Marion Island. Of the remaining species, the lesser or black-faced sheathbill Chionis minor breeds at both islands, but is not strictly a seabird. It is one of two sheathbills that to- gether constitute the family Chionidae. Sheathbills for- age within seabird, especially penguin, ...

  16. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  17. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    . It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the streamlined islands, the current-like flutes are parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesis that catastrophic floods broke forth in this region, known as Ares Vallis. Ares Vallis is the region where Pathfinder landed to help understand the possible history of water on Mars. Geologists want to understand not only if there was a catastrophic flood, but why it happened. Both orbiters and landers can add to the information on hand, but some Earth examples might provide clues as well. On our planet, some glacial valleys have had major catastrophic floods that were caused by the sudden outburst and drainage of glacial lakes. The Channeled Scabland in Washington state is great Earthly example of a place where the sudden failure of a glacier ice dam spewed out water, leaving a system of large, dry channels with flutes similar to the ones seen in this image. Did something similar happen to cause this outburst on Mars? Hopefully, future studies of THEMIS and other images will help us understand the answer.

  18. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  19. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  20. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  1. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  2. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  3. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  4. The Great Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  5. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  6. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  7. Great Wall of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface

  8. Ecological Specialization to Fluctuating Resources Prevents Long-Distance Migratory Raptors from Becoming Sedentary on Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoso, Laura; López-López, Pascual; Grande, Juan Manuel; Mellone, Ugo; Limiñana, Rubén; Urios, Vicente; Ferrer, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background The adaptive transition between behavioral strategies, such as the shift from migratoriness to sedentariness, remains an outstanding question in evolutionary ecology. Density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding has been proposed as a feasible mechanism through which long-lived migratory birds with deferred sexual maturity should become sedentary to persist on islands. Although this pattern seems to hold for most raptors and herons, a few exceptions have been identified. One of these exceptions is the Eleonora’s falcon, a long-distance migratory bird, which shows one of the most peculiar adaptations in the timing of reproduction and food requirements among raptors. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we compiled data concerning demography, banding recoveries and satellite tracking of Eleonora’s falcons to discuss likely explanations for the exceptional behavior of this insular long-distance migratory species. Conclusions/Significance New data reveal that Eleonora’s falcons do return to the natal colonies in their first year and young birds are able to breed. However, in contrast to previous hypothesis, the highly specialized strategy of this and other ecologically similar species, as well as the virtual lack of food during winter at breeding areas prevent them from becoming sedentary on islands. Although the ultimate mechanisms underlying the process of sedentarization remain poorly understood, the evidence provided reveal the existence of important trade-offs associated with ecological specialization that may become particularly relevant in the present context of global change. PMID:23626704

  9. Ecological specialization to fluctuating resources prevents long-distance migratory raptors from becoming sedentary on islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gangoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adaptive transition between behavioral strategies, such as the shift from migratoriness to sedentariness, remains an outstanding question in evolutionary ecology. Density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding has been proposed as a feasible mechanism through which long-lived migratory birds with deferred sexual maturity should become sedentary to persist on islands. Although this pattern seems to hold for most raptors and herons, a few exceptions have been identified. One of these exceptions is the Eleonora's falcon, a long-distance migratory bird, which shows one of the most peculiar adaptations in the timing of reproduction and food requirements among raptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we compiled data concerning demography, banding recoveries and satellite tracking of Eleonora's falcons to discuss likely explanations for the exceptional behavior of this insular long-distance migratory species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: New data reveal that Eleonora's falcons do return to the natal colonies in their first year and young birds are able to breed. However, in contrast to previous hypothesis, the highly specialized strategy of this and other ecologically similar species, as well as the virtual lack of food during winter at breeding areas prevent them from becoming sedentary on islands. Although the ultimate mechanisms underlying the process of sedentarization remain poorly understood, the evidence provided reveal the existence of important trade-offs associated with ecological specialization that may become particularly relevant in the present context of global change.

  10. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  11. What the sea portends: a reconsideration of contested island tropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Hay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues for a shift in the focus of island-themed scholarship away from theories of islandness toward an engagement with psychologies of island experience. The former project has become mired in intractable dilemmas. The present paper pursues two linked lines of observation. First, it is maintained that integral to any coherent notion of islandness is a psychology that simultaneously assimilates containment with remoteness and isolation (the latter not to be equated with disconnectedness. In some of its manifestations this psychology is pathological in character, conducive to despair, cultural and economic stagnation, and a xenophobic conservatism. In others it is enabling, conducive to resilience, resourcefulness, cultural dynamism and a can-do economics. It may also make islands unusually relevant, rather than unimportant backwaters, in the search for workable modes of living on a small and fraught planet. Second, it is contended that, if there is enough in the notion of islandness to justify a coherent intellectual preoccupation called ‘island studies’, it must have to do with the element of the sea. Isolation, remoteness, containment – none of these psychological orientations, the qualities popularly held to characterize islands, will do – because these are all characteristics of certain real and imagined continental locations, and must, therefore, be psychological qualities evoked by some more primary condition. If there is something coherent to island studies beyond its status as a branch of biogeography or a minor tributary within literary studies, it must be that to be girt by sea creates distinctive island psychologies. Nevertheless, as globalizing processes burgeon, such a psychology becomes more precarious – containment, remoteness and a sense of apartness from the great human tides inevitably recede – and this is the real threat to a coherent sense of islandness (and, hence, ‘island studies’.

  12. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  13. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  14. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  15. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  16. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting documents used in developing water quality standards in the Great Lakes watershed.

  17. Great Men and Us Too

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mary Grayson

    2008-01-01

    .... These folks across the world stage as great heroes or great villains. The thoery is most often associated with Thomas Carlyle, a 19th century talk radio show host -- actually he was a Scottish historian -- known for his quote...

  18. Back to Treasure Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  19. The Next Great Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    value of systems-level thinking, and it makes good sense to make this the essential mantra of Earth science undergraduate and graduate programs of the future. We must emphasize that Earth science plays a central role in understanding processes that have shaped our planet since the origin of our species, processes that have thus influenced the rise and fall of human societies. By studying the co-evolution of Earth and human societies, we lay a critical part of the foundation for future environmental policymaking. If we can make this point persuasively, Earth science might just be the "next great science".

  20. Marion Island and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    . Surveys were undertaken from 19 November to 13 December 1997 and from 18 to 31 December 2001. At Marion Island, eggs are laid between 23 October and 19 December, with 70% laid from 2 to 14 November (Williams 1980). The area.

  1. Geology of the Hawaiian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Harold T.

    1946-01-01

    A brief summary of the geography, climate, and geomorphology is given. Streams develop slowly after the extinction of a volcano because of the high permeability of the rock. Once established they cut rapidly because of the steep slopes and fractured condition of the rock. Stream erosion varies enormously on different slopes of the same mountain due to the great differences in rainfall and to other causes. Six reasons are given for the development of amphitheater-headed valleys. Marine erosion has formed cliffs as much as 1,000 feet high on the leeward side and 3,000 feet high on the windward side of some of the domes. The islands have undergone a complex series of emergences and submergences leaving marine fossiliferous limestone up to 1,070 feet above sea level and valleys drowned more than 1,200 feet. Twelve terrace levels are recognized. Some are definitely eustatic.A synopsis is given of the present knowledge of the geology of each volcanic mountain, as well as a table of the rock units, and geologic maps of all major islands. The volcanoes pass through four major phases between birth and extinction and are built around one minor and two major rift zones. The volcanoes began their history above sea level in the Tertiary. Most of them became dormant either before or during the early Quaternary. Activity was renewed in the late Quaternary. Mauna Kea was glaciated in the late Pleistocene. The character of each islet in the archipelago is tabulated.

  2. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  3. Characterization of Gambierdiscus lapillus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Anna Liza; Verma, Arjun; Harwood, Tim; Hoppenrath, Mona; Murray, Shauna

    2017-04-01

    Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) that bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in CFP endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to CFP cases occurring in this region. In this study, we characterized five strains of Gambierdiscus collected from Heron Island, Australia, a region in which ciguatera is endemic. Clonal cultures were assessed using (i) light microscopy; (ii) scanning electron microscopy; (iii) DNA sequencing based on the nuclear encoded ribosomal 18S and D8-D10 28S regions; (iv) toxicity via mouse bioassay; and (v) toxin profile as determined by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Both the morphological and phylogenetic data indicated that these strains represent a new species of Gambierdiscus, G. lapillus sp. nov. (plate formula Po, 3', 0a, 7″, 6c, 7-8s, 5‴, 0p, 2″″ and distinctive by size and hatchet-shaped 2' plate). Culture extracts were found to be toxic using the mouse bioassay. Using chemical analysis, it was determined that they did not contain maitotoxin (MTX1) or known algal-derived ciguatoxin analogs (CTX3B, 3C, CTX4A, 4B), but that they contained putative MTX3, and likely other unknown compounds. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  5. Potentials of integrating spice crops with forestry in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Gnanaratnam

    1993-01-01

    The forest is an integral part of the island ecosystem, and any indiscriminate destruction is bound to cause a shift in the climatic conditions, increased soil erosion, and other effects. The conservation of existing forestry is of great importance. Future patterns of agricultural development in the Pacific Islands should aim to integrate with the forest cover rather...

  6. EARTH ISLAND PROJECT NEWS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

      The section features Earth Island's Dolphin Safe tuna . label (asking readers to look for tuna cans without the Dolphin Safe label and alert us so we can have the cans removed from store shelves...

  7. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  8. Small islands adrift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  9. Report of findings: Aleutian Islands military contaminants: Fiscal years 1988-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This investigation was conducted in 1988, 1989 and 1990 at abandoned military facilities on Attu, Tanaga, Little Kiska, Great Sitkin, and Semisopochnoi islands - all...

  10. Night Heron Time Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  11. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5, 2013...

  12. Influence of porewater advection on denitrification in carbonate sands: Evidence from repacked sediment column experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2012-01-01

    Porewater flow enhances mineralization rates in organic-poor permeable sands. Here, a series of sediment column experiments were undertaken to assess the potential effect of advective porewater transport on denitrification in permeable carbonate sands collected from Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef...

  13. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes,…

  14. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  15. How users experience great products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz Nicolas, J.C.; Aurisicchio, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports qualitative research about how users experience great products. Eighteen interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to bring along a ‘great’ product that they own. During the interviews participants explained why they consider a product great and how they

  16. Ischia Island: Historical Seismicity and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, S.; Cubellis, E.; Iannuzzi, R.; Luongo, G.; Obrizzo, F.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic energy release in volcanic areas is a complex process and the island of Ischia provides a significant scenario of historical seismicity. This is characterized by the occurence of earthquakes with low energy and high intensity. Information on the seismicity of the island spans about eight centuries, starting from 1228. With regard to effects, the most recent earthquake of 1883 is extensively documented both in the literature and unpublished sources. The earthquake caused 2333 deaths and the destruction of the historical and environmental heritage of some areas of the island. The most severe damage occurred in Casamicciola. This event, which was the first great catastrophe after the unification of Italy in the 1860s (Imax = XI degree MCS), represents an important date in the prevention of natural disasters, in that it was after this earthquake that the first Seismic Safety Act in Italy was passed by which lower risk zones were identified for new settlements. Thanks to such detailed analysis, reliable modelling of the seismic source was also obtained. The historical data onwards makes it possible to identify the area of the epicenter of all known earthquakes as the northern slope of Monte Epomeo, while analysis of the effects of earthquakes and the geological structures allows us to evaluate the stress fields that generate the earthquakes. In a volcanic area, interpretation of the mechanisms of release and propagation of seismic energy is made even more complex as the stress field that acts at a regional level is compounded by that generated from migration of magmatic masses towards the surface, as well as the rheologic properties of the rocks dependent on the high geothermic gradient. Such structural and dynamic conditions make the island of Ischia a seismic area of considerable interest. It would appear necessary to evaluate the expected damage caused by a new event linked to the renewal of dynamics of the island, where high population density and the

  17. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson river, Nevada: III. Effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and Black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan reservoir, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J; Henny, Charles J; Hill, Elwood F; Grove, Robert A; Kaiser, James L; Stebbins, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (microg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive subatances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by histopathological findings. Both oxidative effects and adaptive responses to oxidative stress were apparent in kidneys and brain. Vacuolar change and inflammation

  18. Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (μg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by histopathological findings. Both oxidative effects and adaptive responses to oxidative stress were apparent in kidneys and brain. Vacuolar change and inflammation in

  19. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  20. Compassion makes good care great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daloni

    2014-05-27

    Daloni Carlisle reveals how the compassionate nursing care she received in a London hospital following a recent cancer diagnosis has given her an 'emotional understanding of what constitutes great nursing care.

  1. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Data Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting...

  2. Volcanic hazard assessment at Deception Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano of the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) with more than twenty eruptions recognised over the past two centuries. The island was formed on the expansion axis of the Central Bransfield Strait and its evolution consists of constructive and destructive phases. A first a shield phase was followed by the construction of a central edifice and formation of the caldera with a final monogenetic volcanism along the caldera rim. The post-caldera magma composition varies from andesitic-basaltic to dacitic. The activity is characterised by monogenetic eruptions of low volume and short duration. The eruptions show a variable degree of explosivity, strombolian or phreatomagmatic, with a VEI 2 to 4, which have generated a wide variety of pyroclastic deposits and lavas. It is remarkable how many phases of phreatic explosive eruptions are associated to the emission of large ballistic blocks. Tephra record preserved in the glacier ice of Livingston Island or in marine sediments show the explosive power of the phreatomagmatic phases and the wide dispersal of its finest products in a great variety of directions of the prevailing winds. Also it is important to highlight the presence of different lahar deposits associated with some of these eruptions. In this contribution we present the guidelines to conduct a short-term and long-term volcanic hazard assessment at Deception Island. We apply probabilistic methods to estimate the susceptibility, statistical techniques to determine the eruption recurrence and eruptive scenario, and reproduce the effects of historical eruptions too. Volcanic hazard maps and scenarios are obtained using a Voris-based model tool (Felpeto et al., 2007) in a free Geographical Information System (GIS), a Quantum GIS.

  3. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  4. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  5. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, PSEG Long Island LLC (PSEG LI), Long Island Electric...

  6. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  7. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-15

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  8. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  9. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Mitchell, Brandie; Brown, Tevin; Billiot, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Barrier Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal areas. Historically, tropical cyclonic events have had a great impact on the transgression of barrier islands, especially the Chandeleur Island chain off the eastern coast of Louisiana. These islands are of great importance, aiding in the protection of southeastern Louisiana from major storms, providing habitat for nesting and migratory bird species, and are part of the second oldest wildlife refuge in the country. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both federal and state agencies. Since then, multiple storm events have steadily diminished the integrity of the islands. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 thwarted all previous restoration efforts, with Hurricane Gustav in 2008 exacerbating island erosion and vegetation loss. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS), and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) will be utilized to detect land loss, island transgression, and vegetation change from 1979 to 2009. This study looks to create a more synoptic view of the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands and correlate weather and sea surface phenomena with erosion trends over the past 30 years, so that partnering organizations such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES) can better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH monitored from benthic Free Ocean Carbon Enrichment (FOCE) -type study in Heron Island reef flat (NODC Accession 0113856)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean acidification poses multiple challenges for coral reefs on molecular to ecological scales, yet previous experimental studies of the impact of projected CO2...

  11. Combined multibeam and bathymetry data from Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; McMullen, Katherine Y.; Danforth, William W.; Blankenship, Mark R.; Clos, Andrew R.; Glomb, Kimberly A.; Lewit, Peter G.; Nadeau, Megan A.; Wood, Douglas A.; Parker, Castleton E.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research and management communities because of this area's ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. Geologically interpreted digital terrain models from individual surveys provide important benthic environmental information, yet many applications of this information require a geographically broader perspective. For example, individual surveys are of limited use for the planning and construction of cross-sound infrastructure, such as cables and pipelines, or for the testing of regional circulation models. To address this need, we integrated 14 contiguous multibeam bathymetric datasets that were produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during charting operations into one digital terrain model that covers much of Block Island Sound and extends eastward across Rhode Island Sound. The new dataset, which covers over 1244 square kilometers, is adjusted to mean lower low water, gridded to 4-meter resolution, and provided in Universal Transverse Mercator Zone 19, North American Datum of 1983 and geographic World Geodetic Survey of 1984 projections. This resolution is adequate for sea-floor feature and process interpretation but is small enough to be queried and manipulated with standard Geographic Information System programs and to allow for future growth. Natural features visible in the data include boulder lag deposits of winnowed Pleistocene strata, sand-wave fields, and scour depressions that reflect the strength of oscillating tidal currents and scour by storm-induced waves. Bedform asymmetry allows interpretations of net sediment transport. Anthropogenic features visible in the data include shipwrecks and dredged channels. Together the merged data reveal a larger, more continuous perspective of bathymetric topography than previously available, providing a fundamental framework for

  12. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  13. Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Vianne

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)

  14. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...

  15. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  16. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  17. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  18. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  19. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  20. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  1. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  2. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  3. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  4. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1998). At Marion. Island, mean surface air temperature increased by 1.2°C between 1969 and 1999 and annual precipitation de- creased after the mid 1960s (Smith 2002). Mean sea surface temperature (SST) increased by 1.4°C between. 1949 and 2002 (Mélice et al. in press). At the same time, there was growing concern ...

  5. The Great Belt coherence experiment. [Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Kristensen, L.; Courtney, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    We have studied theoretically and experimentally lateral spectral coherences of turbulent velocity components over water at the height of 70 m. Simple theoretical considerations show that if these coherences are known it is possible with just the knowledge of the spectra to calculate the power spectrum of the lift forces on the bridge deck. These considerations also show that the force spectrum at a particular frequency {omega} = {omega}{sub 0} grows with the mean wind speed U raised to a power which can be as large as 17/3, i.e. the r.m.s. amplitude of the force at that frequency is proportional to U{sup 17/6}. We have shown quantitatively that only if the displacement D between the measured wind speed components is small compared to the scale of the turbulence do we know for certain that the coherences are parameterless functions of the dimensionless variable {omega}D/U with the implication that the coherence of identical velocity components goes to one as {omega} goes to zero. The experimental data were obtained from three sonic anemometers mounted at the top of two 70 m masts on the island Sprogoe in the middle of the Great Belt between Zealand and Fyn. The displacements were 15.0, 32.5 and 47.5 m. The data shows that the coherences only for the smallest displacement approach one as the frequency goes to zero. The larger the displacement the smaller the coherence at zero frequency. A dynamic ''shear distortion'' model explains the behavior of the coherence quite well and makes it possible to predict the coherence on basis of velocity spectra measured at one point. Simple exponential fit to the actual data have been obtained. (author) 23 refs.

  6. Great Lakes management: Ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, W. C.; Robertson, A.; Beeton, A. M.

    1983-11-01

    Although attempts to improve the quality of the Great Lakes generally focus on chemical pollution, other factors are important and should be considered Ecological factors, such as invasion of the lakes by foreign species, habitat changes, overfishing, and random variations in organism populations, are especially influential. Lack of appreciation of the significance of ecological factors stems partly from the inappropriate application of the concept of eutrophication to the Great Lakes. Emphasis on ecological factors is not intended to diminish the seriousness of pollution, but rather to point out that more cost-effective management, as well as more realistic expectations of management efforts by the public, should result from an ecosystem management approach in which ecological factors are carefully considered.

  7. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  8. Modeling Study for Tangier Island Jetties, Tangier Island, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    transmission caused by structures are approximated in this class of wave models. 1.5.3 Task 3. Modeling channel hydrodynamics The Tangier Island boat ...the Tangier Island Boat Canal 2.1 Purpose A numerical modeling study investigated waves and hydrodynamics in and adjacent to the western portion of...fishing fleet, the U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk (CENAO) maintains the Tangier Island boat canal. CENAO is considering the construction of

  9. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    OpenAIRE

    Boyoung eKim; Grant eGoodall

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during ch...

  10. The Intertidal Biota of Volcanic Yankich Island (Middle Kuril Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Kussakin, Oleg G.; Kostina, Elena E.

    1996-01-01

    A description of the intertidal biota of volcanic Yankich Island (Ushishir Islands, Kuril Islands) is given. The species composition and vertical distribution pattern of the intertidal communities at various localities are described in relation to environmental factors, such as nature of the substrate, surf conditions and volcanic vent water. The macrobenthos is poor in the areas directly influenced by high temperature (20-40°C) and high sulphur content. There are no marked changes in the int...

  11. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  12. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  13. Paleotsunami evidence on Kaua`i and numerical modeling of a great Aleutian tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rhett; Burney, David; Walsh, David

    2014-10-01

    The Hawaiian Islands' location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean is threatened by tsunamis from great earthquakes in nearly all directions. Historical great earthquakes Mw > 8.5 in the last 100 years have produced large inundations and loss of life in the islands but cannot account for a substantial (≤ 600 m3) paleotsunami deposit in the Makauwahi sinkhole on the Island of Kaua`i. Using high-resolution bathymetry and topography we model tsunami inundation of the sinkhole caused by an earthquake with a moment magnitude of Mw ~9.25 located in the eastern Aleutians. A preponderance of evidence indicates that a giant earthquake in the eastern Aleutian Islands circa 1425-1665 A.D.—located between the source regions of the 1946 and 1957 great tsunamigenic earthquakes—created the paleotsunami deposit in Kaua`i. A tsunami deposit in the Aleutians dated circa 1530-1660 A.D. is consistent with this eastern Aleutian source region.

  14. DEVELOPMENT MODEL OF UNDER DEVELOPED SMALL ISLAND IN SUMENEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarti Sudarti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to build a Geographic Information System and Management Information System models of development of small islands in Sumenep. Based on the identification of economic potential there are few regions such as Nonggunong, Gayam, Ra'as, and Sapeken which have large contribution toward the rice plant production. The whole districts of the islands in Sumenep are the base of cow, horse, chicken and livestock commodities. Sapeken have significant contribution for marine fish. Giligenting, Nonggunong, Gayam, and Arjasa have large potential for brackish fish. Moreover, Gili-genting also has a great contribution for fresh fish.Keywords: Development model, under-developed area, small islandsJEL classification numbers: O13, O14

  15. H09365: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Great Saint James Island to Reef Bay, Virgin Islands, 1973-04-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. Modeling potential tsunami sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    , earthquake-generated tsunami could account for the observed runup, we modeled tsunami inundation from synthetic MW 9.2 earthquakes rupturing along the trench between Atka and Unimak Islands, which indicate that the deposit runup observed on Unalaska is possible from a source of this size and orientation. Further modeling efforts will examine the April 1, 1946 Aleutian tsunami, as well as other synthetic tsunamigenic earthquake sources of varying size and location, which may provide insight into the rupture history of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone, especially in combination with more data from paleotsunami deposits. Johnson, Jean M., Tanioka, Yuichiro, Ruff, Larry J., Satake, Kenji, Kanamori, Hiroo, Sykes, Lynn R. "The 1957 great Aleutian earthquake." Pure and Applied Geophysics 142.1 (1994): 3-28.

  17. Recommendations for a barrier island breach management plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS

  18. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  19. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  20. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A

    2010-06-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments.We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.

  1. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  2. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  3. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  4. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  5. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics...... and influential factors impact on the development of the singleisland or multi-island smart energy system are different. This paper presents the influential factors of the island smart energy system development by the literature analysis. Meanwhile, taking Philippines as a case study to investigate...... the differences between the single-island and multi-island smart energy system, and examine the integration challenges of the multi-island smart energy system in the Philippines. The integration challenges of the national energy system with island smart energy development are discussed with suggestions....

  6. Kornati Islands on Old Geographic Maps and Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Faričić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of cartographic sources, the paper analyses the historical and geographical development of the Kornati islands, the largest group of Croatian islands. The old maps were used first of all as the means of geographic research that, being necessarily correlated to the simultaneous historical written sources and modern topographic and maritime maps, make the basis for creating a research platform for relevant scientific results to be achieved. On the basis of the old maps it is possible, among other things to anticipate that the Kornati islands used to have great geotraffic significance on the eastern Adriatic sailing route. According to the development of geographic concepts and cartographic methods, the geographic vision of the Kornati islands has been gradually clarified ever since the 16th century. The chart from the Carta di cabotaggio del Mare Adriatico edition published by the Military and Geographic Institute from Milan (1822-1824 presents the turning point with the first complete and mostly precise presentation of the Kornati islands group on the basis of hydrographic and topographic field measurements.

  7. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters. ...

  8. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  9. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  10. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Aleixandre

    Full Text Available The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands

  12. Speciation on Oceanic Islands: Rapid Adaptive Divergence vs. Cryptic Speciation in a Guadalupe Island Songbird (Aves: Junco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Pau; Hernández Montoya, Julio; Milá, Borja

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated “cryptic” lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands in driving

  13. Typologi of Island City in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Alvaryan; Benita, Tania

    2017-07-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia consist of thousands of island. Some of them are big enough to contain growth and become the center of settlement and activity in Indonesia. However, growth and habitation are not only mushrooming in main island. Several small island also experience growth and become densely population places and simply become a city within island. This study aims to identify island city in Indonesia and creating the typology of the island city. This study is using exploratory approach and heavily rely on statistical figure of every single autonomous region as data sources. Eventually, this study found twelve (12) island cities in Indonesia, and three distinctive typology of island cities.

  14. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  15. Mycosis Fungoides: The great imitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Sajjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycosis fungoides although a cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma can immitate many dermatological disorders. A 60 year old man presented to our hospital with generalized annular plaques, few with verrucous surface. The annular lesions imitated Psoriasis, Tinea, Syphilis and the diagnosis was in dilemma. Histopathology gave the light and path to diagnosis. Case report: A 60 year old man presented with complains of erythematous scaly lesions since 20 year, Lesions were initially flat and erythematous which later became ulcerated, crusted and painful. H/O exacerbation and remission was present. Conclusions: Mycosis Fungoides is a great imitator both clinically and histopathologically. We are presenting a case report of patient with Mycosis Fungoides, Stage IIA.

  16. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  17. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  18. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patiño, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert James; Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  19. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  20. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  1. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  2. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over......Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... where the botanical survey was exhaustive. As no animals and humans are found on the nunataks, this change in diversity over a period of just 42 years must relate to environmental changes probably being climate-driven. This suggests that even the flora of fairly small and isolated ice-free areas reacts...

  3. UK scenario of islanded operation of active distribution networks with renewable distributed generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, S.P.; Chowdhury, S.; Gaunt, C.T. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, Western Cape (South Africa); Crossley, P.A. [Joule Centre for Energy Research, The University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports on the current UK scenario of islanded operation of active distribution networks with renewable distributed generators (RDGs). Different surveys indicate that the present scenario does not economically justify islanding operation of active distribution networks with RDGs. Anti-islanding protection schemes currently enforce the renewable distributed generators (RDGs) to disconnect immediately and stop generation for grid faults through loss of grid (LOG) protection system. This greatly reduces the benefits of RDG deployment. With rising RDG penetration, much benefit would be lost if the RDGs are not allowed to island only due to conventional operational requirement of utilities. For preventing disconnection of RDGs during LOG, several islanding operation, control and protection schemes are being developed. Technical studies clearly indicate the need to review parts of the ESQCR (Electricity Safety, Quality and Continuity Regulations) for successful islanded operations. Commercial viability of islanding operation must be assessed in relation to enhancement of power quality, system reliability and supply of potential ancillary services through network support. Demonstration projects under Registered Power Zone and Technical Architecture Projects should be initiated to investigate the usefulness of DG islanding. However these efforts should be compounded with a realistic judgement of the associated technical and economic issues for the development of future power networks. (author)

  4. Recognition of two great contemporaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common denominator in the careers of two contemporaries and great men, citizens of Austria-Hungary - Leoš Janáček and Sigmund Freud - was that, in spite of their status as outsiders, they managed to achieve well-deserved recognition. Both non-Germans, they had to surmount a number of obstacles in order to attain their professional goals. The Slavophile Janáček dreamed for a long time of success in Prague, which came at last in 1916, two years before a triumph in Vienna. Freud had serious difficulties in his academic career because of the strengthening of racial prejudices and national hatred which were especially marked at the end of the 19th century. After the dissolution of the Empire things changed for the better for the composer, whose works got an excellent reception in Austria and Germany, whereas the psychiatrist had to leave Vienna after the Anschluss. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 177004: Serbian Musical Identities within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges

  5. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  6. PIPS: pathogenicity island prediction software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1 deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2 insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS. In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.

  7. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  8. Relative impact of parrotfish grazing scars on massive Porites corals at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaldo, RM; Krajewski, JP; Bellwood, DR

    2011-01-01

    Scraping and excavating parrotfishes are well known for their marked differences in jaw morphology and feeding behaviour. Despite the importance of parrotfishes to reef systems and the well-known differences within the group, few studies have compared the functional importance of scraping versus excavating parrotfishes in shaping coral reef benthic communities. We compared the abundance, depth and dynamics of scraping and excavating parrotfish grazing scars on massive Porites spp. colonies al...

  9. Zooplankton standing stock off south of Great Nicobar Island during an oil spill incident and after

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    An intensive sampling was carried out in the oil plume area between lat. 5 degrees 56' to 6 degrees 42'N and long. 93 degrees 10' to 94 degrees 30'E. For a comparative study, samples were also collected along the international oil tanker route along...

  10. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Euichi Hirose; Budhi Hascaryo Iskandar; Yusli Wardiatno

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2...

  11. GREAT I Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Technical Appendixes. Volume 5. Fish and Wildlife. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Lonnie Jacobs **John P. Wolflin, GREAT Co-Chairman American Waterways Operators U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 11 S. Meramec Ave., #1312 530 Federal...should have asked for justification for dredging depth. No depth information provided at OSIT meeting. 4. St. Paul Small Boat Harbor ( Harriet Island

  12. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  13. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    the differences between the single-island and multi-island smart energy system, and examine the integration challenges of the multi-island smart energy system in the Philippines. The integration challenges of the national energy system with island smart energy development are discussed with suggestions....

  14. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island ...the coastal problem involves circulation around islands , which has been less studied over the years. Island circulation is distinguished from...processes include boundary currents, eddies shed in the island’s wake, and island coastally trapped waves. This project aims to improve the understanding

  15. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  16. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  17. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  18. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  19. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and...

  20. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  1. Guest editorial introduction: Understanding island cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehoj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Island studies research has traditionally focused on relatively rural, peripheral, and isolated communities, yet island cities (strongly urbanized small islands or archipelagos or major population centres of large islands or archipelagos also represent an important research area. Island spatiality has a host of historical and continuing effects on urban development, influencing urban densification and agglomeration, zonal differentiation, and neighbourhood formation in cities both big and small. This special section of Island Studies Journal includes papers on the island cities and urban archipelagos of Peel (Isle of Man, British Isles, Nuuk (Greenland, Palma de Majorca (Spain, Belize City (Belize, and Mumbai (India. The Island Cities and Urban Archipelagos research network seeks to help enrich wider island studies scholarship and contribute to introducing the island dimension to urban studies.

  2. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    and recreational purposes include groupers (Cephalapholis argus), porgy (Monotaxis grandoculis), and jacks (Carangidae). Sharks are abundant...Possibly Extinct on Wake Island Swiftlet, Guam; Yayaguak (Collecalia bartschi) Endangered Crow, Mariana; Aga (Corvus kubaryi) Endangered

  3. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  4. Cat Island NWR Biological Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary report describing the discussion and recommendations resulting from a multidisciplinary review of the biological program at Cat Island NWR.

  5. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  6. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  7. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  8. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  9. Temporal trends (1989–2011) in levels of mercury and other heavy metals in feathers of fledgling great egrets nesting in Barnegat Bay, NJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082, USA and also with Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)

    2013-04-15

    There is an abundance of data for levels of metals from a range of species, but relatively few long-term time series from the same location. In this paper I examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from fledgling great egrets (Ardea alba) collected at nesting colonies in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey from 1989 to 2011. The primary objectives were to test the null hypotheses that (1) There were no temporal differences in metal levels in feathers of fledgling great egrets, and (2) Great egrets nesting in different areas of Barnegat Bay (New Jersey) did not differ in metal levels. There were significant yearly variations in levels of all heavy metals in feathers of fledgling great egret, but levels decreased significantly from 1989 to 2011 only for lead (1470 ppb to 54.3 ppb), cadmium (277 ppb to 30.5 ppb), and manganese (only since 1996; 2669 ppb to 329 ppb)). Although mercury levels decreased from 2003–2008 (6430 ppb to 1042 ppb), there was no pattern before 2003, and levels increased after 2008 to 2610 ppb in 2011. Lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese and mercury were higher in feathers from great egrets nesting in the northern part of the bay, and selenium was highest in feathers from mid-bay. The lack of a temporal decline in mercury levels in feathers of great egrets is cause for concern, since the high levels in feathers from some years (means as high as 6430 ppb) are in the range associated with adverse effects (5000 ppb for feathers). -- Highlights: ► Metals were monitored in feathers of great egrets from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. ► Levels of cadmium and lead decreased significantly from 1989–2011. ► Mercury levels in feathers from great egrets did not decline from 1989–2011. ► Metal levels were generally higher in great egrets and black-crowned night heron feathers than in snowy egrets.

  10. Transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castela Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposition of the great arteries (TGA, also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500–5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually

  11. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the...approximately 235°. The island is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico , the Galveston Entrance Channel to the northeast, West Bay to the northwest, and San...plants on both ends of the island are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island

  12. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-...

  13. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  14. Cosmic Reason of Great Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Murtazov, Andrey

    The origin of long-time and global glaciations in the past of our planet, which have been named «great», is still not clear. Both the advance of glaciers and their subsequent melting must be connected with some energy consuming processes. There is a powerful energy source permanently functioning throughout the Earth’s history - the solar radiation. The equality of the incoming shortwave solar energy and the transformed long-wave energy emitted by the Earth provides for the whole ecosphere’s sustainable evolution. Great glaciations might be caused by space body falls into the world oceans. If the body is large enough, it can stir waters down to the bottom. The world waters are part of the global heat transfer from the planet’s equator to its poles (nowadays, mostly to the North Pole). The mixing of the bottom and surface waters breaks the circulation of flows and they stop. The termination of heat transfer to the poles will result in an icecap at high latitudes which in its turn will decrease the total solar heat inflow to the planet and shift the pole ice boarder to the equator. This positive feedback may last long and result in long-time glaciations. The oceanic currents will remain only near the equator. The factor obstructing the global cooling is the greenhouse effect. Volcanic eruptions supply a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When due to the increased albedo the planet receives less solar heat, plants bind less carbon oxide into biomass and more of it retains in the atmosphere. Therefore, the outflow of heat from the planet decreases and glaciations does not involve the whole planet. The balance established between the heat inflow and heat losses is unstable. Any imbalance acts as a positive feed-back factor. If the volcanic activity grows, the inflow of the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will cause its heating-up (plants will fail to reproduce themselves quickly enough to utilize the carbonic acid). The temperature growth will lead to

  15. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  16. Low calcification in corals in the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    Reef-building coral communities in the Great Barrier Reef—the world's largest coral reef—may now be calcifying at only about half the rate that they did during the 1970s, even though live coral cover may not have changed over the past 40 years, a new study finds. In recent decades, coral reefs around the world, home to large numbers of fish and other marine species, have been threatened by such human activities as pollution, overfishing, global warming, and ocean acidification; the latter affects ambient water chemistry and availability of calcium ions, which are critical for coral communities to calcify, build, and maintain reefs. Comparing data from reef surveys during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s with present-day (2009) measurements of calcification rates in One Tree Island, a coral reef covering 13 square kilometers in the southern part of the Great Barrier Reef, Silverman et al. show that the total calcification rates (the rate of calcification minus the rate of dissolution) in these coral communities have decreased by 44% over the past 40 years; the decrease appears to stem from a threefold reduction in calcification rates during nighttime.

  17. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  18. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  19. Land use and land cover data changes in Indian Ocean Islands: Case study of Unguja in Zanzibar Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Muli, Eliud; Faki, Asha; Raina, Suresh

    2017-04-01

    Land use and land cover changes will continue to affect resilient human communities and ecosystems as a result of climate change. However, an assessment of land use and land cover changes over time in Indian Ocean Islands is less documented. The land use/cover data changes over 10 years at smaller geographical scale across Unguja Island in Zanzibar were analyzed. Downscaling of the data was obtained from SERVIR through partnership with Kenya-based Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) database (http://www.servirglobal.net), and clipped down in ArcMap (Version 10.1) to Unguja Island. SERVIR and RCMRD Land Cover Dataset are mainly 30 m multispectral images include Landsat TM and ETM+Multispectral Images. Landscape ecology Statistics tool (LecoS) was used to analysis the land use and land cover changes. The data provide information on the status of the land use and land cover changes along the Unguja Island in Zanzibar. The data is of great significance to the future research on global change.

  20. A Great Moment for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    astronomers will have at their disposal the best optical/infrared telescope in the world. We can now look forward with great expectations to the realization of many exciting research projects. The First Light Images Images of various celestial objects were obtained with the VLT CCD Test Camera, some of which are included in a new series, First Astronomical Images from the VLT UT1. None have been subjected to image processing beyond flat-fielding (to remove variations of the digital detector sensitivity over the field) and cosmetic cleaning. They all display the recorded image structure, pixel by pixel. A detailed evaluation with accompanying explanations is presented in the figure captions. 1. Omega Centauri Tracking Tests This 10-minute image demonstrates that the telescope is able to track continuously with a very high precision and thus is able to take full advantage of the frequent, very good atmospheric conditions at Paranal. The images of the stars in this southern globular cluster are very sharp (0.43 arcsec) and are perfectly round, everywhere in the field. 2. The Quadruple Clover Leaf Quasar This 2-minute exposure of the well-known Clover Leaf quasar, a quadruple gravitational lens in which the largest distance between two components is only 1.3 arcsec, was obtained during a period of excellent seeing (0.32 arcsec) measured with a seeing monitor at the top of Paranal. The recorded angular resolution of just 0.38 arcsec demonstrates near-perfect optical quality of the telescope . 3. The Central Area of Globular Cluster M4 This is a colour composite of a field near the centre of the nearest globular cluster. At a seeing of 0.53 arcsec, the blue exposure reaches magnitude B = 24 in only 2 minutes (at signal-to-noise ratio = 5) in a bright sky. A simple extrapolation shows that B ~ 28 would be reached in a 1-hour exposure in a dark sky. The large mirror surface of the VLT UT1 and its ability to produce very sharp images, ensures that faint objects may be observed

  1. Morphologic and Process Transformation at a Barrier Island of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.

    2006-12-01

    Waisanding Barrier, the largest barrier island off the southwestern coast of Taiwan, has undergone morphologic and process transformation in recent decades. Based on the analysis of historical maps and aerial photographs, the island has migrated both southward and eastward (or landward). The shoreline at the northwest tip of the island has a retreat rate at 65 m/year, and the shoreline at the southern end migrates at a speed of 88 m/year southeastward. The overall land area has shrunken. Topographic profile surveys also show the great reduction of dune fields and the dune heights. This is mainly due to the starvation of sand sources. Three main processes have been proposed to explain the island migration: (1) the southward- dominant longshore drift; (2) the overwash process; and (3) the prevailing southward aeolian sand transport. Choushui river, the largest river in Taiwan, is the major sediment source for the Waisanding Barrier. Improvement constructions and illegal sand/gravel mining of the river may reduce large amounts of sediments that reach the shore. An artificial industrial park project located at the south of Choushui river mouth may also play an important role in blocking and preventing some of the southward longshore sand transport from reaching Waisanding Barrier. A permanent loss of sand to a submarine channel at the southern end had probably worsened the sediment storage of the barrier island. The strong wind transport during winter and the overwash process during spring high tides or stormy conditions may reduce the foredune and overall elevation of the island. This landform modification may result in the increase of overwash frequencies that move more sand landward and lower the elevation. As the results, the original back shore and dune field area are developed into a wide sandy tidal flat with many shallow tidal creeks formed during rising high tide stages. Because of all the landform changes in recent decades, the barrier island may undergo the

  2. White-tailed deer ecology and management on Fire Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Deer populations have grown dramatically on Fire Island National Seashore (FIlS) since 1983. Trend data reveal a dichotomy in deer dynamics. In the eastern half of the island, deer density appears to have stabilized between 25-35 deer/km2. In the western half of the island, deer densities are 3-4 times as high in residential communities. Concomitant with that increase has been a general decline in physical stature of some animals, visible impacts on island vegetation, especially in the Sunken Forest, and a perceived increase in the frequency of human and deer interactions. Intensive research on FIlS has shown that deer occupy relatively predictable home ranges throughout the year, but can and do move up and down the island. Impacts of deer on vegetation are most dramatic in the Sunken Forest. Most obvious are the effects of browsing on the herb layer of the Sunken Forest. The least obvious, but perhaps more significant impact is the stark lack of regeneration of canopy tree species since about 1970, which coincides with the initiation of the deer population irruption. A number of herbs and shrubs have been greatly reduced in the understory, and their propagules from the soil. Deer do not readily transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease to other organisms, but deer are important hosts for adult ticks which underscores their importance in the transmission pathway of the disease to humans. Deer on FIlS, while occasionally docile, are still wild animals and should be treated as such. Some animals are relatively unafraid of humans due to the absence of predation and a lack of harassment. This in turn has contributed to a longstanding tradition of feeding deer by many residents and visitors, particularly in western portions of the island. Feeding affects both the behavior and population dynamics of deer inhabiting Fire Island. Recent efforts to reduce deer feeding by visitors and residents have been very effective. Ongoing experiments with Porcine Zona Pellucida

  3. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  4. Get Ready for the Great American Eclipse!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    This year marks 38 years since any part of the continental United States was darkened by the Moon's umbral shadow. During this "eclipse drought," no U.S. residents except those on Hawaii's Big Island in 1991 have had the opportunity to observe totality without traveling abroad. The 2017 Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017, August 21, 2017) is…

  5. The contributions of Donald Lee Johnson to understanding the Quaternary geologic and biogeographic history of the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Over a span of 50 years, native Californian Donald Lee Johnson made a number of memorable contributions to our understanding of the California Channel Islands. Among these are (1) recognizing that carbonate dunes, often cemented into eolianite and derived from offshore shelf sediments during lowered sea level, are markers of glacial periods on the Channel Islands; (2) identifying beach rock on the Channel Islands as the northernmost occurrence of this feature on the Pacific Coast of North America; (3) recognizing of the role of human activities in historic landscape modification; (4) identifying both the biogenic and pedogenic origins of caliche “ghost forests” and laminar calcrete forms on the Channel Islands; (5) providing the first soil maps of several of the islands, showing diverse pathways of pedogenesis; (6) pointing out the importance of fire in Quaternary landscape history on the Channel Islands, based on detailed stratigraphic studies; and (7), perhaps his greatest contribution, clarifying the origin of Pleistocene pygmy mammoths on the Channel Islands, due not to imagined ancient land bridges, but rather the superb swimming abilities of proboscideans combined with lowered sea level, favorable paleowinds, and an attractive paleovegetation on the Channel Islands. Don was a classic natural historian in the great tradition of Charles Darwin and George Gaylord Simpson, his role models. Don’s work will remain important and useful for many years and is an inspiration to those researching the California Channel Islands today.

  6. Security assessment for intentional island operation in modern power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    operator can clearly know if it is suitable to conduct island operation at one specific moment. Besides, in order to improve the computation efficiency, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is applied for fast ISR formation. Thus, online application of ISR based islanding security assessment could......There has been a high penetration level of Distributed Generations (DGs) in distribution systems in Denmark. Even more DGs are expected to be installed in the coming years. With that, to utilize them in maintaining the security of power supply is of great concern for Danish utilities. During...... the emergency in the power system, some distribution networks may be intentionally separated from the main grid to avoid complete system collapse. If DGs in those networks could continuously run instead of immediately being shut down, the blackout could be avoided and the reliability of supply could...

  7. Leading Good Schools to Greatness: Mastering What Great Principals Do Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Susan Penny; Streshly, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Great leaders are made, not born. Written by the authors of "From Good Schools to Great Schools," this sequel shows how great school leaders can be developed and how leaders can acquire the powerful personal leadership characteristics that the best administrators use to lead their schools to greatness. Based on sound strategies and the work of Jim…

  8. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  9. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  10. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euichi Hirose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia. Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  11. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  12. Environmental impact: anthropization of beaches and riparian areas in a Javaés River stretch, Bananal Island, Tocantins, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Segundo, João Paulo Barreira; Universidade Federal do Tocantins; Tavares Lavrista, Lanuze Fabielly Santos; Universidade Federal do Tocantins; Silva, Wagner Matos; Universidade Federal do Tocantins; Malvasio, Adriana; Universidade Federal do Tocantins

    2013-01-01

    The Bananal Island and its various phases of use has been the subject of constant discussion. The island has the Araguaia National Park in its dominion, an Integral Protection Unit with great ecological relevance because of its important ecotonal area. In recent years a gradual occupation of these riparian environments has occurred, mostly as a form of leisure. The study was conducted in the area protected by the Center of Conservation and Management of Reptiles and Amphibians (RAN/ICMBio), a...

  13. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  14. Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and San Juan Islands Wilderness Stewardship Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Protection Island and San Juan Islands NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...

  15. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  16. Bird and mammal abundance at Nizki Island with notes on observations at Alaid Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To document migratory bird use and response following elimination of introduced Arctic foxes from an island in the western Aleutian Islands. Fox elimination from an...

  17. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  18. Population demographic history of a temperate shrub, Rhododendron weyrichii (Ericaceae), on continental islands of Japan and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoichi, Watanabe; Tamaki, Ichiro; Sakaguchi, Shota; Song, Jong-Suk; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Continental islands provide opportunities for testing the effects of isolation and migration on genetic variation in plant populations. In characteristic of continental islands is that the geographic connections between these islands, which are currently distinguished by seaways, have experienced fluctuations caused by sea-level changes due to climate oscillations during the Quaternary. Plant populations on the islands have migrated between these islands via the exposed seafloors or been isolated. Here, we examined the demographic history of a temperate shrub, Rhododendron weyrichii, which is distributed in the southwestern parts of the Japanese archipelago and on an island of South Korea, using statistical phylogeographic approaches based on the DNA sequences of two chloroplast and eight nuclear loci in samples analyzed from 18 populations on eight continental islands, and palaeodistribution modeling. Time estimates for four island populations indicate that the durations of vicariance history are different between these populations, and these events have continued since the last glacial or may have predated the last glacial. The constancy or expansion of population sizes on the Japanese islands, and in contrast a bottleneck in population size on the Korean island Jeju, suggests that these islands may have provided different conditions for sustaining populations. The result of palaeodistribution modeling indicates that the longitudinal range of the species as a whole has not changed greatly since the last glacial maximum. These results indicate that exposed seafloors during the glacial period formed both effective and ineffective migration corridors. These findings may shed light on the effects of seafloor exposure on the migration of plants distributed across continental islands.

  19. Importance of dispersal routes that minimize open-ocean movement to the genetic structure of island populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harradine, E L; Andrew, M E; Thomas, J W; How, R A; Schmitt, L H; Spencer, P B S

    2015-12-01

    Islands present a unique scenario in conservation biology, offering refuge yet imposing limitations on insular populations. The Kimberley region of northwestern Australia has more than 2500 islands that have recently come into focus as substantial conservation resources. It is therefore of great interest for managers to understand the driving forces of genetic structure of species within these island archipelagos. We used the ubiquitous bar-shouldered skink (Ctenotus inornatus) as a model species to represent the influence of landscape factors on genetic structure across the Kimberley islands. On 41 islands and 4 mainland locations in a remote area of Australia, we genotyped individuals across 18 nuclear (microsatellite) markers. Measures of genetic differentiation and diversity were used in two complementary analyses. We used circuit theory and Mantel tests to examine the influence of the landscape matrix on population connectivity and linear regression and model selection based on Akaike's information criterion to investigate landscape controls on genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation between islands was best predicted with circuit-theory models that accounted for the large difference in resistance to dispersal between land and ocean. In contrast, straight-line distances were unrelated to either resistance distances or genetic differentiation. Instead, connectivity was determined by island-hopping routes that allow organisms to minimize the distance of difficult ocean passages. Island populations of C. inornatus retained varying degrees of genetic diversity (NA = 1.83 - 7.39), but it was greatest on islands closer to the mainland, in terms of resistance-distance units. In contrast, genetic diversity was unrelated to island size. Our results highlight the potential for islands to contribute to both theoretical and applied conservation, provide strong evidence of the driving forces of population structure within undisturbed landscapes, and identify the islands

  20. The oldest elasmosaurs (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria from Antarctica, Santa Marta Formation (upper Coniacian? Santonian–upper Campanian and Snow Hill Island Formation (upper Campanian–lower Maastrichtian, James Ross Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. O'Gorman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Elasmosaurs are recorded for the first time in the Lachman Crags Member (Beta Member of the Santa Marta Formation (lower Campanian and in the Herbert Sound Member of the Snow Hill Island Formation (upper Campanian. These are the first elasmosaurids from James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula. These records greatly improve our knowledge of the taxonomic diversity of plesiosaurs of the Santa Marta Formation and Herbert Sound Member of the Snow Hill Island Formation, and extend the lower limit of the record of Elasmosauridae in Antarctica to the lower Campanian, making this the oldest record of an Antarctic elasmosaur.

  1. Showcasing bioscience in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, Denice

    2013-02-01

    There are a number of well-recognized bioscience companies located in the greater Providence area. They represent a significant and growing source of jobs and future revenue, which promises to play a role in the revitalization and expansion of Rhode Island's economy. In an effort to support these companies and to showcase their research, the Rhode Island Medical Journal is highlighting five of these innovative enterprises in this issue. The companies selected are members of the Rhode Island BioScience Leaders organization, and their research spans a wide range of science, from biologics and informatics to innovative coatings for medical devices. They include ProThera Biologics, EpiVax, Tivorsan Pharmaceuticals, BioIntraface, and VeroScience.

  2. URBAN HEAT ISLAND AEROSPACE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Modern cities are characterized by special urban landscape and special urban climate. Urban heat island is a phenomenon closely associated with urban territories. There are many methods developed for studying urban heat island, they can be combined into two groups: imagery-based methods and physicomathematical methods. Using spatial imagery can provide revealing thermal anomalies evolution in time and space, spatial distribution of various thermal anomalies, differences in quantitative measures of various thermal anomalies. Despite the fact that imagery-based methods are seemed to be very widespread among scientists all over the world, still there are some problems with using spatial imagery. The best spatial resolution of accessible thermal imagery is 60 m (ETM+ sensor, and sometimes it is not enough for urban studies (many urban objects have smaller dimensions. The problem of urban heat island is rather serious in modern world, and it needs data of very good quality.

  3. Unravelling feeding territoriality in the Little Blue Heron, Egretta caerulea, in Cananéia, Brazil Desvendando territorialidade alimentar na Garça-Azul, Egretta caerulea, em Cananéia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Moralez-Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by the Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea and discovery of feeding territoriality are discussed here. The results showed the existence of a territorial individual defending an area (2,564.46 ± 943.56 m² close to the mangrove, and non-territorial individuals (9.17 ± 2.54 in the rest of a demarcated area (mean area for the non-territorial: 893.25 ± 676.72. A weak positive correlation (r = 0.47, df = 46, p Uso do habitat pela garça-azul (Egretta caerulea e a descoberta da territorialidae alimentar são discutidos aqui. Os resultados apontaram para a existência de um indivíduo territorial defendendo uma área (2.564,46 ± 943,56 m² próxima ao manguezal e indivíduos não-territoriais (9,17 ± 2,54 no restante de uma área demarcada (média das áreas para os não-territoriais: 893,25 ± 676,72. Uma correlação positiva fraca (r = 0,47, df = 46, p < 0,05 foi encontrada entre a sobreposição de indivíduos territoriais e não-territoriais (2,85 ± 3,07 m² e a média de área sobreposta para indivíduos territoriais (171,41 ± 131,40 m². Maiores taxas de captura (1,52 ± 1,14 × 1,00 ± 1,37 capturas/minutos e sucesso (0,45 ± 0,31 × 0,21 ± 0,27 capturas/tentativas de captura e menores taxas de gasto energético (45,21 ± 14,96 × 51,22 ± 14,37 passos/min; e 3,65 ± 2,55 × 4,94 ± 3,28 tentativas de captura/min foram registradas para indivíduos forrageando em áreas mais próximas do manguezal. Os resultados sugerem que o comportamento territorial observado tem mais relação com alguns parâmetros alimentares do que com a pressão de intrusos. Assim como a territorialidade observada pode estar relacionada com a defesa de áreas que contém alta disponibilidade de presas.

  4. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  5. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  6. The Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  7. Environmental Assessment for the 920th Rescue Wing Beddown Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Great Blue Heron Ardea herodius Great egret Ardea albus Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis Green heron Butorides virescens Black- crowned night heron...accessories will have a black anodized aluminum or black polycarbonate finish. Building entry, wall-mounted, and exterior lighting will be coordinated to

  8. 25 Great Ideas for Hispanic Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated September 15th through October 15th, is a great opportunity to kick off a whole year of cultural discovery. This article presents 25 great ideas for Hispanic heritage. These 25 fresh ideas--from Aztec math to Carnaval masks--are easy to put together, and they offer students the chance to celebrate their own…

  9. From Good to Great: Discussion Starter Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Great Teachers and Leaders, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In the report "From Good to Great: Exemplary Teachers Share Perspectives on Increasing Teacher Effectiveness across the Career Continuum," (See full report in ERIC at ED555657) National and State Teachers of the Year shared their views on what helped them become great teachers. This accompanying "Discussion Starter Tool" builds…

  10. Great Lakes Education Booklet, 1990-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    This booklet integrates science, history, and environmental education to help students acquire a basic understanding of the importance of the Great Lakes located in the United States. The packet also contains a Great Lakes Basin resource map and a sand dune poster. These materials introduce students to a brief history of the lakes, the diversity…

  11. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  12. Deformation of the great coupling diaphragms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz ZAJĄC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic deformation mode of the great coupling diaphragms is the subjectmatter of this article. The model has been created on the experimental way through the research on a wheel excavator. The presented analysis algorithm of the aggregated data is a basis for identification of the causes and the area of the plastic deformation in the great coupling diaphragms.

  13. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...

  14. Recensie "The Great Reset" : Richard Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy van Dalm

    2010-01-01

    Like the Great Depression and the Long Depression before it, experts have viewed prolonged economic downturns as crises. In The Great Reset , bestselling author Richard Florida argues that we should instead see the recent recession as an opportunity to create entirely new ways of working and living

  15. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section 117.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the...

  16. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  17. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  18. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  19. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  20. Fire Island National Seashore : alternative transportation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    As part of its General Management Plan (GMP) process, Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) seeks to develop a long-term management model to protect Fire Islands resources, while facilitating a safe, rewarding, and relevant experience for the publi...

  1. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  2. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  3. Libraries in Rhode Island: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/rhodeisland.html Libraries in Rhode Island To use the sharing features ... Island Hospital / a Lifespan Partner Peters Health Sciences Library 593 Eddy Street Providence, RI 02903-4971 401- ...

  4. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke ... Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of ...

  5. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  6. Oak habitat recovery on California's largest islands: Scenarios for the role of corvid seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesendorfer, Mario B.; Baker, Christopher M.; Stringer, Martin; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Bode, Michael; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal by birds is central to the passive restoration of many tree communities. Reintroduction of extinct seed dispersers can therefore restore degraded forests and woodlands. To test this, we constructed a spatially explicit simulation model, parameterized with field data, to consider the effect of different seed dispersal scenarios on the extent of oak populations. We applied the model to two islands in California's Channel Islands National Park (USA), one of which has lost a key seed disperser.We used an ensemble modelling approach to simulate island scrub oak (Quercus pacifica) demography. The model was developed and trained to recreate known population changes over a 20-year period on 250-km2 Santa Cruz Island, and incorporated acorn dispersal by island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gravity, as well as seed predation. We applied the trained model to 215-km2 Santa Rosa Island to examine how reintroducing island scrub-jays would affect the rate and pattern of oak population expansion. Oak habitat on Santa Rosa Island has been greatly reduced from its historical extent due to past grazing by introduced ungulates, the last of which were removed by 2011.Our simulation model predicts that a seed dispersal scenario including island scrub-jays would increase the extent of the island scrub oak population on Santa Rosa Island by 281% over 100 years, and by 544% over 200 years. Scenarios without jays would result in little expansion. Simulated long-distance seed dispersal by jays also facilitates establishment of discontinuous patches of oaks, and increases their elevational distribution.Synthesis and applications. Scenario planning provides powerful decision support for conservation managers. We used ensemble modelling of plant demographic and seed dispersal processes to investigate whether the reintroduction of seed dispersers could provide cost-effective means of achieving broader ecosystem restoration goals on

  7. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  8. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  9. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  10. Paleomagnetism of the Late Triassic Hound Island Volcanics: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Coe, Robert S.; Onstott, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    earlier puzzling results from the Hound Island Volcanics (Hillhouse and Grommé, 1980). Finally, great-circle analysis of the paleomagnetic data from the Pybus Formation suggests the Alexander terrane may have been in the northern hemisphere in Permian time.

  11. Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    DJAMALI, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    The “Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation” is an excellent textbook for the island biology. After a brief chapter “The natural laboratory paradigm”, in which the structure of the book is described, the second chapter gives a comprehensive description of the physical characteristics of the islands; their origin, formation, geological evolution, and natural physical disturbances. In chapter 3, the status of the global biodiversity distribution on the Earth’s islands is shor...

  12. GREAT II Upper Mississippi River (Guttenberg, Iowa to Saverton, Missouri). Plan Formulation Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    and escape cover and breeding habitat. Species relying on this cover type include; ducks, coot, rails, bitterns, herons , egrets, numerous song bird...consequences of physical alterations to backwaters, using data from Burnt Pocket, Fountain City Bay and any other side channel alteration study. Dispose...GROUP RECOMMENDATION NUMBER: 3523 (3511) 2. RECOMMENDATION: Apply the physical, chemical and biological data from Burnt Pocket, Fountain City Bay

  13. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  14. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  15. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  16. Unsupervised statistical identification of genomic islands using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop some statistical methods to determine these external genetic elements or genomic islands in genomes based on their differential oligonucleotide usage patterns compared to the rest of the genome. Genomic islands identified by these unsupervised statistical methods include integron and pathogenicity islands.

  17. 50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rhode Island. 32.59 Section 32.59 Wildlife... § 32.59 Rhode Island. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are listed in alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Block Island National Wildlife...

  18. The island-mainland species turnover relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

    2012-10-07

    Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.

  19. Patterns of biophonic periodicity on coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Jamie N; McCauley, Robert D; Erbe, Christine; Parsons, Miles J G

    2017-12-12

    The coral reefs surrounding Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef have a diverse soundscape that contains an array of bioacoustic phenomena, notably choruses produced by fishes. Six fish choruses identified around Lizard Island exhibited distinctive spatial and temporal patterns from 2014 to 2016. Several choruses displayed site fidelity, indicating that particular sites may represent important habitat for fish species, such as fish spawning aggregations sites. The choruses displayed a broad range of periodicities, from diel to annual, which provides new insights into the ecology of vocalising reef fish species and the surrounding ecosystem. All choruses were affected by one or more environmental variables including temperature and moonlight, the latter of which had a significant influence on the timing and received sound levels. These findings highlight the utility of passive acoustic tools for long-term monitoring and management of coral reefs, which is highly relevant in light of recent global disturbance events, particularly coral bleaching.

  20. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  1. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  2. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle...

  3. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little...

  4. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  5. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  6. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  7. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Park, Brightwaters, NY and Fire Island Lighthouse Dock, Fire Island, NY due to the annual Maggie... located directly north of the Fire Island Lighthouse Dock, NY and extending to Gilbert Park in... vessels from approaching within 100 yards of any swimmer or safety craft on the race course from 6:30 a.m...

  8. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... notice published in the Federal Register on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes...

  9. Challenges, advances and perspectives in island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.V. Borges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Island biogeographical research is becoming more and more fashionable, with the continuous identification of new challenges that are critical for the advancement of science. In this contribution we identify biases and limitations associated with island biogeographical studies, and also describe recent advances and propose new perspectives. The main proposals include: 1 downscaling island biogeographical studies to local/plot scale; 2 investigating geographical patterns of intra-specific genetic variation to infer dispersal processes among and within islands; 3 using applied biogeographical research to respond to the current island biodiversity crisis; and 4 applying new computer-intensive methods such as artificial intelligence (AI approaches.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Grey heron [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NL.png Ardea_cinerea_S.png Ardea_cinerea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cine...rea&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=2 ...

  11. Night Heron Incubation Data will gulls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  12. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  13. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Units of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Vicinity, Tennessee and North Carolina consists of geologic units mapped as area (polygon)...

  14. Climate change and the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the Great Basin by the mid-21st century. The following provides an overview of past and projected climate change for the globe and for the region.

  15. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, M; Mesurolle, B; Trassard, M; Cherel, P; Talma, V; Hagay, C

    2006-10-01

    Peripheral vascular leiomyosarcomas are rare. A case of leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein diagnosed pre-surgically by MRI and fine-needle aspiration is presented. Characteristics of the tumour and imaging features are discussed.

  16. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  17. Q-Ships of the Great War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coder, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Lacking adequate antisubmarine warfare tactics and technologies to combat the German unrestricted submarine campaign during the Great War, the Allies turned to deception or "ruse de guerre" as a means...

  18. 78 FR 33955 - Great Outdoors Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    .... And through the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps, young men and women will get hands-on... on earth. For centuries, America's great outdoors have given definition to our national character and...

  19. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  20. The Making of a Great Captain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weibel, Theodore G

    2006-01-01

    ... judgement. This paper examines the hypothesis that Great Captains are a product of their families, are highly educated from an early age, possess the qualities of a genius, encounter grand life experiences...

  1. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign......China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... hegemony. Empirically, China has started to provide more public goods in trade, finance and aid, and it seeks voting powers at international institutions. However, it is still far from being a benign hegemon because of its level of development, domestic political constraints, and tension between political...

  2. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  3. 75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... countless opportunities for exploration, recreation, and reflection, whether in solitude or with family and... Americans to explore the great outdoors and to continue our Nation's tradition of conserving our lands for...

  4. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Fish Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Background and History The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the only trout native to the southern Appalachian Mountains. It was once widespread in Great Smoky...

  5. Island Smart Eco-Cities: Innovation, Secessionary Enclaves, and the Selling of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments and developers around the globe are exploiting the benefits of island spatiality to sell urban sustainability. Many new-build smart cities, eco-cities, and sustainable cities (‘smart eco-cities’ are constructed on small islands or otherwise bounded from surrounding urban space. Island spatiality presents benefits for selling smart eco-cities as role models of sustainable innovation: ease of creating value, ease of measuring sustainability, and ease of communicating success. These benefits, however, are all largely illusory, contributing primarily to the appearance of sustainability for the sake of economic profit. The great innovation of island smart-cities is frequently an innovation in the selling of sustainability. By monetising the environment through ecosystem services, incentivising largely symbolic ‘green’ projects and architecture, drawing attention away from unsustainable practices elsewhere, and exacerbating social inequality, island smart eco-cities may be making the world less sustainable. They may also be unreproducible by design and lead to a global devaluing of genuinely sustainable but non-iconic urban development. Island smart eco-cities increasingly serve as secessionary enclaves for a global elite, privileging corporate over public interests and spearheading an invidious argument of sustainable development by deregulation.

  6. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... by the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997, requires us to develop a CCP for each... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson...

  7. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  8. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  9. Isosporoid Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae parasites of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae from the Marambaia Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years some coccidian parasites of birds were recorded in Marambaia Island, which is a protected environment with a great biodiversity of birds, mainly tanagers. In this current study Isospora tiesangui, I. sepetibensis, I. ramphoceli, I. navarroi, I. cadimi and I. marambaiensis were identified according to their respective thraupid hosts of the Marambaia Island. These species were characterized with histograms, linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The main feature of identification was the morphology of the sporocyst, mainly Stieda and substieda bodies, since the morphometry did not provide sufficient differentiation. Besides, Dacnis cayana and Thraupis palmarum were reported as new hosts to I. sepetibensis and I. navarroi respectively.

  10. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  11. The effects of biogeography on ant diversity and activity on the Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T Clark

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined how island biogeography affects diversity on the scale of island systems. In this study, we address how diversity varies over very short periods of time on individual islands. To do this, we compile an inventory of the ants living in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, Boston, Massachusetts, USA using data from a five-year All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of the region's arthropods. Consistent with the classical theory of island biogeography, species richness increased with island size, decreased with island isolation, and remained relatively constant over time. Additionally, our inventory finds that almost half of the known Massachusetts ant fauna can be collected in the BHI, and identifies four new species records for Massachusetts, including one new to the United States, Myrmica scabrinodis. We find that the number of species actually active on islands depended greatly on the timescale under consideration. The species that could be detected during any given week of sampling could by no means account for total island species richness, even when correcting for sampling effort. Though we consistently collected the same number of species over any given week of sampling, the identities of those species varied greatly between weeks. This variation does not result from local immigration and extinction of species, nor from seasonally-driven changes in the abundance of individual species, but rather from weekly changes in the distribution and activity of foraging ants. This variation can be upwards of 50% of ant species per week. This suggests that numerous ant species on the BHI share the same physical space at different times. This temporal partitioning could well explain such unexpectedly high ant diversity in an isolated, urban site.

  12. The effects of biogeography on ant diversity and activity on the Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adam T; Rykken, Jessica J; Farrell, Brian D

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have examined how island biogeography affects diversity on the scale of island systems. In this study, we address how diversity varies over very short periods of time on individual islands. To do this, we compile an inventory of the ants living in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, Boston, Massachusetts, USA using data from a five-year All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of the region's arthropods. Consistent with the classical theory of island biogeography, species richness increased with island size, decreased with island isolation, and remained relatively constant over time. Additionally, our inventory finds that almost half of the known Massachusetts ant fauna can be collected in the BHI, and identifies four new species records for Massachusetts, including one new to the United States, Myrmica scabrinodis. We find that the number of species actually active on islands depended greatly on the timescale under consideration. The species that could be detected during any given week of sampling could by no means account for total island species richness, even when correcting for sampling effort. Though we consistently collected the same number of species over any given week of sampling, the identities of those species varied greatly between weeks. This variation does not result from local immigration and extinction of species, nor from seasonally-driven changes in the abundance of individual species, but rather from weekly changes in the distribution and activity of foraging ants. This variation can be upwards of 50% of ant species per week. This suggests that numerous ant species on the BHI share the same physical space at different times. This temporal partitioning could well explain such unexpectedly high ant diversity in an isolated, urban site.

  13. Estimation of density and population size and recommendations for monitoring trends of Bahama parrots on Great Abaco and Great Inagua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Milan, F. F.; Collazo, J.A.; Stahala, C.; Moore, W.J.; Davis, A.; Herring, G.; Steinkamp, M.; Pagliaro, R.; Thompson, J.L.; Bracey, W.

    2005-01-01

    Once abundant and widely distributed, the Bahama parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) currently inhabits only the Great Abaco and Great lnagua Islands of the Bahamas. In January 2003 and May 2002-2004, we conducted point-transect surveys (a type of distance sampling) to estimate density and population size and make recommendations for monitoring trends. Density ranged from 0.061 (SE = 0.013) to 0.085 (SE = 0.018) parrots/ha and population size ranged from 1,600 (SE = 354) to 2,386 (SE = 508) parrots when extrapolated to the 26,154 ha and 28,162 ha covered by surveys on Abaco in May 2002 and 2003, respectively. Density was 0.183 (SE = 0.049) and 0.153 (SE = 0.042) parrots/ha and population size was 5,344 (SE = 1,431) and 4,450 (SE = 1,435) parrots when extrapolated to the 29,174 ha covered by surveys on Inagua in May 2003 and 2004, respectively. Because parrot distribution was clumped, we would need to survey 213-882 points on Abaco and 258-1,659 points on Inagua to obtain a CV of 10-20% for estimated density. Cluster size and its variability and clumping increased in wintertime, making surveys imprecise and cost-ineffective. Surveys were reasonably precise and cost-effective in springtime, and we recommend conducting them when parrots are pairing and selecting nesting sites. Survey data should be collected yearly as part of an integrated monitoring strategy to estimate density and other key demographic parameters and improve our understanding of the ecological dynamics of these geographically isolated parrot populations at risk of extinction.

  14. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  15. On the form of species–area relationships in habitat islands and true islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Guilhaumon, François; Triantis, Kostas A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We undertook the largest comparative study to date of the form of the island species–area relationship (ISAR) using 207 habitat island datasets and 601 true island datasets. We also undertook analyses of (a) the factors influencing z- and c-values of the power (log–log) model and (b) how z...... and c vary between different island types. Location: Global. Methods: We used an information theoretic approach to compare the fit of 20 ISAR models to 207 habitat island datasets. Model performance was ranked according to pre-set criteria, including metrics of generality and efficiency. We also fitted......, and was the highest ranked model overall. In general, the more complex models performed badly. Average z-values were significantly lower for habitat island datasets than for true islands, and were higher for mountaintop and urban habitat islands than for other habitat island types. Average c-values were significantly...

  16. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  17. Drivers of inter-year variability of plant production and decomposers across contrasting island ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, David A; Jonsson, Micael; Kalela-Brundin, Maarit; Lagerström, Anna; Bardgett, Richard D; Yeates, Gregor W; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Despite the likely importance of inter-year dynamics of plant production and consumer biota for driving community- and ecosystem-level processes, very few studies have explored how and why these dynamics vary across contrasting ecosystems. We utilized a well-characterized system of 30 lake islands in the boreal forest zone of northern Sweden across which soil fertility and productivity vary considerably, with larger islands being more fertile and productive than smaller ones. In this system we assessed the inter-year dynamics of several measures of plant production and the soil microbial community (primary consumers in the decomposer food web) for each of nine years, and soil microfaunal groups (secondary and tertiary consumers) for each of six of those years. We found that, for measures of plant production and each of the three consumer trophic levels, inter-year dynamics were strongly affected by island size. Further, many variables were strongly affected by island size (and thus bottom-up regulation by soil fertility and resources) in some years, but not in other years, most likely due to inter-year variation in climatic conditions. For each of the plant and microbial variables for which we had nine years of data, we also determined the inter-year coefficient of variation (CV), an inverse measure of stability. We found that CVs of some measures of plant productivity were greater on large islands, whereas those of other measures were greater on smaller islands; CVs of microbial variables were unresponsive to island size. We also found that the effects of island size on the temporal dynamics of some variables were related to inter-year variability of macroclimatic variables. As such, our results show that the inter-year dynamics of both plant productivity and decomposer biota across each of three trophic levels, as well as the inter-year stability of plant productivity, differ greatly across contrasting ecosystems, with potentially important but largely overlooked

  18. Geographical, Temporal and Environmental Determinants of Bryophyte Species Richness in the Macaronesian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Silvia C.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Santos, Ana M. C.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Patiño, Jairo; Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Species richness on oceanic islands has been related to a series of ecological factors including island size and isolation (i.e. the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography, EMIB), habitat diversity, climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and more recently island ontogeny (i.e. the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography, GDM). Here we evaluate the relationship of these factors with the diversity of bryophytes in the Macaronesian region (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde). The predictive power of EMIB, habitat diversity, climate and the GDM on total bryophyte richness, as well as moss and liverwort richness (the two dominant bryophyte groups), was evaluated through ordinary least squares regressions. After choosing the best subset of variables using inference statistics, we used partial regression analyses to identify the independent and shared effects of each model. The variables included within each model were similar for mosses and liverworts, with orographic mist layer being one of the most important predictors of richness. Models combining climate with either the GDM or habitat diversity explained most of richness variation (up to 91%). There was a high portion of shared variance between all pairwise combinations of factors in mosses, while in liverworts around half of the variability in species richness was accounted for exclusively by climate. Our results suggest that the effects of climate and habitat are strong and prevalent in this region, while geographical factors have limited influence on Macaronesian bryophyte diversity. Although climate is of great importance for liverwort richness, in mosses its effect is similar to or, at least, indiscernible from the effect of habitat diversity and, strikingly, the effect of island ontogeny. These results indicate that for highly vagile taxa on oceanic islands, the dispersal process may be less important for successful colonization than the availability of suitable ecological

  19. Nitrogen Loads in Groundwater Entering Back Bays and Ocean from Fire Island National Seashore, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christopher E.; deVries, M. Peter; Finch, Anne J.

    2010-01-01

    Fire Island is a barrier island that lies south of central Long Island, N.Y. It is about 60 km (37 mi) long and 0.5 km (1/4 mi) wide and is bounded by the Great South Bay, Narrow Bay, and Moriches Bay estuaries to the north; by the Atlantic Ocean to the south; by Fire Island Inlet to the west; and by Moriches Inlet to the east (fig. 1). Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) encompasses a 42-km (26-mi) length of Fire Island that is bordered by Robert Moses State Park to the west and Smith Point County Park to the east (fig. 2). Interspersed throughout FIIS are 17 residential beach communities that together contain about 4,100 homes. The barrier island's summer population increases 50-fold through the arrival of summer residents and vacationers. The National Park Service (NPS) has established several facilities on the island to accommodate visitors to FIIS. About 2.2 million people visit at least one of the 17 communities and (or) Smith Point County Park, the waterways surrounding Fire Island, or a FIIS facility annually (National Park Service, 2007). Combined visitation on a peak-season weekend day can be as high as 100,000 (National Park Service, 2002). Most homes and businesses in the 17 barrier-island communities discharge untreated wastewater directly to the shallow (water-table) aquifer through private septic systems and cesspools; the NPS facilities discharge wastewater to this aquifer through leach fields and cesspools. (The community of Ocean Beach (fig. 2) has a treatment plant that discharges to tidewater.) Contaminants in sewage entering the shallow groundwater move through the flow system and are ultimately discharged to adjacent marine surface waters, where they can pose a threat to coastal habitats. A contaminant of major concern is nitrogen, which is derived from fertilizers and human waste. The continuous inflow of nitrogen to surface-water bodies can lead to increased production of phytoplankton and macroalgae, which in turn can cause oxygen

  20. Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M; Fahy, Geraldine; Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha M; Leinert, Vera; Lee, Kevin; Eshuis, Henk; Seiler, Nicole; Wessling, Erin G; Head, Josephine; Boesch, Christophe; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2016-12-01

    The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp.). First, we explore differences in isotope baselines across different habitats and whether isotopic signatures in apes can be related to feeding niches (faunivory and folivory). Secondly, we illustrate how stable isotopic variations within African ape populations compare to other extant and extinct primates and discuss possible implications for dietary flexibility. Using 701 carbon and nitrogen isotope data points resulting from 148 sectioned hair samples and an additional collection of 189 fruit samples, we compare six different great ape sites. We investigate the relationship between vegetation baselines and climatic variables, and subsequently correct great ape isotope data to a standardized plant baseline from the respective sites. We obtained temporal isotopic profiles of individual animals by sectioning hair along its growth trajectory. Isotopic signatures of great apes differed between sites, mainly as vegetation isotope baselines were correlated with site-specific climatic conditions. We show that controlling for plant isotopic characteristics at a given site is essential for faunal data interpretation. While accounting for plant baseline effects, we found distinct isotopic profiles for each great ape population. Based on evidence from habituated groups and sympatric great ape species, these differences could possibly be related to faunivory and folivory. Dietary flexibility in apes varied, but temporal variation was overall

  1. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  2. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  3. OSGM02: A new model for converting GPS-derived heights to local height datums in Great Britain and Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliffe, J.C.; Ziebart, M.; Cross, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    The background to the recent computation of a new vertical datum model for the British Isles (OSGM02) is described After giving a brief description of the computational techniques and the data sets used for the derivation of the gravimetric geoid, the paper focuses on the fitting of this surface ...... procedure. Results for each major region (Great Britain, Ireland, and Northern Ireland) as well as the various independent island datums are described The problems to be expected when working between datums are discussed....

  4. A new genus of Stenetriidae Hansen, 1905 (Asellota: Isopoda: Crustacea) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia and the southwestern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Niel L; Cumming, R L

    2015-04-02

    Onychatrium gen. nov. is described, with five included species: Onychatrium forceps sp. nov., the type species and Onychatrium torosus sp. nov., both from the Great Barrier Reef; Onychatrium entale (Nordenstam, 1946) comb. nov., from Tapateuen (= Tabiteue Island), Gilbert Islands; Onychatrium thomasi (Bolstad & Kensley, 1999) comb. nov., from Madang, Papua New Guinea; and Onychatrium echiurum (Nobili, 1906) comb. nov., and species inquirenda from the Tumaotu Islands, Eastern French Polynesia. The primary distinguishing characters for Onychatrium gen. nov. are a trapezoid pseudosrostrum, the male pereopod 1 with elongate dactylus (4.7-7.3 as long as proximal width), propodus with strongly produced and acute lobe, carpus with a distally acute, flat, ventrally directed process (except O. torosus sp. nov., which has a short and truncate process) and the merus with a distally directed inferodistal lobe. The genus is known only from the southern Pacific, from the Tuamotus (eastern French Polynesia) to the Great Barrier Reef and northern Papua New Guinea.

  5. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  6. Morphotectonics of the Mascarene Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the orientations (strikes/trends of joints, valleys, ridges and lineaments, i.e. of the (potentially morphotectonic features, of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It turns out that a connection exists between these features on all islands. For the joints alone, the results for Mauritius as a whole agree closely with those for Rodrigues as a whole, and also partially with those of Reunion. Inasmuch as the trends of the valleys, ridges and lineaments are related to the trends (strikes of the joints, a common morphotectonic predesign seems to be present for all features studied. The morphotectonic orientations on the island also agree closely with the trends of fracture zones, ridges and trenches in the nearby ocean bottom; which has had a bearing on the theories of the origin of the Mascarene Islands. Generally, a hot-spot origin is preferred for Reunion, and may be for Mauritius as well, although differing opinions have also been voiced. The dynamics of a hot-spot is hard to reconcile with the close fit of the joint strikes in Réunion with the trends of the Madagascar and Rodrigues fracture zones. The closely agreeing joint maxima in Mauritius and Rodrigues í across the deep Mauritius trench í also agree with the trend of that trench and with the trend of the Rodrigues fracture zone. Thus, it would appear as most likely that the trends of joints and of fracture zones are all part of the same pattern and are due to the same cause: viz. to action of the neotectonic stress field.

  7. Island biology: looking towards the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-10-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014-an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7-11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries(1)-demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  9. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  10. Nitrogen enrichment and speciation in a coral reef lagoon driven by groundwater inputs of bird guano

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Ashly; Santos, Isaac R.

    2017-09-01

    While the influence of river inputs on coral reef biogeochemistry has been investigated, there is limited information on nutrient fluxes related to submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Here, we investigate whether significant saline groundwater-derived nutrient inputs from bird guano drive coral reef photosynthesis and calcification off Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). We used multiple experimental approaches including groundwater sampling, beach face transects, and detailed time series observations to assess the dynamics and speciation of groundwater nutrients as they travel across the island and discharge into the coral reef lagoon. Nitrogen speciation shifted from nitrate-dominated groundwater (>90% of total dissolved nitrogen) to a coral reef lagoon dominated by dissolved organic nitrogen (DON; ˜86%). There was a minimum input of nitrate of 2.1 mmol m-2 d-1 into the lagoon from tidally driven submarine groundwater discharge estimated from a radon mass balance model. An independent approach based on the enrichment of dissolved nutrients during isolation at low tide implied nitrate fluxes of 5.4 mmol m-2 d-1. A correlation was observed between nitrate and daytime net ecosystem production and calcification. We suggest that groundwater nutrients derived from bird guano may offer a significant addition to oligotrophic coral reef lagoons and fuel ecosystem productivity and the coastal carbon cycle near Heron Island. The large input of groundwater nutrients in Heron Island may serve as a natural ecological analogue to other coral reefs subject to large nutrient inputs from anthropogenic sources.

  11. [Effects of islanding on plant species diversity in Thousand-island Lake region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Dung, Lizhong; Xu, Gaofu

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, the typical area of fragmentation in Thousand-island Lake region was selected to study the effects of islanding on plant species diversity after reservoir built. 26 quadrates were installed on 18 small, medium and large islands to investigate the species and number of trees and shrubs, with inland as the control One-way variance analysis (ANOVA) showed that the species richness of trees was significantly different (F = 13.055, P = 0.000) among all kinds of islands, which was significantly higher on large islands than on small and medium ones, but not significantly different from that on inland. The species richness of shrubs was not significantly different among all kinds of islands and inland. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the species richness of trees was significantly positively correlated with island area, while the correlation between specie richness of shrubs and island area was not significant. Shannon-Wiener Index (H) analysis suggested that the diversity of both trees and shrubs on large islands was the highest, followed by on inland, but the diversity of shrubs was larger on small than on medium islands. The analysis of Simpson index and Pielou index showed that the species evenness of trees was the highest, but the dominance was the lowest on medium and large islands, while the species evenness of shrubs was the highest on medium and small islands, but the dominance was the lowest on small islands.

  12. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  13. Labor Unions and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Milkman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of the Great Recession on the U.S. labor movement. After reviewing the classic industrial relations literature on the relationship between unionization rates and business cycles, we analyze historical union density trends. After documenting the relentless downward trend in the private sector from the early 1980s, with no apparent relationship to the business cycle, we analyze the negative impact of the political dynamic that unfolded in the wake of the Great Recession on public-sector unionism in sharp contrast to what took place during the Great Depression. We also explore the new forms of labor organizing that have emerged in the private sector, which have capitalized on the growing public concern about rising inequality sparked by Occupy Wall Street.

  14. Island biogeography, the effects of taxonomic effort and the importance of island niche diversity to single-island endemic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alan; Cavers, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography theory is fundamentally reliant on measuring the number of species per island and hence has taxonomy at its foundation. Yet as a metric used in tests of the theory, island species richness (S) has varied with time according to the level of taxonomic effort (a function of the rate of finding and describing species). Studies using a derivative of S, single-island endemic species richness (SIE S), may be prone to change in taxonomic effort. Decreases or increases in species numbers resulting from taxonomic revision or increased sampling are likely to have a large effect on values of SIE S, as they tend to be smaller than total S for the same island. Using simple biogeography models, we analysed estimates of SIE S in plants, land snails, beetles, and fungi from comprehensive data sets for eight island groups, produced species accumulation curves and applied Bayesian regression over five time periods. Explanatory power differed across taxa, but area and island age were not always the best explanatory variables, and niche diversity appeared to be important. Changing levels of SIE S over time had different effects on models with different taxa and between island archipelagos. The results indicated that the taxonomic effort that determines SIE S is important. However, as this cannot often be quantified, we suggest Bayesian approaches should be more useful than frequentist methods in evaluating SIE S in island biogeography theory. Fundamentally, the article highlights the importance of taxonomy to theoretical biogeography.

  15. Native Great Lakes wolves were not restored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-02-23

    Wolves from the Great Lakes area were historically decimated due to habitat loss and predator control programmes. Under the protection of the US Endangered Species Act, the population has rebounded to approximately 3000 individuals. We show that the pre-recovery population was dominated by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from an endemic American wolf referred to here as the Great Lakes wolf. In contrast, the recent population is admixed, and probably derives also from the grey wolf (Canis lupus) of Old World origin and the coyote (Canis latrans). Consequently, the pre-recovery population has not been restored, casting doubt on delisting actions.

  16. Unemployment and marital status in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, W

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, the marriage rate has declined and the divorce rate has increased in Great Britain. Becker (1981) attributes such changes to improvements in the economic status of women, in that high-wage women gain less from marriage relative to other women. However, an empirical analysis of data from the General Household Survey 1985 in Great Britain shows that male unemployment is another important determinant of changes in marital status. High rates of male unemployment reduce the incidence of marriage and increase the likelihood of divorce.

  17. Microplastic and tar pollution on three Canary Islands beaches: An annual study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A; Asensio, M; Martínez, I; Santana, A; Packard, T; Gómez, M

    2017-10-26

    Marine debris accumulation was analyzed from three exposed beaches of the Canary Islands (Lambra, Famara and Las Canteras). Large microplastics (1-5mm), mesoplastics (5-25mm) and tar pollution were assessed twice a month for a year. There was great spatial and temporal variability in the Canary Island coastal pollution. Seasonal patterns differed at each location, marine debris concentration depended mainly of local-scale wind and wave conditions. The most polluted beach was Lambra, a remote beach infrequently visited. The types of debris found were mainly preproduction resin pellets, plastic fragments and tar, evidencing that pollution was not of local origin, but it cames from the open sea. The levels of pollution were similar to those of highly industrialized and contaminated regions. This study corroborates that the Canary Islands are an area of accumulation of microplastics and tar rafted from the North Atlantic Ocean by the southward flowing Canary Current. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  19. Adapting postcolonial societies: two case studies from the Pacific island region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rodd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Pacific island states attract little attention from the great powers. They achieved independence peacefully, mostly from the United Kingdom, and have generally maintained functional democratic societies. Nonetheless, some Pacific states have struggled with the political, institutional and economic legacy of colonization. Tensions between indigenous norms and practices and the expectations of a transposed Western model of society have led to crises. This paper focuses on two Pacific Island states, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The collapse of the state in the Solomons at the turn of this century, and repeated military coups in Fiji, are due in part to the failure of British-derived institutions to be fully accepted. In both these countries, indigenous people have proposed reforms of these inherited models. Nonetheless, as we shall see, the recent rewriting of these two countries’ constitutions has maintained the fundamentals of the Westminster system, and a government by Westernized indigenous élites.

  20. Antibacterial use in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark 1999-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gudnason, Thorolfur; Jensen, Ulrich Stab

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark are neighbouring Nordic countries with great ethnic, cultural, and political similarities and are relatively homogeneous. Important information about prescribing practices can be obtained by comparing the antibacterial use in these countries....... The objective was to describe, compare, and analyse the use of systemic antibacterial agents in these countries during the y 1999-2011. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark on systemic antibacterial use and expressed in defined daily dosages (DDD). Prescription data were also...... obtained for specific age groups. RESULTS: The total antibacterial use for the y 1999-2011 varied markedly between the 3 countries, with a mean use of 21.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day (DID) in Iceland, 17.7 in the Faroe Islands, and 16.3 in Denmark. The total use remained fairly constant over the years...