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Sample records for heroin dependent individuals

  1. Acute effects of heroin on emotions in heroin-dependent patients.

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    Blum, Julia; Gerber, Hana; Gerhard, Urs; Schmid, Otto; Petitjean, Sylvie; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Borgwardt, Stefan J; Walter, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Euphoria has been described in heroin-dependent individuals after heroin administration. However, affective disturbances and disorders are common in heroin dependence. The present study examined the acute effects of heroin on emotions in heroin-dependent patients. This randomized controlled crossover trial included 28 heroin-dependent patients (67.9% male, n = 19) in stable heroin-assisted treatment and 20 healthy controls. The patients were administered heroin or saline (placebo), the controls were administered saline. Data measuring mood, affects and heroin craving (BDI, AMRS, STAI, STAXI, and HCQ) were assessed before and 60 minutes after substance injection. Before substance injection, heroin-dependent patients showed significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression than healthy controls (p emotions, including craving, and a significant increase in emotional well-being (p emotions, once they had received heroin. Heroin dampens craving, negative emotions, and increases positive emotions. These findings indicate that heroin regulates emotions and underscore the clinical benefit of opioid substitution treatment for heroin-dependent patients. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. Prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence: a meta-analysis

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    ZHONG, Baoliang; XIANG, Yutao; CAO, Xiaolan; LI, Yan; ZHU, Junhong; CHIU, Helen F. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiction who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treating substance abuse problems. Aim Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. Methods We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R software. Results The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. The pooled lifetime prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30% (95%CI: 23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I2 =95%, p<0.001). Men had a higher prevalence than women (44% vs. 21%), and injection heroin users had higher prevalence than those who smoked heroin (44% vs. 27%). Studies that were methodologically stronger had higher reported prevalence of ASPD among heroin dependent individuals. Conclusions There are substantial methodological problems in the available literature about ASPD in Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence, but we estimate that about one-third of them meet criteria for ASPD. Further work is needed to increase clinicians

  3. Prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Baoliang; Xiang, Yutao; Cao, Xiaolan; Li, Yan; Zhu, Junhong; Chiu, Helen F K

    2014-10-01

    Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiction who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treating substance abuse problems. Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R software. The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. The pooled lifetime prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30% (95%CI: 23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I(2) =95%, ptreatment for heroin dependence, but we estimate that about one-third of them meet criteria for ASPD. Further work is needed to increase clinicians' awareness of this issue; to compare the pathogenesis, treatment responsiveness and recidivism of those with and without ASPD; and to develop and test targeted interventions for this difficult-to-treat subgroup of individuals with heroin dependence.

  4. Motivational assessment of non-treatment buprenorphine research participation in heroin dependent individuals.

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    Papke, Gina; Greenwald, Mark K

    2012-06-01

    Heroin abuse remains an important public health problem, particularly in economically disadvantaged areas. Insight into this problem is gained from interviewing addicted individuals. However, we lack systematic data on factors that motivate heroin users to participate in non-treatment research that offers both financial incentives (compensation) and non-financial incentives (e.g., short-term medication). To better understand the relative importance of several types of personal motivations to participate in non-treatment buprenorphine research, and to relate self-motivations to social, economic, demographic and drug use factors. Heroin dependent volunteers (N=235 total; 57 female and 178 male; 136 African American, 86 Caucasian, and 13 Other) applied for non-therapeutic buprenorphine research in an urban outpatient setting from 2004 to 2008. We conducted a semi-structured behavioral economic interview, after which participants ranked 11 possible motivations for research participation. Although the study was repeatedly described as non-treatment research involving buprenorphine, participants often ranked some treatment-related motivations as important (wanting to reduce/stop heroin use, needing a medication to get stabilized/detoxify). Some motivations correlated with income, heroin use, and years since marketing of buprenorphine. Two dimensions emerged from principal component analysis of motivation rankings: (1) treatment motivation vs. greater immediate needs and (2) commitment to trying alternatives vs. a more accepting attitude toward traditional interventions. In summary, heroin addicts' self-motivations to engage in non-therapeutic research are complex--they value economic gain but not exclusively or primarily--and relate to variables such as socioeconomic factors and drug use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disrupted Topological Organization in Whole-Brain Functional Networks of Heroin-Dependent Individuals: A Resting-State fMRI Study

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    Jiang, Guihua; Wen, Xue; Qiu, Yingwei; Zhang, Ruibin; Wang, Junjing; Li, Meng; Ma, Xiaofen; Tian, Junzhang; Huang, Ruiwang

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that heroin addiction is related to abnormalities in widespread local regions and in the functional connectivity of the brain. However, little is known about whether heroin addiction changes the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks. Seventeen heroin-dependent individuals (HDIs) and 15 age-, gender-matched normal controls (NCs) were enrolled, and the resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (RS-fMRI) were acquired from these subj...

  6. Aberrant default-mode functional and structural connectivity in heroin-dependent individuals.

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    Xiaofen Ma

    Full Text Available Little is known about connectivity within the default mode network (DMN in heroin-dependent individuals (HDIs. In the current study, diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI were combined to investigate both structural and functional connectivity within the DMN in HDIs.Fourteen HDIs and 14 controls participated in the study. Structural (path length, tracts count, (fractional anisotropy FA and (mean diffusivity MD derived from DTI tractographyand functional (temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI DMN connectivity changes were examined in HDIs. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to compare the structural/functional indices and duration of heroin use/Iowa gambling task(IGT performance in HDIs.HDIs had lower FA and higher MD in the tract connecting the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCUN to right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, compared to the controls. HDIs also had decreased FA and track count in the tract connecting the PCC/PCUN and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, as well as decreased functional connectivity between the PCC/PCUN and bilateral PHG and MPFC, compared to controls. FA values for the tract connecting PCC/PCUN to the right PHG and connecting PCC/PCUN to the MPFC were negatively correlated to the duration of heroin use. The temporal correlation coefficients between the PCC/PCUN and the MPFC, and the FA values for the tract connecting the PCC/PCUN to the MPFC were positively correlated to IGT performance in HDIs.Structural and functional connectivity within the DMN are both disturbed in HDIs. This disturbance progresses as duration of heroin use increases and is related to deficits in decision making in HDIs.

  7. Progressive white matter microstructure damage in male chronic heroin dependent individuals: a DTI and TBSS study.

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    Yingwei Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the WM microstructure deficits in heroin dependent individuals (HDIs with different length of heroin dependence, and to investigate whether these WM deficits can be related to the duration of heroin use and to decision-making deficits in HDIs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-six HDIs [including eighteen sHDIs (duration of heroin dependent is less than 10 years and eighteen lHDIs (duration of dependent is between 10:20 years] and sixteen healthy controls participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (Da and radial diffusivity (Dr were performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS to localize abnormal WM regions among groups. TBSS demonstrated that sHDIs had significantly lower FA than controls in right orbito-frontal WM, bilateral temporal WM and right parietal WM. The lHDIs had significantly lower FA throughout the brain compared with the controls and sHDIs. The lHDIs had significantly lower Da than controls in bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus, bilateral splenium of corpus callosum, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and had significantly higher Dr than controls in bilateral uncinatus fasciculus, bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus and bilateral cortical spinal fasciculus. Volume-of-interest (VOI analyses detect the changes of diffusivity indices in the regions with FA abnormalities revealed by control vs sHDIs. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by the increase in Dr as well as the decrease in Da. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures in HDIs and controls available. Significantly positively correlations were found between the FA values in the right orbital-frontal WM, right parietal WM and IGT performance. CONCLUSIONS: The extent and severity of WM integrity deficits in HDIs was associated with the length of heroin dependent. Furthermore

  8. Disrupted topological organization in whole-brain functional networks of heroin-dependent individuals: a resting-state FMRI study.

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    Guihua Jiang

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have shown that heroin addiction is related to abnormalities in widespread local regions and in the functional connectivity of the brain. However, little is known about whether heroin addiction changes the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks. Seventeen heroin-dependent individuals (HDIs and 15 age-, gender-matched normal controls (NCs were enrolled, and the resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (RS-fMRI were acquired from these subjects. We constructed the brain functional networks of HDIs and NCs, and compared the between-group differences in network topological properties using graph theory method. We found that the HDIs showed decreases in the normalized clustering coefficient and in small-worldness compared to the NCs. Furthermore, the HDIs exhibited significantly decreased nodal centralities primarily in regions of cognitive control network, including the bilateral middle cingulate gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right precuneus, but significantly increased nodal centralities primarily in the left hippocampus. The between-group differences in nodal centralities were not corrected by multiple comparisons suggesting these should be considered as an exploratory analysis. Moreover, nodal centralities in the left hippocampus were positively correlated with the duration of heroin addiction. Overall, our results indicated that disruptions occur in the whole-brain functional networks of HDIs, findings which may be helpful in further understanding the mechanisms underlying heroin addiction.

  9. Disrupted topological organization in whole-brain functional networks of heroin-dependent individuals: a resting-state FMRI study.

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    Jiang, Guihua; Wen, Xue; Qiu, Yingwei; Zhang, Ruibin; Wang, Junjing; Li, Meng; Ma, Xiaofen; Tian, Junzhang; Huang, Ruiwang

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that heroin addiction is related to abnormalities in widespread local regions and in the functional connectivity of the brain. However, little is known about whether heroin addiction changes the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks. Seventeen heroin-dependent individuals (HDIs) and 15 age-, gender-matched normal controls (NCs) were enrolled, and the resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (RS-fMRI) were acquired from these subjects. We constructed the brain functional networks of HDIs and NCs, and compared the between-group differences in network topological properties using graph theory method. We found that the HDIs showed decreases in the normalized clustering coefficient and in small-worldness compared to the NCs. Furthermore, the HDIs exhibited significantly decreased nodal centralities primarily in regions of cognitive control network, including the bilateral middle cingulate gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right precuneus, but significantly increased nodal centralities primarily in the left hippocampus. The between-group differences in nodal centralities were not corrected by multiple comparisons suggesting these should be considered as an exploratory analysis. Moreover, nodal centralities in the left hippocampus were positively correlated with the duration of heroin addiction. Overall, our results indicated that disruptions occur in the whole-brain functional networks of HDIs, findings which may be helpful in further understanding the mechanisms underlying heroin addiction.

  10. Assessing cue-induced brain response as a function of abstinence duration in heroin-dependent individuals: an event-related fMRI study.

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    Qiang Li

    Full Text Available The brain activity induced by heroin-related cues may play a role in the maintenance of heroin dependence. Whether the reinforcement or processing biases construct an everlasting feature of heroin addiction remains to be resolved. We used an event-related fMRI paradigm to measure brain activation in response to heroin cue-related pictures versus neutral pictures as the control condition in heroin-dependent patients undergoing short-term and long-term abstinence. The self-reported craving scores were significantly increased after cue exposure in the short-term abstinent patients (t = 3.000, P = 0.008, but no increase was found in the long-term abstinent patients (t = 1.510, P = 0.149. However, no significant differences in cue-induced craving changes were found between the two groups (t = 1.193, P = 0.850. Comparing between the long-term abstinence and short-term abstinence groups, significant decreases in brain activation were detected in the bilateral anterior cingulated cortex, left medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, middle occipital gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and right precuneus. Among all of the heroin dependent patients, the abstinence duration was negatively correlated with brain activation in the left medial prefrontal cortex and left inferior parietal lobule. These findings suggest that long-term abstinence may be useful for heroin-dependent patients to diminish their saliency value of heroin-related cues and possibly lower the relapse vulnerability to some extent.

  11. Differences in onset and abuse/dependence episodes between prescription opioids and heroin: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

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    Mannelli P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1, George E Woody2, Chongming Yang3, Paolo Mannelli1, Dan G Blazer11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAObjectives: To examine patterns of onset and abuse/dependence episodes of prescription opioid (PO and heroin use disorders in a national sample of adults, and to explore differences by gender and substance abuse treatment status.Methods: Analyses of data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093.Results: Of all respondents, 5% (n = 1815 reported a history of nonmedical PO use (NMPOU and 0.3% (n = 150 a history of heroin use. Abuse was more prevalent than dependence among NMPOUs (PO abuse, 29%; dependence, 7% and heroin users (heroin abuse, 63%; dependence, 28%. Heroin users reported a short mean interval from first use to onset of abuse (1.5 years or dependence (2.0 years, and a lengthy mean duration for the longest episode of abuse (66 months or dependence (59 months; the corresponding mean estimates for PO abuse and dependence among NMPOUs were 2.6 and 2.9 years, respectively, and 31 and 49 months, respectively. The mean number of years from first use to remission from the most recent episode was 6.9 years for PO abuse and 8.1 years for dependence; the mean number of years from first heroin use to remission from the most recent episode was 8.5 years for heroin abuse and 9.7 years for dependence. Most individuals with PO or heroin use disorders were remitted from the most recent episode. Treated individuals, whether their problem was heroin or POs, tended to have a longer mean duration of an episode than untreated individuals.Conclusion: Periodic remissions

  12. Neuronal representation of individual heroin choices in the orbitofrontal cortex.

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    Guillem, Karine; Brenot, Viridiana; Durand, Audrey; Ahmed, Serge H

    2018-05-01

    Drug addiction is a harmful preference for drug use over and at the expense of other non-drug-related activities. We previously identified in the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) a mechanism that influences individual preferences between cocaine use and an alternative action rewarded by a non-drug reward (i.e. sweet water). Here, we sought to test the generality of this mechanism to a different addictive drug, heroin. OFC neuronal activity was recorded while rats responded for heroin or the alternative non-drug reward separately or while they chose between the two. First, we found that heroin-rewarded and sweet water-rewarded actions were encoded by two non-overlapping OFC neuronal populations and that the relative size of the heroin population represented individual drug choices. Second, OFC neurons encoding the preferred action-which was the non-drug action in the large majority of individuals-progressively fired more than non-preferred action-coding neurons 1 second after the onset of choice trials and around 1 second before the preferred action was actually chosen, suggesting a pre-choice neuronal competition for action selection. Together with a previous study on cocaine choice, the present study on heroin choice reveals important commonalities in how OFC neurons encode individual drug choices and preferences across different classes of drugs. It also reveals some drug-specific differences in OFC encoding activity. Notably, the proportion of neurons that non-selectively encode both the drug and the non-drug reward was higher when the drug was heroin (present study) than when it was cocaine (previous study). We will discuss the potential functional significance of these commonalities and differences in OFC neuronal activity across different drugs for understanding drug choice. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. The SPECT study on the regional cerebral blood flow of heroin addicts during cue-induced heroin craving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengqing; Liu Qinglong; Wang Yuhua; Wang Jinmin; Wang Shuo; Zhao Geyuan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the character of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of heroin addicts during the exposure to the heroin-related cues. Methods: Twenty-five heroin dependent individuals undergoing detoxification for more than one month were enrolled in the present study. All subjects were exposed to the heroin-related cues for 15 min. The rCBF was measured in these patients before and after exposure to heroin-related cues. Result: The rCBF in the frontal, temporal cortex and amygdala was significantly increased during the exposure to heroin-related cues. Conclusion: The findings indicate that drug-related cues play a critical role in the relapse of drug dependence; and the frontal, temporal cortex and amygdala are involved in the relapsing process

  14. Variants of opioid system genes are associated with non-dependent opioid use and heroin dependence

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    Randesi, Matthew; van den Brink, Wim; Levran, Orna; Blanken, Peter; Butelman, Eduardo R; Yuferov, Vadim; da Rosa, Joel Correa; Ott, Jurg; van Ree, Jan M; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heroin addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease. Genetic factors are involved in the development of drug addiction. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific variants in genes of the opioid system are associated with non-dependent opioid use and heroin dependence.

  15. Variants of opioid system genes are associated with non-dependent opioid use and heroin dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randesi, Matthew; van den Brink, Wim; Levran, Orna; Blanken, Peter; Butelman, Eduardo R.; Yuferov, Vadim; da Rosa, Joel Correa; Ott, Jurg; van Ree, Jan M.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease. Genetic factors are involved in the development of drug addiction. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific variants in genes of the opioid system are associated with non-dependent opioid use and heroin dependence. Genetic

  16. Similarity and Difference in Drug Addiction Process Between Heroin- and Methamphetamine-Dependent Users.

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    Wang, Ziyun; Li, Wei-Xiu; Zhi-Min, Liu

    2017-03-21

    This study aimed to compare the drug addiction process between Chinese heroin- and methamphetamine (MA)-dependent users via a modified 4-stage addiction model (experimentation, occasional use, regular use, and compulsive use). A descriptive study was conducted among 683 eligible participants. In the statistical analysis, we selected 340 heroin- and 295 MA-dependent users without illicit drug use prior to onset of heroin or MA use. The addiction process of heroin-dependent users was shorter than that of MA-dependent users, with shorter transitions from the onset of drug-use to the first drug craving (19.5 vs. 50.0 days), regular use (30.0 vs. 60.0 days), and compulsive use (50.0 vs. 85.0 days). However, no significant differences in the addiction process were observed in frequency of drug administration, except that heroin users reported more administrations of the drug (20.0 vs. 15.0) before progressing to the stage of compulsive drug use. A larger proportion of regular heroin users progressed to use illicit drugs recklessly than did MA users. Most heroin and MA users reported psychological dependence as their primary motivation for compulsive drug use, but more heroin users selected uncomfortable symptoms upon ceasing drug use as further reason to continue. Our results suggest that typical heroin and MA users may experience a similar four-stage addiction process, but MA users might undergo a longer addiction process (in days). More research is necessary to further explore factors influencing the drug addiction process.

  17. The association of 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR gene polymorphisms and antisocial personality disorder in male heroin-dependent Chinese subjects.

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    Yang, Mei; Kavi, Vasish; Wang, Wenfu; Wu, Zhimei; Hao, Wei

    2012-03-30

    To explore the association between the 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR polymorphisms with comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder in male heroin-dependent patients. In case control study, we compared the polymorphic distributions of 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR in 588 male heroin-dependent patients (including 311 patients with antisocial personality disorder and 277 patients without antisocial personality disorder) and 194 normal males by genotypes, alleles, and interaction between genes. Between male heroin-dependent patients with antisocial personality disorder and normal males, and between male heroin-dependent patients with and without antisocial personality disorder, the distributions of 5-HTTVNTR polymorphic genotypes and alleles were in statistical significance. Individuals carrying 10R allele were in higher risk of the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder and heroin dependence. By MDR analyses, the interaction between 5-HTTVNTR and DATVNTR was close to statistical significance in predicting the risk of antisocial personality disorder in male heroin dependent patients. In male heroin dependent patients, individuals carrying 5-HTTVNTR 10R allele or/and DATVNTR 9R allele were in higher risks of co-occurring antisocial personality disorder, while individuals with 5-HTTVNTR 12R/12R and DATVNTR 10R/10R genotypes together were in lower risks of antisocial personality disorder. 5-HTTVNTR, and the interaction between 5-HTTVNTR and DATVNTR may be associated with the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder in male heroin-dependent patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine and naltrexone treatments for heroin dependence in Malaysia.

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    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Chawarski, Marek; Mazlan, Mahmud; Ng, Nora; Schottenfeld, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia. We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; societal costs for participants' time were estimated using Malaysia's minimum wage. Costs were estimated from a provider and societal perspective and reported in 2004 US dollars. Muar, Malaysia. 126 patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Malaysia (2003-2005) receiving counseling and buprenorphine, naltrexone, or placebo for treatment of heroin dependence. Primary outcome measures included days in treatment, maximum consecutive days of heroin abstinence, days to first heroin use, and days to heroin relapse. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, injection drug use, illicit opiate use, AIDS Risk Inventory total score, and drug risk and sex risk subscores. Buprenorphine was more effective and more costly than naltrexone for all primary and most secondary outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were below $50 for primary outcomes, mostly below $350 for secondary outcomes. Naltrexone was dominated by placebo for all secondary outcomes at almost all endpoints. Incremental treatment costs were driven mainly by medication costs, especially the price of buprenorphine. Buprenorphine appears to be a cost-effective alternative to naltrexone that might enhance economic productivity and reduce drug use over a longer term.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine and naltrexone treatments for heroin dependence in Malaysia.

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    Jennifer Prah Ruger

    Full Text Available To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia.We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; societal costs for participants' time were estimated using Malaysia's minimum wage. Costs were estimated from a provider and societal perspective and reported in 2004 US dollars.Muar, Malaysia.126 patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Malaysia (2003-2005 receiving counseling and buprenorphine, naltrexone, or placebo for treatment of heroin dependence.Primary outcome measures included days in treatment, maximum consecutive days of heroin abstinence, days to first heroin use, and days to heroin relapse. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, injection drug use, illicit opiate use, AIDS Risk Inventory total score, and drug risk and sex risk subscores.Buprenorphine was more effective and more costly than naltrexone for all primary and most secondary outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were below $50 for primary outcomes, mostly below $350 for secondary outcomes. Naltrexone was dominated by placebo for all secondary outcomes at almost all endpoints. Incremental treatment costs were driven mainly by medication costs, especially the price of buprenorphine.Buprenorphine appears to be a cost-effective alternative to naltrexone that might enhance economic productivity and reduce drug use over a longer term.

  20. Buprenorphine from detox and beyond: preliminary evaluation of a pilot program to increase heroin dependent individuals' engagement in a full continuum of care.

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    Donovan, Dennis M; Knox, Patricia C; Skytta, Jenny A F; Blayney, Jessica A; DiCenzo, Jessica

    2013-04-01

    Absence of successful transition to post-detoxification treatment leads to high rates of relapse among detoxified heroin users. The present study evaluated a pilot buprenorphine treatment program (BTP). Heroin dependent individuals were inducted onto buprenorphine/naloxone in detox, maintained while transitioning through an intensive inpatient program (IIP), and gradually tapered off medication over 5 months of outpatient (OP) treatment. Compared to programmatic indicators of treatment engagement in the year prior to BTP implementation, referrals from detox to IIP, entry into and completion of IIP and subsequent OP, and days in OP treatment increased substantially. BTP completers, compared to non-completers, viewed abstinence as more difficult and as requiring more assistance to achieve, were less likely to be current cocaine and alcohol users or to have relapsed during the course of treatment. Although preliminary and in need of replication, initial adjunctive use of buprenorphine in an abstinence-based continuum of care may improve post-detoxification treatment entry, engagement, and completion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Buprenorphine and Naltrexone Treatments for Heroin Dependence in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Chawarski, Marek; Mazlan, Mahmud; Ng, Nora; Schottenfeld, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Aims To aid public health policymaking, we studied the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine, naltrexone, and placebo interventions for heroin dependence in Malaysia. Design We estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of three treatments for heroin dependence. We used a microcosting methodology to determine fixed, variable, and societal costs of each intervention. Cost data were collected from investigators, staff, and project records on the number and type of resources used and unit costs; soci...

  2. Pleasure, power and dangerous substances: applying Foucault to the study of 'heroin dependence' in Germany.

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    Bergschmidt, Viktoria B

    2004-04-01

    Taking the observation of disciplining and controlling everyday practices of methadone substitution as a point of departure, this paper explores the question of what exactly is so threatening or dangerous about heroin and heroin users. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault and Judith Butler, the main argument of this article is that the danger of heroin use is a discursive construction in accordance with bio-power. On the one hand, the juridical governance of heroin dependence is shifting from punishment to therapy, and biomedical discourses proclaim the substitution of a moral notion of heroin dependence by a disease model. Nevertheless, in the context of the anxiety associated with HIV, heroin remains the dangerous drug par excellence, and heroin users are constructed as 'abject others', unable to subordinate to certain social norms. As a reaction to such injurious ascriptions, I argue, applicants to the methadone programme in their life stories intensely narrate a desire for normalization, which I read as a desire to emerge from the realm of the abject. Both the danger and the pleasure associated with heroin use are bound to fundamental processes of subject formation, which are often ignored in biomedical and anthropological discourses.

  3. Co-occurring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in adults affected by heroin dependence: Patients characteristics and treatment needs.

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    Lugoboni, Fabio; Levin, Frances Rudnick; Pieri, Maria Chiara; Manfredini, Matteo; Zamboni, Lorenzo; Somaini, Lorenzo; Gerra, Gilberto; Gruppo InterSert Collaborazione Scientifica Gics

    2017-04-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a risk for substance use disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between adult ADHD symptoms, opioid use disorder, life dysfunction and co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. 1057 heroin dependent patients on opioid substitution treatment participated in the survey. All patients were screened for adult ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1). 19.4% of the patients screened positive for concurrent adult ADHD symptoms status and heroin dependence. Education level was lower among patients with ADHD symptoms, but not significant with respect to non-ADHD patients. Patients with greater ADHD symptoms severity were less likely to be employed. A positive association was observed between ADHD symptoms status and psychiatric symptoms. Patients with ADHD symptoms status were more likely to be smokers. Patients on methadone had a higher rate of ADHD symptoms status compared to buprenorphine. Those individuals prescribed psychoactive drugs were more likely to have ADHD symptoms. In conclusion, high rate of ADHD symptoms was found among heroin dependent patients, particularly those affected by the most severe form of addiction. These individuals had higher rates of unemployment, other co-morbid mental health conditions, heavy tobacco smoking. Additional psychopharmacological interventions targeting ADHD symptoms, other than opioid substitution, is a public health need. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eye Movement Evidence of Attentional Bias for Substance-Related Cues in Heroin Dependents on Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yang, Bo; Zhu, Qian; Zhang, Guangqun; Xiao, Yuqin; Guo, Xiao; Huang, Xiu; Zhang, Zhuo

    2017-03-21

    Attentional biases toward substance-related stimuli might play a contributing role in addictive behaviors. This study investigated the selective attention to substance-related stimuli in heroin dependents receiving methadone maintenance therapy. Thirty outpatients receiving methadone maintenance treatment for heroin dependence and 38 healthy controls completed a visual probe task with concurrent eye movement monitoring. The results showed that the heroin group reacted faster to probes associated with substance-related pictures than neutral pictures, and they directed more initial fixations and maintained longer initial fixation durations toward substance-related pictures than neutral pictures. However, attentional bias was not correlated with addiction severity in the heroin group. These findings suggest that attentional bias towards substance-related cues occurs in heroin dependents, although this bias might not be associated with the severity of drug-using behavior.

  5. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in Han Chinese heroin-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-02-02

    BDNF and its gene polymorphism may be important in synaptic plasticity and neuron survival, and may become a key target in the physiopathology of long-term heroin use. Thus, we investigated the relationships between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma concentrations and the BDNF Val66Met nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in heroin-dependent patients. The pretreatment expression levels of plasma BDNF and the BDNF Val66Met SNP in 172 heroin-dependent patients and 102 healthy controls were checked. BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients (F = 52.28, p BDNF levels significantly different between Met/Met, Met/Val, and Val/Val carriers in each group, which indicated that the BDNF Val66Met SNP did not affect plasma BDNF levels in our participants. In heroin-dependent patients, plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with the length of heroin dependency. Long-term (>15 years) users had significantly lower plasma BDNF levels than did short-term (BDNF concentration in habitual heroin users are not affected by BDNF Val66Met gene variants, but by the length of the heroin dependency.

  6. Multivariate analysis of dopaminergic gene variants as risk factors of heroin dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vereczkei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heroin dependence is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with complex inheritance. Since the dopaminergic system has a key role in rewarding mechanism of the brain, which is directly or indirectly targeted by most drugs of abuse, we focus on the effects and interactions among dopaminergic gene variants. OBJECTIVE: To study the potential association between allelic variants of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2, ANKK1 (ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1, dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and dopamine transporter (SLC6A3 genes and heroin dependence in Hungarian patients. METHODS: 303 heroin dependent subjects and 555 healthy controls were genotyped for 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs4680 of the COMT gene; rs1079597 and rs1800498 of the DRD2 gene; rs1800497 of the ANKK1 gene; rs1800955, rs936462 and rs747302 of the DRD4 gene. Four variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs were also genotyped: 120 bp duplication and 48 bp VNTR in exon 3 of DRD4 and 40 bp VNTR and intron 8 VNTR of SLC6A3. We also perform a multivariate analysis of associations using Bayesian networks in Bayesian multilevel analysis (BN-BMLA. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: In single marker analysis the TaqIA (rs1800497 and TaqIB (rs1079597 variants were associated with heroin dependence. Moreover, -521 C/T SNP (rs1800955 of the DRD4 gene showed nominal association with a possible protective effect of the C allele. After applying the Bonferroni correction TaqIB was still significant suggesting that the minor (A allele of the TaqIB SNP is a risk component in the genetic background of heroin dependence. The findings of the additional multiple marker analysis are consistent with the results of the single marker analysis, but this method was able to reveal an indirect effect of a promoter polymorphism (rs936462 of the DRD4 gene and this effect is mediated through the -521 C/T (rs1800955 polymorphism in the promoter.

  7. Heroin use is associated with suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine response after LPS exposure in HIV-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinta Meijerink

    Full Text Available Opioid use is associated with increased incidence of infectious diseases. Although experimental studies have shown that opioids affect various functions of immune cells, only limited data are available from human studies. Drug use is an important risk factor for HIV transmission; however no data are available whether heroin and/or methadone modulate immune response. Therefore, we examined the effect of heroin and methadone use among HIV-infected individuals on the production of cytokines after ex vivo stimulation with various pathogens.Treatment naïve HIV-infected individuals from Indonesia were recruited. Several cohorts of individuals were recruited: 1 using heroin 2 receiving methadone opioid substitution 3 using heroin over 1 year ago and 4 controls (never used opioids. Whole blood was stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans and LPS for 24 to 48 hours. Cytokine production (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-α, IFN-γ and TNF-α was determined using multiplex beads assay.Among 82 individuals, the cytokine levels in unstimulated samples did not differ between groups. Overall, heroin users had significantly lower cytokine response after exposure to LPS (p<0.05. After stimulation with either M. tuberculosis or C. albicans the cytokine production of all groups were comparable.The cytokine production after exposure to LPS is significantly down-regulated in HIV-infected heroin users. Interesting, methadone use did not suppress cytokine response, which could have implications guidelines of opioid substitution.

  8. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factors, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4 in the nucleus accumbens during heroin dependency and withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixin; Xia, Baijuan; Li, Rongrong; Yin, Dan; Wang, Yanlin; Liang, Wenmei

    2017-08-02

    Neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), have been implicated in the modulation of heroin dependency. This study was designed to explore the expression alterations of BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in the context of heroin dependence and withdrawal in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Heroin dependence was induced by a progressive intraperitoneal treatment of heroin. The results showed that the expression levels of BDNF and NT-4 were significantly decreased in the NAc of rats with heroin addiction in comparison with the control group, whereas there was a significant increase in BDNF and NT-4 expressions in the groups of rats with both naloxone-induced and spontaneous withdrawal. Moreover, NT-3 expression was markedly increased in the NAc of rats with heroin addiction and spontaneous withdrawal in comparison with the control group, but decreased in the NAc of rats with naloxone-induced withdrawal. These results indicated that chronic administration of heroin results in the alterations of BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 expressions in the rat NAc. BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 may play a critical role in the development of heroin dependency and withdrawal.

  9. The influence of heroin abuse on glutathione-dependent enzymes in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowicz, Marzena; Kaźmierczak, Beata; Barańczyk-Kuźma, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Heroin is an illicit narcotic abused by millions of people worldwide. In our earlier studies we have shown that heroin intoxication changes the antioxidant status in human brain. In the present work we continued our studies by estimating the effect of heroin abuse on reduced glutathione (GSH) and enzymes related to this cofactor, such as glutathione S-transferase detoxifying electrophilics (GST) and organic peroxides (as Se-independent glutathione peroxidase-GSHPx), and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSHPx) specific mainly for hydrogen peroxide. Studies were conducted on human brains obtained from autopsy of 9 heroin abusers and 8 controls. The level of GSH and the activity of glutathione-related enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. The expression of GST pi on mRNA and protein level was studied by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results indicated significant increase of GST and GSHPx activities, unchanged Se-GSHPx activity, and decreased level of GSH in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortex, brain stem, hippocampus, and white matter of heroin abusers. GST pi expression was increased on both mRNA and protein levels, however the increase was lower in brain stem than in other regions. Heroin affects all regions of human brain, and especially brain stem. Its intoxication leads to an increase of organic rather then inorganic peroxides in various brain regions. Glutathione S-transferase plays an important role during heroin intoxication, however its protective effect is lower in brain stem than in brain cortex or hippocampus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxidative stress in heroin-dependent male patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2017-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxidative stress may play a role in patients with heroin dependence. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels and activities of BDNF and oxidative stress markers, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in heroin-dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). 60 heroin-dependent male MMT patients and 30 healthy males were recruited for this study. The serum BDNF and oxidative stress markers of these subjects were measured with assay kits. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) with age and body mass index adjustments indicated that the serum levels of BDNF in the MMT patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (F=5.169; p=0.026). However, there were no significant differences between the heroin-dependent patients and the healthy controls in the serum levels or activities of oxidative stress markers (p>0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that MMT increases BDNF levels in heroin-dependent patients, and that patients undergoing MMT might be in a balanced state of reduced oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of mechanical hypersensitivity in rats during heroin and ethanol dependence: alleviation by CRF₁ receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Misra, Kaushik K; Wee, Sunmee; Park, Paula E; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F

    2012-02-01

    Animal models of drug dependence have described both reductions in brain reward processes and potentiation of stress-like (or anti-reward) mechanisms, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling. Accordingly, chronic exposure to opiates often leads to the development of mechanical hypersensitivity. We measured paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) in male Wistar rats allowed limited (short access group: ShA) or extended (long access group: LgA) access to heroin or cocaine self-administration, or in rats made dependent on ethanol via ethanol vapor exposure (ethanol-dependent group). In heroin self-administering animals, after transition to LgA conditions, thresholds were reduced to around 50% of levels observed at baseline, and were also significantly lower than thresholds measured in animals remaining on the ShA schedule. In contrast, thresholds in animals self-administering cocaine under either ShA (1 h) or LgA (6 h) conditions were unaltered. Similar to heroin LgA rats, ethanol-dependent rats also developed mechanical hypersensitivity after eight weeks of ethanol vapor exposure compared to non-dependent animals. Systemic administration of the CRF1R antagonist MPZP significantly alleviated the hypersensitivity observed in rats dependent on heroin or ethanol. The emergence of mechanical hypersensitivity with heroin and ethanol dependence may thus represent one critical drug-associated negative emotional state driving dependence on these substances. These results also suggest a recruitment of CRF-regulated nociceptive pathways associated with escalation of intake and dependence. A greater understanding of relationships between chronic drug exposure and pain-related states may provide insight into mechanisms underlying the transition to drug addiction, as well as reveal new treatment opportunities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Opioid substitution treatment and heroin dependent adolescents: reductions in heroin use and treatment retention over twelve months.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Bobby P

    2018-05-04

    Opioid dependence is a major health concern across the world and does also occur in adolescents. While opioid substitution treatment (OST) has been thoroughly evaluated in adult populations, very few studies have examined its use in adolescents. There are concerns that OST is underutilised in adolescents with heroin dependence. We sought to measure changes in drug use among adolescents receiving OST and also to examine treatment attrition during the first 12 months of this treatment.

  13. A Review on Hematological Factors in Opioid-Dependent People (Opium and Heroin) after the Withdrawal Period

    OpenAIRE

    Haghpanah, Tahereh; Afarinesh, Mohammadreza; Divsalar, Kouros

    2010-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of opioids has acute effects on homeostasis of the body. Discovering the impacts of opioids on hematological parameters of narcotics withdrawal and dependents blood may be helpful in recognizing the homeostasis condition of their body for the useful treatment. Methods: In this study a cross-sectional method was applied. The abusers of opium and heroin for more than two consecutive years were considered as opium and heroin dependent groups, respectively. The dependent...

  14. Outcome of heroin-dependent adolescents presenting for opiate substitution treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Bobby P

    2012-01-01

    Because the outcome of methadone and buprenorphine substitution treatment in adolescents is unclear, we completed a retrospective cohort study of 100 consecutive heroin-dependent adolescents who sought these treatments over an 8-year recruitment period. The participants\\' average age was 16.6 years, and 54 were female. Half of the patient group remained in treatment for over 1 year. Among those still in treatment at 12 months, 39% demonstrated abstinence from heroin. The final route of departure from the treatment program was via planned detox for 22%, dropout for 32%, and imprisonment for 8%. The remaining 39% were transferred elsewhere for ongoing opiate substitution treatment after a median period of 23 months of treatment. Males were more likely to exit via imprisonment (p < .05), but other outcomes were not predicted by gender. There were no deaths during treatment among these 100 patients who had a cumulative period of 129 person years at risk. Our findings suggest that this treatment delivers reductions in heroin use and that one fifth of patients will exit treatment following detox completion within a 1- to 2-year time frame.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of high doses of pharmaceutically prepared heroin, by intravenous or by inhalation route in opioid-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, Elisabeth J.; van Ree, Jan M.; van den Brink, Wim; Hillebrand, Michel J. X.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Hendriks, Vincent M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2006-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study was performed in opioid-dependent patients in the Netherlands, who were currently treated with high doses of pharmaceutically prepared heroin on medical prescription. Besides intravenous heroin, heroin was prescribed for inhalation by "chasing the dragon"

  16. Persistence of drug use during imprisonment: relationship of drug type, recency of use and severity of dependence to use of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John; Gossop, Michael; Heuston, Joan; Green, John; Whiteley, Christopher; Maden, Anthony

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the persistence of use of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine drugs during imprisonment, and to identify factors associated with increased levels of persistence. The use of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine by current prison inmates has been examined and, in particular, the relationship between drug use within prison and the type of drug used prior to imprisonment, recency of use and severity of dependence. A randomly selected sample of 1009 adult male prisoners in 13 prisons in England and Wales during 1994/95; structured confidential interviews conducted by independent research staff. Enquiry about prior use of heroin, cocaine or amphetamine focused on three time-periods (ever, last year and last month pre-prison) and the use of these drugs during the first month of imprisonment. A total of 557 (55%) of the 1009 prisoners had used previously one of the three drugs selected for study: 58% had used heroin, 69% cocaine and 75% amphetamine. More than half (59%; 327/557) had used these drugs in the month before the current imprisonment. Drug use in prisons was most likely to occur among those who had used in the month prior to imprisonment. The persistence of heroin use in prison occurred more frequently (70%) than use of cocaine (20%) or amphetamine (15%). Of those using heroin pre-imprisonment, 67% considered they were dependent, compared to 15% and 22%, respectively, for cocaine and amphetamine users. Changes in the drug-taking behaviour of drug users after imprisonment vary according to the type of drug being taken. Prisoners were much more likely to continue to use heroin than either cocaine or amphetamines while in prison. Heroin was most likely to be used by those who had been using heroin during the immediate pre-imprisonment period, and particularly by the two-thirds of heroin users who considered themselves dependent. In view of the high prevalence of prior use of these drugs by individuals currently imprisoned, continuing attention is required to

  17. Disrupted coupling of large-scale networks is associated with relapse behaviour in heroin-dependent men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Jierong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yarong; Li, Wei; Chen, Jiajie; Zhu, Jia; Yan, Xuejiao; Li, Yongbin; Li, Zhe; Ye, Jianjun; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether impaired coupling among 3 core large-scale brain networks (salience [SN], default mode [DMN] and executive control networks [ECN]) is associated with relapse behaviour in treated heroin-dependent patients. Methods We conducted a prospective resting-state functional MRI study comparing the functional connectivity strength among healthy controls and heroin-dependent men who had either relapsed or were in early remission. Men were considered to be either relapsed or in early remission based on urine drug screens during a 3-month follow-up period. We also examined how the coupling of large-scale networks correlated with relapse behaviour among heroin-dependent men. Results We included 20 controls and 50 heroin-dependent men (26 relapsed and 24 early remission) in our analyses. The relapsed men showed greater connectivity than the early remission and control groups between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (key node of the SN) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (included in the DMN). The relapsed men and controls showed lower connectivity than the early remission group between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (key node of the left ECN) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The percentage of positive urine drug screens positively correlated with the coupling between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, but negatively correlated with the coupling between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Limitations We examined deficits in only 3 core networks leading to relapse behaviour. Other networks may also contribute to relapse. Conclusion Greater coupling between the SN and DMN and lower coupling between the left ECN and DMN is associated with relapse behaviour. These findings may shed light on the development of new treatments for heroin addiction. PMID:29252165

  18. Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism modulates cue-elicited heroin craving in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chunhong; Li, Yifeng; Jiang, Kaida; Zhang, Dandan; Xu, Yifeng; Lin, Ling; Wang, Qiuying; Zhao, Min; Jin, Li

    2006-06-01

    Subjective craving, which contributes to the continuation of drug use in active abuser and the occurrence of relapse in detoxified abusers, is considered to be a central phenomenon in addiction. Dopamine pathway has been implicated in the mechanism underlying the cue-elicited craving for a variety of addictive substances. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that heroin addicts carrying D4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) long type allele would have higher craving after exposure to a heroin-related cue. Craving was induced by a series of exposure to neutral and heroin-related cue and were assessed in a cohort of Chinese heroin abusers (n=420) recruited from the Voluntary Drug Dependence Treatment Center at Shanghai. Significantly stronger cue-elicited heroin craving was found in individuals carrying DRD4 VNTR long type allele than the non-carriers (F=31.040, pcue-elicited craving in heroin dependence, indicating DRD4 VNTR represents one of potential genetic risk factors for cue-induced craving.

  19. The relationship between US heroin market dynamics and heroin-related overdose, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unick, George; Rosenblum, Daniel; Mars, Sarah; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Heroin-related overdose is linked to polydrug use, changes in physiological tolerance and social factors. Individual risk can also be influenced by the structural risk environment including the illicit drug market. We hypothesized that components of the US illicit drug market, specifically heroin source/type, price and purity, will have independent effects on the number of heroin-related overdose hospital admissions. Yearly, from 1992 to 2008, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) price and purity series were estimated from the US Drug Enforcement Administration data. Yearly heroin overdose hospitalizations were constructed from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Socio-demographic variables were constructed using several databases. Negative binomial models were used to estimate the effect of price, purity and source region of heroin on yearly hospital counts of heroin overdoses controlling for poverty, unemployment, crime, MSA socio-demographic characteristics and population size. Purity was not associated with heroin overdose, but each $100 decrease in the price per pure gram of heroin resulted in a 2.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.8%, 1.0%] increase in the number of heroin overdose hospitalizations (P = 0.003). Each 10% increase in the market share of Colombian-sourced heroin was associated with a 4.1% (95% CI = 1.7%, 6.6%) increase in number of overdoses reported in hospitals (P = 0.001) independent of heroin quality. Decreases in the price of pure heroin in the United States are associated with increased heroin-related overdose hospital admissions. Increases in market concentration of Colombian-source/type heroin is also associated with an increase in heroin-related overdose hospital admissions. Increases in US heroin-related overdose admissions appear to be related to structural changes in the US heroin market. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence:a meta-analysis%中国接受治疗的海洛因依赖患者中反社会人格障碍患病率的荟萃分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宝亮; 项玉涛; 操小兰; 李艳; 朱军红; 赵凤琴

    2014-01-01

      结论:虽然现有的有关中国接受治疗的海洛因依赖患者共患ASPD的文献存在较大的方法学问题,但据我们的分析,估计这些患者中大约有三分之一的人是符合ASPD诊断标准的。进一步需要开展的工作是提高临床医生对这一问题的认识,比较伴ASPD患者与不伴ASPD患者的发病机制、治疗效果和复吸情况,制定出适合这个治疗相对困难的海洛因依赖患者亚群的针对性的干预措施并加以验证。%Background:Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiciton who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treaitng substance abuse problems. Aim:Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proporiton of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. Methods:We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Staitsitcal analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R sotfware. Results:The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitaiton centers or hospitals. The pooled lifeitme prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30%(95%CI:23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I2=95%, p Conclusions There are substantial methodological

  1. Exaggerated acquisition and resistance to extinction of avoidance behavior in treated heroin-dependent males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheynin, Jony; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Beck, Kevin D.; Servatius, Richard J.; Casbolt, Peter A.; Haber, Paul; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Hogarth, Lee; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Addiction is often conceptualized as a behavioral strategy for avoiding negative experiences. In rodents, opioid intake has been associated with abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these findings would generalize to human opioid-dependent subjects. Method Adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for heroin-dependence and treated with opioid medication (n=27), and healthy controls (n=26), were recruited between March–October 2013 and given a computer-based task to assess avoidance behavior. On this task, subjects controlled a spaceship and could either gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship, or hide in safe areas to avoid on-screen aversive events. Results While groups did not differ on escape responding (hiding) during the aversive event, heroin-dependent males (but not females) made more avoidance responses during a warning signal that predicted the aversive event (ANOVA, sex × group interaction, p=0.007). This group was also slower to extinguish the avoidance response when the aversive event no longer followed the warning signal (p=0.011). This behavioral pattern resulted in reduced opportunity to obtain reward without reducing risk of punishment. Results suggest that differences in avoidance behavior cannot be easily explained by impaired task performance or by exaggerated motor activity in male patients. Conclusion This study provides evidence for abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in opioid-dependent patients. Interestingly, data suggest abnormal avoidance is demonstrated only by male patients. Findings shed light on cognitive and behavioral manifestations of opioid addiction, and may facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to help affected individuals. PMID:27046310

  2. Heroin and saccharin demand and preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lindsay P; Kim, Jung S; Silberberg, Alan; Kearns, David N

    2017-09-01

    Several recent studies have investigated the choice between heroin and a non-drug alternative reinforcer in rats. A common finding in these studies is that there are large individual differences in preference, with some rats preferring heroin and some preferring the non-drug alternative. The primary goal of the present study was to determine whether individual differences in how heroin or saccharin is valued, based on demand analysis, predicts choice. Rats lever-pressed for heroin infusions and saccharin reinforcers on fixed-ratio schedules. The essential value of each reinforcer was obtained from resulting demand curves. Rats were then trained on a mutually exclusive choice procedure where pressing one lever resulted in heroin and pressing another resulted in saccharin. After seven sessions of increased access to heroin or saccharin, rats were reexposed to the demand and choice procedures. Demand for heroin was more elastic than demand for saccharin (i.e., heroin had lower essential value than saccharin). When allowed to choose, most rats preferred saccharin. The essential value of heroin, but not saccharin, predicted preference. The essential value of both heroin and saccharin increased following a week of increased access to heroin, but similar saccharin exposure had no effect on essential value. Preference was unchanged after increased access to either reinforcer. Heroin-preferring rats differed from saccharin-preferring rats in how they valued heroin, but not saccharin. To the extent that choice models addiction-related behavior, these results suggest that overvaluation of opioids specifically, rather than undervaluation of non-drug alternatives, could identify susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behaviors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Heroin Dependent Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koosha Paydary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker and former (abstinent heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS, and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS. Results. In SSS, comprised of four subscales including thrill and adventure seeking (TAS, experience seeking (ES, disinhibition (DIS, and boredom susceptibility (BS, there was a borderline difference in DIS (P=0.08 as HIV-positive group scored higher than HIV-negative group. Also, ES and total score were significantly higher among HIV-positive patients. In BART, HIV-positive subjects scored higher in risk taking than HIV-negative subjects as reflected in higher Average Number of puffs in Successful Balloons (ANSB. In BIS, HIV-positive group scored significantly higher in cognitive impulsivity (CI (P=0.03 and nonplanning impulsivity (NPI (P=0.05 in comparison to HIV-negative group. Also, current heroin addicts scored significantly higher in NPI compared to former addict HIV-negative participants (P=0.015. IGT did not show any significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Higher levels of impulsivity and risk taking behaviors among HIV-positive heroin addicts will increase serious concerns regarding HIV transmission from this group to other opiate dependents and healthy people.

  4. Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behaviors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Heroin Dependent Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydary, Koosha; Mahin Torabi, Somayeh; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Noori, Mehri; Noroozi, Alireza; Ameri, Sara; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker) and former (abstinent) heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). Results. In SSS, comprised of four subscales including thrill and adventure seeking (TAS), experience seeking (ES), disinhibition (DIS), and boredom susceptibility (BS), there was a borderline difference in DIS (P = 0.08) as HIV-positive group scored higher than HIV-negative group. Also, ES and total score were significantly higher among HIV-positive patients. In BART, HIV-positive subjects scored higher in risk taking than HIV-negative subjects as reflected in higher Average Number of puffs in Successful Balloons (ANSB). In BIS, HIV-positive group scored significantly higher in cognitive impulsivity (CI) (P = 0.03) and nonplanning impulsivity (NPI) (P = 0.05) in comparison to HIV-negative group. Also, current heroin addicts scored significantly higher in NPI compared to former addict HIV-negative participants (P = 0.015). IGT did not show any significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Higher levels of impulsivity and risk taking behaviors among HIV-positive heroin addicts will increase serious concerns regarding HIV transmission from this group to other opiate dependents and healthy people. PMID:27051528

  5. Heroin delay discounting: Modulation by pharmacological state, drug-use impulsivity, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltman, Jonathan J K; Woodcock, Eric A; Lister, Jamey J; Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2015-12-01

    Delay discounting (DD) refers to how rapidly an individual devalues goods based on delays to receipt. DD usually is considered a trait variable but can be state dependent, yet few studies have assessed commodity valuation at short, naturalistically relevant time intervals that might enable state-dependent analysis. This study aimed to determine whether drug-use impulsivity and intelligence influence heroin DD at short (ecologically relevant) delays during two pharmacological states (heroin satiation and withdrawal). Out-of-treatment, intensive heroin users (n = 170; 53.5% African American; 66.7% male) provided complete DD data during imagined heroin satiation and withdrawal. Delays were 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours; maximum delayed heroin amount was thirty $10 bags. Indifference points were used to calculate area under the curve (AUC). We also assessed drug-use impulsivity (subscales from the Impulsive Relapse Questionnaire [IRQ]) and estimated intelligence (Shipley IQ) as predictors of DD. Heroin discounting was greater (smaller AUC) during withdrawal than satiation. In regression analyses, lower intelligence and IRQ Capacity for Delay as well as higher IRQ Speed (to return to drug use) predicted greater heroin discounting in the satiation condition. Lower intelligence and higher IRQ Speed predicted greater discounting in the withdrawal condition. Sex, race, substance use variables, and other IRQ subscales were not significantly related to the withdrawal or satiation DD behavior. In summary, heroin discounting was temporally rapid, pharmacologically state dependent, and predicted by drug-use impulsivity and estimated intelligence. These findings highlight a novel and sensitive measure of acute DD that is easy to administer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. 海洛因依赖与人格障碍的共病研究%Comorbidity of Heroin Dependence and Personality Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强; 郭月锋; 连卓

    2017-01-01

    目的:评估海洛因依赖者中人格障碍的发生率,探讨海洛因依赖者的人格障碍共病情况.方法:采用美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版人格障碍临床定式访谈量表(SCID-Ⅱ)对120例海洛因依赖者和120名健康对照者进行人格障碍的评估.结果:海洛因依赖患者中人格障碍的共病率是79.2%,且73.3%的患者同时符合两种或以上的人格障碍.患者中最常见的人格障碍是边缘型、反社会型、偏执型、强迫型,男性海洛因依赖者中反社会型人格障碍的发生率显著高于女性(x2=11.98,P<0.01).结论:海洛因依赖者中人格障碍的共病现象非常普遍.%Objectiye:To evaluate the prevalence rate of personality disorders in heroin dependence patients,and explore the comorbidity of heroin dependence and personality disorders.Methods:The SCID-Ⅱ was used to assess the personality disorders in 120 heroin dependence patients and 120 matched normal controls.Results:The comorbidity rate of personality disorder in the heroin dependence patients was 79.2%,in which 73.3% were fulfilled at least two personality disorders.Boardline、antisocial、paranoid and compulsive personality disorder were most common.The prevalence rate of antisocial personality disorder in male heroin dependence patients was signficantly higher than that in female heroin dependence (x2 =11.98,P < 0.01).Conclusion:The comorbidity of personality disorders is much common in heroin dependence patients.

  7. Association between VNTR polymorphism in promoter region of prodynorphin (PDYN) gene and heroin dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saify, Khyber; Saadat, Iraj; Saadat, Mostafa

    2014-11-30

    Within the core promoter region of prodynorphin (PDYN), a 68-bp sequence was found to occur as a polymorphism element, either singular or as tandemly repeated two, three or four times. We report the sequence of a novel allele (5-repeats). Our study revealed the existence of an ancestral nucleotide (A) at 29th position of the VNTR in human. In total, 442 heroin addicts and 799 controls were included in this study. The present findings revealed a male-limited association between VNTR polymorphism and heroin dependence risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of antisocial personality disorder among heroin dependent users in compulsory isolation treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Mamy, Jules; Zhou, Liang; Liao, Yan-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Seewoobudul, Vasish; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Hao, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about gender difference in correlates of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) among drug users. To detect gender difference in correlates of ASPD in a Chinese heroin dependent sample. Structured interviews were conducted among 882 heroin dependent users in two compulsory isolation settings in Changsha, China. Descriptive statistics were employed to report sample characteristics by gender. Bivariate relationships were examined between co-occurring ASPD and variables measuring demographic, drug use, and psychiatric co-morbidities. Multivariate logistic regressions with stepwise forward method were conducted to determine independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD. All analyses examining correlates of co-occurring ASPD were conducted for the total, the male and the female participants respectively to detect both the common and the unique correlates of ASPD by gender. Of the total participants, 41.4% (54.2% of males and 15.4% of females) met the DSM-IV criteria of ASPD. For male participants, lower educational level, unemployment, unmarried, younger age at first heroin use, previous history of compulsory treatment, larger amounts of heroin used per day and poly-drug abuse during past month before admission, as well as psychiatric co-morbidities of lifetime major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder were independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD; while for female participants, only three variables: younger age at first heroin use, paranoid personality disorder and borderline personality disorder were independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of ASPD among heroin dependent users were detected. The findings highlight a need for gender-specific interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Outcomes of adult heroin users v. abstinent users four years after presenting for heroin detoxification treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zureida Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no studies in South Africa (SA on the outcomes following detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation of heroin-dependent patients. Objective. To compare the demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data of active heroin users v. users who were abstinent at the time of interview 4 years after attending the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape Province, SA.  Method. Participants included patients above the age of 16 years who had been admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital for heroin detoxification between July 2006 and June 2007. Participants were individually interviewed (either in person or tele­phonically using a structured self-report questionnaire to collect demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data 4 years following heroin detoxification treatment at this unit.  Results. Of the participants, 60% were abstinent and a large portion (34% attributed this to social support. Furthermore, there was a significant (p=0.04 difference in the longest period of abstinence between the past user group and active users, with more participants in the past user group being abstinent for 18 months or longer (n=24, 57% than in the active users group (n=8, 29%. Active users (n=18, 64% had significantly (p=0.03 more legal problems than abstinent users (n=14, 33%. Most participants (n=38, 54% relapsed within 3 months after index detoxification and rehabilitation.  Conclusion. Active users had more legal problems than abstinent users, with social support structures playing a pivotal role in abstinence. Future research should assess the impact of interventions such as post-discharge social support programmes on criminality and heroin use in those that relapse following treatment.

  10. Heroin overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the gateway to heroin use for many people. This is because the street price of heroin is often the cheaper than ... There is no legal medical use for heroin. Street names for heroin include "junk", "smack", dope, brown sugar, white horse, China white, and "skag".

  11. Influence of treatment with inhalable heroin on pulmonary function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buster, M. C. A.; van den Brink, W.; van Brussel, G. H. A.; van Ree, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to asses the influence of inhalable heroin on pulmonary function in chronic heroin-dependent patients treated with inhalable heroin. Among 32 patients (all cigarette smokers), a spirometric test was conducted at baseline and after an average period of 10 months of treatment with

  12. Age differences in heroin and prescription opioid abuse among enrolees into opioid treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Chunki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, among those entering opioid treatment programs (OTPs, prescription opioid (PO abusers tend to be younger than heroin users. Admissions of older persons to OTPs have been increasing, and it is important to understand typical patterns of use among those older enrolees. Methods To disentangle the effect of age on recent heroin and PO abuse 29,114 enrolees into 85 OTPs were surveyed across 34 states from 2005-2009. OTPs where PO use was prevalent were oversampled. Results Mean age was 34; 28% used heroin only. Younger enrolees had increased odds of using POs relative to using heroin only but mixed model analysis showed that much of the total variability in type of use was attributed to variation in age between OTPs rather than within OTPs. Conclusions Organizational and cultural phenomena (e.g., OTP characteristics must be examined to better understand the context of individual characteristics (e.g., age. If nesting of enrolees within OTPs is ignored, then associations that primarily operate at the OTP level may be misinterpreted as exclusively dependent on individuals.

  13. Heroin uncertainties: Exploring users' perceptions of fentanyl-adulterated and -substituted 'heroin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarone, Daniel; Ondocsin, Jeff; Mars, Sarah G

    2017-08-01

    The US is experiencing an unprecedented opioid overdose epidemic fostered in recent years by regional contamination of the heroin supply with the fentanyl family of synthetic opioids. Since 2011 opioid-related overdose deaths in the East Coast state of Massachusetts have more than tripled, with 75% of the 1374 deaths with an available toxicology positive for fentanyl. Fentanyl is 30-50X more potent than heroin and its presence makes heroin use more unpredictable. A rapid ethnographic assessment was undertaken to understand the perceptions and experiences of people who inject drugs sold as 'heroin' and to observe the drugs and their use. A team of ethnographers conducted research in northeast Massachusetts and Nashua, New Hampshire in June 2016, performing (n=38) qualitative interviews with persons who use heroin. (1) The composition and appearance of heroin changed in the last four years; (2) heroin is cheaper and more widely available than before; and (3) heroin 'types' have proliferated with several products being sold as 'heroin'. These consisted of two types of heroin (alone), fentanyl (alone), and heroin-fentanyl combinations. In the absence of available toxicological information on retail-level heroin, our research noted a hierarchy of fentanyl discernment methods, with embodied effects considered most reliable in determining fentanyl's presence, followed by taste, solution appearance and powder color. This paper presents a new 'heroin' typology based on users' reports. Massachusetts' heroin has new appearances and is widely adulterated by fentanyl. Persons who use heroin are trying to discern the substances sold as heroin and their preferences for each form vary. The heroin typology presented is inexact but can be validated by correlating users' discernment with drug toxicological testing. If validated, this typology would be a valuable harm reduction tool. Further research on adaptations to heroin adulteration could reduce risks of using heroin and

  14. Clonidine improved laboratory-measured decision-making performance in abstinent heroin addicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impulsivity refers to a wide spectrum of actions characterized by quick and nonplanned reactions to external and internal stimuli, without taking into account the possible negative consequences for the individual or others, and decision-making is one of the biologically dissociated impulsive behaviors. Changes in impulsivity may be associated with norepinephrine. Various populations of drug addicts all performed impulsive decision making, which is a key risk factor in drug dependence and relapse. The present study investigated the effects of clonidine, which decreased norepinephrine release through presynaptic alpha-2 receptor activation, on the impaired decision-making performance in abstinent heroin addicts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Decision-making performance was assessed using the original version of Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. Both heroin addicts and normal controls were randomly assigned to three groups receiving clonidine, 0, 75 µg or 150 µg orally under double blind conditions. Psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety, depression and impulsivity, were rated on standardized scales. Heroin addicts reported higher scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and exhibited impaired decision-making on the IGT. A single high-dose of clonidine improved the decision-making performance in heroin addicts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest clonidine may have a potential therapeutic role in heroin addicts by improving the impaired impulsive decision-making. The current findings have important implications for behavioral and pharmacological interventions targeting decision-making in heroin addiction.

  15. Gender differences among older heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison B; Grella, Christine E

    2009-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to explore the following question: Are there gender differences among older individuals with a history of heroin addiction with regard to social and family relationships and health problems? Eight gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 38 (19 women, 19 men) older (50+ years) individuals with long-term histories of heroin dependence. Four groups were conducted in a methadone maintenance (MM) clinic and four groups were derived from the Los Angeles community. Modest gender differences were observed, but mainly in the focus-group dynamics. Women typically described the impact of their addiction on their families, while men typically described their surprise at still being alive. Hepatitis C was the primary health concern in all groups; mental health issues were also discussed. Remarkable gender differences were not apparent in the qualitative experiences of these participants. Instead, we found overriding similarities related to the interactive effects of drug use and aging. Longitudinal studies of this population as they age and interact with the health-care system and other social systems will help to untangle the complicated relationship between aging, drug addiction, gender, and health.

  16. [The history of heroin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosztafi, S

    2001-08-01

    The discovery of heroin and the development of heroin abuse are introduced. Heroin, the hydrochloride of diacetylmorphine, was discovered by acetylation of morphine. Heroin, in pharmacological studies, proved to be more effective than morphine or codeine. The Bayer Company started the production of heroin in 1898 on a commercial scale. The first clinical results were so promising that heroin was considered a wonder drug. Indeed, heroin was more effective than codeine in respiratory diseases. It has turned out, however, that repeated administration of heroin results in the development of tolerance and the patients become heroin-addicts soon. In the early 1910s morphine addicts "discovered" the euphorising properties of heroin and this effect was enhanced by intravenous administration. Heroin became a narcotic drug and its abuse began to spread quickly. Restrictions on its production, use and distribution were regulated by international treties. The total ban on heroin production was also proposed. As a result of the strict regulations the production and cosumption of heroin showed a significant decrease after 1931. At the same time the underworld recognized the shortage of heroin and started the illicit production and trafficking. The quantity of heroin seized by law enforcement agencies in the past decades rose gradually. As an indicator of the worldwide heroin market, the quantity of confiscated heroin underwent a tenfold increase since 1970. The paper surveys the most important heroin-producing and trafficking countries. Heroin, prepared in clandestine ("kitchen" or "jungle") laboratories, is diluted ("cut") by every member of the illegal heroin distributing chain, i.e. smugglers, traffickers, dealers and vendors.

  17. Neurophysiological evidence for abnormal cognitive processing of drug cues in heroin dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Hendriks, Vincent M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2003-01-01

    Rationale. Recent studies provide evidence for specific aspects of cue processing in addictive disorders. Objective. The present study employs event related potentials (ERPs) to investigate heroin related visual information processing Methods. Neutral and heroin related pictures were presented to 19

  18. Matching of treatment-resistant heroin-dependent patients to medical prescription of heroin or oral methadone treatment: results from two randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, Peter; Hendriks, Vincent M.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van Ree, Jan M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate which baseline patient characteristics of treatment-resistant heroin addicts differentially predicted treatment response to medical heroin prescription compared to standard methadone maintenance treatment. DESIGN: Two open-label randomized controlled trials; pooled data.

  19. The BOLD-fMRI study of behavior inhibition in chronic heroin addicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fei; Yuan Yi; Liu Yinshe; Zhao Jun; Weng Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify the neural mechanisms of impulsivity and the response inhibition deficits of the chronic heroin users using event-related functional MRI (stop-signal task). Methods: Seventeen individuals with heroin dependence and 17 healthy control subjects underwent fMRI scan while executing stop -signal task after anatomical scanning in 3.0 T scanner. The AFNI package was used for fMRI data preprocessing and statistical analysis. Results: The behavioral data showed that the stop signal reaction rime (SSRT) of heroin users was significantly longer than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in activation of the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area between two groups. Comparing to the control group, heroin users had weaker activation in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex, but stronger activation in bilateral striatum and amygdala while behavioral inhibition needed. Conclusion: The results suggest that heroin users have significant changes within impulsivity and inhibitory network, where the right prefrontal cortex is considered as main region for inhibition, while the anterior cingulated cortex is associated with error monitoring, and the amygdale controls impulsivity and emotion. (authors)

  20. Is the New Heroin Epidemic Really New? Racializing Heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Benjamin; Fullilove, Robert; Word, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Heroin abuse as an outcome of the prior use of painkillers increased rapidly over the past decade. This "new epidemic" is unique because the new heroin users are primarily young White Americans in rural areas of virtually every state. This commentary argues that the painkiller-to-heroin transition could not be the only cause of heroin use on such a scale and that the new and old heroin epidemics are linked. The social marketing that so successfully drove the old heroin epidemic has innovated and expanded due to the use of cell-phones, text messaging and the "dark web" which requires a Tor browser, and software that allows one to communicate with encrypted sites without detection. Central city gentrification has forced traffickers to take advantage of larger and more lucrative markets. A second outcome is that urban black and Latino communities are no longer needed as heroin stages areas for suburban and exurban illicit drug distribution. Drug dealing can be done directly in predominantly white suburbs and rural areas without the accompanying violence associated with the old epidemic. Denial of the link between the new and old heroin epidemics racially segregates heroin users and more proactive prevention and treatment in the new epidemic than in the old. It also cuts off a half-century of knowledge about the supply-side of heroin drug dealing and the inevitable public policy measures that will have to be implemented to effectively slow and stop both the old and new epidemic. Copyright © 2016 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pioglitazone attenuates the opioid withdrawal and vulnerability to relapse to heroin seeking in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Kallupi, Marsida; Scuppa, Giulia; Demopulos, Gregory; Gaitanaris, George; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Relapse to opioids is often driven by the avoidance of the aversive states of opioid withdrawal. We recently demonstrated that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) by pioglitazone reduces the motivation for heroin and attenuates its rewarding properties. However, the role of PPARγ in withdrawal and other forms of relapse to heroin is unknown. To further address this issue, we investigated the role of PPARγ on the development and expression of morphine withdrawal in mice and the effect of pioglitazone on several forms of heroin relapse in rats. We induced physical dependence to morphine in mice by injecting morphine twice daily for 6 days. Withdrawal syndrome was precipitated on day 6 with an injection of naloxone. In addition, different groups of rats were trained to self-administer heroin and, after the extinction, the relapse was elicited by cues, priming, or stress. The effect of different doses of pioglitazone was tested on these different paradigms. Data show that chronic and acute administration of pioglitazone attenuates morphine withdrawal symptoms, and these effects are mediated by activation of PPARγ receptors. Activation of PPARγ by pioglitazone also abolishes yohimbine-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking and reduces heroin-induced reinstatement, while it does not affect cue-induced relapse. These findings provide new insights on the role of PPARγ on opioid dependence and suggest that pioglitazone may be useful for the treatment of opioid withdrawal in opioid-addicted individuals.

  2. Pathways to age of onset of heroin use: a structural model approach exploring the relationship of the COMT gene, impulsivity and childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Du, Jiang; Yu, Shunying; Jiang, Haifeng; Fu, Yingmei; Wang, Dongxiang; Sun, Haiming; Chen, Hanhui; Zhao, Min

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of the association of dopamine genes, impulsivity and childhood trauma with substance abuse remains unclear. To clarify the impacts and the interactions of the Catechol -O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, impulsivity and childhood trauma on the age of onset of heroin use among heroin dependent patients in China. 202 male and 248 female inpatients who meet DSM-IV criteria of heroin dependence were enrolled. Impulsivity and childhood trauma were measured using BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and ETISR-SF (Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs737866 on the COMT gene-which has previously been associated with heroin abuse, was genotyped using a DNA sequence detection system. Structural equations model was used to assess the interaction paths between these factors and the age of onset of heroin use. Chi-square test indicated the individuals with TT allele have earlier age of onset of heroin use than those with CT or CC allele. In the correlation analysis, the severity of childhood trauma was positively correlated to impulsive score, but both of them were negatively related to the age of onset of heroin use. In structure equation model, both the COMT gene and childhood trauma had impacts on the age of onset of heroin use directly or via impulsive personality. Our findings indicated that the COMT gene, impulsive personality traits and childhood trauma experience were interacted to impact the age of onset of heroin use, which play a critical role in the development of heroin dependence. The impact of environmental factor was greater than the COMT gene in the development of heroin dependence.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic variability of heroin and its metabolites: review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, Elisabeth J.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the pharmacokinetics of heroin after intravenous, oral, intranasal, intramuscular and rectal application and after inhalation in humans, with a special focus on heroin maintenance therapy in heroin dependent patients. In heroin maintenance therapy high doses pharmaceutically

  4. Sexual dysfunction improved in heroin-dependent men after methadone maintenance treatment in Tianjin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minying Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is correlated with sexual dysfunction in heroin-dependent men and to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction among men on MMT. METHODS: The study included a retrospective survey and a cross-sectional survey which contained interviews of 293 men who are currently engaged in MMT. The results of the two surveys were compared. For a subset of 43 participants, radioimmunoassay was additionally conducted using retrospective and prospective blood samples to test the levels of plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone. Other study evaluations were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15, and Self-rating Depression Scale. RESULTS: Sexual dysfunction in all five IIEF-15 domains (erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction was strongly associated with long-term use of heroin. A decrease in the severity of sexual dysfunction was associated with MMT initiation. Erectile dysfunction, lack of sexual desire, inability to orgasm, and lack of intercourse satisfaction were significantly correlated with increasing age of the participants. Methadone dose and duration of methadone treatment were not found to be associated with sexual dysfunction. The level of plasma testosterone significantly declined during methadone treatment, but results from multivariate analysis indicated low levels of testosterone were not the main cause of sexual dysfunction. No correlation between reported depression status and sexual function was found. CONCLUSIONS: While high levels of sexual dysfunction were reported by heroin-dependent men in our study before and after MMT initiation, MMT appears to be correlated with improved sexual function in the population of the study.

  5. Acupuncture inhibits cue-induced heroin craving and brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xinghui; Song, Xiaoge; Li, Chuanfu; Xu, Chunsheng; Li, Xiliang; Lu, Qi

    2012-11-25

    Previous research using functional MRI has shown that specific brain regions associated with drug dependence and cue-elicited heroin craving are activated by environmental cues. Craving is an important trigger of heroin relapse, and acupuncture may inhibit craving. In this study, we performed functional MRI in heroin addicts and control subjects. We compared differences in brain activation between the two groups during heroin cue exposure, heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture at the Zusanli point (ST36) without twirling of the needle, and heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture at the Zusanli point with twirling of the needle. Heroin cue exposure elicited significant activation in craving-related brain regions mainly in the frontal lobes and callosal gyri. Acupuncture without twirling did not significantly affect the range of brain activation induced by heroin cue exposure, but significantly changed the extent of the activation in the heroin addicts group. Acupuncture at the Zusanli point with twirling of the needle significantly decreased both the range and extent of activation induced by heroin cue exposure compared with heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture without twirling of the needle. These experimental findings indicate that presentation of heroin cues can induce activation in craving-related brain regions, which are involved in reward, learning and memory, cognition and emotion. Acupuncture at the Zusanli point can rapidly suppress the activation of specific brain regions related to craving, supporting its potential as an intervention for drug craving.

  6. Screening for illicit heroin use in patients in a heroin-assisted treatment program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, Elisabeth J.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; van den Brink, Wim; Hillebrand, Michel J. X.; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of illicit heroin among patients in a heroin-assisted treatment program. In this program, pharmaceutical-grade heroin was administered to heroin-addicted patients. Monitoring of illicit heroin use was considered important for the evaluation of this

  7. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Metabolic syndrome among individuals with heroin use disorders on methadone therapy: Prevalence, characteristics, and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Robles, María José; Torrens, Marta; Samos, Pilar; Roquer, Albert; Martires, Paula K; Sanvisens, Arantza; Muga, Roberto; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2018-01-02

    Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in subjects on methadone therapy; there are, however, limited data about metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. A cross-sectional study in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy at a drug abuse outpatient center. Medical examinations and laboratory analyses after a 12-hour overnight fast were recorded. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. One hundred and twenty-two subjects were included, with a mean age of 46.1 ± 9 years, a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21.2-28), and 77.9% were men. Median exposure to methadone therapy was 13 years (IQR: 5-20). Overweight and obesity were present in 29.5% and 17.2% of the participants, respectively. Metabolic syndrome components were low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (51.6%), hypertriglyceridemia (36.8%), high blood pressure (36.8%), abdominal obesity (27.0%), and raised blood glucose levels (18.0%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent in women (52% vs. 20%, P = >0.01) and high blood pressure more prevalent in men (41.1% vs. 22.2%, P = .07). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6-31.8). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (per 1 kg/m 2 increase odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.27-1.76) and exposure time to methadone therapy (per 5 years of treatment increase OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.28-1.48) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Overweight and metabolic syndrome are prevalent findings in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. Of specific concern is the association of methadone exposure with metabolic syndrome. Preventive measures and clinical routine screening should be

  9. Pathological and MRI study on experimental heroin-induced brain damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Yu; Kong Xiangquan; Xu Haibo; Liu Dingxi; Yuan Ren; Yu Qun; Xiong Yin; Deng Xianbo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological characteristics of the heroin-induced brain damage in rats, and to assess the diagnostic value of MRI. Methods: A total of 40 adult Wistar rats were studied, 32 rats were used for injecting heroin as heroin group and 8 were used for injecting saline as control group. The heroin dependent rat model was established by administering heroin (ip) in the ascending dosage schedule (0.5 mg/kg), three times a day (at 8:00, 12:00, and 18:00). The control group was established by the same way by injection with saline. The withdrawal scores were evaluated with imp roved criterion in order to estimate the degree of addiction after administering naloxone. Based on the rat model of heroin dependence, the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established by the same way with increasing heroin dosage everyday. Two groups were examined by using MRI, light microscope, and electron microscope, respectively in different heroin accumulated dosage (918, 1580, 2686, 3064, 4336, and 4336 mg/kg withdrawal after 2 weeks). Results: There was statistically significant difference (t=9.737, P<0.01) of the withdrawal scores between the heroin dependent group and the saline group (23.0 ± 4.4 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively). It suggested that the heroin dependent rat model be established successfully. In different accumulated dosage ( from 1580 mg/kg to 4336 mg/kg), there were degeneration and death of nerve cells in cerebrum and cerebellum of heroin intoxicated rats, and it suggested that the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established successfully. The light microscope and electron microscope features of heroin-induced brain damage in rats included: (1) The nerve cells of cerebral cortex degenerated and died. According to the heroin accumulated dosage, there were statistically significant difference of the nerve cell deaths between 4336 mg/kg group and 1580 mg/kg group or control group (P=0.024 and P=0.032, respectively); (2) The main

  10. Craving and illicit heroin use among patients in heroin-assisted treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, Peter; Hendriks, Vincent M.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van Ree, Jan M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate in heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) compared to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT): the course of heroin craving and illicit heroin use, their mutual association, and their association with multi-domain treatment response. Design: RCTs on the efficacy of 12 months

  11. Validity of the EQ-5D as a generic health outcome instrument in a heroin-dependent population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Bart P.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Blanken, Peter; de Borgie, Corianne A. J. M.; van Ree, Jan M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the EuroQol (EQ-5D) in a population of chronic, treatment-resistant heroin-dependent patients. METHODS: The EQ-5D is studied relative to the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) and the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI)

  12. Heroin in brown, black and white: structural factors and medical consequences in the US heroin market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarone, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Heroin coming into the United States historically comes from three widely dispersed geographical regions: Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Mexico. A fourth source of US-bound heroin, from Colombia, originated in the early 1990s. The fact that the four heroin sources produce differing morphologies and qualities of heroin has not been critically examined. In addition, it is not well established how the contemporary competing dynamics of interdiction, or restriction of heroin flows across international boundaries, and neoliberal, e.g., global expansion of free trade, policies are affecting heroin markets. This paper will highlight changes in the US heroin market, including source trends, the political economy of the now dominant source and the resultant effects on the heroin risk environment by US region. Using a structural and historical framework this paper examines two decades of secondary data sources, including government and drug control agency documents, on heroin flows together with published work on the political and economic dynamics in Latin America. Co-occurring neoliberal economic reforms may have contributed to paradoxical effects of US/Colombian interdiction efforts. Since entering the US market, heroin from Colombia has been distributed at a much higher quality and lower retail price. An increasingly exclusive market has developed with Mexican and Colombian heroin gaining market share and displacing Asian heroin. These trends have had dramatic effects on the risk environment for heroin consumers. An intriguing factor is that different global sources of heroin produce substantially different products. Plausible associations exist between heroin source/form and drug use behaviours and harms. For example, cold water-soluble powdered heroin (sources: Asia, Colombia) may be associated with higher HIV prevalence in the US, while low-solubility "black tar" heroin (BTH; source: Mexico) is historically used in areas with reduced HIV prevalence. BTH is

  13. Heroin in brown, black and white: Structural factors and medical consequences in the US heroin market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarone, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Background Heroin coming into the United States historically comes from three widely dispersed geographical regions: Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Mexico. A fourth source of US-bound heroin, from Colombia, originated in the early 1990s. The fact that the four heroin sources produce differing morphologies and qualities of heroin has not been critically examined. In addition, it is not well established how the contemporary competing dynamics of interdiction, or restriction of heroin flows across international boundaries, and neoliberal, e.g., global expansion of free trade, policies are affecting heroin markets. This paper will highlight changes in the US heroin market, including source trends, the political economy of the now dominant source and the resultant effects on the heroin risk environment by US region. Methods Using a structural and historical framework this paper examines two decades of secondary data sources, including government and drug control agency documents, on heroin flows together with published work on the political and economic dynamics in Latin America. Results Co-occurring neoliberal economic reforms may have contributed to paradoxical effects of US/Colombian interdiction efforts. Since entering the US market, heroin from Colombia has been distributed at a much higher quality and lower retail price. An increasingly exclusive market has developed with Mexican and Colombian heroin gaining market share and displacing Asian heroin. These trends have had dramatic effects on the risk environment for heroin consumers. An intriguing factor is that different global sources of heroin produce substantially different products. Plausible associations exist between heroin source/form and drug use behaviours and harms. For example, cold water-soluble powdered heroin (sources: Asia, Colombia) may be associated with higher HIV prevalence in the US, while low-solubility “black tar” heroin (BTH; source: Mexico) is historically used in areas with reduced

  14. Hemodynamic, Thyroid and Immunomodulatory Effects of Heroin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail M. Maulood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diacetylmorphine (heroin has many effects on the body system; it exerts effects on cardiovascular, immune and endocrine systems. The aim of the this study is to investigate the short-term effects of low and high doses of heroin on systolic blood pressure (SBP, thyroid hormones and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. The experimental rats were divided into three groups, each with six individuals and the treatments were continued for seven days. SBP significantly reduced by heroin administration in the second dose as compared with the control group. A marked decrease in the serum NO level was also noticed after first (low and second (high dose of administration as compared with control group. The present results also revealed that serum MCP-1 was statistically increased in the second dose of heroin group. Statistical analysis showed that both serum T3 and T4 levels were reduced significantly by heroin administration. In conclusions, for the first time, our findings suggested that diacetylmorphine could affect immune system through MCP-1 elevation. As well as heroin may affect cardiac and liver functions via increasing troponin-T and bilirubin levels.

  15. A cluster-analytic profiling of heroin-dependent patients based on level, clinical adequacy, and patient-desired adjustment of buprenorphine dosage during buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment in sixteen Spanish centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Saul; González-Saiz, Francisco; Trujols, Joan; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza; Siñol, Núria; Pérez de Los Cobos, José

    2018-06-01

    Buprenorphine dosage is a crucial factor influencing outcomes of buprenorphine treatment for heroin use disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to identify naturally occurring profiles of heroin-dependent patients regarding individualized management of buprenorphine dosage in clinical practice of buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment. 316 patients receiving buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment were surveyed at 16 Spanish centers during the stabilization phase of this treatment. Patients were grouped using cluster analysis based on three key indicators of buprenorphine dosage management: dose, adequacy according to physician, and adjustment according to patient. The clusters obtained were compared regarding different facets of patient clinical condition. Four clusters were identified and labeled as follows (buprenorphine average dose and percentage of participants in each cluster are given in brackets): "Clinically Adequate and Adjusted to Patient Desired Low Dosage" (2.60 mg/d, 37.05%); "Clinically Adequate and Adjusted to Patient Desired High Dosage" (10.71 mg/d, 29.18%); "Clinically Adequate and Patient Desired Reduction of Low Dosage" (3.38 mg/d, 20.0%); and "Clinically Inadequate and Adjusted to Patient Desired Moderate Dosage" (7.55 mg/d, 13.77%). Compared to patients from the other three clusters, participants in the latter cluster reported more frequent use of heroin and cocaine during last week, lower satisfaction with buprenorphine-naloxone as a medication, higher prevalence of buprenorphine-naloxone adverse effects and poorer psychological adjustment. Our results show notable differences between clusters of heroin-dependent patients regarding buprenorphine dosage management. We also identified a group of patients receiving clinically inadequate buprenorphine dosage, which was related to poorer clinical condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A pilot assessment of relapse prevention for heroin addicts in a Chinese rehabilitation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Zhao; Xu, Li; Chen, Hanhui; Ding, Xu; Yi, Zhang; Mingyuang, Zhang

    2011-05-01

    To conduct a pilot assessment of relapse prevention (RP) group therapy for heroin-dependent patients in a drug rehabilitation center in China. A randomized case-control study was conducted to assess the efficacy of RP delivered over a 2-month period to male heroin addicts (n = 50, RP group) in the Shanghai Labor Drug Rehabilitation Center (LDRC) compared with an equal number of participants (n = 50, labor rehabilitation (LR) group) in the LDRC program receiving standard-of-care treatment. Outcomes were assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Self-Efficacy Scale (SE), and the Self-Esteem Scale (SES) after completion of RP, and by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and abstinence rates of heroin use at 3-month follow-up post release from the LDRC for both groups. Significant improvements in scores on SAS, SE, and SES were found in the RP group after completion of the 2-month RP group therapy compared with the LR group (SAS 7.85 ± 6.20 vs 1.07 ± 5.42, SE 3.88 ± 3.60 vs .08 ± 2.89, and SES 3.83 ± 3.31 vs .78 ± 2.55). At 3-month follow-up, the RP group participants had more improvements on ASI scores in most domains and had higher abstinence rates than that in the LR group (37.2% vs 16.7%). An RP component can be effective in increasing abstinence rates among post-program heroin-dependent individuals and may help reduce anxiety and improve self-esteem and self-efficacy during and following treatment. This study suggests RP as a potentially effective component of treatment for heroin addicts.

  17. The role of alcohol abuse in the etiology of heroin-related deaths. Evidence for pharmacokinetic interactions between heroin and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, A; Groppi, A; Montagna, M

    1999-01-01

    heroin and alcohol do occur in individuals exposed to high doses of these substances.

  18. Reduction in cerebral perfusion after heroin administration: a resting state arterial spin labeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklaus Denier

    Full Text Available Heroin dependence is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, characterized by the compulsion to seek and use heroin. Heroin itself has a strong potential to produce subjective experiences characterized by intense euphoria, relaxation and release from craving. The neurofunctional foundations of these perceived effects are not well known. In this study, we have used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI in 15 heroin-dependent patients from a stable heroin-assisted treatment program to observe the steady state effects of heroin (60 min after administration. Patients were scanned in a cross-over and placebo controlled design. They received an injection of their regular dose of heroin or saline (placebo before or after the scan. As phMRI method, we used a pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL sequence based on a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR spin labeling scheme combined with a single-shot 3D GRASE (gradient-spin echo readout on a 3 Tesla scanner. Analysis was performed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 8, using a general linear model for whole brain comparison between the heroin and placebo conditions. We found that compared to placebo, heroin was associated with reduced perfusion in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and in the insula (both hemispheres. Analysis of extracted perfusion values indicate strong effect sizes and no gender related differences. Reduced perfusion in these brain areas may indicate self- and emotional regulation effects of heroin in maintenance treatment.

  19. Cold Preparation of Heroin in a Black Tar Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Armenta, Richard F; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldshear, Jesse L; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S

    2017-07-29

    Black tar heroin is typically prepared for injection with heat which decreases the risk of HIV transmission by inactivating the virus. We received reports that persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, a black tar heroin market, were using only water to dissolve heroin. Because Tijuana abuts San Diego County, CA, United States, we undertook the present analyses to determine the prevalence of this practice among PWID in San Diego, California. PWID completed quarterly behavioral assessments and serological testing for blood-borne viruses. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess for individual, social, and structural correlates of preparing heroin without heat within the preceding 6 months. Nearly half of black tar heroin users (149/305) reported they had prepared heroin without heat within 6 months. In multivariable analysis, cold preparation was independently associated with younger age (10 year decrease; AOR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.03, 1.53), more drug injecting acquaintances (per 5 acquaintance increase; AOR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01, 1.09) and prefilled syringe use (injecting drugs from syringes that are already filled with drugs before purchase; AOR = 1.86; 95% CI 1.14, 3.02). Conclusions/Importance: To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report that PWID living in a black tar heroin market are preparing heroin without heat. Additional research is needed to determine whether this is an endemic practice or PWID are engaging in new forms of drug preparation in response to changes in the environment.

  20. Evaluation of the reinforcing and subjective effects of heroin in combination with dextromethorphan and quinidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Comer, Sandra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies have suggested that the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist dextromethorphan may be useful in the treatment of opioid dependence. Design This double-blinded, placebo-controlled inpatient study evaluated the effects of 0, 30, and 60 mg of dextromethorphan and quinidine (DMQ) on the reinforcing and subjective effects of heroin in recently detoxified heroin abusers. Participants Nine heroin-dependent participants were admitted and then detoxified from heroin over the course of several days. Interventions Participants were subsequently stabilized on 0, 30, or 60 mg of DMQ. Each dose of DMQ was administered for two consecutive weeks, and the effects of heroin (0, 12.5, and 50 mg) were studied under each DMQ maintenance dose condition. DMQ and heroin dose were administered in random order both within and between participants. Results Planned comparisons revealed statistically significant increases in progressive ratio breakpoint values and positive subjective ratings as a function of heroin dose. There were no consistent changes in any of the responses as a function of DMQ maintenance dose, other than a modest reduction in craving. Conclusions In summary, results from this study suggest that maintenance on dextromethorphan in combination with quinidine has a limited role in the treatment of opioid dependence. PMID:22320027

  1. Chasing the Dragon Away: Personality as a protective factor and extended-release naltrexone as a treatment for heroin dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid dependence causes severe problems for patients and their family members and imposes an enormous economic burden on society. The main objectives of this thesis were (a) to gain better insight in the process of getting addicted to heroin in order to develop personality-based prevention

  2. Heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for medication-assisted treatment after inpatient detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Bailey, Genie L; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification. Participants (N=397) were interviewed at the start of brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of background characteristics, depressed mood, and perceived heroin refusal self-efficacy with preference for MAT. Controlling for other covariates, depressed mood and lower perceived refusal self-efficacy were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of expressing preference for MAT (versus no MAT). Perceived ability to refuse heroin after leaving detox is inversely associated with a heroin user's desire for MAT. An effective continuum of care model may benefit from greater attention to patient's perceived refusal self-efficacy during detoxification which may impact preference for MAT and long-term recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. [A randomized, double-blind, controlled study: Ji-Tai tablet for the treatment of acute withdrawl syndrome of mild heroin dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhong; Tang, Cuiqing; Cheng, Shuang; Cui, Guimei; Zhang, Ruiling; Zhang, Zhiyong; Xie, Lingyin; Lin, Yongxiong; Hao, Wei

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of Ji-Tai tablet and Ji-Tai tablet combined with buprenorphine in the treatment of patients with acute withdrawal syndrome of mild heroin dependence. A total of 150 patients with mild heroin dependence were recruited, and were randomly assigned to a Ji-Tai tablet group (n=50), a Ji-Tai tablet combined with buprenorphine group (n=50) and a control group (n=50) during a 10-day clinical trial. Opiate withdrawal scale (OWS) was used to measure the severity of withdrawal symptoms. Anxiety symptoms assessments were made at 0 day (baseline), the day 5 (middle), and the day 10 (end) by the Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA). Symptoms were assessed before and 1 h or 2 h after medication each day. The total withdrawal symptoms scores and the daily reduction rate were used to measure the effect of Ji-Tai tablet vs Ji- Tai tablet plus buprenorphine. Safety evaluation was carried out by the following measures: baseline of treatment, drug side effects after the treatment, vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate), laboratory examination (routine blood and urine tests and the liver and kidney function tests), and electrocardiograms. A total of 142 mild heroin dependence patients performed the experiments (including 48 in the Ji-Tai tablet group, 48 in the Ji-Tai tablet with buprenorphine group and 46 in the control group). The scores of baseline withdrawal symptoms were 43.520±19.786, 42.640±17.648 and 47.100±24.450, respectively, with no significant differences among the 3 groups (all P>0.05 ). During the 10-day treatment, the reduction rate of acute withdrawal symptoms scores increased daily, the acute withdrawal syndrome scores and the anxiety symptoms scores declined from day 0 to day 10, there was also no significant difference among the 3 groups (all P>0.05). Ji-Tai tablet did not affect vital signs such as blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate. Ji-Tai tablet or Ji-Tai tablet combined with buprenorphine

  4. Research Reports: Heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D. Director National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series HEROIN What is heroin and how is ... and Human Services | National Institutes of Health Research Report Series drug abuse and its consequences to identify ...

  5. Effects of Methadone Maintenance Treatment on Decision-Making Processes in Heroin-Abusers: A Cognitive Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khodadadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C TIntroduction: Although decision-making processes have become a principal target of study among addiction researchers, few researches are published according to effects of different treatment methods on the cognitive processes underlying decision making up to now. Utilizing cognitive modeling method, in this paper we examine the effects of Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT on cognitive processes underlying decision-making disorders in heroin-abusers. Methods: For this purpose, for the first time, we use the balloon analog risk task (BART to assess the decision-making ability of heroin-abusers before and after treatment and compare it to the non heroin-dependent subjects. Results: Results demonstrate that heroin-abusers show more risky behavior than other groups. But, there is no difference between the performance of heroin-abusers after 6 months of MMT and control group. Modeling subjects’ behavior in BART reveals that poor performance in heroin-abusers is due to reward-dependency and insensitivity to evaluation. Discussion: Results show that 6 months of MMT decreases reward-dependency and increases sensitivity to evaluation.

  6. Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Hakan Cansiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and heroin abuse is common due to its pleasure-inducing effect. For the last 30 years heroin abuse has become an important worldwide public health problem. Heroin can be administered in many different ways as preferred. Heroin affects many systems including respiratory system, cardiovascular system and particulary the central nervous system. Overdose use of heroin intravenously can be fatal due to respiratory depression. In this letter, we wanted to engage attention to respiratory depression caused by heroin abuse and potential benefits of using naloxone. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 248-250

  7. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts » Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Listen Heroin ...

  8. Heroin: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug-Free America) Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) Children What You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Teenagers Heroin (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Heroin (National ...

  9. Eating patterns among heroin users: a qualitative study with implications for nutritional interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne; Nettleton, Sarah; Pickering, Lucy; Fischer, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To provide new insights into heroin users' eating patterns in order to inform nutritional interventions. Seventy-seven audio-recorded in-depth interviews which elicited detailed data on eating patterns. Community and residential drug services, pharmacies and peer support groups in Southern England, UK. Forty current or ex-heroin users (21 men and 19 women), of whom 37 (20 men and 17 women) were re-interviewed after 3 months. Audio data transcribed verbatim, coded systematically and analysed inductively. Heroin users' eating patterns were influenced by individual, social, cultural, economic and environmental factors. During active heroin use, participants consumed quick, convenient, cheap and sweet foods, ate infrequently and had little interest in food. Eating patterns often improved during stays in residential services and after heroin cessation. Ex-heroin users began to take pleasure in food preparation and eating and identified therapeutic benefits to cooking. Initially, weight gain was experienced positively, but subsequently generated anxieties as participants, particularly women, struggled to control their appetite and worried about becoming overweight. Findings complement and add to previous research and sociological and anthropological literatures. Heroin users have dysfunctional eating patterns that are amenable to change and community and residential services could enable them to experience the many health, psychological and social benefits of improved eating practices. Nutritional interventions need to be tailored to individual needs and circumstances, but also monitored and evaluated so that there is a future evidence base. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Neural Correlates of Drug-Related Attentional Bias in Heroin Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The attention of drug-dependent persons tends to be captured by stimuli associated with drug consumption. This involuntary cognitive process is considered as attentional bias (AB. AB has been hypothesized to have causal effects on drug abuse and drug relapse, but its underlying neural mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigated the neural basis of AB in abstinent heroin addicts (AHAs, combining event-related potential (ERP analysis and source localization techniques. Electroencephalography data were collected in 21 abstinent heroin addicts and 24 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs during a dot-probe task. In the task, a pair of drug-related image and neutral image was presented randomly in left and right side of the cross fixation, followed by a dot probe replacing one of the images. Behaviorally, AHAs had shorter reaction times (RTs for the congruent condition compared to the incongruent condition, whereas this was not the case in the HCs. This finding demonstrated the presence of AB towards drug cues in AHAs. Furthermore, the image-evoked ERPs in AHAs had significant shorter P1 latency compared to HCs, as well as larger N1, N2, and P2 amplitude, suggesting that drug-related stimuli might capture attention early and overall require more attentional resources in AHAs. The target-related P3 had significantly shorter latency and lower amplitude in the congruent than incongruent condition in AHAs compared to HCs. Moreover, source localization of ERP components revealed increased activity for AHAs as compared to HCs in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC, superior parietal lobule and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG for image-elicited responses, and decreased activity in the occipital and the medial parietal lobes for target-elicited responses. Overall, the results of our study confirmed that AHAs may exhibit AB in drug-related contexts, and suggested that the bias might be related to an abnormal neural activity, both in

  11. Prescribing Heroin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jourdan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    En lang række spørgsmål indgår i overvejelserne om at ordinere heroin til heroinafhængige. I leksikon form gives svar på i alt 36 spørgsmål - som hver især og samlet - er en del af det problem- og videnskompleks, som indgår i afvejningerne af om, hvordan og hvorfor man kan vælge at ordinere heroin...

  12. Heroin - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish) PDF The basics - Opioids, part 1 - English MP3 The basics - Opioids, part 1 - español (Spanish) MP3 The basics - Opioids, part 1 - English MP4 The ... Spanish) PDF Heroin - Opioid addiction, part 7 - English MP3 Heroin - Opioid addiction, part 7 - español (Spanish) MP3 ...

  13. Heroin-assisted treatment showed better efficacy than methadone

    OpenAIRE

    ANSSEAU, Marc; Demaret, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: A fraction of patients receiving methadone treatment pursues their use of street heroin. In Switzerland, a new treatment with prescribed diacetylmorphine (pharmaceutical heroin) was developed to help these heroin addicts resistant to methadone treatment to decrease their street heroin use. In this heroin-assisted treatment (HAT), diacetylmorphine is prescribed to severe heroin user and diacetylmorphine is administered by patients under the supervision of nurses in a...

  14. Syncope and QT prolongation among patients treated with methadone for heroin dependence in the city of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanoe, Søren; Hvidt, Christian; Ege, Peter Preben

    2007-01-01

    Methadone is prescribed to heroin addicts to decrease illicit opioid use. Prolongation of the QT interval in the ECG of patients with torsade de pointes (TdP) has been reported in methadone users. As heroin addicts sometimes faint while using illicit drugs, doctors might attribute too many episodes...

  15. The effect of methamphetamine and heroin price on polydrug use: A behavioural economics analysis in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Jenny; Bradford, Deborah; Jones, Craig

    2010-09-01

    A key aim of supply-side drug law enforcement is to reduce drug use by increasing the retail price of drugs. Since most illicit drug users are polydrug users the effectiveness of this strategy depends on the extent to which drug users reduce their overall consumption of drugs. The literature shows that drug users do reduce their consumption of a drug when its price increases. However the extent of that decrease and the implications for the use of other drugs vary across studies. A sample of 101 Australian methamphetamine users was surveyed using a behavioural economics approach. Participants were given a hypothetical fixed drug budget, presented with a range of drug price lists and asked how many units of each drug they would purchase. Methamphetamine and heroin prices were varied independently across trials. While demand for both methamphetamine and heroin was found to be price elastic, elasticity estimates were influenced by the nature of participants' drug dependence. The group least responsive to changes in methamphetamine price were those dependent only on methamphetamine, while the group most responsive were dependent only on heroin. Similar findings emerged in relation to changes in heroin price. Cross-price elasticity analysis showed limited substitution into other drugs as the price of methamphetamine increased. In contrast, for heroin, there was significant substitution into pharmaceutical opioids and to a lesser extent, benzodiazepines and methamphetamine. However, for the most part, the decreases in methamphetamine or heroin consumption outweighed any substitution into other drugs. The reduction in overall drug consumption and expenditure in response to price increases in heroin and methamphetamine observed in this sample lend support to supply-side enforcement strategies that aim to increase retail drug price. Notably, this analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the nature of users' drug dependence in estimating price responsiveness

  16. Does Chinese culture influence psychosocial factors for heroin use among young adolescents in China? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Jian; Lu, Zhouping; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2010-09-21

    Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of culturally competent intervention programs for heroin use intervention and

  17. Does Chinese culture influence psychosocial factors for heroin use among young adolescents in China? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. Results A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. Conclusions This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of

  18. Deuterodiacetylmorphine as a marker for use of illicit heroin by addicts in a heroin-assisted treatment program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klous, Marjolein G.; Rook, Elisabeth J.; Hillebrand, Michel J. X.; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2005-01-01

    In preparation for a treatment program concerning the medical coprescription of heroin and methadone to treatment-resistant addicts in the Netherlands, we studied a novel strategy for monitoring co-use of illicit (nonprescribed) heroin. A deuterated analogue of heroin was added (1:20) to

  19. Characterizing Durations of Heroin Abstinence in the California Civil Addict Program: Results From a 33-Year Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Anglin, M. Douglas; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Lima, Viviane Dias; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the chronic disease model of opioid dependence, cessation is often observed as a longitudinal process rather than a discrete endpoint. We aimed to characterize and identify predictors of periods of heroin abstinence in the natural history of recovery from opioid dependence. Data were collected on participants from California who were enrolled in the Civil Addict Program from 1962 onward by use of a natural history interview. Multivariate regression using proportional hazards frailty models was applied to identify independent predictors and correlates of repeated abstinence episode durations. Among 471 heroin-dependent males, 387 (82.2%) reported 932 abstinence episodes, 60.3% of which lasted at least 1 year. Multivariate analysis revealed several important findings. First, demographic factors such as age and ethnicity did not explain variation in durations of abstinence episodes. However, employment and lower drug use severity predicted longer episodes. Second, abstinence durations were longer following sustained treatment versus incarceration. Third, individuals with multiple abstinence episodes remained abstinent for longer durations in successive episodes. Finally, abstinence episodes initiated >10 and ≤20 years after first use lasted longer than others. Public policy facilitating engagement of opioid-dependent individuals in maintenance-oriented drug treatment and employment is recommended to achieve and sustain opioid abstinence. PMID:23445901

  20. Heroin Epidemic PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Heroin use and heroin-related overdose deaths are increasing. Most people are using it with other drugs, especially prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to prevent and treat the problem.

  1. CDC Vital Signs-Heroin Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the July 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Heroin use and heroin-related overdose deaths are increasing. Most people are using it with other drugs, especially prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to prevent and treat the problem.

  2. Needles in the haystacks: the social context of initiation to heroin injection in rural Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draus, Paul J; Carlson, Robert G

    2006-01-01

    Although there has been much research on the social context of heroin injection, little has been reported outside of major urban areas. This article examines contextual factors associated with initiation to heroin injection in rural Ohio, based on semistructured qualitative interviews and focus groups involving 25 recent heroin injectors (12 women, 13 men) recruited from three contiguous counties between June 2002 and February 2004. Curiosity about the drug's effects, the growing pressures of drug dependence and economic need, and the influence of intimate and group relations were all identified as factors that offset fears commonly associated with injection. This study complements other research on the social ecology of heroin injection and may contribute to improved services for injection drug users in rural areas and small communities.

  3. Heroin Epidemic PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-07

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Heroin use and heroin-related overdose deaths are increasing. Most people are using it with other drugs, especially prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to prevent and treat the problem.  Created: 7/7/2015 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/7/2015.

  4. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, M.; Bentz, D.; Schicktanz, N.; Milnik, A.; Aerni, A.; Gerhards, C.; Schwegler, K.; Vogel, M.; Blum, J.; Schmid, O.; Roozendaal, B.; Lang, U.E.; Borgwardt, S.; Quervain, D. de

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce

  5. Biased and less sensitive: A gamified approach to delay discounting in heroin addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Stefan; Haber, Paul; Morley, Kirsten; Underhill, Dylan; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2018-03-01

    People with addiction will continue to use drugs despite adverse long-term consequences. We hypothesized (a) that this deficit persists during substitution treatment, and (b) that this deficit might be related not only to a desire for immediate gratification, but also to a lower sensitivity for optimal decision making. We investigated how individuals with a history of heroin addiction perform (compared to healthy controls) in a virtual reality delay discounting task. This novel task adds to established measures of delay discounting an assessment of the optimality of decisions, especially in how far decisions are influenced by a general choice bias and/or a reduced sensitivity to the relative value of the two alternative rewards. We used this measure of optimality to apply diffusion model analysis to the behavioral data to analyze the interaction between decision optimality and reaction time. The addiction group consisted of 25 patients with a history of heroin dependency currently participating in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 25 healthy participants with no history of substance abuse, who were recruited from the Western Sydney community. The patient group demonstrated greater levels of delay discounting compared to the control group, which is broadly in line with previous observations. Diffusion model analysis yielded a reduced sensitivity for the optimality of a decision in the patient group compared to the control group. This reduced sensitivity was reflected in lower rates of information accumulation and higher decision criteria. Increased discounting in individuals with heroin addiction is related not only to a generally increased bias to immediate gratification, but also to reduced sensitivity for the optimality of a decision. This finding is in line with other findings about the sensitivity of addicts in distinguishing optimal from nonoptimal choice options.

  6. A Cluster of Fentanyl-Laced Heroin Deaths in 2015 in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Pilgrim, Jennifer L; Di Rago, Matthew; Crump, Kerryn; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of opioid use in therapeutic and recreational settings has steadily increased throughout the western world. The addition of fentanyl into heroin products can produce potentially dangerous consequences, even to opioid tolerant individuals who may be unaware of such additions. Following an observed spike of heroin-fentanyl related deaths in Melbourne, Australia, a study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of these cases. All reportable deaths occurring in Victoria during 2015 and submitted to the toxicology laboratory were analysed using LC-MS-MS to confirm the combination of the heroin marker 6-acetylmorphine and/or morphine, and fentanyl. Over 4,000 coronial cases in 2015 underwent toxicological analysis for these drugs, there were nine cases identified that involved fentanyl-laced heroin. There was no specific mention of fentanyl use in any of these cases. All occurred within 2 months and in two distinct locations. The first four deaths occurred within 3 days of each other, in neighboring suburbs. The ages ranged from 25 to 57 years with an average of 40 and median of 37 years, and consisted of eight males and one female. The average and median femoral blood concentration of fentanyl was 18 and 20 ng/mL (range: fentanyl, which supported the likelihood of fentanyl-laced heroin. This is the first reported case series of fatalities involving heroin and fentanyl outside of North America in published literature. These findings may help inform public health and prevention strategies serving to decrease the potential for such fatalities in the future. © Crown copyright 2017.

  7. Acute progressive paraplegia in heroin-associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kyle W; Romba, Meghan; Gailloud, Philippe; Izbudak, Izlem; Saylor, Deanna

    2018-05-01

    As the opioid epidemic continues, understanding manifestations of abuse, including heroin-associated myelopathy remains essential. Here we describe a young man with a past medical history significant for polysubstance abuse who developed acute-onset, rapidly progressive myelopathy after resumption of intravenous heroin use. He had significant spinal cord involvement with findings suggestive of heroin-associated myelopathy. The salient features of this case include diffusion imaging of the spine and spinal angiography supporting a possible vasculopathy as the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying heroin-associated myelopathy. Additionally, CSF studies showed the transition from a neutrophilic pleocytosis to a lymphocytic pleocytosis suggesting an inflammatory component. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heroin: From Drug to Ambivalent Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Birgitte Schepelern; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an anthropological analysis of the introduction of medically prescribed heroin as part of official substance abuse treatment. While anthropological inquiries of substance abuse treatment have mainly focused on providing the users perspectives on the (ab)use or unraveling...... the conflicts and negotiations between users and staff, the present article argues for the merits of paying attention to the spatial dimensions of substance abuse treatment. Focusing on the spatial and material ramification of the treatment can shed a nuanced light on the still vulnerable process of altering...... the heroin from drug to medicine, and thereby on the attempts to settle heroin in a new practical and semantic landscape. The heroin is anchored in some powerful discourses of crime, death, and pleasure, and the analysis shows how these discourses (re-)appear in the spatial textures of the clinic, contesting...

  9. Temporal correlation between opiate seizures in East/Southeast Asia and B.C. heroin deaths: a transoceanic model of heroin death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mark E

    2003-01-01

    Because heroin supply changes cannot be measured directly, their impact on populations is poorly understood. British Columbia has experienced an injection drug use epidemic since the 1980s that resulted in 2,590 illicit drug deaths from 1990-1999. Since previous work indicates heroin seizures can correlate with supply and B.C. receives heroin only from Southeast Asia, this study examined B.C. heroin deaths against opiate seizures in East/Southeast Asia. Opiate seizures in East/Southeast Asia and data from two B.C. mortality datasets containing heroin deaths were examined. The Pearson correlation coefficient for seizures against each mortality dataset was determined. Opiate seizures, all illicit drug deaths and all opiate deaths concurrently increased twice and decreased twice from 1989-1999, and all reached new peak values in 1993. Three B.C. sub-regions exhibited illicit drug deaths rate trends concurrent with the three principal datasets studied. The Pearson correlation coefficient for opiate-induced deaths against opiate seizures from 1980-1999 was R=0.915 (popiate seizures from 1987-1999 was R=0.896 (popiate seizures in East/Southeast Asia were very strongly correlated with B.C. opiate and illicit drug deaths. The number of B.C. heroin-related deaths may be strongly linked to heroin supply. Enforcement services are not effective in preventing harm caused by heroin in B.C.; therefore, Canada should examine other methods to prevent harm. The case for harm reduction is strengthened by the ineffectiveness of enforcement and the unlikelihood of imminent eradication of heroin production in Southeast Asia.

  10. Long-term antagonism of κ opioid receptors prevents escalation of and increased motivation for heroin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosburg, Joel E; Whitfield, Timothy W; Park, Paula E; Crawford, Elena F; George, Olivier; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Koob, George F

    2013-12-04

    The abuse of opioid drugs, both illicit and prescription, is a persistent problem in the United States, accounting for >1.2 million users who require treatment each year. Current treatments rely on suppressing immediate withdrawal symptoms and replacing illicit drug use with long-acting opiate drugs. However, the mechanisms that lead to preventing opiate dependence are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that κ opioid receptor (KOR) activation during chronic opioid intake contributes to negative affective states associated with withdrawal and the motivation to take increasing amounts of heroin. Using a 12 h long-access model of heroin self-administration, rats showed escalation of heroin intake over several weeks. This was prevented by a single high dose (30 mg/kg) of the long-acting KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), paralleled by reduced motivation to respond for heroin on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement, a measure of compulsive-like responding. Systemic nor-BNI also significantly decreased heroin withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior. Immunohistochemical analysis showed prodynorphin content increased in the nucleus accumbens core in all heroin-exposed rats, but selectively increased in the nucleus accumbens shell in long-access rats. Local infusion of nor-BNI (4 μg/side) into accumbens core altered the initial intake of heroin but not the rate of escalation, while local injection into accumbens shell selectively suppressed increases in heroin intake over time without altering initial intake. These data suggest that dynorphin activity in the nucleus accumbens mediates the increasing motivation for heroin taking and compulsive-like responding for heroin, suggesting that KOR antagonists may be promising targets for the treatment of opioid addiction.

  11. Multidimensional Therapy (Bio, Psycho, Social of Heroin Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article is the report of an experimental research consists of a sample of 30 male heroin addicts who have referred to National Drug Addiction Researches in order to receive medical therapy (methadone in 1382-83. These individuals (23-34 years old are studied in two test group (15 and control group (15. Different mental therapy methods (group, family, individual were applied for this sample. In this research, a questionnaire with 79 questions and a few short checklists was used in order to measure individuals' mental/social characteristics via Post-Test and Pre-Test methods. The validity of this questionnaire was calculated 82 percent after two tests. To analyze the data, two methods were applied: quantitative method (dependent/independent descriptive statistics, test statistics and T statistics and qualitative method (interview, observation, questionnaire. The findings of qualitative method represented in this article, indicate a meaningful difference between these two groups. It also shows that by applying a holistic approach, treatment process is better and faster and relapse possibility is less if it have been following up for at least one year.

  12. What You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin Print en español Lo que necesitas saber sobre las drogas: La heroína What It Is: Heroin (say: HAIR-uh-win) comes from the opium poppy, a flower that grows in Asia, Mexico, and South America. Pure heroin is a white ...

  13. Self-identification of nonpharmaceutical fentanyl exposure following heroin overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Matthew K; Chai, Peter R; Krotulski, Alex J; Friscia, Melissa; Chapman, Brittany; Boyer, Edward W; Logan, Barry K; Babu, Kavita M

    2018-01-01

    To compare user self-identification of nonpharmaceutical fentanyl exposure with confirmatory urine drug testing in emergency department (ED) patients presenting after heroin overdose. This was a cross-sectional study of adult ED patients who presented after a heroin overdose requiring naloxone administration. Participants provided verbal consent after which they were asked a series of questions regarding their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs toward heroin and nonpharmaceutical fentanyl. Participants also provided urine samples, which were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the presence of fentanyl, heroin metabolites, other clandestine opioids, common pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. Thirty participants were enrolled in the study period. Ten participants (33%) had never required naloxone for an overdose in the past, 20 participants (67%) reported recent abstinence, and 12 participants (40%) reported concomitant cocaine use. Naloxone was detected in all urine drug screens. Heroin or its metabolites were detected in almost all samples (93.3%), as were fentanyl (96.7%) and its metabolite, norfentanyl (93.3%). Acetylfentanyl was identified in nine samples (30%) while U-47700 was present in two samples (6.7%). Sixteen participants self-identified fentanyl in their heroin (sensitivity 55%); participants were inconsistent in their qualitative ability to identify fentanyl in heroin. Heroin users presenting to the ED after heroin overdose requiring naloxone are unable to accurately identify the presence of nonpharmaceutical fentanyl in heroin. Additionally, cutting edge drug testing methodologies identified fentanyl exposures in 96.7% of our patients, as well as unexpected clandestine opioids (like acetylfentanyl and U-47700).

  14. What caused the recent reduction in heroin supply in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodak, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Heroin availability and purity decreased and prices increased in Australia suddenly in early 2001. The heroin market in Australia has still not returned to the status quo ante after more than six years. Benefits of the heroin shortage, including a substantial reduction in drug overdose deaths and property crime, are generally considered to have outweighed adverse effects which included increased use of other drugs, especially stimulants, with a subsequent increase in aggression, violence and mental illness. Some commentators attributed the heroin shortage to a combination of factors, while an influential study highlighted the importance of supply control asserting that increased funding and improved effectiveness of domestic drug law enforcement produced critical heroin seizures which disrupted major syndicates, thereby producing the heroin shortage. Evidence to support a critical role for drug law enforcement in the heroin shortage is weak with some recent evidence contradicting key assertions used to support the supply control hypothesis. Although the most likely interpretation is still a combination of multiple factors, the most important factors appear to have been a substantial recent reduction in source opium cultivation and heroin production in Burma, but probably also increased heroin consumption en route through China and a switch from heroin to amphetamine production in Burma. This interpretation is consistent with the international experience of several recent decades in numerous countries where national heroin shortages have occurred rarely and generally only briefly, notwithstanding vigorous and very well resourced supply control efforts. The recent reduction in heroin supply in Australia, the most severe, longest lasting and best-documented heroin shortage in the world, cannot be confidently attributed, solely or largely, to improved domestic drug law enforcement. At best, domestic law enforcement may have made a small contribution compared to several

  15. Chronic nephropathies of cocaine and heroin abuse: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Jared A; Kimmel, Paul L

    2006-07-01

    Renal disease in cocaine and heroin users is associated with the nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, and rhabdomyolysis. The pathophysiologic basis of cocaine-related renal injury involves renal hemodynamic changes, glomerular matrix synthesis and degradation, and oxidative stress and induction of renal atherogenesis. Heroin is the most commonly abused opiate in the United States. Previous studies identified a spectrum of renal diseases in heroin users. The predominant renal lesion in black heroin users is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and in white heroin users is membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Although the prevalence of heroin use in the United States has increased, the incidence of "heroin nephropathy" has declined. Because reports of heroin nephropathy predated the surveillance of hepatitis C virus and HIV, the varied findings might be related to the spectrum of viral illnesses that are encountered in injection drug users. Socioeconomic conditions, cultural and behavioral practices, or differences in genetic susceptibilities may be more associated with the development of nephropathy in heroin users than the drug's pharmacologic properties. Administration of cocaine in animal models results in nonspecific glomerular, interstitial, and tubular cell lesions, but there is no animal model of heroin-associated renal disease. The heterogeneity of responses that are associated with heroin is not consistent with a single or simple notion of nephropathogenesis. There are no well-designed, prospective, epidemiologic studies to assess the incidence and the prevalence of renal disease in populations of opiate users and to establish the validity of a syndrome such as heroin nephropathy. It is concluded although there is a paucity of evidence to support a heroin-associated nephropathy, the evidence from in vitro cellular and animal studies to support the existence of cocaine-induced renal changes is more convincing.

  16. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN AWARENESS OF ILLNESS (INSIGHT AND HISTORY OF ADDICTION IN HEROIN-ADDICTED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giovanni Icro eMaremmani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In a group of 1066 heroin addicts, who were seeking treatment for opioid agonist treatment, we looked for differences in historical, demographic and clinical characteristics, between patients with different levels of awareness of illness (insight. The results showed that, in the cohort studied, a majority of subjects lacked insight into their heroin-use behaviour. Compared with the impaired-insight group, those who possessed insight into their illness showed significantly greater awareness of past social, somatic and psychopathological impairments, and had a greater number of past treatment-seeking events for heroin addiction. In contrast with other psychiatric illnesses, the presence of awareness appears to be related to the passing of time and to the worsening of the illness. Methodologies to improve the insight of patients should, therefore, be targeted more directly on patients early in their history of heroin dependence, because the risk of lack of insight is greatest during this period.

  17. Days of heroin use predict poor self-reported health in hospitalized heroin users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshesha, Lidia Z.; Tsui, Judith I.; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Crooks, Denise; Anderson, Bradley J.; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between substance use behaviors and self-reported health among hospitalized heroin users. Of the 112 participants, 53 (47%) reported good or better health. In multivariable logistic regression models, each day of heroin use in the last month was associated with an 8% lower odds of reporting health as good or better (OR=.92; 95%CI 0.87, 0.97, p < .05). Cocaine, cannabis, cigarettes, alcohol use, unintentional overdose, nor injection drug use were associated with health status. PMID:24045030

  18. CDC Vital Signs-Heroin Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-07

    This podcast is based on the July 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Heroin use and heroin-related overdose deaths are increasing. Most people are using it with other drugs, especially prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to prevent and treat the problem.  Created: 7/7/2015 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/7/2015.

  19. Wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Pitts, Elizabeth G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary wheel running on the positive reinforcing effects of heroin in rats with an established history of drug self-administration. Rats were assigned to sedentary (no wheel) and exercise (wheel) conditions and trained to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. Rats acquiring cocaine self-administration were then tested with various doses of heroin during daily test sessions. Sedentary rats self-administered more heroin than exercising rats, and this effect was greatest at low and moderate doses of heroin. These data suggest that voluntary wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

  20. Polydrug Use and HIV Risk Among People Who Inject Heroin in Tijuana, Mexico: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Meredith C; Rudolph, Abby E; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Rusch, Melanie L; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Patterson, Thomas L; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Roesch, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico, primarily inject heroin, injection and non-injection use of methamphetamine and cocaine is common. We examined patterns of polydrug use among heroin injectors to inform prevention and treatment of drug use and its health and social consequences. Participants were PWID residing in Tijuana, aged ≥18 years who reported heroin injection in the past six months and were recruited through respondent-driven sampling (n = 1,025). Latent class analysis was conducted to assign individuals to classes on a probabilistic basis, using four indicators of past six-month polydrug and polyroute use: cocaine injecting, cocaine smoking or snorting, methamphetamine injecting, and methamphetamine smoking or snorting. Latent class membership was regressed onto covariates in a multinomial logistic regression. Latent class analyses testing 1, 2, 3, and 4 classes were fit, with the 3-class solution fitting best. Class 1 was defined by predominantly heroin use (50.2%, n = 515); class 2 by methamphetamine and heroin use (43.7%, n = 448), and class 3 by methamphetamine, cocaine, and heroin use (6.0%, n = 62). Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated a group of methamphetamine and cocaine users that exhibited higher-risk sexual practices and lower heroin injecting frequency, and a group of methamphetamine users who were younger and more likely to be female. Discrete subtypes of heroin PWID were identified based on methamphetamine and cocaine use patterns. These findings have identified subtypes of heroin injectors who require more tailored interventions to reduce the health and social harms of injecting drug use.

  1. A rapid solution-based method for determining the affinity of heroin hapten-induced antibodies to heroin, its metabolites, and other opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Oscar B; Duval, Alexander J; Sulima, Agnieszka; Antoline, Joshua F G; Jacobson, Arthur E; Rice, Kenner C; Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R

    2018-06-01

    We describe for the first time a method that utilizes microscale thermophoresis (MST) technology to determine polyclonal antibody affinities to small molecules. Using a novel type of heterologous MST, we have accurately measured a solution-based binding affinity of serum antibodies to heroin which was previously impossible with other currently available methods. Moreover, this mismatch approach (i.e., using a cross-reactive hapten tracer) has never been reported in the literature. When compared with equilibrium dialysis combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ED-UPLC/MS/MS), this novel MST method yields similar binding affinity values for polyclonal antibodies to the major heroin metabolites 6-AM and morphine. Additionally, we herein report the method of synthesis of this novel cross-reactive hapten, MorHap-acetamide-a useful analog for the study of heroin hapten-antibody interactions. Using heterologous MST, we were able to determine the affinities, down to nanomolar accuracies, of polyclonal antibodies to various abused opioids. While optimizing this method, we further discovered that heroin is protected from serum esterase degradation by the presence of these antibodies in a concentration-dependent manner. Lastly, using affinity data for a number of structurally different opioids, we were able to dissect the moieties that are crucial to antibody binding. The novel MST method that is presented herein can be extended to the analysis of any ligand that is prone to degradation and can be applied not only to the development of vaccines to substances of abuse but also to the analysis of small molecule/protein interactions in the presence of serum. Graphical abstract Strategy for the determination of hapten-induced antibody affinities using Microscale thermophoresis.

  2. ABCB1 genetic variability and methadone dosage requirements in opioid-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Janet K; Barratt, Daniel T; Dahlen, Karianne; Loennechen, Morten H; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2006-12-01

    The most common treatment for opioid dependence is substitution therapy with another opioid such as methadone. The methadone dosage is individualized but highly variable, and program retention rates are low due in part to nonoptimal dosing resulting in withdrawal symptoms and further heroin craving and use. Methadone is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein transporter, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, which regulates central nervous system exposure. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the influence of ABCB1 genetic variability on methadone dose requirements. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated from opioid-dependent subjects (n = 60) and non-opioid-dependent control subjects (n = 60), and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 61, 1199, 1236, 2677, and 3435. ABCB1 haplotypes were inferred with PHASE software (version 2.1). There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes between the 2 populations. ABCB1 genetic variability influenced daily methadone dose requirements, such that subjects carrying 2 copies of the wild-type haplotype required higher doses compared with those with 1 copy and those with no copies (98.3 +/- 10.4, 58.6 +/- 20.9, and 55.4 +/- 26.1 mg/d, respectively; P = .029). In addition, carriers of the AGCTT haplotype required significantly lower doses than noncarriers (38.0 +/- 16.8 and 61.3 +/- 24.6 mg/d, respectively; P = .04). Although ABCB1 genetic variability is not related to the development of opioid dependence, identification of variant haplotypes may, after larger prospective studies have been performed, provide clinicians with a tool for methadone dosage individualization.

  3. ZNF804A variants confer risk for heroin addiction and affect decision making and gray matter volume in heroin abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Zhao, Li-Yan; Wang, Gui-Bin; Yue, Wei-Hua; He, Yong; Shu, Ni; Lin, Qi-Xiang; Wang, Fan; Li, Jia-Li; Chen, Na; Wang, Hui-Min; Kosten, Thomas R; Feng, Jia-Jia; Wang, Jun; Tang, Yu-De; Liu, Shu-Xue; Deng, Gui-Fa; Diao, Gan-Huan; Tan, Yun-Long; Han, Hong-Bin; Lin, Lu; Shi, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Drug addiction shares common neurobiological pathways and risk genes with other psychiatric diseases, including psychosis. One of the commonly identified risk genes associated with broad psychosis has been ZNF804A. We sought to test whether psychosis risk variants in ZNF804A increase the risk of heroin addiction by modulating neurocognitive performance and gray matter volume (GMV) in heroin addiction. Using case-control genetic analysis, we compared the distribution of ZNF804A variants (genotype and haplotype) in 1035 heroin abusers and 2887 healthy subjects. We also compared neurocognitive performance (impulsivity, global cognitive ability and decision-making ability) in 224 subjects and GMV in 154 subjects based on the ZNF804A variants. We found significant differences in the distribution of ZNF804A intronic variants (rs1344706 and rs7597593) allele and haplotype frequencies between the heroin and control groups. Decision-making impairment was worse in heroin abusers who carried the ZNF804A risk allele and haplotype. Subjects who carried more risk alleles and haplotypes of ZNF804A had greater GMV in the bilateral insular cortex, right temporal cortex and superior parietal cortex. The interaction between heroin addiction and ZNF804A variants affected GMV in the left sensorimotor cortex. Our findings revealed several ZNF804A variants that were significantly associated with the risk of heroin addiction, and these variants affected decision making and GMV in heroin abusers compared with controls. The precise neural mechanisms that underlie these associations are unknown, which requires future investigations of the effects of ZNF804A on both dopamine neurotransmission and the relative increases in the volume of various brain areas. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Today's Heroin Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips Today’s Heroin Epidemic More people at risk, multiple drugs abused Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This Page Overview Problem Infographics What Can Be Done Issue Details Overview Heroin use has increased across the US among men and ...

  5. 'Defeating the dragon' - can we afford not to treat patients with heroin dependence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize Weich

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A worrying increase in heroin use disorders has been noted in South Africa over recent years. Despite this, very limited treatment options exist in the state sector. This article provides a brief overview of the local extent of the problem and its implications, and discusses treatment options. It briefly investigates international treatment implementation strategies and makes suggestions for local policy.

  6. Neuropsychological functioning in buprenorphine maintained patients versus abstinent heroin abusers on naltrexone hydrochloride therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Andrian, Virginia; Katsakiori, Paraskevi; Panagis, George; Georgiou, Vasileios; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2009-10-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are among the most widely employed pharmacological treatments currently available for opioid addiction. Cognitive effects of buprenorphine in abstinent heroin abusers are nevertheless far from being understood. Neuropsychological performance of 18 buprenorphine-maintained patients (BMP) was evaluated relative to that of 32 currently abstinent heroin abusers on naltrexone hydrochloride therapy (FHAN), and 34 non-drug dependent controls. The three groups were demographically balanced. Clinical groups reported histories of similar patterns of drug use and had increased periods of abstinence from any illicit substance use including heroin. The BMP group performed poorer than controls on the RAVLT (encoding and delayed recall of verbal information), CTT (conceptual flexibility, executive functions) and the RBANS figure copy (visual perception) and delayed recall of visual information. There were no significant differences in any of the cognitive measures between the BMP and FHAN groups or between the FHAN group and controls. Furthermore, the non-differing percentage of abnormal cases between the two patient groups led us to infer that treatment with either BPM or FHAN is not accompanied by qualitative differences in the cognitive profiles of these patients. Overall, results suggest that treatment with naltrexone in abstinent heroin abusers may result in less impairment of cognitive functions compared to treatment with buprenorphine. These findings are relevant for improved prognosis and treatment strategies in opioid dependence.

  7. Heroines & Superheroines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i billedkunstneren Ivar Tønsbergs værker, der under titlen Heroines & Superheroines udstilles ved Dronninglund Kunstcenter 6.6.-1.8.2010, diskuterer denne tekst til udstillingskataloget kvinder og magt, fremstillingsformer og ansigtsaflæsninger. Motivet for værkerne er kvindelige...

  8. The societal cost of heroin use disorder in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixuan Jiang

    Full Text Available Heroin use in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. The objective of this paper is to estimate the annual societal cost of heroin use disorder in the United States in 2015 US dollars.An analytic model was created that included incarceration and crime; treatment for heroin use disorder; chronic infectious diseases (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Tuberculosis and their treatments; treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome; lost productivity; and death by heroin overdose.Using literature-based estimates to populate the model, the cost of heroin use disorder was estimated to be $51.2 billion in 2015 US dollars ($50,799 per heroin user. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that overall cost estimates were sensitive to the number of heroin users, cost of HCV treatment, and cost of incarcerating heroin users.The annual cost of heroin use disorder to society in the United States emphasizes the need for sustained investment in healthcare and non-healthcare related strategies that reduce the likelihood of abuse and provide care and support for users to overcome the disorder.

  9. The price elasticity of demand for heroin: Matched longitudinal and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Todd A; Alessi, Sheila M; Kline, Brendan; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports estimates of the price elasticity of demand for heroin based on a newly constructed dataset. The dataset has two matched components concerning the same sample of regular heroin users: longitudinal information about real-world heroin demand (actual price and actual quantity at daily intervals for each heroin user in the sample) and experimental information about laboratory heroin demand (elicited by presenting the same heroin users with scenarios in a laboratory setting). Two empirical strategies are used to estimate the price elasticity of demand for heroin. The first strategy exploits the idiosyncratic variation in the price experienced by a heroin user over time that occurs in markets for illegal drugs. The second strategy exploits the experimentally induced variation in price experienced by a heroin user across experimental scenarios. Both empirical strategies result in the estimate that the conditional price elasticity of demand for heroin is approximately -0.80. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The price elasticity of demand for heroin: matched longitudinal and experimental evidence#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Todd A.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Kline, Brendan; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports estimates of the price elasticity of demand for heroin based on a newly constructed dataset. The dataset has two matched components concerning the same sample of regular heroin users: longitudinal information about real-world heroin demand (actual price and actual quantity at daily intervals for each heroin user in the sample) and experimental information about laboratory heroin demand (elicited by presenting the same heroin users with scenarios in a laboratory setting). Two empirical strategies are used to estimate the price elasticity of demand for heroin. The first strategy exploits the idiosyncratic variation in the price experienced by a heroin user over time that occurs in markets for illegal drugs. The second strategy exploits the experimentally-induced variation in price experienced by a heroin user across experimental scenarios. Both empirical strategies result in the estimate that the conditional price elasticity of demand for heroin is approximately −0.80. PMID:25702687

  11. Electroencephalographic power and coherence analyses suggest altered brain function in abstinent male heroin-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Hendriks, Vincent M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that drug abuse is associated with altered brain function. However, studies of heroin abuse-related brain dysfunctions are scarce. Electroencephalographic ( EEG) power and coherence analyses are two important tools for examining the effects of drugs on brain function. In

  12. DrugFacts: Heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  13. Cost utility analysis of co-prescribed heroin compared with methadone maintenance treatment in heroin addicts in two randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; van der Zanden, Bart P.; de Borgie, Corianne A. J. M.; Blanken, Peter; van Ree, Jan M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost utility of medical co-prescription of heroin compared with methadone maintenance treatment for chronic, treatment resistant heroin addicts. Design Cost utility analysis of two pooled open label randomised controlled trials. Setting Methadone maintenance programmes in

  14. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think, slows down reaction time, and slows down memory. This affects the way you act and make decisions. Heroin ... it enters the brain so rapidly. It particularly affects those regions of the brain ... fashion, and music, heroin use can have tragic consequences that extend ...

  15. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Icro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Pacini, Matteo; Bizzarri, Jacopo V; Trogu, Emanuela; Maremmani, Angelo Gi; Gerra, Gilberto; Perugi, Giulio; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2010-04-13

    Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.

  16. Deadly heroin or the death of heroin -- overdoses caused by illicit drugs of abuse in Budapest, Hungary between 1994 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Mónika; Dunay, György; Csonka, Renata; Keller, Éva

    2013-12-01

    Rates of illicit drug use and drug-related deaths have continuously increased in developed countries since the 1960s even though the patterns of use and thus the related mortality differ from region to region. In Europe heroin is the drug most often implicated in overdoses. The decedents are most often male, between 20 and 30 years of age and have a long history of drug use. According to the majority of available studies a concomitant use of alcohol and benzodiazepines is one of the risk factors of heroin overdose. In our study we have examined the basic demographic and toxicological features of illicit drug related death cases in Budapest, Hungary between 1994 and 2012. Drug overdose death cases have been divided into two subgroups according to the substances responsible for the death of the subjects: an opioid group and a non-opioid group. The huge majority (87.9%) of decedents died due to heroin overdose and were male (87%). There has been a significant increase in the mean age of the opioid group for the past 19 years. The majority of heroin overdose cases (58%) has had no other psychofarmacons present at the toxicological examination. We have found a slight but significant positive correlation (p=0.0204, r=0.349) between the number of heroin overdose death cases and the mean concentration of street level purity heroin. Most of the examined demographic and toxicological features of the population studied have been in concordance with data previously reported. However, in contrast to other studies we report a strikingly high proportion of "pure" heroin overdose cases where no other psychoactive substances were found. The reason for this is currently unknown; we can only speculate that it can be related to the fact that heroin is used and abused differently from other countries. The remarkable phenomenon of the "ageing" of heroin users may also support a change in the drug use habits of the youngest population. The emergence and spread of new designer drugs also

  17. Heroin on trial: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials of diamorphine-prescribing as treatment for refractory heroin addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strang, John; Groshkova, Teodora; Uchtenhagen, Ambros; van den Brink, Wim; Haasen, Christian; Schechter, Martin T.; Lintzeris, Nick; Bell, James; Pirona, Alessandro; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Simon, Roland; Metrebian, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Supervised injectable heroin (SIN) treatment has emerged over the past 15 years as an intensive treatment for entrenched heroin users who have not responded to standard treatments such as oral methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or residential rehabilitation. Aims To synthesise

  18. Clinical significance of myoglobinuria and serum myoglobin in heroin-addicted patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuehong; Zhong Ganping; Zhang Lan; Liu Jiangyan

    2001-01-01

    The authors study the relationship between myoglobinuria and acute rhabdomyolysis in heroin-addicted patients. The levels of myoglobin in serum and urine were determined by RIA in 106 heroin-addicted patients and 30 healthy volunteers who were selected as the controls. The levels of myoglobin in serum and urine increased significantly in heroin-addicted patients in 3 days after giving up heroin, and gradually decreased in 2 weeks but still higher than the levels of the controls (P 0.05). Urine myoglobin detection is a simple and effective method to find out acute rhabdomyolysis derived from heroin addiction early

  19. Reaction time in relation to duration of heroin abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović-Mitrović Slađana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Consequences of heroin abuse include organic damage of cerebral structures. The level of impairments is in a direct and positive relation with the length of heroin abuse. Objective. The aim of this research was the evaluation of the reaction time with heroin addicts with different length of substance abuse. Methods. Research method: 90 examinees were divided into three groups with relation to the length of heroin abuse. Data collection included a questionnaire referring to socio-demographic and addictive characteristics. A specially designed programme was used for the evaluation of reaction time to audio/ visual signal. Results. In relation to the reaction time as overall model, the difference between examinees with different length of heroin abuse can be found on the marginal level of significance (F=1.69; df=12; p=0.07. In visual modality, with the increase of length of heroin abuse leads to a significant prolongation of simple (the first visual sign: F=3.29; df=2; p=0.04 and choice reaction time (the second visual sign: F=4.97; df=2; p=0.00; the third visual sign: F=3.08; df=2; p=0.05. Longer heroin consumption also leads to the prolongation of the simple (the first auditory task: F=3.41; df=2; p=0.04 and the complex auditory reaction time (the second auditory task: F=5.67; df=2; p=0.01; the third auditory task: F=6.42; df=2; p=0.00. Conclusion. Heroin abuse leads to the prolongation of both simple and choice reaction time in visual as well as auditory modality. The average daily dose of opiates was the most important predictor of the abovementioned cognitive dysfunction.

  20. Mortality in heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland 1994-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Frick, Ulrich; Hartwig, Christina; Gutzwiller, Felix; Gschwend, Patrick; Uchtenhagen, Ambros

    2005-08-01

    A major goal of heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland has been to reduce the drug-related mortality of heroin users. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of deaths under treatment is essential. To assess mortality of participants in heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland over a 7-year period from 1994 to 2000, and to compare this mortality to the general population and to other populations of opioid users, as reported in the literature. Estimation of person years under heroin-assisted treatment from the complete case registry of heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland. Estimation of standardized mortality ratios comparing the population in treatment to the Swiss population (standardized to the year 2000). Over the 7-year period, the crude death rate of patients in heroin-assisted treatment, and including one month after discharge from treatment, was 1% per year. The standardized mortality ratio for the entire observation period was 9.7 (95% C.I. 7.3-12.8), with females having higher standardized mortality ratios (SMR 17.2) than males (SMR 8.4). There was no clear time trend. Mortality in heroin-assisted treatment was low compared to the mortality rate of Swiss opioid users 1990s (estimated to be between 2.5 and 3%). It was also low compared to mortality rates of opioid users in other maintenance treatments in other countries as reported in the literature. The SMR was also lower than that reported in the only meta-analysis in the literature: 13.2 (95% C.I. 12.3-14.1). The low mortality rate is all the more noteworthy as heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland included only refractory opioid addicts with existing severe somatic and/or mental problems. No conflicts of interest declared.

  1. Neuroreceptor and its transporters imaging by PET and SPECT in heroin addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jie; Liu Xingdang; Han Mei

    2013-01-01

    Heroin abuse can cause prominent hazardous effects,including the collapse of social,economic status and health. The research of heroin addiction mechanism has got some progress, but the neurotransmitter and receptor mechanism are still not clear. This review discussed potential neurobiology mechanisms of heroin addiction, including opioid receptor, dopamine receptors and dopamine transporters in different brain areas when exposed to heroin and the application of PET and SPECT imaging of Neuroreceptor and its transporters in heroin addiction research. (authors)

  2. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maremmani Icro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90, we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2% patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4% had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4% interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3% panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7% violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.

  3. Toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Kuehne, D.; Moeller, P.; Bade, K.

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of clinical, CT and MRI findings in a patient with toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after heroin ingestion. The disease is observed in drug addicts who inhale pre-heated heroin. The clinical onset, which usually occurs some days or even longer after the last heroin consumption, is characterized by a cerebellar syndrome. The cerebellar hemispheres, the cerebellar and cerebral peduncles and the pyramidal tract may be affected. Spongiform demyelination is the morphological substrate of the lesions, which are not contrast enhancing, hypodense on CT and hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI. The frequently perfect symmetry of the affection of functional systems points to a toxic and/or metabolic pathophysiological mechanism. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of morphological changes of the liver caused by heroin abuse in forensic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A study of morphological lesions in the liver of heroin addicts enables a precise overview of the type and degree of the liver damages caused by intravenous (iv heroin abuse, additive effects of viral infections and alcohol consumption, as well as whether the expressiveness of these lesions depends on the duration of the time period of heroin application. The aim of the study was to investigate histopathological, ultrastructural and morphometric features of the liver of heroin addicts in forensic samples of the liver. Methods. The study involved the autopsy conducted on 40 bodies of iv heroin addicts and 10 control autopsies. The investigated group consisted of liver samples of 36 male subjects and 4 female subjects aged 35-40 years and the control group of 8 male and 2 female cadaveric bodies aged 15-35 years. The liver tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy. Sections of the tissue paraffin blocks 5 μ thick were stained using classical Hematoxylin and Eosin method (H&E, as well as PAS Van Gieson, Gomori, and Congo Red techniques. For investigation purposes of ultrastructural changes, liver tissue was fixed in glutaraldehyde and molded with epon. The analysis was performed using the method of transmission electron microscopy. Morphometric investigation of the liver sinusoidal macrophages was performed by using the M42 test system. Results. In the investigated group of iv heroin addicts, the liver autopsy samples showed degenerative vesicular and fat changes, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, sedimentation of pathologic protein amyloidosis, dysplastic changes, reduction in the amount of glycogen in hepatocytes, as well as the change in the number of Kupfer and endothelial cells. The established changes correlated with the duration of iv heroin abuse, whereas sinusoidal macrophages were activated in cases with active hepatitis, and no significant change in their number was found in hepatocytes with alcohol-related fatty

  5. Population pharmacokinetics of heroin and its major metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, Elisabeth J.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In several European countries and in Canada, clinical trials are being conducted in which heroin-addicted patients are treated with pharmaceutically prepared heroin in order to reduce the destructive behaviour that is so often associated with this drug. OBJECTIVE: To develop an

  6. [Severe candidiasis in heroin addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillet, G; Puissant, A; Colliard, H

    1984-01-01

    Seven cases of severe candida infection in heroin addicts are reported. The principal features of this condition which arose in 1980, apparently due to a particular quality of heroin, are described, Candida albicans was the only pathogenic agent isolated from mainly scalp nodular and pustular lesions. These cutaneous lesions were associated in half the cases with ocular lesions, which sometimes had a poor prognosis despite active therapy. Osteo-articular complications were less common. Ketoconazole therapy alone gave good results in this series. The precise reasons for this dissemination of Candida albicans and for these localisations are still not clearly understood.

  7. Demand curves for hypothetical cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Natalie R; Johnson, Matthew W

    2014-03-01

    Drug purchasing tasks have been successfully used to examine demand for hypothetical consumption of abused drugs including heroin, nicotine, and alcohol. In these tasks, drug users make hypothetical choices whether to buy drugs, and if so, at what quantity, at various potential prices. These tasks allow for behavioral economic assessment of that drug's intensity of demand (preferred level of consumption at extremely low prices) and demand elasticity (sensitivity of consumption to price), among other metrics. However, a purchasing task for cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals has not been investigated. This study examined a novel Cocaine Purchasing Task and the relation between resulting demand metrics and self-reported cocaine use data. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing hypothetical purchases of cocaine units at prices ranging from $0.01 to $1,000. Demand curves were generated from responses on the Cocaine Purchasing Task. Correlations compared metrics from the demand curve to measures of real-world cocaine use. Group and individual data were well modeled by a demand curve function. The validity of the Cocaine Purchasing Task was supported by a significant correlation between the demand curve metrics of demand intensity and O max (determined from Cocaine Purchasing Task data) and self-reported measures of cocaine use. Partial correlations revealed that after controlling for demand intensity, demand elasticity and the related measure, P max, were significantly correlated with real-world cocaine use. Results indicate that the Cocaine Purchasing Task produces orderly demand curve data, and that these data relate to real-world measures of cocaine use.

  8. Toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Kuehne, D. [Klinik fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik und Neuroradiologie, Alfried-Krupp-Krankenhaus, Alfried Krupp Strasse 21, D-45117, Essen (Germany); Moeller, P.; Bade, K. [Neurologische Klinik, Knappschafts-Krankenhaus, D-45657 Recklinghausen (Germany)

    1998-06-02

    This is a report of clinical, CT and MRI findings in a patient with toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after heroin ingestion. The disease is observed in drug addicts who inhale pre-heated heroin. The clinical onset, which usually occurs some days or even longer after the last heroin consumption, is characterized by a cerebellar syndrome. The cerebellar hemispheres, the cerebellar and cerebral peduncles and the pyramidal tract may be affected. Spongiform demyelination is the morphological substrate of the lesions, which are not contrast enhancing, hypodense on CT and hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI. The frequently perfect symmetry of the affection of functional systems points to a toxic and/or metabolic pathophysiological mechanism. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 26 refs.

  9. Sexual Dysfunction in Heroin Dependents: A Comparison between Methadone and Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Yee

    treating heroin dependents who have concerns about sexual function.

  10. Opioid analgesics and heroin: Examining drug misuse trends among a sample of drug treatment clients in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Grant A; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K

    2017-08-01

    In an effort to mitigate Kentucky's prescription drug misuse, legislative intervention efforts were introduced in 2012 and 2013 to better regulate pain clinics, prescribed use of opioid analgesics, and to expand the monitoring of opioid prescriptions. The focus of this paper is primarily on opioid analgesics and heroin and the relationship of use/misuse patterns of these drugs to state drug policy initiatives. A secondary data analysis of drug treatment clients (N=52,360) was conducted to project illicit drug use trends in Kentucky. This study describes temporal and geographic trends of self-reported illicit drug use among individuals in state-funded treatment in Kentucky between fiscal year 2010 and fiscal year 2013. Significant reductions in the prevalence of illicit opioid use, declined from fiscal year 2010 to fiscal year 2013 (p<.01, CI=-.298 to -.215). However, heroin use rates significantly increased over the years studied, suggesting there may be a transition from prescription opioids to heroin (p<.01, CI=.143 to .178). The analysis suggests these trends may continue. Findings suggest Kentucky's legislative efforts were effective in reducing illicit prescription opioid use, but heroin use has increased. One possible explanation for this relationship is that as prescription opioids became more difficult to obtain, users turned to heroin as a substitute. The finding of rising heroin use suggests a need for further policy initiatives to reduce heroin use, but the potential effectiveness of this policy remains unclear. Understanding trends may help to guide future policy efforts and pain management treatment strategies to where they might have their greatest impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Heroin: Statistics and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  12. Geospatial Analysis of Drug Poisoning Deaths Involving Heroin in the USA, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kathleen; Cao, Yanjia; Hsu, Margaret H; Artigiani, Eleanor; Wish, Eric

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the geographic patterns of drug poisoning deaths involving heroin by county for the USA from 2000 to 2014. The county-level patterns of mortality are examined with respect to age-adjusted rates of death for different classes of urbanization and racial and ethnic groups, while rates based on raw counts of drug poisoning deaths involving heroin are estimated for different age groups and by gender. To account for possible underestimations in these rates due to small areas or small numbers, spatial empirical Baye's estimation techniques have been used to smooth the rates of death and alleviate underestimation when analyzing spatial patterns for these different groups. The geographic pattern of poisoning deaths involving heroin has shifted from the west coast of the USA in the year 2000 to New England, the Mid-Atlantic region, and the Great Lakes and central Ohio Valley by 2014. The evolution over space and time of clusters of drug poisoning deaths involving heroin is confirmed through the SaTScan analysis. For this period, White males were found to be the most impacted population group overall; however, Blacks and Hispanics are highly impacted in counties where significant populations of these two groups reside. Our results show that while 35-54-year-olds were the most highly impacted age group by county from 2000 to 2010, by 2014, the trend had changed with an increasing number of counties experiencing higher death rates for individuals 25-34 years. The percentage of counties across the USA classified as large metro with deaths involving heroin is estimated to have decreased from approximately 73% in 2010 to just fewer than 56% in 2014, with a shift to small metro and non-metro counties. Understanding the geographic variations in impact on different population groups in the USA has become particularly necessary in light of the extreme increase in the use and misuse of street drugs including heroin and the subsequent rise in opioid-related deaths in the

  13. Effect of heroin-conditioned auditory stimuli on cerebral functional activity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusk, T.C.; Stein, E.A.

    1988-08-01

    Cerebral functional activity was measured as changes in distribution of the free fatty acid (1-14C)octanoate in autoradiograms obtained from rats during brief presentation of a tone previously paired to infusions of heroin or saline. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administering animal and two animals receiving yoked infusions of heroin or saline. Behavioral experiments in separate groups of rats demonstrated that these training parameters imparts secondary reinforcing properties to the tone for animals self-administering heroin while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion animals. The optical densities of thirty-seven brain regions were normalized to a relative index for comparisons between groups. Previous pairing of the tone to heroin infusions irrespective of behavior (yoked-heroin vs. yoked-saline groups) produced functional activity changes in fifteen brain areas. In addition, nineteen regional differences in octanoate labeling density were evident when comparison was made between animals previously trained to self-administer heroin to those receiving yoked-heroin infusions, while twelve differences were noted when comparisons were made between the yoked vehicle and self administration group. These functional activity changes are presumed related to the secondary reinforcing capacity of the tone acquired by association with heroin, and may identify neural substrates involved in auditory signalled conditioning of positive reinforcement to opiates.

  14. Effect of heroin-conditioned auditory stimuli on cerebral functional activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusk, T.C.; Stein, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral functional activity was measured as changes in distribution of the free fatty acid [1-14C]octanoate in autoradiograms obtained from rats during brief presentation of a tone previously paired to infusions of heroin or saline. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administering animal and two animals receiving yoked infusions of heroin or saline. Behavioral experiments in separate groups of rats demonstrated that these training parameters imparts secondary reinforcing properties to the tone for animals self-administering heroin while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion animals. The optical densities of thirty-seven brain regions were normalized to a relative index for comparisons between groups. Previous pairing of the tone to heroin infusions irrespective of behavior (yoked-heroin vs. yoked-saline groups) produced functional activity changes in fifteen brain areas. In addition, nineteen regional differences in octanoate labeling density were evident when comparison was made between animals previously trained to self-administer heroin to those receiving yoked-heroin infusions, while twelve differences were noted when comparisons were made between the yoked vehicle and self administration group. These functional activity changes are presumed related to the secondary reinforcing capacity of the tone acquired by association with heroin, and may identify neural substrates involved in auditory signalled conditioning of positive reinforcement to opiates

  15. Exploring heroin consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Franz; Frijns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore some aspects of heroin consumption, using the data we collected through the face-to-face interviews and comparing our findings with data from other research and monitoring sources. We focus on Italy, the Netherlands and England, the three sample Member States where we have

  16. Heroin and fentanyl overdoses in Kentucky: Epidemiology and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova, Svetla; Costich, Julia F; Bunn, Terry L; Luu, Huong; Singleton, Michael; Hargrove, Sarah L; Triplett, Jeremy S; Quesinberry, Dana; Ralston, William; Ingram, Van

    2017-08-01

    The study aims to describe recent changes in Kentucky's drug overdose trends related to increased heroin and fentanyl involvement, and to discuss future directions for improved drug overdose surveillance. The study used multiple data sources (death certificates, postmortem toxicology results, emergency department [ED] records, law enforcement drug submissions, and prescription drug monitoring records) to describe temporal, geographic, and demographic changes in drug overdoses in Kentucky. Fentanyl- and heroin-related overdose death rates increased across all age groups from years 2011 to 2015 with the highest rates consistently among 25-34-year-olds. The majority of the heroin and fentanyl overdose decedents had histories of substantial exposures to legally acquired prescription opioids. Law enforcement drug submission data were strongly correlated with drug overdose ED and mortality data. The 2016 crude rate of heroin-related overdose ED visits was 104/100,000, a 68% increase from 2015 (62/100,000). More fentanyl-related overdose deaths were reported between October, 2015, and September, 2016, than ED visits, in striking contrast with the observed ratio of >10 to 1 heroin-related overdose ED visits to deaths. Many fatal fentanyl overdoses were associated with heroin adulterated with fentanyl; fentanyl and other synthetic drugs. In order to inform coordinated public health and safety responses, drug overdose surveillance must move from a reactive to a proactive mode, utilizing the infrastructure for electronic health records. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychosexual disorders: A cross-sectional study among opioid-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M I Singh Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Punjab is in hold of a drug abuse-related epidemic, and the prevalence of opioid misuse is increased in the last few decades. A large-scale epidemiological data on sexual disorders among opioid users are lacking in literature. Aim: The aim of this articles was to study the prevalence of sexual disorders in patients with opioid dependence. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a de-addiction clinic of a tertiary care centre from Punjab, India. Methods and Materials: A total of 109 consecutive patients attending the de-addiction clinic and fulfilling the eligibility criteria were assessed for sexual dysfunction by a predesigned, pretested, semistructured questionnaire. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15 was administered to all patients to explore various aspects of sexual dysfunction. Statistical Analysis: Collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using appropriate statistical test. Results: Mean age of participants was 29.9 years, 67% were married and heroin was the opioid of choice for 81.7%. Impaired sexual desire (59.6% was the commonest psychosexual problem, followed by decreased orgasmic function (57.8%, erectile dysfunction (56.4%, decreased overall satisfaction (52.2%, and decreased intercourse satisfaction (46.7%. Conclusions: The prevalence of all types of sexual dysfunction was found to be statistically significant with more than 1 year of opioid use. These findings can be used to motivate the patients to enter a rehabilitation program at an earlier stage of opioid dependence. Opioid-dependent individuals should be thoroughly investigated for sexual dysfunction and its treatment should be made an integral part of de-addiction and rehabilitation program.

  18. The role of ethanol in heroin deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B; Green, D; Smialek, J E

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ethanol in deaths due to heroin intoxication. Over a 12 month period, all cases investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland where a blood screen by Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (RIA) was positive at a cutoff of 100 ng/mL were included in the study. Free morphine was quantitated using the Coat-A-Count RIA and ethanol was quantitated by head space gas chromatography. All presumptive morphine positive cases were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Seventy of the 119 cases where death was attributed to narcotic or alcohol and narcotic intoxication had blood ethanol concentrations (BAC) greater than or equal to 0.02 g/dL; 48 had BAC > or = 0.10 g/dL. Only 3 of 45 cases where morphine was identified but was unrelated to death had BAC > or = 0.02 g/dL. At all ranges of free morphine concentrations, there was a greater percentage of narcotic deaths when ethanol was present. From the data, we conclude that 1) the use of even small amounts of ethanol with heroin is clearly a risk factor in deaths due to heroin, 2) there are some heroin deaths where no free morphine is identified in the blood. In these deaths, ethanol is unlikely to be present, 3) at blood ethanol concentrations between 0.20 and 0.29 g/dL, the morphine concentrations in heroin deaths increased significantly, 4) at blood ethanol concentrations greater than 0.30 g/dL, morphine became less of a factor than the ethanol in causing death.

  19. Effects of heroin on rat prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Seven E; Stegmann, Gabriela M; Olive, M Foster

    2018-05-04

    Opioid use disorders are characterized in part by impairments in social functioning. Previous research indicates that laboratory rats, which are frequently used as animal models of addiction-related behaviors, are capable of prosocial behavior. For example, under normal conditions, when a 'free' rat is placed in the vicinity of rat trapped in a plastic restrainer, the rat will release or 'rescue' the other rat from confinement. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of heroin on prosocial behavior in rats. For 2 weeks, rats were given the opportunity to rescue their cagemate from confinement, and the occurrence of and latency to free the confined rat was recorded. After baseline rescuing behavior was established, rats were randomly selected to self-administer heroin (0.06 mg/kg/infusion i.v.) or sucrose pellets (orally) for 14 days. Next, rats were retested for rescuing behavior once daily for 3 days, during which they were provided with a choice between freeing the trapped cagemate and continuing to self-administer their respective reinforcer. Our results indicate that rats self-administering sucrose continued to rescue their cagemate, whereas heroin rats chose to self-administer heroin and not rescue their cagemate. These findings suggest that rats with a history of heroin self-administration show deficits in prosocial behavior, consistent with specific diagnostic criteria for opioid use disorder. Behavioral paradigms providing a choice between engaging in prosocial behavior and continuing drug use may be useful in modeling and investigating the neural basis of social functioning deficits in opioid addiction. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. The effects of piracetam on heroin-induced CPP and neuronal apoptosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Li, Min; Bai, Yanping; Lu, Wei; Ling, Xiaomei; Li, Weidong

    2015-05-01

    Piracetam is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor that has been used in the treatment of cognitive disorders for decades. Recent surveys and drug analyses have demonstrated that a heroin mixture adulterated with piracetam has spread rapidly in heroin addicts in China, but its addictive properties and the damage it causes to the central neural system are currently unknown. The effect of piracetam on the reward properties of heroin was assessed by conditioned place preference (CPP). Electron microscopy and radioimmunoassay were used to compare the effects of heroin mixed with equivalent piracetam (HP) and heroin alone on neuronal apoptosis and the levels of beta-endorphin (β-EP) in different brain subregions within the corticolimbic system, respectively. Piracetam significantly enhanced heroin-induced CPP expression while piracetam itself didn't induce CPP. Morphological observations showed that HP-treated rats had less neuronal apoptosis than heroin-treated group. Interestingly, HP normalized the levels of β-EP in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and core of the nucleus accumbens (AcbC) subregions, in where heroin-treated rats showed decreased levels of β-EP. These results indicate that piracetam potentiate the heroin-induced CPP and protect neurons from heroin-induced apoptosis. The protective role of HP might be related to the restoration of β-EP levels by piracetam. Our findings may provide a potential interpretation for the growing trend of HP abuse in addicts in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medical prescription of heroin to treatment resistant heroin addicts: two randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Wim; Hendriks, Vincent M.; Blanken, Peter; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van Zwieten, Barbara J.; van Ree, Jan M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supervised medical prescription of heroin can successfully treat addicts who do not sufficiently benefit from methadone maintenance treatment. DESIGN: Two open label randomised controlled trials. SETTING: Methadone maintenance programmes in six cities in the

  2. Historiography taking issue : Analyzing an experiment with heroin abusers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the predicament of historians becoming part of the history they are investigating and illustrates the issue in a particular case. The case is that of the randomized controlled trial (RCT)-more specifically, its use for testing the effects of providing heroin to severe heroin

  3. Crystal in Iran: Methamphetamine or Heroin Kerack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, methamphetamine use has dramatically increased in Iran while there is a crucial misunderstanding about the colloquial words related to methamphetamine among health providers, policy makers, clinicians, scholars and people in the community. The word Crystal refers to methamphetamine in some parts of Iran while in some other parts of the country, Crystal refers to a high purity street-level heroin which is called Kerack and its abuse is epidemic. Methamphetamine and heroin Kerack are different drugs in Iran. Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug while heroin Kerack is an opioid. Health providers especially clinicians and emergency medicine specialists should consider colloquial words that Iranian drug users apply. Special training courses should be designed and implemented for clinicians in Iran to inform them about methamphetamine and its frequently used colloquial words in the community. This issue has important clinical and health implications.

  4. Medically assisted recovery from opiate dependence within the context of the UK drug strategy: methadone and Suboxone (buprenorphine-naloxone) patients compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher; Cockayne, Lucinda

    2013-01-01

    The focus of drug policy in the UK has shifted markedly in the past 5 years to move beyond merely emphasising drug abstinence towards maximising individuals' opportunities for recovery. The UK government continues to recognise the prescribing of narcotic medications indicated for opiate dependence as a key element of these individuals' recovery journey. This article describes a small, naturalistic comparison of the efficacy of the two most commonly prescribed opiate substitute medications in the UK--methadone hydrochloride (methadone oral solution) and Suboxone (buprenorphine-naloxone sublingual tablets)--for reducing current heroin users' (n = 34) days of heroin use, and preventing short-term abstainers (n = 37) from relapsing to regular heroin use. All patients had been prescribed either methadone or Suboxone for maintenance for 6 months prior to intake. Results showed that when controlling for a number of patient-level covariates, both methadone and Suboxone significantly reduced current users' days of heroin use between the 90 days prior to intake and at the 8-month follow-up, with Suboxone yielding a significantly larger magnitude reduction in heroin use days than methadone. Methadone and Suboxone were highly and equally effective for preventing relapse to regular heroin use, with all but 3 of 37 (91.9%) patients who were abstinent at intake reporting past 90-day point prevalence heroin abstinence at the 8-month follow-up. Overall, prescribing methadone or Suboxone for eight continuous months was highly effective for initiating abstinence from heroin use, and for converting short-term abstinence to long-term abstinence. However, the study design, which was based on a relatively small sample size and was not able randomise patients to medication and so could not control for the effects of potential prognostic factors inherent within each patient group, means that these conclusions can only be made tentatively. These positive but preliminary indications of the

  5. Imaging of chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Xuhui; Chen Zhong; Ye Wenqin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging findings of the chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse. Methods: Twenty-five cases of clinically confirmed chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse were retrospectively analyzed. 25 cases had conventional X-ray film, 6 cases had CT scanning, and 6 cases had echocardiography scanning. Results: On X-ray and CT, the following signs were found: lung making manifold (n = 5), small patchy shadow (n = 15), pneumatocele (n = 16), small cavity (n = 16), small node (n = 7), pleural effusion (n = 8 ), pneumothorax (n = 2), hydropneumothorax (n = 6), pulmonary edema (n = 2), megacardia (n = 11), multiple-shaped lesion (n = 20). On echocardiography, tricuspid vegetation (n = 4) and tricuspid insufficiency (n = 4) were found. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT manifestations of chest inflammation due to intravenous heroin abuse are multiple. The multiple small cavities and pneumatoceles sign are of some value in the diagnosis of lung inflammation due to intravenous heroin abuse among young patients

  6. Transnational cocaine and heroin flow networks in western Europe: A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Siddharth; Joba, Johnathan

    2015-08-01

    A comparison of the properties of drug flow networks for cocaine and heroin in a group of 17 western European countries is provided with the aim of understanding the implications of their similarities and differences for drug policy. Drug flow data for the cocaine and heroin networks were analyzed using the UCINET software package. Country-level characteristics including hub and authority scores, core and periphery membership, and centrality, and network-level characteristics including network density, the results of a triad census, and the final fitness of the core-periphery structure of the network, were computed and compared between the two networks. The cocaine network contains fewer path redundancies and a smaller, more tightly knit core than the heroin network. Authorities, hubs and countries central to the cocaine network tend to have higher hub, authority, and centrality scores than those in the heroin network. The core-periphery and hub-authority structures of the cocaine and heroin networks reflect the west-to-east and east-to-west patterns of flow of cocaine and heroin respectively across Europe. The key nodes in the cocaine and heroin networks are generally distinct from one another. The analysis of drug flow networks can reveal important structural features of trafficking networks that can be useful for the allocation of scarce drug control resources. The identification of authorities, hubs, network cores, and network-central nodes can suggest foci for the allocation of these resources. In the case of Europe, while some countries are important to both cocaine and heroin networks, different sets of countries occupy positions of prominence in the two networks. The distinct nature of the cocaine and heroin networks also suggests that a one-size-fits-all supply- and interdiction-focused policy may not work as well as an approach that takes into account the particular characteristics of each network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Syncope and QT prolongation among patients treated with methadone for heroin dependence in the city of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanoe, Søren; Hvidt, C; Ege, P

    2007-01-01

    were collected in a population of adult heroin addicts treated with methadone or buprenorphine on a daily basis. Of the patients at the Drug Addiction Service in the municipal of Copenhagen, 450 ( 52%) were included. The QT interval was estimated from 12 lead ECGs. All participants were interviewed...

  8. NAOMI: The trials and tribulations of implementing a heroin assisted treatment study in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laliberté Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease and remains a major public health challenge. Despite important expansions of access to conventional treatments, there are still significant proportions of affected individuals who remain outside the reach of the current treatment system and who contribute disproportionately to health care and criminal justice costs as well as to public disorder associated with drug addiction. The NAOMI study is a Phase III randomized clinical trial comparing injectable heroin maintenance to oral methadone. The study has ethics board approval at its Montréal and Vancouver sites, as well as from the University of Toronto, the New York Academy of Medicine and Johns Hopkins University. The main objective of the NAOMI Study is to determine whether the closely supervised provision of injectable, pharmaceutical-grade opioid agonist is more effective than methadone alone in recruiting, retaining, and benefiting chronic, opioid-dependent, injection drug users who are resistant to current standard treatment options. Methods The case study submitted chronicles the challenges of getting a heroin assisted treatment trial up and running in North America. It describes: a brief background on opioid addiction; current standard therapies for opioid addiction; why there is/was a need for a heroin assisted treatment trial; a description of heroin assisted treatment; the beginnings of creating the NAOMI study in North America; what is the NAOMI study; the science and politics of the NAOMI study; getting NAOMI started in Canada; various requirements and restrictions in getting the study up and running; recruitment into the study; working with the media; a status report on the study; and a brief conclusion from the authors' perspectives. Results and conclusion As this is a case study, there are no specific results or main findings listed. The case study focuses on: the background of the study; what it took to get

  9. Analysis of a Heroin Epidemic Model with Saturated Treatment Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Mwangi Wangari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed that examines how heroin addiction spreads in society. The model is formulated to take into account the treatment of heroin users by incorporating a realistic functional form that “saturates” representing the limited availability of treatment. Bifurcation analysis reveals that the model has an intrinsic backward bifurcation whenever the saturation parameter is larger than a fixed threshold. We are particularly interested in studying the model’s global stability. In the absence of backward bifurcations, Lyapunov functions can often be found and used to prove global stability. However, in the presence of backward bifurcations, such Lyapunov functions may not exist or may be difficult to construct. We make use of the geometric approach to global stability to derive a condition that ensures that the system is globally asymptotically stable. Numerical simulations are also presented to give a more complete representation of the model dynamics. Sensitivity analysis performed by Latin hypercube sampling (LHS suggests that the effective contact rate in the population, the relapse rate of heroin users undergoing treatment, and the extent of saturation of heroin users are mechanisms fuelling heroin epidemic proliferation.

  10. Cue-Elicited Craving in Heroin Addicts at Different Abstinent Time: An fMRI Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Results: Following short-term abstinence, gre...

  11. QTc Prolongation in Veterans With Heroin Dependence on Methadone Maintenance Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassamal, Sameer; Fernandez, Antony; Moradi Rekabdarkolaee, Hossein; Pandurangi, Ananda

    2015-06-01

    QTc prolongation and Torsade de Ppointes have been reported in patients on methadone maintenance. In this study, QTc was compared before and after the veteran (n = 49) was on a stable dosage of methadone for 8.72 ± 4.50 years to treat heroin dependence. Risk factors were correlated with the QTc once the veteran was on a stable dose of methadone. Differences in the clinical risk factors in subgroups of veterans with below and above mean QTc change was compared. ECG data was obtained from a 12-lead electrocardiogram (pre-methadone and on methadone) on 49 veterans. Data and risk factors were retrospectively collected from the medical records. The mean QTc at baseline (pre-methadone) was 426 ± 34 msec and after being on methadone for an average of 8.72 ± 4.50 years was significantly higher at 450 ± 35 msec. No significant relationships were found between QTc prolongation and risk factors except for calcium. The methadone dosage was significantly higher in veterans with a QTc change above the mean change of ≥ 24 msec (88.48 ± 27.20 mg v.s 68.96 ± 19.84 mg). None of the veterans experienced cardiac arrhythmias. The low complexity of medical co-morbidities may explain the lack of a significant correlation between any risk factor with the QTc except calcium and methadone dosage. The absence of TdP may be explained by the low prevalence of QTc values > 500 msec as well as the retrospective design of the study. During long-term methadone treatment, there was a slight increase in the QTc interval but we did not find evidence of increased cardiac toxicity as a reason for treatment termination.

  12. Heroin mismatch in the Motor City: addiction, segregation, and the geography of opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draus, Paul; Roddy, Juliette; Greenwald, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors used data from economic and ethnographic interviews with heroin users from Detroit, Michigan, as well as other sources, to illustrate the relationship between heroin users' mobility patterns and urban and suburban environments, especially in terms of drug acquisition and the geography of opportunity. The authors found that although geographic location and social networks associated with segregation provided central city residents and African Americans with a strategic advantage over White suburbanites in locating and purchasing heroin easily and efficiently, this same segregation effectively focuses the negative externalities of heroin markets in central city neighborhoods. Finally, the authors consider how the heroin trade reflects and reproduces the segregated post-industrial landscape and discuss directions for future research about the relationship between ethnic and economic ghettos and regional drug markets.

  13. Heroin-Related Compartment Syndrome: An Increasing Problem for Acute Care Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benns, Matthew; Miller, Keith; Harbrecht, Brian; Bozeman, Matthew; Nash, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Heroin use has been increasing in the United States with the rate of heroin overdose nearly quadrupling in the last 10 years. Heroin overdose can occasionally lead to compartment syndrome (CS) because of extended periods of immobility and pressure tissue injury. Heroin-related compartment syndrome (HRCS) has previously been described, but has been limited to isolated case reports. We sought to examine our experience with HRCS in the climate of rising rates of heroin use among the general population. Medical records of all patients undergoing operative decompression for a CS at our academic medical center over a six-year period (2010-2015) were examined. Patient demographics, operation performed, and etiology were recorded. Cases of HRCS were identified, and clinical outcomes examined. A total of 213 patients undergoing fasciotomy were identified. Twenty-two of these patients had HRCS. Heroin was the second most common etiology of CS after trauma. Only one case of HRCS presented during the first three years of the study period, with the remaining 95 per cent of cases occurring within the last three years. The most common single location for HRCSs was gluteal (31.8%); 36 per cent of HRCS patients needed dialysis and 27 per cent suffered complications such as tissue loss. The incidence of HRCS has increased dramatically over the past several years and is now the second most common etiology for CS in our patient population. Patients with HRCS may present with severe manifestations of CS and different body areas affected.

  14. Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G.; Fessel, Jason N.; Bourgois, Philippe; Montero, Fernando; Karandinos, George; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Heroin overdose, more accurately termed ‘heroin-related overdose’ due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. (Degenhardt et al., 2010) Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroin-related overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black ‘tar’ heroin predominates. (Unick et al., 2014) This paper examines under-researched influences on HOD, both fatal and non-fatal, using data from a qualitative study of injecting drug users of black tar heroin in San Francisco and powder heroin in Philadelphia Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 that were conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007–12) and of users in San Francisco (1994–2007, 2012). Our findings suggest three types of previously unconsidered influences on overdose risk that arise both from structural socio-economic factors and from the physical properties of the heroin source-types: 1) retail market structure including information flow between users; 2) marketing techniques such as branding, free samples and pricing and 3) differences in the physical characteristics of the two major heroin source forms and how they affect injecting techniques and vascular health. Although chosen for their contrasting source-forms, we found that the two cities have contrasting dominant models of drug retailing: San Francisco respondents tended to buy through private dealers and Philadelphia respondents frequented an open-air street market where heroin is branded and free samples are distributed, although each city included both types of drug sales. These market structures and marketing techniques shape the availability of information regarding heroin potency and its dissemination among users who tend to seek out

  15. Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Fessel, Jason N; Bourgois, Philippe; Montero, Fernando; Karandinos, George; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Heroin overdose, more accurately termed 'heroin-related overdose' due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. (Degenhardt et al., 2010) Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroin-related overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black 'tar' heroin predominates. (Unick et al., 2014) This paper examines under-researched influences on HOD, both fatal and non-fatal, using data from a qualitative study of injecting drug users of black tar heroin in San Francisco and powder heroin in Philadelphia Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 that were conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007-12) and of users in San Francisco (1994-2007, 2012). Our findings suggest three types of previously unconsidered influences on overdose risk that arise both from structural socio-economic factors and from the physical properties of the heroin source-types: 1) retail market structure including information flow between users; 2) marketing techniques such as branding, free samples and pricing and 3) differences in the physical characteristics of the two major heroin source forms and how they affect injecting techniques and vascular health. Although chosen for their contrasting source-forms, we found that the two cities have contrasting dominant models of drug retailing: San Francisco respondents tended to buy through private dealers and Philadelphia respondents frequented an open-air street market where heroin is branded and free samples are distributed, although each city included both types of drug sales. These market structures and marketing techniques shape the availability of information regarding heroin potency and its dissemination among users who tend to seek out the

  16. Incarcerated intravenous heroin users: predictors of post-release utilization of methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huang-Chi; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Incarcerated intravenous heroin users have more problematic patterns of heroin use, but are less likely to access methadone maintenance treatment by their own initiative than heroin users in the community. The present study examined predictors for receiving methadone maintenance treatment post-release among incarcerated intravenous heroin users within a 24-month period. This cohort study recruited 315 incarcerated intravenous heroin users detained in 4 prisons in southern Taiwan and followed up within the 24-month period post-release. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to determine the predictive effects of sociodemographic and drug-use characteristics, attitude toward methadone maintenance treatment, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression for access to methadone maintenance treatment after release. There were 295 (93.7%) incarcerated intravenous heroin users released that entered the follow-up phase of the study. During the 24-month follow-up period, 50.8% of them received methadone maintenance treatment. After controlling for the effects of the detainment period before and after recruitment by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, incarcerated intravenous heroin users who had positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus (HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.80-4.52, p maintenance treatment before committal (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, p maintenance treatment within the 24-month follow-up period. Positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus with fully subsidized treatment and previous methadone maintenance treatment experiences predicted access of methadone maintenance treatment post-release. Strategies for getting familiar with methadone maintenance treatment during detainment, including providing methadone maintenance treatment prior to release and lowering the economic burden of receiving treatment, may facilitate entry of methadone maintenance treatment for incarcerated intravenous heroin

  17. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gustavo A Concheiro; Rícan, Oldrich; Ortí, Guillermo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio; Zardoya, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date, based on the complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, and the analysis of 204 individuals representing 91 species. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of heroines because the genus Pterophyllum was placed as the sister group of all remaining heroines plus cichlasomatines. However, the recovered relative position of Pterophyllum was without strong statistical support. Within the remaining heroines, Hyspelecara and Hoplarchus are recovered with low support in a basal position with respect to a clade that includes Heros, Uaru, Mesonauta, and Symphysodon, and the circumamazonian (CAM) heroines. The first clade is restricted to South America. The largest clade of heroines, the CAM heroines, include more than 85% of the species within the tribe. This clade is mostly Mesoamerican, but also contains four species found in the Greater Antilles (Nandopsis), and three genera found in South America (the 'Heros' festae group, Australoheros, and Caquetaia). Up to eight major lineages can be recovered within the CAM heroines, but the phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Two large suprageneric groups can be distinguished, the amphilophines and the herichthyines. The amphilophines include Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Hypsophrys, Neetroplus, Parachromis, Petenia, and five additional unnamed genera (the 'Heros' istlanus group, the 'Amphilophus' calobrensis group, the 'Heros' urophthalmus group, the 'Heros' wesseli group, and the 'Heros' sieboldii group). The herichthyines include the crown-group herichthyines

  18. The entry of Colombian-sourced heroin into the US market: the relationship between competition, price, and purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, George Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Altered economic decision-making in abstinent heroin addicts: Evidence from the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Zhao, Liyan; Yao, Qi; Ding, Lixiang

    2016-08-03

    The development and persistence of drug addiction has been suggested to involve decision-making deficits. The Ultimatum Game is a widely used economic decision-making paradigm that illustrates the tension between financial self-interest and fairness motives. The behavior of responders in the Ultimatum Game has been associated with emotional reactions and cognitive control abilities, both of which are dysregulated in drug addicts. In this study, we investigated whether this economic decision-making process that involves considerations of social norms is affected by heroin addiction. Heroin addicts (n=17) and demographically matched healthy control subjects (n=18) were recruited to play the part of responders in the Ultimatum Game, during which they decided to accept or reject the monetary offers proposed by strangers. The offers were manipulated by varying the stake sizes and fairness scales. The rejection rates of all of the offer categories, response times, fairness judgments, and impulsivity were compared between heroin addicts and healthy controls. Compared with healthy subjects, the rejection rates of most unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game were significantly higher under low-offer-size conditions among heroin addicts. In contrast, the most unfair offers were more likely to be accepted by heroin addicts in the high-offer-size condition than by healthy subjects. The ratings of unfairness were equal in both conditions although the rejection rates were different. Heroin addicts had higher scores on BIS attentional/cognitive impulsivity and non-planning impulsivity, but not in motor impulsivity. Rejection rates to most unfair offers under low-offer-size conditions significantly correlated with score on BIS non-planning impulsivity and total score of impulsivity. Heroin addicts differentially responded under different stake-level conditions in the Ultimatum Game, with emotional impulses in low-offer-size conditions and selfish motives in the face of high monetary

  20. Use of general practice by intravenous heroin users on a methadone programme.

    OpenAIRE

    Leaver, E J; Elford, J; Morris, J K; Cohen, J

    1992-01-01

    Users of intravenous heroin represent a major challenge for general practice. A study was undertaken in a general practice in central London in 1990 to investigate the use of general practice made by intravenous heroin users who were on a methadone programme. Using information recorded in the patients' notes, 29 intravenous heroin users on a methadone programme were identified; 58 non-drug users (two controls per case) were matched for age, sex and general practitioner. A study of the number ...

  1. Relationships between Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Dissociative Symptoms, and Lifetime Heroin Use among Individuals Who Abuse Substances in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E. Gail; Diaz, Naelys; Peluso, Paul R.; Mullaney, Donald; Weiner, Michael; McIlveen, John W.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, dissociation, and lifetime heroin use among inpatient clients who abused substances. Results indicate important implications for practice and directions for future research. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  2. Machine-learning identifies substance-specific behavioral markers for opiate and stimulant dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Woo-Young; Vassileva, Jasmin

    2016-04-01

    Recent animal and human studies reveal distinct cognitive and neurobiological differences between opiate and stimulant addictions; however, our understanding of the common and specific effects of these two classes of drugs remains limited due to the high rates of polysubstance-dependence among drug users. The goal of the current study was to identify multivariate substance-specific markers classifying heroin dependence (HD) and amphetamine dependence (AD), by using machine-learning approaches. Participants included 39 amphetamine mono-dependent, 44 heroin mono-dependent, 58 polysubstance dependent, and 81 non-substance dependent individuals. The majority of substance dependent participants were in protracted abstinence. We used demographic, personality (trait impulsivity, trait psychopathy, aggression, sensation seeking), psychiatric (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, anxiety, depression), and neurocognitive impulsivity measures (Delay Discounting, Go/No-Go, Stop Signal, Immediate Memory, Balloon Analogue Risk, Cambridge Gambling, and Iowa Gambling tasks) as predictors in a machine-learning algorithm. The machine-learning approach revealed substance-specific multivariate profiles that classified HD and AD in new samples with high degree of accuracy. Out of 54 predictors, psychopathy was the only classifier common to both types of addiction. Important dissociations emerged between factors classifying HD and AD, which often showed opposite patterns among individuals with HD and AD. These results suggest that different mechanisms may underlie HD and AD, challenging the unitary account of drug addiction. This line of work may shed light on the development of standardized and cost-efficient clinical diagnostic tests and facilitate the development of individualized prevention and intervention programs for HD and AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Methadone dose increase and abstinence reinforcement for treatment of continued heroin use during methadone maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, K L; Umbricht, A; Epstein, D H

    2000-04-01

    Although methadone maintenance is an effective therapy for heroin dependence, some patients continue to use heroin and may benefit from therapeutic modifications. This study evaluated a behavioral intervention, a pharmacological intervention, and a combination of both interventions. Throughout the study all patients received daily methadone hydrochloride maintenance (initially 50 mg/d orally) and weekly counseling. Following baseline treatment patients who continued to use heroin were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 interventions: (1) contingent vouchers for opiate-negative urine specimens (n = 29 patients); (2) methadone hydrochloride dose increase to 70 mg/d (n = 31 patients); (3) combined contingent vouchers and methadone dose increase (n = 32 patients); and (4) neither intervention (comparison standard; n = 28 patients). Methadone dose increases were double blind. Vouchers had monetary value and were exchangeable for goods and services. Groups not receiving contingent vouchers received matching vouchers independent of urine test results. Primary outcome measure was opiate-negative urine specimens (thrice weekly urinalysis). Contingent vouchers and a methadone dose increase each significantly increased the percentage of opiate-negative urine specimens during intervention. Contingent vouchers, with or without a methadone dose increase, increased the duration of sustained abstinence as assessed by urine screenings. Methadone dose increase, with or without contingent vouchers, reduced self-reported frequency of use and self-reported craving. In patients enrolled in a methadone-maintainence program who continued to use heroin, abstinence reinforcement and a methadone dose increase were each effective in reducing use. When combined, they did not dramatically enhance each other's effects on any 1 outcome measure, but they did seem to have complementary benefits.

  4. The pro-heroin effects of anti-opium laws in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, J

    1976-09-01

    Over 25 years anti-opium laws were enacted by three Asian governments in countries where opium use was traditional. Within months, heroin use suddenly appeared; and within a decade, heroin addiction surpassed opium addiction. The laws led to (1) increased price of narcotic drugs, (2) a heroin "industry," (3) corruption of the law enforcement system, and (4) major health problems involving parenteral drug use. The Asian experience indicates that antinarcotic laws can be effective only with careful preparations: (1) changing society's attitude toward the traditional drug from ambivalence to opposition; (2) mobilizing resources to treat and rehabilitate all addicts within a short period of time; (3) developing the social will to incarcerate all "recidivist" addicts for a prolonged period; and (4) preventing narcotic production or importation.

  5. Fatal intoxication as a consequence of intranasal administration (snorting) or pulmonary inhalation (smoking) of heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiblin, I; Eksborg, S; Petersson, A; Fugelstad, A; Rajs, J

    2004-01-28

    In recent years we have noticed an increasing proportion of mortalities resulting from an overdose of heroin that involve routes of administration other than injection. Of 239 cases of fatal heroin intoxication examined at our department during the period 1997-2000, 18 deaths were associated with non-parental administration. Seven of these fatalities were experienced heroin users who had begun to use more sporadically, seven were recreational "party-users", while the remaining four persons had relapsed into heroin use following long periods of abstinence. The median blood morphine concentration of these non-injectors was 0.095 microg/g (range: 0.02-0.67 microg/g), significantly lower than that of the injectors. Concurrent use of alcohol, other illicit drugs and/or pharmaceutical preparations was observed in 17 of the 18 cases. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the victims of heroin intoxication by injection or by other routes with respect to the proportion who had simultaneously consumed alcohol or benzodiazepines. Pathological alterations like lung fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, endocarditis, etc. were not found to play a significant role in any of the 18 mortalities. We conclude that snorting or smoking heroin probably involves a reduced risk of obtaining high blood concentrations of morphine but still constitutes a considerable risk of lethal outcome due to high variability in blood concentrations. Furthermore, decreased tolerance resulting from periods of reduced or sporadic use appears to be an important risk factor in connection with heroin overdosing by snorting or smoking, which indicate that some heroin addicts may inaccurately assume that these routes of administration are safe when resuming their use of heroin after a period of abstinence.

  6. Family Atmosphere and Relationships as Predictors of Heroin Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirković-Hajdukov, Mitra; Spahić, Tamara Efendić; Softić, Rusmir; Bećirović, Elvir; Šimić, Josip

    2017-05-01

    Studies show that dysfunctional family relationships are important predictors of addictions to all psychoactive substances. To establish if there is a connection between family relations and heroin addiction and if found to exist, what is the quality of this connection. This research was conducted on the sample comprised of 160 subjects divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 61 heroin addicts treated at the Tuzla University Clinical Centre Psychiatric Hospital. The second group consisted of 99 subjects who were students at the Tuzla University Faculties of Philosophy and Electrical Engineering and who were not using any psychoactive substances. The subjects were tested with the Quality of Family Interactions Scale (KOBI) which measures the interactions between children and parents in two dimensions, described in literature as 'acceptance' and 'rejection'. The research team established statistically significant differences between the heroin addicts and the students, the non-users, in terms of their family relationships. The results show that the addicts families were characterized by lack of understanding, by conflicts, rejection, non-acceptance by parents, while the non-users families were characterized by understanding, acceptance by parents and good communication. There is a connection between inter-family relationships and addiction. Namely, rejection and non-acceptance of children/persons by their families and parents, bad communication and dysfunctional family relationships are significant predictors of heroin addiction.

  7. Ultrastructural Changes in the Liver of Intravenous Heroin Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Ilić

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural research has a decisive role in gathering the knowledge on the liver’s response to the influence of some drugs. The aim of the study was to perform an ultrastructurai analysis of the liver in chronic intravenous heroin addicts.The study involved the autopsy conducted on 40 bodies of intravenous heroin addicts and 10 control autopsies. The liver tissue was fixed in glutaraldehyde and moulded with epon for investigation purposes of ultrastructural changes. The analysis was performed using the method of transmission electron microscopy.In the group of intravenous heroin addicts, the liver autopsy samples showed degenerative vesicular and fat changes, chronic active and persistent hepatitis, cirrhosis, reduction in the amount of glycogen in hepatocytes, as well as the Kupffer cell’s dominant hypertrophy. Various changes occur in organelles, plasma membrane of hepatocytes and biliary channels as well as in the nucleus.The most important ultrastructural findings include: hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is histologically proven vesicular degeneration of hepatocyte occurring as a result of the increased synthesis of enzymes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum due to chronic intravenous heroin intake, and the presence of continuous basal membrane followed by transformation of the sinusoids into capillaries (in the cases of chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis which leads to a disorder of microcirculation and further progress of cirrhosis.

  8. Fatal methadone and heroin overdoses : Time trends in England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Farrell, M

    Study objective-Although the total number of self poisonings in England and Wales has dropped by 32%, the number involving methadone and/or heroin rose by 900% in 1974-92. Because of concern about the role of methadone in this increase, the part played by methadone and heroin in poisoning deaths in

  9. Impact of One-Year Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Heroin Users in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Although the effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is well-established in many countries, it is a relatively new therapy for heroin users in China. Jiangsu Province, a relatively wealthy province, set up 4 MMT clinics in February 2006. No previous studies have evaluated the impact of MMT in a wealthy Chinese province. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a 1-year MMT among heroin users in Jiangsu Province. We investigated the impact of the treatment by examining the following outcomes: 1 reduction of heroin use, 2 increase of appropriate sexual intercourse, 3 reduction of antisocial behavior, 4 increase of better social and family relationships, and 5 HIV prevalence among heroin users in MMT clinics. Design and Setting Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after heroin users in Jiangsu Province received at least 1-year of treatment in the MMT clinics. A questionnaire survey was implemented for those who agreed to participate from March to April 2006, before the initiation of MMT (N = 554. The second survey was from August to September 2007 and was administered to those who received MMT for more than 1 year (N = 804. One hundred and ninety-six patients who were investigated in both surveys were included in a longitudinal study to evaluate the factors attributable to behavior change. Results MMT helped in reducing the percentage of heroin injection and also improved social and familial relationships. Antisocial behavior, including theft, prostitution, and dealing in heroin, decreased after 1-year treatment in the MMT clinics. However, the percentage of patients using condoms was not statistically significant. No case was found to be HIV-positive among those who received more than 1 year MMT. In the longitudinal study of 196 patients who participated in both surveys, no specific demographic variables were found to be associated with heroin use, anti-social behaviors after 1-year

  10. A Case Report of Acute Esotropia in a Young Woman following Heroin Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethel Shiferaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Esotropia is a form of strabismus that can give the affected individual a “cross-eyed” appearance. Acute onset of esotropia is an uncommon form; in the vast majority of cases, no underlying neurological etiology is found. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old female with a long history of opiate abuse presented with acute onset of diplopia. She noted her eyes were crossing and started seeing double. She stopped using heroin 11 days prior to presentation. There was large inward deviation of her left eye. Convergence was difficult and accompanied by horizontal nystagmus. Diplopia resolved by covering each eye. Further investigations including imaging studies were normal. Discussion. Acute onset esotropia is rare and must be investigated right away to exclude central nervous system pathologies, where no opiates use is reported. Diplopia in the form of acute esotropia may manifest in up to 30% of individuals undergoing heroin withdrawal. Evaluating acute esotropia requires detailed information of medical history with an emphasis on drug use. Conclusion. Acute onset esotropia with double vision can be caused by abrupt withdrawal of opiates. This case should serve to raise awareness among health care professionals, to avoid costly and unnecessary diagnostic evaluations and interventions.

  11. A study of 1H-MR spectroscopy in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of heroine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanying; Wang Yarong; Li Qiang; Xiong Xiaoshuang; Wang Wei; Zhao Wei; Bai Yunliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristic findings of 1 H-MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of patients with heroine dependence (HD), and the relationship to total cumulative dose of inhaled heroine. Methods: Fourteen male HD patients and 12 healthy controls (HC) underwent 1 H-MRS at the prefrontal cortex and amygdala regions. The total cumulative in haled heroin dose was (852±341) g in HD. Ratios of N-acetylaspartate/creatine(NAA/Cr) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) were respectively measured in the prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdale regions. The student's t test and the linear correlation were employed for statistical analysis. Results: Compared to HC group, HD patients had a significant lower ratio of NAA/Cr in the prefrontal cortex (1.44±0.46 vs 1.50±0.75, t=1.77, P< 0.05), left amygdala region (1.32±0.08 vs 1.42±0.08, t=3.41, P<0.05), and right amygdala region (1.34±0.09 vs 1.44±0.10, t=2.63, P<0.05), the HD patients had a significant increased ratio of Cho/Cr in the prefrontal cortex (0.92±0.06 vs 0.86±0.08, t=2.31, P<0.05), left amygdala region (1.20±0.12 vs 1.07±0.04, t=3.60, P<0.05) and right amygdala region(1.26±0.15 vs 1.12±0.11, t=2.60, P<0.05). There was a negative linear correlation between the total cumulative inhaled heroine dose and the ratio of NAA/Cr in the prefrontal cortex (r=-0.9159, P<0.01), left amygdala region( r= -0.8756, P<0.01), and right amygdala region (r=-0.9399, P<0.01) respectively. Conclusions: The study indicates that neuronal damage and glial proliferation may occur in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala region, which suggests the abnormalities of executive function and emotion in patients with HD. A relationship exists between the heroin-induced metabolic abnormality and the total cumulative dose of inhaled heroine. (authors)

  12. The effects of chronic consumption of heroin on basal and vagal electrical-stimulated gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Fatemeh N; Maghouli, Fatemeh; Vahedian, Jalal; Esmaeili, Farzaneh

    2004-10-01

    Addiction to opium and heroin is not only an important social and individual problem in the world but it also affects the human physiology and multiple systems. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of chronic heroin consumption on basal and vagus electrical-stimulated total gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rats. The study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran from August 2002 to June 2003. Both male and female rats weighing 200-250 g were used. Rats received daily doses of heroin intraperitoneally starting from 0.2 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg/day up to the maintenance level of 0.7 mg/kg and continued until day 12. After anesthesia, tracheotomy and laparotomy, gastric effluents were collected by washout technique with a 15 minutes interval. The total titrable acid was measured by manual titrator, and the total pepsin content was measured by Anson's method. Vagal electrical stimulation was used to stimulate the secretion of acid and pepsin. Heroin results in a significant decrease in total basal acid and pepsin secretions (4.10 +/- 0.18 mmol/15 minutes versus 2.40 +/- 0.16 mmol/15 minutes for acid, pacid and pepsin secretions in vagotomized condition. Heroin also causes a significant decrease in vagal-electrically stimulated acid and pepsin secretions (14.70 +/- 0.54 mmol/15 minutes versus 4.30 +/- 0.21 mmol/15 minutes for acid, pacid and pepsin secretion, but not in vagotomized condition. Heroin may decrease acid secretion by inhibiting vagal release of acetylcholine within the gastric wall. Other probable mechanisms include: presynaptic inhibition of acetylcholine release or depressing the vagal center, inhibition of pentagastrin induced acid secretion, inhibitory effects via central mechanisms, probably mediated by the opiate receptors. Further studies are needed to recognize the actual mechanism.

  13. Heroin impurity profiling: trends throughout a decade of experimenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, R; Benijts, T; Lambert, W E; Massart, D L; De Leenheer, A P

    2001-12-01

    Heroin is still one of the most frequently abused drugs of today. All over the world, law enforcement agencies try to eradicate the illicit production and trafficking of this potent and highly addictive narcotic. To this aim, important information is provided by physical and chemical toxicological analysis of confiscated samples, with special attention for the identification and the quantification of minor components, such as the impurities related to the origin and manufacturing. By combining these data complex characterisations, i.e. impurity profiles, chemical signatures or fingerprints, can be obtained and used for comparative analysis. This review focuses on heroin impurity profiling during the 1990s, proclaimed by the United Nations as the 'Decade for Eradicating Drug Abuse'. Special attention will be given to the new trends in analytical techniques as well as in data handling strategies, so called chemometrics, to produce these profiles. The latter can be used in comparative analysis of seized heroin samples for tactical (batch-to-batch comparison) and strategic (origin determination) intelligence purposes.

  14. Drug-related cue induced craving and the correlation between the activation in nucleus accumbens and drug craving: a fMRI study on heroin addicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yarong; Yang Lanying; Li Qiang; Yang Weichuan; Du Pang; Wang Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the neural mechanism underlying the craving of heroin addicts induced by picture-cue and the correlation between the brain activation degree in nucleus accumbens (NAc)/ the ventral striatum and the scores of patients self-report craving. Methods: Twelve active heroin addicts and 12 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI scan while viewing drug-related pictures and neutral pictures presented in a block design paradigm after anatomical scanning in GE 3.0 T scanner. The fMRI data were analyzed with SPM 5. The change of craving scores was tested by Wilcoxon signed rank test. The Pearson correlation between the activation of NAc/the ventral striatum and the heroin craving score was tested by SPSS 13.0. Results: The craving scores of heroin addicts ranged from 0 to 3.70 (median 0.15) before exposed to drug cue and 0 to 5.10 (median 3.25) after viewing drug-related pictures and showed statistical significance (Z=-2.666, P<0.05). There were 16 activated brain areas when heroin dependent patients exposed to visual drug-related cue vs. neutral visual stimuli. The activation brain regions belonged to two parts, one was limbic system (amygdale, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate), another was brain cortex (middle frontal cortex, inferior frontal cortex, precentral gyrus, middle temporal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus, precuneus and middle occipital gyrus). The MR signal activation magnitude of heroin addicts ranged from 0.19 to 3.50. The result displayed a significant positive correlation between the cue-induced fMRI activation in NAc/the ventral striatum and heroin craving severity (r=0.829, P<0.05). Conclusion: Heroin shared the same neural circuitry in part with other drugs of abuse for cue-induced craving, including brain reward circuitry, visualspatial attention circuit and working memory region. In addition, the dysfunction of NAc/the ventral striatum may attribute to heroin-related cue induced craving

  15. Cue-elicited craving in heroin addicts at different abstinent time: an fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Following short-term abstinence, greater activation was found in response to heroin cues compared to neutral cues in bilateral temporal, occipital, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, thalamus, cerebellum, and left hippocampus. In contrast, activations in bilateral temporal and occipital and deactivations in bilateral frontal, bilateral parietal, left posterior cingulate, insula, thalamus, dorsal striatum, and bilateral cerebellum were observed following long-term abstinence. Direct comparisons between conditions showed greater brain reactivity in response to smoking cues following short-term abstinence. In addition, short-term abstinence had more serious withdrawal symptoms than the long-term. The present findings indicate that compared to short-term, long-term abstinence manifests less serious withdrawal symptoms and significantly decreases neural responses to heroin-related cues in brain regions subserving visual sensory processing, attention, memory, and action planning. These findings suggest that long-term abstinence can decrease the salience of conditioned cues, thereby reducing the risk of relapses. The study's limitations are noted.

  16. A series of forensic toxicology and drug seizure cases involving illicit fentanyl alone and in combination with heroin, cocaine or heroin and cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Ehlers, Brooke J

    2014-10-01

    The Montgomery County Coroner's Office Toxicology Section and the Miami Valley Regional Crime Lab (MVRCL) Drug Chemistry Section have been receiving case work in drug seizures, death cases and human performance cases involving products marketed as heroin or as illicit fentanyl. Upon analysis by the Drug Chemistry Section, these products were found to contain various drug(s) including illicit fentanyl only, illicit fentanyl and heroin, illicit fentanyl and cocaine and illicit fentanyl, heroin and cocaine. Both the Chemistry and Toxicology Sections began seeing these combinations starting in late October 2013. The percentage of the combinations encountered by the MVRCL as well as the physical appearance of the product, and the results of presumptive screening tests will be discussed. The demographics of the users and the results of toxicology and autopsy findings on the decedents will also be discussed. According to regional drug task force undercover agents, there is evidence that some of the products are being sold as illicit fentanyl and not just as a heroin product. Also, there is no evidence to support that the fentanyl source is being diverted from pharmaceutical grade fentanyl. The chemistry section currently has over 109 confirmed cases, and the toxicology section currently has 81 confirmed drug deaths, 8 driving under the influence of drugs and 1 suicidal hanging. Both sections are continuing to see these cases at the present time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Toots, tastes and tester shots: user accounts of drug sampling methods for gauging heroin potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ondocsin, Jeff; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2018-05-16

    Internationally, overdose is the primary cause of death among people injecting drugs. However, since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States (US) have risen sixfold, paralleled by a rise in the death rate attributed to synthetic opioids, particularly the fentanyls. This paper considers the adaptations some US heroin injectors are making to protect themselves from these risks. Between 2015 and 2016, a team of ethnographers collected data through semi-structured interviews and observation captured in field notes and video recording of heroin preparation/consumption. Ninety-one current heroin injectors were interviewed (Baltimore, n = 22; Chicago, n = 24; Massachusetts and New Hampshire, n = 36; San Francisco, n = 9). Experience injecting heroin ranged from methods of sampling "heroin" were identified, sometimes used in combination, ranging from non-injecting routes (snorting, smoking or tasting a small amount prior to injection) to injecting a partial dose and waiting. Partial injection took different forms: a "slow shot" where the user injected a portion of the solution in the syringe, keeping the needle in the injection site, and continuing or withdrawing the syringe or a "tester shot" where the solution was divided into separate injections. Other techniques included getting feedback from others using heroin of the same batch or observing those with higher tolerance injecting heroin from the same batch before judging how much to inject themselves. Although a minority of those interviewed described using these drug sampling techniques, there is clearly receptivity among some users to protecting themselves by using a variety of methods. The use of drug sampling as a means of preventing an overdose from injection drug use reduces the quantity absorbed at any one time allowing users to monitor drug strength and titrate their dose accordingly. Given the highly unpredictable potency of the drugs currently being sold as heroin in the US

  18. Opium and heroin alter biochemical parameters of human's serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Divsalar; Tahereh, Haghpanah; Mohammadreza, Afarinesh; Minoo, Mahmoudi Zarandi

    2010-05-01

    Iran is a significant consumer of opium, and, generally, of opioids, in the world. Addiction is one of the important issues of the 21st century and is an imperative issue in Iran. Long-term consumption of opioids affects homeostasis. To determine the effects of opium and heroin consumption on serum biochemical parameters. In a cross-sectional study, subjects who had consumed heroin (n = 35) or opium (n = 42) for more than two years and 35 nonaddict volunteers as the control group were compared in regard to various biochemical parameters such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, creatinine, and total protein. Chromatography was used to confirm opioid consumption, and the concentration of biochemical parameters was determined by laboratory diagnostic tests on serum. No significant differences were found in Na(+), Ca(2+), BUN, UA, TG, creatinine, and total protein concentrations among the three groups. FBS, K(+), and UA levels were significantly lower in opium addicts compared to the control group. Serum Ca(2+) concentration of heroin addicts showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control group. Both addict groups showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Chronic use of opium and heroin can change serum FBS, K(+), Ca(2+), UA, and cholesterol. This study, one of few on the effects of opium on serum biochemical parameters in human subjects, has the potential to contribute to the investigation of new approaches for further basic studies.

  19. Trajectories of Heroin Addiction: Growth Mixture Modeling Results Based on a 33-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang, David; Chou, Chih-Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates trajectories of heroin use and subsequent consequences in a sample of 471 male heroin addicts who were admitted to the California Civil Addict Program in 1964-1965 and followed over 33 years. Applying a two-part growth mixture modeling strategy to heroin use level during the first 16 years of the addiction careers since…

  20. Bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head due to the use of heroin: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkunt, Okan; Sarıyılmaz, Kerim; Sungur, Mustafa; Ilen, Ferhat; Dikici, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Femoral head avascular necrosis is caused by disruption of the blood supply of the femoral head, which finally results in hip dysfunction. Non traumatic osteonecrosis may related with corticosteroid use, alcohol abuse, SLE, hemoglobinopathies or exposure to cytotoxic agents. But avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) due to heroin use is a rare condition. We report a patient with bilateral ANFH due to heroin use treated by simultaneous bilateral hip arthroplasty. 37 year-old male patient presented with bilateral hip pain that had been occurring for four years. The patient had no history of smoking, excessive drinking, using corticosteroid and the other drugs or trauma but used heroin for 10 years. In clinic and radiologic examination indicated advanced degenerative changes on both hip due to femoral head avascular necrosis. The patient was treated with simultaneous bilateral total hip arthroplasty. After 6 months postoperatively the active hip range of motion was painless. Avascular femoral head necrosis caused by the using of heroin is rare. Ultimately, osteonecrosis of the femoral head occurs through one final common pathway, which is decreased blood flow to the femoral head that leads bone ischemia and death. But it is still unknown that heroin's systemic effects. Intravenous drug use more as a serious problem for today. There is a need for comprehensive studies to demonstrate effects of heroin on bone and vascularity metabolism. Heroin use will be important problem for population. That's why is crucial to understand the effect of heroin. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Asthma associated with the use of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana: A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Timothy H; Shah, Samarth P; March, Katherine L; Sands, Christopher W

    2017-09-01

    A review of the evidence was conducted regarding asthma associated with the use of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. A search of the English literature was performed via PubMed/Medline and EMBASE using the search terms asthma AND cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. When pertinent articles were found, salient references in those articles were assessed. Due to the relatively small number of studies, we included all studies and cases. For several decades, case reports, retrospective studies, and laboratory investigations have demonstrated that inhalation of cocaine or heroin is associated with increased asthma symptoms and reduced pulmonary function. Smoking crack cocaine, nasal insufflation of cocaine or heroin, and smoking heroin increases the risk of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for asthma. Although frequent smoking of marijuana may cause symptoms of cough, sputum production, and wheezing in the general population, more studies are needed specifically in patients with asthma. Smoking marijuana with concomitant tobacco use is common and further worsens the respiratory symptoms. Use of cocaine and heroin in patients with asthma should be avoided. Pending further studies, it would be prudent for patients with asthma to avoid smoking marijuana. Clinicians need to be vigilant regarding use of these drugs in their patients with hyperreactive airway disease.

  2. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A decade of research in Switzerland, The Netherlands, Germany, and Spain now constitutes a massive body of work supporting the use of heroin treatment for the most difficult patients addicted to opiates. These trials concur on this method's safety and efficacy and are now serving as a prelude to the institution of heroin treatment in clinical practice throughout Europe. While the different sampling and research protocols for heroin treatment in these studies were important to the academic claims about specific results and conclusions that could be drawn from each study, the overall outcomes were quite clear – and uniformly positive. They all find that the use of prescribed pharmaceutical heroin does exactly what it is intended to do: it reaches a treatment refractory group of addicts by engaging them in a positive healthcare relationship with a physician, it reduces their criminal activity, improves their health status, and increases their social tenure through more stable housing, employment, and contact with family. The Canadian trial (NAOMI, now underway for over a year, but not yet completed, now faces a dilemma about what to do with its patients who have successfully completed 12 months of heroin and must be withdrawn from heroin and transferred to other treatments in accordance with the research protocol approved by Government of Canada, federal granting body and host institutions. The problem is that the principal criterion for acceptance to NAOMI was their history of repeated failure in these very same treatment programs to which they will now be referred. The existence of the results from abroad (some of which were not yet available when NAOMI was designed and initiated now raises a very important question for Canada: is it ethical to continue to prohibit the medical use of heroin treatment that has already been shown to be feasible and effective in numerous medical studies throughout the world? And while this is being worked

  3. Effective brain network analysis with resting-state EEG data: a comparison between heroin abstinent and non-addicted subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Dong, Qunxi; Hao, Yanrong; Zhao, Qinglin; Shen, Jian; Zheng, Fang

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Neuro-electrophysiological tools have been widely used in heroin addiction studies. Previous studies indicated that chronic heroin abuse would result in abnormal functional organization of the brain, while few heroin addiction studies have applied the effective connectivity tool to analyze the brain functional system (BFS) alterations induced by heroin abuse. The present study aims to identify the abnormality of resting-state heroin abstinent BFS using source decomposition and effective connectivity tools. Approach. The resting-state electroencephalograph (EEG) signals were acquired from 15 male heroin abstinent (HA) subjects and 14 male non-addicted (NA) controls. Multivariate autoregressive models combined independent component analysis (MVARICA) was applied for blind source decomposition. Generalized partial directed coherence (GPDC) was applied for effective brain connectivity analysis. Effective brain networks of both HA and NA groups were constructed. The two groups of effective cortical networks were compared by the bootstrap method. Abnormal causal interactions between decomposed source regions were estimated in the 1-45 Hz frequency domain. Main results. This work suggested: (a) there were clear effective network alterations in heroin abstinent subject groups; (b) the parietal region was a dominant hub of the abnormally weaker causal pathways, and the left occipital region was a dominant hub of the abnormally stronger causal pathways. Significance. These findings provide direct evidence that chronic heroin abuse induces brain functional abnormalities. The potential value of combining effective connectivity analysis and brain source decomposition methods in exploring brain alterations of heroin addicts is also implied.

  4. Do painkillers serve as "hillbilly heroin" for rural adults with high levels of psychosocial stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Pamela; Hendy, Helen M

    2017-07-05

    Nonmedical use of painkillers has increased in recent years, with some authors suggesting that painkillers serve as "hillbilly heroin": a drug chosen by rural adults to cope with psychosocial stresses in their lives. The present study compared rural and urban adults for their reported use of 5 drugs during the past year (painkillers, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin) and for associations between these 5 drugs and their reported psychosocial stressors. This study conducted secondary analyses of anonymous survey data provided by the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health with responses from 8,699 rural and 18,481 urban adults. The survey included demographics (gender, age, race, education, marital status, family income), reports of whether participants had used each of 5 illicit drugs during the past year, and measures of psychological distress and social functioning problems. Controlling for demographics, rural adults showed no greater prevalence of painkiller use than urban adults, but rural adults were more likely than urban adults to use methamphetamine and less likely to use marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Controlling for demographics, rural adults showed no associations between psychological or social stressors and the use of painkillers, but such stressors were significantly associated with the use of marijuana, methamphetamine, and heroin. Urban adults showed significant associations of psychological and social stressors with the use of painkillers, as well as with the use of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Results suggest that painkillers are unlikely to serve as "hillbilly heroin" for rural adults, but they may serve as "big-city heroin" for urban adults.

  5. Haloperidol differentially affects reinforcement and motivational processes in rats running an alley for intravenous heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, K; Ettenberg, A

    1995-12-01

    The role of drug-paired environmental stimuli in opiate self-administration was investigated by exposing animals to discrete cues that were predictive of the availability or unavailability of heroin reinforcement. Rats were trained to traverse a straight arm runway for a reinforcement consisting of a single 0.1 mg/kg intravenous infusion of heroin delivered upon entrance to the goal box. On each trial, one of two discriminative olfactory stimuli (orange and almond) was used: one which signaled the availability of heroin in the goal box (S+), and one which signaled its absence (S-). The effect of dopamine (DA) receptor antagonism on reinforcement and motivational processes was investigated by pretreating subjects with 0.0, 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of the DA receptor antagonist drug, haloperidol. Haloperidol had no effect on operant runway performance (i.e. goal time) in any condition. However, 24 h later, on the first post-treatment trial, those haloperidol animals that received heroin in the goal box on the previous trial (i.e. the S+ condition) ran reliably more slowly than subjects that received vehicle on the previous S+ trial. These results suggest that haloperidol does not affect the motivational properties of stimuli which predict the availability of heroin, while it does diminish the reinforcing effects of actually receiving heroin.

  6. Characterization and Management of Patients with Heroin versus Nonheroin Opioid Overdoses: Experience at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizio, Kate M; Baum, Regan A; Dugan, Adam; Martin, Julia E; Bailey, Abby M

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the differences between patients who had heroin and nonheroin opioid overdoses and to determine whether there were any significant differences in their management with regard to the naloxone use. Retrospective cohort study. Large academic medical center. A total of 923 patients admitted to the medical center who were identified for overdose by heroin or other opiate-related narcotics between January 2010 and September 2015; 480 patients experienced a nonheroin opioid overdose event, and 443 patients experienced a heroin overdose event. Patients presenting with heroin overdose tended to be younger and male, with higher rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection compared with those presenting with nonheroin opioid overdose (pevent, history of injection drug use, and history of prescription opioid abuse compared with the nonheroin group (pevent with the same drug. The proportion of patients presenting with a heroin overdose steadily increased from 2010-2015; the number of patients presenting to the emergency department with nonheroin opioid overdoses steadily decreased. As rates of heroin overdose increased each year, the incidence of HCV infection increased dramatically. This study indicates that the incidence of heroin overdoses has significantly increased over the last several years, and the rates of HCV infection 4-fold since the start of the study period. Patients admitted for nonheroin opioid overdose were more likely to be admitted to the hospital and intensive care unit compared with those admitted for heroin overdose. The rise in overdose events only further illustrates a gap in our understanding of the cycle of addiction, drug abuse, and overdose events. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  7. Analysis of diacetylmorphine, caffeine, and degradation products after volatilization of pharmaceutical heroin for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klous, Marjolein G.; Lee, WeiChing; Hillebrand, Michel J. X.; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical smokable heroin was developed for a clinical trial on medical co-prescription of heroin and methadone. This product, consisting of 75% w/w diacetylmorphine base and 25% w/w caffeine anhydrate, was intended for use via "chasing the dragon", that is, inhalation after volatilization.

  8. Eating disorders and food addiction in men with heroin use disorder: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Fatih; Karaca, Servet; Sogucak, Suna; Gecici, Omer; Kuloglu, Murat

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence estimates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and food addiction in men with heroin use disorder and a matched sample of control participants. A group of 100 men with heroin use disorder, consecutively admitted to a detoxification and therapy unit, were screened for DSM-5 eating disorders, along with a group of 100 male controls of similar age, education, and body mass index. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-version 11, and the Eating Attitudes Test were used for data collection. Patients were also evaluated for various aspects of heroin use disorder (e.g., craving) using the Addiction Profile Index. Binge eating disorder that met DSM-5 criteria was more prevalent in patients with heroin use disorder (21%) than in control subjects (8%) (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3-7.3; p disorder (28%) than among control participants (12%) (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4-6.1; p eating disorder and food addiction are highly frequent in men with heroin use disorder. Screening for binge eating disorder and food addiction in patients with substance use disorder is important, as interventions may improve treatment outcome in this patient group.

  9. Serotonergic dysfunction in addiction: effects of alcohol, cigarette smoking and heroin on platelet 5-HT content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L G; Dufeu, P; Heinz, A; Kuhn, S; Rommelspacher, H

    1997-10-10

    The impact of ethanol, cigarette smoking and heroin on serotonin function was evaluated, first in alcoholics during chronic ethanol intoxication and in opiate addicts after long-term heroin consumption, and secondly in both patient groups after detoxification treatment (i.e. a short-term abstinence of 8 days). Our results showed that the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content in platelets was: (1) increased in the subgroup of anti-social alcoholics; (2) transiently and differently altered in alcoholics compared to opiate addicts; and (3) lowered in drinking alcoholics and normal in alcoholics who were drinking as well as smoking (that may occur via MAO-B inhibition by smoke). The findings indicate that alterations of the peripheral and possibly the central serotonin system may occur as predisposing factors for alcoholism in individuals with anti-social traits; they may also have some impact on the progression of alcoholism due to its lowered function during chronic ethanol intoxication that is substantially modified by smoking.

  10. How to find non-dependent opiate users: a comparison of sampling methods in a field study of opium and heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Dirk J; van Ginkel, Patrick; Benschop, Annemieke

    2010-05-01

    The first aim is to better understand the potentials and limitations of different sampling methods for reaching a specific, rarely studied population of drug users and for persuading them to take part in a multidisciplinary study. The second is to determine the extent to which these different methods reach similar or dissimilar segments of the non-dependent opiate-using population. Using ethnographic fieldwork (EFW) and targeted canvassing (TARC; small newspaper advertisements and website announcements), supplemented by snowball referrals, we recruited and interviewed 127 non-dependent opiate users (lifetime prevalence of use 5-100 times; 86.6% had used heroin and 56.7% opium). Average age was 39.0; 66.1% were male and 33.9% female. In addition to opiates, many respondents had wide experience with other illicit drugs. The majority had non-conventional lifestyles. Both EFW and TARC yielded only limited numbers of snowball referrals. EFW requires specific skills, is labour-intensive, thus expensive, but allows unsuitable candidates to be excluded faster. Respondents recruited through EFW were significantly more likely to have experience with opium and various drugs other than opiates. TARC resulted in larger percentages of women and respondents with conventional lifestyles. TARC is less labour-intensive but requires more time for screening candidates; its cost-effectiveness depends on the price of advertising for the recruitment. Different methods reach different segments of the population of non-dependent opiate users. It is useful to employ a multi-method approach to reduce selectivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dysfunctional Default Mode Network in Methadone Treated Patients Who Have a Higher Heroin Relapse Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Defeng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Kai; Shi, Lin; Zhu, Jia; Li, Yongbin; Yan, Xuejiao; Chen, Jiajie; Ye, Jianjun; Li, Zhe; Wang, Yarong; Wang, Wei

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether heroin relapse is associated with changes in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of chronic heroin relapsers (HR) (12 males, 1 female, age: 36.1 ± 6.9 years) and abstainers (HA) (11males, 2 female; age: 42.1 ± 8.1 years) were investigated with an independent component analysis to address the functional connectivity of their DMN. Group comparison was then performed between the relapsers and abstainers. Our study found that the left inferior temporal gyrus and the right superior occipital gyrus associated with DMN showed decreased functional connectivity in HR when compared with HA, while the left precuneus and the right middle cingulum had increased functional connectivity. Mean intensity signal, extracted from left inferior temporal gyrus of HR patients, showed a significant negative correlation corresponding to the degree of heroin relapse. These findings suggest that altered functional connectivity of DMN may contribute to the potential neurobiological mechanism(s) of heroin relapse and have a predictive value concerning heroin relapse under MMT.

  12. Regional homogeneity changes between heroin relapse and non-relapse patients under methadone maintenance treatment: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haifeng; Li, Wei; Li, Qiang; Chen, Jiajie; Zhu, Jia; Ye, Jianjun; Liu, Jierong; Li, Zhe; Li, Yongbin; Shi, Ming; Wang, Yarong; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-18

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is recognized as one of the most effective treatments for heroin addiction but its effect is dimmed by the high incidence of heroin relapse. However, underlying neurobiology mechanism of heroin relapse under MMT is still largely unknown. Here, we took advantage of a resting-state fMRI technique by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo), and tried to explore the difference of brain function between heroin relapsers and non-relapsers in MMT. Forty MMT patients were included and received a 12-month follow-up. All patients were given baseline resting-state fMRI scans by using a 3.0 T GE Signa Excite HD whole-body MRI system. Monthly self-report and urine test were used to assess heroin relapse or non-relapse. Subjective craving was measured with visual analog scale. The correlation between ReHo and the degree of heroin relapse was analyzed. Compared with the non-relapsers, ReHo values were increased in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex, right caudate, and right cerebellum of the heroin relapsers while those in the left parahippocampal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right lingual gyrus, and precuneus were decreased in heroin relapsers. Importantly, altered ReHo in the right caudate were positively correlated with heroin relapse rates or subjective craving response. Using the resting-state fMRI technique by analysis of ReHo, we provided the first resting-state fMRI evidence that right caudate may serve as a potential biomarker for heroin relapse prediction and also as a promising target for reducing relapse risk.

  13. Breaking the habit: a retrospective analysis of desistance factors among formerly problematic heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, David W; Ghufran, Safeena; Day, Ed; Ray, Rajashree; Loaring, Jessica

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine heroin careers among former users to assess desistance factors and explanations for sustained abstinence. The study surveyed 107 former problematic heroin users who have achieved long-term abstinence about their experiences of achieving and sustaining abstinence. The cohort was recruited opportunistically from three sources, drawing heavily on former users working in the addictions field. On average, the group had heroin careers lasting for just under 10 years, punctuated by an average of 2.6 treatment episodes and 3.1 periods of abstinence, and had been heroin abstinent for an average of 10 years at the time of completing the survey. The most commonly expressed reason for finally achieving abstinence was 'tired of the lifestyle' followed by reasons relating to psychological health. In contrast, when asked to explain how abstinence was sustained, clients quoted both social network factors (moving away from drug-using friends and support from non-using friends) and practical factors (accommodation and employment) as well as religious or spiritual factors. Treatment was not mentioned widely either in achieving or sustaining abstinence, in contrast to 12-Step, which was endorsed widely. The study supports a careers perspective for examining heroin careers and indicates that, while achieving abstinence is possible for chronic opiate users, the path to sustained abstinence is complex and often reliant upon external support systems.

  14. The Impact of Hydrochloride Heroin on Mental Flexibility, Abstract Reasoning, Impulsivity, and Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug addiction could lead to severe impairments in executive and neurocognitive functions but study on the impact of hydrochloride heroin on executive functions has remained in infancy in Iran. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between addiction to hydrochloride heroin and executive functioning in several cognitive domains including mental flexibility, abstract reasoning, impulsivity, and attention. Methods: A total of 60 cases of young male addicts aged 18 to 21 were recruited from outpatient addiction clinics in Karaj city and were matched with 60 non-drug using controls. A test battery including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Porteus Maze Test (PMQS, Serial Seven Subtraction Test (SSST, and Color Trails Test (CTT were administered respectively. Results: The patient group showed more problems in impulse control compared with the control group, while mental flexibility, abstract reasoning and attention were not affected. Discussion: The findings indicated that addiction to hydrochloride heroin had a negative effect on impulse control. This issue could reflect the role of impaired inhibitory control on drug-seeking behaviors and relapse. Special treatment programs must be tailored to control impulsivity among addicts to hydrochloride heroin during treatment.

  15. Association between cholesterol plasma levels and craving among heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hsieh, Pei Chun; Chen, Po See; Lu, Ru-Band; Chen, Kao Chin

    2012-12-01

    Lipids may play some roles in the central nervous system functions that are associated with drug addiction. To date, cholesterol is known to influence relapse of cocaine use. However, the relationship between cholesterol and heroin craving is unclear. This study examined the concurrent association between cholesterol and craving. The serum lipid levels of 70 heroin users who were undergoing or had undergone a methadone maintenance therapy were measured. Their craving and demographic data were assessed. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are negatively associated with craving before (r = -0.33, P cognitive aspect of craving and may be a potential marker to predict risk of drug relapse.

  16. Regional homogeneity changes between heroin relapse and non-relapse patients under methadone maintenance treatment: a resting-state fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Haifeng; Li, Wei; Li, Qiang; Chen, Jiajie; Zhu, Jia; Ye, Jianjun; Liu, Jierong; Li, Zhe; Li, Yongbin; Shi, Ming; Wang, Yarong; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is recognized as one of the most effective treatments for heroin addiction but its effect is dimmed by the high incidence of heroin relapse. However, underlying neurobiology mechanism of heroin relapse under MMT is still largely unknown. Here, we took advantage of a resting-state fMRI technique by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo), and tried to explore the difference of brain function between heroin relapsers and non-relapsers in MMT. Met...

  17. Two anthrax cases with soft tissue infection, severe oedema and sepsis in Danish heroin users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, Lene; Pedersen, Michael; Jensen, Andreas V

    2013-01-01

    Anthrax had become extremely rare in Europe, but in 2010 an outbreak of anthrax among heroin users in Scotland increased awareness of contaminated heroin as a source of anthrax. We present the first two Danish cases of injectional anthrax and discuss the clinical presentations, which included both...

  18. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and α 2 adrenergic receptors mediate heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Paula E; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F

    2013-09-01

    Anxiety is one of the early symptoms of opioid withdrawal and contributes to continued drug use and relapse. The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a component of anxiety that has been shown to increase during opioid withdrawal in both humans and animals. We investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE), two key mediators of the brain stress system, on acute heroin withdrawal-potentiated ASR. Rats injected with heroin (2 mg/kg s.c.) displayed an increased ASR when tested 4 h after heroin treatment. A similar increase in ASR was found in rats 10-20 h into withdrawal from extended access (12 h) to i.v. heroin self-administration, a model that captures several aspects of heroin addiction in humans. Both the α 2 adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine (10 μg/kg s.c.) and CRF1 receptor antagonist N,N-bis(2-methoxyethyl)-3-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-7-amine (MPZP; 20 mg/kg s.c.) blocked heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle. To investigate the relationship between CRF1 and α 2 adrenergic receptors in the potentiation of the ASR, we tested the effect of MPZP on yohimbine (1.25 mg/kg s.c.)-potentiated startle and clonidine on CRF (2 μg i.c.v.)-potentiated startle. Clonidine blocked CRF-potentiated startle, whereas MPZP partially attenuated but did not reverse yohimbine-potentiated startle, suggesting that CRF may drive NE release to potentiate startle. These results suggest that CRF1 and α 2 receptors play an important role in the heightened anxiety-like behaviour observed during acute withdrawal from heroin, possibly via CRF inducing the release of NE in stress-related brain regions.

  19. Characterization of Individuals Seeking Treatment for Caffeine Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano, Laura M.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Richards, Brian D.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for DSM-IV-TR substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-t...

  20. Health care service utilization and associated factors among heroin users in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chih; Chen, Chih-Ken; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chiang, Shu-Chuan; Su, Lien-Wen; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2013-11-01

    Due to the needs of medical care, the probability of using health care service from heroin users is high. This cross-sectional study investigated the frequency and correlates of health service utilization among heroin users. From June to September 2006, 124 heroin users (110 males and 14 females, mean age: 34.2 ± 8.3 years) who entered two psychiatric hospitals (N = 83) and a detention center (N = 41) in northern Taiwan received a face-to-face interview. Therefore, socio-demographic characteristics, patterns of drug use, psychiatric comorbidities, blood-borne infectious diseases and health service utilization were recorded. The behaviors of health service utilization were classified into the frequency of out-patient department visit and hospitalization, as well as the purchase of over-the-counter drugs. During 12 months prior to interview, 79.8% of the participants attended health care service at least once. The rate of having any event in out-patients service visit, hospitalization, and over-the-counter drugs were 66.1%, 29.8% and 25.8% respectively. The frequency of health service utilization was associated with numerous factors. Among these factors, patients who were recruited from hospital and having a mood disorder were conjoint predictors of out-patient department visit, hospitalization and purchase of over-the-counter drugs. According to the results of this study, social education and routine screening for mood disorders can help heroin users to obtain adequate health care service. The findings of this study are useful references for targeting the heroin users for whom a successful intervention represents the greatest cost benefit. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kappa opioid receptor antagonism and chronic antidepressant treatment have beneficial activities on social interactions and grooming deficits during heroin abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, L; Ayranci, G; Filliol, D; Gavériaux-Ruff, C; Befort, K; Kieffer, B L; Lutz, P-E

    2017-07-01

    Addiction is a chronic brain disorder that progressively invades all aspects of personal life. Accordingly, addiction to opiates severely impairs interpersonal relationships, and the resulting social isolation strongly contributes to the severity and chronicity of the disease. Uncovering new therapeutic strategies that address this aspect of addiction is therefore of great clinical relevance. We recently established a mouse model of heroin addiction in which, following chronic heroin exposure, 'abstinent' mice progressively develop a strong and long-lasting social avoidance phenotype. Here, we explored and compared the efficacy of two pharmacological interventions in this mouse model. Because clinical studies indicate some efficacy of antidepressants on emotional dysfunction associated with addiction, we first used a chronic 4-week treatment with the serotonergic antidepressant fluoxetine, as a reference. In addition, considering prodepressant effects recently associated with kappa opioid receptor signaling, we also investigated the kappa opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI). Finally, we assessed whether fluoxetine and norBNI could reverse abstinence-induced social avoidance after it has established. Altogether, our results show that two interspaced norBNI administrations are sufficient both to prevent and to reverse social impairment in heroin abstinent animals. Therefore, kappa opioid receptor antagonism may represent a useful approach to alleviate social dysfunction in addicted individuals. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. A surface plasmon resonance-based immunosensors for sensitive detection of heroin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongcheng; Wang Lianchao; Ge Yu; Yu Chengduan; Fang Tingjian; Chen Wenge

    2000-01-01

    A simple technique for sensitive detection of heroine based on surface-plasmon resonance has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The experiment was realized by using an anti-MO monoclonal antibody and a morphine (MO)-bovine serum albumin (MO-BSA) conjugate (antigen). The reason for using MO-BSA in the detection of heroine was also discussed. MO-BSA was immobilized on a gold thin film of SPR sensor chip by physical adsorption. The configuration of the device is allowed to be further miniaturized, which is required for the construction of a portable SPR device in the application of in-situ analysis

  3. Heroin detoxification during pregnancy: A systematic review and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is general consensus that methadone maintenance is the gold standard in the management of pregnant heroin users. However, in South African state hospitals, methadone withdrawal is the routine procedure offered to these patients, as methadone maintenance programmes are unavailable in the ...

  4. Study of trace impurities in heroin by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Yang, J.H.; Ouyang, H.; Li, Z.J.; Chai, Z.F.; Zhu, J.; Xi'an JiaoTong Univ., Shaanxi; Zhao, J.Z.; Yu, Z.S.; Wang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-two heroin samples were analyzed for their contents of 15 trace elements (Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, and Zn) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Large variations of elemental concentrations between samples were found to possess statistical significance. Of all the elements calcium was the most abundant element, followed by zinc and sodium. The concentrations of Au, Ce, Co, La, Sb, Sc, Sm, and Th in all the samples were below 1 μg x g -1 . Classification of these heroin samples was achieved by the application of hierarchical cluster analysis. The results show that NAA can provide useful information on the origin of the illicit drugs. (author)

  5. Cunts, Dicks, and Postfeminist Politics: Torture-Porn, the Horror Heroine, and Hostel II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    about the new horror heroine in contemporary horror and the torture porn aesthetics, espcially in Hostel II......about the new horror heroine in contemporary horror and the torture porn aesthetics, espcially in Hostel II...

  6. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 is associated with heroin dependence but not depression or schizophrenia in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jia

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGluR3, encoded by GRM3 plays important roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, depression, and drug dependence. GRM3 polymorphisms were reported to be associated with prefrontal activity, cognitive shifting, and memory capability in healthy subjects, as well as susceptibility to schizophrenia and depression. The goal of this study was to replicate the association of GRM3 with schizophrenia and depression and to explore GRM3's potential association with heroin dependence (HD in a Chinese population. Seventeen SNPs throughout the GRM3 gene were genotyped using MALDI-TOF within the MassARRAY system, and the allele and genotype distributions were compared between 619 healthy controls and 433 patients with schizophrenia, 409 patients with major depression, and 584 unrelated addicts. We found that GRM3 polymorphisms modulate the susceptibility to HD but do not significantly influence the risk for schizophrenia or depression. An increased risk of HD was significantly associated with the minor alleles of two GRM3 SNPs, including the T allele of rs274618 (Odds ratio (OR = 1.631, 95% confidence interval (95%CI: 1.317-2.005, the T allele of rs274622 (OR = 1.652, 95% CI: 1.336-2.036, compared with the major alleles. The addicts carrying the minor allele of rs274618 or rs274622 had a shortened duration for transition from first use to dependence (DTFUD in comparison to homozygote for major allele (P<0.0001 for each SNP using log rank test. Additionally, a 6-SNP haplotype within 5' region of the GRM3 including the minor alleles of the two aforementioned SNPs was significantly associated with an increased risk of HD (P = 0.00001, OR = 1.668, 95% CI: 1.335-2.084. Our data indicated that GRM3 polymorphisms do not contribute to genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia and depression, but they confer an increased risk of HD in a Chinese population.

  7. Team research methods for studying intranasal heroin use and its HIV risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, L J; Wiebel, W W; Jimenez, A D

    1995-01-01

    qualitative methods were combined to a degree uncommon in social science research. While many of these research groups have since disbanded, COIP was fortunate enough to remain in operation. The authors have described how they assembled a field research team composed of COIP members that combined ethnographers with selected indigenous staff to address a particular problem--new heroin use and its implications for HIV/AIDS. The goals the researchers set for the study would have been impossible for a single ethnographer or for a survey research team acting alone: to discern potential trends in new heroin use (though researchers were limited to studying mostly poor people); to develop fairly deep understandings regarding the study's central concerns (e.g., factors likely to influence the decision to inject heroin); and to quickly and economically collect data that were useful and valid. The authors note that all members of the research team had a host of other responsibilities; thus, this study was conducted as a sort of side job, that is, researchers had to fit it in when time and circumstances allowed. Altogether, the team field research method as applied to new heroin use in Chicago has enabled the research team to quickly and economically generate data that can be used to inform public policy on this issue (Ouellet et al. 1993; Ouellet et al., submitted). The authors believe that they can make a reasonably strong case for the following: New heroin use deserves greater study--the prevalence and incidence of use are probably sufficient to form a new cohort of potentially longtime users. New users are most likely to be found where major heroin street drug markets operate. Among youth there is a need for education about heroin--current users often report being surprised by heroin's addictiveness. Intranasal use is the predominant form of heroin administration among young, new users, and there is strong peer pressure against injection. Experimentation with injection, how

  8. ‘We the Avant-Garde’. A History from Below of Dutch Heroin Use in the 1970s

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    Gemma Blok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s the Netherlands (like many other western countries was shocked by a sudden wave of heroin use. The heroin ‘epidemic’ is  currently framed as a public health problem that has been solved in a commendably humane fashion. In the mean time heroin users have gained a ‘loser image’. Using memoirs written by and interviews with former heroin users, this article argues that heroin use was initially linked to cultural rebellion, self-development and social criticism. We need to take this forgotten aspect of the history of the Dutch heroin ‘epidemic’ into account when we try to explain this historical phenomenon. ‘Wij de avant-garde’. Een history from below van heroïnegebruik in Nederland in de jaren zeventigIn de jaren zeventig van de vorige eeuw werd Nederland (net als veel andere westerse landen opgeschrikt door een plotselinge golf van heroïnegebruik. Deze ‘heroïne-epidemie’ wordt momenteel beschouwd als volksgezondheidsprobleem dat succesvol is bedwongen, op een bewonderenswaardig humane wijze. Ondertussen hebben heroïnegebruikers een ‘loser’ imago gekregen. Op basis van memoires geschreven door en interviews met voormalige heroïnegebruikers, betoogt dit artikel dat het gebruik van heroïne oorspronkelijk verbonden was met culturele rebellie, zelfontplooiing en cultuurkritiek. Dit vergeten aspect van de ‘epidemie’ is onderdeel van de verklaring voor de populariteit van opiaten destijds.

  9. Factors Related to Abstinence from Drug Use and Seeking Help from Medical Services in Taiwanese Heroin and Methamphetamine Users

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    Chia-Nan Yen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the factors related to abstinence from heroin and methamphetamine (MAMP use and to seeking help from medical services in Taiwanese drug users. Atotal of 196 heroin users and 226 MAMP users were recruited in this study. Their experience of previous abstinence from drug use and the routes taken to seek help for abstinence were determined at interview. Demographic data, characteristics of drug use and reasons to abstain from drug use were compared between subjects who had and those who had never tried to abstain from drug use before, as well as between the subjects who had previously sought help from medical services and those who had tried to abstain from drug use by themselves. Those who had previously tried to abstain from heroin use had longer durations of heroin use, spent more money on getting heroin, were more likely to have a criminal record of illicit drug use and had longer durations of being detained due to illicit drug use compared with those who had never tried to abstain from heroin use. Those who had sought help from medical services for abstinence were more likely to be heroin users and to spend more money on getting illicit drugs, and tried to abstain due to concerns about relationships with family. Demographic data, characteristics of drug use and reasons to abstain from drug use were different between drug users who had different experiences of abstinence.

  10. Impaired emotion recognition is linked to alexithymia in heroin addicts

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    Giuseppe Craparo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several investigations document altered emotion processing in opiate addiction. Nevertheless, the origin of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here we examined the role of alexithymia in the ability (i.e., number of errors—accuracy and reaction times—RTs of thirty-one heroin addicts and thirty-one healthy controls to detect several affective expressions. Results show generally lower accuracy and higher RTs in the recognition of facial expressions of emotions for patients, compared to controls. The hierarchical multivariate regression analysis shows that alexithymia might be responsible of the between groups difference with respect to the RTs in emotion detection. Overall, we provide new insights in the clinical interpretation of affective deficits in heroin addicts suggesting a role of alexithymia in their ability to recognize emotions.

  11. Dierexperimenteel onderzoek naar de effecten van inhalatoire blootstelling aan pyrolysaat van verontreinigde hard-drugs, heroine en cocaine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velsen FL; Beekhof PK; de Jong Y; Marra M; Dormans JAMA

    1985-01-01

    Het dierexperimenteel onderzoek is uitgevoerd met monsters van hard- drugs. die zijn aangetroffen bij een recent slachtoffer van de "heroine"-leuko-encephalopathie. De resultaten van een dagelijkse blootstelling van ratten gedurende 4 weken aan heroine of cocaine heeft niet geleid tot

  12. Psychiatric comorbidity and gender difference among treatment-seeking heroin abusers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Shu-Chuan; Chan, Hung-Yu; Chang, Yuan-Ying; Sun, Hsiao-Ju; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chih-Ken

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate the psychiatric comorbidity of Taiwanese heroin users seeking treatment and to identify the gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity and drug use behavior. Subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire on drug use behavior and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for psychiatric disorders. Of the subjects, 58.5% of the male and 62.5% of the female subjects had at least one non-substance-use axis I psychiatric disorder or antisocial personality disorder. Compared to male subjects, female subjects were younger, were less educated, had higher rates of unemployment and had earlier onset of illicit drug use. Female subjects were 11-fold more likely than male subjects to exhibit suicidal behavior. Among heroin abusers in the present study, female subjects were more widely exposed to unfavorable social factors and had substantially higher incidence of suicidal behavior than male subjects. Drug treatment centers should be aware of these gender differences and pay particular attention to comorbid depressive disorders and suicidal behavior of female heroin abusers.

  13. Comparing of the Reaction Time in Substance-Dependent and Non-Dependent Individuals

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    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the simple, selective, and discrimination reaction time in substance-dependent and non-dependent individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, the population included of 425 males (opium and crystal dependents who were referred to addiction rehabilitation centers in Tabriz. By random sampling, 16 opium dependents, 16 crystal dependents, and 16 non-dependent individuals with no history of dependency as the compare group were selected. All groups peered in age, and marital status. For gathering data, “Addicts Admit Questionnaire” and laboratory device known as the "Reaction Time Assay" have been used. Results: The results of this study showed that there are significant differences among all groups in simple reaction time, choice reaction time and reaction time to auditory stimuli, but no significant difference in discrimination reaction time and reaction time to visual stimulus observed. Conclusion: The reaction time of substance-dependent groups is slower than non-dependent groups.

  14. Supply-side response to declining heroin purity: fentanyl overdose episode in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Katherine; Yildirim, Emel O

    2014-06-01

    The inelastic price demand observations characteristic of illegal drug markets have led to the conclusion that the burden of a negative supply shock would be completely reflected to consumers. This paper argues that the increasing availability of prescription opioids may threaten heroin sellers' profit margin and force them to find alternative methods to compensate buyers in the event of a supply shock. We investigate the 2006 fentanyl overdose episode in New Jersey and argue that the introduction of non-pharmaceutical fentanyl, its spatial distribution, and the timing of overdose deaths may have been related to trends in heroin purity. Using medical examiner data, as well as data from the Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control on retail sales of prescription opioids in a negative binomial specification, we show that month-to-month fluctuations in heroin purity have a significant effect on fentanyl-related overdoses, particularly in those areas where prescription opioids are highly available. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

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    Jin Yang

    Full Text Available Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p0.05 when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  16. Computed Tomography Following Body Stuffing Heroin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Nordt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED in police custody for “medical clearance” before being taken to jail. The patient was approached by police officers for suspicion of selling illicit drugs. When approached by police he ran away and was witnessed to swallow several small plastic baggies suspected to contain heroin. He was apprehended and brought to the ED. On arrival, he was asymptomatic with a blood pressure 144/83mmHg, heart rate 67bpm, respiratory rate of 19bpm, oxygen saturation of 99% on room air and afebrile. A Glasgow coma score was 15 and he was alert and oriented to person, place and time. Patient had a negative review of systems. On physical examination pupils were 4mm and reactive to light, lungs clear to auscultation and had normal respiratory rate with normal cardiovascular exam. Abdomen was soft, non-tender and non-distended with present bowel sounds. The patient admitted to ingesting approximately 20 packets of heroin to avoid being charged with possession. The patient declined activated charcoal and whole bowel irrigation (WBI with polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ELS. The patient declined a urine toxicology immunoassay screen. A computed tomography (CT of his abdomen with contrast was obtained and read as normal except for a cluster of foreign bodies within the distal stomach likely contained within a plastic bag.

  17. Frequency and correlates of comorbid psychiatric illness in patients with heroin use disorder admitted to Stikland Opioid Detoxification Unit, South Africa

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    Lisa Dannatt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a lack of studies addressing the frequency and correlates of comorbidities among heroin users admitted for treatment in South Africa (SA. Objective. To assess the frequency and correlates of psychiatric comorbidity among patients with heroin use disorder admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape, SA. Method. Participants (N=141 were assessed for psychiatric illness (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, comorbid substance use disorders (World Health Organization’s Alcohol Smoking Substance Involvement Screening Tool, and legal and social problems (Maudsley Addiction Profile. Demographic, personal, psychiatric and substance-use history, in addition to mental state examination on admission, were collected from the case notes. Results. The largest group of patients (n=56, 40% had not been abstinent from heroin use since drug debut, and most had been arrested for drug-related activities (n=117, 83% and had family conflicts related to use (n=135, 96%. Nicotine was the most common comorbid substance of dependence (n=137, 97% and methamphetamine was the most common comorbid substance abused (n=73, 52%. The most common comorbid psychiatric illness was previous substance-induced psychosis (n=42, 30% and current major depressive disorder (n=37, 26%. Current major depressive disorder was significantly associated with females (p=0.03, intravenous drug use (p=0.03, alcohol use (p=0.02, and a higher number of previous rehabilitation attempts (p=0.008. Conclusion. Patients with heroin use disorders present with high rates of psychiatric comorbidities, which underscores the need for substance treatment services with the capacity to diagnose and manage these comorbidities.

  18. A comparative study of self-regulation in substance dependent and non-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshani, Nour Mohammad; Hosseinbor, Mohsen

    2013-08-05

    Several factors influence the beginning and maintenance of substance use. The purpose of this study was to examine as well as to compare 'self-regulation' in both substance dependent and non-substance dependent individuals. In a cross-sectional study 228 (118 substance dependent and 110 with no history of using substance) participants aged 16-55 were recruited. All of the participants were asked to complete the Self-Regulation Inventory (SRI-25) and a demographic characteristics data checklist. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation) and the t-test. The results showed significant differences between substance dependent and non- substance dependent groups in all the scales of the self-regulation inventory including positive actions, controllability, expression of feelings and needs, assertiveness, and well-being seeking (p<0.01). Self-regulation and self-control skills in drug dependent individuals are lower than those without substance dependence individuals. It is concluded that substance use may related to a deficiency in self-control and regulation of feelings. Therefore, for prevention and treatment of substance dependence disorder, it is necessary to work out and exploit strategies that include the improvement of self-regulation.

  19. A recommended procedure for establishing the source level relationships between heroin case samples of unknown origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Weng Chan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent concern of how to reliably establish the source level relationships of heroin case samples is addressed in this paper. Twenty-two trafficking heroin case samples of unknown origins seized from two major regions (Kuala Lumpur and Penang in Malaysia were studied. A procedure containing six major steps was followed to analyze and classify these samples. Subsequently, with the aid of statistical control samples, reliability of the clustering result was assessed. The final outcome reveals that the samples seized from the two regions in 2013 had highly likely originated from two different sources. Hence, the six-step procedure is sufficient for any chemist who attempts to assess the relative source level relationships of heroin samples.

  20. Study Of The Effect Of Heroin Used In Iran, On Spermatogenesis Changes And Their Development In Balb/C Mice

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    Fazelipour S

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heroin is one of the opiates which is used, as the most addictive drugs, in Iran. Considering the damaging effects of these drugs on the health of opiate addicts, investigation on the effects of heroin used in Iran, on male genital indicators including daily sperm production and its development, which has an essential role in fertility, seems to be necessary. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 Bulb/c mature male mice, were divided into 5 groups of control, [intact (n=10, sham I (n=10 sham II (n=10] and experimental groups [I (n=20, II (n=20], and 50 days after addiction to heroin (50 mg/kg via intra peritoneal injection (IP, 6 mice from each groups were selected and after euthenizing, the testes and epididymes were removed. The rate of daily sperm production (DSP, epididymic sperm preservation (ESP and the rate of sperm motility were measured accurately. Results: In the study of the effect of heroin on daily sperm production and sperm preservation between the control and experimental groups, no significant differences were observed. The effect of heroin on sperm motility between control and experimental groups, the difference were significant (P<0/05. Conclusions: In this survey, it was indicated that, the heroin used in Iran, causes a decrease in healthy sperms of mice their motility, and consequently can affect on genital indicators.

  1. Heroin and methadone prescriptions from a London drug clinic over the first 15 years of operation (1968-1983): old records examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John; Sheridan, Janie

    2006-01-01

    We charted changes in the prescriptions issued to opiate addicts in treatment at a London clinic over the first 15 years of operation of one of the new National Health Service (NHS) drug clinics established in 1968. Having located the original handwritten ledger records of prescriptions issued by the drug addict treatment clinic, an SPSS data file was created of the prescriptions given to each of the clinic patients each month over the period 1968-1983 to permit examination of changes over this 15-year period in the drugs prescribed (e.g., heroin, methadone), the form (e.g., injectable or oral), the daily doses, and the extent of multiple items for single patients (e.g., both injectable ampule and oral forms). For each month, a list was available of all current patients detailing which drug(s) they had received during that month, in what form(s) and what dose(s). These items were the basic units of study. We report changes over the 15-year period for which the data were available. For the first 5 years, more than half of the prescriptions were for heroin (diamorphine hydrochloride), with the remainder of the prescriptions mostly comprising oral methadone. After 1973, methadone ampules for injection were increasingly commonly prescribed and thereafter remained at about a quarter of the prescriptions for the remaining 10 years for which data are available, whereas heroin prescriptions declined over the mid-1970s to only 20%. From 1973 onward, oral methadone was increasingly prescribed, rising from approximately one third of prescriptions in the early 1970s to more than two thirds by the early 1980s. Individual patients often received more than one drug or form of drug: From 1969 onward, oral methadone was commonly prescribed as a supplement to heroin prescriptions. This same practice was widespread with prescriptions for methadone ampules prescribed as a supplement to heroin prescriptions. Daily doses of heroin were at a mean of from 160 to 540 mg, in contrast with

  2. Perceived Treatment Need and Latent Transitions in Heroin and Methamphetamine Polydrug Use among People who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Meredith C; Roesch, Scott C; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Gaines, Tommi L

    2018-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico, use heroin and/or methamphetamine. While polydrug use is associated with HIV risk behavior, less is known about the stability of polydrug use patterns over time and how polydrug use is related to perceived treatment need. Within a cohort of PWID in Tijuana (N = 735) we sought to (1) characterize subgroups of polydrug and polyroute use from baseline to six months; (2) determine the probabilities of transitioning between subgroups; and (3) examine whether self-reported need for help for drug use modified these transition probabilities. Latent transition analysis (LTA) identified four latent statuses: heroin-only injection (38% at both baseline and follow-up); co-injection of heroin with methamphetamine (3% baseline, 15% follow-up); injection of heroin and methamphetamine (37% baseline, 32% follow-up); and polydrug and polyroute users who injected heroin and both smoked and injected methamphetamine (22% baseline, 14% follow-up). Heroin-only injectors had the highest probability of remaining in the same latent status at follow-up. The majority reported great or urgent need for treatment (51%) and these PWID had greater odds of transitioning to a higher-risk status at follow-up, emphasizing the need for evidence-based drug treatment options for PWID.

  3. Heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy: characterization using MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offiah, C. [Department of Neuroradiology, St Bartholomew' s and the London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hall, E. [Department of Neuroradiology, St Bartholomew' s and the London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: curtis.offiah@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk

    2008-02-15

    Aim: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy or 'chasing the dragon syndrome' and, in particular, the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) features. Material and methods: Six patients with a clinical or histopathological diagnosis of heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy were identified and MRI examinations, including DWI and single-voxel MRS, reviewed. Results: Cerebellar white matter was involved in all six cases demonstrating similar symmetrical distribution with sparing of the dentate nuclei. Brain stem signal change was evident in five of the six patients imaged. Supratentorial brain parenchymal involvement, as well as brain stem involvement, correlated anatomically with corticospinal tract distribution. None of the areas of signal abnormality were restricted on DWI. Of those patients subjected to MRS, the areas of parenchymal damage demonstrated reduced N-acetylaspartate, reduced choline, and elevated lactate. Conclusion: Heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy results in characteristic and highly specific signal abnormalities on MRI, which can greatly aid diagnosis. DWI and MRS findings can be explained by known reported neuropathological descriptions in this condition and can be used to support a proposed mechanism for the benefit of current recommended drug treatment regimes.

  4. MRI features of patients with heroin spongiform leukoencephalopathy of different clinical stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhu; Pan Suyue; Zhou Liang; Dong Zhao; Lu Bingxun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiological features of patients with heroin spongiform leukoencephalopathy (HSLE) of different clinical stages and discuss the evolutional characteristics of the disease. Methods: Thirty two patients with HSLE underwent precontrast MRI and postcontrast MRI. The history of addiction, clinical presentations, and brain MRI were analyzed and summarized according to the patient's clinical staging. There are 6 cases in I stage, 21 cases in II stage, 5 cases in III stage. Results: All patients had history of heroin vapor inhalation. Most of the cases developed subacute cerebellar impairment in earlier period. Brain MRI revealed symmetrical lesion within bilateral cerebellum in all patients. Splenium of the corpus callosum, posterior limb of the internal capsule, deep white matter of the occipital and parietal lobes, were gradually involved with progressive deterioration of HSLE. The brain stem and deep white matter of the frontal and temporal lobes were involved in some cases. Conclusions: The history of heated heroin vapor inhalation was the prerequisite for the diagnosis of HSLE. Brain MRI presented the characteristic lesion and its evolution of HSLE. Brain MRI was very important for accurate diagnosis and helpful to judge the clinical stages according to the involved brain region. (authors)

  5. Electroacupuncture Suppresses Discrete Cue-Evoked Heroin-Seeking and Fos Protein Expression in the Nucleus Accumbens Core in Rats

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    Sheng Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relapse to drug seeking was studied using a rodent model of reinstatement induced by exposure to drug-related cues. Here, we used intravenous drug self-administration procedures in rats to further investigate the beneficial effects of electroacupuncture (EA on heroin-seeking behavior in a reinstatement model of relapse. We trained Sprague-Dawley rats to nose-poke for i.v. heroin either daily for 4 h or 25 infusions for 14 consecutive days. Then the rats were abstinent from heroin for two weeks. 2 Hz EA stimulation was conducted once daily for 14 days during heroin abstinence. We tested these animals for contextual and discrete cue-induced reinstatement of active responses. We also applied immunohistochemistry to detect Fos-positive nuclei in the nucleus accumbens (NACc core and shell after reinstatement test. We found that active responses elicited by both contextual cues and discrete cues were high in the rats trained with heroin than in saline controls. EA treatment significantly reduced active responses elicited by discrete cues. EA stimulation attenuated Fos expression in the core but not the shell of the NACc. Altogether, these results highlight the therapeutic benefit of EA in preventing relapse to drug addiction.

  6. Assessing Need for Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opiate-Dependent Prison Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albizu-García, Carmen E.; Caraballo, José Noel; Caraballo-Correa, Glorimar; Hernández-Viver, Adriana; Román-Badenas, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with a history of heroin dependence are overrepresented in American correctional facilities and 75% of inmates with a drug use disorder do not receive treatment during incarceration or after release. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) with opiate agonists, such as methadone or buprenorphine, constitute standard of care; to guide planning for an expansion of drug treatment services in correctional facilities, a needs assessment was conducted at the Department of Correction and Rehabilitation (DCR) of Puerto Rico (PR). We report on the research process, the findings that informed our recommendations for the PCR to expand MAT for eligible inmates, and lessons learned. PMID:22263714

  7. Exposure to fentanyl-contaminated heroin and overdose risk among illicit opioid users in Rhode Island: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jennifer J; Marshall, Brandon D L; Rich, Josiah D; Green, Traci C

    2017-08-01

    Illicit fentanyl use has become wide spread in the US, causing high rates of overdose deaths among people who use drugs. This study describes patterns and perceptions of fentanyl exposure among opioid users in Rhode Island. A mixed methods study was conducted via questionnaire with a convenience sample of 149 individuals using illicit opioids or misusing prescription opioids in Rhode Island between January and November 2016. Of these, 121 knew of fentanyl and reported known or suspected exposure to fentanyl in the past year. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the first 47 participants. Study participants were predominantly male (64%) and white (61%). Demographic variables were similar across sample strata. Heroin was the most frequently reported drug of choice (72%). Self-reported exposure to illicit fentanyl in the past year was common (50.4%, n=61). In multivariate models, regular (at least weekly) heroin use was independently associated with known or suspected fentanyl exposure in the past year (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR)=4.07, 95% CI: 1.24-13.3, p=0.020). In interviews, users described fentanyl as unpleasant, potentially deadly, and to be avoided. Participants reporting fentanyl exposure routinely experienced or encountered non-fatal overdose. Heroin users reported limited ability to identify fentanyl in their drugs. Harm reduction strategies used to protect themselves from fentanyl exposure and overdose, included test hits, seeking prescription opioids in lieu of heroin, and seeking treatment with combination buprenorphine/naloxone. Participants were often unsuccessful in accessing structured treatment programs. Among illicit opioid users in Rhode Island, known or suspected fentanyl exposure is common, yet demand for fentanyl is low. Fentanyl-contaminated drugs are generating user interest in effective risk mitigation strategies, including treatment. Responses to the fentanyl epidemic should be informed by the perceptions and experiences of

  8. Heroin assisted treatment and research networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houborg, Esben; Munksgaard, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to map research communities related to heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) and the scientific network they are part of to determine their structure and content. Design/methodology/approach – Co-authorship as the basis for conducting social network analysis....... In total, 11 research communities were constructed with different scientific content. HAT research communities are closely connected to medical, psychiatric, and epidemiological research and very loosely connected to social research. Originality/value – The first mapping of the collaborative network HAT...... researchers using social network methodology...

  9. The presence of some humoral immunologic indicators and clinical manifestations in cryoglobulin positive heroin addicts without evidence of hepatitis virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonovska Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cryoglobulins are single or mixed immunoglobulins that are subject to reversible precipitation at low temperatures. Objective. The aims of this paper were: 1. Comparison of cryoglobulin positive (CP, cryoglobulin negative (CN heroin addicts and the control group (CG in terms of serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM and complement components C3 and C4; 2. Comparison of CP and CN heroin addicts in terms of rheumatoid factor (RF and circulating immune complexes (CIC; 3. Assessment of clinical manifestations in CP heroin addicts. Methods. This is a comparative study of cases (outpatients treated at the University Clinic of Toxicology in Skopje over 3.5 years, from January 2009 to June 2012. In this study 140 heroin addicts without HbsAg were examined, seronegative for HCV and HIV infections. They were divided into 2 groups: 70 CP and 70 CN heroin addicts. A previously designed self-administered questionnaire was used as a data source on participants. All heroin addicts underwent the following analyses: urea and creatinine in serum; creatinine in urine; proteinuria; 24-hour proteinuria; IgM, IgG, IgA, C3, C4 ; RF; CIC; creatinine clearance; ECG; toxicological analyses for opioids in a urine sample; cryoglobulins. In addition to these 2 groups, IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C4 were also examined in 70 healthy subjects (CG. Results. The study showed that there was no statistically significant difference between CP, CN heroin addicts and CG regarding the concentration of IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C4, and between CP and CN regarding the concentration of CIC. There was significant difference between CP and CN regarding the concentration of RF. The following conditions were significantly more frequently manifested in CP than in CN heroin addicts: arthralgia, Raynaud’s phenomenon, respiratory difficulties, neurological disorders, manifested skin changes, hematuria, 24-hour proteinuria levels, and decreased renal clearance. Conclusion. There were no

  10. The Personality Features of Heroin Addicts and Psychological Rehabilitation%海洛因依赖者人格特征及心理康复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显玲; 严明娟; 周宗敏

    2003-01-01

    Objective To analyze the personality features of heroin addicts and their need for psychological rehabilitationto improve personal integrity. Methods The mental health of 35 heroin addicts and 32 normal subjects were assessed by SCL- 90,Social Support Rating Scale and EPQ. Conclusion Heroin addicts have severe personality problems, which warrant long- term psychological rehabilitation after detoxification.

  11. 1HMR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor technology in heroin-induced brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Liu Shuyong; Geng Daoying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the values of 1 HMRS and DTI technology for detecting brain damage in heroin-dependent patients. Methods: The routine MRI, 1 HMRS and DTI were performed in 7 heroin abusers and 8 healthy volunteers without the history of drug abuse. The regions of interest (ROI) were selected in the gray matter and white matter of prefrontal lobe in 1HMRS exam, and the ratio of NAA/ Cr, Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA were measured respectively. For the DTI, six ROIs were selected, and the values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and ADC were calculated respectively. The independent samples t test was used for the statistics. Results: No abnormality was found in the routine MRI. The ratio of NAA/Cr decreased in the prefrontal lobe, the values were 1.40 + 0. 16 in gray matter and 1.72 + 0.41 in white matter of the drug group, 1.57±0.09 and 2.08±0.21 in the control group on 1 HMRS examiation. The difference between the two groups had statistical significance (t = 2. 183, 2.190, P -4 , (7.54±0.22) x 10 -4 , (7.72±0.30) x 10 -4 , and (7.50±0.26) x 10 -4 , (7.15±0.20) x 10 -4 , (7.19±0.39) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s in control group respectively. The difference between the two groups had statistical significance (t=3.477, 3.507, 2.895, P 1 HMRS and DTI. (authors)

  12. The cutting of cocaine and heroin: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The illicit drug cutting represents a complex problem that requires the sharing of knowledge from addiction studies, toxicology, criminology and criminalistics. Therefore, cutting is not well known by the forensic community. Thus, this review aims at deciphering the different aspects of cutting, by gathering information mainly from criminology and criminalistics. It tackles essentially specificities of cocaine and heroin cutting. The article presents the detected cutting agents (adulterants and diluents), their evolution in time and space and the analytical methodology implemented by forensic laboratories. Furthermore, it discusses when, in the history of the illicit drug, cutting may take place. Moreover, researches studying how much cutting occurs in the country of destination are analysed. Lastly, the reasons for cutting are addressed. According to the literature, adulterants are added during production of the illicit drug or at a relatively high level of its distribution chain (e.g. before the product arrives in the country of destination or just after its importation in the latter). Their addition seems hardly justified by the only desire to increase profits or to harm consumers' health. Instead, adulteration would be performed to enhance or to mimic the illicit drug effects or to facilitate administration of the drug. Nowadays, caffeine, diltiazem, hydroxyzine, levamisole, lidocaïne and phenacetin are frequently detected in cocaine specimens, while paracetamol and caffeine are almost exclusively identified in heroin specimens. This may reveal differences in the respective structures of production and/or distribution of cocaine and heroin. As the relevant information about cutting is spread across different scientific fields, a close collaboration should be set up to collect essential and unified data to improve knowledge and provide information for monitoring, control and harm reduction purposes. More research, on several areas of investigation, should be

  13. Inapparent pulmonary vascular disease in an ex-heroin user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Ludovico Maini, C.; Giuliano Bonetti, M.; Campioni, P.; Pistelli, R.; Fuso, L.

    1986-01-01

    A severe pulmonary vascular derangement, usually reported in drug addicts, was diagnosed in a 28-year-old asymptomatic ex-heroin user by means of fortuitously performed pulmonary perfusion imaging. Neither physical findings nor pulmonary function tests, aroused suspicion of the diagnosis. A search for asymptomatic pulmonary vascular disease probably should be undertaken in drug addicts

  14. Trends in Deaths Involving Heroin and Synthetic Opioids Excluding Methadone, and Law Enforcement Drug Product Reports, by Census Region - United States, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Julie K; Gladden, R Matthew; Seth, Puja

    2017-09-01

    Opioid overdose deaths quadrupled from 8,050 in 1999 to 33,091 in 2015 and accounted for 63% of drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2015. During 2010-2015, heroin overdose deaths quadrupled from 3,036 to 12,989 (1). Sharp increases in the supply of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) are likely contributing to increased deaths (2-6). CDC examined trends in unintentional and undetermined deaths involving heroin or synthetic opioids excluding methadone (i.e., synthetic opioids)* by the four U.S. Census regions during 2006-2015. Drug exhibits (i.e., drug products) obtained by law enforcement and reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA's) National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) that tested positive for heroin or fentanyl (i.e., drug reports) also were examined. All U.S. Census regions experienced substantial increases in deaths involving heroin from 2006 to 2015. Since 2010, the South and West experienced increases in heroin drug reports, whereas the Northeast and Midwest experienced steady increases during 2006-2015. † In the Northeast, Midwest, and South, deaths involving synthetic opioids and fentanyl drug reports increased considerably after 2013. These broad changes in the U.S. illicit drug market highlight the urgent need to track illicit drugs and enhance public health interventions targeting persons using or at high risk for using heroin or IMF.

  15. Postmortem Toxicology Findings of Acetyl Fentanyl, Fentanyl, and Morphine in Heroin Fatalities in Tampa, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Julia; Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Mainland, Mary; Hair, Laura; Devers, Kelly; Chrostowski, Leszek; Arbefeville, Elise; Merves, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In the last two years, an epidemic of 40 fatal heroin overdose cases has occurred in the Tampa area of Florida. Of these cases, 14 involved fentanyl and acetyl fentanyl. Victim demographics, case histories, toxicology findings, and causes and manners of death for all 40 deaths are presented. In 26 deaths in which acetyl fentanyl or fentanyl were not involved, free and total peripheral blood morphine concentrations were consistent with fatal heroin intoxications, averaging 0.16 mg/L and 0.35 m...

  16. Characterization of individuals seeking treatment for caffeine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Laura M; Evatt, Daniel P; Richards, Brian D; Griffiths, Roland R

    2012-12-01

    Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-to-face diagnostic clinical interview. They also completed measures concerning caffeine use and quitting history, reasons for seeking treatment, and standardized self-report measures of psychological functioning. Caffeine treatment seekers (mean age 41 years, 55% women) consumed an average of 548 mg caffeine per day. The primary source of caffeine was coffee for 50% of the sample and soft drinks for 37%. Eighty-eight percent reported prior serious attempts to modify caffeine use (mean 2.7 prior attempts), and 43% reported being advised by a medical professional to reduce or eliminate caffeine. Ninety-three percent met criteria for caffeine dependence when generic DSM-IV-TR substance dependence criteria were applied to caffeine use. The most commonly endorsed criteria were withdrawal (96%), persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control use (89%), and use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems caused by caffeine (87%). The most common reasons for wanting to modify caffeine use were health-related (59%) and not wanting to be dependent on caffeine (35%). This investigation reveals that there are individuals with problematic caffeine use who are seeking treatment and suggests that there is a need for effective caffeine dependence treatments. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Heroin-related Deaths from the Hennepin County Medical Examiner's Office from 2004 Through 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A; Lelinski, Jessica; Kloss, Julie; Middleton, Owen; Apple, Fred S

    2018-01-01

    Over the past two decades, prescription and illicit opioid use has led to changes in public health policy to address the increasing number of opioid-related deaths. The purpose of this study was to review cases from Hennepin County Medical Examiner's Office between 2004 through 2015 where heroin was listed as a significant contributor or as the cause of death. We identified 322 heroin-related deaths, which were predominantly male (255; 79%). 6-Monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) median (range) concentrations were as follows: blood (n = 7), 0.010 (0.006-0.078) mg/L; urine (n = 30), 0.359 (0.009-1.75) mg/L; and vitreous humor (n = 31), 0.034 (0.004-0.24) mg/L. Free morphine was measurable in 273 cases and the percent free morphine (range), when grouped by COD, was opioid (n = 124), 28% (2.2%-92%), and mixed drug toxicity (n = 135), 35.3% (1.5%-100%); (p 26%, was useful in establishing heroin-related deaths. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Changes in Expression of Dopamine, Its Receptor, and Transporter in Nucleus Accumbens of Heroin-Addicted Rats with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixin; Xia, Baijuan; Li, Rongrong; Yin, Dan; Liang, Wenmei

    2017-06-09

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore how changes in the expression of BDNF in MLDS change the effect of BDNF on dopamine (DA) neurons, which may have therapeutic implications for heroin addiction. MATERIAL AND METHODS We established a rat model of heroin addiction and observed changes in the expression of BDNF, DA, dopamine receptor (DRD), dopamine transporter (DAT), and other relevant pathways in NAc. We also assessed the effect of BDNF overexpression in the NAc, behavioral changes of heroin-conditioned place preference (CPP), and naloxone withdrawal in rats with high levels of BDNF. We established 5 adult male rat groups: heroin addiction, lentivirus transfection, blank virus, sham operation, and control. The PCR gene chip was used to study gene expression changes. BDNF lentivirus transfection was used for BDNF overexpression. A heroin CPP model and a naloxone withdrawal model of rats were established. RESULTS Expression changes were found in 20 of the 84 DA-associated genes in the NAc of heroin-addicted rats. Weight loss and withdrawal symptoms in the lentivirus group for naloxone withdrawal was less than in the blank virus and the sham operation group. These 2 latter groups also showed significant behavioral changes, but such changes were not observed in the BDNF lentivirus group before or after training. DRD3 and DAT increased in the NAc of the lentivirus group. CONCLUSIONS BDNF and DA in the NAc are involved in heroin addiction. BDNF overexpression in NAc reduces withdrawal symptoms and craving behavior for medicine induced by environmental cues for heroin-addicted rats. BDNF participates in the regulation of the dopamine system by acting on DRD3 and DAT.

  19. A social network perspective on heroin and cocaine use among adults: evidence of bidirectional influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy S B; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Latkin, Carl A

    2009-07-01

    While several studies have documented a relationship between initiation of drug use and social network drug use in youth, the direction of this association is not well understood, particularly among adults or for stages of drug involvement beyond initiation. The present study sought to examine two competing theories (social selection and social influence) in the longitudinal relationship between drug use (heroin and/or cocaine) and social network drug use among drug-experienced adults. Three waves of data came from a cohort of 1108 adults reporting a life-time history of heroin and/or cocaine use. Low-income neighborhoods with high rates of drug use in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants had weekly contact with drug users and were 18 years of age or older. Drug use data were self-report. Network drug use was assessed through a social network inventory. Close friends were individuals whom the participant reported seeing daily or rated as having the highest level of trust. Findings Structural equation modeling indicated significant bidirectional influences. The majority of change in network drug use over time was due to change in the composition of the network rather than change in friends' behavior. Drug use by close peers did not influence participant drug use beyond the total network. There is evidence of both social selection and social influence processes in the association between drug use and network drug use among drug-experienced adults.

  20. Effects of transnational migration on drug use: an ethnographic study of Nepali female heroin users in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Past studies of female drug users in South Asia tend to focus on their plights, for instance, how they have been driven to drug use and encounter more problems than their male counterparts, such as HIV/AIDS and sexual abuse. Few studies focus on their active role--how they actively make use of resources in the external environment to construct their desired femininity through drug consumption. Furthermore, little is known about the situation of female South Asian drug users who are living overseas. This paper is a study of transnational migration, drug use and gender--how transnational migration influences the drug use of female transnational migrants. An 18-month ethnography has been carried out in a Nepali community in Hong Kong and 13 informants were interviewed. Data were coded and analyzed by using the grounded-theory approach. Themes related to the drug use of the female Nepali heroin users were identified. The findings show that there are three important themes that significantly affect the drug use of female Nepali heroin users, which include (1) their relationships with intimate partners, (2) their means of support, and (3) their legal status in migration. The findings are consistent with the concept of post-structuralism in gender and transnationalism theories. Female Nepali heroin users in Hong Kong are neither active agents nor passive victims; their active/passive role is largely dependent on their reconfigured opportunities and constraints in transnational migration. Thus, transnationalism should be taken as an important perspective to study the situation of female drug users in a globalized context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in drug overdose deaths in England and Wales 1993-98: methadone does not kill more people than heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Matthew; Madden, Peter; Henry, John; Baker, Allan; Wallace, Chris; Wakefield, Jon; Stimson, Gerry; Elliott, Paul

    2003-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that methadone is responsible for a greater increase in overdose deaths than heroin, and causes proportionally more overdose deaths than heroin at weekends. Multivariate analysis of 3961 death certificates mentioning heroin, morphine and/or methadone held on the Office for National Statistics drug-related poisoning mortality database from 1993 to 1998 in England and Wales. Percentage increase in deaths by year by drug, odds ratio (OR) of dying at the weekend from methadone-related overdose compared to dying from heroin/morphine overdose. From 1993 to 1998, annual opiate overdose deaths increased from 378 to 909. There was a 24.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 22-28%) yearly increase in heroin deaths compared to 9.4% (95% CI 6-13%) for methadone only. This difference was significant (P < 0.001 by test of interaction) after adjustment for sex, age group, polydrug use, area of residence and underlying cause of death. The largest number of deaths occurred on Saturday (673). The OR of death from methadone overdose on Saturday and Sunday was 1.48 (95% CI 1.29-1.71) for methadone-only deaths compared to dying from heroin/morphine at the weekend after adjustment for other covariates, but the OR was not significant (1.09, 95% CI 0.95-1.25) if the weekend was defined as Friday and Saturday. There was no evidence that the threefold increase in deaths over time was due to methadone. There was equivocal support only for the hypothesis that there was an excess of deaths from methadone at weekends. Increased interventions to prevent overdose among injectors in England and Wales are long overdue.

  2. The relation between social desirability and different measures of heroin craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Marlies A. E.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Blanken, Peter; Hendriks, Vincent M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    A low association between self-reported craving and physiological measures of craving is often found. Social desirability might influence this relation between subjective and physiological reactivity. Subjects were seventy-six in-patient abstinent heroin abusers. Social desirability, general craving

  3. Overdose beliefs and management practices among ethnic Vietnamese heroin users in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Lisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic Vietnamese injecting drug users (IDUs in Australia draw on a range of beliefs and etiologic models, sometimes simultaneously, in order to make sense of health and illness. These include understandings of illness as the result of internal imbalances and Western concepts of disease causation including germ/pollution theory. Methods Observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews were conducted between 2001 and 2006 in neighbourhoods characterised by high proportions of Asian background IDUs and street-based drug markets. Eligibility criteria for the study were: 1 ethnic Vietnamese cultural background; 2 aged 16 years and over and; 3 injected drugs in the last 6 months. Results Participants commonly attempted to treat heroin overdose by withdrawing blood (rút máu from the body. Central to this practice are cultural beliefs about the role and function of blood in the body and its relationship to illness and health. Participants' beliefs in blood were strongly influenced by understandings of blood expressed in traditional Chinese and Vietnamese medicine. Many participants perceived Western drugs, particularly heroin, as "hot" and "strong". In overdose situations, it was commonly believed that an excessive amount of drugs (particularly heroin entered the bloodstream and traveled to the heart, making the heart work too hard. Withdrawing blood was understood to reduce the amount of drugs in the body which in turn reduced the effects of drugs on the blood and the heart. Conclusion The explanatory model of overdose employed by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs privileges traditional beliefs about the circulatory, rather than the respiratory, system. This paper explores participants' beliefs about blood, the effects of drugs on blood and the causes of heroin overdose in order to document the explanatory model of overdose used by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs. Implications for overdose prevention, treatment and management are identified and

  4. Comparison of MRI, CT, TCD and SPECT in patients with spongiform leukoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qun; Lu Bingxun; Yuan Huijuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the characteristics of MRI, CT, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) in patients with spongiform leukoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapor. Methods: Seventeen patients were investigated. MRI or CT was scanned in 17 patients, SPECT in 9 patients' and TCD in 11 patients. Results: MRI or CT: Brain MRI and CT revealed extensive symmetric white matter involvement of bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and the brainstem. The lesions, which showed no contrast enhancement, were hypodense on CT and hypointense on T 1 -weighted and hyperintense on T 2 -weighted MRI. SPECT: The regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) of white matter involvement on bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres was reduced obviously. The rCBF of temporal lobes, parietal lobes, occipital lobes, cerebellar hemispheres, and basal ganglion was reduced in varying degrees. TCD: The systolic peak became sharpened, and end-diastolic flow velocity and mean flow velocity were reduced obviously and pulsatile index was increased markedly in patients with spongiform leukoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapor. Conclusion: The characteristic manifestations of MRI and CT imaging may be regarded as the main foundation of diagnosing spongiform leukoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapor; SPECT and TCD can help comprehend the changes of hemodynamics of cerebral vessels and the degree of cerebral ischemia in patients with spongiform leukoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapor

  5. The Beautiful and Dangerous: A New Depiction of Heroines in North American Television Drama Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sever Globan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Television drama series are nowadays one of the most common television formats in the entertainment program genre. On the one hand, heroes and heroines of these series mirror social and cultural realities and changes, whereas on the other, they offer imitation models and shape ideas about, among other things, what being male and female means. While in the first three decades of their existence television series predominantly showed stereotypical male-female relationships through active heroes and passive housewives, in the last two decades we have witnessed changes which question the stereotypical depiction of gender roles. Television started presenting new main heroines that are equally courageous, independent, intelligent and violent as their male partners although they continue to perpetuate the stereotypical depiction in terms of physical attractiveness and sex appeal. This primarily refers to the protagonists of North American series such as Buffy, Nikita, Xena, Alias, Revenge, Rogue, etc. This paper discusses the characteristics of these new heroines in the leading roles and their potential to redefine the female character.

  6. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  7. Emotional intelligence components in alcohol dependent and mentally healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Amiri, Shahrokh; Mousavi Rizi, Seyedreza; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28±7.82 and 34.93±9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence.

  8. rsfMRI effects of KB220Z™ on Neural Pathways in Reward Circuitry of Abstinent Genotyped Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yarong; Zhang, Yi; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Smolen, Andrew; Febo, Marcelo; Han, David; Simpatico, Thomas; Cronjé, Frans J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Gold, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently Willuhn et al. reported that cocaine use and even non-substance related addictive behavior, increases, as dopaminergic function is reduced. Chronic cocaine exposure has been associated with decreases in D2/D3 receptors, also associated with lower activation to cues in occipital cortex and cerebellum in a recent PET study from Volkow’s group. Therefore, treatment strategies, like dopamine agonist therapy, that might conserve dopamine function may be an interesting approach to relapse prevention in psychoactive drug and behavioral addictions. To this aim, we evaluated the effect of KB220Z™ on reward circuitry of ten heroin addicts undergoing protracted abstinence, an average 16.9 months. In a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study of KB220Z™ five subjects completed a triple blinded–experiment in which the subject, the person administering the treatment and the person evaluating the response to treatment were blinded as to which treatment any particular subject was receiving. In addition, nine subjects total were genotyped utilizing the GARSRX™ test. We preliminarily report that KB220Z ™ induced an increase in BOLD activation in caudate-accumbens-dopaminergic pathways compared to placebo following one-hour acute administration. Furthermore, KB220Z™ also reduced resting state activity in the putamen of abstinent heroin addicts. In the second phase of this pilot study of all ten abstinent heroin-dependent subjects, three brain regions of interest (ROIs) we observed to be significantly activated from resting state by KB220Z compared to placebo (P addiction by direct or indirect dopaminergic interaction. Due to small sample size, we caution definitive interpretation of these preliminary results and confirmation with additional research and ongoing rodent and human studies of KB220Z, is required. PMID:25526228

  9. Spongiform leucoencephalopathy following intravenous heroin abuse: Radiological and histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, A.S.; Jain, S.; O'Neil, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    A case of spongiform leucoencephalopathy in a known intravenous heroin abuser is presented. To our knowledge, this is the only case of heroin-related spongiform leucoencephalopathy reported in Australia. The relationship to intravenous rather than inhaled heroin is particularly unusual with only one other possible case documented in the literature. The imaging and histopathological findings are described. Neurological examination revealed disorientation in time and place, memory loss and cognitive impairment but no focal signs. Biochemical and haematological profiles were normal. Viral serology was positive for hepatitis C but negative for hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cerebral CT revealed diffuse symmetrical hypodensity of the cerebral white matter. The ventricles and subarachnoid spaces were of normal size. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse symmetrical signal abnormality in the cerebral white matter. These changes were hyperintense on proton density, T2-weighted, modified T2-weighted (FLAIR) and diffusion-weighted images. T1 -weighted scans showed corresponding hypointensity. There was no enhancement after intravenous gadolinium. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) specimens were negative for a variety of virological, immunological and bacteriological markers. No viral or bacterial growth was demonstrated. Oligoclonal bands for multiple sclerosis and Protein 134 for Wilson's disease were negative. Right frontal brain biopsy showed spongiform white matter and degenerative change with prominent fibrous gliosis. In severely affected areas, loss of normal myelin staining and axonal loss were present, accompanied by scattered foamy macrophages. Loss of oligodendroglial nuclei was also present. There was no evidence of inflammation or progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. No bacteria or virus particles were seen on electron microscopic examination of the brain tissue. Following the biopsy, the patient discharged himself from hospital and the

  10. Naltrexone ameliorates functional network abnormalities in alcohol‐dependent individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwangyeol; Tait, Roger; Elliott, Rebecca; Ersche, Karen D.; Flechais, Remy; McGonigle, John; Murphy, Anna; Nestor, Liam J.; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Paterson, Louise M.; Rabiner, Ilan; Reed, Laurence; Smith, Dana; Suckling, John; Taylor, Eleanor M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Lingford‐Hughes, Anne R.; Deakin, Bill; Nutt, David J.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50‐mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly‐drug‐dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network‐based statistical analysis of resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol‐dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly‐drug‐dependent and healthy subjects. Higher local efficiency was observed in both patient groups, indicating clustered and segregated network topology and information processing. Naltrexone normalized heightened local efficiency of the neural network in alcohol‐dependent individuals, to the same levels as healthy volunteers. Naltrexone failed to have an effect on the local efficiency in abstinent poly‐substance‐dependent individuals. Across groups, local efficiency was associated with substance, but no alcohol exposure implicating local efficiency as a potential premorbid risk factor in alcohol use disorders that can be ameliorated by naltrexone. These findings suggest one possible mechanism for the clinical effects of naltrexone, namely, the amelioration of disrupted network topology. PMID:28247526

  11. Acceptability of Extended-Release Naltrexone by Heroin-Dependent Patients and Addiction Treatment Providers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, Eline; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extended-release naltrexone (XRNT) was developed to overcome poor treatment compliance with oral naltrexone in alcohol and opioid-dependent patients. XRNT injections are registered in the United States and Russia, but not in The Netherlands. However, XRNT can be obtained for individual

  12. Effect of electro-acupuncture intervention on cognition attention bias in heroin addiction abstinence-a dot-probe-based event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying-Ping; Liu, Hao; Xu, Ping; Wang, Yan; Lu, Guang-Hua

    2011-04-01

    To study the changes of cognitive attention-related brain function in the heroin addicts before and after electro-acupuncture (EA) intervention for exploring the concerned neuro-mechanism of addictive relapse and the central action role of EA intervention. Adopting event-related potential (ERP) technique, the ERP at 64 electrode spots in 10 heroin addicts (test group) were recorded before and after EA intervention with dot-probe experimental form during implementing cognitive task on positive emotional clue (PEC), negative emotional clues (NEC), and heroin-related clue (HRC). The P200 amplitude components on the selected observation points (Fz, Cz, and Pz) were analyzed and compared with those obtained from 10 healthy subjects as the control. Before EA, the ERP of attention on HRC in the test group was higher than that on PEC and NEC (Pattention on HRC at Cz and Pz was significantly lowered (P PEC > HRC, but in the control group, it showed PEC > HRC at all three observation points and PEC > NEC at Pz. Heroin addicts show attention bias to HRC, which could be significantly reduced by EA intervention, illustrating that EA could effectively inhibit the attention bias to heroin and so might have potential for lowering the relapse rate.

  13. Criminal outcomes and costs of treatment services for injecting and non-injecting heroin users: evidence from a national prospective cohort survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Andrew; Knapp, Martin; Marsden, John; Gossop, Michael; Stewart, Duncan

    2003-07-01

    To assess the incremental cost-effectiveness of drug addiction treatment programmes provided in the UK by the National Health Service and not-for-profit agencies in terms of crime-related outcomes. All costs and crime-related outcomes were implicitly evaluated relative to a 'no treatment' alternative. Longitudinal observational data on a national sample of heroin addicts referred to addiction treatment services throughout England were re-analysed. Predictions from a Poisson random-effects model were used to estimate the incremental effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatment programmes. Interaction variables were used to assess whether the injecting of heroin on entry to treatment had an impact on cost-effectiveness. The findings rejected the null hypothesis that increasing time in treatment (and therefore treatment cost) has no mean crime prevention effect on clients referred for community-based methadone treatment, treatment delivered within specialist drug dependency units and residential rehabilitation programmes (P reduction in treatment cost-effectiveness across all treatment programmes for clients who reported injecting drugs at treatment intake. Whilst the analyses did not include an evaluation of the effect of treatment programmes on client health and quality of life and stopped short of providing a social weighting for the predicted reduction in crimes, they do offer a useful starting point for establishing the cost-effectiveness of treating heroin addiction. The onus is on public decision-makers to decide whether the predicted reductions in crime are worth the opportunity costs of investing extra resources in a major expansion of treatment services.

  14. A randomized controlled trial of interim methadone maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert P; Highfield, David A; Jaffe, Jerome H; Brady, Joseph V; Butler, Carol B; Rouse, Charles O; Callaman, Jason M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Battjes, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Effective alternatives to long waiting lists for entry into methadone hydrochloride maintenance treatment are needed to reduce the complications of continuing heroin dependence and to increase methadone treatment entry. To compare the effectiveness of interim methadone maintenance with that of the usual waiting list condition in facilitating methadone treatment entry and reducing heroin and cocaine use and criminal behavior. Randomized, controlled, clinical trial using 2 conditions, with treatment assignment on a 3:2 basis to interim maintenance-waiting list control. A methadone treatment program in Baltimore. A total of 319 individuals meeting the criteria for current heroin dependence and methadone maintenance treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to either interim methadone maintenance, consisting of an individually determined methadone dose and emergency counseling only for up to 120 days, or referral to community-based methadone treatment programs. Entry into comprehensive methadone maintenance therapy at 4 months from baseline; self-reported days of heroin use, cocaine use, and criminal behavior; and number of urine drug test results positive for heroin and cocaine at the follow-up interview conducted at time of entry into comprehensive methadone treatment (or at 4 months from baseline for participants who did not enter regular treatment). Significantly more participants assigned to the interim methadone maintenance condition entered comprehensive methadone maintenance treatment by the 120th day from baseline (75.9%) than those assigned to the waiting list control condition (20.8%) (Pmethadone maintenance results in a substantial increase in the likelihood of entry into comprehensive treatment, and is an effective means of reducing heroin use and criminal behavior among opioid-dependent individuals awaiting entry into a comprehensive methadone treatment program.

  15. Chronic Heroin Dependence Leading to Adrenal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioids have been the mainstay for pain relief and palliation over a long period of time. They are commonly abused by drug addicts and such dependence usually imparts severe physiologic effects on multiple organ systems. The negative impact of opioids on the endocrine system is poorly understood and often underestimated. We describe a patient who developed severe suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA axis leading to secondary adrenal insufficiency due to long standing abuse of opioids.

  16. CO 2 laser photoacoustic spectra and vibrational modes of heroin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heroin, morphine and narcotine are very large molecules having 50, 40 and 53 atoms respectively. Moderately high resolution photoacoustic (PA) spectra have been recorded in 9.6 m and 10.6 m regions of CO2 laser. It is very difficult to assign the modes of vibrations for PA bands by comparison with conventional low ...

  17. Personality characters of heroin addict%海洛因依赖者的人格特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢秀琼

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heroin addict induces severe physical and mental health problem himself/herself and to family members.OBJECTIVE: To analyze personality characters of heroin addict so as to propose corresponding treating measures and improve operative efficiency of detoxification.DESIGN: Sampling investigation.SETTING: Xiamen Xianyue Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 38 male heroin addicts received withdrawal treatment voluntarily and were selected in the investigation in Xiamen Xianyue Hospital from October 1995 to May 1997. Fifty cases were selected as normal control from the staffs and family members of two units in Xiamen.METHODS:"Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)" [including 10 clinical scales, hypochondriasis (Hs), depression (D), hysteria (Hy), morbid personality (Pd), masculinization/feminization (Mf), paranoia (Pa), psychasthenia (Pt), schizophrenia (Sc), hypomania (Ma) and social interior (Si)] was used for the test of heroin addicts in 3 days after admitted and the tested results were compared with MMPI results in normal control MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of primary scales in MMPI in heroin addicts and normal people.RESULTS: The data of 38 heroin addicts and 50 cases in normal control were all in result analysis, without dropped out case. Compared with normal control, the scales of Hs, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc and Ma were higher remarkably in heroin addict group (14.44±1.68, 8.91±3.90; 22.89±1.75, 18.31±4.18;14.42±1.56, 12.23±3.15; 26.86±1.79, 17.32±5.12; 33.00±2.63, 22.71±3.72;21.25±1.23, 17.65±4.28), and Mf scale was lower remarkably (23.08±1.69,27.60±3.42).CONCLUSION: Heroin addicts present obviously physical discomfort and tendency of hypochondriasis, paranoid personality character and tendency of individual attack and appear obvious personality character of abnormality and psychological changes

  18. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mohagheghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1. The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV. All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Results. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28 ± 7.82 and 34.93 ± 9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Conclusion. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence.

  19. Outcomes of adult heroin users v. abstinent users four years after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There are no studies in South Africa (SA) on the outcomes following detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation of heroindependent patients. Objective. To compare the demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data of active heroin users v. users who were abstinent at the time of interview 4 years after ...

  20. Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Fineschi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine has various effects on the central nervous system with several neuropathological alterations including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage from respiratory depressing effects and neuroinflammatory response. Both of these mechanisms induce the release of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators by the activation of many cell types such as leucocytes and endothelial and glial cells, especially microglia, the predominant immunocompetent cell type within the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to clarify the correlation between intravenous heroin administration in heroin related death and the neuroinflammatory response. We selected 45 cases among autopsies executed for heroin-related death (358 total cases; immunohistochemical studies and Western blotting analyses were used to investigate the expression of brain markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α, oxygen-regulated protein 150, (interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, and CD68 (MAC387. Findings demonstrated that morphine induces inflammatory response and cytokine release. In particular, oxygen-regulated protein 150, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, IL-6 and IL-15 cytokines were over-expressed with different patterns of cellular expression.

  1. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  2. Comparison of self-administration behavior and responsiveness to drug-paired cues in rats running an alley for intravenous heroin and cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zu-In; Wenzel, Jennifer; Baird, Rebeccah; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests that responsiveness to a drug-paired cue is predicted by the reinforcing magnitude of the drug during prior self-administration. It remains unclear, however, if this principle holds true when comparisons are made across drug reinforcers. The current study was therefore devised to test the hypothesis that differences in the animals' responsiveness to a cocaine- or heroin-paired cue presented during extinction would reflect differences in the patterns of prior cocaine and heroin runway self-administration. Rats ran a straight alley for single intravenous injections of either heroin (0.1 mg/kg/inj) or cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inj) each paired with a distinct olfactory cue. Animals experienced 15 trials with each drug reinforcer in a counterbalanced manner. Start latencies, run times, and retreat behaviors (a form of approach-avoidance conflict) provided behavioral indices of the subjects' motivation to seek the reinforcer on each trial. Responsiveness to each drug-paired cue was assessed after 7, 14, or 21 days of non-reinforced extinction trials. Other animals underwent conditioned place preference (CPP) testing to ensure that the two drug reinforcers were capable of producing drug-cue associations. While both drugs produced comparable CPPs, heroin served as a stronger incentive stimulus in the runway as evidenced by faster start and run times and fewer retreats. In contrast, cocaine- but not heroin-paired cues produced increases in drug-seeking behavior during subsequent extinction trials. The subjects' responsiveness to drug-paired cues during extinction was not predicted by differences in the motivation to seek heroin versus cocaine during prior drug self-administration.

  3. BULLOUS DEGENERATION OF THE LEFT LOWER LOBE IN A HEROIN-ADDICT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMEENK, FWJM; SERLIE, J; VANDERJAGT, EJ; POSTMUS, PE

    1990-01-01

    A 34 yr old heroin addict was referred because of chest pain caused by air-trapping in a bulla in the left lower lobe. There was a marked difference between the functional residual capacity measured by body-plethysmography and helium dilution. A slow wash-in and wash-out were demonstrated by

  4. Syndrome surveillance of fentanyl-laced heroin outbreaks: Utilization of EMS, Medical Examiner and Poison Center databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P Quincy; Weber, Joseph; Cina, Steven; Aks, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Describe surveillance data from three existing surveillance systems during an unexpected fentanyl outbreak in a large metropolitan area. We performed a retrospective analysis of three data sets: Chicago Fire Department EMS, Cook County Medical Examiner, and Illinois Poison Center. Each included data from January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015. EMS data included all EMS responses in Chicago, Illinois, for suspected opioid overdose in which naloxone was administered and EMS personnel documented other criteria indicative of opioid overdose. Medical Examiner data included all deaths in Cook County, Illinois, related to heroin, fentanyl or both. Illinois Poison Center data included all calls in Chicago, Illinois, related to fentanyl, heroin, and other prescription opioids. Descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel® were used to analyze the data and create figures. We identified a spike in opioid-related EMS responses during an 11-day period from September 30-October 10, 2015. Medical Examiner data showed an increase in both fentanyl and mixed fentanyl/heroin related deaths during the months of September and October, 2015 (375% and 550% above the median, respectively.) Illinois Poison Center data showed no significant increase in heroin, fentanyl, or other opioid-related calls during September and October 2015. Our data suggests that EMS data is an effective real-time surveillance mechanism for changes in the rate of opioid overdoses. Medical Examiner's data was found to be valuable for confirmation of EMS surveillance data and identification of specific intoxicants. Poison Center data did not correlate with EMS or Medical Examiner data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 'Chasing the Dragon' - imaging of heroin inhalation leukoencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagel, J. [Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: jeff_hagel@hotmail.com; Andrews, G. [UBC Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Vertinsky, T. [Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Heran, M.K.S. [Vancouver General Hospital, Div. of Neuroradiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keogh, C. [BC Cancer Agency, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    'Chasing the dragon' refers to the inhalation of heroin pyrolysate vapors produced when the freebase form of heroin is heated. Inhalation of these vapors can result in a rare toxic spongiform leukoencephalopathy. The patients may progress through 3 defined clinical stages, with one-quarter reaching the terminal stage, which invariably leads to death. Imaging and, in particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates white matter findings that are felt to be specific for this entity and essential in its early diagnosis. We present the typical imaging findings in a pictorial essay format, using images taken from 9 patients who presented within an 18-month period at UBC-affiliated hospitals. These findings include low computed tomography (CT) attenuation and high T2 MRI signal most commonly in the posterior cerebral and cerebellar white matter, cerebellar peduncles, splenium of the corpus callosum, and posterior limb of the internal capsules. In addition, there is often selective, symmetric involvement of the corticospinal tract, the medial lemniscus, and the tractus solitarius. We also present the variable diffusion-weighted imaging arid apparent diffusion coefficient findings from 4 of our patients, which to our knowledge, have not been described in the literature. (author)

  6. Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, K N; Petry, N M; Bickel, W K

    1999-03-01

    Fifty-six heroin addicts and 60 age-matched controls were offered choices between monetary rewards ($11-$80) available immediately and larger rewards ($25-$85) available after delays ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Participants had a 1-in-6 chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Delay-discounting rates were estimated from the pattern of participants' choices. The discounting model of impulsiveness (Ainslie, 1975) implies that delay-discounting rates are positively correlated with impulsiveness. On average, heroin addicts' discount rates were twice those of controls (p = .004), and discount rates were positively correlated with impulsivity as measured by self-report questionnaires (p discounting rate as a measure of impulsiveness, a characteristic associated with substance abuse.

  7. Impaired decision-making under risk in individuals with alcohol dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with poor decision-making under ambiguity, that is, when decisions are to be made in the absence of known probabilities of reward and loss. However, little is known regarding decisions made by individuals with alcohol dependence in the context of known probabilities (decision under risk). In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of these distinct aspects of decision making to alcohol dependence. Methods Thirty recently detoxified and sober asymptomatic alcohol-dependent individuals, and thirty healthy control participants were tested for decision-making under ambiguity (using the Iowa Gambling Task), and decision-making under-risk (using the Cups Task and Coin Flipping Task). We also tested their capacities for working memory storage (Digit-span Forward), and dual-tasking (Operation-span Task). Results Compared to healthy control participants, alcohol-dependent individuals made disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task, reflecting poor decisions under ambiguity. They also made more risky choices on the Cups and Coin Flipping Tasks reflecting poor decision-making under risk. In addition, alcohol-dependent participants showed some working memory impairments, as measured by the dual tasking, and the degree of this impairment correlated with high-risk decision-making, thus suggesting a relationship between processes sub-serving working memory and risky decisions. Conclusion These results suggest that alcohol dependent individuals are impaired in their ability to decide optimally in multiple facets of uncertainty (i.e., both risk and ambiguity), and that at least some aspects of these deficits are linked to poor working memory processes. PMID:24948198

  8. Heroin epidemics, treatment and ODE modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emma; Comiskey, Catherine

    2007-07-01

    The UN [United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC): World Drug Report, 2005, vol. 1: Analysis. UNODC, 2005.], EU [European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA): Annual Report, 2005.http://annualreport.emcdda.eu.int/en/home-en.html.] and WHO [World Health Organisation (WHO): Biregional Strategy for Harm Reduction, 2005-2009. HIV and Injecting Drug Use. WHO, 2005.] have consistently highlighted in recent years the ongoing and persistent nature of opiate and particularly heroin use on a global scale. While this is a global phenomenon, authors have emphasised the significant impact such an epidemic has on individual lives and on society. National prevalence studies have indicated the scale of the problem, but the drug-using career, typically consisting of initiation, habitual use, a treatment-relapse cycle and eventual recovery, is not well understood. This paper presents one of the first ODE models of opiate addiction, based on the principles of mathematical epidemiology. The aim of this model is to identify parameters of interest for further study, with a view to informing and assisting policy-makers in targeting prevention and treatment resources for maximum effectiveness. An epidemic threshold value, R(0), is proposed for the drug-using career. Sensitivity analysis is performed on R(0) and it is then used to examine the stability of the system. A condition under which a backward bifurcation may exist is found, as are conditions that permit the existence of one or more endemic equilibria. A key result arising from this model is that prevention is indeed better than cure.

  9. The prediction of drug dependence from expectancy for hostility while intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, D; Nagoshi, C; Muntaner, C; Haertzen, C A

    1990-10-01

    Three hundred seventy-one male substance-abusing volunteers for drug studies were administered the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (B-D). One hundred nineteen of these subjects were readministered the B-D with the instruction to answer the items in terms of their behavior while drinking alcohol, with 67 of these subjects also completing a heroin use condition. Expectancies for hostility under alcohol or heroin were generally uncorrelated with other measures of personality, psychopathology, antisocial personality, impulsiveness, or criminality; but expectancies for hostility under alcohol were predictive of diagnoses of alcohol, opioid, and marijuana abuse and dependence over and above the influence of these other measures.

  10. Condition-dependent individual decision-making determines cyprinid partial migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, J.; Nilsson, P.A.; Hansson, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    with decreased access to food. Furthermore, fewer unfed migrants returned to the lake, indicating higher overwinter mortality. Our results suggest that individual fish trade off safety from predation and access to food differently depending on their body condition, which results in a condition-dependent partial...... migration. Hence, our main conclusion is that individual decision-making is based on assessment of own condition which offers a mechanistic explanation to partial migration. Moreover, this may be of high importance for understanding population responses to environmental variation as well as ecosystem...

  11. Use of morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine in blood for the evaluation of possible risk factors for sudden death in 192 heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugelstad, Anna; Ahlner, Johan; Brandt, Lena; Ceder, Gunnel; Eksborg, Staffan; Rajs, Jovan; Beck, Olof

    2003-04-01

    To detect risk factors for sudden death from heroin injection. Evaluation of data from forensic investigations of all fatal cases of suspected heroin death in a metropolitan area. Only cases with detectable morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) in blood were included in order to select heroin intoxication cases. Stockholm, Sweden. Autopsy investigation and toxicological analysis of blood and urine; and police reports. In two-thirds of the 192 cases, death occurred in public places, and mostly without any time delay. Blood concentrations of morphine ranged from 50 to 1200 ng/g, and of 6-MAM from 1 to 80 ng/g. Codeine was detected in 96% of the subjects. In the majority of cases the forensic investigation indicated polydrug use, the most common additional findings being alcohol and benzodiazepines. However, in one-quarter of the cases other drug combinations were found. Previous abstinence from heroin and use of alcohol were identified as risk factors. For 6-MAM there was also a correlation with the presence of THC and benzodiazepines. Despite a high frequency of heart abnormalities (e.g. myocarditis and focal myocardial fibrosis), these conditions did not correlate with morphine or 6-MAM blood concentrations. We confirm that alcohol intake and loss of tolerance are risk factors for death from heroin use, whereas no connection to heart pathology was observed. Further, prospective, studies should focus on other possible risk factors.

  12. Is alcohol more dangerous than heroin? The physical, social and financial costs of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geraldine A; Forsythe, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    A recent paper claimed in its classification of harmful substances, that alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. This paper aims to weigh up some of the evidence in the literature on the physical, social and financial effects of alcohol and the associated disease burden. We will also explore alcohol within the context of emergency department (ED) presentations. Reasons for ED attendance can be overtly and directly alcohol related such as alcohol intoxication, assaults, injuries and falls and indirectly such as child neglect, psychological problems and chronic diseases. Alcohol is often viewed as an isolated incident or factor for ED presentations but there are data that refute this perception. In ED, the priority is to treat the patient and their primary complaint, however it may be appropriate to screen for alcohol use, give advice and potentially offer an intervention to the patient. With the recent UK and Australian guidelines on reducing health risks from drinking alcohol, the ED has the ability to play an active role in reducing the harmful effects of alcohol through screening, advising and undertaking intervention as appropriate. However this cannot be achieved in isolation but within the broader political and health policy framework. There is now a growing body of literature supporting the need to make alcohol less affordable, less easy to buy and reducing alcohol advertising. Although alcohol is a legal substance, this paper concludes that examining the wider effects in physical, social and financial terms, alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. It has become an endemic problem in society affecting the individual and the whole community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hero/Heroine Modeling for Puerto Rican Adolescents: A Preventive Mental Health Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgady, Robert G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Developed hero/heroine intervention based on adult Puerto Rican role models to foster ethnic identity, self-concept, and adaptive coping behavior. Screened 90 Puerto Rican eighth and ninth graders for presenting behavior problems in school and randomly assigned them to intervention or control groups. After 19 sessions, intervention significantly…

  14. Opioid dependence - management in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Matthew

    2010-08-01

    Addiction to opioids, or opioid dependence, encompasses the biopsychosocial dysfunction seen in illicit heroin injectors, as well as aberrant behaviours in patients prescribed opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain. To outline the management of opioid dependence using opioid pharmacotherapy as part of a comprehensive chronic illness management strategy. The same principles and skills general practitioners employ in chronic illness management underpin the care of patients with opioid dependence. Opioid pharmacotherapy, with the substitution medications methadone and buprenorphine, is an effective management of opioid dependence. Training and regulatory requirements for prescribing opioid pharmacotherapies vary between jurisdictions, but this treatment should be within the scope of most Australian GPs.

  15. Chronic THC during adolescence increases the vulnerability to stress-induced relapse to heroin seeking in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopponi, Serena; Soverchia, Laura; Ubaldi, Massimo; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    Cannabis derivatives are among the most widely used illicit substances among young people. The addictive potential of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of cannabis is well documented in scientific literature. However, the consequence of THC exposure during adolescence on occurrence of addiction for other drugs of abuse later in life is still controversial. To explore this aspect of THC pharmacology, in the present study, we treated adolescent rats from postnatal day (PND) 35 to PND-46 with increasing daily doses of THC (2.5-10mg/kg). One week after intoxication, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. One month later (starting from PND 75), rats were trained to operantly self-administer heroin intravenously. Finally, following extinction phase, reinstatement of lever pressing elicited by the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine (1.25mg/kg) was evaluated. Data revealed that in comparison to controls, animals treated with chronic THC during adolescence showed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior. When tested for heroin (20μg per infusion) self-administration, no significant differences were observed in both the acquisition of operant responding and heroin intake at baseline. Noteworthy, following the extinction phase, administration of yohimbine elicited a significantly higher level of heroin seeking in rats previously exposed to THC. Altogether these findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to THC during adolescence is responsible for heightened anxiety and increased vulnerability to drug relapse in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene transcripts selectively down-regulated in the shell of the nucleus accumbens long after heroin self-administration are up-regulated in the core independent of response contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Edwin H; de Vries, Taco J; Smit, August B; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M

    2004-01-01

    Long-term drug-induced alterations in neurotransmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core may underlie relapse to drug-seeking behavior and drug-taking upon re-exposure to drugs and drug-associated stimuli (cues) during abstinence. Using an open screening strategy, we recently identified 25 gene transcripts, encoding for proteins involved in neuronal functioning and structure that are down-regulated in rat NAc shell after contingent (active), but not after non-contingent (passive), heroin administration. Studying the expression of the same transcripts in the NAc core by means of quantitative PCR, we now demonstrate that most of these transcripts are up-regulated in that NAc subregion long (3 weeks) after heroin self-administration in rats. A similar up-regulation in gene expression was also apparent in the NAc core of animals with a history of non-contingent heroin administration (yoked controls). These data indicate that heroin self-administration differentially regulates genes in the NAc core as compared with the shell. Moreover, whereas cognitive processes involved in active drug self-administration (e.g., instrumental learning) seems to direct gene expression in the NAc shell, neuroplasticity in the NAc core may be due to the pharmacological effects of heroin (including Pavlovian conditioning), as expressed in rats upon contingent as well as non-contingent administration of heroin.

  17. Clinical characteristics and risk behavior as a function of HIV status among heroin users enrolled in methadone treatment in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Chien-Yu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methadone treatment was introduced in Taiwan in 2006 as a harm-reduction program in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, which is endemic among Taiwanese heroin users. The present study was aimed at examining the clinical and behavioral characteristics of methadone patients in northern Taiwan according to their HIV status. Methods The study was conducted at four methadone clinics. Participants were patients who had undergone methadone treatment at the clinics and who voluntarily signed a consent form. Between August and November 2008, each participant completed a face-to-face interview that included questions on demographics, risk behavior, quality of life, and psychiatric symptoms. Data on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections, methadone dosage, and morphine in the urine were retrieved from patient files on the clinical premises, with permission of the participants. Results Of 576 participants, 71 were HIV positive, and 514 had hepatitis C. There were significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups on source of treatment payment, HCV infection, urine test results, methadone dosage, and treatment duration. The results indicate that HIV-negative heroin users were more likely to have sexual intercourse and not use condoms during the 6 months prior to the study. A substantial percent of the sample reported anxiety (21.0%, depression (27.2%, memory loss (32.7%, attempted suicide (32.7%, and administration of psychiatric medications (16.1%. There were no significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients on psychiatric symptoms or quality of life. Conclusions HIV-positive IDUs were comorbid with HCV, indicating the need to refer both HIV- and HCV-infected individuals for treatment in methadone clinics. Currently, there is a gap between psychiatric/psychosocial services and patient symptoms, and more integrated medical services should be provided to heroin

  18. Validation and optimization of a chromatographic method for the quantitative and qualitative determination of cocaine and heroin through liquid chromatography of high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Aguilar, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    A (HPLC) chromatographic method was optimized in this work, for the determination of cocaine and heroin in seizures, through the application of the factorial and the simplex design. It applied the developed methodology in the determination of the content of cocaine and of heroin in nine different samples. The application of this methodology in abuse drugs seizures samples, turned out analytically satisfactory for the time of analysis and the veracity of the results. It also complements efficiently the qualitative analysis of cocaine and heroin, that the Laboratory of Physical and Chemical Investigations of the Department of Forensic Sciences of the Agency of Judicial Investigation carries out. (S. Grainger) [es

  19. Heroin addict with gangrene of the extremities, rhabdomyolysis and severe hyperkalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Long-time consumption of narcotics leads to altered mental status of the addict. It is also connected to damages of different organic systems and it often leads to appearance of multiple organ failure. Excessive narcotics consumption or abuse in a long time period can lead to various consequences, such as atraumatic rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and electrolytic disorders. Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by injury of skeletal muscle with subsequent release of intracellular contents, such as myoglobin, potassium and creatine phosphokinase. In heroin addicts, rhabdomyolysis is a consequence of the development of a compartment syndrome due to immobilization of patients in the state of unconsciousness and prolonged compression of extremities, direct heroin toxicity or extremities ischemia caused by intraluminal occlusion of blood vessels after intraarterial injection of heroin. Severe hyperkalemia and the development of acute renal failure require urgent therapeutic measures, which imply the application of either conventional treatment or a form of dialysis. Case report. We presented a male patient, aged 50, hospitalized in the Emergency Center Kragujevac due to altered mental status (Glasgow Coma Score 11, partial respiratory insufficiency (pO2 7.5 kPa, pCO2 4.3 kPa, SpO2 89 %, weakness of lower extremities and atypical electrocardiographic changes. Laboratory analyses, carried out immediately after the patient’s admission to the Emergency Center, registered the following disturbances: high hyperkalemia level (K+ 9.9 mmol/L, increased levels of urea (30.1 mmol/L, creatinine (400 μmol/L, creatine phosphokinase - CK (120350 IU/L, CK-MB (2500 IU/L and myoglobin (57000 μg/L, with normal levels of troponin I (< 0.01 μg/L, as well as signs of anemia (Hgb 92 g/L, Er 3.61 x 1012/L, infection (C-reactive proteine 184 μg/mL, Le 16.1 x 109/L and acidosis (base excess - 18.4 mmol/L, pH 7.26. Initial examination of the patient revealed

  20. Implicit and Explicit Memory Bias in Opiate Dependent, Abstinent and Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of current research was to assess implicit and explicit memory bias to drug related stimuli in opiate Dependent, abstinent and normal Individuals. Method: Three groups including opiate Dependent, abstinent and normal Individuals (n=25 were selected by available sampling method. After matching on the base of age, education level and type of substance use all participants assessed by recognition task (explicit memory bias and stem completion task (implicit memory bias. Results: The analysis of data showed that opiate dependent and abstinent groups in comparison with normal individual had implicit memory bias, whereas in explicit memory only opiate dependent individuals showed bias. Conclusion: The identification of explicit and implicit memory governing addiction may have practical implications in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of substance abuse.

  1. Associations between alcohol, heroin, and cocaine use and high risk sexual behaviors among detoxification patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess associations between substance use (alcohol to intoxication, heroin, and cocaine) and sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors, and STD among detoxification inpatients (n = 470). Participants were surveyed on past 30 day substance use, past 6 month sexual behaviors, and STD in the past 6 months and/or over 24 months of follow-up. Logistic regression models adjusted for demographics found that cocaine use was significantly associated with being sexually active (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.8) and selling sex (OR(adj) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3). Alcohol and heroin were not significantly associated with sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors or STD in this sample.

  2. Augmented production of proinflammatory cytokines and accelerated allotransplantation reactions in heroin-treated mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holáň, Vladimír; Zajícová, Alena; Krulová, Magdalena; Blahoutová, V.; Wilczek, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2003), s. 40-45 ISSN 0009-9104 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF6824; GA MZd NJ6632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : heroin * naltrexone * skin allografts Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.347, year: 2003

  3. Analysis of variations in the glutamate receptor, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A (GRIN2A gene reveals their relative importance as genetic susceptibility factors for heroin addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhao

    Full Text Available The glutamate receptor, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A (GRIN2A gene that encodes the 2A subunit of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA receptor was recently shown to be involved in the development of opiate addiction. Genetic polymorphisms in GRIN2A have a plausible role in modulating the risk of heroin addiction. An association of GRIN2A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with heroin addiction was found earlier in African Americans. To identify markers that contribute to the genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction, we examined the potential association between heroin addiction and forty polymorphisms of the GRIN2A gene using the MassARRAY system and GeneScan in this study. The frequency of the (GT26 repeats (rs3219790 in the heroin addiction group was significantly higher than that in the control group (χ(2 = 5.360, P = 0.021. The allele frequencies of three polymorphisms (rs1102972, rs1650420, and rs3104703 in intron 3 were strongly associated with heroin addiction (P<0.001, 0.0002, and <0.001, after Bonferroni correction. Three additional SNPs from the same intron (rs1071502, rs6497730, and rs1070487 had nominally significant P values for association (P<0.05, but did not pass the threshold value. Haplotype analysis revealed that the G-C-T-C-C-T-A (block 6 and T-T (block 10 haplotypes of the GRIN2A gene displayed a protective effect (P = <0.001 and 0.003. These findings point to a role for GRIN2A polymorphisms in heroin addiction among the Han Chinese from Shaanxi province, and may be informative for future genetic or neurobiological studies on heroin addiction.

  4. Speckle-tracking strain assessment of left ventricular dysfunction in synthetic cannabinoid and heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkıran, Aykut; Albayrak, Neslihan; Albayrak, Yakup; Zorkun, Cafer Sadık

    2018-06-01

    There is growing evidence regarding the numerous adverse effects of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) on the cardiovascular system; however, no studies have shown the cardiovascular effects of opioids using strain echocardiography. This study examines the cardiac structure and function using echocardiographic strain imaging in heroin and synthetic cannabinoid users. This double-blind study included patients who were admitted or referred to a rehabilitation center for heroin (n=31) and synthetic cannabinoid users (n=30). Heroin users and synthetic cannabinoid users were compared with healthy volunteers (n=32) using two-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking (ST) echocardiography. No differences were found in the baseline characteristics and 2D echocardiography values. The mean global longitudinal strain value was -20.5%±2.4% for SCB users, -22.3%±2.4% for opioid users, and -22.5%±2.2% for healthy volunteers (p=0.024). The mean apical 2-chamber (AP2C) L-strain values were -20.1%±3.1%, -22.4%±3.0%, and -22.3%±2.8% for SCB users, opioid users, and healthy volunteers, respectively (p=0.032). The mean apical 4-chamber (AP4C) L-strain values were -20.7%±2.5% for SCB users, -23.2%±3.2% for opioid users, and -23.8%±3.1% for healthy volunteers (p<0.001). SCBs are potential causes of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction.

  5. Susan And Lucy: Two Outstanding Heroines Of Alan Ayckbourn / Susan ve Lucy: Alan Ayckbourn’un İki Sıradışı Kadın-Kahramanı

    OpenAIRE

    Parlak, Erdinç

    2012-01-01

    Alan Ayckbourn (1939-     ) has an important place among the twentieth century British playwrights. The playwright handles some present-day social problems such as insensitiveness, lack of communication, lack of love, collision, alienation, moral degeneration especially around his heroines. Susan, the protagonist of Woman in Mind, and Lucy, the little heroine in Invisible Friends, are among the outstanding heroines of the playwright. The life experiences of Susan and Lucy reflected from the s...

  6. Investigation of Internal Tensions of Wives of Men Who Addicted to Heroin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdizadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addiction is one of the social bad phenomenon and because of family is the most vulnerable of social institution against to the adverse effects of addiction and due to head of family with drug addicts cannot perform his role as husband and father, important role of women in such families is double. Due to this group of women are the most vulnerable community groups and are at risk of serious damage to the system of family, present study describes the structure and nature of psychological problems who addict to heroin and deep understanding of the overall psychological problems. Methods: In this research was used from qualitative approaches (phenomenology. Sampling method is based on object and has been continued until data saturation. Participants were the wives of men who have been addicted to heroin .The women refer to Eynolhayat club - treatment center of addiction- in Khoy city during this research. Results: The extracted interviews were analyzed. Concepts of internal stresses associated with six subconcepts that were identified are as follow: shy, uncertain future, frustration, guard less, concern and confusion. Conclusion: This study suggests that the wives of men who addicted to heroin experience a range of psychological problems in various aspects of their life. They need psychological support and use from counseling of psychologists when faced with psychological problems. Because the women have an important role in shaping the family system, the practitioners with adequate knowledge of their spouse problems in relation to addiction husbands must support them. We can use from findings of this study to educate and raise awareness level of some organization (especially the anti-drug organization and the nature of addiction to rise possibility comply with human psychosis problems and better support from them.

  7. Individualism in plant populations: using stochastic differential equations to model individual neighbourhood-dependent plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiming; Schneider, Manuel K; Pitchford, Jonathan W

    2008-08-01

    We study individual plant growth and size hierarchy formation in an experimental population of Arabidopsis thaliana, within an integrated analysis that explicitly accounts for size-dependent growth, size- and space-dependent competition, and environmental stochasticity. It is shown that a Gompertz-type stochastic differential equation (SDE) model, involving asymmetric competition kernels and a stochastic term which decreases with the logarithm of plant weight, efficiently describes individual plant growth, competition, and variability in the studied population. The model is evaluated within a Bayesian framework and compared to its deterministic counterpart, and to several simplified stochastic models, using distributional validation. We show that stochasticity is an important determinant of size hierarchy and that SDE models outperform the deterministic model if and only if structural components of competition (asymmetry; size- and space-dependence) are accounted for. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of plant ecology and in more general modelling situations.

  8. Comportamentos de risco ao HIV em utilizadores de heroína em um distrito português: estudo qualitativo HIV risk behaviors in heroin users in a Portuguese district: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fabiane Machado Gomes Marsden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Explorar relatos de utilizadores de heroína sobre seus comportamentos de risco para transmissão do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV no distrito de Vila Real, Portugal, já que a heroína é a droga predominante no que se refere ao uso problemático de drogas em Portugal, e 48% de todas as notificações de infecção por HIV no país são associadas à dependência de drogas. MÉTODO: Utilizadores de heroína recebendo tratamento ambulatorial para dependência em clínica pública foram selecionados aleatoriamente e convidados a participar do estudo. A coleta de dados foi realizada através de entrevista qualitativa semiestruturada, desenvolvida para explorar os relatos dos participantes sobre seu comportamento de risco associado ao uso de heroína. RESULTADOS: Vinte e cinco entrevistas foram realizadas. A idade média foi de 32 anos, e 92% eram homens. Os participantes relataram um tempo médio de uso de heroína de 14,7 anos, e 64% deles mencionaram uso diário da droga. Dois terços relataram uso de heroína e 16% referiram uso intravenoso da droga nos 30 dias anteriores à entrevista. 75% referiram compartilhamento de seringas ou parafernália de injeção. Front-loading ou back-loading foram técnicas comuns e não reconhecidas como comportamento de risco. 84% referiram ter sido testados anteriormente para o HIV. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento de melhores programas de prevenção ao HIV para este grupo de risco é essencial através do uso de informações sobre movimentos demográficos e padrões de comportamento de utilizadores de heroína, abordando seus comportamentos de risco nas práticas sexuais e no compartilhamento de parafernália de injeção.OBJECTIVE: To explore heroin users' accounts of risk behavior in relation to the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in the district of Vila Real, northern Portugal, since heroin is the predominant drug in problematic drug use in Portugal and 48% of the total

  9. A Prospective Study of Factors Related to Relapse in Heroin Addicts%海洛因依赖者复吸相关因素的前瞻性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 郝伟; 杨德森; 张亚林; 李凌江

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To understand outcome of heroin addicts after abstinence and analyze the factors related to relapse. Methods:A follow-up of 149 heroin addicts in a correction camp was carried out at 6th months after their discharge. Demographic characteristics, clinical features, addiction severity and psychiatric comorbidity were compared between those who relapsed and those who remained abstinent. Results: 22.8% of the subjects were abstinent, 46.3% relapsed, 29.5% in probation or in treatment,1.3% died. Relapse was related to the presence of drug addiction in family members, lack of abstinence intention, antisocial personality disorder, lack of rehabilitation therapy, intravenous heroin use and ASI scores in heroin abuse, composite family/social and legal factors. Conclusion:The outcome of heroin dependence after correction was poor. Relapse was related to family environment, abstinence intention, the heroin addiction severity,antisocial personality disorder.%目的:了解海洛因依赖者戒毒后的转归,分析复吸相关因素。方法:随访178名劳教的海洛因依赖者出所后6个月的情况,比较复吸者和戒断者的一般人口学资料、临床特征、成瘾严重程度、伴发的精神疾病等方面的差异。结果:随访到的149人(83.7%)的资料显示,22.8%保持戒断,46.3%复吸,29.5%正在强制戒毒、劳教或自愿戒毒,1.3%死亡。复吸与家庭中有其他吸毒者、无强烈戒毒愿望、伴有反社会人格障碍、未参加康复治疗和入教前ASI中海洛因滥用、家庭社会关系、违法犯罪三个因子分、静脉使用毒品等有关。结论:海洛因依赖者劳教后的复吸率较高,复吸与家庭生活环境、戒毒愿望、既往海洛因依赖程度、反社会人格障碍等有关,据此制定预防复吸治疗具有重要意义。

  10. Harm reduction as a complex adaptive system: A dynamic framework for analyzing Tanzanian policies concerning heroin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Eric A; Kaduri, Pamela; Masao, Frank; Mbwambo, Jessie K K; McCurdy, Sheryl A

    2016-04-01

    Contrary to popular belief, policies on drug use are not always based on scientific evidence or composed in a rational manner. Rather, decisions concerning drug policies reflect the negotiation of actors' ambitions, values, and facts as they organize in different ways around the perceived problems associated with illicit drug use. Drug policy is thus best represented as a complex adaptive system (CAS) that is dynamic, self-organizing, and coevolving. In this analysis, we use a CAS framework to examine how harm reduction emerged around heroin trafficking and use in Tanzania over the past thirty years (1985-present). This account is an organizational ethnography based on of the observant participation of the authors as actors within this system. We review the dynamic history and self-organizing nature of harm reduction, noting how interactions among system actors and components have coevolved with patterns of heroin us, policing, and treatment activities over time. Using a CAS framework, we describe harm reduction as a complex process where ambitions, values, facts, and technologies interact in the Tanzanian sociopolitical environment. We review the dynamic history and self-organizing nature of heroin policies, noting how the interactions within and between competing prohibitionist and harm reduction policies have changed with patterns of heroin use, policing, and treatment activities over time. Actors learn from their experiences to organize with other actors, align their values and facts, and implement new policies. Using a CAS approach provides researchers and policy actors a better understanding of patterns and intricacies in drug policy. This knowledge of how the system works can help improve the policy process through adaptive action to introduce new actors, different ideas, and avenues for communication into the system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of major depression on remission and relapse of substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah; Liu, Xinhua; Nunes, Edward; McCloud, Steven; Samet, Sharon; Endicott, Jean

    2002-04-01

    The effects of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the course of substance dependence may differ depending on the temporal relationship of depression to dependence. We investigated the effects of MDD on the outcome of substance dependence under 3 circumstances: (1) lifetime onset of MDD prior to lifetime onset of dependence onset, (2) current MDD occurring during a period of abstinence, and (3) current MDD during substance use that exceeded the expected effects of intoxication or withdrawal. A sample of 250 inpatients with DSM-IV cocaine, heroin, and/or alcohol dependence were followed up at 6, 12, and 18 months. The Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM) was used to make DSM-IV diagnoses. Using Cox proportional hazards models, stable remissions (those lasting at least 26 weeks) from DSM-IV cocaine, heroin, and/or alcohol dependence and from use were studied, as well as subsequent relapses of dependence and use. Patients with current substance-induced MDD were less likely to remit from dependence (adjusted hazards ratio, 0.11) than patients with no baseline MDD. A history of MDD prior to lifetime onset of substance dependence also reduced the likelihood of remission relative to the absence of such a history (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.49). Major depressive disorder during sustained abstinence predicted dependence relapse (adjusted hazards ratio, 3.07) and substance use after hospital discharge compared with those without abstinence MDD (adjusted hazards ratio, 1.45). The timing of depressive episodes relative to substance dependence served as an important factor in the remission and relapse of substance dependence and substance use.

  12. Lesions of cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus neurons fail to affect cocaine or heroin self-administration or conditioned place preference in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Steidl

    Full Text Available Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA is known to contribute to reward. Although it is known that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg provides an important source of excitatory input to the dopamine system, the specific role of PPTg cholinergic input to the VTA in cocaine reward has not been previously determined. We used a diphtheria toxin conjugated to urotensin-II (Dtx::UII, the endogenous ligand for urotensin-II receptors expressed by PPTg cholinergic but not glutamatergic or GABAergic cells, to lesion cholinergic PPTg neurons. Dtx::UII toxin infusion resulted in the loss of 95.78 (±0.65% of PPTg cholinergic cells but did not significantly alter either cocaine or heroin self-administration or the development of cocaine or heroin conditioned place preferences. Thus, cholinergic cells originating in PPTg do not appear to be critical for the rewarding effects of cocaine or of heroin.

  13. Identifications of Opium and Heroin Body Packing by Medical Imaging in the Poisoned and Non-poisoned Drug Smuggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balali-Mood, M.; Zare, G.

    2007-01-01

    Opium and heroin body packing is a social and health problem in Mashhad since the city is in the vicinity of Afghanistan border. We aimed to compare abdominal X-ray (AXR) and computed tomography (CT) scan for diagnosis. All body packers referred to the center between 2003 and 2006 were hospitalized. Defecation of packets was considered as the gold standard for diagnosis. AXR and CT scan results were classified into 3 groups (highly suggestive, suggestive, and false positive) and compared with each other, using Chi-Square test. A total of 56 body packers (54 M and 2 F) aged 32.1 ± 11.3 years were studied. A mean of 44.4 ± 35.1 opium and 52.0 ± 20.0 heroin packets weighed 8-15 g were retrieved from 46 and 10 patients, respectively. Mean period of hospitalization was 4.7 ± 2.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 days for opium and heroin packers, respectively. Urine morphine test was positive in 82 percent of the patients. Nine patients underwent surgical operation and death occurred in only 3 opium packers. AXR and CT scan results were significantly different (p less than 0.001) in terms of highly suggestive (16 and 40), suggestive (36 and 1) and false negative (4 and 0), respectively. However, sensitivity of AXR and CT scan in diagnosis of body packing was determined as 92 percent and 100 percent, respectively. Although AXR is a simple and more available technique for the diagnosis of opium and heroin body packing, CT scan revealed more significant sensitive diagnostic tool and should be employed as the confirmatory method.(author)

  14. Heroin and cocaine abusers have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than alcoholics or non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kris N; Petry, Nancy M

    2004-04-01

    To test a prediction of the discounting model of impulsiveness that discount rates would be positively associated with addiction. The delay-discount rate refers to the rate of reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. We estimated participants' discount rates on the basis of their pattern of choices between smaller immediate rewards ($11-80) and larger, delayed rewards ($25-85; at delays from 1 week to 6 months) in a questionnaire format. Participants had a one-in-six chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Heroin (n = 27), cocaine (n = 41) and alcohol (n = 33) abusers and non-drug-using controls (n = 44) were recruited from advertisements. They were tested in a drug abuse research clinic at a medical school. On average, the cocaine and heroin groups had higher rates than controls (both P rates for heroin abusers (P = 0.03), but not for cocaine or alcohol abusers (both P > 0.50). These data suggest that discount rates vary with the preferred drug of abuse, and that high discount rates should be considered in the development of substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Heroin-Methamphetamine Co-Injection Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Meredith C; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Rangel, Gudelia; Armenta, Richard F; Gaines, Tommi L; Garfein, Richard S

    2016-09-01

    Although persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the western United States-Mexico border region are known to inject both heroin and methamphetamine, little is known about the prevalence and risks associated with co-injection of this depressant-stimulant combination (also known as "goofball" and "Mexican speedball"). Baseline data from parallel cohort studies of PWID conducted concurrently in San Diego, CA, and Tijuana, Mexico, were used to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of heroin-methamphetamine co-injection. PWID older than 18 years of age who reported injecting illicit drugs in the past month (N = 1,311; 32.7% female) were recruited in San Diego (n = 576) and Tijuana (n = 735) and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify correlates of heroin-meth-amphetamine co-injection. The prevalence of co-injection in the past 6 months was 39.9% overall and was higher in Tijuana (55.8%) than in San Diego (19.8%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for study cohort, distributive syringe sharing, purchasing syringes prefilled with drugs, finding it hard to get new syringes, reporting great or urgent need for treatment, and younger age were independently associated with co-injection. Past-6-month overdose was significantly associated with higher odds of co-injection in San Diego than in Tijuana. These findings indicate that heroin-methamphetamine co-injection is more common in Tijuana than in San Diego, yet this practice was only associated with overdose in San Diego. Heroin-methamphetamine coinjection was also independently associated with HIV-associated injection risk behaviors. Overdose-prevention interventions should address co-injection of depressants and stimulants.

  16. Fentanyl and heroin contained in seized illicit drugs and overdose-related deaths in British Columbia, Canada: An observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Nicholas; Gray, Roger; Goel, Anirudh; Wood, Evan; Buxton, Jane A; Rieb, Launette Marie

    2018-04-01

    Due to the alarming rise in opioid-related overdose deaths, a public health emergency was declared in British Columbia (BC). In this study, we examined the relationship between illicit fentanyl and heroin found in seized drugs and illicit overdose deaths in BC. An observational cross-sectional survey was conducted using BC data from Health Canada's Drug Analysis Service, which analyzes drug samples seized by law enforcement agencies, and non-intentional illicit overdoses from the BC Coroner's Service, from 2000 to 2016. Initial scatter plots and subsequent multivariate regression analysis were performed to describe the potential relationship between seized illicit fentanyl samples and overdose deaths and to determine if this differed from seized heroin and overdose deaths. Fentanyl samples were analyzed for other drug content. Fentanyl is increasingly being found combined with other opioid and non-opioid illicit drugs. Strong positive relationships were found between the number of seized fentanyl samples and total overdose deaths (R2 = 0.97) as well as between seized fentanyl and fentanyl-detected overdose deaths (R2 = 0.99). A positive association was found between the number of seized heroin samples and total overdose deaths (R2 = 0.78). This research contributes to the expanding body of evidence implicating illicit fentanyl use (often combined with heroin or other substances) in overdose deaths in BC. Policy makers and healthcare providers are urged to implement drug treatment and harm reduction strategies for people at risk of overdose associated with current trends in illicit opioid use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dextromethorphan combined with clonidine in the treatment of heroin withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Ku; Pan, Chun-Hung; Chen, Chia-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Dextromethorphan has been reported to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms in both animal and human subjects. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of dextromethorphan as an add-on medication in heroin detoxification treatment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Sixty-five heroin-dependent patients (male, 63; female, 2) participated in this inpatient detoxification trial after giving informed consent. Clonidine 0.075 mg 4 times a day was given as an antiwithdrawal medication at baseline. Each patient was then randomly assigned to treatment with either dextromethorphan 60 mg or placebo 4 times a day as additional medication. Flurazepam 30 mg was given before bedtime for insomnia. Other medications that were allowed included loperamide for diarrhea and lorazepam for agitation. Participants were monitored using the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale 3 times a day as the primary outcome to compare drug efficacy between groups. Generalized estimating equation model analysis revealed that the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale had no group difference between dextromethorphan and placebo group overall (P = 0.29), whereas a significant difference between groups was found during day 3 to day 6 (P = 0.04) by post hoc analysis. There was no difference in the Clinical Global Impression Scale, patient's impression of treatment, and use of ancillary medications between groups. No severe adverse effects were noticed. We suggest that dextromethorphan has some beneficial effect in attenuating the severity of opioid withdrawal symptoms and can be used as an adjunction medication in the treatment of opioid withdrawal, whereas the exact efficacy needs further investigation.

  18. THE ROLE OF DEXTROMETHORPHAN IN EIGHT FATAL OVERDOSES: IS IT SOLELY A CUTTING SUBSTANCE FOR HEROIN OR COULD IT BE SOMETHING MORE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Indorato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Authors evaluate the role of dextromethorphan as heroin adulterant. From December 2010 through April 2013, in our Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology of University of Catania, eight fatal overdose of heroin cut with dextromethorphan were observed. Our first case (December 2010 was the earliest report in Italy. For these reasons we focused our interest on this cutting substance, studying its pharmacological interaction with the depressive morphine action on central nervous system.

  19. EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethi Valsan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country. Being a neurotoxin, it tends to affect elective mental capacities. Frontal lobe is found to be most affected by chronic alcohol use. AIM To study the executive functions in alcohol dependent individuals and to determine any relationship with alcohol intake variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 recently detoxified alcohol dependent individuals attending the De-addiction Clinic of Medical College, Kottayam, was compared to 30 controls on four tests of executive functions, namely, Controlled Word Association Test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Statistical analysis of the data has been done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Windows version 10. RESULTS Executive function was significantly impaired in the alcohol dependent individuals when compared to normal controls in all the four tests. On analysing the effect of drinking variables on executive functioning, the performance of patients is seen to improve with abstinence in Stroop. Those with a positive family history of ADS in the first degree relatives produced fewer words in verbal fluency. CONCLUSION As the executive impairment remains more or less stable irrespective to the chronicity or amount of alcohol use, it could be assumed that the executive dysfunction observed is a trait marker rather than a state dependent variable.

  20. Investigating expectation and reward in human opioid addiction with [(11) C]raclopride PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ben J; Taylor, Lindsay G; Reid, Alastair G; Wilson, Sue J; Stokes, Paul R; Brooks, David J; Myers, James F; Turkheimer, Federico E; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2014-11-01

    The rewarding properties of some abused drugs are thought to reside in their ability to increase striatal dopamine levels. Similar increases have been shown in response to expectation of a positive drug effect. The actions of opioid drugs on striatal dopamine release are less well characterized. We examined whether heroin and the expectation of heroin reward increases striatal dopamine levels in human opioid addiction. Ten opioid-dependent participants maintained on either methadone or buprenorphine underwent [(11) C]raclopride positron emission tomography imaging. Opioid-dependent participants were scanned three times, receiving reward from 50-mg intravenous heroin (diamorphine; pharmaceutical heroin) during the first scan to generate expectation of the same reward at the second scan, during which they only received 0.1-mg intravenous heroin. There was no heroin injection during the third scan. Intravenous 50-mg heroin during the first scan induced pronounced effects leading to high levels of expectation at the second scan. There was no detectable increase in striatal dopamine levels to either heroin reward or expectation of reward. We believe this is the first human study to examine whether expectation of heroin reward increases striatal dopamine levels in opioid addiction. The absence of detectable increased dopamine levels to both the expectation and delivery of a heroin-related reward may have been due to the impact of substitute medication. It does however contrast with the changes seen in abstinent stimulant users, suggesting that striatal dopamine release alone may not play such a pivotal role in opioid-maintained individuals. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Acute heroin intoxication in a baby chronically exposed to cocaine and heroin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichini Simona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute intoxication with drugs of abuse in children is often only the tip of the iceberg, actually hiding chronic exposure. Analysis using non-conventional matrices such as hair can provide long-term information about exposure to recreational drugs. Case presentation We report the case of a one-month-old Caucasian boy admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with respiratory distress and neurological abnormalities. A routine urine test was positive for opiates, suggesting an acute opiate ingestion. No other drugs of misuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines or derivatives, were detected in the baby's urine. Subsequently, hair samples from the baby and the parents were collected to evaluate the possibility of chronic exposure to drug misuse by segmental analysis. Opiates and cocaine metabolites were detected in hair samples from the baby boy and his parents. Conclusions In light of these and previous results, we recommend hair analysis in babies and children from risky environments to detect exposure to heroin and other drug misuse, which could provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.

  2. Motives for using: a comparison of prescription opioid, marijuana and cocaine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Karen J; Back, Sudie E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-04-01

    Identification of the motives for drug use is critical to the development of effective interventions. Furthermore, consideration of the differences in motives for drug use across substance dependent populations may assist in tailoring interventions. To date, few studies have systematically compared motives for substance use across drug classes. The current study examined motives for drug use between non-treatment seeking individuals with current prescription opioid, marijuana, or cocaine dependence. Participants (N=227) completed the Inventory of Drug-Taking Situations (IDTS; Annis, Turner & Sklar,1997), which contains eight subscales assessing motives for drug use. The findings revealed that prescription opioid dependent individuals scored significantly higher than all other groups on the Physical Discomfort, Testing Personal Control and Conflict with Others subscales. Both the prescription opioid and cocaine dependent groups scored significantly higher than the marijuana group on the Urges or a Temptation to Use subscale. In contrast, marijuana dependent individuals scored highest on the Pleasant Emotions and Pleasant Times with Others subscales. The marked differences revealed in motives for drug use could be used in the development and implementation of specific treatment interventions for prescription opioid, marijuana and cocaine dependent individuals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Computer tool to evaluate the cue reactivity of chemically dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Meire Luci da; Frère, Annie France; Oliveira, Henrique Jesus Quintino de; Martucci Neto, Helio; Scardovelli, Terigi Augusto

    2017-03-01

    Anxiety is one of the major influences on the dropout of relapse and treatment of substance abuse treatment. Chemically dependent individuals need (CDI) to be aware of their emotional state in situations of risk during their treatment. Many patients do not agree with the diagnosis of the therapist when considering them vulnerable to environmental stimuli related to drugs. This research presents a cue reactivity detection tool based on a device acquiring physiological signals connected to personal computer. Depending on the variations of the emotional state of the drug addict, alteration of the physiological signals will be detected by the computer tool (CT) which will modify the displayed virtual sets without intervention of the therapist. Developed in 3ds Max® software, the CT is composed of scenarios and objects that are in the habit of marijuana and cocaine dependent individual's daily life. The interaction with the environment is accomplished using a Human-Computer Interface (HCI) that converts incoming physiological signals indicating anxiety state into commands that change the scenes. Anxiety was characterized by the average variability from cardiac and respiratory rate of 30 volunteers submitted stress environment situations. To evaluate the effectiveness of cue reactivity a total of 50 volunteers who were marijuana, cocaine or both dependent were accompanied. Prior to CT, the results demonstrated a poor correlation between the therapists' predictions and those of the chemically dependent individuals. After exposure to the CT, there was a significant increase of 73% in awareness of the risks of relapse. We confirmed the hypothesis that the CT, controlled only by physiological signals, increases the perception of vulnerability to risk situations of individuals with dependence on marijuana, cocaine or both. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Patrones de consumo de heroína en una cárcel de la frontera norte de México: barreras de acceso a tratamiento Heroin consumption patterns in a northern Mexican border prison: obstacles to treatment access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cravioto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia del consumo de heroína, los patrones de inicio, el alto consumo y la dependencia a esta sustancia e identificar barreras que impidan a los adictos acudir a tratamiento. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en la cárcel de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, entre abril y junio de 2000; los participantes se obtuvieron a través de un muestreo aleatorio simple, partiendo del censo del penal. Se identificaron las barreras al tratamiento, estimadas mediante un modelo de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de consumo de heroína en los últimos seis meses fue de 26.4%; de 25.3% para usuarios fuertes; 95% fueron dependientes. El promedio de la edad de inicio del consumo fue a los 21 años. El modelo multivariado mostró que baja escolaridad, abstinencia, sobredosis, enfermedades crónicas y tiempo de exposición son barreras que impiden solicitar tratamiento. CONCLUSIONES: Las implicaciones de los resultados se discuten en función de aplicarlos para implantar programas de tratamiento en las cárceles.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of heroin use, patterns of initiation, intense use, and drug-dependency; also, to assess barriers to drug treatment access. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua prison. Subjects were selected using simple random sampling from census of prison inmates. Barriers to drug treatment were identified and analyzed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence of heroin use for the last six months was 26.4%; 25.3% were intense heroin users; and 95% showed dependence. The mean age of initiation was 21 years. A multivariate model showed that the significant barriers to drug treatment access were: low education, withdrawal, overdosing, presence of chronic diseases, and duration of heroin use. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings should serve to devise potential applications to establish treatment programs in prisons.

  5. Epidemics of HIV, HCV and syphilis infection among synthetic drugs only users, heroin-only users and poly-drug users in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu; Mao, Limin; Zhao, Jinxian; Chen, Liang; Jing, Jun; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Lei

    2018-04-26

    The number of poly-drug users who mix use heroin and synthetic drugs (SD) is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to measure the risk factors for being infected with hepatitis C (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis among SD-only users, heroin-only users and poly-drug users. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 from a national HIV surveillance site in Southwest China, 447 poly-drug, 526 SD-only and 318 heroin-only users were recruited. Poly-drug users have higher drug-use frequency, higher rates of drug-sharing and unsafe sexual acts than other users (p users experienced sexual arousal due to drug effects, which is higher than the rate among other drug users. Poly-drug users had the highest prevalence of HIV (10.5%) and syphilis (3.6%), but heroin-only users had the highest prevalence of HCV (66.0%) (all p users, having sex following drug consumption and using drugs ≥1/day were the major risk factors for both HIV (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.4, 95% CI [1.8-3.4]; 2.3, [1.6-3.1]) and syphilis infection (AOR = 4.1, [2.1-6.9]; 3.9, [1.8-5.4]). Elevated risk of both HIV and syphilis infection have been established among poly-drug users.

  6. Dysfunctional Attitudes and Coping Strategies in Substance Dependent and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A'zami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: From the psychological point of view, coping strategies and attitudes have considerable effects on people’s tendency towards risky behavior, including opioid substance abuse. Dysfunctional attitudes are attitudes and beliefs that predispose the individual toward depression and psychological disorder, generally speaking. Usually, people use three types of coping strategies when confronting stressful situations problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidance strategies. This study therefore aimed to compare dysfunctional attitudes and coping strategies in substance-dependent & healthy individuals. Methods: A causal-comparative study was conducted. The population under study consisted of 100 addicts attending Robat-Karim’s addiction rehabilitation centers who were selected through simple random sampling. Another 100 ordinary individuals were matched with the addicts. The dysfunctional attitudes scale and the coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Results: The two groups differed significantly in their dysfunctional attitudes and problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. Substance-dependent individuals applied emotion-focused coping more and had greater dysfunctional attitudes than the healthy ones, and the latter applied problem-focused strategies more. Discussion: Based on our results, addicts have greater dysfunctional attitudes than non-addicts. Therefore, better treatment and rehabilitation results may be obtained by preparing grounds for appropriate psychological interventions and coping strategies in substance-dependent individuals.

  7. Pavlovian conditioned approach, extinction, and spontaneous recovery to an audiovisual cue paired with an intravenous heroin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jamie; De Vries, Taco J

    2014-01-01

    Novel stimuli paired with exposure to addictive drugs can elicit approach through Pavlovian learning. While such approach behavior, or sign tracking, has been documented for cocaine and alcohol, it has not been shown to occur with opiate drugs like heroin. Most Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigms use an operandum as the sign, so that sign tracking can be easily automated. We were interested in assessing whether approach behavior occurs to an audiovisual cue paired with an intravenous heroin infusion. If so, would this behavior exhibit characteristics of other Pavlovian conditioned behaviors, such as extinction and spontaneous recovery? Rats were repeatedly exposed to an audiovisual cue, similar to that used in standard self-administration models, along with an intravenous heroin infusion. Sign tracking was measured in an automated fashion by analyzing motion pixels within the cue zone during each cue presentation. We were able to observe significant sign tracking after only five pairings of the conditioned stimulus (CS) with the unconditioned stimulus (US). This behavior rapidly extinguished over 2 days, but exhibited pronounced spontaneous recovery 3 weeks later. We conclude that sign tracking measured by these methods exhibits all the characteristics of a classically conditioned behavior. This model can be used to examine the Pavlovian component of drug memories, alone, or in combination with self-administration methods.

  8. Toxicokinetics of drugs of abuse: current knowledge of the isoenzymes involved in the human metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and codeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Hans H; Sauer, Christoph; Theobald, Denis S

    2006-06-01

    This review summarizes the major metabolic pathways of the drugs of abuse, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and codeine, in humans including the involvement of isoenzymes. This knowledge may be important for predicting their possible interactions with other xenobiotics, understanding pharmaco-/toxicokinetic and pharmacogenetic variations, toxicological risk assessment, developing suitable toxicological analysis procedures, and finally for understanding certain pitfalls in drug testing. The detection times of these drugs and/or their metabolites in biological samples are summarized and the implications of the presented data on the possible interactions of drugs of abuse with other xenobiotics, ie, inhibition or induction of individual polymorphic and nonpolymorphic isoenzymes, discussed.

  9. Reinterpreting ethnic patterns among white and African American men who inject heroin: a social science of medicine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgois, Philippe; Martinez, Alexis; Kral, Alex; Edlin, Brian R; Schonberg, Jeff; Ciccarone, Dan

    2006-10-01

    Street-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the institutional level. We used a cross-methodological approach that incorporated quantitative, clinical, and ethnographic data collected by two contemporaneous long-term San Francisco studies, one epidemiological and one ethnographic, to explore the impact of ethnicity on street-based heroin-injecting men 45 years of age or older who were self-identified as either African American or white. We triangulated our ethnographic findings by statistically examining 14 relevant epidemiological variables stratified by median age and ethnicity. We observed significant differences in social practices between self-identified African Americans and whites in our ethnographic social network sample with respect to patterns of (1) drug consumption; (2) income generation; (3) social and institutional relationships; and (4) personal health and hygiene. African Americans and whites tended to experience different structural relationships to their shared condition of addiction and poverty. Specifically, this generation of San Francisco injectors grew up as the children of poor rural to urban immigrants in an era (the late 1960s through 1970s) when industrial jobs disappeared and heroin became fashionable. This was also when violent segregated inner city youth gangs proliferated and the federal government initiated its "War on Drugs." African Americans had earlier and more negative contact with law enforcement but maintained long-term ties with their extended families. Most of the whites were expelled from their families when they began engaging in

  10. Anticonvulsants for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Cinquini, Michela; Amato, Laura; Davoli, Marina; Farrell, Michael F; Pani, Pier Paolo; Vecchi, Simona

    2015-04-17

    Cocaine dependence is a major public health problem that is characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial complications. Although effective pharmacotherapy is available for alcohol and heroin dependence, none is currently available for cocaine dependence, despite two decades of clinical trials primarily involving antidepressant, anticonvulsivant and dopaminergic medications. Extensive consideration has been given to optimal pharmacological approaches to the treatment of individuals with cocaine dependence, and both dopamine antagonists and agonists have been considered. Anticonvulsants have been candidates for use in the treatment of addiction based on the hypothesis that seizure kindling-like mechanisms contribute to addiction. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants for individuals with cocaine dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trials Register (June 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1988 to June 2014), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to June 2014), Web of Science (1991 to June 2014) and the reference lists of eligible articles. All randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that focus on the use of anticonvulsant medications to treat individuals with cocaine dependence. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included a total of 20 studies with 2068 participants. We studied the anticonvulsant drugs carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, phenytoin, tiagabine, topiramate and vigabatrin. All studies compared anticonvulsants versus placebo. Only one study had one arm by which the anticonvulsant was compared with the antidepressant desipramine. Upon comparison of anticonvulsant versus placebo, we found no significant differences for any of the efficacy and safety measures. Dropouts: risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95

  11. Individual diet has sex-dependent effects on vertebrate gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Daniel I.; Snowberg, Lisa K.; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Lauber, Christian L.; Org, Elin; Parks, Brian; Lusis, Aldons J.; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates harbour diverse communities of symbiotic gut microbes. Host diet is known to alter microbiota composition, implying that dietary treatments might alleviate diseases arising from altered microbial composition (‘dysbiosis’). However, it remains unclear whether diet effects are general or depend on host genotype. Here we show that gut microbiota composition depends on interactions between host diet and sex within populations of wild and laboratory fish, laboratory mice and humans. Within each of two natural fish populations (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch), among-individual diet variation is correlated with individual differences in gut microbiota. However, these diet–microbiota associations are sex dependent. We document similar sex-specific diet–microbiota correlations in humans. Experimental diet manipulations in laboratory stickleback and mice confirmed that diet affects microbiota differently in males versus females. The prevalence of such genotype by environment (sex by diet) interactions implies that therapies to treat dysbiosis might have sex-specific effects. PMID:25072318

  12. Heroines, Hierarchies, and Space: The Fiction of Cecilia Absatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This examination of the fiction of Cecilia Absatz (Argentina, 1943, covers three novels: Féiguele (1976, the 1982 Té con canela ‘Tea with cinnamon’ and the 1985 Los años pares ‘The Even-Numbered Years.’ The continuities between the three texts, and especially the similarity of their female protagonists, who age from adolescence to the threshold of middle age, allow these novels to be read as a series. The primary focus of this study is the maturation of the protagonists as they struggle for autonomy while navigating different types of space. These include space that is marked by gender; identified as Jewish; and dominated by members of various elites, whether defined by wealth and lineage, by celebrity, or by specialized cultural knowledge or skills. The protagonists are at a disadvantage in different environments: being female in a corporate workplace dominated by powerful males; craving individuality and solitude in a Jewish space in which community is the ideal; and being barely middle-class in milieux where money, accomplishments, and social connections are crucial. Though in many episodes the heroines, out of insecurity and inexperience, allow themselves to be intimidated and manipulated, they analyze their experiences, learn, and seek to strengthen their autonomy. Only in the third of the novels does the protagonist succeed in breaking the hold that more powerful and prestigious men hold over her and establishing a space for herself.

  13. A case report: Pavlovian conditioning as a risk factor of heroin 'overdose' death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bácskai Erika

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors present a case illustrating a mechanism leading directly to death which is not rare but has received little attention. Case presentation The case was evaluated by autopsy, investigation of morphine concentration in the blood, and clinical data. The heroin dose causing the 'overdose' death of a young man who had previously been treated a number of times for heroin addiction did not differ from his dose of the previous day taken in the accustomed circumstances. The accustomed dose taken in a strange environment caused fatal complications because the conditioned tolerance failed to operate. The concentration of morphine in the blood did not exceed the level measured during earlier treatment. Conclusion These results are in line with the data in the literature indicating that morphine concentrations measured in cases of drug-related death do not differ substantially from those measured in cases where the outcome is not fatal. A knowledge of the conditioning mechanism can contribute to prevention of fatal cases of a similar type. The harm reduction approach places great stress on preventive intervention based on data related to drug-related death.

  14. 42 CFR 2.34 - Disclosures to prevent multiple enrollments in detoxification and maintenance treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eliminate adverse physiological or psychological effects incident to withdrawal from the sustained use of a... individual for dependence upon heroin or other morphine-like drugs. Member program means a detoxification...

  15. Dependence creating properties of lipotropin C-fragment (β-endorphin): Evidence for its internal control of behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Smyth, D.G.; Colpaert, F.C.

    1979-01-01

    The C-fragment of lipotropin (β-endorphin) possesses reinforcing properties, in that this peptide, like heroin, induced intraventricular self-administering behavior in drug naive rats. Only mild behavioral signs reminiscent of physical dependence were present. After injection into the nucleus raphé

  16. The alterations of immunological reactivity in heroin addicts and their normalization in patients maintained on methadone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajícová, Alena; Wilczek, H.; Holáň, Vladimír

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2004), s. 24-28 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF6824; GA MZd NJ6632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : heroin, cytokines, proliferation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2004

  17. From Heroes and Heroines to Hermaphrodites: Emasculation or Emancipation of School Leaders and Leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Ciaran

    2009-01-01

    In the fast paced, fluid contemporary world, and in a headlong rush to invent the future, there is a tendency to jettison aspects of the past as flotsam and jetsam, unworthy of a place in steerage into the future. This paper argues that is some respects the ordinary heroes and heroines who enact school leaderships, and from their practice…

  18. A single-nucleotide polymorphism of GRIN1 in heroin and methamphetamine addicts at a rehabilitation sanatorium in Markazi province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hamta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using addictive drugs can change the amount of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine and glutamate. Glutamate has been known to trigger the relapse and tendency toward addictive drugs. The glutamate receptor ionotropic NMDA type subunit 1 (GRIN1 contains the single- nucleotide polymorphism C1001G (rs11146020 and encodes N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NDMA receptor subunit 1 (NR1. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the rs11146020 polymorphism in GRIN1 and addiction to heroin and methamphetamine. Methods: The present case-control study recruited 90 male heroin and methamphetamine addicts treated with methadone and 100 healthy men. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood using Iraizol kits. Four pairs of specific primers were designed using AlleleID 7.5, and the T-ARMS PCR was optimized. Results: The genotype distribution of GG, GC and CC was respectively found to be 66%, 31% and 3% in the control group and 58%, 31% and 11% in the patient group. The statistical analysis suggested no significant differences between these two groups. Conclusion: No significant relationships were observed between the C1001G polymorphism in GRIN1 and addiction to heroin and methamphetamine.

  19. Post-Vietnam heroin use and injection by returning US veterans: clues to preventing injection today

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robins, L. N.; Slobodyan, Sergey

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 8 (2003), s. 1053-1060 ISSN 0965-2140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : heroin * injection * Vietnam Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.241, year: 2003 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=10316019&site=ehost-live

  20. Accelerated neuroregulation for therapy of opiate dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunatrio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute weaning from chronic opioid abuse during general anesthesia is usually followed by adrenergic outflow effects. This article is to report our experience with accelerated neuroregulation that reverses the physical and psychological dependency. After a comprehensive psychological and medical examination, 361 heroin dependent patients were admitted to ICU to be hospitalized for a full 24 or 36 hours, including a 6 hour pre-procedure medication process (solbutamol, clonidine, diazepam, ranitidine, omeprazole, vitamin C, octreotide, and ondansetron. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam and propofol iv and maintained with propofol infusion. Naltrexon, clonidine, octreotide, and diazepam were then administered. Anesthesia was maintained for 3 ½ - 5 hours depending on severity of withdrawal symptoms precipitated by naltrexone. Analgetics and sedatives were given as needed afterwards. Upon discharge on the following day, patient was prescribed a regimen of oral naltrexone for 10-12 months. All 361 patients were successfully detoxified without any adverse anesthetic events. The side effects encountered were fatigue, insomnia, drowsy, shivering, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhoea, myalgia, goose bumps and uncomfortable feeling. In most of the patients these symptoms disappeared without any treatment. Symptomatic treatments were needed in 32.7% of patients. In all 166 patients who completed their naltrexone maintenance treatment, craving disappeared in the 10th month. The main problem was the low patient compliance to oral naltrexone, so that only 45.9% of the patients completed their therapy. Conclusion: Accelerated neuroregulation which includes naltrexone maintenance treatment (10-12 months was highly effective to detoxify and to abolish craving in the heroin dependent patients. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 53-8Keywords: detoxification, craving management

  1. Prevalence and correlates of fentanyl-contaminated heroin exposure among young adults who use prescription opioids non-medically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmadu, Alexandria; Carroll, Jennifer J; Hadland, Scott E; Green, Traci C; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2017-05-01

    The rate of overdose deaths caused by fentanyl-contaminated heroin (FCH) use is increasing rapidly in the United States. We examined risk factors for exposure to FCH and experiences with FCH use among young adult non-medical prescription opioids (NMPO) users. We analyzed data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which enrolled young adults aged 18 to 29 reporting prior 30day NMPO use between January 2015 and February 2016. Participants completed questionnaires ascertaining drug use patterns and risk behaviors, including FCH exposure. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with known or suspected FCH exposure. Of 199 participants, the median age was 25 (IQR: 22, 27), 130 (65.3%) were male, and 122 (61.3%) were of White, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. In total, 22 (11%) reported known or suspected FCH exposure in the prior six months. Several drug use patterns and risk behaviors were associated with FCH exposure, including: regular heroin and cocaine use; diverted pharmaceutical fentanyl use in the prior six months; NMPO use to avoid withdrawal symptoms; longer duration of NMPO use; regular injection drug use; and prior overdose (all pfentanyl prior to last use, 59% reported that FCH provides a better high, and all recognized that fentanyl increases overdose risk. Exposure to fentanyl-contaminated heroin is an emerging trend among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island. Overdose prevention programs addressing FCH use are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CE-MS analysis of heroin and its basic impurities using a charged polymer-protected gold nanoparticle-coated capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengxiang; Yan, Bo; Liu, Kelin; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2009-01-01

    The first application of charged polymer-protected gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as semi-permanent capillary coating in CE-MS was presented. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was the only reducing and stabilizing agent for Au NPs preparation. Stable and repeatable coating with good tolerance to 0.1 M HCl, methanol, and ACN was obtained via a simple rinsing procedure. Au NPs enhanced the coating stability toward flushing by methanol, improved the run-to-run and capillary-to-capillary repeatabilities, and improved the separation efficiency of heroin and its basic impurities for tracing geographical origins of illicit samples. Baseline resolution of eight heroin-related alkaloids was achieved on the PDDA-protected Au NPs-coated capillary under the optimum conditions: 120 mM ammonium acetate (pH 5.2) with addition of 13% methanol, separation temperature 20 degrees C, applied voltage -20 kV, and capillary effective length 60.0 cm. CE-MS analysis with run-to-run RSDs (n=5) of migration time in the range of 0.43-0.62% and RSDs (n=5) of peak area in the range of 1.49-4.68% was obtained. The established CE-MS method would offer sensitive detection and confident identification of heroin and related compounds and provide an alternative to LC-MS and GC-MS for illicit drug control.

  3. The Force Awakens: The Individualistic and Contemporary Heroine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Doctor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Star Wars Episode VII: The Force Awakens is not the hero’s journey as George Lucas previously conceptualized it. Instead, the story line of The Force Awakens leads me to believe that it creates a new iteration of the hero myth. It follows the contemporary heroine’s journey while conforming to the essential construct of the hero monomyth. First, the contemporary heroine’s journey focuses primarily on the greater good and secondarily on her own personal journey, which is the converse of the traditional hero’s journey. Second, the contemporary heroine’s self is awakened and called to adventure in a different way than the traditional hero. Third, the traditional hero receives guidance on his journey, while the contemporary heroine pushes ahead alone, striving to save her society from despair.

  4. Mast cell mediator tryptase levels after inhalation or intravenous administration of high doses pharmaceutically prepared heroin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, E. J.; van Zanten, A. P.; van den Brink, W.; van Ree, J. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids like morphine and heroin induce mast cell degranulation in vitro. The release of mast cell mediators like histamine and tryptase may lead to allergic symptoms. In this study it was investigated whether mast cell mediator release also occurs in vivo in addicted patients who

  5. Temporal and social contexts of heroin-using populations. An illustration of the snowball sampling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, C D; Korf, D; Sterk, C

    1987-09-01

    Snowball sampling is a method that has been used in the social sciences to study sensitive topics, rare traits, personal networks, and social relationships. The method involves the selection of samples utilizing "insider" knowledge and referral chains among subjects who possess common traits that are of research interest. It is especially useful in generating samples for which clinical sampling frames may be difficult to obtain or are biased in some way. In this paper, snowball samples of heroin users in two Dutch cities have been analyzed for the purpose of providing descriptions and limited inferences about the temporal and social contexts of their lifestyles. Two distinct heroin-using populations have been discovered who are distinguished by their life cycle stage. Significant contextual explanations have been found involving the passage from adolescent peer group to criminal occupation, the functioning of network "knots" and "outcroppings," and the frequency of social contact. It is suggested that the snowball sampling method may have utility in studying the temporal and social contexts of other populations of clinical interest.

  6. Reinterpreting ethnic patterns among white and African American men who inject heroin: a social science of medicine approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bourgois

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Street-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the institutional level.We used a cross-methodological approach that incorporated quantitative, clinical, and ethnographic data collected by two contemporaneous long-term San Francisco studies, one epidemiological and one ethnographic, to explore the impact of ethnicity on street-based heroin-injecting men 45 years of age or older who were self-identified as either African American or white. We triangulated our ethnographic findings by statistically examining 14 relevant epidemiological variables stratified by median age and ethnicity. We observed significant differences in social practices between self-identified African Americans and whites in our ethnographic social network sample with respect to patterns of (1 drug consumption; (2 income generation; (3 social and institutional relationships; and (4 personal health and hygiene. African Americans and whites tended to experience different structural relationships to their shared condition of addiction and poverty. Specifically, this generation of San Francisco injectors grew up as the children of poor rural to urban immigrants in an era (the late 1960s through 1970s when industrial jobs disappeared and heroin became fashionable. This was also when violent segregated inner city youth gangs proliferated and the federal government initiated its "War on Drugs." African Americans had earlier and more negative contact with law enforcement but maintained long-term ties with their extended families. Most of the whites were expelled from their families when they began

  7. [Application of hair analysis of selected psychoactive substances for medico-legal purposes. Part II. Cases of complex fatal poisonings: interactions of heroine - cocaine - amphetamines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Rzepecka-Woźniak, Ewa; Konopka, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The study represents an attempt at employing segmental hair analysis in complex poisonings with xenobiotic mixtures of heroine - cocaine - amphetamines in the context of the cause of death as a consequence of complex interaction mechanisms which occurred prior to death. Two cases of complex poisonings: heroine - cocaine and heroine - cocaine - amphetamines were analyzed and documented with macro- and microscopic examinations and complex toxicological examinations, including the analysis of classic biological material, i.e. samples of selective blood, and alternative material, i.e. hair samples. Determinations of opioids, cocaine and its metabolite and amphetamines in the hair biological matrix were performed using high performance liquid chromatography--atmospheric pressure chemical ionization--tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS). Segmental hair analysis of the investigated cases indicated a prolonged intake of similar psychoactive substances and a developed adaptation of the addicted to interaction mechanisms, which, however, led gradually to multiorgan anatomopathological changes, and in consequence to death.

  8. Associations between behavioral disinhibition and cocaine use history in individuals with cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, James J; Korte, Jeffrey E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-10-01

    Behavioral disinhibition has been suggested as both a cause and consequence of substance use disorders. Many studies examining associations between behavioral disinhibition and substance use history have focused on individuals with alcohol dependence or non-dependent college students. In the present study, the relationship between behavioral disinhibition and cocaine use history in individuals with cocaine dependence is examined. Forty-six non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent men and women completed impulsivity (Barratt impulsiveness scale; BIS) and novelty seeking (temperament and character inventory; TCI) questionnaires at the baseline visit of an ongoing study. Unadjusted, and adjusted for gender and age, Pearson correlations were calculated between BIS, TCI, and cocaine use variables from the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV and timeline follow-back (age of onset, quantity/frequency of past 30 day cocaine use). As expected, elevated motor impulsivity and novelty seeking were each associated with younger age of dependence onset. Also, individuals with lower levels of persistence on the TCI reported more days of cocaine use over the previous month. Unexpectedly, increased novelty seeking and attentional impulsivity were associated with fewer days of cocaine use and less money spent on cocaine, respectively. Controlling for age and gender did not substantially change the pattern of observed associations. The present study provides preliminary evidence for associations between behavioral disinhibition and cocaine use history in cocaine-dependent individuals. Given our relatively small sample size and the correlational nature of our findings, further research is needed to replicate and extend our results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic variation of the ghrelin signalling system in individuals with amphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, Petra; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; Nilsson, Staffan; Toren, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika; Engel, Jörgen A; Franck, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The development of amphetamine dependence largely depends on the effects of amphetamine in the brain reward systems. Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, activates the reward systems and is required for reward induced by alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and amphetamine in mice. Human genetic studies have shown that polymorphisms in the pre-proghrelin (GHRL) as well as GHS-R1A (GHSR) genes are associated with high alcohol consumption, increased weight and smoking in males. Since the heritability factor underlying drug dependence is shared between different drugs of abuse, we here examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the GHRL and GHSR, and amphetamine dependence. GHRL and GHSR SNPs were genotyped in Swedish amphetamine dependent individuals (n = 104) and controls from the general population (n = 310). A case-control analysis was performed and SNPs and haplotypes were additionally tested for association against Addiction Severity Interview (ASI) composite score of drug use. The minor G-allele of the GHSR SNP rs2948694, was more common among amphetamine dependent individuals when compared to controls (pc  = 0.02). A significant association between the GHRL SNP rs4684677 and ASI composite score of drug use was also reported (pc  = 0.03). The haplotype analysis did not add to the information given by the individual polymorphisms. Although genetic variability of the ghrelin signalling system is not a diagnostic marker for amphetamine dependence and problem severity of drug use, the present results strengthen the notion that ghrelin and its receptor may be involved in the development of addictive behaviours and may thus serve as suitable targets for new treatments of such disorders.

  10. Genetic variation of the ghrelin signalling system in individuals with amphetamine dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Suchankova

    Full Text Available The development of amphetamine dependence largely depends on the effects of amphetamine in the brain reward systems. Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, activates the reward systems and is required for reward induced by alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and amphetamine in mice. Human genetic studies have shown that polymorphisms in the pre-proghrelin (GHRL as well as GHS-R1A (GHSR genes are associated with high alcohol consumption, increased weight and smoking in males. Since the heritability factor underlying drug dependence is shared between different drugs of abuse, we here examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes in the GHRL and GHSR, and amphetamine dependence. GHRL and GHSR SNPs were genotyped in Swedish amphetamine dependent individuals (n = 104 and controls from the general population (n = 310. A case-control analysis was performed and SNPs and haplotypes were additionally tested for association against Addiction Severity Interview (ASI composite score of drug use. The minor G-allele of the GHSR SNP rs2948694, was more common among amphetamine dependent individuals when compared to controls (pc  = 0.02. A significant association between the GHRL SNP rs4684677 and ASI composite score of drug use was also reported (pc  = 0.03. The haplotype analysis did not add to the information given by the individual polymorphisms. Although genetic variability of the ghrelin signalling system is not a diagnostic marker for amphetamine dependence and problem severity of drug use, the present results strengthen the notion that ghrelin and its receptor may be involved in the development of addictive behaviours and may thus serve as suitable targets for new treatments of such disorders.

  11. A Smartphone Application Supporting Recovery from Heroin Addiction: Perspectives of Patients and Providers in China, Taiwan, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya; Liang, Di; Wu, Fei; Lan, Yu-Ching; Tsay, Wening; Du, Jiang; Zhao, Min; Li, Xu; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2016-09-01

    Smartphone-based interventions are increasingly used to support self-monitoring, self-management, and treatment and medication compliance in order to improve overall functioning and well-being. In attempting to develop a smartphone application (S-Health) that assists heroin-dependent patients in recovery, a series of focus groups (72 patients, 22 providers) were conducted in China, Taiwan, and the USA to obtain their perspectives on its acceptance and potential adoption. Data were analyzed according to the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory of characteristics important to the adoption of innovation. Important to Relative Advantage, USA participants cited S-Health's potential ability to overcome logistical barriers, while those in China and Taiwan valued its potential to supplement currently limited services. In terms of Compatibility, participants across sites reported recovery needs and goals that such an application could be helpful in supporting; however, its utility during strong craving was questioned in China and Taiwan. Important factors relevant to Complexity included concerns about smartphone access and familiarity, individualization of content, and particularly in China and Taiwan, participants wanted assurance of privacy and security. The study results suggest a general acceptance, but also indicate cultural variations in access to therapeutic and other social support systems, legal repercussions of substance use, societal perceptions of addiction, and the role of family and other social support in recovery. Taking these factors into consideration is likely to increase diffusion as well as effectiveness of these smartphone-based interventions.

  12. Pavlovian conditioned approach, extinction, and spontaneous recovery to an audiovisual cue paired with an intravenous heroin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.; de Vries, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Novel stimuli paired with exposure to addictive drugs can elicit approach through Pavlovian learning. While such approach behavior, or sign tracking, has been documented for cocaine and alcohol, it has not been shown to occur with opiate drugs like heroin. Most Pavlovian conditioned

  13. The Effectiveness of Marlaat’s Cognitive Behavior Intervention and Group Treatment Based on Change Stages for Recovery and Relapse Prevention Rates in Male Heroin Crack Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khodadust

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the Study of effectiveness of Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention and group treatment based on change stages for recovery and relapse rates in male heroin crack addictions. Method: In a experimental research design, 45 men addictions, who were diagnosed as the dependence of the heroin crack on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, were chosen after successfully detoxified. They were divided two experimental groups (30 participants and a control group (15 participants that have been selected by random sampling. The first experimental group was undergone group treatment based on change stages underwent 16 sessions of 1.5 hours, totally 24 hours and the second experimental groups who were undergone Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention has been held 15 sessions of 2 hours, totally 24 hours. The control group were just received MMT without any psychotherapy. All participants were assessed by structured interview, urine test, before treatment, after treatment and after 3 months follow up. Results: Results showed that both psychotherapy treatments were affected on recovery and relapse rates. Conclusion: It seems that psychological problems and conflicts before addiction and after addiction could be caused for individuals’ tendency to narcotics consumption. Therefore, applying of psychotherapy could be useful in relapse prevention.

  14. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmaceutical development of diacetylmorphine preparations for prescription to opioid dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Klous, Marjolein Gabriëlle

    2004-01-01

    Addiction to heroin is a common problem in many countries around the world. Nowadays, addiction has been accepted as a chronic, relapsing psychiatric disorder. Pharmacological treatments have been developed, but stabilisation of drug use and harm reduction have become the focus of therapy for a subgroup of chronic addicts, for whom treatment options are limited. Presently, there is considerable interest in heroin-assisted treatment (HAT): (co-)prescription of heroin to chronic, treatment-refr...

  16. Adulterants and diluents in heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine found on the illicit drug market in Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lindholst, Christian; Kaa, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    of adulterants and diluents present in the drugs. Results are compared with a similar study conducted ten years earlier. The concentrations of the active substances in illicit heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine samples have decreased significantly over a 10-year period. This finding shows that the "cutting...

  17. Neural correlates of the severity of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use in polysubstance abusers: a resting-PET brain metabolism study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moreno-López

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Functional imaging studies of addiction following protracted abstinence have not been systematically conducted to look at the associations between severity of use of different drugs and brain dysfunction. Findings from such studies may be relevant to implement specific interventions for treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between resting-state regional brain metabolism (measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET and the severity of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis in a sample of polysubstance users with prolonged abstinence from all drugs used. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 49 polysubstance users enrolled in residential treatment. We conducted correlation analyses between estimates of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis and brain metabolism (BM (using Statistical Parametric Mapping voxel-based (VB whole-brain analyses. In all correlation analyses conducted for each of the drugs we controlled for the co-abuse of the other drugs used. RESULTS: The analysis showed significant negative correlations between severity of heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use and BM in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and temporal cortex. Alcohol use was further associated with lower metabolism in frontal premotor cortex and putamen, and stimulants use with parietal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Duration of use of different drugs negatively correlated with overlapping regions in the DLPFC, whereas severity of cocaine, heroin and alcohol use selectively impact parietal, temporal, and frontal-premotor/basal ganglia regions respectively. The knowledge of these associations could be useful in the clinical practice since different brain alterations have been associated with different patterns of execution that may affect the rehabilitation of these patients.

  18. [Anesthetic Care of Patient With Heroin Addiction: A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Shu-Yu

    2018-04-01

    The use of illegal drugs in Taiwan is on the rise. Drug addicts often have complex physical, psychological, and social problems. In addition, they often avoid disclosing their illicit drug use by deceit, concealment, or under-reporting. Building and maintaining relationships of trust with drug-addict patients has become a critical issue in achieving better care quality. In this case report, we report on an anesthesia care process for a heroin addict who was admitted for open reduction and internal fixation surgery for the femur and patella fractures after a car accident. During the six-hour perioperative care period, starting from 11pm on November 30th to 5am on December 1st, 2015, the patient was not willing to disclose his illicit drug use before the surgery. However, the nurse anesthetist noticed signs and symptoms of drug use. The nurse empathized with the patient's worries, provided him with a safe communication environment, and gained trust from the patient in a timely manner, which then enabled the patient to fully disclose his illicit drug use with the nurse anesthetist. The anesthesia-care strategy was then modified according to client's condition. The nurse anesthetist played an important role of bridging communications between the patient and medical care staffs and of modifying the care strategies in a timely manner. During the care period, the blood-borne disease contamination was successfully prevented, the client received uneventful pain management, there was a lack of withdrawal symptoms, and the staffs and patient safety was maintained. The literature on the anesthetic care of heroin patients undergoing surgery is relatively limited in Taiwan. The findings in the current case report add information on providing anesthetic care to patients with drug addiction. Publishing additional case reports, research, and clinical recommendations is essential for improving care quality for this vulnerable population.

  19. Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe eZhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD should belong to a kind of behavioral addiction. Previous studies indicated that there are many similarities in the neurobiology of behavior and substance addictions. Up to date, although individuals with IAD have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for IAD. Neuropsychological test studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the effect of IAD on the cognitive function. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants include 22 Internet addictive individuals, 22 alcohol-dependent patients (AD and 22 normal controls (NC. All participants were measured with BIS- 11, go/no-go task, WCST and Digit span task under the same experimental condition. Results showed that BIS-11 scores, false alarm rate, the total response errors, perseverative errors, failure to maintain set of IAD and AD group were significantly higher than that of NC group, and hit rate, percentage of conceptual level responses, the number of categories completed, forwards scores and backwards scores of IAD and AD group were significantly lower than that of NC group, however, no differences in above variables between IAD group and AD group were observed. These results revealed that the existence of impulsivity, deficiencies in executive function and working memory in an IAD and an AD sample, namely, Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Saliva in HIV-positive Heroin Addicts Reveals Proteins Correlated with Cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominy, Stephen; Brown, Joseph N.; Ryder, Mark I.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite effective antiretroviral therapies. Multiple etiologies have been proposed over the last few years to account for this phenomenon, including the neurotoxic effects of antiretrovirals and co-morbid substance abuse. However, no underlying molecular mechanism has been identified. Emerging evidence in several fields has linked the gut to brain diseases, but the effect of the gut on the brain during HIV infection has not been explored. Saliva is the most accessible gut biofluid, and is therefore of great scientific interest for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This study presents a longitudinal, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics study investigating saliva samples taken from 8 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 11 -negative (HIV-) heroin addicts. In the HIV+ group, 58 proteins were identified that show significant correlations with cognitive scores and that implicate disruption of protein quality control pathways by HIV. Notably, no proteins from the HIV- heroin addict cohort showed significant correlations with cognitive scores. In addition, the majority of correlated proteins have been shown to be associated with exosomes, allowing us to propose that the salivary glands and/or oral epithelium may modulate brain function during HIV infection through the release of discrete packets of proteins in the form of exosomes.

  1. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life.

  2. High anxiety is a predisposing endophenotype for loss of control over cocaine, but not heroin, self-administration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilleen, Ruth; Pelloux, Yann; Mar, Adam C

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Although high anxiety is commonly associated with drug addiction, its causal role in this disorder is unclear. OBJECTIVES: In light of strong evidence for dissociable neural mechanisms underlying heroin and cocaine addiction, the present study investigated whether high anxiety predicts...

  3. Psychopathology of addiction: May a SCL-90-based five dimensions structure be applied irrespectively of the involved drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Pier Paolo; Maremmani, Angelo G I; Trogu, Emanuela; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Mathis, Federica; Diecidue, Roberto; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Amato, Laura; Ghibaudi, Joli; Camposeragna, Antonella; Saponaro, Alessio; Davoli, Marina; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Maremmani, Icro

    2016-01-01

    We previously found a five cluster of psychological symptoms in heroin use disorder (HUD) patients: 'worthlessness-being trapped', 'somatic-symptoms', 'sensitivity-psychoticism', 'panic-anxiety', and 'violence-suicide'. We demonstrated that this aggregation is independent of the chosen treatment, of intoxication status and of the presence of psychiatric problems. 2314 Subjects, with alcohol, heroin or cocaine dependence were assigned to one of the five clusters. Differences between patients dependent on alcohol, heroin and cocaine in the frequency of the five clusters and in their severity were analysed. The association between the secondary abuse of alcohol and cocaine and the five clusters was also considered in the subsample of HUD patients. We confirmed a positive association of the 'somatic symptoms' dimension with the condition of heroin versus cocaine dependence and of the 'sensitivity-psychoticism' dimension with the condition of alcohol versus heroin dependence. 'Somatic symptoms' and 'panic anxiety' successfully discriminated between patients as being alcohol, heroin or cocaine dependents. Looking at the subsample of heroin dependents, no significant differences were observed. The available evidence coming from our results, taken as a whole, seems to support the extension of the psychopathological structure previously observed in opioid addicts to the population of alcohol and cocaine dependents.

  4. Navigating the poverty of heroin addiction treatment and recovery opportunity in Kenya: access work, self-care and rationed expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Ndimbii, James; Guise, Andy; Cullen, Lucy; Ayon, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the analyses of qualitative interview accounts of people who inject heroin in Kenya, we describe the narration of addiction treatment access and recovery desire in conditions characterised by a 'poverty of drug treatment opportunity'. We observe the performance of addiction recovery narrative in the face of heavy social constraints limiting access to care. Fee-based residential rehabilitation ('rehab') is the only treatment locally available and inaccessible to most. Its recovery potential is doubted, given normative expectations of relapse. Treating drug use is a product of tightly bounded agency. Individuals enact strategies to maximise their slim chances of treatment access ('access work'), develop self-care alternatives when these fail to materialise and ration their care expectations. The use of rehab as a primary means of respite and harm reduction rather than recovery and the individuation of care in the absence of an enabling recovery environment are key characteristics of drug treatment experience. The recent incorporation of 'harm reduction' into policy discourses may trouble the primacy of recovery narrative in addiction treatment and in how treatment desires are voiced. The diversification of drug treatments in combination with social interventions enabling their access are fundamental.

  5. Dependency Traits, Relationship Power, and Health Risks in Women Receiving Sexually-Transmitted Infection Clinic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Sawyer, Ashlee N; Martin, Aaron M; Allen, Elizabeth S; Nettles, Christopher D; Richardson, Doug; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A

    2017-01-01

    In prior research, having traits consistent with a personality disorder has been shown to be related to substance use and high-risk sexual activity; however, few studies have examined relationships between dependency traits and health-jeopardizing behaviors. Individuals with traits consistent with dependent personality disorder may be more likely to be in a primary relationship characterized by unhealthy conditions, including physical abuse from a partner, low assertiveness in sexual situations, and partner infidelity. In addition, dependency traits may be associated with unhealthy coping (e.g., through substance use). To examine associations between dependent personality traits and these types of health-related behaviors, 198 women seeking sexually transmitted infection clinic services completed a computer-assisted assessment of dependent personality traits, substance use, unhealthy conditions in primary relationships, perceived sexual and relationship power, and sexual risk related to condom use. Dependency trait scores were correlated with the use of cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Participants high in dependency traits reported low perceived power within their relationships and less say in sexual behaviors, including condom use. In a series of multivariate analyses, dependency traits significantly predicted having been hit by a partner, staying with a partner after he cheated, having sex because of threats, and fear of asking a partner to use a condom. Dependency traits were also associated with lower past condom use and lower future condom use intentions. Results suggest that dependent personality traits may place women at higher risk for physical abuse and harmful health behaviors.

  6. Factors Associated with Relapse among Heroin Addicts: Evidence from a Two-Year Community-Based Follow-Up Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many countries including China are facing a serious opiate dependence problem. Anti-drug work effectiveness was affected by the high relapse rate all over the world. This study aims to analyze the factors influencing heroin addict relapse, and to provide evidence for generating relapse prevention strategies. Methods: A community-based follow-up study was conducted in China between October 2010 and September 2012. A total of 554 heroin addicts in accordance with the inclusion criteria from 81 streets in 12 districts of Shanghai, China were divided into 4 groups: group 1—daily dosage taken orally of 60 mL of methadone or under combined with psychological counseling and social supports (n = 130; group 2—daily dosage taken orally of over 60 mL of methadone combined with psychological counseling and social supports (n = 50; group 3—JTT (Jitai tablets combined with psychological counseling and social supports (n = 206; group 4—JTT combined with social supports (n = 168. Results: Log-rank test results showed that the cumulative relapse rate differences among four groups during the two-year follow-up period were not statistically significant (χ2 = 5.889, p = 0.117. Multivariate Cox regression analysis results showed that only three independent variables were still statistically significant, including compliance with participation in psychological counseling (OR = 3.563, p = 0.000, the years of drug use (OR = 1.078, p = 0.001and intervention model. Conclusions: Using the detoxification medications combined with appropriate psychological counseling and social support measures will help improve the effectiveness of relapse prevention, which is a kind of alternative community detoxification pattern. Appropriate and standard psychological counseling is very important for anti-drug treatment. The longer the drug addiction lasts, the longer the anti-drug treatment takes.

  7. Self-administration of cocaine, cannabis and heroin in the human laboratory: benefits and pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Haney, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this review is to describe self-administration procedures for modeling addiction to cocaine, cannabis and heroin in the human laboratory, the benefits and pitfalls of the approach, and the methodological issues unique to each drug. In addition, the predictive validity of the model for testing treatment medications will be addressed. The results show that all three drugs of abuse are reliably and robustly self-administered by non-treatment-seeking research volunteers. In terms...

  8. Effect of Sirtuin-1 on Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens in a Rat Model of Heroin Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Baijuan; Li, Yixin; Li, Rongrong; Yin, Dan; Chen, Xingqiang; Li, Jie; Liang, Wenmei

    2018-06-05

    BACKGROUND Synaptic plasticity plays an important role in the process of addiction. This study investigated the relationship between synaptic plasticity and changes in addictive behavior and examined the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins and genes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) region in different rat models. MATERIAL AND METHODS Heroin addiction, SIRT1-overexpression, and SIRT1-silenced rat models were established. Polymerase chain reaction gene chip technology, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect changes in synaptic plasticity-related gene and protein expression, and changes in the ultrastructure of synapses, in the NAc. RESULTS Naloxone withdrawal symptoms appeared in the SIRT1-overexpression group. In the SIRT1-silenced group the symptoms were reduced. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting results showed that FOXO1 expression decreased in the heroin addiction (HA) group but increased in the SIRT1-silenced group (paddiction. SIRT1 overexpression can increase behavioral sensitization in the NAc of rats, and SIRT1 silencing might ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce conditioned place preferences.

  9. Increases in Doublecortin Immunoreactivity in the Dentate Gyrus following Extinction of Heroin-Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P. Hicks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus play a role in various forms of learning and memory. However, adult born neurons in the DG, while still at an immature stage, exhibit unique electrophysiological properties and are also functionally implicated in learning and memory processes. We investigated the effects of extinction of drug-seeking behavior on the formation of immature neurons in the DG as assessed by quantification of doublecortin (DCX immunoreactivity. Rats were allowed to self-administer heroin (0.03 mg/kg/infusion for 12 days and then subjected either to 10 days of extinction training or forced abstinence. We also examined extinction responding patterns following heroin self-administration in glial fibrillary acidic protein thymidine kinase (GFAP-tk transgenic mice, which have been previously demonstrated to show reduced formation of immature and mature neurons in the DG following treatment with ganciclovir (GCV. We found that extinction training increased DCX immunoreactivity in the dorsal DG as compared with animals undergoing forced abstinence, and that GCV-treated GFAP-tk mice displayed impaired extinction learning as compared to saline-treated mice. Our results suggest that extinction of drug-seeking behavior increases the formation of immature neurons in the DG and that these neurons may play a functional role in extinction learning.

  10. An Analysis of the Heroine of North and South---Margaret Hale as an Independent Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mrs. Gaskell is a very important woman writer in the 19th century in Britain, and she is famous for her social novels, in which she highlights complicated social conflicts. North and South is usually considered as the turning point of Mrs. Gaskell’s literary creation, in which she suggests for the first time that there should be a hope of a reconciliation between the working class and the bourgeoisie. Also, the author vividly depicted an independent woman with a sharp mind and a deliberate manner in the book, that is, Margaret Hale. She seems to be very special when compared with the women around her and very attractive to men for her peculiar thoughts as well as her beautiful looks. This thesis mainly analyzes the attractive heroine of the novel in three aspects: her independent character, her independent action and her independent thoughts. What’s more, the thesis aims to shed light on the characteristics a “New Woman” should be endowed with. The heroine, to some extent, is the author Mrs. Gaskell herself, rejecting inferiority to men and defending the rights to express themselves freely. All in all, this thesis tries to enlighten people on woman’s position in today’s society by deriving some inspirations from the literary work.

  11. Sex differences in HIV effects on visual memory among substance-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutmann, Michael K; Gonzalez, Raul; Maki, Pauline M; Rubin, Leah H; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin, Eileen M

    2017-08-01

    HIV's effects on episodic memory have not been compared systematically between male and female substance-dependent individuals. We administered the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) to 280 substance-dependent HIV+ and HIV- men and women. Groups were comparable on demographic, substance use, and comorbid characteristics. There were no significant main effects of sex or HIV serostatus on BVMT-R performance, but HIV+ women performed significantly more poorly on delayed recall. This effect was most prominent among cocaine-dependent HIV+ women. Our findings are consistent with recent speculation that memory impairment may be more common among HIV+ women, particularly those with a history of cocaine dependence.

  12. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Piepenbrink

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.

  13. [Use of methadone in the treatment of psychotic patients with heroin dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, F A; Borg, P; Eikeseth, P H; Neegaard, E; Kjerpeseth, K; Bruvik, S; Waal, H

    2000-01-20

    Comorbidity of psychosis and substance abuse has gained increased attention for some time. However, pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence among psychotic patients is seldom described. We present the treatment of four opioid dependent psychotic patients with methadone and antipsychotic medication. Three of the four patients had initially a period of increased psychotic symptoms, but all four patients have shown marked improvement following the introduction of methadone. Compliance with treatment has increased, they have had enduring non-psychotic periods and a markedly reduced use of illegal substances. The results should obviously be interpreted with caution, given the small number of subjects. Further research is therefore important.

  14. The Limit Behavior of a Stochastic Logistic Model with Individual Time-Dependent Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilun Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a variant of the stochastic logistic model that allows individual variation and time-dependent infection and recovery rates. The model is described as a heterogeneous density dependent Markov chain. We show that the process can be approximated by a deterministic process defined by an integral equation as the population size grows.

  15. Borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder and risk-taking among heroin users: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Teesson, Maree; Lynskey, Michael

    2004-04-09

    To determine the relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD), antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and harm among current heroin users. Cross-sectional survey. Sydney, Australia. 615 current heroin users. Forty-six percent met criteria for BPD, 71% for ASPD, and 38% met criteria for both diagnoses. ASPD was related to attempted suicide, lifetime overdose, polydrug use, depression and overall psychological distress. BPD was also related to each of these risk domains, and to needle risk and recent suicide as well. When analysed separately, both BPD and ASPD thus appeared to predict harm. For the purposes of further analysis, the relationships between BPD, ASPD and harm, the sample was divided into four independent diagnostic groups: no diagnosis (ND, 21%), ASPD only (ASPD, 33%), BPD only (BPD, 7%), ASPD plus BPD (DUAL, 38%). The division of the sample into four distinct diagnostic groups produced substantially different results. There were strong relationships between BPD and attempted suicide, needle sharing and psychopathology. In none of these domains did the ASPD group significantly differ from the ND group. Also, the levels of harm among the DUAL group were identical to BPD, suggesting no additive risk from ASPD. Thus, while initial analyses suggested an increased risk for ASPD patients for suicide and psychopathology, these relationships disappeared after BPD was taken into account. The only domain in which there appeared to be an additive risk for ASPD and BPD was heroin overdose. The extensive comorbidity between BPD and ASPD means that, unless BPD is controlled for, artefactual relationships may emerge between ASPD and harm.

  16. Specious causal attributions in the social sciences: the reformulated stepping-stone theory of heroin use as exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, D

    1983-12-01

    The claims based on causal models employing either statistical or experimental controls are examined and found to be excessive when applied to social or behavioral science data. An exemplary case, in which strong causal claims are made on the basis of a weak version of the regularity model of cause, is critiqued. O'Donnell and Clayton claim that in order to establish that marijuana use is a cause of heroin use (their "reformulated stepping-stone" hypothesis), it is necessary and sufficient to demonstrate that marijuana use precedes heroin use and that the statistically significant association between the two does not vanish when the effects of other variables deemed to be prior to both of them are removed. I argue that O'Donnell and Clayton's version of the regularity model is not sufficient to establish cause and that the planning of social interventions both presumes and requires a generative rather than a regularity causal model. Causal modeling using statistical controls is of value when it compels the investigator to make explicit and to justify a causal explanation but not when it is offered as a substitute for a generative analysis of causal connection.

  17. A Contrastive Study of the Heroines in A Doll’s House and Macbeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Lu

    2015-01-01

    A Doll’s House and Macbeth obviously belong to different categories in content. However, the two heroines in these two plays, Nora Helmer and Lady Macbeth, demonstrate similar feminist qualities. By staging an overall contrastive analysis on the personality and tragic life of two protagonists from the perspective of feminism, it is founded that both of them are victims op⁃pressed by the patriarchal system and they all have feminine consciousness against this system. Nevertheless, their distinctive com⁃plex personalities and different story settings make the reasons for their rebellion differ in many ways and they end up with differ⁃ent endings.

  18. The cocaine and heroin markets in the era of globalisation and drug reduction policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Storti, Cláudia; De Grauwe, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Despite the large volume of public effort devoted to restrain drug supply and the growing attention given to drug demand reduction policies, the use of cocaine and heroin remains steady. Furthermore, retail drug prices have fallen significantly in Europe and the US. This puzzling evidence leads us to develop a model aiming at systematically analysing illicit drug markets. We model the markets of cocaine and heroin from production to the final retail markets. One novelty of the analysis consists in characterising the retail market as a monopolistic competitive one. Then, upper level dealers have some market power in the retail market. This allows them to charge a markup and to earn extra profits. These extra profits attract newcomers so that profits tend to fall over time. Theoretical model was used to analyse the effect of supply containment policies on the retail market, the producer market and the export-import business. This introduces the discussion of the impact of demand reduction policies on the high level traffickers' profit. Finally, globalisation enters in the model. Law enforcement measures increase the risk premia received by the lower and higher level traffickers. Consequently, trafficking intermediation margins tend to increase. However, globalisation has the opposite effect. It lowers intermediation margins and, then, pushes retail prices down, thereby stimulating consumption. In doing so, globalisation offsets the effects of supply containment policies. Finally, we discuss how the effectiveness of supply containment policies can be enhanced by combining them with demand reduction policies.

  19. Sex and HIV serostatus differences in decision making under risk among substance-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eileen; Gonzalez, Raul; Vassileva, Jasmin; Maki, Pauline M; Bechara, Antoine; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    HIV+ individuals with and without substance use disorders make significantly poorer decisions when information about the probability and magnitude of wins and losses is not available. We administered the Game of Dice Task, a measure of decision making under risk that provides this information explicitly, to 92 HIV+ and 134 HIV- substance-dependent men and women. HIV+ participants made significantly poorer decisions than HIV- participants, but this deficit appeared more prominent among HIV+ women. These data indicate that decision making under risk is impaired among HIV+ substance-dependent individuals (SDIs). Potential factors for the HIV+ women's relatively greater impairment are discussed.

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Methadone Maintenance for Prisoners: Prediction of Treatment Entry and Completion in Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Couvillion, Kathryn A; Schwartz, Robert P; O'Grady, Kevin

    2012-05-01

    The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: counseling only (counseling in prison; n= 70); counseling plus transfer (counseling in prison with transfer to methadone maintenance treatment upon release; n= 70); and counseling plus methadone (methadone maintenance in prison, continued in a community-based methadone maintenance program upon release; n= 71). Entered prison treatment (p prison treatment (pprison sentences may have better outcomes than younger individuals with shorter sentences, meaning they are more likely to enter and complete prison-based treatment. Furthermore, implications for the treatment of prisoners with prior heroin dependence and for conducting clinical trials may indicate the importance of examining individual characteristics and the possibility of the examination of patient preference.

  1. Treating opioid dependence. Growing implications for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Mori J; Mehler, Philip S

    2004-02-09

    Almost 3 million Americans have abused heroin. The most effective treatment for this concerning epidemic is opioid replacement therapy. Although, from a historical perspective, acceptance of this therapy has been slow, growing evidence supports its efficacy. There are 3 approved medications for opioid maintenance therapy: methadone hydrochloride, levomethadyl acetate, and buprenorphine hydrochloride. Each has unique characteristics that determine its suitability for an individual patient. Cardiac arrhythmias have been reported with methadone and levomethadyl, but not with buprenorphine. Due to concerns about cardiac risk, levomethadyl use has declined and the product may ultimately be discontinued. These recent safety concerns, specifics about opioid detoxification and maintenance, and new federal initiatives were studied. Opioid detoxification has a role in both preventing acute withdrawal and maintaining long-term abstinence. Although only a minority of eligible patients are engaged in treatment, opioid maintenance therapy appears to offer the greatest public health benefits. There is growing interest in expanding treatment into primary care, allowing opioid addiction to be managed like other chronic illnesses. This model has gained wide acceptance in Europe and is now being implemented in the United States. The recent Drug Addiction Treatment Act enables qualified physicians to treat opioid-dependent patients with buprenorphine in an office-based setting. Mainstreaming opioid addiction treatment has many advantages; its success will depend on resolution of ethical and delivery system issues as well as improved and expanded training of physicians in addiction medicine.

  2. Considerations in civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Dolan, David

    2016-01-01

    Several states currently have enacted laws that allow for civil commitment for individuals diagnosed with severe substance use disorders. Civil commitment or involuntary commitment refers to the legal process by which individuals with mental illness are court-ordered into inpatient and/or outpatient treatment programs. Although initially civil commitment laws were intended for individuals with severe mental illness, these statutes have been extended to cover individuals with severe substance use disorders. Much of the recent legislation allowing for civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders has come about in response to the heroin epidemic and is designed to provide an alternative to the unrelenting progression of opioid use disorders. Civil commitment also provides an opportunity for individuals with opioid use disorders to make informed decisions regarding ongoing or continued treatment. However, civil commitment also raises concerns regarding the potential violation of 14th Amendment rights, specifically pertaining to abuses of deprivation of liberty or freedom, which are guaranteed under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. This commentary examines these issues while supporting the need for effective brief civil commitment legislation in all states.

  3. You’re an Austen Heroine! Engaging Students with Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Breashears

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In my senior seminar on Jane Austen, I seek to engage students in multiple ways. On one hand, I want them to connect with Austen’s world and to reflect on what it means to them; on the other hand, I want them to understand the very real differences of that world and how they inform her novels. One strategy for engaging students in these ways is through interactive games. Studies have shown that many modern games have features similar to those stressed by engaged learning, so game design can be adapted for pedagogical purposes. I discuss the purposes, design, and play of my PowerPoint game “You’re an Austen Heroine!” I invite interested readers to see the game in the attached file.

  4. Fractional amplitude analysis of low frequency fluctuation in alcohol dependent individuals: a resting state functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Dingfang; Cheng Jun; Wu Hanbin; Xu Liangzhou; Liu Jinhuan; Zhao Yilin; Lin Xue; Liu Changsheng; Qiu Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore brain activity features during the resting state in alcohol dependent individuals, and study the relationship between the brain activity features and alcohol dependent individuals' clinical symptoms. Methods: Twenty-four alcohol dependent individuals and 22 healthy control subjects, well matched in gender, age, education and handedness, were enrolled as the alcohol dependent group and control group respectively. A GE 3.0 T MR scanner was used to acquire all the subjects' resting state data. DPARSF software was used to process resting functional MRI data, and then the whole brain fractional amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) data were acquired. Two-sample t test statistical analysis was made to access fALFF difference between the two groups. Results: In comparison with the control group, the alcohol dependent group showed reduced fALFF in bilateral medial prefrontal gyrus, right inferior occipital gyrus, left precuneus,left inferior temporal gyrus, and left posterior lobe of cerebellum (0.64-1.69 vs. 0.87-1.78, t=-4.23- -2.79, P<0.05). fALFF was increased in the alcohol dependent group at the anterior cingulate,bilateral inferior frontal gyrus,right middle frontal gyrus,bilateral insular lobe,bilateral dorsal thalamus (0.86-1.82 vs. 0.76-1.58, t=3.56-3.96, P<0.05). Conclusion: Alcohol dependent individuals had abnormal activity at the bilateral prefrontal lobe,anterior cingulate, bilateral dorsal thalamus, bilateral insular lobe, left posterior lobe of cerebellum et al, during the resting state, and these abnormal activities might be related with clinical manifestation and pathophysiology. (authors)

  5. Strain Dependence of Photoluminescense of Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pavel N.; Leeuw, Tonya K.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, Bruce; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated strain dependence of photoluminescense (PL) spectra of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Nanotubes were sparsely dispersed in a thin PMMA film applied to acrylic bar, and strained in both compression and extension by bending this bar in either direction in a homebuilt four-point bending rig. The average surface strain was measured with high accuracy by a resistive strain gage applied on top of the film. The near infrared imaging and spectroscopy were performed on the inverted microscope equipped with high numerical aperture reflective objective lens and InGaAs CCD cameras. PL was excited with a diode laser at either 658, 730 or 785 nm, linearly polarized in the direction of the strain. We were able to measure (n,m) types and orientation of individual nanotubes with respect to strain direction and strain dependence of their PL maxima. It was found that PL peak shifts with respect to the values measured in SDS micelles are a sum of three components. First, a small environmental shift due to difference in the dielectric constant of the surrounding media, that is constant and independent of the nanotube type. Second, shift due to isotropic compression of the film during drying. Third, shifts produced by the uniaxial loading of the film in the experiment. Second and third shifts follow expression based on the first-order expansion of the TB hamiltonian. Their magnitude is proportional to the nanotube chiral angle and strain, and direction is determined by the nanotube quantum number. PL strain dependence measured for a number of various nanotube types allows to estimate TB carbon-carbon transfer integral.

  6. Abstinent Heroin Addicts Tend to Take Risks: ERP and Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal decision making is a behavioral characteristic of drug addiction. Indeed, drug addicts prefer immediate rewards at the expense of future interests. Assessing the neurocognitive basis of decision-making related to drug dependence, combining event-related potential (ERP analysis and source localization techniques, may provide new insights into understanding decision-making deficits in drug addicts and further guide withdrawal treatment. In this study, EEG was performed in 20 abstinent heroin addicts (AHAs and 20 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs while they participated in a simple two-choice gambling task (99 vs. 9. Our behavioral results showed that AHAs tend to select higher-risk choices compared with HCs (i.e., more “99” choices than “9”. ERP results showed that right hemisphere preponderance of stimulus-preceding negativity was disrupted in AHAs, but not in HCs. Feedback-related negativity of difference wave was higher in AHAs than HCs, with the P300 amplitude associated with risk magnitude and valence. Using source localization that allows identification of abnormal brain activity in consequential cognitive stages, including the reward expectation and outcome evaluation stages, we found abnormalities in both behavioral and neural responses on gambling in AHAs. Taken together, our findings suggest AHAs have risk-prone tendency and dysfunction in adaptive decision making, since they continue to choose risky options even after accruing considerable negative scores, and fail to shift to a safer strategy to avoid risk. Such abnormal decision-making bias to risk and immediate reward seeking may be accompanied by abnormal reward expectation and evaluation in AHAs, which explains their high risk-seeking and impulsivity.

  7. Spontaneous harm reduction: a barrier for substance-dependent individuals seeking treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontanella Bruno José Barcellos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: Greater information regarding motivations and treatment barriers faced by substance-dependent individuals has clinical and public health implications. This study aimed to formulate hypotheses regarding psychological, social and family variables that can be constructed as motivations or subjective barriers for the early seeking of formal treatment. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in an intentional sample (selected through saturation and variety of types of 13 substance-dependent individuals who sought treatment. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted using open questions, and the transcribed data were subjected to qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Four types of spontaneous harm reduction measures were identified, according to the subjective logic of each participant: having some periods at rest (not using and recovering from adverse effects; caretaking by close acquaintances (relatives, partners, drug dealers and alcoholic beverage sellers; selectivity regarding substance source, type and means of administration; establishing "healthy" limits of ingestion. CONCLUSIONS: The measures identified might represent barriers to the early seeking of treatment but might also represent spontaneous learning of abilities beneficial to future treatment. Health care professionals should take into consideration their existence and should address them in clinical settings. Issues representative of the formulated categories should be presented in structured questionnaires used in future quantitative studies of barriers to treatment in this population.

  8. Spontaneous harm reduction: a barrier for substance-dependent individuals seeking treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Barcellos Fontanella

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: Greater information regarding motivations and treatment barriers faced by substance-dependent individuals has clinical and public health implications. This study aimed to formulate hypotheses regarding psychological, social and family variables that can be constructed as motivations or subjective barriers for the early seeking of formal treatment. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in an intentional sample (selected through saturation and variety of types of 13 substance-dependent individuals who sought treatment. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted using open questions, and the transcribed data were subjected to qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Four types of spontaneous harm reduction measures were identified, according to the subjective logic of each participant: having some periods at rest (not using and recovering from adverse effects; caretaking by close acquaintances (relatives, partners, drug dealers and alcoholic beverage sellers; selectivity regarding substance source, type and means of administration; establishing "healthy" limits of ingestion. CONCLUSIONS: The measures identified might represent barriers to the early seeking of treatment but might also represent spontaneous learning of abilities beneficial to future treatment. Health care professionals should take into consideration their existence and should address them in clinical settings. Issues representative of the formulated categories should be presented in structured questionnaires used in future quantitative studies of barriers to treatment in this population.

  9. Paradoxical Seizure Response to Phenytoin in an Epileptic Heroin Addict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasagar, Brintha; Verma, Beni R; Dewberry, Robert G; Pula, Thaddeus

    2015-06-01

    Phenytoin has a narrow therapeutic window and seizures can occur at both ends of the spectrum. A 41-year-old man with a history of a seizure disorder and heroin addiction presented with dizziness following 2 generalized tonic-clonic seizures that occurred earlier that day. The patient had received a loading dose of phenytoin for seizures associated with a subtherapeutic level 5 days previously. Initial evaluation revealed an elevated phenytoin level of 32.6 mcg/mL and an opiate-positive toxicology screen. Levetiracetam was started on the day of presentation and phenytoin was held until the level returned to the therapeutic range. The patient's dizziness resolved and he had no additional seizures. Evaluation for reversible causes of seizure activity along with anticonvulsant administration is generally the standard of care for breakthrough seizures. Phenytoin blood levels, if supratherapeutic, may be at least partially responsible for breakthrough seizure activity; in this circumstance, holding phenytoin and temporarily adding another anticonvulsant may be indicated.

  10. Blunted amygdala functional connectivity during a stress task in alcohol dependent individuals: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha E. Wade, M.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD. We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Materials and methods: For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition. The amygdala was used as a seed region for whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis. Results: After controlling for family-wise error (p = 0.05, there was significantly decreased left and right amygdala connectivity with frontal (specifically mPFC, temporal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. Subjective stress, but not craving, increased from pre-to post-task. Conclusions: This study demonstrated decreased connectivity between the amygdala and regions important for stress and emotional processing in long-term abstinent individuals with AD. These results suggest aberrant stress processing in individuals with AD even after lengthy periods of abstinence. Keywords: Alcohol dependence, fMRI, Stress task, Functional connectivity, Amygdala

  11. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain Bioenergetics, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trksak, George H.; Bracken, Bethany K.; Jensen, J. Eric; Plante, David T.; Penetar, David M.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Maywalt, Melissa A.; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent [31]P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, [31]P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse. PMID:24250276

  12. “Less of the Heroine than the Woman”: Parsing Gender in the British Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Carlile

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers two methods that will help students resist the temptation to judge eighteenth-century novels by twenty-first-century standards. These methods prompt students to parse the question of whether female protagonists in novels—in this case, Daniel Defoe’s Roxana (1724, Samuel Johnson’s Rasselas (1759, and Charlotte Lennox’s Sophia (1762—are portrayed as perfect models or as complex humans. The first method asks them to engage with definitions of the term “heroine,” and the second method uses word clouds to extend their thinking about the complexity of embodying a mid-eighteenth-century female identity.

  13. Dextromethorphan attenuated inflammation and combined opioid use in humans undergoing methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Po See; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies show that proinflammatory cytokines might be related to the development of opioid dependence (physiological, psychological, or both). In a double-blind, randomly stratified clinical trial investigating whether add-on dextromethorphan (60-120 mg/day) attenuated inflammation and the combined use of opioids in heroin-dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment, we evaluated whether inflammation is related to the progression of opioid dependence. All participants (107 heroin-dependent patients and 84 nondependent healthy controls) were recruited from National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Their plasma cytokine levels were measured to evaluate the effect of add-on dextromethorphan. Plasma TNF-α and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in long-term heroin-dependent patients than in healthy controls (p dextromethorphan. Moreover, both tolerance to methadone and the combined use of opioids were significantly (p dextromethorphan. We conclude that dextromethorphan might be a feasible adjuvant therapeutic for attenuating inflammation and inhibiting methadone tolerance and combined opioid use in heroin-dependent patients.

  14. Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica hiding time depends on individual and state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Reed-Guy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The decisions animals make to adjust their antipredator behavior to rapidly changing conditions have been well studied. Inducible defenses in plants are an antipredator behavior that acts on a longer time scale, but sensitive plants, Mimosa pudica, have a much more rapid antipredator response; they temporarily close their leaves when touched. The time they remain closed is defined as hiding time. We studied hiding time in sensitive plants and found that individual plants differed significantly in their hiding times. We then showed that the effect of individual explained substantial variation in hiding time on a short time scale. Finally, on a longer time scale, individuality persisted but the amount of variation attributed to individual decreased. We hypothesized that variation in plant condition might explain this change. We therefore manipulated sunlight availability and quantified hiding time. When deprived of light for 6 h, sensitive plants significantly shortened their hiding times. But when only half a plant was deprived of light, hiding times on the deprived half and light exposed half were not significantly different. This suggests that overall condition best explains variation in sensitive plant antipredator behavior. Just like in animals, sensitive plant antipredator behavior is condition dependent, and, just like in animals, a substantial amount of the remaining variation is explained by individual differences between plants. Thus, models designed to predict plasticity in animal behavior may be successfully applied to understand behavior in other organisms, including plants.

  15. Guanfacine enhances inhibitory control and attentional shifting in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-03-01

    Attenuation of adrenergic drive and cognitive enhancement, via stimulation of alpha2 pre- and post-synaptic receptors, may selectively enhance executive performance in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals. As these cognitive processes underpin important treatment-related behaviors, the alpha2 agonist, guanfacine HCl, may represent an effective pharmaco-therapeutic intervention. Twenty-five early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals were administered a battery of neurocognitive tasks on entry into treatment (baseline) and again following 3 weeks of either placebo or guanfacine treatment (up to 3 mg). Tasks included: Stop Signal, Stroop, 3-Dimentional Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional (IDED) task, Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Verbal Fluency and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Compared with placebo, the guanfacine group demonstrated attenuated anxiety and negative affect as well as improved performance on selective executive tests. This included fewer directional errors on the stop signal task, fewer errors on the extra-dimensional shift component of the IDED task and better attentional switching during verbal fluency. Guanfacine did not improve strategic working memory or peripheral memory. Guanfacine improves selective cognitive processes which may underlie salient treatment-related regulatory behaviors. Alpha2 agonists may therefore represent important agents for cocaine dependence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Treatment of heroin dependence with ibogaine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Oosteren, A.A. van; Knuijver, T.; Verkes, R.J.; Belgers, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of the hallucinogen ibogaine as an anti-addiction agent has been described in several case reports, dating back to the eighties. The anti-addiction properties of ibogaine have been confirmed in a large body of animal work. Ibogaine has been shown to be effective in reducing

  17. Separating intentional inhibition of prepotent responses and resistance to proactive interference in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Xavier; Van der Linden, Martial; Brevers, Damien; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Hanak, Catherine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity is a hallmark of addictive behaviors. Addicts' weakened inhibition of irrelevant prepotent responses is commonly thought to explain this association. However, inhibition is not a unitary mechanism. This study investigated the efficiency of overcoming competition due to irrelevant responses (i.e., inhibition of a prepotent response) and overcoming competition in memory (i.e., resistance to proactive interference) in sober and recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals. Three cognitive tasks assessing the inhibition of a prepotent response (Hayling task, anti-saccade task and Stroop task) and two tasks tapping into the capacity to resist proactive interference (cued recall, Brown-Peterson variant) were administered to 30 non-amnesic recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals and 30 matched healthy participants without alcohol dependency. In addition, possible confounds such as verbal updating in working memory was assessed. Alcohol-dependent subjects performed worse than healthy participants on the three cognitive tasks assessing the inhibition of irrelevant prepotent responses but group performance was similar in the tasks assessing overcoming proactive interference in memory, updating of working memory and abstract reasoning. These findings suggest that alcohol-dependence is mainly associated with impaired capacity to intentionally suppress irrelevant prepotent response information. Control of proactive interference from memory is preserved. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence in jails and prisons: research review update and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anjalee Sharma,1 Kevin E O'Grady,1,2 Sharon M Kelly,1 Jan Gryczynski,1 Shannon Gwin Mitchell,1 Robert P Schwartz1 1Friends Research Institute, Baltimore, 2Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Purpose: The World Health Organization recommends the initiation of opioid agonists prior to release from incarceration to prevent relapse or overdose. Many countries in the world employ these strategies. This paper considers the evidence to support these recommendations and the factors that have slowed their adoption in the US. Methods: We reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs and longitudinal/observational studies that examine participant outcomes associated with the initiation or continuation of opioid agonists (methadone, buprenorphine or antagonists (naltrexone during incarceration. Papers were identified through a literature search of PubMed with an examination of their references and were included if they reported outcomes for methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone continued during incarceration or initiated prior to release in a correctional institution. Results: Fourteen studies were identified, including eight RCTs and six observational studies. One RCT found that patients treated with methadone who were continued on versus tapered off methadone during brief incarceration were more likely to return to treatment upon release. A second RCT found that the group starting methadone treatment in prison versus a waiting list was less likely to report using heroin and sharing syringes during incarceration. A third RCT found no differences in postrelease heroin use or reincarceration between individuals initiating treatment with methadone versus those initiating treatment with buprenorphine during relatively brief incarcerations. Findings from four additional RCTs indicate that starting opioid agonist treatment during incarceration versus after release was associated with higher rates of entry into community

  19. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals: exploring the role of impulsivity, depression, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Kaag, Anne Marije; van Wingen, Guido; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Homberg, Judith R; Reneman, Liesbeth; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent patients, gray matter (GM) volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with the duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM volume differences between 30 non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals and 33 non-drug using controls using voxel-based morphometry. Additionally, within the group of non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals, we explored the role of frequently co-occurring features such as trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, BIS), smoking, and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), as well as the role of cocaine use duration, on frontal GM volume. Smaller GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals were observed in the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, within the group of cocaine users, trait impulsivity was associated with reduced GM volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, and the right superior frontal gyrus, whereas no effect of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use was observed on regional GM volumes. Our data show an important association between trait impulsivity and frontal GM volumes in cocaine-dependent individuals. In contrast to previous studies with treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients, no significant effects of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use on frontal GM volume were observed. Reduced frontal GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects are associated with trait impulsivity and are not associated with co-occurring nicotine dependence or depression.

  20. SuperQueeroes – Our LGBTI* Comic Book Heroes and Heroines Schwules Museum*, January 22-June 26, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available SuperQueeroes – Our LGBTI* Comic Book Heroes and Heroines at the Schwules Museum* in Berlin presents the first exhibition of queer comics in Europe. The exhibition provides a comprehensive survey of comics with LGBTI characters and narratives, primarily from Europe and America. As a foundational endeavor, SuperQueeroes raises important questions regarding the curation of both comics and the history of sexuality, whose critical examination remains relevant for the future work on queer comics that the exhibition will likely inspire.

  1. Intravenous heroin use in Haiphong, Vietnam: Need for comprehensive care including methamphetamine use-related interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Laurent; Des Jarlais, Don C; Duong Thi, Huong; Khuat Thi Hai, Oanh; Pham Minh, Khuê; Peries, Marianne; Vallo, Roselyne; Nham Thi Tuyet, Thanh; Hoang Thi, Giang; Le Sao, Mai; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Vu Hai, Vinh; Moles, Jean-Pierre; Laureillard, Didier; Nagot, Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe patterns among people who inject drugs (PWID), risk-related behaviours and access to methadone treatment, in order to design a large-scale intervention aiming to end the HIV epidemic in Haiphong, Vietnam. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was first conducted to identify profiles of drug use and HIV risk-related behaviour among PWID. A sample of PWID was then included in a one-year cohort study to describe access to methadone treatment and associated factors. Among the 603 patients enrolled in the RDS survey, 10% were female, all were injecting heroin and 24% were using methamphetamine, including 3 (0.5%) through injection. Different profiles of risk-related behaviours were identified, including one entailing high-risk sexual behaviour (n=37) and another involving drug-related high-risk practices (n=22). High-risk sexual activity was related to binge drinking and methamphetamine use. Among subjects with low sexual risk, sexual intercourse with a main partner with unknown serostatus was often unprotected. Among the 250 PWID included in the cohort, 55.2% initiated methadone treatment during the follow-up (versus 4.4% at RDS); methamphetamine use significantly increased. The factors associated with not being treated with methadone after 52 weeks were fewer injections per month and being a methamphetamine user at RDS. Heroin is still the main drug injected in Haiphong. Methamphetamine use is increasing markedly and is associated with delay in methadone initiation. Drug-related risks are low but sexual risk behaviours are still present. Comprehensive approaches are needed in the short term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Addiction, agency, and the politics of self-control: doing harm reduction in a heroin users' group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, Teresa; Whetstone, Sarah; Andic, Tanja

    2012-04-01

    Our 2007-2009 ethnography describes and analyses the practice of harm reduction in a heroin users' group in the midwestern United States. While dominant addiction interventions conceptualize the addict as powerless - either through moral or physical weakness - this group contested such "commonsense," treating illicit drug use as one of many ways that modern individuals attempt to "fill the void." Insisting on the destigmatization of addiction and the normalization of illicit drug use, the group helped its members work on incremental steps toward self-management. Although "Connection Points" had very limited resources to improve the lives of its members, our work suggests that the users' group did much to restore self-respect, rational subjectivity, and autonomy to a group historically represented as incapable of reason and self-control. As the users cohered as a community, they developed a critique of the oppressions suffered by "junkies," discussed their rights and entitlements, and even planned the occasional political action. Engaging with literature on the cultural construction of agency and responsibility, we consider, but ultimately complicate, the conceptualization of needle exchange as a "neoliberal" form of population management. Within the context of the United States' War on Drugs, the group's work on destigmatization, health education, and the practice of incremental control showed the potential for reassertions of social citizenship within highly marginal spaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse: part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannabis, and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishman, William H; Del Vecchio, Alexander; Sanal, Shirin; Ismail, Anjum

    2003-01-01

    The abuse of alcohol is associated with chronic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and arrhythmia. Abstinence or using alcohol in moderation can reverse these cardiovascular problems. Alcohol is also distinguished among the substances of abuse by having possible protective effects against coronary artery disease and stroke when used in moderate amounts. Amphetamines (eg, speed, ice, ecstasy) have many of the cardiovascular toxicities seen with cocaine, including acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Heroin and other opiates can cause arrhythmias and noncardiac pulmonary edema, and may reduce cardiac output. Cardiovascular problems are less common with cannabis (marijuana) than with opiates, but major cognitive disorders may be seen with its chronic use. It is still controversial whether caffeine can cause hypertension and coronary artery disease, and questions have been raised about its safety in patients with heart failure and arrhythmia.

  4. I love you ... and heroin: care and collusion among drug-using couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Merrill

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Romantic partnerships between drug-using couples, when they are recognized at all, tend to be viewed as dysfunctional, unstable, utilitarian, and often violent. This study presents a more nuanced portrayal by describing the interpersonal dynamics of 10 heroin and cocaine-using couples from Hartford, Connecticut. Results These couples cared for each other similarly to the ways that non-drug-using couples care for their intimate partners. However, most also cared by helping each other avoid the symptoms of drug withdrawal. They did this by colluding with each other to procure and use drugs. Care and collusion in procuring and using drugs involved meanings and social practices that were constituted and reproduced by both partners in an interpersonal dynamic that was often overtly gendered. These gendered dynamics could be fluid and changed over time in response to altered circumstances and/or individual agency. They also were shaped by and interacted with long-standing historical, economic and socio-cultural forces including the persistent economic inequality, racism and other forms of structural violence endemic in the inner-city Hartford neighborhoods where these couples resided. As a result, these relationships offered both risk and protection from HIV, HCV and other health threats (e.g. arrest and violence. Conclusion A more complex and nuanced understanding of drug-using couples can be tapped for its potential in shaping prevention and intervention efforts. For example, drug treatment providers need to establish policies which recognize the existence and importance of interpersonal dynamics between drug users, and work with them to coordinate detoxification and treatment for both partners, whenever possible, as well as provide additional couples-oriented services in an integrated and comprehensive drug treatment system.

  5. Cleófilas and La Llorona: Latin Heroines Against Patriarchal Marginalisation in ‘El arroyo de la Llorona’, a Short Story by Sandra Cisneros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis fernando Gómez R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the short story ‘El arroyo de la Llorona’ by female Mexican-American writer Sandra Cisneros. In it the main character, Cleófilas, is subject to social, emotional and economic dependence on her husband, according to the cultural constructs on female identity that are still relevant in Latin-American patriarchal societies. Due to her circumstances of complete marginalisation and domestic violence, Cleófilas chooses to avoid reality, and this avoidance not only costs her mental well-being,but also annuls her will to make changes to her suffocating life. Oppressed by a patriarchal system,Cleófilas develops an unusual interest in the Llorona legend and, through the remembrance of this myth, these two female figures become symbols of resistance and liberation. In the story, the Llorona ceases to be the denigrated woman tradition has always made her out to be, and becomes the image of a contemporary heroine capable of challenging radical patriarchal norms.

  6. Reward-related brain response and craving correlates of marijuana cue exposure: a preliminary study in treatment-seeking marijuana-dependent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Marina; Szucs-Reed, Regina P; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Ehrman, Ronald N; Wang, Ze; Li, Yin; Suh, Jesse J; Kampman, Kyle; O'Brien, Charles P; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R

    2013-01-01

    : Determining the brain substrates underlying the motivation to abuse addictive drugs is critical for understanding and treating addictive disorders. Laboratory neuroimaging studies have demonstrated differential activation of limbic and motivational circuitry (eg, amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex) triggered by cocaine, heroin, nicotine, and alcohol cues. The literature on neural responses to marijuana cues is sparse. Thus, the goals of this study were to characterize the brain's response to marijuana cues, a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse, and determine whether these responses are linked to self-reported craving in a clinically relevant population of treatment-seeking marijuana-dependent subjects. : Marijuana craving was assessed in 12 marijuana-dependent subjects using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Short Form. Subsequently, blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during exposure to alternating 20-second blocks of marijuana-related versus matched nondrug visual cues. : Brain activation during marijuana cue exposure was significantly greater in the bilateral amygdala and the hippocampus. Significant positive correlations between craving scores and brain activation were found in the ventral striatum and the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (P cues and craving and extends the current literature on marijuana cue reactivity. Furthermore, the correlative relationship between craving and brain activity in reward-related regions was observed in a clinically relevant sample (treatment-seeking marijuana-dependent subjects). Results are consistent with prior findings in cocaine, heroin, nicotine, and alcohol cue studies, indicating that the brain substrates of cue-triggered drug motivation are shared across abused substances.

  7. Telling our stories: heroin-assisted treatment and SNAP activism in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan; Murray, Dave; MacPherson, Donald

    2017-05-18

    This article highlights the experiences of a peer-run group, SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP), that meets weekly in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. SNAP is a unique independent peer- run drug user group that formed in 2011 following Canada's first heroin-assisted treatment trial (HAT), North America Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI). SNAP's members are now made up of former research participants who participated in two heroin-assisted trials in Vancouver. This article highlights SNAP members' experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial conducted in Vancouver, Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME), that began recruitment of research participants in 2011. This paper draws on one brainstorming session, three focus groups, and field notes, with the SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP) in late 2013 about their experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial, SALOME in the DTES of Vancouver, and fieldwork from a 6-year period (March 2011 to February 2017) with SNAP members. SNAP's research draws on research principles developed by drug user groups and critical methodological frameworks on community-based research for social justice. The results illuminate how participating in the SALOME clinical trial impacted the lives of SNAP members. In addition, the findings reveal how SNAP member's advocacy for HAT impacts the group in positive ways. Seven major themes emerged from the analysis of the brainstorming and focus groups: life prior to SALOME, the clinic setting and routine, stability, 6-month transition, support, exiting the trial and ethics, and collective action, including their participation in a constitutional challenge in the Supreme Court of BC to continue receiving HAT once the SALOME trial ended. HAT benefits SNAP members. They argue that permanent HAT programs should be established in Canada because they are an effective harm reduction

  8. How to Measure Load-Dependent Kinetics of Individual Motor Molecules Without a Force-Clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sung, Jongmin; Mortensen, Kim; Spudich, James A.

    Molecular motors are responsible for numerous cellular processes from cargo transport to heart contraction. Their interactions with other cellular components are often transient and exhibit kinetics that depend on load. Here, we measure such interactions using a new method, Harmonic Force...... and efficient. The protocol accumulates statistics fast enough to deliver single-molecule results from single-molecule experiments. We demonstrate the method's performance by measuring the force-dependent kinetics of individual human beta-cardiac myosin molecules interacting with an actin filament...... at physiological ATP concentration. We show that a molecule's ADP release rate depends exponentially on the applied load. This points to Kramer's Brownian diffusion model of chemical reactions as explanation why muscle contracts with a velocity inversely proportional to external load....

  9. Personality traits in alcohol-dependent individuals in the context of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-10-31

    The aim of this study was to identify groups of alcohol-dependent individuals differing in the severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse and to find the personality variables that discriminate between those groups. The study included 90 individuals dependent on alcohol. The following questionnaires were used: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Coping Inventory (COPE), the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), Cattell's IPAT Anxiety Scale, and the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). Two groups of subjects addicted to alcohol were identified: group 1 with high and group 2 with low childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse indices. The subjects in Group 1 had significantly higher scores than the subjects in Group 2 on the TCI Temperament scales of NS and HA and lower scores on the TCI character scales of SD, C2 and C4. Group 1 subjects were significantly more likely than those from Group 2 to use avoidant coping strategies; they were also less likely to use problem-focused strategies and had significantly higher scores on general anxiety, overt anxiety, latent anxiety, level of aggression, physical aggression, hostility and anger. The higher severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse in alcoholics is associated with those personality traits that seem to be crucial for maintaining abstinence and the quality of cooperation in therapy.

  10. Exchanging expertise and constructing boundaries: The development of a transnational knowledge network around heroin-assisted treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Over the last 20 years, supervised injectable and inhalable heroin prescribing has been developed, tested and in some cases introduced as a second line treatment for limited groups of entrenched heroin users in a number of European countries and Canada. Based on documentary analyses and eleven key informant interviews, this paper investigates the growth of 'expertise' and the sharing of knowledge between scientific stakeholders from different countries involved in researching and developing this area of treatment. Drawing on Stone's concept of the 'knowledge network' (Stone, 2013) and Gieryn's theory of 'boundary-work' (Gieryn, 1983), the analysis demonstrates the collective power of this group of scientists in producing a particular form of knowledge and expertise which has accrued and been exchanged over time. It also illustrates the ways in which this type of science has gained credibility and authority and become legitimised, reinforced and reproduced by those who employ it in both scientific and political debates. Boundaries were constructed by the knowledge network between different types of professions/disciplines, different forms of science and between the production of science and its consumption by non-scientists. The uniformity of the knowledge network in terms of their professional and disciplinary backgrounds, methodological expertise and ideological perspectives has meant that alternative forms of knowledge and perspectives have been neglected. This limits the nature and scope of the scientific evidence on which to base policy and practice decisions impacting on the work of policy makers and practitioners as well as the experiences of those in treatment who are most affected by this research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Age at onset typology in opioid dependent men: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Biswajit; Mattoo, Surendra K; Basu, Debasish

    2002-04-01

    This study attempted to apply age at onset typology in ICD-10 diagnosed opioid dependence. The sample comprised 80 men seeking treatment at an addiction clinic. The measures included socio-demographic and clinical profile, Severity of Opioid Dependence Questionnaire, Modified Sensation Seeking Scale, Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and Family History Assessment Module. A cut-off age of 20/21 years for an early-onset late-onset typology of opioid dependence was obtained using two methods - the modal age at onset method and one-third sample by age at onset method. The early onset group showed significant differences in terms of it being more often younger, urban, unmarried, wage earning or students, using oral opioids (not heroin or injectables), showing higher lifetime use and dependence of sedatives, earlier onset of use and dependence of sedatives and tobacco, and higher global psychopathology in terms of MPQ. The early onset group also showed statistically insignificant trends for lesser use and dependence of alcohol, higher severity of opioid dependence, more legal and less social complications, higher sensation seeking (except boredom susceptibility), and more frequent substance dependence in first degree relatives. The age at onset typology in opioid dependence appears to be feasible and having some similarities to similar typology in alcoholism.

  12. Context-dependent individual behavioral consistency in Daphnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Ekvall, Mikael T.; Bianco, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of consistent individual differences in behavior, often termed "personality," for adapting and coping with threats and novel environmental conditions has advanced considerably during the last decade. However, advancements are almost exclusively associated with higher-order animals......, whereas studies focusing on smaller aquatic organisms are still rare. Here, we show individual differences in the swimming behavior of Daphnia magna, a clonal freshwater invertebrate, before, during, and after being exposed to a lethal threat, ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We show consistency in swimming...... that of adults. Overall, we show that aquatic invertebrates are far from being identical robots, but instead they show considerable individual differences in behavior that can be attributed to both ontogenetic development and individual consistency. Our study also demonstrates, for the first time...

  13. Development and validation of a new GC-MS method for the detection of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine in blood, brain, liver and kidney of Wistar rats treated with the combination of heroin and tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Tarek; El-Shihi, Taha H; Emara, Mostafa M; Chericoni, Silvio; Giusiani, Mario; Giorgi, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Heroin is one of the most dangerous abused drugs in the world. Tramadol is an additive recently found at high concentration levels in street heroin seizures in Egypt. This substance could affect the usual analytical method for the detection of heroin and metabolites, as well as the pharmacokinetic and disposition of single analytes. One shortfall regarding this issue is present in the literature. This study describes a validated, simple, sensitive and selective method to determine tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, 6-acetylmorphine and free morphine in the blood, brain, liver and kidney of Wistar rats, intraperitoneally treated with a combination of heroin and tramadol (10 and 70 mg/kg, respectively) using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. The calibration curves of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol and 6-acetylmorphine in blood were linear in the concentration range from 25-5,000 ng/mL and morphine was found in the concentration range 50-5,000 ng/mL. The analytes were detected in all tested matrices, except 6-acetylmorphine, which was not detected in liver. The highest concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol were observed in kidney (22,9381 and 28,498 ng/g), while 6-acetylmorphine and morphine were found at the highest levels in brain (3,280 and 3,899 ng/g, respectively). The present method is simple, rapid and sensitive and can be used to study the pharmacokinetics, disposition and interaction of these drugs in several animal models.

  14. Ibogaine Detoxification Transitions Opioid and Cocaine Abusers Between Dependence and Abstinence: Clinical Observations and Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah C. Mash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibogaine may be effective for transitioning opioid and cocaine dependent individuals to sobriety. American and European self-help groups provided public testimonials that ibogaine alleviated drug craving and opioid withdrawal symptoms after only a single dose administration. Preclinical studies in animal models of addiction have provided proof-of-concept evidence in support of these claims. However, the purported therapeutic benefits of ibogaine are based on anecdotal reports from a small series of case reports that used retrospective recruitment procedures. We reviewed clinical results from an open label case series (N = 191 of human volunteers seeking to detoxify from opioids or cocaine with medical monitoring during inpatient treatment. Whole blood was assayed to obtain pharmacokinetic measures to determine the metabolism and clearance of ibogaine. Clinical safety data and adverse events (AEs were studied in male and female subjects. There were no significant adverse events following administration of ibogaine in a dose range that was shown to be effective for blocking opioid withdrawal symptoms in this study. We used multi-dimensional craving questionnaires during inpatient detoxification to test if ibogaine was effective in diminishing heroin and cocaine cravings. Participants also completed standardized questionnaires about their health and mood before and after ibogaine treatment, and at program discharge. One-month follow-up data were reviewed where available to determine if ibogaine’s effects on drug craving would persist outside of an inpatient setting. We report here that ibogaine therapy administered in a safe dose range diminishes opioid withdrawal symptoms and reduces drug cravings. Pharmacological treatments for opioid dependence include detoxification, narcotic antagonists and long-term opioid maintenance therapy. Our results support product development of single oral dose administration of ibogaine for the treatment of opioid

  15. Hospitalizations for Endocarditis and Associated Health Care Costs Among Persons with Diagnosed Drug Dependence - North Carolina, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischauer, Aaron T; Ruhl, Laura; Rhea, Sarah; Barnes, Erin

    2017-06-09

    Opioid dependence and overdose have increased to epidemic levels in the United States. The 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimated that 4.3 million persons were nonmedical users of prescription pain relievers (1). These users are 40 times more likely than the general population to use heroin or other injection drugs (2). Furthermore, CDC estimated a near quadrupling of heroin-related overdose deaths during 2002-2014 (3). Although overdose contributes most to drug-associated mortality, infectious complications of intravenous drug use constitute a major cause of morbidity leading to hospitalization (4). In addition to infections from hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), injecting drug users are at increased risk for acquiring invasive bacterial infections, including endocarditis (5,6). Evidence that hospitalizations for endocarditis are increasing in association with the current opioid epidemic exists (7-9). To examine trends in hospitalizations for endocarditis among persons in North Carolina with drug dependence during 2010-2015, data from the North Carolina Hospital Discharge database were analyzed. The incidence of hospital discharge diagnoses for drug dependence combined with endocarditis increased more than twelvefold from 0.2 to 2.7 per 100,000 persons per year over this 6-year period. Correspondingly, hospital costs for these patients increased eighteenfold, from $1.1 million in 2010 to $22.2 million in 2015. To reduce the risk for morbidity and mortality related to opioid-associated endocarditis, public health programs and health care systems should consider collaborating to implement syringe service programs, harm reduction strategies, and opioid treatment programs.

  16. The Predictive Role of Difficulties in Emotion Regulation and Self-Control with Susceptibility to Addiction in Drug-Dependent Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shirazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to examine the predictive role of difficulties in emotion regulation and self-control in potential for addiction among drug-dependent individuals. Method: This was a correlational study which falls within the category of descriptive studies. The statistical population of the current study included all patients under treatment in outpatient health centers in Bam, among whom 315 individuals were selected through cluster sampling method as the participants of the study. Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Self-Control Scale, and Addiction Susceptibility Questionnaire were used for data collection purposes. Results: The results indicated that difficulties engaging in goal directed behavior, impulse control difficulties, lack of emotional awareness, and lack of emotional clarity (dimensions of difficulties in emotion regulation had a significant positive correlation with potential for addiction. In addition, there was a negative significant relationship between self-control and potential for addiction among drug-dependent individuals. Conclusion: In addition to common methods of abstinence from drug dependence, teaching self-control and emotional control techniques to addicted patients can help them reduce their dependence.

  17. Cocaine dependent individuals discount future rewards more than future losses for both cocaine and monetary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Bruner, Natalie R; Johnson, Patrick S

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine dependence and other forms of drug dependence are associated with steeper devaluation of future outcomes (delay discounting). Although studies in this domain have typically assessed choices between monetary gains (e.g., receive less money now versus receive more money after a delay), delay discounting is also applicable to decisions involving losses (e.g., small loss now versus larger delayed loss), with gains typically discounted more than losses (the "sign effect"). It is also known that drugs are discounted more than equivalently valued money. In the context of drug dependence, however, relatively little is known about the discounting of delayed monetary and drug losses and the presence of the sign effect. In this within-subject, laboratory study, delay discounting for gains and losses was assessed for cocaine and money outcomes in cocaine-dependent individuals (n=89). Both cocaine and monetary gains were discounted at significantly greater rates than cocaine and monetary losses, respectively (i.e., the sign effect). Cocaine gains were discounted significantly more than monetary gains, but cocaine and monetary losses were discounted similarly. Results suggest that cocaine is discounted by cocaine-dependent individuals in a systematic manner similar to other rewards. Because the sign effect was shown for both cocaine and money, delayed aversive outcomes may generally have greater impact than delayed rewards in shaping present behavior in this population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part 2: Dynamics of time-dependent knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The dynamical principle for a population of interacting individuals with mutual pairwise knowledge, presented by the author in a previous paper for the case of constant knowledge, is extended to include the possibility that the knowledge is time-dependent. Several mechanisms are presented by which the mutual knowledge, represented by a matrix K, can be altered, leading to dynamical equations for K(t). The author presents various examples of the transient and long time asymptotic behavior of K(t) for populations of relatively isolated individuals interacting infrequently in local binary collisions. Among the effects observed in the numerical experiments are knowledge diffusion, learning transients, and fluctuating equilibria. This approach will be most appropriate to small populations of complex individuals such as simple animals, robots, computer networks, agent-mediated traffic, simple ecosystems, and games. Evidence of metastable states and intermittent switching leads them to envision a spectroscopy associated with such transitions that is independent of the specific physical individuals and the population. Such spectra may serve as good lumped descriptors of the collective emergent behavior of large classes of populations in which mutual knowledge is an important part of the dynamics.

  19. Pinositic and phagocitose activity of segmented nuclear leuco cites in patients with heroin dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, R.Sh.; Berdiev, N.B.

    2004-01-01

    With the aim or determining of the very beginning stages of phagositosis of segmented neutrophils in the blood of patients with geroin dependence it is necessary to perform investigations of phagosite reaction during short time inoculation of white blood cells (leuco cites) with pactertal cells (5 minutes and less)

  20. Patrones de consumo de heroína en una muestra de consumidores de Medellín - Colombia Patterns of heroin use in a sample of consumers in Medellín - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño Pérez

    2012-09-01

    una realidad emergente en Colombia. Es necesario ahondar en estudios cuanti-cualitativos que nos permitan conocer y comprender más este fenómeno con el fin de disminuir su impacto en la salud pública.INTRODUCTION: In Colombia, there are no specific studies on the prevalence of heroin use. This paper reviews the patterns of substance use in a consumer group in the city of Medellín and its metropolitan area, showing that consumption is becoming a threat to public health due to the particular forms of consumption, among which risk practices are included. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of heroin in the city of Medellín and its metropolitan area. METHODS: The study took a mixed approach using multiple-case study to cover each of the variables and categories proposed; 42 heroin users of treatment centers in the city of Medellín and its metropolitan area were accessed between July and September 2008, using the "snowball", technique. Information was collected by a structured, face to face interview, asking about the type of heroin consumed, routes of administration, frequency of consumption, equipment used, consumption practices and rituals that accompany these practices. Quantitative data were analyzed using the EPI-Info statistical package 2,000 and Atlas ti qualitative, version 5.5, for Windows. RESULTS: Consumers were predominantly male, single, aged between 18 and 23 years, childless and many had not completed college. Most respondents were in the middle socioeconomic stratum, had a family history of psychoactive substance use and had started heroin use between 15 and 17 years. There are special forms to name heroine, consumers, and rituals to consume the substance. The article gives details of the heroin consumed, the paraphernalia and associated practices. CONCLUSIONS: The use of heroin is an emerging reality in Colombia. Qualitative-quantitative studies are necessary to allow us to acknowledge and understand more about this phenomenon in order to decrease the

  1. Comparison of craving for opioid in opioid-dependent individuals and people under methadone maintenance treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Chehri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT is the most important treatment for opioid -dependency recurrence. The aim of this study was to compare the craving level in opioid-dependent individuals and people under methadone maintenance therapy. Methods: In this case – control study, 120 men with opioid dependency were selected through cluster sampling method. They were divided into two groups, 60 people in opioid-dependent group and 60 people in MMT group. Both groups were matched for age, sex, marital status, education, duration of opioid dependency and method of consumption. Then, they completed INCAS Substance Abuse Profile (ISAP, opiate withdrawal symptoms checklist, self–report of craving, Desire for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ, Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS and visual cue-induced craving questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean craving for drug significantly was lower in MMT group comparing opioid-dependent group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Methadone Maintenance Therapy decreased the craving for drugs and substances This can have an important role in relapse prevention.

  2. Street-level classification of illicit heroin using inorganic elements coupled with pattern monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Weng Chan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 illicit heroin samples seized in 2013–2014 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to determine 16 inorganic elements at parts-per-billion (ppb level. Of eleven submissions, two or three samples with similar appearance were taken from the same seizure to form related samples. These samples were used to monitor the clustering outcome suggested by principal component analysis (PCA. They provided hints regarding the acceptance of within-seizure variability in-situ. The previously established data pretreatment method (N+4R did not function well with the present data probably due to the higher concentrations reported for the current samples. With the aid of the above-cited related samples for pattern monitoring, a better outcome was achieved when the pretreatment method was modified to employ solely standardization (S to optimize the necessary variability for sample classification.

  3. TGI Monday?: Drug-Dependent Outpatients Report Lower Stress and More Happiness at Work than Elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2013-01-01

    In the general population, experience-sampling studies show that work is the aspect of daily life most associated with momentary unhappiness and a desire to be elsewhere. We assessed whether this holds true for urban outpatients in treatment for heroin and cocaine dependence. In a 25-week natural-history study, 79 employed methadone-maintained misusers of heroin and cocaine carried electronic diaries on which mood and behavior were assessed up to five times per day. Being at work was associated with lower stress, greater happiness, and lower drug craving. Work accounted for 14% of the variance in stress, 30% of the variance in happiness, and 50% of the variance in cocaine craving. Participants with skilled jobs reported more positive and less negative mood states (and lower cocaine craving) at all times compared to participants with semi/unskilled jobs, although the latter reported greater mood improvement at work. In all participants, mood improvements occurred specifically in the presence of coworkers (not other companions). Our seemingly unusual findings might be specific to substance-disorder patients (for whom work may be a respite from drug-using companions), but might also hold for other urban dwellers of similar socioeconomic backgrounds (for whom work may be a respite from environmental stressors). PMID:22494220

  4. Blunted amygdala functional connectivity during a stress task in alcohol dependent individuals: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Natasha E; Padula, Claudia B; Anthenelli, Robert M; Nelson, Erik; Eliassen, James; Lisdahl, Krista M

    2017-12-01

    Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition. The amygdala was used as a seed region for whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis. After controlling for family-wise error (p = 0.05), there was significantly decreased left and right amygdala connectivity with frontal (specifically mPFC), temporal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. Subjective stress, but not craving, increased from pre-to post-task. This study demonstrated decreased connectivity between the amygdala and regions important for stress and emotional processing in long-term abstinent individuals with AD. These results suggest aberrant stress processing in individuals with AD even after lengthy periods of abstinence.

  5. Choke or thrive? The relation between salivary cortisol and math performance depends on individual differences in working memory and math-anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Mateo, Jill; Kozak, Megan N; Foster, Katherine; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-08-01

    In the current study, we explored how a person's physiological arousal relates to their performance in a challenging math situation as a function of individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and math-anxiety. Participants completed demanding math problems before and after which salivary cortisol, an index of arousal, was measured. The performance of lower WM individuals did not depend on cortisol concentration or math-anxiety. For higher WM individuals high in math-anxiety, the higher their concentration of salivary cortisol following the math task, the worse their performance. In contrast, for higher WM individuals lower in math-anxiety, the higher their salivary cortisol concentrations, the better their performance. For individuals who have the capacity to perform at a high-level (higher WMs), whether physiological arousal will lead an individual to choke or thrive depends on math-anxiety. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  6. The Risk of Individual Stocks’ Tail Dependence with the Market and Its Effect on Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobin Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional beta is only a linear measure of overall market risk and places equal emphasis on upside and downside risks, but actually the latter is always much stronger probably due to the trading mechanism like short-sale constraints. Therefore, this paper employs the nonlinear measure, tail dependence, to measure the extreme downside risks that individual stocks crash together with the whole market and investigates whether such tail dependence risks will affect stock returns. Our empirical evidence based on Shanghai A shares confirms that most stocks display nonnegligible tail dependence with the whole market, and, more importantly, such tail dependence risks can indeed provide additional information beyond beta and other factors for asset pricing. In cross-sectional regression, it is proved that this tail dependence does help to explain monthly returns on Shanghai A shares, whereas the time-series regression further indicates that mimicking portfolio returns for tail dependence can capture strong common variation of Shanghai A stock returns.

  7. The Impact of the Feminist Heroine: Elizabeth in Pride and Prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chun CHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically examines the feminist significance of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. The feminist view found in Pride and Prejudice is well-supported in literary criticism yet little discussion has focused on Elizabeth’s feminism as seen in the prominent contrast to her female foils within the novel, namely Caroline, Jane, and Charlotte. Each of these women conforms to the socially imposed gender norms of Regency England, while Elizabeth artfully challenges gender inequality. As other women adapt their views to increase their chances of marriage, Elizabeth persistently refuses to capitulate. Defying traditional gender norms, Elizabeth affirms her feminist perspective by helping to shape Mr. Darcy’s moral character to match her own. Elizabeth inspires Mr. Darcy to set aside the pride he has in his high station in society in order to win her affections and take her hand in marriage. I argue that Elizabeth’s character is not feminist in isolation, but is understood only in contrast to Caroline, Jane, and Charlotte. This claim is supported by an in-depth comparison of Elizabeth and each of the female foils.

  8. Comparison of efficacy between buprenorphine and tramadol in the detoxification of opioid (heroin)-dependent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jatinder Mohan; Pal, Hemraj; Lal, Rakesh; Jain, Raka; Schooler, Nina; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic opiate and a centrally acting weak m-opioid receptor agonist. The potential advantages of tramadol include ease of administration, low abuse potential, and being nonscheduled. This study compared tramadol and buprenorphine for controlling withdrawal symptoms in patients with opioid dependence syndrome. Consenting male subjects between 20 and 45 years of age who fulfilled the ICD-10-DCR criteria for opiate dependence syndrome were randomly assigned in a double-blind, double-dummy placebo-controlled trial for detoxification. Those with multiple drug dependence, abnormal cardiac, renal and hepatic functions, psychosis, or organic mental illness were excluded. Assessments included Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), Objective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (OOWS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Side Effect Check List. Subjects were evaluated daily and study duration was 10 days. Sixty two subjects were enrolled. The mean SOWS and OOWS and VAS were significantly lower in the buprenorphine group on second and third day of detoxification as compared to the tramadol group. Although the retention rate was higher for buprenorphine group throughout the study, when compared with tramadol the difference was not significant on any day. Three subjects in the tramadol group had seizures. Tramadol was found to have limited detoxification efficacy in moderate to severe opioid withdrawal and substantial risk of seizures as compared to buprenorphine. Further studies are warranted to examine its efficacy in mild opioid withdrawal symptoms and its potential use in outpatient settings where its administration advantages may be valuable.

  9. Pedofilia, transtorno bipolar e dependência de álcool e opioides Paedophilia, bipolar disorder and alcohol and opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fabiane Machado Gomes Marsden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudos investigaram a relação entre psicopatologia e parafilias, especialmente pedofilia. Transtornos de humor e ansiedade, seguidos de transtornos relacionados ao uso de substâncias, são as comorbidades mais prevalentes em pacientes com parafilias. Apresentou- se o caso de um paciente em tratamento para dependência de substâncias (álcool e heroína, transtorno bipolar e pedofilia. É importante frisar que poucos casos relatando comorbidades como essas foram descritos na literatura.Many studies have investigated the relationship between psychopathology and paraphilias, specifically paedophilia. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, followed by substance use were the most prevalent disorders comorbid in these patients. We present the case of a patient in treatment for substance misuse (alcohol and heroin, bipolar disorder and paedophilia. To our knowledge few cases were reported describing cases of comorbidity such as this.

  10. Cytogenetic risks and possible adverse health effects by narcotic substances dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movafagh, Abolfazl; Haeri, Ali; Kolahi, Ali Asghar; Hassani-Moghadam, Hossein

    2012-09-01

    Illicit drug abuse has crossed social, economic, and geographical borders, and remains one of the major health problems that modern society is facing worldwide. The role of multiple drug abuse as a basic for chromosome damage has been overlooked and it is important to determine its possible adverse health effects. This study aimed to compare the frequency of chromosomal damages between drug addicts and free drug controls. Cytogenetic study was obtained from 146 illicit drug-users and 200 free drug controls. Subjects were grouped into three categories depending on main drug of dependence. Cytogenetic studies on cultured lymphocytes showed an increase the frequency of chromosomal damages among addicts including opiate (5.89%), heroin (7.65%), and crystal (4.9%) when compared with drug free controls (1.45%). The frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was breaks, gaps, marker, and acentric, respectively. Our findings are also important as they are among the first to suggest here, illicit drug addiction continue to be significant public health problems in Iran.

  11. Probabilistic Inference: Task Dependency and Individual Differences of Probability Weighting Revealed by Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Moritz; Seer, Caroline; Lange, Florian; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive determinants of probabilistic inference were examined using hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques. A classic urn-ball paradigm served as experimental strategy, involving a factorial two (prior probabilities) by two (likelihoods) design. Five computational models of cognitive processes were compared with the observed behavior. Parameter-free Bayesian posterior probabilities and parameter-free base rate neglect provided inadequate models of probabilistic inference. The introduction of distorted subjective probabilities yielded more robust and generalizable results. A general class of (inverted) S-shaped probability weighting functions had been proposed; however, the possibility of large differences in probability distortions not only across experimental conditions, but also across individuals, seems critical for the model's success. It also seems advantageous to consider individual differences in parameters of probability weighting as being sampled from weakly informative prior distributions of individual parameter values. Thus, the results from hierarchical Bayesian modeling converge with previous results in revealing that probability weighting parameters show considerable task dependency and individual differences. Methodologically, this work exemplifies the usefulness of hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques for cognitive psychology. Theoretically, human probabilistic inference might be best described as the application of individualized strategic policies for Bayesian belief revision.

  12. Probabilistic inference: Task dependency and individual differences of probability weighting revealed by hierarchical Bayesian modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eBoos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive determinants of probabilistic inference were examined using hierarchical Bayesian modelling techniques. A classic urn-ball paradigm served as experimental strategy, involving a factorial two (prior probabilities by two (likelihoods design. Five computational models of cognitive processes were compared with the observed behaviour. Parameter-free Bayesian posterior probabilities and parameter-free base rate neglect provided inadequate models of probabilistic inference. The introduction of distorted subjective probabilities yielded more robust and generalizable results. A general class of (inverted S-shaped probability weighting functions had been proposed; however, the possibility of large differences in probability distortions not only across experimental conditions, but also across individuals, seems critical for the model’s success. It also seems advantageous to consider individual differences in parameters of probability weighting as being sampled from weakly informative prior distributions of individual parameter values. Thus, the results from hierarchical Bayesian modelling converge with previous results in revealing that probability weighting parameters show considerable task dependency and individual differences. Methodologically, this work exemplifies the usefulness of hierarchical Bayesian modelling techniques for cognitive psychology. Theoretically, human probabilistic inference might be best described as the application of individualized strategic policies for Bayesian belief revision.

  13. A systematic model identification method for chemical transformation pathways – the case of heroin biomarkers in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Valverde Pérez, Borja; Polesel, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a novel statistical approach for identifying sequenced chemical transformation pathways in combination with reaction kinetics models. The proposed method relies on sound uncertainty propagation by considering parameter ranges and associated probability distribution obtained...... at any given transformation pathway levels as priors for parameter estimation at any subsequent transformation levels. The method was applied to calibrate a model predicting the transformation in untreated wastewater of six biomarkers, excreted following human metabolism of heroin and codeine. The method....... Results obtained suggest that the method developed has the potential to outperform conventional approaches in terms of prediction accuracy, transformation pathway identification and parameter identifiability. This method can be used in conjunction with optimal experimental designs to effectively identify...

  14. The levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijuan; Lv, Dezhao; Zhou, Wu; Ji, Lili; Zhou, Beibei; Chen, Han; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; He, Jincai

    2017-04-01

    The serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels have been reported altered in the traditional drug-dependence (such as marijuana and heroin). However, studies assessing the relationships among serum TC, TG, and methamphetamine (MA)-dependence have not been described well. In this study, our aim is to explore the serum TG and TC levels in large sample of MA-dependent patients. A retrospective study was conducted in 938 MA-dependent patients who were recruited between February 2, 2008 and March 11, 2013, with social characteristics and drug-dependence history (duration of MA use, routes of drug administration, and daily dose were collected). Then, the serum levels of TC, TG, glucose (GLU), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were measured among the participants. Meanwhile, 985 age- and gender-matched healthy people in the physical examination center were selected as control group. Compared with the control group, significant decreases of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI were observed in MA-dependent patients (P < 0.05). Besides, we found that the daily dose of MA use was associated with TC (β = -0.079, P = 0.015) and the duration of MA use was independently related to BMI (β = -0.071, P = 0.031). This study demonstrated that the levels of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI factors altered in the MA-dependent patients. In addition, there is a negative association between MA dependence and TC and BMI.

  15. Electrophoretic Profile of Albumin, α1, α2, β and γ Globulin in Sera of Opioid Dependants and Non-dependants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koros Div-salaar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Div-salaar K1, Saravani R2, Shamsi-e-meimandi M3, Taei M4, Sheikholeslami A5 1. MSc. Staff member of Neurology Sciences Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences 2. Instructor, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Neurology Sciences Research Center, Karman University of Medical Sciences 4. Researcher, Neurology Sciences Research Center, Karman University of Medical Sciences 5. B.Sc in Environmental Hygiene, Kerman University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: The prevalence rate of opioids consumption is high in Iran. The latest research approach related to substance abuse considers the role of plasma proteins in novel treatments of addiction. Since long-term consumption of opioids has some effects on liver function and plasma transfer systems, the present study was designed to determine the electrophoretic profile of plasma proteins in opiates-addict subjects. Materials and methods: In this cross-control study, the sample groups consisted of 42 opium consumers and 35 heroine dependents as case group and 35 non-addict volunteers as control group. The control group was matched with addicts for age and sex. Opioid consumption was confirmed by laboratory diagnostic tests on urine samples such as immunochromatography (RSA, rapidosis and complementary tests including liquid-solid column chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC. After blood collection and serum preparation, serum electrophoresis was performed. Data were presented as mean±SEM and analyzed by SPSS ver.11.5. The comparison of groups was done by using parametric tests and p<0.01 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in the amounts of albumin, alpha-1-globulin, alpha-2-globulin and beta-globulin between groups. Gamma-globulin concentration was not significantly different between

  16. Pituitary-Gonadal Axis Hormone and Semen Analysis in Narcotic Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Assaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse is associated with numerous complications including hormonal disorders of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenic disorders. We have compared the hormone concentration of pituitary-gonadal axis and the semen analysis in opioid-dependent and non-opioid-dependent men.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, serum concentration of pituitary- gonadal axis hormones and semen analysis in 48 opioid-dependent men as eligible to participate in the study were compared with those in 12 non-dependent men.Results: Free testosterone concentration in all test groups was significantly less than that in control group. Furthermore, the concentration of Dihydrotestosterone (DHT and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS in all test groups except those addicted to heroin was less than in those in control group. Concentrations of LH, FSH, prolactin, SHBG, progesterone and estradiol, normal and abnormal sperm count in test groups were significantly different from control group. However, in all test groups, sperm motility rate was less than control group. No significant relationship was found between the concentration of sex hormones and the status of sperms motility. Conclusion: Chronic use of opioids will affect testosterone hormone and sperm, and it will cause hypogonadism and impairment of sperm motility.

  17. Evaluating the efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in reducing susceptibility in methamphetamine-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Amiri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (abuse have gained popularity among youth and is increasingly become a part of mainstream culture. Methamphetamine(abuse is dangerous because of its wide range adverse outcomes and hazardous sustaining side effects. Its dependence is hardly withdrawn by routine therapeutic methods. This study is devoted to evaluate the efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in outpatient methamphetamine-dependent individuals. 24 individuals were chosen according to inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study and randomly assigned to equal experimental (age range 19-41; mean age: 46.9 and control groups (age range: 21-42; mean age: 27.8. Experimental group members partook Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model once a week in 12 consecutive weeks, while control group members remained at waitlist. Independent t-test in 12th week showed that experimental group had lower methamphetamine use, comparing to control group (p<.05.Phillai’s Trace, Wilk’s Lambda, HotellingLawley's trace, and Roy's largest root showed that there are significant association between experimental and control groups in reduction of methamphetamine-use lapse (p<.05.Within-subject F ratio revealed that “methamphetamine use” was significantly reduced in experimental group after clinical intervention (p<.001. Findings of the study indicate the efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in craving management and control as well as reduction of lapse and substance (abuse in methamphetamine-dependent patients. It appears that the Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model would be a new reliable solution to treat methamphetamine-dependence in Iran and other alike cultural and social atmospheres. Limitations and future implications are discussed.

  18. Individual and Network Correlates of Antisocial Personality Disorder Among Rural Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel V; Young, April M; Mullins, Ursula L; Havens, Jennifer R

    2017-04-01

    Examination of the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with substance use and HIV risk behaviors within the social networks of rural people who use drugs. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to assess substance use, HIV risk behavior, and social network characteristics of drug users (n = 503) living in rural Appalachia. The MINI International Psychiatric Interview was used to determine whether participants met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD and Axis-I psychological comorbidities (eg, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder). Participants were also tested for herpes simplex 2, hepatitis C, and HIV. Multivariate generalized linear mixed modeling was used to determine the association between ASPD and risk behaviors, substance use, and social network characteristics. Approximately one-third (31%) of participants met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD. In multivariate analysis, distrust and conflict within an individual's social networks, as well as past 30-day use of heroin and crack, male gender, younger age, lesser education, heterosexual orientation, and comorbid MDD were associated with meeting diagnostic criteria for ASPD. Participants meeting criteria for ASPD were more likely to report recent heroin and crack use, which are far less common drugs of abuse in this population in which the predominant drug of abuse is prescription opioids. Greater discord within relationships was also identified among those with ASPD symptomatology. Given the elevated risk for blood-borne infection (eg, HIV) and other negative social and health consequences conferred by this high-risk subgroup, exploration of tailored network-based interventions with mental health assessment is recommended. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Molecular Imaging on the Cerebral Pathological Damage Target of Ketamine Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Hong-jie1,2;HU Shu1;JIA Shao-wei1;GAO Zhou1;WANG Tong3;ZHAO Zheng-qin1

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the cerebral pathological damage target which result from abusing ketamine through molecular imaging techniques, 20 cases of ketamine dependent patients looking for treatment at the Peking University Shenzhen Hospital and 31 healthy volunteers were included in this study, all of them got brain SPECT DAT imaging. The results were analyzed by SPSS 16.0. The bilateral caudate nucleus and putamen of healthy volunteers were roughly equally large, and the radioactive distribution of DAT in healthy volunteers were uniform and symmetrical. The bilateral corpora striatum showed typical “panda eyes” pattern. But the bilateral corpora striatum of ketamine dependent patients got smaller in shape, got disorders in pattern, and the radioactive distribution of DAT reduced or defected or even got disturbance and with much more non-specific radioactive. The V, m and Ra of bilateral corpora striatum in ketamine dependent patients were (21.03±3.15) cm3, (22.08±3.31) g and (5.37±1.08) %, respectively, which were significantly lower than the healthy volunteers (p<0.01. The cerebral pathological damage target which resulted from abusing ketamine was similar to those of compound codeine phosphate antitussive solution dependence, heroin dependence and MDMA dependence, all of these psychoactive substances damaged the function of DAT.

  20. Decisions during Negatively-Framed Messages Yield Smaller Risk-Aversion-Related Brain Activation in Substance-Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Rena; Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2012-01-01

    A sizable segment of addiction research investigates the effects of persuasive message appeals on risky and deleterious behaviors. However, to date, little research has examined how various forms of message framing and corresponding behavioral choices might by mediated by risk-related brain regions. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain regions hypothesized to mediate the influence of message appeals on decision making in substance-dependent (SD) compared to non-substance-dependent (non-SD) individuals. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was modified to include positively-framed, negatively-framed, and control messages about long-term deck payoffs. In the positively-framed condition, the SD and non-SD groups showed improved decision-making performance that corresponded to higher risk-aversion-related brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula (AI). In contrast, in the negatively-framed condition, the SD group showed poorer performance that corresponded to lower risk-aversion-related brain activity in the AI region. In addition, only the non-SD group showed a positive association between decision quality and greater risk-related activity in the ACC, regardless of message type. The findings suggest substance-dependent individuals may have reduced neurocognitive sensitivity in the ACC and AI regions involved in risk perception and aversion during decision-making, especially in response to framed messages that emphasize reduced prospects for long-term gains. PMID:23148798

  1. How asymmetrical task dependence and task interdependence interact:an individual level study into the effects on affective reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Simon B. De; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This study investigates whether research and practice on task design and work teams could benefit from a more nuanced perspective on task (inter)dependencies among team members. Prior research often overlooked that task interdependence captures the average exchange of resources, while asymmetrical task dependence captures the inequalities within an individual's work relationships. To date, no study on work teams has combined the two aspects. Design/methodology/approach – Data was ob...

  2. Biomarkers for Success: Using Neuroimaging to Predict Relapse and Develop Brain Stimulation Treatments for Cocaine-Dependent Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, C A; Dowdle, L T; Jones, J L

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is one of the most difficult substance use disorders to treat. While the powerful effects of cocaine use on behavior were documented in the 19th century, it was not until the late 20th century that we realized cocaine use was affecting brain tissue and function. Following a brief introduction (Section 1), this chapter will summarize our current knowledge regarding alterations in neural circuit function typically observed in chronic cocaine users (Section 2) and highlight an emerging body of literature which suggests that pretreatment limbic circuit activity may be a reliable predictor of clinical outcomes among individuals seeking treatment for cocaine (Section 3). Finally, as the field of addiction research strives to translate this neuroimaging data into something clinically meaningful, we will highlight several new brain stimulation approaches which utilize functional brain imaging data to design noninvasive brain stimulation interventions for individuals seeking treatment for substance dependence disorders (Section 4). © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological and physiological stress negatively impacts early engagement and retention of opioid-dependent individuals on methadone maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Kellie M; Sterling, Robert C; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether psychological and/or physiological measures of stress would impede induction onto methadone maintenance and predict early (scale (PSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder checklist (PCLC); 60% exhibited abnormal cortisol. Addiction severity index (ASI), drug-use, and stress indices explained between 17 and 37% of the variance in engagement including attendance, opioid abstinence, and methadone stabilization. Participants who discontinued treatment displayed poor engagement, abnormal cortisol, elevated withdrawal symptoms, higher distress, and increased ongoing opioid use versus compliant individuals. Discontinuation was initially related to drug-use severity; however, by 6 months, retention depended primarily upon cortisol abnormalities, which increased an individual's discontinuation risk by 7.7-fold. These findings support admission screening with the ASI/cortisol for drop out, and stress/drug-use indices for engagement that together may enable clinically-relevant early recognition and interventions for prevention of stress-induced relapse in opioid-dependent populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex work involvement among women with long-term opioid injection drug dependence who enter opioid agonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Kirsten; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Guh, Daphne; Marsh, David C; Brissette, Suzanne; Schechter, Martin T

    2012-01-25

    Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone) has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Survival sex work, very common among injection drug users, has been associated with poor Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT) engagement, retention and response. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine factors associated with engaging in sex work among long-term opioid dependent women receiving OAT. Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI), conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada) between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone to injectable diacetylmorphine or injectable hydromorphone, the last two on a double blind basis, over 12 months. A research team, independent of the clinic services, obtained outcome evaluations at baseline and follow-up (3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months). A total 53.6% of women reported engaging in sex work in at least one of the research visits. At treatment initiation, women who were younger and had fewer years of education were more likely to be engaged in sex work. The multivariate logistic generalized estimating equation regression analysis determined that psychological symptoms, and high illicit heroin and cocaine use correlated with women's involvement in sex work during the study period. After entering OAT, women using injection drugs and engaging in sex work represent a particularly vulnerable group showing poorer psychological health and a higher use of heroin and cocaine compared to women not engaging in sex work. These factors must be taken into consideration in the planning and provision of OAT in order to improve treatment outcomes. NCT00175357.

  5. Sex work involvement among women with long-term opioid injection drug dependence who enter opioid agonist treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchand Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Survival sex work, very common among injection drug users, has been associated with poor Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT engagement, retention and response. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine factors associated with engaging in sex work among long-term opioid dependent women receiving OAT. Methods Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI, conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone to injectable diacetylmorphine or injectable hydromorphone, the last two on a double blind basis, over 12 months. A research team, independent of the clinic services, obtained outcome evaluations at baseline and follow-up (3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Results A total 53.6% of women reported engaging in sex work in at least one of the research visits. At treatment initiation, women who were younger and had fewer years of education were more likely to be engaged in sex work. The multivariate logistic generalized estimating equation regression analysis determined that psychological symptoms, and high illicit heroin and cocaine use correlated with women's involvement in sex work during the study period. Conclusions After entering OAT, women using injection drugs and engaging in sex work represent a particularly vulnerable group showing poorer psychological health and a higher use of heroin and cocaine compared to women not engaging in sex work. These factors must be taken into consideration in the planning and provision of OAT in order to improve treatment outcomes. Trial Registration NCT00175357.

  6. 海洛因依赖者《美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册(第四版)》轴Ⅰ障碍的终身患病情况分析%Axis Ⅰ comorbidity of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders among heroin-dependent patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅; 廖艳辉; 王强; 王红; Vasish Kavi; 刘铁桥; 郝伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide lifetime rates of axis Ⅰ conorbidities of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) among patients with heroin dependence.Methods A cross-section study was conducted.Subjects were 1002 heroin-dependent patients who were consecutively admitted into three drug rehabilitation settings in Hunan province.A questionnaire was developed to get demographic and drug use-related information of the subjects.Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis Ⅰ Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P) was used for making lifetime DSM-Ⅳ axis Ⅰ diagnoses.Results Among the subjects,mood disorder was the most common type of cooccurring axis Ⅰ non-substance use mental disorders (191,19.1%),followed by anxiety disorder (128,12.8%).Major depression (135,13.5%) was the most common diagnosis among co-occurring mood disorders,whereas post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD,81,8.1%) was the most common diagnosis among anxiety disorders.579 (57.8%) subjects had other substance (non-opioid,other than tobacco) use disorders.The most frequent diagnoses of other substance use disorders were sedative-hypnotics use disorder and alcohol use disorder,with lifetime rates of 30.3% (303) and 27.5% (275) respectively,followed by stimulant and hallucinogen use disorder,with a lifetime rate of 14.8% (148) for stimulant use disorder and a lifetime rate of 12.7% (127) for hallucinogen use disorder.Conclusions Co-occurring non-substance use mental disorders and other substance use disorders among heroin-dependent patients in China are highly prevalent,to which great importance should be attached in the process of diagnosis and treatment.%目的 调查我国海洛因依赖者中《美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册(第4版)》(DSM-Ⅳ)轴Ⅰ精神障碍和其他物质使用障碍的终身患病情况.方法 对湖南省3家戒毒机构的1002

  7. Decisions during negatively-framed messages yield smaller risk-aversion-related brain activation in substance-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Rena; Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R; Brown, Joshua W

    2013-12-01

    A sizable segment of addiction research investigates the effects of persuasive message appeals on risky and deleterious behaviors. However, to date, little research has examined how various forms of message framing and corresponding behavioral choices might by mediated by risk-related brain regions. Using event-related functional MRI, we investigated brain regions hypothesized to mediate the influence of message appeals on decision making in substance-dependent (SD) compared with nonsubstance-dependent (non-SD) individuals. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was modified to include positively-framed, negatively-framed, and control messages about long-term deck payoffs. In the positively-framed condition, the SD and non-SD groups showed improved decision-making performance that corresponded to higher risk-aversion-related brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula (AI). In contrast, in the negatively-framed condition, the SD group showed poorer performance that corresponded to lower risk-aversion-related brain activity in the AI region. In addition, only the non-SD group showed a positive association between decision quality and greater risk-related activity in the ACC, regardless of message type. The findings suggest substance-dependent individuals may have reduced neurocognitive sensitivity in the ACC and AI regions involved in risk perception and aversion during decision-making, especially in response to framed messages that emphasize reduced prospects for long-term gains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation Among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P; Bernstein, Steven L; Williams, Jill M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. Participants (N = 116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals. We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, a technique commonly used for studies with small sample sizes and large number of predictors, to develop models predicting having a smoking cessation goal, among those currently smoking daily, and ever making a quit attempt, among those who ever smoked. Almost all participants reported ever smoking (n = 115, 99%); 70% (n = 80) had made a serious quit attempt in the past; 89% (n = 103) reported current daily smoking; and 59% (n = 61) had a goal of quitting smoking and staying off cigarettes. Almost all (n = 112, 97%) had clinically significant characteristics of a psychiatric or personality disorder. White race, anxiety, and a negativistic personality facet (expressively resentful) were negative predictors of having a cessation goal. Overall, narcissistic personality pattern and a dependent personality facet (interpersonally submissive) were positive predictors of having a cessation goal. Somatoform disorder, overall borderline personality pattern, and a depressive personality facet (cognitively fatalistic) were negative predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Individual histrionic (gregarious self-image), antisocial (acting out mechanism), paranoid (expressively defensive), and sadistic (pernicious representations) personality disorder facets were positive predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Each model provided good discrimination for having a smoking cessation goal or not (C-statistic of .76, 95% CI [0.66, 0.85]) and ever making a quit

  9. Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. Methods Participants (N=116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals. We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, a technique commonly used for studies with small sample sizes and large number of predictors, to develop models predicting having a smoking cessation goal, among those currently smoking daily, and ever making a quit attempt, among those who ever smoked. Results Almost all participants reported ever smoking (n = 115, 99%); 70% (n = 80) had made a serious quit attempt in the past; 89% (n = 103) reported current daily smoking; and, 59% (n = 61) had a goal of quitting smoking and staying off cigarettes. Almost all (n = 112, 97%) had clinically significant characteristics of a psychiatric or personality disorder. White race, anxiety, and a negativistic personality facet (expressively resentful) were negative predictors of having a cessation goal. Overall narcissistic personality pattern and a dependent personality facet (interpersonally submissive) were positive predictors of having a cessation goal. Somatoform disorder, overall borderline personality pattern, and a depressive personality facet (cognitively fatalistic) were negative predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Individual histrionic (gregarious self-image), antisocial (acting out mechanism), paranoid (expressively defensive), and sadistic (pernicious representations) personality disorder facets were positive predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Each model provided good discrimination for having a smoking cessation goal or not (C-statistic of .76, 95% CI[0.66, 0

  10. Heroin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment to quit. Or contact: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (800) 622-2255 Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator (800) 662-4357 More information National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Last reviewed: July, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  11. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2013-10-13

    A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.

  12. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Fitzgerald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.

  13. The status of personality disorder and the relationship with childhood trauma in heroin addicts%海洛因依赖者人格障碍现状及与童年创伤经历的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦建平; 苑光宗; 李君

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨海洛因依赖人群人格障碍现状及其与童年期创伤经历的关系。方法采用人格障碍问卷-4+和童年期创伤性经历问卷简版对108例海洛因依赖患者进行调查。结果海洛因依赖与12种人格障碍的共病率在47.2%~10.2%之间,其中阳性检出率较高的为边缘型(47.2%)和反社会型(38.0%),最低者为抑郁型(10.2%);人格障碍各分量表得分均值最高者为边缘型(4.63±2.16),最低者为表演型(2.65±1.49),均明显高于全国常模,差异均有统计学意义(t =13.54、2.57,均 P <0.05)。边缘型、反社会型人格障碍与童年期创伤经历的5各因子之间均有显著正相关关系(r =0.265、0.390、0.207、0.303、0.276;0.225、0.219、0.228、0.236、0.287,均 P <0.05),此外,抑郁型人格障碍与躯体虐待、情感忽视以及躯体忽视呈显著正相关(r =0.226、0.227、0.196,均 P <0.05)。结论海洛因依赖者与人格障碍存在一定的共病率,边缘型和反社会型人格障碍阳性率较高,童年期创伤经历与人格障碍特别是边缘型、反社会型及抑郁型人格障碍具有一定的相关性。%Objective To investigate the status of personality disorder and the relationship with childhood trauma in heroin addicts.Methods 108 heroin dependent patients were investigated by Personality Disorder Ques-tionnaire -4 +(PDQ -4 +)and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire -Short From (CTQ -SF).Results The comor-bidity rate of heroin dependence and personality disorder was between 47.2% and 10.2%,which had a higher posi-tive rate of for borderline (47.2%)and antisocial (38.0%)personality disorder and the lowest for depression (10.2%).The borderline personality disorder score was highest[(4.63 ±2.16)points]and the lowest was histrionic personality disorder [(2.65 ±1.49)points]in 12 subscales,which were

  14. The Predictive Role of Difficulties in Emotion Regulation and Self-Control with Susceptibility to Addiction in Drug-Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Shirazi; Monavar Janfaza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to examine the predictive role of difficulties in emotion regulation and self-control in potential for addiction among drug-dependent individuals. Method: This was a correlational study which falls within the category of descriptive studies. The statistical population of the current study included all patients under treatment in outpatient health centers in Bam, among whom 315 individuals were selected through cluster sampling method as the participants of t...

  15. Does naltrexone affect craving in abstinent opioid-dependent patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Bluschke, S.M.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2007-01-01

    Naltrexone blocks the opioid receptors that modulate the release of dopamine in the brain reward system and therefore blocks the rewarding effects of heroin and alcohol. It is generally assumed that naltrexone leads to reduction of craving, but few studies have been performed to prove this. The

  16. Acute, low-dose methamphetamine administration improves attention/information processing speed and working memory in methamphetamine-dependent individuals displaying poorer cognitive performance at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James J; Jackson, Brian J; Kalechstein, Ari D; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2011-03-30

    Abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) dependent individuals demonstrate poorer performance on tests sensitive to attention/information processing speed, learning and memory, and working memory when compared to non-Meth dependent individuals. The poorer performance on these tests may contribute to the morbidity associated with Meth-dependence. In light of this, we sought to determine the effects of acute, low-dose Meth administration on attention, working memory, and verbal learning and memory in 19 non-treatment seeking, Meth-dependent individuals. Participants were predominantly male (89%), Caucasian (63%), and cigarette smokers (63%). Following a four day, drug-free washout period, participants were given a single-blind intravenous infusion of saline, followed the next day by 30 mg of Meth. A battery of neurocognitive tasks was administered before and after each infusion, and performance on measures of accuracy and reaction time were compared between conditions. While acute Meth exposure did not affect test performance for the entire sample, participants who demonstrated relatively poor performance on these tests at baseline, identified using a median split on each test, showed significant improvement on measures of attention/information processing speed and working memory when administered Meth. Improved performance was seen on the following measures of working memory: choice reaction time task (p≤0.04), a 1-back task (p≤0.01), and a 2-back task (p≤0.04). In addition, those participants demonstrating high neurocognitive performance at baseline experienced similar or decreased performance following Meth exposure. These findings suggest that acute administration of Meth may temporarily improve Meth-associated neurocognitive performance in those individuals experiencing lower cognitive performance at baseline. As a result, stimulants may serve as a successful treatment for improving cognitive functioning in those Meth-dependent individuals experiencing

  17. Working together versus working autonomously: a new power-dependence perspective on the individual-level of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Simon B

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that it is important to investigate the interaction between task interdependence and task autonomy because this interaction can affect team effectiveness. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted and those studies focused solely on the team level of analysis. Moreover, there has also been a dearth of theoretical development. Therefore, this study develops and tests an alternative theoretical perspective in an attempt to understand if, and if so why, this interaction is important at the individual level of analysis. Based on interdependence theory and power-dependence theory, we expected that highly task-interdependent individuals who reported high task autonomy would be more powerful and better performers. In contrast, we expected that similarly high task-interdependent individuals who reported less task autonomy would be less powerful and would be weaker performers. These expectations were supported by multi-level and bootstrapping analyses performed on a multi-source dataset (self-, peer-, manager-ratings) comprised of 182 employees drawn from 37 teams. More specifically, the interaction between task interdependence and task autonomy was γ =.128, p power and γ =.166, p <.05 for individual performance. The 95% bootstrap interval ranged from .0038 to .0686.

  18. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project: An open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCTN07752728

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheard Laura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heroin is a synthetic opioid with an extensive illicit market leading to large numbers of people becoming addicted. Heroin users often present to community treatment services requesting detoxification and in the UK various agents are used to control symptoms of withdrawal. Dissatisfaction with methadone detoxification 8 has lead to the use of clonidine, lofexidine, buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine; however, there remains limited evaluative research. In Leeds, a city of 700,000 people in the North of England, dihydrocodeine is the detoxification agent of choice. Sublingual buprenorphine, however, is being introduced. The comparative value of these two drugs for helping people successfully and comfortably withdraw from heroin has never been compared in a randomised trial. Additionally, there is a paucity of research evaluating interventions among drug users in the primary care setting. This study seeks to address this by randomising drug users presenting in primary care to receive either dihydrocodeine or buprenorphine. Methods/design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project is a pragmatic randomised trial which will compare the open use of buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for illicit opiate detoxification, in the UK primary care setting. The LEEDS project will involve consenting adults and will be run in specialist general practice surgeries throughout Leeds. The primary outcome will be the results of a urine opiate screening at the end of the detoxification regimen. Adverse effects and limited data to three and six months will be acquired.

  19. Effectiveness of Gross Model-Based Emotion Regulation Strategies Training on Anger Reduction in Drug-Dependent Individuals and its Sustainability in Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massah, Omid; Sohrabi, Faramarz; A'azami, Yousef; Doostian, Younes; Farhoudian, Ali; Daneshmand, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Emotion plays an important role in adapting to life changes and stressful events. Difficulty regulating emotions is one of the problems drug abusers often face, and teaching these individuals to express and manage their emotions can be effective on improving their difficult circumstances. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Gross model-based emotion regulation strategies training on anger reduction in drug-dependent individuals. The present study had a quasi-experimental design wherein pretest-posttest evaluations were applied using a control group. The population under study included addicts attending Marivan's methadone maintenance therapy centers in 2012 - 2013. Convenience sampling was used to select 30 substance-dependent individuals undergoing maintenance treatment who were then randomly assigned to the experiment and control groups. The experiment group received its training in eight two-hour sessions. Data were analyzed using analysis of co-variance and paired t-test. There was significant reduction in anger symptoms of drug-dependent individuals after gross model based emotion regulation training (ERT) (P emotion regulation strategies training. Based on the results of this study, we may conclude that the gross model based emotion regulation strategies training can be applied alongside other therapies to treat drug abusers undergoing rehabilitation.

  20. THE PROFILE OF OPIOID–DEPENDENT PATIENTS REFERRED TO SEMBADA HOSPITAL, MEDAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DATTEN BANGUN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug dependence has become a real concern among parents in Indonesia and is now a national, as well as global health problem. The objectives of this study were to find out the profile of opioid-dependent patients referred to Sembada Hospital, Medan, North Sumatera Indonesia for treatment. Patients were interviewed when they were sober, using questionnaires. There were 45 participants, mostly below 30 years old, male, and not well educated and single or divorced. Almost all of them (95.6% had a smoking habit, which started at an early age. Most of the participants were either the eldest child (24.4% or the youngest child (35.6% in the family. Their first illicit drug was mostly marijuana (66.7%, which they started using before the age of 20 years. Polysubstance use was common. It was usually a combination of opioids, tobacco, cannabis and amphetamine. They used opioid by injection (heroin injecting drug user and out of 22 participants who agreed to a blood test, 20 were positive for hepatitis C. Many had been previously involved in various crimes.

  1. The Effect of Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on A Throwing Task Depends on Individual Level of Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Katayama, Takashi; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2018-02-10

    The effect of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor performance remains controversial. Some studies suggest that the effect of tDCS depends upon task-difficulty and individual level of task performance. Here, we investigated whether the effect of cerebellar tDCS on the motor performance depends upon the individual's level of performance. Twenty-four naïve participants practiced dart throwing while receiving a 2-mA cerebellar tDCS for 20 min under three stimulus conditions (anodal-, cathodal-, and sham-tDCS) on separate days with a double-blind, counter-balanced cross-over design. Task performance was assessed by measuring the distance between the center of the bull's eye and the dart's position. Although task performance tended to improve throughout the practice under all stimulus conditions, improvement within a given day was not significant as compared to the first no-stimulus block. In addition, improvement did not differ among stimulation conditions. However, the magnitude of improvement was associated with an individual's level of task performance only under cathodal tDCS condition (p performance improvement only for the sub-group of participants with lower performance levels as compared to that with sham-tDCS (p task performance. Thus, cerebellar tDCS would facilitate learning of a complex motor skill task only in a subset of individuals. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An evaluation of a heroin overdose prevention and education campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Higgs, Peter; Lewis, Jennifer; Winter, Rebecca; Dietze, Paul; Aitken, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Following detection of an upward trend in the frequency of fatal heroin overdoses in Victoria between 2001 and 2003, Victoria's Department of Human Services planned a campaign aimed at increasing injecting drug users' (IDU) awareness of overdose risks and prevention strategies. Stickers, wallet cards and posters featuring five key messages were distributed via needle and syringe programs (NSP) and other drug and alcohol services between November 2005 and April 2006. An evaluation of the campaign was commissioned to be conducted in late 2006. The evaluation consisted of analysis of three independent data sets--quantitative data collected from IDU during the campaign period (n = 855 at baseline; and a range of 146-656 at follow up); qualitative interviews with IDU who were NSP clients during the campaign period (n = 16) and qualitative interviews with NSP staff and other key stakeholders (n = 9). While key experts felt that the campaign messages had engendered lasting impact for at least some IDU, these positive impressions were not borne out by the NSP client data, with less than one quarter of all campaign messages being mentioned by a significantly higher proportion of clients during the post-campaign period compared with baseline. Key experts perceived the greatest weakness of the campaign to be the delay between issue identification and the introduction of campaign materials. While IDU are generally responsive to health promotion campaigns, future initiatives in this domain should be designed and implemented rapidly and in ways that are sufficiently flexible to cope with shifts in drug markets which could influence the reception of key messages.

  3. Cannabinoid and opioid interactions: implications for opiate dependence and withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, J L; Sterling, R C; Van Bockstaele, E J

    2013-09-17

    Withdrawal from opiates, such as heroin or oral narcotics, is characterized by a host of aversive physical and emotional symptoms. High rates of relapse and limited treatment success rates for opiate addiction have prompted a search for new approaches. For many opiate addicts, achieving abstinence may be further complicated by poly-drug use and co-morbid mental disorders. Research over the past decade has shed light on the influence of endocannabinoids (ECs) on the opioid system. Evidence from both animal and clinical studies point toward an interaction between these two systems, and suggest that targeting the EC system may provide novel interventions for managing opiate dependence and withdrawal. This review will summarize the literature surrounding the molecular effects of cannabinoids and opioids on the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, a key circuit implicated in the negative sequelae of opiate addiction. A consideration of the trends and effects of marijuana use in those seeking treatment to abstain from opiates in the clinical setting will also be presented. In summary, the present review details how cannabinoid-opioid interactions may inform novel interventions in the management of opiate dependence and withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Linking individual phenotype to density-dependent population growth: the influence of body size on the population dynamics of malaria vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tanya L.; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Knols, Bart G. J.; Takken, Willem; Killeen, Gerry F.; Ferguson, Heather M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the endogenous factors that drive the population dynamics of malaria mosquitoes will facilitate more accurate predictions about vector control effectiveness and our ability to destabilize the growth of either low- or high-density insect populations. We assessed whether variation in phenotypic traits predict the dynamics of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes, the most important vectors of human malaria. Anopheles gambiae dynamics were monitored over a six-month period of seasonal growth and decline. The population exhibited density-dependent feedback, with the carrying capacity being modified by rainfall (97% wAICc support). The individual phenotypic expression of the maternal (p = 0.0001) and current (p = 0.040) body size positively influenced population growth. Our field-based evidence uniquely demonstrates that individual fitness can have population-level impacts and, furthermore, can mitigate the impact of exogenous drivers (e.g. rainfall) in species whose reproduction depends upon it. Once frontline interventions have suppressed mosquito densities, attempts to eliminate malaria with supplementary vector control tools may be attenuated by increased population growth and individual fitness. PMID:21389034

  5. Relapse and craving in alcohol-dependent individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mheen, H,; Snelleman, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Negative affective states and alcohol-related stimuli increase risk of relapse in alcohol dependence. In research and in clinical practice, craving is often used as another important indicator of relapse, but this lacks a firm empirical foundation. Objectives: The goal of the present

  6. Cingulate cortex functional connectivity predicts future relapse in alcohol dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Zakiniaeiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing illness. Alcohol and stress cues have consistently been shown to increase craving and relapse risk in recovering alcohol dependent (AUD patients. However, differences in functional connectivity in response to these cues have not been studied using data-driven approaches. Here, voxel-wise connectivity is used in a whole-brain investigation of functional connectivity differences associated with alcohol and stress cues and to examine whether these differences are related to subsequent relapse. In Study 1, 45, 4- to 8-week abstinent, recovering AUD patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during individualized imagery of alcohol, stress, and neutral cues. Relapse measures were collected prospectively for 90 days post-discharge from inpatient treatment. AUD patients showed blunted anterior (ACC, mid (MCC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, voxel-wise connectivity responses to stress compared to neutral cues and blunted PCC response to alcohol compared to neutral cues. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, weaker connectivity in ACC and MCC during neutral exposure was associated with longer time to relapse (better recovery outcome. Similarly, greater connectivity in PCC during alcohol-cue compared to stress cue was associated with longer time to relapse. In Study 2, a sub-group of 30 AUD patients were demographically-matched to 30 healthy control (HC participants for group comparisons. AUD compared to HC participants showed reduced cingulate connectivity during alcohol and stress cues. Using novel data-driven approaches, the cingulate cortex emerged as a key region in the disruption of functional connectivity during alcohol and stress-cue processing in AUD patients and as a marker of subsequent alcohol relapse.

  7. Correlation between perception of quality of life and social/demographic/medical variables as well as anti-health behaviours among alcohol-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The level of life quality of people with alcohol dependence is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as: gender, marital status and having a family. Additionally promoting anti-health behaviors such as smoking or using psychoactive substances among those with alcohol dependence also reduces the quality of life in this population. Aim of the research: The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of selected psycho-social and medical factors on the quality of life in alcohol-dependent patients in relation to the duration of abstinence. Study data served to determine whether there is a correlation between the presence of selected psycho-social and medical factors and a patient’s subjective perception of his/her quality of life. Material and methods: The study involved alcohol-dependent patients undergoing treatment in the Residential Alcohol Addiction Therapy Department of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lublin. In the first stage of the study, the severity of the alcohol problem was assessed with the MAST and CAGE tests and quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. An Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. In the second stage of the study, the SF-36 scale was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. Results : The socio-economic factors that had a statistically significant impact on the quality of life of the alcohol-dependent individuals comprised sex, marital status and having a family. Marital status was shown to be one of the most important family-related factors significantly influencing the quality of life. Having a family was not a factor associated with subjective improvement of the quality of life during abstinence for alcohol-dependent individuals. Awareness of socio-economic and medical factors influencing quality of life in individuals addicted to alcohol and gambling is an important

  8. Perceived stigma and social support in treatment for pharmaceutical opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sasha; Campbell, Gabrielle; Larance, Briony; Murnion, Bridin; Nielsen, Suzanne

    2018-02-01

    The dramatic increase in pharmaceutical opioid (PO) use in high-income countries is a growing public health concern. Stigma and social support are important as they may influence treatment uptake and outcomes, yet few studies exist regarding perceived stigma and social support among people with PO dependence. The aims of the study are to: (i) compare characteristics of those with PO dependence from iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic causes; (ii) document perceived stigma and its correlates in people in treatment for PO dependence; and (iii) examine correlates of social support in people in treatment for PO dependence. This prospective cohort study included (n = 108) PO-dependent people referred from treatment services. Telephone interviews were conducted at baseline, 3, 12 and 24 months. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine correlations. Mean age was 41 (SD = 10.5). Half (n = 56, 52%) were female. Two in five met the criteria for iatrogenic dependence (n = 41, 38%), with iatrogenic dependence associated with chronic pain, and no history of injection or heroin use. One quarter of study subjects reported past month unsanctioned opioid use (n = 25, 23%). Being married/de facto or female was associated with higher levels of perceived stigma. Unsanctioned opioid use, iatrogenic dependence and mental health conditions were associated with lower social support. Stigma affects all people in treatment. Those who are married/de facto and female may benefit from interventions to address stigma. The association of low social support with poorer mental health and ongoing substance use indicate that treatment could focus more on this area. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Atomoxetine Does Not Alter Cocaine Use in Cocaine Dependent Individuals: A Double Blind Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Lisa S.; Wong, Conrad J.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Campbell, Charles L.; Rush, Craig R.; Lofwall, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cocaine abuse continues to be a significant public health problem associated with morbidity and mortality. To date, no pharmacotherapeutic approach has proven effective for treating cocaine use disorders. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that noradrenergic activity may play a role in mediating some effects of cocaine and may be a rational target for treatment. Methods This double blind, placebo-controlled randomized, parallel group, 12-week outpatient clinical trial enrolled cocaine dependent individuals seeking treatment to examine the potential efficacy of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine (80 mg/day; p.o.; n=25), compared to placebo (n=25). Subjects were initially stratified on cocaine use (atomoxetine and placebo groups (X2=0.2, p=.66; OR=0.89 [95% CI 0.41 – 1.74). Atomoxetine was generally well tolerated in this population. Conclusions These data provide no support for the utility of atomoxetine in the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:23200303

  10. Six-month trial of bupropion with contingency management for cocaine dependence in a methadone-maintained population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, James; Oliveto, Alison; Petry, Nancy; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Gonsai, Kishorchandra; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Martell, Bridget; Kosten, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    No effective pharmacotherapies exist for cocaine dependence, although contingency management (CM) has demonstrated efficacy. To compare the efficacy of bupropion hydrochloride and CM for reducing cocaine use in methadone hydrochloride-maintained individuals. This 25-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial randomly assigned participants to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: CM and placebo (CMP), CM and 300 mg/d of bupropion hydrochloride (CMB), voucher control and placebo (VCP), or voucher control and bupropion (VCB). Outpatient clinic at the Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System. A total of 106 opiate-dependent, cocaine-abusing individuals. All study participants received methadone hydrochloride (range, 60-120 mg). Participants receiving bupropion hydrochloride were given 300 mg/d beginning at week 3. In the CM conditions, each urine sample negative for both opioids a