A major QTL controls susceptibility to spinal curvature in the curveback guppy
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Dreyer Christine
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic basis of heritable spinal curvature would benefit medicine and aquaculture. Heritable spinal curvature among otherwise healthy children (i.e. Idiopathic Scoliosis and Scheuermann kyphosis accounts for more than 80% of all spinal curvatures and imposes a substantial healthcare cost through bracing, hospitalizations, surgery, and chronic back pain. In aquaculture, the prevalence of heritable spinal curvature can reach as high as 80% of a stock, and thus imposes a substantial cost through production losses. The genetic basis of heritable spinal curvature is unknown and so the objective of this work is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting heritable spinal curvature in the curveback guppy. Prior work with curveback has demonstrated phenotypic parallels to human idiopathic-type scoliosis, suggesting shared biological pathways for the deformity. Results A major effect QTL that acts in a recessive manner and accounts for curve susceptibility was detected in an initial mapping cross on LG 14. In a second cross, we confirmed this susceptibility locus and fine mapped it to a 5 cM region that explains 82.6% of the total phenotypic variance. Conclusions We identify a major QTL that controls susceptibility to curvature. This locus contains over 100 genes, including MTNR1B, a candidate gene for human idiopathic scoliosis. The identification of genes associated with heritable spinal curvature in the curveback guppy has the potential to elucidate the biological basis of spinal curvature among humans and economically important teleosts.
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Hawes Martha C
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This review summarizes what is known about the pathological processes (e.g. structural and functional changes, by which spinal curvatures develop and evolve into spinal deformities. Methods Comprehensive review of articles (English language only published on 'scoliosis,' whose content yielded data on the pathological changes associated with spinal curvatures. Medline, Science Citation Index and other searches yielded > 10,000 titles each of which was surveyed for content related to 'pathology' and related terms such as 'etiology,' 'inheritance,' 'pathomechanism,' 'signs and symptoms.' Additional resources included all books published on 'scoliosis' and available through the Arizona Health Sciences Library, Interlibrary Loan, or through direct contact with the authors or publishers. Results A lateral curvature of the spine–'scoliosis'–can develop in association with postural imbalance due to genetic defects and injury as well as pain and scarring from trauma or surgery. Irrespective of the factor that triggers its appearance, a sustained postural imbalance can result, over time, in establishment of a state of continuous asymmetric loading relative to the spinal axis. Recent studies support the longstanding hypothesis that spinal deformity results directly from such postural imbalance, irrespective of the primary trigger, because the dynamics of growth within vertebrae are altered by continuous asymmetric mechanical loading. These data suggest that, as long as growth potential remains, evolution of a spinal curvature into a spinal deformity can be prevented by reversing the state of continuous asymmetric loading. Conclusion Spinal curvatures can routinely be diagnosed in early stages, before pathological deformity of the vertebral elements is induced in response to asymmetric loading. Current clinical approaches involve 'watching and waiting' while mild reversible spinal curvatures develop into spinal deformities with
Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.
Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako
2012-07-01
Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Spinal curvatures of children and adolescents – a cross-sectional study
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Grabara Małgorzata
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Study aim: The aim was to assess the spinal curvatures of primary and lower secondary male and female students from Silesia and to identify individual variations that can determine spinal posture.
Quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D: application to CT images of normal spine
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Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2008-04-07
The purpose of this study is to present a framework for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D. In order to study the properties of such complex 3D structures, we propose two descriptors that capture the characteristics of spinal curvature in 3D. The descriptors are the geometric curvature (GC) and curvature angle (CA), which are independent of the orientation and size of spine anatomy. We demonstrate the two descriptors that characterize the spinal curvature in 3D on 30 computed tomography (CT) images of normal spine and on a scoliotic spine. The descriptors are determined from 3D vertebral body lines, which are obtained by two different methods. The first method is based on the least-squares technique that approximates the manually identified vertebra centroids, while the second method searches for vertebra centroids in an automated optimization scheme, based on computer-assisted image analysis. Polynomial functions of the fourth and fifth degree were used for the description of normal and scoliotic spinal curvature in 3D, respectively. The mean distance to vertebra centroids was 1.1 mm ({+-}0.6 mm) for the first and 2.1 mm ({+-}1.4 mm) for the second method. The distributions of GC and CA values were obtained along the 30 images of normal spine at each vertebral level and show that maximal thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TJ) and maximal lumbar lordosis (LL) on average occur at T3/T4, T12/L1 and L4/L5, respectively. The main advantage of GC and CA is that the measurements are independent of the orientation and size of the spine, thus allowing objective intra- and inter-subject comparisons. The positions of maximal TK, TJ and maximal LL can be easily identified by observing the GC and CA distributions at different vertebral levels. The obtained courses of the GC and CA for the scoliotic spine were compared to the distributions of GC and CA for the normal spines. The significant difference in values indicates that the descriptors of GC and
Quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D: application to CT images of normal spine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study is to present a framework for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D. In order to study the properties of such complex 3D structures, we propose two descriptors that capture the characteristics of spinal curvature in 3D. The descriptors are the geometric curvature (GC) and curvature angle (CA), which are independent of the orientation and size of spine anatomy. We demonstrate the two descriptors that characterize the spinal curvature in 3D on 30 computed tomography (CT) images of normal spine and on a scoliotic spine. The descriptors are determined from 3D vertebral body lines, which are obtained by two different methods. The first method is based on the least-squares technique that approximates the manually identified vertebra centroids, while the second method searches for vertebra centroids in an automated optimization scheme, based on computer-assisted image analysis. Polynomial functions of the fourth and fifth degree were used for the description of normal and scoliotic spinal curvature in 3D, respectively. The mean distance to vertebra centroids was 1.1 mm (±0.6 mm) for the first and 2.1 mm (±1.4 mm) for the second method. The distributions of GC and CA values were obtained along the 30 images of normal spine at each vertebral level and show that maximal thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TJ) and maximal lumbar lordosis (LL) on average occur at T3/T4, T12/L1 and L4/L5, respectively. The main advantage of GC and CA is that the measurements are independent of the orientation and size of the spine, thus allowing objective intra- and inter-subject comparisons. The positions of maximal TK, TJ and maximal LL can be easily identified by observing the GC and CA distributions at different vertebral levels. The obtained courses of the GC and CA for the scoliotic spine were compared to the distributions of GC and CA for the normal spines. The significant difference in values indicates that the descriptors of GC and CA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartvigsen, Jan; Nielsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm
2009-01-01
on 15,328 twin individuals (44% monozygotic and 56% dizygotic) from complete twin pairs were included. Genetic susceptibility explained approximately 38% of lumbar pain, 32% of thoracic pain, and 39% of neck pain. For patterns of pain, estimates were 7% for lumbar/thoracic, 24% for lumbar/cervical, 0......% for thoracic/cervical, and 35% for pain in all 3 areas. Moderate to high genetic correlations indicated a common genetic basis for many spinal pain syndromes. In general, heritability was higher for women, and only a minor age effect was seen. CONCLUSION: Heritability estimates for pain in different spinal......OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to different definitions of spinal pain and consequences of spinal pain. METHODS: The Danish Twin Registry contains detailed survey information on spinal pain and its consequences in twins ages 20-71 years...
Cloud, Beth A; Zhao, Kristin D; Breighner, Ryan; Giambini, Hugo; An, Kai-Nan
2014-07-01
Spinal posture affects how individuals function from a manual wheelchair. There is a need to directly quantify spinal posture in this population to ultimately improve function. A fiber optic system, comprised of an attached series of sensors, is promising for measuring large regions of the spine in individuals sitting in a wheelchair. The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement between fiber optic and optoelectronic systems for measuring spinal curvature, and describe the range of sagittal plane spinal curvatures in natural sitting. Able-bodied adults (n = 26, 13 male) participated. Each participant assumed three sitting postures: natural, slouched (accentuated kyphosis), and extension (accentuated lordosis) sitting. Fiber optic (ShapeTape) and optoelectronic (Optotrak) systems were applied to the skin over spinous processes from S1 to C7 and used to measure sagittal plane spinal curvature. Regions of kyphosis and lordosis were identified. A Cobb angle-like method was used to quantify lordosis and kyphosis. Generalized linear model and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess agreement. A strong correlation exists between curvature values obtained with Optotrak and ShapeTape (R(2) = 0.98). The mean difference between Optotrak and ShapeTape for kyphosis in natural, extension, and slouched postures was 4.30° (95% LOA: -3.43 to 12.04°), 3.64° (95% LOA: -1.07 to 8.36°), and 4.02° (95% LOA: -2.80 to 10.84°), respectively. The mean difference for lordosis, when present, in natural and extension postures was 2.86° (95% LOA: -1.18 to 6.90°) and 2.55° (95% LOA: -3.38 to 8.48°), respectively. In natural sitting, the mean ± SD of kyphosis values was 35.07 ± 6.75°. Lordosis was detected in 8/26 participants: 11.72 ± 7.32°. The fiber optic and optoelectronic systems demonstrate acceptable agreement for measuring sagittal plane thoracolumbar spinal curvature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Ameer Mariam Abdul-Moneem
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Increasing anthropometric measures bring considerable spinal loads during sports practice, which inversely affects the adaptation abilities of the spinal structures; this in turn influences the spinal curvatures. The study was conducted to explore the relationship between anthropometric measures and sagittal spinal curvatures in handball players. Method. The total of 83 male handball players were divided into 2 groups, depending on their body height: group 1 (age, 23.62 ± 2.07 years consisted of 40 handball players with height above average, group 2 (age, 24.63 ± 2.58 years consisted of 43 handball players with height below average. The thoracic and lumbar curvatures and trunk height were measured with the Formetric III 4D spine and posture analysis system. Results. The thoracic kyphosis of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 2 (p = 0.038, without a significant difference in lumbar lordosis (p = 0.312, and significant difference in the coefficient of compensation between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis (p = 0.026. Group 1 showed strong positive correlation between body height and kyphotic angle (r = 0.897, and moderate positive correlation with lordosis angle (r = 0.496. In group 2, there was weak positive correlation with kyphotic angle (r = 0.381, and weak negative correlation with lumbar lordosis angle (r = -0.355. Conclusions. Increasing body height of handball players is associated with bigger kyphotic and lordotic angles. Owing to frequent sagittal asymmetric overloading of the spine during handball training, exercises that help maintain good posture and correct the thoracic kyphosis are required, especially for taller players.
de Haan, Seraphine; Reis, Cláudia; Ndlovu, Junior; Serrenho, Catarina; Akhtar, Ifrah; Garcia, José Antonio; Linde, Daniël; Thorskog, Martine; Franco, Loris; Hogg, Peter
2015-01-01
This review aims to identify strategies to optimise radiography practice using digital technologies, for full spine studies on paediatrics focusing particularly on methods used to diagnose and measure severity of spinal curvatures. The literature search was performed on different databases (PubMed,
Effects of athletic training on the spinal curvature in child athletes.
Betsch, Marcel; Furian, Thimm; Quack, Valentin; Rath, Björn; Wild, Michael; Rapp, Walter
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the spinal posture in young athletes depending on training intensity. The spinal curvature of 245 children, age 8 to 12 years, was evaluated using rasterstereography. According to their weekly training time group 1 (mean age: 9.54 ± 1.18) did 2-6, group 2 (mean age: 9.49 ± 0.87) did 6-15 and group 3 (mean age: 9.68 ± 0.87) did over 15 hours of training. Group 1 had a significantly higher weight (p = 0.028) (33.86 ± 7. kg) than those of the more active groups (30.67 ± 6.49 kg and 29.46 ± 4.33 kg). The mean kyphotic angle decreased significantly (p spine.
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Agnieszka Turon-Skrzypinska
2018-04-01
Results: The average work time in the examined group was 57.7 and the control group 6.8 hours per week. The mean values of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis in the examined group were 36.3 and 17.9 degrees, respectively, versus 30.3 and 20.8 in the control group. Age and length of service had an impact on the shaping of the spinal curvatures. Greater value of BMI was associated with deeper thoracic kyphosis, but not with shallower lumbar lordosis. Conclusions: Adverse changes in shaping spinal curvatures progress with increasing age and length of the employment performed in the sitting position. Body mass index and body weight above the normal level contribute to deepening thoracic kyphosis.
Barczyk-Pawelec, Katarzyna; Sipko, Tomasz; Demczuk-Włodarczyk, Ewa; Boczar, Agata
2012-05-01
Playing an instrument often requires a certain posture and asymmetric position that may affect the anteroposterior spinal curvatures and may lead to postural asymmetry. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spinal curvatures in the sagittal plane and the magnitude of asymmetries in the trunk in the frontal plane in a group of music students in comparison with a control group. The group of 67 students aged 20 to 26 years was made up of 2 subgroups: the musicians (violin playing students of the Academy of Music in Wroclaw) and the control group (physical therapy students who played no instruments). The examination included an interview, measuring of somatic characteristics, and evaluation of body posture by means of the photogrammetric method. The spinal curvatures of the instrumentalists in the sagittal plane differ from the control group mainly in terms of length and depth parameters. Compared with the control group, the musicians were characterized by statistically more significantly longer and deeper thoracic kyphosis (P < .01) and more shallow lumbar lordosis (P < .05), a greater angle of thoracic kyphosis (P < .005), and a smaller inclination angle of the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral section of the spine (P < .01). In the group of musicians, the asymmetries in the area of shoulders and waist triangles as well as the distance of the spinous processes from the C7 to S1 line were more frequent. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Muyor, José M; Alacid, Fernando; López-Miñarro, Pedro A
2011-09-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hamstring muscles extensibility in standing, maximal trunk flexion with knees extended and on the bicycle in lower handlebar-hands position of highly trained cyclists. Ninety-six cyclists were recruited for the study (mean ± SD, age: 30.36 ± 5.98 years). Sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt were measured in the standing position, maximal trunk flexion with knees extended (sit-and-reach test) and while sitting on a bicycle in lower handlebar-hand position using a Spinal Mouse system. Hamstring muscles extensibility was determined in both legs by passive straight leg raise test (PSLR). The sample was divided into three groups according to PSLR angle: (1) reduced extensibility (PSLR hamstring extensibility group (PSLR = 80º - 90º; n = 35), and (3) high hamstring extensibility (PSLR = > 90º; n = 31). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences among groups for thoracic (p hamstring muscles extensibility influence the thoracic and pelvic postures when maximal trunk flexion with knees extended is performed, but not when cyclists are seated on their bicycles.
Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine
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Masuda Keigo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9, 400 adolescents (ages 10-19 and 400 adults (ages 20-29, with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree, right (> +1 degree, and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.
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Chun-Ting Li
Full Text Available To investigate the effects of backward adjustable thoracic support on spinal curvature and back muscle activation during wheelchair sitting.Twenty elderly people were recruited for this study. The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture was compared with the slumped, normal, and lumbar support sitting postures. Spinal curvatures (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic angles and muscle activations of 4 back muscles on both sides (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the lumbar multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, and thoracic erector spinae at T9 were measured and compared between the different sitting postures using one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures.The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture showed a relatively neutral pelvic tilt (-0.32±4.80° when compared with the slumped (22.84±5.27° and lumbar support (-8.97±3.31° sitting postures (P<0.001, and showed relatively higher lumbar lordosis (-23.38±6.50° when compared with the slumped (14.77±7.83°, normal (0.44±7.47°, and lumbar support (-16.76±4.77° sitting postures (P<0.05. It also showed relatively lower back muscle activity when compared with the normal and lumbar support sitting postures (P<0.05.The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting concept was suggested because it maintains a more neutral pelvic tilt, higher lumbar lordosis, and lower back muscle activation, which may help maintain a better sitting posture and reduce the risk of back pain.
Influence of implant rod curvature on sagittal correction of scoliosis deformity.
Salmingo, Remel Alingalan; Tadano, Shigeru; Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu
2014-08-01
Deformation of in vivo-implanted rods could alter the scoliosis sagittal correction. To our knowledge, no previous authors have investigated the influence of implanted-rod deformation on the sagittal deformity correction during scoliosis surgery. To analyze the changes of the implant rod's angle of curvature during surgery and establish its influence on sagittal correction of scoliosis deformity. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative and postoperative implant rod geometry and angle of curvature was conducted. Twenty adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients underwent surgery. Average age at the time of operation was 14 years. The preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature expressed in degrees was obtained for each patient. Two implant rods were attached to the concave and convex side of the spinal deformity. The preoperative implant rod geometry was measured before surgical implantation. The postoperative implant rod geometry after surgery was measured by computed tomography. The implant rod angle of curvature at the sagittal plane was obtained from the implant rod geometry. The angle of curvature between the implant rod extreme ends was measured before implantation and after surgery. The sagittal curvature between the corresponding spinal levels of healthy adolescents obtained by previous studies was compared with the implant rod angle of curvature to evaluate the sagittal curve correction. The difference between the postoperative implant rod angle of curvature and normal spine sagittal curvature of the corresponding instrumented level was used to evaluate over or under correction of the sagittal deformity. The implant rods at the concave side of deformity of all patients were significantly deformed after surgery. The average degree of rod deformation Δθ at the concave and convex sides was 15.8° and 1.6°, respectively. The average preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature at the concave side was 33.6° and 17.8
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Dalva Minonroze Albuquerque Ferreira
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare sagittal plane alignment between subjects with spinal deformities and a group presenting no changes; to test the reliability of the tool used, and to determine the existence of correlations between spinal deformity and sagittal curvature measures. Forty young subjects were divided into two groups: a control group (n=20 presenting no changes or spinal deformity less than 0.5 cm in the dorsal curvature and 0.7 cm in the lumbar curvature, and an experimental group (n=20 with spinal deformities greater than those described for the control group. Spinal deformity and sagittal plane curvatures were measured using a water level-based tool and by the Adams test. Data were collected from the two groups on two distinct occasions. The Mann-Whitney test showed no difference between sampling times. A significant difference between the two groups was only observed in terms of cervical curvature. Spearman’s test revealed a linear correlation between dorsal curvature and dorsal spinal deformity in the control group, between dorsal and lumbar curves in the two groups, and between dorsal spinal deformity and lumbar and sacral curves and between sacral curvature and dorsal and lumbar curves in the experimental group. In conclusion, spinal deformity measurement is associated with sagittal plane curvatures. The method proposed here is reliable, simple and accessible and can be reproduced without high costs and damage to the patient’s health.
A Japanese Stretching Intervention Can Modify Lumbar Lordosis Curvature.
Kadono, Norio; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Uematsu, Azusa; Kamoshita, Hiroshi; Kiryu, Kazunori; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji
2017-08-01
Eighteen healthy male adults were assigned to either an intervention or control group. Isogai dynamic therapy (IDT) is one of Japanese stretching interventions and has been practiced for over 70 years. However, its scientific quantitative evidence remains unestablished. The objective of this study was to determine whether IDT could modify lumbar curvature in healthy young adults compared with stretching exercises used currently in clinical practice. None of previous studies have provided data that conventional stretching interventions could modify spinal curvatures. However, this study provides the first evidence that a specific form of a Japanese stretching intervention can acutely modify the spinal curvatures. We compared the effects of IDT, a Japanese stretching intervention (n=9 males), with a conventional stretching routine (n=9 males) used widely in clinics to modify pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis (LL) angle. We measured thoracic kyphosis (TK) and LL angles 3 times during erect standing using the Spinal Mouse before and after each intervention. IDT consisted of: (1) hip joint correction, (2) pelvic tilt correction, (3) lumbar alignment correction, and (4) squat exercise stretch. The control group performed hamstring stretches while (1) standing and (2) sitting. IDT increased LL angle to 25.1 degrees (±5.9) from 21.2 degrees (±6.9) (P=0.047) without changing TK angle (pretest: 36.8 degrees [±6.9]; posttest: 36.1 degrees [±6.5]) (P=0.572). The control group showed no changes in TK (P=0.819) and LL angles (P=0.744). IDT can thus be effective for increasing LL angle, hence anterior pelvic tilt. Such modifications could ameliorate low back pain and improve mobility in old adults with an unfavorable pelvic position.
Multiple spinal curvatures in a captive African dwarf crocodile ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A 4 year old African dwarf crocodile that had been domiciled at the Zoological Gardens, University of Ibadan for 2 years was presented with a history of anorexia of two weeks' duration and reluctance to move for about a week prior to presentation. Physical examination revealed body curvatures and radiography was ...
Heritable and non-heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors
Hyde, Luke W.; Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.
2016-01-01
Objective Callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood identify children at high risk for severe trajectories of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional traits that culminate in later diagnoses of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy. Studies have demonstrated high heritability of callous-unemotional traits, but little research has examined specific heritable pathways to earlier callous-unemotional behaviors. Additionally, studies indicate that positive parenting protects against the development of callous-unemotional traits, but genetically informed designs have not been used to confirm that these relationships are not the product of gene-environment correlations. Method Using an adoption cohort of 561 families, biological mothers reported their history of severe antisocial behavior. Observations of adoptive mother positive reinforcement at 18 months were examined as predictors of callous-unemotional behaviors when children were 27 months old. Results Biological mother antisocial behavior predicted early callous-unemotional behaviors despite having no or limited contact with offspring. Adoptive mother positive reinforcement protected against early callous-unemotional behaviors in children not genetically related to the parent. High levels of adoptive mother positive reinforcement buffered the effects of heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors posed by biological mother antisocial behavior. Conclusions The findings elucidate heritable and non-heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. The results provide a specific heritable pathway to callous-unemotional behaviors and compelling evidence that parenting is an important non-heritable factor in the development of callous-unemotional behaviors. As positive reinforcement buffered heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors, these findings have important translational implications for the prevention of trajectories to serious antisocial behavior. PMID
Geometric Structure of 3D Spinal Curves: Plane Regions and Connecting Zones
Berthonnaud, E.; Hilmi, R.; Dimnet, J.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a new study of the geometric structure of 3D spinal curves. The spine is considered as an heterogeneous beam, compound of vertebrae and intervertebral discs. The spine is modeled as a deformable wire along which vertebrae are beads rotating about the wire. 3D spinal curves are compound of plane regions connected together by zones of transition. The 3D spinal curve is uniquely flexed along the plane regions. The angular offsets between adjacent regions are concentrated at level of the middle zones of transition, so illustrating the heterogeneity of the spinal geometric structure. The plane regions along the 3D spinal curve must satisfy two criteria: (i) a criterion of minimum distance between the curve and the regional plane and (ii) a criterion controlling that the curve is continuously plane at the level of the region. The geometric structure of each 3D spinal curve is characterized by the sizes and orientations of regional planes, by the parameters representing flexed regions and by the sizes and functions of zones of transition. Spinal curves of asymptomatic subjects show three plane regions corresponding to spinal curvatures: lumbar, thoracic and cervical curvatures. In some scoliotic spines, four plane regions may be detected. PMID:25031873
Spinal Health during Unloading and Reloading Associated with Spaceflight
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David A. Green
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Spinal elongation and back pain are recognized effects of exposure to microgravity, however, spinal health has received relatively little attention. This changed with the report of an increased risk of post-flight intervertebral disc (IVD herniation and subsequent identification of spinal pathophysiology in some astronauts post-flight. Ground-based analogs, particularly bed rest, suggest that a loss of spinal curvature and IVD swelling may be factors contributing to unloading-induced spinal elongation. In flight, trunk muscle atrophy, in particular multifidus, may precipitate lumbar curvature loss and reduced spinal stability, but in-flight (ultrasound and pre- and post-flight (MRI imaging have yet to detect significant IVD changes. Current International Space Station missions involve short periods of moderate-to-high spinal (axial loading during running and resistance exercise, superimposed upon a background of prolonged unloading (microgravity. Axial loading acting on a dysfunctional spine, weakened by anatomical changes and local muscle atrophy, might increase the risk of damage/injury. Alternatively, regular loading may be beneficial. Spinal pathology has been identified in-flight, but there are few contemporary reports of in-flight back injury and no recent studies of post-flight back injury incidence. Accurate routine in-flight stature measurements, in- and post-flight imaging, and tracking of pain and injury (herniation for at least 2 years post-flight is thus warranted. These should be complemented by ground-based studies, in particular hyper buoyancy floatation (HBF a novel analog of spinal unloading, in order to elucidate the mechanisms and risk of spinal injury, and to evaluate countermeasures for exploration where injury could be mission critical.
Heritability in inflammatory bowel disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, Hannah; Trier Moller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke
2015-01-01
for ulcerative colitis. Heritability estimates for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis from pooled twin studies are 0.75 and 0.67, respectively. However, this is at odds with the much lower heritability estimates from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). This "missing heritability" is likely due...... to shortfalls in both family studies and GWAS. The coefficient of heritability fails to account for familial shared environment. Heritability calculations from twin data are based on Falconer's method, with premises that are increasingly understood to be flawed. GWAS based heritability estimates may...... underestimate heritability due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium, and because some single nucleotide polypeptides (SNPs) do not reach a level of significance to allow detection. SNPs missed by GWAS include common SNPs with low penetrance and rare SNPs with high penetrance. All methods of heritability...
The geometric curvature of the lumbar spine during restricted and unrestricted squats.
Hebling Campos, Mário; Furtado Alaman, Laizi I; Seffrin-Neto, Aldo A; Vieira, Carlos A; Costa de Paula, Marcelo; Barbosa de Lira, Claudio A
2017-06-01
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the behavior of the geometric curvature of the lumbar spine during restricted and unrestricted squats, using a novel investigative method. The rationale for our hypothesis is that the lumbar curvature has different patterns at different spine levels depending on the squat technique used. Spine motion was collected via stereo-photogrammetric analysis in nineteen participants (11 males, 8 females). The reconstructed spine points at the upright neutral position and at the deepest position of the squat exercise were projected onto the sagittal plane of the trunk, a polynomial was fitted to the data, and were quantified the two-dimensional geometric curvature at lower, central and higher lumbar levels, besides the inclination of trunk and lumbosacral region, the overall geometric curvature and overall angle of the lumbar spine. The mean values for each variable were analysed with paired t-test (Psquat techniques and these effects are also reduced in unrestricted squats. The data collected in the study are evidence that during barbell squats the lumbar curvature has different patterns at different spinal levels depending on the exercise technique. The lower lumbar spine appears to be less overloaded during unrestricted squats.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua-Jun Wang
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormal posture and spinal mobility have been demonstrated to cause functional impairment in the quality of life, especially in the postmenopausal osteoporotic population. Most of the literature studies focus on either thoracic kyphosis or lumbar lordosis, but not on the change of the entire spinal alignment. Very few articles reported the spinal alignment of Chinese people. The purpose of this study was threefold: to classify the spinal curvature based on the classification system defined by Satoh consisting of the entire spine alignment; to identify the change of trunk mobility; and to relate spinal curvature to balance disorder in a Chinese population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 450 osteoporotic volunteers were recruited for this study. Spinal range of motion and global curvature were evaluated noninvasively using the Spinal-Mouse® system and sagittal postural deformities were characterized. RESULTS: We found a new spine postural alignment consisting of an increased thoracic kyphosis and decreased lumbar lordosis which we classified as our modified round back. We did not find any of Satoh's type 5 classification in our population. Type 2 sagittal alignment was the most common spinal deformity (38.44%. In standing, thoracic kyphosis angles in types 2 (58.34° and 3 (58.03° were the largest and lumbar lordosis angles in types 4 (13.95° and 5 (-8.61° were the smallest. The range of flexion (ROF and range of flexion-extension (ROFE of types 2 and 3 were usually greater than types 4 and 5, with type 1 being the largest. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study classified and compared for the first time the mobility, curvature and balance in a Chinese population based on the entire spine alignment and found types 4 and 5 to present the worst balance and mobility. This study included a new spine postural alignment classification that should be considered in future population studies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed Ewidea
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Kinesio Taping (KT is a technique that has been used in the clinical management of people with chronic back pain. This study investigated the efficacy of KT on patient with chronic non-specific low back pain using electromyography (EMG and three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA. Subjects: 50 patients with chronic low back pain aging from 25 – 40 years, with mean age (36.62±2.9 years. Patients were divided randomly into two equal groups, placebo group (A received sham KT, and group B received real KT. Methods: The outcome measurements were electrical activity of lumbar Para spinal muscle using EMG pre and post KT, lumbar curvature using 3DMA and pain Pre and post KT using visual analogue scale (VAS EMG and 3DMA were carried out at baseline and 2 weeks later while pain was recorded after 1 month. Results: Paired analysis for comparison between pre and post treatment measurements in each group showed significant decrease of lumbar curvature as well as medium frequency of Para spinal muscles in group B than group A. also there is significant decrease of pain in group B than on group A. Despite the equal baseline of all groups before treatment, there were significant decrease of lumbar curvature, medium frequency of Para spinal muscles and pain measurements in real KT group than placebo group. The results suggested that kinsiotaping have beneficial effects on pain, range of motion, and trunk muscle endurance in people with chronic non-specific low back pain of mechanical etiology
Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue
... Home Health Topics English Español Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF ... they? Points To Remember About Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue There are more than 200 heritable disorders that ...
Walicka-Cupryś, Katarzyna; Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Mrozkowiak, Mirosław
2013-10-31
BACKGROUND. The photogrammetric method and inclinometer-based measurements are commonly employed to assess the anteroposterior curvatures of the spine. These methods are used both in clinical trials and for screening purposes. The aim of the study was to compare the parameters used to characterise the anteroposterior spinal curvatures as measured by photogrammetry and inclinometry. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study enrolled 341 subjects: 169 girls and 172 boys, aged 4 to 9 years, from kindergartens and primary schools in Rzeszów. The anteroposterior spinal curvatures were examined by photogrammetry and with a mechanical inclinometer. RESULTS. There were significant differences in the α angle between the inclinometric and photogrammetric assessment in the Student t test (p=0.017) and the Fisher Snedecor test (p=0.0001), with similar differences in the β angle (Student's t p=0.0001, Fisher Snedecor p=0.007). For the γ angle, significant differences were revealed with Student's t test (p=0.0001), but not with the Fisher Snedecor test (p = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS. 1. Measurements of inclination of particular segments of the spine obtained with the photogrammetric method and the inclinometric method in the same study group revealed statistically significant differences. 2. The results of measurements obtained by photogrammetry and inclinometry are not comparable. 3. Further research on agreement between measurements of the anteroposterior spinal curvatures obtained using the available measurement equipment is recommended.
Quantifying the uncertainty in heritability.
Furlotte, Nicholas A; Heckerman, David; Lippert, Christoph
2014-05-01
The use of mixed models to determine narrow-sense heritability and related quantities such as SNP heritability has received much recent attention. Less attention has been paid to the inherent variability in these estimates. One approach for quantifying variability in estimates of heritability is a frequentist approach, in which heritability is estimated using maximum likelihood and its variance is quantified through an asymptotic normal approximation. An alternative approach is to quantify the uncertainty in heritability through its Bayesian posterior distribution. In this paper, we develop the latter approach, make it computationally efficient and compare it to the frequentist approach. We show theoretically that, for a sufficiently large sample size and intermediate values of heritability, the two approaches provide similar results. Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort, we show empirically that the two approaches can give different results and that the variance/uncertainty can remain large.
The heritability of perceived stress.
Federenko, I.S.; Schlotz, W.; Kirschbaum, C.; Bartels, M.; Hellhammer, D.H.; Wüst, S.
2006-01-01
Background. Exploration of the degree to which perceived chronic stress is heritable is important as these self-reports have been linked to stress-related health outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate whether perceived stress is a heritable condition and to assess whether heritability
Campbell, James A.; Hargens, Alan R.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan, R.; Sanchez, E.; Yang, C.; Mitsui, I.; Schwandt, D.;
1998-01-01
Weight bearing by the spinal column during upright posture often plays a role in the common problem of low back pain. Therefore, we developed a non-ferromagnetic spinal compression harness to enable MRI investigations of the spinal column during axial loading. Human subjects were fitted with a Nest and a footplate which were connected by adjustable straps to an analog load cell. MRI scans of human subjects (5 males and 1 female with age range of 27-53 yrs) during loaded and unloaded conditions were accomplished with a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa scanner. Studies of two subjects undergoing sequentially increasing spinal loads revealed significant decreases (r(sup 2) = 0.852) in spinal length between T4 and L5 culminating in a 1.5 to 2% length decrease during loading with 75% body weight. Sagittal vertebral body angles of four subjects placed under a constant 50% body weight load for one hour demonstrated increased lordotic and kyphotic curvatures. In the lumbar spine, the L2 vertebral body experienced the greatest angular change (-3 deg. to -5 deg.) in most subjects while in the thoracic spine, T4 angles increased from the unloaded state by +2 deg. to +9 deg. Overall, our studies demonstrate: 1) a progressive, although surprisingly small, decrease in spinal length with increasing load and 2) relatively large changes in spinal column angulation with 50% body weight.
Research article – Optimisation of paediatrics computed radiographyfor full spine curvature measurements using a phantom: a pilot study
de Haan, Seraphine; Reis, Cláudia; Ndlovu, Junior; Serrenho, Catarina; Akhtar, Ifrah; Garcia, José Antonio; Linde, Daniël; Thorskog, Martine; Franco, Loris; Hogg, Peter
2015-01-01
Aim: Optimise a set of exposure factors, with the lowest effective dose, to delineate spinal curvature with the modified Cobb method in a full spine using computed radiography (CR) for a 5-year-old paediatric anthropomorphic phantom. Methods: Images were acquired by varying a set of parameters:
Heritability Analyses of IQ Scores: Science or Numerology?
Layzer, David
1974-01-01
Examines limitations of the heritability concept and heritability analysis, and discusses a conventional application of heritability analysis, IQ scores as measurements of a phenotypic character, the heritability of IQ, and the relationship of IQ and race. (JR)
The heritability of leucocyte telomere length dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören
2015-01-01
variation among adults. A number of studies have estimated the heritability of LTL, but none has assessed the heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition. METHODS: We examined the heritability of LTL dynamics based on a longitudinal evaluation (an average follow-up of 12 years) in 355 monozygotic and 297...... dizygotic same-sex twins (aged 19-64 years at baseline). RESULTS: Heritability of LTL at baseline was estimated at 64% (95% CI 39% to 83%) with 22% (95% CI 6% to 49%) of shared environmental effects. Heritability of age-dependent LTL attrition rate was estimated at 28% (95% CI 16% to 44%). Individually...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dariusz Czaprowski
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess the change of sagittal spinal curvatures in children with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH instructed with “straighten your back” command (SYB. Methods. The study included 56 children with GJH. The control group consisted of 193 children. Sacral slope (SS, lumbar lordosis (LL, global thoracic kyphosis (TK, lower thoracic kyphosis (LK, and upper thoracic kyphosis (UK were assessed with Saunders inclinometer both in spontaneous positions (standing and sitting and after the SYB. Results. Children with GJH after SYB presented the following: in standing, increase in SS and decrease in TK, LK, and UK (P<0.01, with LL not significantly changed; in sitting: decrease in global thoracic kyphosis (35.5° (SD 20.5 versus 21.0° (SD 15.5, P<0.001 below the standards proposed in the literature (30–40° and flattening of its lower part (P<0.001. The same changes were observed in the control group. Conclusions. In children with generalized joint hypermobility, the “straighten your back” command leads to excessive reduction of the global thoracic kyphosis and flattening of its lower part. Therefore, the “straighten your back” command should not be used to achieve the optimal standing and sitting positions.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and spinal fusion do not substantially impact on postural balance.
Schimmel, J.J.; Groen, B.E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Kleuver, M. de
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: The spinal curvature in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) causes an asymmetry of upper body postural alignment, which might affect postural balance. However, the currently available studies on balance in AIS patients are not consistent. Furthermore, it is not known
Heritability of adult body height
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus
2003-01-01
/unique environment (AE) model. Among women the heritability estimates were generally lower than among men with greater variation between countries, ranging from 0.68 to 0.84 when an additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model was used. In four populations where an AE model fit equally well...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...... or better, heritability ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. This difference between the sexes was mainly due to the effect of the shared environmental component of variance, which appears to be more important among women than among men in our study populations. Our results indicate that, in general, there are only...
Topologically preserving straightening of spinal cord MRI.
De Leener, Benjamin; Mangeat, Gabriel; Dupont, Sara; Martin, Allan R; Callot, Virginie; Stikov, Nikola; Fehlings, Michael G; Cohen-Adad, Julien
2017-10-01
To propose a robust and accurate method for straightening magnetic resonance (MR) images of the spinal cord, based on spinal cord segmentation, that preserves spinal cord topology and that works for any MRI contrast, in a context of spinal cord template-based analysis. The spinal cord curvature was computed using an iterative Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) approximation. Forward and inverse deformation fields for straightening were computed by solving analytically the straightening equations for each image voxel. Computational speed-up was accomplished by solving all voxel equation systems as one single system. Straightening accuracy (mean and maximum distance from straight line), computational time, and robustness to spinal cord length was evaluated using the proposed and the standard straightening method (label-based spline deformation) on 3T T 2 - and T 1 -weighted images from 57 healthy subjects and 33 patients with spinal cord compression due to degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). The proposed algorithm was more accurate, more robust, and faster than the standard method (mean distance = 0.80 vs. 0.83 mm, maximum distance = 1.49 vs. 1.78 mm, time = 71 vs. 174 sec for the healthy population and mean distance = 0.65 vs. 0.68 mm, maximum distance = 1.28 vs. 1.55 mm, time = 32 vs. 60 sec for the DCM population). A novel image straightening method that enables template-based analysis of quantitative spinal cord MRI data is introduced. This algorithm works for any MRI contrast and was validated on healthy and patient populations. The presented method is implemented in the Spinal Cord Toolbox, an open-source software for processing spinal cord MRI data. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1209-1219. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Nature or Nurture? Heritability in the Classroom.
Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore
Understanding evolution is a necessary component of undergraduate education in biology, and evolution is difficult to explain without studying the heritability of traits. However, in most classes, heritability is presented with only a handful of graphs showing typical morphological traits, for example, beak size in finches and height in humans. The active-inquiry exercise outlined in the following pages allows instructors to engage students in this formerly dry subject by bringing their own data as the basis for estimates of heritability. Students are challenged to come up with their own hypotheses regarding how and to what extent their traits are inherited from their parents and then gather, analyze data, and make inferences with help from the instructor. The exercise is simple in concept and execution but uncovers many new avenues of inquiry for students, including potential biases in their estimates of heritability and misconceptions that they may have had about the extent of inference that can be made from their heritability estimates. The active-inquiry format of the exercise prioritizes curiosity and discussion, leading to a much deeper understanding of heritability and the scientific method.
Wheeler, William A.; Yeager, Meredith; Panagiotou, Orestis; Wang, Zhaoming; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lan, Qing; Abnet, Christian C.; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Mirabello, Lisa; Savage, Sharon A.; Taylor, Philip R.; Vivo, Immaculata De; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Purdue, Mark P.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ahlbom, Anders; Albanes, Demetrius; Amary, Maria Fernanda; An, She-Juan; Andersson, Ulrika; Andriole, Gerald; Andrulis, Irene L.; Angelucci, Emanuele; Ansell, Stephen M.; Arici, Cecilia; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Arslan, Alan A.; Austin, Melissa A.; Baris, Dalsu; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Bassig, Bryan A.; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Benhamou, Simone; Berg, Christine; Van Den Berg, David; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Black, Amanda; Boeing, Heiner; Boffetta, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M.; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie; Butler, Mary Ann; Cai, Qiuyin; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Canzian, Federico; Carrato, Alfredo; Carreon, Tania; Carta, Angela; Chan, John K. C.; Chang, Ellen T.; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chang, I-Shou; Chang, Jiang; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Chu; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Chen, Constance; Chen, Hongyan; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chen, Ying; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Song; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Choi, Jin Eun; Choi, Yi Young; Chow, Wong-Ho; Chung, Charles C.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cocco, Pierluigi; Colt, Joanne S.; Comperat, Eva; Conde, Lucia; Connors, Joseph M.; Conti, David; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cozen, Wendy; Crouch, Simon; Crous-Bou, Marta; Cussenot, Olivier; Davis, Faith G.; Ding, Ti; Diver, W. Ryan; Dorronsoro, Miren; Dossus, Laure; Duell, Eric J.; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Erickson, Ralph L.; Feychting, Maria; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Foretova, Lenka; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Freedman, Neal D.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Fuchs, Charles; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; García-Closas, Reina; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giffen, Carol; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Glimelius, Bengt; Goggins, Michael; Gokgoz, Nalan; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Gorlick, Richard; Gross, Myron; Grubb, Robert; Gu, Jian; Guan, Peng; Gunter, Marc; Guo, Huan; Habermann, Thomas M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Halai, Dina; Hallmans, Goran; Hassan, Manal; Hattinger, Claudia; He, Qincheng; He, Xingzhou; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Henderson, Brian; Henriksson, Roger; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Hohensee, Chancellor; Holford, Theodore R.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Hosain, G. M. Monawar; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hu, Zhibin; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Hung, Jen-Yu; Hutchinson, Amy; Inskip, Peter D.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Jenab, Mazda; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Ji, Bu-Tian; Jin, Guangfu; Jin, Li; Johansen, Christoffer; Johnson, Alison; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kamineni, Aruna; Kane, Eleanor; Kang, Chang Hyun; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kelly, Rachel S.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Christopher; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Jun Suk; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Young-Chul; Kitahara, Cari M.; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert J.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kohno, Takashi; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kricker, Anne; Krogh, Vittorio; Kunitoh, Hideo; Kurtz, Robert C.; Kweon, Sun-Seog; LaCroix, Andrea; Lawrence, Charles; Lecanda, Fernando; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Li, Donghui; Li, Haixin; Li, Jihua; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Yuqing; Liao, Linda M.; Liebow, Mark; Lightfoot, Tracy; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lin, Dongxin; Lindstrom, Sara; Linet, Martha S.; Link, Brian K.; Liu, Chenwei; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Li; Ljungberg, Börje; Lloreta, Josep; Lollo, Simonetta Di; Lu, Daru; Lund, Eiluv; Malats, Nuria; Mannisto, Satu; Marchand, Loic Le; Marina, Neyssa; Masala, Giovanna; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Matsuo, Keitaro; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Melbye, Mads; Melin, Beatrice S.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Monnereau, Alain; Montalvan, Rebecca; Moore, Lee E.; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nieters, Alexandra; North, Kari E.; Novak, Anne J.; Oberg, Ann L.; Offit, Kenneth; Oh, In-Jae; Olson, Sara H.; Palli, Domenico; Pao, William; Park, In Kyu; Park, Jae Yong; Park, Kyong Hwa; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Pavanello, Sofia; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Perng, Reury-Perng; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Picci, Piero; Pike, Malcolm C.; Porru, Stefano; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Qian, Biyun; Qiao, You-Lin; Rais, Marco; Riboli, Elio; Riby, Jacques; Risch, Harvey A.; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Rodabough, Rebecca; Roman, Eve; Roupret, Morgan; Ruder, Avima M.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Scelo, Ghislaine; Schned, Alan; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Kendra; Schwenn, Molly; Scotlandi, Katia; Seow, Adeline; Serra, Consol; Serra, Massimo; Sesso, Howard D.; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Severi, Gianluca; Severson, Richard K.; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Shen, Hongbing; Shen, Wei; Shin, Min-Ho; Shiraishi, Kouya; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Siddiq, Afshan; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Skibola, Christine F.; Smith, Alex; Smith, Martyn T.; Southey, Melissa C.; Spinelli, John J.; Staines, Anthony; Stampfer, Meir; Stern, Marianna C.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S.; Su, Jian; Su, Wu-Chou; Sund, Malin; Sung, Jae Sook; Sung, Sook Whan; Tan, Wen; Tang, Wei; Tardón, Adonina; Thomas, David; Thompson, Carrie A.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Tirabosco, Roberto; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Tucker, Margaret; Turner, Jenny; Vajdic, Claire M.; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Villano, Danylo J.; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Visvanathan, Kala; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wang, Chaoyu; Wang, Chih-Liang; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Junwen; Wei, Fusheng; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weiner, George J.; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wentzensen, Nicolas; White, Emily; Witzig, Thomas E.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Guoping; Wu, Junjie; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Wei; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ping; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Ye, Yuanqing; Yin, Zhihua; Yokota, Jun; Yoon, Ho-Il; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zelenetz, Andrew; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Zhang, Yawei; Zhao, Xueying; Zhao, Zhenhong; Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Zhu, Meng; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Boca, Simina M.; Cerhan, James R.; Ferri, Giovanni M.; Hartge, Patricia; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Magnani, Corrado; Miligi, Lucia; Morton, Lindsay M.; Smedby, Karin E.; Teras, Lauren R.; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Sophia S.; Brennan, Paul; Caporaso, Neil E.; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra T.; Slager, Susan L.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan
2015-01-01
Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites. Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers. Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, hl 2, on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (ρ = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (ρ = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ρ = 0.51, SE =0.18), and bladder and lung (ρ = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures. Conclusion: Our
The Spinal Curvature of Three Different Sitting Positions Analysed in an Open MRI Scanner
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Baumgartner
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Sitting is the most frequently performed posture of everyday life. Biomechanical interactions with office chairs have therefore a long-term effect on our musculoskeletal system and ultimately on our health and wellbeing. This paper highlights the kinematic effect of office chairs on the spinal column and its single segments. Novel chair concepts with multiple degrees of freedom provide enhanced spinal mobility. The angular changes of the spinal column in the sagittal plane in three different sitting positions (forward inclined, reclined, and upright for six healthy subjects (aged 23 to 45 years were determined using an open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner. An MRI-compatible and commercially available office chair was adapted for use in the scanner. The midpoint coordinates of the vertebral bodies, the wedge angles of the intervertebral discs, and the lumbar lordotic angle were analysed. The mean lordotic angles were 16.0±8.5∘ (mean ± standard deviation in a forward inclined position, 24.7±8.3∘ in an upright position, and 28.7±8.1∘ in a reclined position. All segments from T10-T11 to L5-S1 were involved in movement during positional changes, whereas the range of motion in the lower lumbar segments was increased in comparison to the upper segments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Chiao Yi
2008-04-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a relação entre a excursão do músculo diafragma e as curvaturas da coluna vertebral em crianças respiradoras bucais. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 52 crianças de 5 a 12 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. Por meio de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, foram divididas em dois grupos: respiradores bucais e respiradores nasais. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a exame de videofluoroscopia do músculo diafragma e a avaliação postural. A excursão do diafragma foi analisada pelo programa Adobe Photoshop®, e a avaliação postural através de fotografias em norma lateral esquerda, sendo analisadas pelo Software de Avaliação Postural. RESULTADOS: Os grupos estudados apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significante quanto ao comportamento das curvaturas da coluna vertebral (lordose cervical: p = 0,003; lordose lombar: p = 0,001; cifose torácica: p = 0,002; posição da pelve: p = 0,001 e da excursão do músculo diafragma (diafragma lado direito: p = 0,001; diafragma lado esquerdo: p = 0,001. O grupo respirador bucal apresentou diminuição da lordose cervical, aumento da cifose torácica, aumento da lordose lombar e anteversão da posição da pelve. A distância excursionada pelo músculo diafragma em crianças respiradoras bucais é menor que em crianças respiradoras nasais. Não houve significância estatística ao relacionar o comportamento das curvaturas da coluna vertebral com a excursão do músculo diafragma. CONCLUSÃO: Não há relação entre as curvaturas da coluna vertebral com a excursão do músculo diafragma nos grupos estudados.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between excursion of the diaphragm muscle and spinal curvatures in mouth breathing children. METHODS: A total of 52 children of both sexes, aged from 5 to 12 years, were studied. After otorhinolaryngological assessment, the children were divided into two groups: mouth breathers and nose breathers. All of the children underwent
Heritability and familial aggregation of diverticular disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Strate, Lisa L; Erichsen, Rune; Baron, John A
2013-01-01
Little is known about the role of heritable factors in diverticular disease. We evaluated the contribution of heritable factors to the development of diverticular disease diagnosed at a hospitalization or outpatient visit....
Somoskeöy, Szabolcs; Tunyogi-Csapó, Miklós; Bogyó, Csaba; Illés, Tamás
2012-11-01
Three-dimensional (3D) deformations of the spine are predominantly characterized by two-dimensional (2D) angulation measurements in coronal and sagittal planes, using anteroposterior and lateral X-ray images. For coronal curves, a method originally described by Cobb and for sagittal curves a modified Cobb method are most widely used in practice, and these methods have been shown to exhibit good-to-excellent reliability and reproducibility, carried out either manually or by computer-based tools. Recently, an ultralow radiation dose-integrated radioimaging solution was introduced with special software for realistic 3D visualization and parametric characterization of the spinal column. Comparison of accuracy, correlation of measurement values, intraobserver and interrater reliability of methods by conventional manual 2D and sterEOS 3D measurements in a routine clinical setting. Retrospective nonrandomized study of diagnostic X-ray images created as part of a routine clinical protocol of eligible patients examined at our clinic during a 30-month period between July 2007 and December 2009. In total, 201 individuals (170 females, 31 males; mean age, 19.88 years) including 10 healthy athletes with normal spine and patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (175 cases), adult degenerative scoliosis (11 cases), and Scheuermann hyperkyphosis (5 cases). Overall range of coronal curves was between 2.4° and 117.5°. Analysis of accuracy and reliability of measurements were carried out on a group of all patients and in subgroups based on coronal plane deviation: 0° to 10° (Group 1, n=36), 10° to 25° (Group 2, n=25), 25° to 50° (Group 3, n=69), 50° to 75° (Group 4, n=49), and more than 75° (Group 5, n=22). Coronal and sagittal curvature measurements were determined by three experienced examiners, using either traditional 2D methods or automatic measurements based on sterEOS 3D reconstructions. Manual measurements were performed three times, and sterEOS 3D
The curvature coordinate system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Almegaard, Henrik
2007-01-01
The paper describes a concept for a curvature coordinate system on regular curved surfaces from which faceted surfaces with plane quadrangular facets can be designed. The lines of curvature are used as parametric lines for the curvature coordinate system on the surface. A new conjugate set of lin...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engell, Vilhelm; Nielsen, Jan; Damborg, Frank
2014-01-01
INTRODUCTION: The aetiology of congenital clubfoot is unclear. Although studies on populations, families, and twins suggest a genetic component to the aetiology, other studies have identified environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to calculate heritability in order to determine...... based on a balance of goodness-of-fit and parsimony and to estimate heritability. RESULTS: We found an overall self-reported prevalence of congenital clubfoot of 0.0027 (95 % confidence interval 0.0022-0.0034). Fifty-five complete (both twins answered the question) twin pairs were identified...... representing 12 monozygotic, 22 same-sex dizygotic, 18 opposite-sex dizygotic, and 3 with unclassified zygosity. The model with only environmental factors (CE) was best fitting based on AIC, and the model with an additive genetic factor (ACE) came in second. Due to the small statistical power, we hypothesise...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Larbi Labbi
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The $(2k$-th Gauss-Bonnet curvature is a generalization to higher dimensions of the $(2k$-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet integrand, it coincides with the usual scalar curvature for $k = 1$. The Gauss-Bonnet curvatures are used in theoretical physics to describe gravity in higher dimensional space times where they are known as the Lagrangian of Lovelock gravity, Gauss-Bonnet Gravity and Lanczos gravity. In this paper we present various aspects of these curvature invariants and review their variational properties. In particular, we discuss natural generalizations of the Yamabe problem, Einstein metrics and minimal submanifolds.
Implementing quantum Ricci curvature
Klitgaard, N.; Loll, R.
2018-05-01
Quantum Ricci curvature has been introduced recently as a new, geometric observable characterizing the curvature properties of metric spaces, without the need for a smooth structure. Besides coordinate invariance, its key features are scalability, computability, and robustness. We demonstrate that these properties continue to hold in the context of nonperturbative quantum gravity, by evaluating the quantum Ricci curvature numerically in two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity, defined in terms of dynamical triangulations. Despite the well-known, highly nonclassical properties of the underlying quantum geometry, its Ricci curvature can be matched well to that of a five-dimensional round sphere.
Are range-size distributions consistent with species-level heritability?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Gotelli, Nicholas; Rahbek, Carsten
2012-01-01
The concept of species-level heritability is widely contested. Because it is most likely to apply to emergent, species-level traits, one of the central discussions has focused on the potential heritability of geographic range size. However, a central argument against range-size heritability has...... been that it is not compatible with the observed shape of present-day species range-size distributions (SRDs), a claim that has never been tested. To assess this claim, we used forward simulation of range-size evolution in clades with varying degrees of range-size heritability, and compared the output...
Familial aggregation and heritability of pyloric stenosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Camilla; Fischer, Thea K; Skotte, Line
2010-01-01
stenosis from monozygotic twins to fourth-generation relatives according to sex and maternal and paternal contributions and to estimate disease heritability. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Population-based cohort study of 1,999,738 children born in Denmark between 1977 and 2008 and followed up.......51-4.99) for half-cousins. We found no difference in rate ratios for maternal and paternal relatives of children with pyloric stenosis and no difference according to sex of cohort member or sex of relative. The heritability of pyloric stenosis was 87%. CONCLUSION: Pyloric stenosis in Danish children shows strong...... familial aggregation and heritability....
Estimating Heritability from Nuclear Family and Pedigree Data.
Bochud, Murielle
2017-01-01
Heritability is a measure of familial resemblance. Estimating the heritability of a trait could be one of the first steps in the gene mapping process. This chapter describes how to estimate heritability for quantitative traits from nuclear and pedigree data using the ASSOC program in the Statistical Analysis in Genetic Epidemiology (S.A.G.E.) software package. Estimating heritability rests on the assumption that the total phenotypic variance of a quantitative trait can be partitioned into independent genetic and environmental components. In turn, the genetic variance can be divided into an additive (polygenic) genetic variance, a dominance variance (nonlinear interaction effects between alleles at the same locus) and an epistatic variance (interaction effects between alleles at different loci). The last two are often assumed to be zero. The additive genetic variance represents the average effects of individual alleles on the phenotype and reflects transmissible resemblance between relatives. Heritability in the narrow sense (h 2 ) refers to the ratio of the additive genetic variance to the total phenotypic variance. Heritability is a dimensionless population-specific parameter. ASSOC estimates association parameters (regression coefficients) and variance components from family data. ASSOC uses a linear regression model in which the total residual variance is partitioned, after regressing on covariates, into the sum of random components such as an additive polygenic component, a random sibship component, random nuclear family components, a random marital component, and an individual-specific random component. Assortative mating, nonrandom ascertainment of families, and failure to account for key confounding factors may bias heritability estimates.
Lectures on mean curvature flows
Zhu, Xi-Ping
2002-01-01
"Mean curvature flow" is a term that is used to describe the evolution of a hypersurface whose normal velocity is given by the mean curvature. In the simplest case of a convex closed curve on the plane, the properties of the mean curvature flow are described by Gage-Hamilton's theorem. This theorem states that under the mean curvature flow, the curve collapses to a point, and if the flow is diluted so that the enclosed area equals \\pi, the curve tends to the unit circle. In this book, the author gives a comprehensive account of fundamental results on singularities and the asymptotic behavior of mean curvature flows in higher dimensions. Among other topics, he considers in detail Huisken's theorem (a generalization of Gage-Hamilton's theorem to higher dimension), evolution of non-convex curves and hypersurfaces, and the classification of singularities of the mean curvature flow. Because of the importance of the mean curvature flow and its numerous applications in differential geometry and partial differential ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Dengliang
2013-03-01
In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.
Heritability of food preferences in young children.
Breen, Fiona M; Plomin, Robert; Wardle, Jane
2006-07-30
There is persisting interest in the idea that taste preferences are heritable characteristics, but few twin studies have found evidence for a significant genetic component. Small sample sizes and idiosyncratic selection of foods may have contributed to the negative results. We hypothesized that using a larger twin sample and empirical groupings of food types, would give stronger evidence for the heritability of food preferences. We examined the heritability of preferences for four food groups in a sample of young twins. We administered a food preference questionnaire with 95 foods to 214 mothers of same-sex twin pairs (103 monozygotic and 111 dizygotic pairs) aged 4 to 5. 18 foods were excluded because they had been tried by fewer than 25% of the children. Foods were grouped into 'Vegetables', 'Fruits', 'Desserts' and 'Meat and Fish' on the basis of a factor analysis of the preference data. Genetic analyses were carried out on mean liking across these four groups, using model fitting techniques. Over all 77 foods, MZ correlations were higher than DZ correlations for 72 of them, with a higher mean MZ correlation (r = 0.76) than DZ correlation (r = 0.56). Using model fitting techniques with the factor scores, significant heritability estimates were obtained for all four food groups. Heritability was modest for dessert foods (0.20), moderate for vegetables (0.37) and fruits (0.51), and high for liking for protein foods (0.78). Shared environmental effects were strong for desserts, fruits and vegetables, while non-shared environmental influences were low for all four food groups. These results provide strong evidence for modest heritability of food preferences when using empirically-derived groupings of foods.
Some Inequalities for the -Curvature Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daijun Wei
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Lutwak introduced the notion of -curvature image and proved an inequality for the volumes of convex body and its -curvature image. In this paper, we first give an monotonic property of -curvature image. Further, we establish two inequalities for the -curvature image and its polar, respectively. Finally, an inequality for the volumes of -projection body and -curvature image is obtained.
Leal-Junior, Arnaldo G.; Frizera, Anselmo; José Pontes, Maria
2018-03-01
Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are suitable for applications such as curvature sensors, strain, temperature, liquid level, among others. However, for enhancing sensitivity, many polymer optical fiber curvature sensors based on intensity variation require a lateral section. Lateral section length, depth, and surface roughness have great influence on the sensor sensitivity, hysteresis, and linearity. Moreover, the sensor curvature radius increase the stress on the fiber, which leads on variation of the sensor behavior. This paper presents the analysis relating the curvature radius and lateral section length, depth and surface roughness with the sensor sensitivity, hysteresis and linearity for a POF curvature sensor. Results show a strong correlation between the decision parameters behavior and the performance for sensor applications based on intensity variation. Furthermore, there is a trade-off among the sensitive zone length, depth, surface roughness, and curvature radius with the sensor desired performance parameters, which are minimum hysteresis, maximum sensitivity, and maximum linearity. The optimization of these parameters is applied to obtain a sensor with sensitivity of 20.9 mV/°, linearity of 0.9992 and hysteresis below 1%, which represent a better performance of the sensor when compared with the sensor without the optimization.
Brane cosmology with curvature corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kofinas, Georgios; Maartens, Roy; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios
2003-01-01
We study the cosmology of the Randall-Sundrum brane-world where the Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by curvature correction terms: a four-dimensional scalar curvature from induced gravity on the brane, and a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet curvature term. The combined effect of these curvature corrections to the action removes the infinite-density big bang singularity, although the curvature can still diverge for some parameter values. A radiation brane undergoes accelerated expansion near the minimal scale factor, for a range of parameters. This acceleration is driven by the geometric effects, without an inflation field or negative pressures. At late times, conventional cosmology is recovered. (author)
Assessing the heritability of attentional networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fossella John A
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts to study the genetics of higher functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently we have developed an Attention Network Test (ANT that provides a separate measure for each of three anatomically defined attention networks. In this small scale study, we ran 26 pairs of MZ and DZ twins in an effort to determine if any of these networks show sufficient evidence of heritability to warrant further exploration of their genetic basis. Results The efficiency of the executive attention network, that mediates stimulus and response conflict, shows sufficient heritability to warrant further study. Alerting and overall reaction time show some evidence for heritability and in our study the orienting network shows no evidence of heritability. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation contributes to normal individual differences in higher order executive attention involving dopamine rich frontal areas including the anterior cingulate. At least the executive portion of the ANT may serve as a valid endophenotype for larger twin studies and subsequent molecular genetic analysis in normal subject populations.
Cosmic curvature tested directly from observations
Denissenya, Mikhail; Linder, Eric V.; Shafieloo, Arman
2018-03-01
Cosmic spatial curvature is a fundamental geometric quantity of the Universe. We investigate a model independent, geometric approach to measure spatial curvature directly from observations, without any derivatives of data. This employs strong lensing time delays and supernova distance measurements to measure the curvature itself, rather than just testing consistency with flatness. We define two curvature estimators, with differing error propagation characteristics, that can crosscheck each other, and also show how they can be used to map the curvature in redshift slices, to test constancy of curvature as required by the Robertson-Walker metric. Simulating realizations of redshift distributions and distance measurements of lenses and sources, we estimate uncertainties on the curvature enabled by next generation measurements. The results indicate that the model independent methods, using only geometry without assuming forms for the energy density constituents, can determine the curvature at the ~6×10‑3 level.
Heritability of lifetime ecstasy use.
Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Vreeker, Annabel; Brunt, Tibor M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M
2017-09-01
Ecstasy is a widely used psychoactive drug that users often take because they experience positive effects such as increased euphoria, sociability, elevated mood, and heightened sensations. Ecstasy use is not harmless and several immediate and long term side effects have been identified. Lifetime ecstasy use is likely to be partly influenced by genetic factors, but no twin study has determined the heritability. Here, we apply a classical twin design to a large sample of twins and siblings to estimate the heritability of lifetime ecstasy use. The sample comprised 8500 twins and siblings aged between 18 and 45 years from 5402 families registered at the Netherlands Twin Registry. In 2013-2014 participants filled out a questionnaire including a question whether they had ever used ecstasy. We used the classical twin design to partition the individual differences in liability to ecstasy use into that due to genetic, shared environmental, and residual components. Overall, 10.4% of the sample had used ecstasy during their lifetime, with a somewhat higher prevalence in males than females. Twin modelling indicated that individual differences in liability to lifetime ecstasy use are for 74% due to genetic differences between individuals, whereas shared environmental and residual factors explain a small proportion of its liability (5% and 21%, respectively). Although heritability estimates appeared to be higher for females than males, this difference was not significant. Lifetime ecstasy use is a highly heritable trait, which indicates that some people are genetically more vulnerable to start using ecstasy than others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Noh, Dong Koog; You, Joshua Sung-H; Koh, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hoseong; Kim, Donghyun; Ko, Sung-Mok; Shin, Ji-Youn
2014-01-01
To compare the therapeutic effects of a 3-dimensional corrective spinal technique (CST) and a conventional exercise program (CE) on altered spinal curvature and health related quality-of-life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (N=32, 6 males and 26 females) between 10 and 19 years of age (14.34 ± 2.60 years) were recruited and underwent the CST or CE for 60 minutes/day, 2-3 times a week, and an average of total 30 sessions. Diagnostic X-ray imaging technique was used to determine intervention-related changes in the Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis angle, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral slope, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, and vertebral rotation (Nash-Moe method). The Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) health related quality-of-life questionnaire was used. Data were analysed using independent t-test, paired t-test, and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test at p self-image and treatment satisfaction subscale scores and total score, p=0.026, p=0.039, and p=0.041, respectively) as compared to the controls. There were no significant changes in the other measures between the two groups. This is the first clinical trial to investigate the effects of the 3-dimensional CST on spinal curvatures and health related quality-of-life in AIS, providing the important clinical rationale and compelling evidence for the effective management of AIS.
Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.
1987-07-01
We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)
Spinal shape analysis in 1,020 healthy young adults aged from 19 to 30 years
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jakub Krejčí
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on diseased spine have been published; however, there is a relative paucity of studies investigating spine shape characteristics in healthy populations. Such characteristics are needed for diagnostics of spine disorders and assessment of changes in the spinal shape that may have been caused by influence of the modern life style or intensive sport activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Methods: Population cross-sectional study. A non-radiographic surface method (system DTP-3 was used for the assessment of spine shape in the sagittal and frontal planes. A total of 1,020 participants (440 men, 580 women took part in the study, their mean (± SD age was 21.8 ± 1.9 years (range 19.1-29.7 for men and 21.9 ± 1.8 years (range 19.3-29.7 for women. All data were checked for normality and are presented as means, standard deviations, ranges, skewness, and kurtosis. Differences between the sexes were assessed with the two-sample t-test. Results: The average sagittal spinal shape was C3 - 12.9° - C7 - 43.0° - T10 - 27.1° - L5 for men and C3 - 12.1° - C6 - 44.5° - T11 - 34.1° - L5 for women. Men showed a significantly smaller thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures than women. The average curvature due to the lateral deviation in the frontal plane was 6.1° for both sexes, the curvature was larger than 10° in 9.1% of men and 8.8% of women. We found left lateral deviation in 72.5% of men and in 63.6% of women. Conclusions: The study provides characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Such characteristics should be part and parcel of determining the cut-off level for physiological spinal shape. Based on the results of the study, we suggest a lateral deviation of 10° as the maximum for a curvature to be still considered non-pathological.
Heritable and Nonheritable Pathways to Early Callous-Unemotional Behaviors.
Hyde, Luke W; Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D
2016-09-01
Callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood signal higher risk for trajectories of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional traits that culminate in later diagnoses of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy. Studies demonstrate high heritability of callous-unemotional traits, but little research has examined specific heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. Studies also indicate that positive parenting protects against the development of callous-unemotional traits, but genetically informed designs have not been used to confirm that these relationships are not the product of gene-environment correlations. In a sample of adopted children and their biological and adoptive mothers, the authors tested novel heritable and nonheritable pathways to preschool callous-unemotional behaviors. In an adoption cohort of 561 families, history of severe antisocial behavior assessed in biological mothers and observations of adoptive mother positive reinforcement at 18 months were examined as predictors of callous-unemotional behaviors at 27 months. Despite limited or no contact with offspring, biological mother antisocial behavior predicted early callous-unemotional behaviors. Adoptive mother positive reinforcement protected against early callous-unemotional behaviors. High levels of adoptive mother positive reinforcement buffered the effects of heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors posed by biological mother antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate heritable and nonheritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. The results provide a specific heritable pathway to callous-unemotional behaviors and compelling evidence that parenting is an important nonheritable factor in the development of callous-unemotional behaviors. The finding that positive reinforcement buffered heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors has important translational implications for the prevention of trajectories to serious
Heritability of menopausal age in mothers and daughters
van Asselt, Kristel M.; Kok, Helen S.; Pearson, Peter L.; Dubas, Judith S.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; te Velde, Egbert R.; van Noord, Paulus A. H.
2004-01-01
Objective: To determine the heritability of age at natural menopause from mother-daughter pairs. Design: Two-generation families were selected to study heritability of menopausal age. Setting: Subjects were drawn from a population-based study. Patient(s): One hundred sixty-four mother-daughter pairs
Heritability studies of yield and yield associated traits in bread wheat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laghari, K.A.; Sial, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Mirbahar, A.A.; Pirzada, A.; Mancrio, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.
2010-01-01
Heritability studies provide valid information about the traits that are transmitted from parents to offspring and also to the successive generations. Such studies help plant breeders to predict a successful cross with high heritability transmission to the progeny and thus are useful in the incorporation of characters into the offspring. Heritability study was conducted in F5 segregating generation of a cross between HT5 (female) and HT 37 (male) of bread wheat. The genetic parameters calculated were genetic variance (Vg,), environmental variance (Ve) and heritability percentage in broad sense (h2%), genetic advance (GA) and heritability coefficient (H). The highest heritability was observed for spike length (79.3%), number of grains per spike (54.5%) and main spike yield (69.5%) associated with high genetic advance (2.8, 22.8 and 1.5 respectively). Moderate to high heritability were recorded for peduncle length (48.75%) and number of grains per spikelet (47.2%) which associated with high genetic advance (2.3 and 0.68 respectively). However awn length and plant height had shown acceptable heritability values. The present finding suggests that most of the yield associated traits have been successfully transmitted. The information generated will be helpful for better understanding and selection of suitable, desirable material especially in advance generations. (author)
Heritability of optic disc diameters: a twin study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drobnjak, Dragana; Taarnhøj, Nina Charlotte; Mitchell, Paul
2011-01-01
, additive genetic factors (i.e. heritability) explained 77% (95% CI: 65-85%) of variation of vertical disc diameters, whereas estimated unshared environmental effect was 23% (95% CI: 15-35%). For vertical cup diameters, heritability accounted for 70% (95% CI: 55-80%) and environmental factors 30% (95% CI...
Curvature Entropy for Curved Profile Generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koichiro Sato
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature curvature entropy, quantitatively represent the features of the overall shape. The curvature entropy is calculated by the curvature distribution, and represents the complexity of a shape (one of the overall shape features. The quadrature curvature entropy is an improvement of the curvature entropy by introducing a Markov process to evaluate the continuity of a curvature and to approximate human cognition of the shape. Additionally, a shape generation method using a genetic algorithm as a calculator and the entropy as a shape generation index is presented. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated using the side view of an automobile as a design example.
Introducing quantum Ricci curvature
Klitgaard, N.; Loll, R.
2018-02-01
Motivated by the search for geometric observables in nonperturbative quantum gravity, we define a notion of coarse-grained Ricci curvature. It is based on a particular way of extracting the local Ricci curvature of a smooth Riemannian manifold by comparing the distance between pairs of spheres with that of their centers. The quantum Ricci curvature is designed for use on non-smooth and discrete metric spaces, and to satisfy the key criteria of scalability and computability. We test the prescription on a variety of regular and random piecewise flat spaces, mostly in two dimensions. This enables us to quantify its behavior for short lattices distances and compare its large-scale behavior with that of constantly curved model spaces. On the triangulated spaces considered, the quantum Ricci curvature has good averaging properties and reproduces classical characteristics on scales large compared to the discretization scale.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julien Guevar
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: To investigate computer-assisted digital radiographic measurement of Cobb angles in dogs with congenital thoracic vertebral malformations, to determine its intra- and inter-observer reliability and its association with the presence of neurological deficits. Medical records were reviewed (2009-2013 to identify brachycephalic screw-tailed dog breeds with radiographic studies of the thoracic vertebral column and with at least one vertebral malformation present. Twenty-eight dogs were included in the study. The end vertebrae were defined as the cranial end plate of the vertebra cranial to the malformed vertebra and the caudal end plate of the vertebra caudal to the malformed vertebra. Three observers performed the measurements twice. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to calculate the intra- and inter-observer reliabilities. The intraclass correlation coefficient was excellent for all intra- and inter-observer measurements using this method. There was a significant difference in the kyphotic Cobb angle between dogs with and without associated neurological deficits. The majority of dogs with neurological deficits had a kyphotic Cobb angle higher than 35°. No significant difference in the scoliotic Cobb angle was observed. We concluded that the computer assisted digital radiographic measurement of the Cobb angle for kyphosis and scoliosis is a valid, reproducible and reliable method to quantify the degree of spinal curvature in brachycephalic screw-tailed dog breeds with congenital thoracic vertebral malformations.
Review Genetic prediction models and heritability estimates for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
edward
2015-05-09
May 9, 2015 ... Heritability estimates for functional longevity have been expressed on an original or a logarithmic scale with PH models. Ducrocq & Casella (1996) defined heritability on a logarithmic scale and modified under simulation to incorporate the tri-gamma function (γ) as used by Sasaki et al. (2012) and Terawaki ...
Curvature Entropy for Curved Profile Generation
Ujiie, Yoshiki; Kato, Takeo; Sato, Koichiro; Matsuoka, Yoshiyuki
2012-01-01
In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature curvature entropy, quantitatively represent the features of the overall shape. The curvature entropy is calculated by the curvature distribu...
Curvature-Induced Instabilities of Shells
Pezzulla, Matteo; Stoop, Norbert; Steranka, Mark P.; Bade, Abdikhalaq J.; Holmes, Douglas P.
2018-01-01
Induced by proteins within the cell membrane or by differential growth, heating, or swelling, spontaneous curvatures can drastically affect the morphology of thin bodies and induce mechanical instabilities. Yet, the interaction of spontaneous curvature and geometric frustration in curved shells remains poorly understood. Via a combination of precision experiments on elastomeric spherical shells, simulations, and theory, we show how a spontaneous curvature induces a rotational symmetry-breaking buckling as well as a snapping instability reminiscent of the Venus fly trap closure mechanism. The instabilities, and their dependence on geometry, are rationalized by reducing the spontaneous curvature to an effective mechanical load. This formulation reveals a combined pressurelike term in the bulk and a torquelike term in the boundary, allowing scaling predictions for the instabilities that are in excellent agreement with experiments and simulations. Moreover, the effective pressure analogy suggests a curvature-induced subcritical buckling in closed shells. We determine the critical buckling curvature via a linear stability analysis that accounts for the combination of residual membrane and bending stresses. The prominent role of geometry in our findings suggests the applicability of the results over a wide range of scales.
Heritability of antisocial behaviour
Kretschmer, Tina; DeLisi, Matt
2016-01-01
This chapter reviews important strands of research on the heritability of antisocial behavior and crime, including both quantitative genetic studies using twin or adoption designs as well as molecular genetic approaches. Study designs are introduced and findings discussed. Contemporary avenues
Heritability of MMPI-2 scales in the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study
Gizer, Ian R.; Seaton-Smith, Kimberley L.; Ehlers, Cindy L.; Vietan, Cassandra; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.
2009-01-01
The present study evaluated the heritability of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Interview 2nd edition (MMPI-2) in a family-based sample selected for alcohol dependence. Participants included 950 probands and 1204 first-degree relatives recruited for the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study. Heritability estimates (h2) for MMPI-2 scales ranged from .25–.49. When alcohol dependence was used as a covariate, heritability estimates remained significant but generally declined. However, when the MMPI-2 scales were used as covariates to estimate the heritability of alcohol dependence, scales measuring antisocial behavior (ASP), depressive symptoms (DEP), and addictive behavior (MAC-R) led to moderate increases in the heritability of alcohol dependence. This suggests that the ASP, DEP, and MAC-R scales may explain some of the non-genetic variance in the alcohol dependence diagnosis in this population when utilized as covariates, and thus may serve to produce a more homogeneous and heritable alcohol dependence phenotype. PMID:20390702
Some Inequalities for the Lp-Curvature Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Yu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Lutwak introduced the notion of Lp-curvature image and proved an inequality for the volumes of convex body and its Lp-curvature image. In this paper, we first give an monotonic property of Lp-curvature image. Further, we establish two inequalities for the Lp-curvature image and its polar, respectively. Finally, an inequality for the volumes of Lp-projection body and Lp-curvature image is obtained.
Heritability of specific language impairment depends on diagnostic criteria.
Bishop, D V M; Hayiou-Thomas, M E
2008-04-01
Heritability estimates for specific language impairment (SLI) have been inconsistent. Four twin studies reported heritability of 0.5 or more, but a recent report from the Twins Early Development Study found negligible genetic influence in 4-year-olds. We considered whether the method of ascertainment influenced results and found substantially higher heritability if SLI was defined in terms of referral to speech and language pathology services than if defined by language test scores. Further analysis showed that presence of speech difficulties played a major role in determining whether a child had contact with services. Childhood language disorders that are identified by population screening are likely to have a different phenotype and different etiology from clinically referred cases. Genetic studies are more likely to find high heritability if they focus on cases who have speech difficulties and who have been referred for intervention.
Curvature bound from gravitational catalysis
Gies, Holger; Martini, Riccardo
2018-04-01
We determine bounds on the curvature of local patches of spacetime from the requirement of intact long-range chiral symmetry. The bounds arise from a scale-dependent analysis of gravitational catalysis and its influence on the effective potential for the chiral order parameter, as induced by fermionic fluctuations on a curved spacetime with local hyperbolic properties. The bound is expressed in terms of the local curvature scalar measured in units of a gauge-invariant coarse-graining scale. We argue that any effective field theory of quantum gravity obeying this curvature bound is safe from chiral symmetry breaking through gravitational catalysis and thus compatible with the simultaneous existence of chiral fermions in the low-energy spectrum. With increasing number of dimensions, the curvature bound in terms of the hyperbolic scale parameter becomes stronger. Applying the curvature bound to the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions translates into bounds on the matter content of particle physics models.
Heritability of the human connectome: A connectotyping study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oscar Miranda-Dominguez
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Recent progress in resting-state neuroimaging demonstrates that the brain exhibits highly individualized patterns of functional connectivity—a “connectotype.” How these individualized patterns may be constrained by environment and genetics is unknown. Here we ask whether the connectotype is familial and heritable. Using a novel approach to estimate familiality via a machine-learning framework, we analyzed resting-state fMRI scans from two well-characterized samples of child and adult siblings. First we show that individual connectotypes were reliably identified even several years after the initial scanning timepoint. Familial relationships between participants, such as siblings versus those who are unrelated, were also accurately characterized. The connectotype demonstrated substantial heritability driven by high-order systems including the fronto-parietal, dorsal attention, ventral attention, cingulo-opercular, and default systems. This work suggests that shared genetics and environment contribute toward producing complex, individualized patterns of distributed brain activity, rather than constraining local aspects of function. These insights offer new strategies for characterizing individual aberrations in brain function and evaluating heritability of brain networks. By using machine learning and two independent datasets, this report shows that the brain’s individualized functional connectome or connectotype is familial and heritable. First we expand previous findings showing that by using a model-based approach to characterize functional connectivity, we can reliably identify and track individual brain signatures—a functional “fingerprint” or “connectotype” for the human brain—in both children and adults. Such signatures can also be used to characterize familial and heritable patterns of brain connectivity, even using limited data. Most heritable systems include the fronto-parietal, dorsal attention, ventral attention
The Human Microbiome and the Missing Heritability Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santiago Sandoval-Motta
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The “missing heritability” problem states that genetic variants in Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS cannot completely explain the heritability of complex traits. Traditionally, the heritability of a phenotype is measured through familial studies using twins, siblings and other close relatives, making assumptions on the genetic similarities between them. When this heritability is compared to the one obtained through GWAS for the same traits, a substantial gap between both measurements arise with genome wide studies reporting significantly smaller values. Several mechanisms for this “missing heritability” have been proposed, such as epigenetics, epistasis, and sequencing depth. However, none of them are able to fully account for this gap in heritability. In this paper we provide evidence that suggests that in order for the phenotypic heritability of human traits to be broadly understood and accounted for, the compositional and functional diversity of the human microbiome must be taken into account. This hypothesis is based on several observations: (A The composition of the human microbiome is associated with many important traits, including obesity, cancer, and neurological disorders. (B Our microbiome encodes a second genome with nearly a 100 times more genes than the human genome, and this second genome may act as a rich source of genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity. (C Human genotypes interact with the composition and structure of our microbiome, but cannot by themselves explain microbial variation. (D Microbial genetic composition can be strongly influenced by the host's behavior, its environment or by vertical and horizontal transmissions from other hosts. Therefore, genetic similarities assumed in familial studies may cause overestimations of heritability values. We also propose a method that allows the compositional and functional diversity of our microbiome to be incorporated to genome wide association studies.
Partitioning heritability by functional category using GWAS summary statistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Finucane, Hilary K.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Gusev, Alexander
2015-01-01
Recent work has demonstrated that some functional categories of the genome contribute disproportionately to the heritability of complex diseases. Here we analyze a broad set of functional elements, including cell type-specific elements, to estimate their polygenic contributions to heritability in...
Heritability of Radiation Response in Lung Cancer Families
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.-Erich Wichmann
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Radiation sensitivity is assumed to be a cancer susceptibility factor due to impaired DNA damage signalling and repair. Relevant genetic factors may also determine the observed familial aggregation of early onset lung cancer. We investigated the heritability of radiation sensitivity in families of 177 Caucasian cases of early onset lung cancer. In total 798 individuals were characterized for their radiation-induced DNA damage response. DNA damage analysis was performed by alkaline comet assay before and after in vitro irradiation of isolated lymphocytes. The cells were exposed to a dose of 4 Gy and allowed to repair induced DNA-damage up to 60 minutes. The primary outcome parameter Olive Tail Moment was the basis for heritability estimates. Heritability was highest for basal damage (without irradiation 70% (95%-CI: 51%–88% and initial damage (directly after irradiation 65% (95%-CI: 47%–83% and decreased to 20%–48% for the residual damage after different repair times. Hence our study supports the hypothesis that genomic instability represented by the basal DNA damage as well as radiation induced and repaired damage is highly heritable. Genes influencing genome instability and DNA repair are therefore of major interest for the etiology of lung cancer in the young. The comet assay represents a proper tool to investigate heritability of the radiation sensitive phenotype. Our results are in good agreement with other mutagen sensitivity assays.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ACSS
Cultural, biological and chemical control measures have received limited ... as a percentage of the mean (GAM) and heritability were estimated using variance components. ... présente étude a été conduite afin de déterminer l'héritabilité de la ...
A remark about the mean curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Weitao.
1992-11-01
In this paper, we give an integral identity about the mean curvature in Sobolev space H 0 1 (Ω) intersection H 2 (Ω). Suppose the mean curvature on Γ=δΩ is positive, we prove some inequalities of the positive mean curvature and propose some open problems. (author). 4 refs
Spinal lordosis optimizes the requirements for a stable erect posture.
Wagner, Heiko; Liebetrau, Anne; Schinowski, David; Wulf, Thomas; de Lussanet, Marc H E
2012-04-16
Lordosis is the bending of the lumbar spine that gives the vertebral column of humans its characteristic ventrally convex curvature. Infants develop lordosis around the time when they acquire bipedal locomotion. Even macaques develop a lordosis when they are trained to walk bipedally. The aim of this study was to investigate why humans and some animals develop a lumbar lordosis while learning to walk bipedally. We developed a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine, that includes an asymmetric, dorsally shifted location of the spinal column in the body, realistic moment arms, and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA) of the muscles as well as realistic force-length and force-velocity relationships. The model was used to analyze the stability of an upright body posture. According to our results, lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column during an erect posture. At the same time lordosis increases the demands on the global muscles to provide stability. We conclude that the development of a spinal lordosis is a compromise between the stability requirements of an erect posture and the necessity of torque equilibria at each spinal segment.
Spinal lordosis optimizes the requirements for a stable erect posture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wagner Heiko
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lordosis is the bending of the lumbar spine that gives the vertebral column of humans its characteristic ventrally convex curvature. Infants develop lordosis around the time when they acquire bipedal locomotion. Even macaques develop a lordosis when they are trained to walk bipedally. The aim of this study was to investigate why humans and some animals develop a lumbar lordosis while learning to walk bipedally. Results We developed a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine, that includes an asymmetric, dorsally shifted location of the spinal column in the body, realistic moment arms, and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA of the muscles as well as realistic force-length and force-velocity relationships. The model was used to analyze the stability of an upright body posture. According to our results, lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column during an erect posture. At the same time lordosis increases the demands on the global muscles to provide stability. Conclusions We conclude that the development of a spinal lordosis is a compromise between the stability requirements of an erect posture and the necessity of torque equilibria at each spinal segment.
Heritability of tic disorders: a twin-family study.
Zilhão, N R; Olthof, M C; Smit, D J A; Cath, D C; Ligthart, L; Mathews, C A; Delucchi, K; Boomsma, D I; Dolan, C V
2017-04-01
Genetic-epidemiological studies that estimate the contributions of genetic factors to variation in tic symptoms are scarce. We estimated the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to tics, employing various phenotypic definitions ranging between mild and severe symptomatology, in a large population-based adult twin-family sample. In an extended twin-family design, we analysed lifetime tic data reported by adult mono- and dizygotic twins (n = 8323) and their family members (n = 7164; parents and siblings) from 7311 families in the Netherlands Twin Register. We measured tics by the abbreviated version of the Schedule for Tourette and Other Behavioral Syndromes. Heritability was estimated by genetic structural equation modeling for four tic disorder definitions: three dichotomous and one trichotomous phenotype, characterized by increasingly strictly defined criteria. Prevalence rates of the different tic disorders in our sample varied between 0.3 and 4.5% depending on tic disorder definition. Tic frequencies decreased with increasing age. Heritability estimates varied between 0.25 and 0.37, depending on phenotypic definitions. None of the phenotypes showed evidence of assortative mating, effects of shared environment or non-additive genetic effects. Heritabilities of mild and severe tic phenotypes were estimated to be moderate. Overlapping confidence intervals of the heritability estimates suggest overlapping genetic liabilities between the various tic phenotypes. The most lenient phenotype (defined only by tic characteristics, excluding criteria B, C and D of DSM-IV) rendered sufficiently reliable heritability estimates. These findings have implications in phenotypic definitions for future genetic studies.
Discrete Curvature Theories and Applications
Sun, Xiang
2016-08-25
Discrete Di erential Geometry (DDG) concerns discrete counterparts of notions and methods in di erential geometry. This thesis deals with a core subject in DDG, discrete curvature theories on various types of polyhedral surfaces that are practically important for free-form architecture, sunlight-redirecting shading systems, and face recognition. Modeled as polyhedral surfaces, the shapes of free-form structures may have to satisfy di erent geometric or physical constraints. We study a combination of geometry and physics { the discrete surfaces that can stand on their own, as well as having proper shapes for the manufacture. These proper shapes, known as circular and conical meshes, are closely related to discrete principal curvatures. We study curvature theories that make such surfaces possible. Shading systems of freeform building skins are new types of energy-saving structures that can re-direct the sunlight. From these systems, discrete line congruences across polyhedral surfaces can be abstracted. We develop a new curvature theory for polyhedral surfaces equipped with normal congruences { a particular type of congruences de ned by linear interpolation of vertex normals. The main results are a discussion of various de nitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula. In addition to architecture, we consider the role of discrete curvatures in face recognition. We use geometric measure theory to introduce the notion of asymptotic cones associated with a singular subspace of a Riemannian manifold, which is an extension of the classical notion of asymptotic directions. We get a simple expression of these cones for polyhedral surfaces, as well as convergence and approximation theorems. We use the asymptotic cones as facial descriptors and demonstrate the
The Position and Mobility of the Shoulder, Spinal Column and Pelvis in Seated Subjects.
1985-02-01
Considerable muscle atrophy was observed in the right shoulder. In the spinal column, tissues overlying the right sacroiliac joint felt firmer than over...subject #23 had fewer clinical findings for joint dysfunction than in the other two subjects, but the physician noted more soft tissue observations than...There was also a mild scoliotic curvature with left convexity observed at T4-6. n the pelvis, the left lumbosacral and sacroiliac joints seened to
Curvature force and dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balakin, Alexander B; Pavon, Diego; Schwarz, Dominik J; Zimdahl, Winfried
2003-01-01
A curvature self-interaction of the cosmic gas is shown to mimic a cosmological constant or other forms of dark energy, such as a rolling tachyon condensate or a Chaplygin gas. Any given Hubble rate and deceleration parameter can be traced back to the action of an effective curvature force on the gas particles. This force self-consistently reacts back on the cosmological dynamics. The links between an imperfect fluid description, a kinetic description with effective antifriction forces and curvature forces, which represent a non-minimal coupling of gravity to matter, are established
40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.
2010-07-01
... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of insects...
Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line
2017-01-01
Purpose: To determine the genetic contribution to the pattern of retinal vascular branching expressed by its fractal dimension. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 50 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic, same-sex twin pairs aged 20 to 46 years. In 50°, disc-centered fundus photographs, the reti...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0.......0002) in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins (0.108, P = 0.46), corresponding to a heritability h2 for the fractal dimension of 0.79. In quantitative genetic models, dominant genetic effects explained 54% of the variation and 46% was individually environmentally determined. Conclusions: In young adult twins...
High heritability of liability to abdominal aortic aneurysms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Christensen, Kaare; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal
2016-01-01
of genetic and environmental factors can be assessed by comparing concordance rates between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. Higher phenotypic similarity between MZ than DZ twins indicates a genetic attribution to the etiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the heritability of AAA...... among Danish twins using concordance rates and heritability estimates. METHODS: The Danish Twin Registry was used to identify all Danish twin pairs (born 1880-1971) where both twins were alive on January 1, 1977. AAA cases were then identified using the National Patient Registry and the Registry...... of Cause of Death. Probandwise concordance rates were calculated and heritability estimated using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The study identified 414 twins with AAA; 69.8% (289/414) were men and 30.2% (125/414) women. The probandwise concordance rate in MZ twins was 30% (95% CI 20...
Development and treatment of spinal deformity in patients with cerebral palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsirikos Athanasios
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Scoliosis is a common deformity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. This is usually associated with pelvic obliquity due to extension of the curve to the sacrum. Sagittal plane deformity is less common and often develops along with scoliosis. Spinal deformity in patients with severe neurological handicaps can affect their ability to sit and cause significant back pain or pain due to rib impingement against the elevated side of the pelvis on the concavity of the curvature. Surgical correction followed by spinal arthrodesis is indicated in patients with progressive deformities which interfere with their level of function and quality of life. Spinal deformity correction is a major task in children with multiple medical co-morbidities and can be associated with a high risk of complications including death. A well-coordinated multidisciplinary approach is required in the assessment and treatment of this group of patients with the aim to minimize the complication rate and secure a satisfactory surgical outcome. Good knowledge of the surgical and instrumentation techniques, as well as the principles of management is needed to achieve optimum correction of the deformity and balancing of the spine and pelvis. Spinal fusion has a well-documented positive impact even in children with quadriplegia or total body involvement and is the only surgical procedure which has such a high satisfaction rate among parents and caregivers.
Environmental influences on DNA curvature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ussery, David; Higgins, C.F.; Bolshoy, A.
1999-01-01
DNA curvature plays an important role in many biological processes. To study environmentalinfluences on DNA curvature we compared the anomalous migration on polyacrylamide gels ofligation ladders of 11 specifically-designed oligonucleotides. At low temperatures (25 degreesC and below) most......, whilst spermine enhanced theanomalous migration of a different set of sequences. Sequences with a GGC motif exhibitedgreater curvature than predicted by the presently-used angles for the nearest-neighbour wedgemodel and are especially sensitive to Mg2+. The data have implications for models...... for DNAcurvature and for environmentally-sensitive DNA conformations in the regulation of geneexpression....
Pregnancy failure and heritable thrombophilia
Middeldorp, Saskia
2007-01-01
Heritable thrombophilia is associated with an increased risk for pregnancy failure, defined as sporadic and recurrent miscarriage, late fetal loss, and other vascular pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. The pathogenesis is likely to include effects on
Comparison of the heritability of schizophrenia and endophenotypes in the COGS-1 family study.
Light, Gregory; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Calkins, Monica E; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L
2014-11-01
Twin and multiplex family studies have established significant heritability for schizophrenia (SZ), often summarized as 81%. The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-1) family study was designed to deconstruct the genetic architecture of SZ using neurocognitive and neurophysiological endophenotypes, for which heritability estimates ranged from 18% to 50% (mean = 30%). This study assessed the heritability of SZ in these families to determine whether there is a "heritability gap" between the diagnosis and related endophenotypes. Nuclear families (N = 296) with a SZ proband, an unaffected sibling, and both parents (n = 1366 subjects; mean family size = 4.6) underwent comprehensive endophenotype and clinical characterization. The Family Interview for Genetic Studies was administered to all participants and used to obtain convergent psychiatric symptom information for additional first-degree relatives of interviewed subjects (N = 3304 subjects; mean family size = 11.2). Heritability estimates of psychotic disorders were computed for both nuclear and extended families. The heritability of SZ was 31% and 44% for nuclear and extended families. The inclusion of bipolar disorder increased the heritability to 37% for the nuclear families. When major depression was added, heritability estimates dropped to 34% and 20% for nuclear and extended families, respectively. Endophenotypes and psychotic disorders exhibit comparable levels of heritability in the COGS-1 family sample. The ascertainment of families with discordant sibpairs to increase endophenotypic contrast may underestimate diagnostic heritability relative to other studies. However, population-based studies also report significantly lower heritability estimates for SZ. Collectively, these findings support the importance of endophenotype-based strategies and the dimensional view of psychosis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2014.
Heritability of cortisol response to confinement stress in European sea bass dicentrarchus labrax
Volckaert, F.A.M.; Hellemans, B.; Batargias, C.; Louro, B.; Massault, C.; Houdt, Van J.K.J.; Haley, C.; Koning, de D.J.; Canario, A.V.M.
2012-01-01
Background: In fish, the most studied production traits in terms of heritability are body weight or growth, stress or disease resistance, while heritability of cortisol levels, widely used as a measure of response to stress, is less studied. In this study, we have estimated heritabilities of two
Manifolds of positive scalar curvature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stolz, S [Department of Mathematics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame (United States)
2002-08-15
This lecture gives an survey on the problem of finding a positive scalar curvature metric on a closed manifold. The Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg conjecture and its relation to the Baum-Connes conjecture are discussed and the problem of finding a positive Ricci curvature metric on a closed manifold is explained.
Heritability of decisions and outcomes of public goods games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai eHiraishi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Prosociality is one of the most distinctive features of human beings but there are individual differences in cooperative behavior. Employing the twin method, we examined the heritability of cooperativeness and its outcomes on public goods games using a strategy method. In two experiments (Study 1 and Study 2, twin participants were asked to indicate 1 how much they would contribute to a group when they did not know how much the other group members were contributing, and 2 how much they would contribute if they knew the contributions of others. Overall, the heritability estimates were relatively small for each type of decision, but heritability was greater when participants knew that the others had made larger contributions. Using registered decisions in Study 2, we conducted five Monte Carlo simulations to examine genetic and environmental influences on the expected game payoffs. For the simulated one-shot game, the heritability estimates were small, comparable to those of game decisions. For the simulated iterated games, we found that the genetic influences first decreased, then increased as the numbers of iterations grew. The implication for the evolution of individual differences in prosociality is discussed.
Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.
2009-01-01
It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups
Tic symptom dimensions and their heritabilities in Tourette's syndrome.
de Haan, Marcel J; Delucchi, Kevin L; Mathews, Carol M; Cath, Danielle C
2015-06-01
Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (TS) is both genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous. Gene-finding strategies have had limited success, possibly because of symptom heterogeneity. This study aimed at specifically investigating heritabilities of tic symptom factors in a relatively large sample of TS patients and family members. Lifetime tic symptom data were collected in 494 diagnosed individuals in two cohorts of TS patients from the USA (n=273) and the Netherlands (n=221), and in 351 Dutch family members. Item-level factor analysis, using a tetrachoric correlation matrix in SAS (v9.2), was carried out on 23 tic symptoms from the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Three factors were identified explaining 49% of the total variance: factor 1, complex vocal tics and obscene behaviour; factor 2, body tics; and factor 3, head/neck tics. Using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routine, moderate heritabilities were found for factor 1 (h2r=0.21) and factor 3 (h2r=0.25). Lower heritability was found for overall tic severity (h2r=0.19). Bivariate analyses indicated no genetic associations between tic factors. These findings suggest that (i) three tic factors can be discerned with a distinct underlying genetic architecture and that (ii) considering the low tic heritabilities found, only focusing on the narrow-sense TS phenotype and leaving out comorbidities that are part of the broader sense tic phenotype may lead to missing heritability. Although these findings need replication in larger independent samples, they might have consequences for future genetic studies in TS.
Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam R Ferguson
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI. Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. The mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain pathways in the spinal cord may emerge with certain patterns of activity, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after spinal cord injury. We review these basic phenomena, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and discuss implications of these findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after spinal cord injury.
Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception.
Panday, Virjanand; Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kappers, Astrid M L
2014-01-24
We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle, or anti-correlated. We found that when both length and curvature are present, performance is significantly better than when only one of the two cues is available. Therefore, we conclude that there is integration of length and curvature. Moreover, if the two cues are correlated in a circular cross-section instead of in an anti-correlated way, performance is better than predicted by a combination of two independent cues. We conclude that integration of curvature and length is highly efficient when the cues in the object are combined as in a circle, which is the most common combination of curvature and length in daily life.
Heritability of young- and old-onset ischaemic stroke.
Bluher, A; Devan, W J; Holliday, E G; Nalls, M; Parolo, S; Bione, S; Giese, A K; Boncoraglio, G B; Maguire, J M; Müller-Nurasyid, M; Gieger, C; Meschia, J F; Rosand, J; Rolfs, A; Kittner, S J; Mitchell, B D; O'Connell, J R; Cheng, Y C
2015-11-01
Although the genetic contribution to stroke risk is well known, it remains unclear if young-onset stroke has a stronger genetic contribution than old-onset stroke. This study aims to compare the heritability of ischaemic stroke risk between young and old, using common genetic variants from whole-genome array data in population-based samples. This analysis included 4050 ischaemic stroke cases and 5765 controls from six study populations of European ancestry; 47% of cases were young-onset stroke (age stroke risk in these unrelated individuals, the pairwise genetic relatedness was estimated between individuals based on their whole-genome array data using a mixed linear model. Heritability was estimated separately for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke (age ≥ 55 years). Heritabilities for young-onset stroke and old-onset stroke were estimated at 42% (±8%, P genetic contribution to the risk of stroke may be higher in young-onset ischaemic stroke, although the difference was not statistically significant. © 2015 EAN.
Heritable temperament pathways to early callous–unemotional behaviour
Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.; Hyde, Luke W.
2016-01-01
Background Early callous–unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous–unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. Aims To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous–unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. Method Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous–unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways. Results Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low affiliative behaviour predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours, although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous–unemotional behaviour pathway. Conclusions Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits contribute to the development of callous–unemotional behaviours. Positive parenting can buffer these risky pathways. PMID:27765772
Zaitlen, Noah; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Bhatia, Gaurav; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L
2013-05-01
Important knowledge about the determinants of complex human phenotypes can be obtained from the estimation of heritability, the fraction of phenotypic variation in a population that is determined by genetic factors. Here, we make use of extensive phenotype data in Iceland, long-range phased genotypes, and a population-wide genealogical database to examine the heritability of 11 quantitative and 12 dichotomous phenotypes in a sample of 38,167 individuals. Most previous estimates of heritability are derived from family-based approaches such as twin studies, which may be biased upwards by epistatic interactions or shared environment. Our estimates of heritability, based on both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, are significantly lower than those from previous studies. We examine phenotypic correlations across a range of relationships, from siblings to first cousins, and find that the excess phenotypic correlation in these related individuals is predominantly due to shared environment as opposed to dominance or epistasis. We also develop a new method to jointly estimate narrow-sense heritability and the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs. Unlike existing methods, this approach permits the use of information from both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, thereby reducing the variance of estimates of heritability explained by genotyped SNPs while preventing upward bias. Our results show that common SNPs explain a larger proportion of the heritability than previously thought, with SNPs present on Illumina 300K genotyping arrays explaining more than half of the heritability for the 23 phenotypes examined in this study. Much of the remaining heritability is likely to be due to rare alleles that are not captured by standard genotyping arrays.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noah Zaitlen
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Important knowledge about the determinants of complex human phenotypes can be obtained from the estimation of heritability, the fraction of phenotypic variation in a population that is determined by genetic factors. Here, we make use of extensive phenotype data in Iceland, long-range phased genotypes, and a population-wide genealogical database to examine the heritability of 11 quantitative and 12 dichotomous phenotypes in a sample of 38,167 individuals. Most previous estimates of heritability are derived from family-based approaches such as twin studies, which may be biased upwards by epistatic interactions or shared environment. Our estimates of heritability, based on both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, are significantly lower than those from previous studies. We examine phenotypic correlations across a range of relationships, from siblings to first cousins, and find that the excess phenotypic correlation in these related individuals is predominantly due to shared environment as opposed to dominance or epistasis. We also develop a new method to jointly estimate narrow-sense heritability and the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs. Unlike existing methods, this approach permits the use of information from both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, thereby reducing the variance of estimates of heritability explained by genotyped SNPs while preventing upward bias. Our results show that common SNPs explain a larger proportion of the heritability than previously thought, with SNPs present on Illumina 300K genotyping arrays explaining more than half of the heritability for the 23 phenotypes examined in this study. Much of the remaining heritability is likely to be due to rare alleles that are not captured by standard genotyping arrays.
Heritability of antibody isotype and subclass responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nancy O Duah
2009-10-01
Full Text Available It is important to understand the extent to which genetic factors regulate acquired immunity to common infections. A classical twin study design is useful to estimate the heritable component of variation in measurable immune parameters.This study assessed the relative heritability of different plasma antibody isotypes and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, IgA and IgE naturally acquired to P. falciparum blood stage antigens AMA1, MSP1-19, MSP2 (two allelic types and MSP3 (two allelic types. Separate analyses were performed on plasma from 213 pairs of Gambian adult twins, 199 child twin pairs sampled in a dry season when there was little malaria transmission, and another set of 107 child twin pairs sampled at the end of the annual wet season when malaria was common. There were significantly positive heritability (h(2 estimates for 48% (20/42 of the specific antibody assays (for the seven isotypes and subclasses to the six antigens tested among the adults, 48% (20/42 among the children in the dry season and 31% (13/42 among the children in the wet season. In children, there were significant heritability estimates for IgG4 reactivity against each of the antigens, and this subclass had higher heritability than the other subclasses and isotypes. In adults, 75% (15/20 of the significantly heritable antigen-specific isotype responses were attributable to non-HLA class II genetic variation, whereas none showed a significant HLA contribution.Genome-wide approaches are now warranted to map the major genetic determinants of variable antibody isotype and subclass responses to malaria, alongside evaluation of their impact on infection and disease. Although plasma levels of IgG4 to malaria antigens are generally low, the exceptionally high heritability of levels of this subclass in children deserves particular investigation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hilker, Rikke; Helenius, Dorte; Fagerlund, Birgitte
2018-01-01
sample. The estimated 79% heritability of SZ is congruent with previous reports and indicates a substantial genetic risk. The high genetic risk also applies to a broader phenotype of SZ spectrum disorders. The low concordance rate of 33% in monozygotic twins demonstrates that illness vulnerability......BACKGROUND: Twin studies have provided evidence that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to schizophrenia (SZ) risk. Heritability estimates of SZ in twin samples have varied methodologically. This study provides updated heritability estimates based on nationwide twin data...... the heritability of SZ to be 79%. When expanding illness outcome to include SZ spectrum disorders, the heritability estimate was almost similar (73%). CONCLUSIONS: The key strength of this study is the application of a novel statistical method accounting for censoring in the follow-up period to a nationwide twin...
Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaevitz, Joshua W; Fletcher, Daniel A
2008-01-01
Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque
Sampson, Joshua N; Wheeler, William A; Yeager, Meredith; Panagiotou, Orestis; Wang, Zhaoming; Berndt, Sonja I; Lan, Qing; Abnet, Christian C; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Figueroa, Jonine D; Landi, Maria Teresa; Mirabello, Lisa; Savage, Sharon A; Taylor, Philip R; Vivo, Immaculata De; McGlynn, Katherine A; Purdue, Mark P; Rajaraman, Preetha; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ahlbom, Anders; Albanes, Demetrius; Amary, Maria Fernanda; An, She-Juan; Andersson, Ulrika; Andriole, Gerald; Andrulis, Irene L; Angelucci, Emanuele; Ansell, Stephen M; Arici, Cecilia; Armstrong, Bruce K; Arslan, Alan A; Austin, Melissa A; Baris, Dalsu; Barkauskas, Donald A; Bassig, Bryan A; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Benhamou, Simone; Berg, Christine; Van Den Berg, David; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Birmann, Brenda M; Black, Amanda; Boeing, Heiner; Boffetta, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie; Butler, Mary Ann; Cai, Qiuyin; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Canzian, Federico; Carrato, Alfredo; Carreon, Tania; Carta, Angela; Chan, John K C; Chang, Ellen T; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chang, I-Shou; Chang, Jiang; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Chu; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Chen, Constance; Chen, Hongyan; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chen, Ying; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Song; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Choi, Jin Eun; Choi, Yi Young; Chow, Wong-Ho; Chung, Charles C; Clavel, Jacqueline; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cocco, Pierluigi; Colt, Joanne S; Comperat, Eva; Conde, Lucia; Connors, Joseph M; Conti, David; Cortessis, Victoria K; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cozen, Wendy; Crouch, Simon; Crous-Bou, Marta; Cussenot, Olivier; Davis, Faith G; Ding, Ti; Diver, W Ryan; Dorronsoro, Miren; Dossus, Laure; Duell, Eric J; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Erickson, Ralph L; Feychting, Maria; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Foretova, Lenka; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Freedman, Neal D; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Fuchs, Charles; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; García-Closas, Reina; Gascoyne, Randy D; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Gaudet, Mia M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giffen, Carol; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Glimelius, Bengt; Goggins, Michael; Gokgoz, Nalan; Goldstein, Alisa M; Gorlick, Richard; Gross, Myron; Grubb, Robert; Gu, Jian; Guan, Peng; Gunter, Marc; Guo, Huan; Habermann, Thomas M; Haiman, Christopher A; Halai, Dina; Hallmans, Goran; Hassan, Manal; Hattinger, Claudia; He, Qincheng; He, Xingzhou; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Henderson, Brian; Henriksson, Roger; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Hohensee, Chancellor; Holford, Theodore R; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Hosain, G M Monawar; Hosgood, H Dean; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hu, Zhibin; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Hung, Jen-Yu; Hutchinson, Amy; Inskip, Peter D; Jackson, Rebecca D; Jacobs, Eric J; Jenab, Mazda; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Ji, Bu-Tian; Jin, Guangfu; Jin, Li; Johansen, Christoffer; Johnson, Alison; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kamineni, Aruna; Kane, Eleanor; Kang, Chang Hyun; Karagas, Margaret R; Kelly, Rachel S; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Christopher; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Jun Suk; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Young-Chul; Kitahara, Cari M; Klein, Alison P; Klein, Robert J; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kohno, Takashi; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Kricker, Anne; Krogh, Vittorio; Kunitoh, Hideo; Kurtz, Robert C; Kweon, Sun-Seog; LaCroix, Andrea; Lawrence, Charles; Lecanda, Fernando; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Li, Donghui; Li, Haixin; Li, Jihua; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Yuqing; Liao, Linda M; Liebow, Mark; Lightfoot, Tracy; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lin, Dongxin; Lindstrom, Sara; Linet, Martha S; Link, Brian K; Liu, Chenwei; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Li; Ljungberg, Börje; Lloreta, Josep; Lollo, Simonetta Di; Lu, Daru; Lund, Eiluv; Malats, Nuria; Mannisto, Satu; Marchand, Loic Le; Marina, Neyssa; Masala, Giovanna; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Matsuo, Keitaro; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Melbye, Mads; Melin, Beatrice S; Michaud, Dominique S; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Monnereau, Alain; Montalvan, Rebecca; Moore, Lee E; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nieters, Alexandra; North, Kari E; Novak, Anne J; Oberg, Ann L; Offit, Kenneth; Oh, In-Jae; Olson, Sara H; Palli, Domenico; Pao, William; Park, In Kyu; Park, Jae Yong; Park, Kyong Hwa; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Pavanello, Sofia; Peeters, Petra H M; Perng, Reury-Perng; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Picci, Piero; Pike, Malcolm C; Porru, Stefano; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Qian, Biyun; Qiao, You-Lin; Rais, Marco; Riboli, Elio; Riby, Jacques; Risch, Harvey A; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Rodabough, Rebecca; Roman, Eve; Roupret, Morgan; Ruder, Avima M; Sanjose, Silvia de; Scelo, Ghislaine; Schned, Alan; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Kendra; Schwenn, Molly; Scotlandi, Katia; Seow, Adeline; Serra, Consol; Serra, Massimo; Sesso, Howard D; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Severi, Gianluca; Severson, Richard K; Shanafelt, Tait D; Shen, Hongbing; Shen, Wei; Shin, Min-Ho; Shiraishi, Kouya; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Siddiq, Afshan; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Skibola, Christine F; Smith, Alex; Smith, Martyn T; Southey, Melissa C; Spinelli, John J; Staines, Anthony; Stampfer, Meir; Stern, Marianna C; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S; Su, Jian; Su, Wu-Chou; Sund, Malin; Sung, Jae Sook; Sung, Sook Whan; Tan, Wen; Tang, Wei; Tardón, Adonina; Thomas, David; Thompson, Carrie A; Tinker, Lesley F; Tirabosco, Roberto; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Tucker, Margaret; Turner, Jenny; Vajdic, Claire M; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Villano, Danylo J; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Visvanathan, Kala; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wang, Chaoyu; Wang, Chih-Liang; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Junwen; Wei, Fusheng; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weiner, George J; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wentzensen, Nicolas; White, Emily; Witzig, Thomas E; Wolpin, Brian M; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Guoping; Wu, Junjie; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Wei; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ping; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Ye, Yuanqing; Yin, Zhihua; Yokota, Jun; Yoon, Ho-Il; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zelenetz, Andrew; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Zhang, Yawei; Zhao, Xueying; Zhao, Zhenhong; Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Zhu, Meng; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Boca, Simina M; Cerhan, James R; Ferri, Giovanni M; Hartge, Patricia; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Magnani, Corrado; Miligi, Lucia; Morton, Lindsay M; Smedby, Karin E; Teras, Lauren R; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Sophia S; Brennan, Paul; Caporaso, Neil E; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra T; Slager, Susan L; Chanock, Stephen J; Chatterjee, Nilanjan
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.
Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury
Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.
2012-01-01
Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI. PMID
Heritability of retinal vascular fractals: a twin study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line
. The retinal vascular fractal dimension was measured using the box-counting method and compared within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs using Pearson correlation coefficents. Falconer´s formula and quantitative genetic models were used to determine the genetic component of variation. Results: The retinal...... for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, p=0.0002) in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins (0.108, p=0.46), corresponding to a heritability h2 for the fractal dimension of 0.79. In quantitative genetic models, 54% of the variation was explained...
H2DB: a heritability database across multiple species by annotating trait-associated genomic loci.
Kaminuma, Eli; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Naoko; Kurata, Nori; Shimizu, Tokurou; Nakamura, Yasukazu
2013-01-01
H2DB (http://tga.nig.ac.jp/h2db/), an annotation database of genetic heritability estimates for humans and other species, has been developed as a knowledge database to connect trait-associated genomic loci. Heritability estimates have been investigated for individual species, particularly in human twin studies and plant/animal breeding studies. However, there appears to be no comprehensive heritability database for both humans and other species. Here, we introduce an annotation database for genetic heritabilities of various species that was annotated by manually curating online public resources in PUBMED abstracts and journal contents. The proposed heritability database contains attribute information for trait descriptions, experimental conditions, trait-associated genomic loci and broad- and narrow-sense heritability specifications. Annotated trait-associated genomic loci, for which most are single-nucleotide polymorphisms derived from genome-wide association studies, may be valuable resources for experimental scientists. In addition, we assigned phenotype ontologies to the annotated traits for the purposes of discussing heritability distributions based on phenotypic classifications.
Collineations of the curvature tensor in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Curvature collineations for the curvature tensor, constructed from a fundamental Bianchi Type-V metric, are studied. We are concerned with a symmetry property of space-time which is called curvature collineation, and we briefly discuss the physical and kinematical properties of the models.
Haptic perception of object curvature in Parkinson's disease.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jürgen Konczak
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The haptic perception of the curvature of an object is essential for adequate object manipulation and critical for our guidance of actions. This study investigated how the ability to perceive the curvature of an object is altered by Parkinson's disease (PD.Eight healthy subjects and 11 patients with mild to moderate PD had to judge, without vision, the curvature of a virtual "box" created by a robotic manipulandum. Their hands were either moved passively along a defined curved path or they actively explored the curved curvature of a virtual wall. The curvature was either concave or convex (bulging to the left or right and was judged in two locations of the hand workspace--a left workspace location, where the curved hand path was associated with curved shoulder and elbow joint paths, and a right workspace location in which these joint paths were nearly linear. After exploring the curvature of the virtual object, subjects had to judge whether the curvature was concave or convex. Based on these data, thresholds for curvature sensitivity were established. The main findings of the study are: First, 9 out 11 PD patients (82% showed elevated thresholds for detecting convex curvatures in at least one test condition. The respective median threshold for the PD group was increased by 343% when compared to the control group. Second, when distal hand paths became less associated with proximal joint paths (right workspace, haptic acuity was reduced substantially in both groups. Third, sensitivity to hand trajectory curvature was not improved during active exploration in either group.Our data demonstrate that PD is associated with a decreased acuity of the haptic sense, which may occur already at an early stage of the disease.
Heritability of telomere length in a study of long-lived families
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Honig, Lawrence S; Kang, Min Suk; Cheng, Rong
2015-01-01
in a given age group, it has been hypothesized to be a marker of biological aging. However, the principal basis for the variation of human LTL has not been established, although various studies have reported heritability. Here, we use a family-based study of longevity to study heritability of LTL in 3037...... individuals. We show that LTL is shorter in older individuals, and in males, and has a high heritability (overall h(2) = 0.54). In the offspring generation, who are in middle-life, we find an ordinal relationship: persons more-closely-related to elderly probands have longer LTL than persons less...
Dochtermann, Ned A; Schwab, Tori; Sih, Andrew
2015-01-07
Individual animals frequently exhibit repeatable differences from other members of their population, differences now commonly referred to as 'animal personality'. Personality differences can arise, for example, from differences in permanent environmental effects--including parental and epigenetic contributors--and the effect of additive genetic variation. Although several studies have evaluated the heritability of behaviour, less is known about general patterns of heritability and additive genetic variation in animal personality. As overall variation in behaviour includes both the among-individual differences that reflect different personalities and temporary environmental effects, it is possible for personality to be largely genetically influenced even when heritability of behaviour per se is quite low. The relative contribution of additive genetic variation to personality variation can be estimated whenever both repeatability and heritability are estimated for the same data. Using published estimates to address this issue, we found that approximately 52% of animal personality variation was attributable to additive genetic variation. Thus, while the heritability of behaviour is often moderate or low, the heritability of personality is much higher. Our results therefore (i) demonstrate that genetic differences are likely to be a major contributor to variation in animal personality and (ii) support the phenotypic gambit: that evolutionary inferences drawn from repeatability estimates may often be justified. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Longitudinal surface curvature effect in magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodas, N.G.
1975-01-01
The two-dimensional motion of an incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past an electrically insulated body surface (having curvature) is studied for a given O(1) basic flow and magnetic field, when (i) the applied magnetic field is aligned with the velocity in the basic flow, and (ii) the applied magnetic field is within the body surface. 01 and 0(Re sup(1/2)) mean the first and second order approximations respectively in an exansion scheme in powers of Resup(-1/2), Re being the Reynolds number). The technique of matched asymptotic expansions is used to solve the problem. The governing partial differential equations to 0(Resup(-1/2)) boundary layer approximation are found to give similarity solutions for a family of surface curvature and pressure gradient distributions in case (i), and for uniform basic flow with analytic surface curvature distributions in case (ii). The equations are solved numerically. In case (i) it is seen that the effect of the magnetic field on the skin-friction- correction due to the curvature is very small. Also the magnetic field at the wall is reduced by the curvature on the convex side. In case (ii) the magnetic field significantly increases the skin-friction-correction due to the curvature. The effect of the magnetic field on the O(1) and O(Resup(-1/2)) skin friction coefficients increases with the increase of the electrical conductivity of the fluid. Also, at higher values of the magnetic pressure, moderate changes in the electrical conductivity do not influence the correction to the skin-friction significantly. (Auth.)
Straight-line string with curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, L.D.
1995-01-01
Classical and quantum solutions for the relativistic straight-line string with arbitrary dependence on the world surface curvature are obtained. They differ from the case of the usual Nambu-Goto interaction by the behaviour of the Regge trajectory which in general can be non-linear. A regularization of the action is considered and a comparison with relativistic point with curvature is made. 5 refs
Curvature of random walks and random polygons in confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Montemayor, A; Ziegler, U
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the curvature of equilateral random walks and polygons that are confined in a sphere. Curvature is one of several basic geometric properties that can be used to describe random walks and polygons. We show that confinement affects curvature quite strongly, and in the limit case where the confinement diameter equals the edge length the unconfined expected curvature value doubles from π/2 to π. To study curvature a simple model of an equilateral random walk in spherical confinement in dimensions 2 and 3 is introduced. For this simple model we derive explicit integral expressions for the expected value of the total curvature in both dimensions. These expressions are functions that depend only on the radius R of the confinement sphere. We then show that the values obtained by numeric integration of these expressions agrees with numerical average curvature estimates obtained from simulations of random walks. Finally, we compare the confinement effect on curvature of random walks with random polygons. (paper)
The curvature calculation mechanism based on simple cell model.
Yu, Haiyang; Fan, Xingyu; Song, Aiqi
2017-07-20
A conclusion has not yet been reached on how exactly the human visual system detects curvature. This paper demonstrates how orientation-selective simple cells can be used to construct curvature-detecting neural units. Through fixed arrangements, multiple plurality cells were constructed to simulate curvature cells with a proportional output to their curvature. In addition, this paper offers a solution to the problem of narrow detection range under fixed resolution by selecting an output value under multiple resolution. Curvature cells can be treated as concrete models of an end-stopped mechanism, and they can be used to further understand "curvature-selective" characteristics and to explain basic psychophysical findings and perceptual phenomena in current studies.
Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception
Panday, V.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.
2014-01-01
We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle,
Axonal Spheroid Accumulation In the Brainstem and Spinal Cord of A Young Angus Cow with Ataxia.
Hanshaw, D M; Finnie, J W; Manavis, J; Kessell, A E
2015-08-01
An 18-month-old Angus cow presented with rapidly developing ataxia and subsequently died. The finding of large numbers of axonal spheroids in brainstem nuclei and spinal cord grey matter, bilaterally symmetrical in distribution, was consistent with a histopathological diagnosis of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD). Most of the axonal swellings were immunopositive to amyloid precursor protein, suggesting that interruption to axonal flow was important in their genesis. The topographical distribution of axonal spheroids in the brain and spinal cord in this bovine case closely resembled that found in the ovine neurodegenerative disorder termed NAD, in which axonal swellings are the major pathological feature. This appears to be the first reported case of this type of NAD in cattle. The aetiology of the spheroidal aggregations in this case was not determined. There was no evidence from the case history or neuropathology to indicate whether the axonal spheroids in this case involved an acquired or heritable aetiology. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.
Heritability of Verbal and Performance Intelligence in a Pediatric Longitudinal Sample
van Soelen, I.L.C.; Brouwer, R.M.; van Leeuwen, M.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.
2011-01-01
The longitudinal stability of IQ is well-documented as is its increasing heritability with age. In a longitudinal twin study, we addressed the question to what extent heritability and stability differ for full scale (FSIQ), verbal (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) in childhood (age 9-11 years), and
Heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G Mandela Fernández-Grandon
Full Text Available Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124 for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354 for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development.
Evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Tomohiro
2009-01-01
This paper considers warm inflation as an interesting application of multi-field inflation. Delta-N formalism is used for the calculation of the evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation. Although the perturbations considered in this paper are decaying after the horizon exit, the corrections to the curvature perturbations sourced by these perturbations can remain and dominate the curvature perturbations at large scales. In addition to the typical evolution of the curvature perturbations, inhomogeneous diffusion rate is considered for warm inflation, which may lead to significant non-Gaussianity of the spectrum
Weyl tensors for asymmetric complex curvatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, C.G.
Considering a second rank Hermitian field tensor and a general Hermitian connection the associated complex curvature tensor is constructed. The Weyl tensor that corresponds to this complex curvature is determined. The formalism is applied to the Weyl unitary field theory and to the Moffat gravitational theory. (Author) [pt
Correlation and heritability Analysis in the genetic improvement of camu-camu
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Pinedo Panduro
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In Peru and Brazil have been made between 2002 and 2011, correlation and heritability in search of tools for genetic improvement of camu-camu. We studied basic collections, comparative and progeny clones exist in the INIA, IIAP and INPA. The length of petiole (LP, has a half heritability (in the broad sense of h2 g = 0.42 and correlation coefficients of r2 = 0.37 with fruit yield and r2 = 0.54 with fruit weight. Basal branch number (NRB also shows levels of heritability average (in the strict sense: h2 a = 0.45 and h2 g = 0.33 in the broad sense. NRB in turn significantly correlated with fruit yield (RF (r2 = 0.43, fruit weight (FW (r2 = 0.38 and ascorbic acid (AA (r2 =- 0.30. The values of pH and soluble solids (degrees Brix of the pulp showed a high correlation with AA (r2 = 0.85 and r2 = 0.94 respectively. In light of the information correlation and heritability, we emphasize that the parameters "number of basal branches", "petiole length" and "fruit weight" and present a relatively high correlation with "yield fruit" also have a level intermediate heritability, which qualify them as important tools for the selection of superior plants camu-camu
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin; Zeng, Wei; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming; Gu, Xianfengdavid
2014-01-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin
2014-06-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lea K Davis
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and Tourette Syndrome (TS, using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se = 0.09, p = 5.64e-12 for TS, and 0.37 (se = 0.07, p = 1.5e-07 for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs. Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se = 0.15, p = 0.002. These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures.
Curvature constraints from the causal entropic principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozek, Brandon; Albrecht, Andreas; Phillips, Daniel
2009-01-01
Current cosmological observations indicate a preference for a cosmological constant that is drastically smaller than what can be explained by conventional particle physics. The causal entropic principle (Bousso et al.) provides an alternative approach to anthropic attempts to predict our observed value of the cosmological constant by calculating the entropy created within a causal diamond. We have extended this work to use the causal entropic principle to predict the preferred curvature within the 'multiverse'. We have found that values larger than ρ k =40ρ m are disfavored by more than 99.99% peak value at ρ Λ =7.9x10 -123 and ρ k =4.3ρ m for open universes. For universes that allow only positive curvature or both positive and negative curvature, we find a correlation between curvature and dark energy that leads to an extended region of preferred values. Our universe is found to be disfavored to an extent depending on the priors on curvature. We also provide a comparison to previous anthropic constraints on open universes and discuss future directions for this work.
Heritability of ECG Biomarkers in the Netherlands Twin Registry Measured from Holter ECGs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emily C Hodkinson
2016-04-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONThe resting ECG is the most commonly used tool to assess cardiac electrophysiology. Previous studies have estimated heritability of ECG parameters based on these snapshots of the cardiac electrical activity. In this study we set out to determine whether analysis of heart rate specific data from Holter ECGs allows more complete assessment of the heritability of ECG parameters.METHODS and RESULTSHolter ECGs were recorded from 221 twin pairs and analyzed using a multi-parameter beat binning approach. Heart rate dependent estimates of heritability for QRS duration, QT interval, Tpeak–Tend and Theight were calculated using structural equation modelling. QRS duration is largely determined by environmental factors whereas repolarization is primarily genetically determined. Heritability estimates of both QT interval and Theight were significantly higher when measured from Holter compared to resting ECGs and the heritability estimate of each was heart rate dependent. Analysis of the genetic contribution to correlation between repolarization parameters demonstrated that covariance of individual ECG parameters at different heart rates overlap but at each specific heart rate there was relatively little overlap in the genetic determinants of the different repolarization parameters.CONCLUSIONSHere we present the first study of heritability of repolarization parameters measured from Holter ECGs. Our data demonstrate that higher heritability can be estimated from the Holter than the resting ECG and reveals rate dependence in the genetic – environmental determinants of the ECG that has not previously been tractable. Future applications include deeper dissection of the ECG of participants with inherited cardiac electrical disease.
3D face recognition with asymptotic cones based principal curvatures
Tang, Yinhang
2015-05-01
The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.
3D face recognition with asymptotic cones based principal curvatures
Tang, Yinhang; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Di; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Wang, Yunhong; Chen, Liming
2015-01-01
The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.
Robust estimation of adaptive tensors of curvature by tensor voting.
Tong, Wai-Shun; Tang, Chi-Keung
2005-03-01
Although curvature estimation from a given mesh or regularly sampled point set is a well-studied problem, it is still challenging when the input consists of a cloud of unstructured points corrupted by misalignment error and outlier noise. Such input is ubiquitous in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a three-pass tensor voting algorithm to robustly estimate curvature tensors, from which accurate principal curvatures and directions can be calculated. Our quantitative estimation is an improvement over the previous two-pass algorithm, where only qualitative curvature estimation (sign of Gaussian curvature) is performed. To overcome misalignment errors, our improved method automatically corrects input point locations at subvoxel precision, which also rejects outliers that are uncorrectable. To adapt to different scales locally, we define the RadiusHit of a curvature tensor to quantify estimation accuracy and applicability. Our curvature estimation algorithm has been proven with detailed quantitative experiments, performing better in a variety of standard error metrics (percentage error in curvature magnitudes, absolute angle difference in curvature direction) in the presence of a large amount of misalignment noise.
Brand, Judith S; Humphreys, Keith; Thompson, Deborah J; Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila
2014-12-01
Mammographic density is a strong heritable trait, but data on its genetic component are limited to area-based and qualitative measures. We studied the heritability of volumetric mammographic density ascertained by a fully-automated method and the association with breast cancer susceptibility loci. Heritability of volumetric mammographic density was estimated with a variance component model in a sib-pair sample (N pairs = 955) of a Swedish screening based cohort. Associations with 82 established breast cancer loci were assessed in an independent sample of the same cohort (N = 4025 unrelated women) using linear models, adjusting for age, body mass index, and menopausal status. All tests were two-sided, except for heritability analyses where one-sided tests were used. After multivariable adjustment, heritability estimates (standard error) for percent dense volume, absolute dense volume, and absolute nondense volume were 0.63 (0.06) and 0.43 (0.06) and 0.61 (0.06), respectively (all P associated with rs10995190 (ZNF365; P = 9.0 × 10(-6) and 8.9 × 10(-7), respectively) and rs9485372 (TAB2; P = 1.8 × 10(-5) and 1.8 × 10(-3), respectively). We also observed associations of rs9383938 (ESR1) and rs2046210 (ESR1) with the absolute dense volume (P = 2.6 × 10(-4) and 4.6 × 10(-4), respectively), and rs6001930 (MLK1) and rs17356907 (NTN4) with the absolute nondense volume (P = 6.7 × 10(-6) and 8.4 × 10(-5), respectively). Our results support the high heritability of mammographic density, though estimates are weaker for absolute than percent dense volume. We also demonstrate that the shared genetic component with breast cancer is not restricted to dense tissues only. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Higher-order curvature terms and extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yun
1990-01-01
We consider higher-order curvature terms in context of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity, and investigate the effects of these terms on extended inflationary theories. We find that the higher-order curvature terms tend to speed up inflation, although the original extended-inflation solutions are stable when these terms are small. Analytical solutions are found for two extreme cases: when the higher-order curvature terms are small, and when they dominate. A conformal transformation is employed in solving the latter case, and some of the subtleties in this technique are discussed. We note that percolation is less likely to occur when the higher-order curvature terms are present. An upper bound on α is expected if we are to avoid excessive and inadequate percolation of true-vacuum bubbles
Heritability of Tpeak-Tend Interval and T-wave Amplitude: A Twin Study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haarmark, Christian; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Vedel-Larsen, Esben
2011-01-01
BACKGROUND: -Tpeak-Tend interval (TpTe) and T-wave amplitude (Tamp) carry diagnostic and prognostic information regarding cardiac morbidity and mortality. Heart rate and QT interval are known to be heritable traits. The heritability of T-wave morphology parameters such as TpTe and Tamp is unknown...... interval, QTpeak and QTend interval) were measured and averaged over three consecutive beats in lead V5. TpTe was calculated as the QTend and QTpeak interval difference. Heritability was assessed using structural equation models adjusting for age, gender and BMI. All models were reducible to a model...... of additive genetics and unique environment. All variables had considerable genetic components. Adjusted heritability estimates were: TpTe 46%, Tamp lead V1 34%, Tamp lead V5 47%, RR interval 55%, QT interval 67% and QTcB 42%. CONCLUSIONS: -RR interval, QT-interval, T-wave amplitude and Tpeak-Tend interval...
heritability analysis of putative drought adaptation traits
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ACSS
2014-02-11
Feb 11, 2014 ... College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Agricultural ... effects is most appropriate for drought tolerance improvement in sweetpotato. ..... GCA, SCA mean squares and heritability values for the various ...
Constraining inverse curvature gravity with supernovae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mena, Olga; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab; Weller, Jochen; /University Coll., London /Fermilab
2005-10-01
We show that the current accelerated expansion of the Universe can be explained without resorting to dark energy. Models of generalized modified gravity, with inverse powers of the curvature can have late time accelerating attractors without conflicting with solar system experiments. We have solved the Friedman equations for the full dynamical range of the evolution of the Universe. This allows us to perform a detailed analysis of Supernovae data in the context of such models that results in an excellent fit. Hence, inverse curvature gravity models represent an example of phenomenologically viable models in which the current acceleration of the Universe is driven by curvature instead of dark energy. If we further include constraints on the current expansion rate of the Universe from the Hubble Space Telescope and on the age of the Universe from globular clusters, we obtain that the matter content of the Universe is 0.07 {le} {omega}{sub m} {le} 0.21 (95% Confidence). Hence the inverse curvature gravity models considered can not explain the dynamics of the Universe just with a baryonic matter component.
Heritability estimates of the Big Five personality traits based on common genetic variants.
Power, R A; Pluess, M
2015-07-14
According to twin studies, the Big Five personality traits have substantial heritable components explaining 40-60% of the variance, but identification of associated genetic variants has remained elusive. Consequently, knowledge regarding the molecular genetic architecture of personality and to what extent it is shared across the different personality traits is limited. Using genomic-relatedness-matrix residual maximum likelihood analysis (GREML), we here estimated the heritability of the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness for experience) in a sample of 5011 European adults from 527,469 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. We tested for the heritability of each personality trait, as well as for the genetic overlap between the personality factors. We found significant and substantial heritability estimates for neuroticism (15%, s.e. = 0.08, P = 0.04) and openness (21%, s.e. = 0.08, P Big Five personality traits using the GREML approach. Findings should be considered exploratory and suggest that detectable heritability estimates based on common variants is shared between neuroticism and openness to experiences.
Novel tilt-curvature coupling in lipid membranes
Terzi, M. Mert; Deserno, Markus
2017-08-01
On mesoscopic scales, lipid membranes are well described by continuum theories whose main ingredients are the curvature of a membrane's reference surface and the tilt of its lipid constituents. In particular, Hamm and Kozlov [Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 323 (2000)] have shown how to systematically derive such a tilt-curvature Hamiltonian based on the elementary assumption of a thin fluid elastic sheet experiencing internal lateral pre-stress. Performing a dimensional reduction, they not only derive the basic form of the effective surface Hamiltonian but also express its emergent elastic couplings as trans-membrane moments of lower-level material parameters. In the present paper, we argue, though, that their derivation unfortunately missed a coupling term between curvature and tilt. This term arises because, as one moves along the membrane, the curvature-induced change of transverse distances contributes to the area strain—an effect that was believed to be small but nevertheless ends up contributing at the same (quadratic) order as all other terms in their Hamiltonian. We illustrate the consequences of this amendment by deriving the monolayer and bilayer Euler-Lagrange equations for the tilt, as well as the power spectra of shape, tilt, and director fluctuations. A particularly curious aspect of our new term is that its associated coupling constant is the second moment of the lipid monolayer's lateral stress profile—which within this framework is equal to the monolayer Gaussian curvature modulus, κ¯ m. On the one hand, this implies that many theoretical predictions now contain a parameter that is poorly known (because the Gauss-Bonnet theorem limits access to the integrated Gaussian curvature); on the other hand, the appearance of κ¯ m outside of its Gaussian curvature provenance opens opportunities for measuring it by more conventional means, for instance by monitoring a membrane's undulation spectrum at short scales.
Low Cognitive Functioning in Nondemented 80+-Year-Old Twins Is Not Heritable.
Petrill, Stephen A.; Johansson, Boo; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Berg, Stig; Plomin, Robert; Ahern, Frank; McClearn, Gerald E.
2001-01-01
Studied the genetic influence of low cognitive functioning in 200 pairs of twins aged at least 80 years and identified as not demented. Results suggest that the heritability of low cognitive functioning in this group was nonsignificant, but above-average cognitive functioning shows substantial group heritability. (SLD)
Heritability studies for seed quality traits in introgressed segregating populations of brassica
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farhatullah, S.; Nasim, A.; Fayyaz, L.
2014-01-01
Estimation of genetic parameters in the context of trait characterization is an essential component of future targeted crop improvement programs. Collection of knowledge about genetic behavior such as genetic variability and heritability etc., of the germplasm is the basic step for initiation of any breeding program. Genetic variability and Broad sense heritability for various seed quality traits in 10 brassica genotypes and their 12 F2 progenies comprising of introgressed hybrids were studied. The genotypes had highly significant variation for oil content, protein, glucosinolates contents, oleic, linolenic and erucic acid contents. Glucosinolates content and erucic acid showed high heritability in all F2 populations, while rest of the traits showed variable trends. The cross combination 547 x 118 (B. napus x B. campestris) proved to be a good interspecific hybrid that had high proportion of introgression and has high heritability for beneficial traits. The individual plants having combination of desirable traits were also identified from the F2 populations. (author)
Genetic variability and heritability estimates of some polygenic traits in upland cotton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baloch, M.J.
2004-01-01
Plant breeders are more interested in genetic variance rather than phenotypic variance because it is amenable to selection and bring further improvement in the character. Twenty-eight F/sub 2/ progenies were tested in two environments so as to predict genetic variances, heritability estimates and genetic gains. Mean squares for locations were significant for all the five traits suggesting that genotypes performed differently under varying environments. Genetic variances, in most cases, however, were about equal to that of phenotypic variances consequently giving high heritability estimates and significant genetic gains. The broad sense heritability estimates were; 94.2, 92.9, 33.6, 81.9 and 86.9% and genetic gains were; 30.19, 10.55,0.20,0.89 and 1.76 in seed cotton yield, bolls per plant, lint %, fibre length and fibre uniformity ratio, respectively. Substantial genetic variances and high heritability estimates implied that these characters could be improved through selection from segregating populations. (author)
The curvature function in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, G S; MacNay, Lucy
2006-01-01
A function, here called the curvature function, is defined and which is constructed explicitly from the type (0, 4) curvature tensor. Although such a function may be defined for any manifold admitting a metric, attention is here concentrated on this function on a spacetime. Some properties of this function are explored and compared with a previous discussion of it given by Petrov
Will Big Data Close the Missing Heritability Gap?
Kim, Hwasoon; Grueneberg, Alexander; Vazquez, Ana I; Hsu, Stephen; de Los Campos, Gustavo
2017-11-01
Despite the important discoveries reported by genome-wide association (GWA) studies, for most traits and diseases the prediction R-squared (R-sq.) achieved with genetic scores remains considerably lower than the trait heritability. Modern biobanks will soon deliver unprecedentedly large biomedical data sets: Will the advent of big data close the gap between the trait heritability and the proportion of variance that can be explained by a genomic predictor? We addressed this question using Bayesian methods and a data analysis approach that produces a surface response relating prediction R-sq. with sample size and model complexity ( e.g. , number of SNPs). We applied the methodology to data from the interim release of the UK Biobank. Focusing on human height as a model trait and using 80,000 records for model training, we achieved a prediction R-sq. in testing ( n = 22,221) of 0.24 (95% C.I.: 0.23-0.25). Our estimates show that prediction R-sq. increases with sample size, reaching an estimated plateau at values that ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 for models using 500 and 50,000 (GWA-selected) SNPs, respectively. Soon much larger data sets will become available. Using the estimated surface response, we forecast that larger sample sizes will lead to further improvements in prediction R-sq. We conclude that big data will lead to a substantial reduction of the gap between trait heritability and the proportion of interindividual differences that can be explained with a genomic predictor. However, even with the power of big data, for complex traits we anticipate that the gap between prediction R-sq. and trait heritability will not be fully closed. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.
Functional heterogeneity and heritability in CHO cell populations.
Davies, Sarah L; Lovelady, Clare S; Grainger, Rhian K; Racher, Andrew J; Young, Robert J; James, David C
2013-01-01
In this study, we address the hypothesis that it is possible to exploit genetic/functional variation in parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell populations to isolate clonal derivatives that exhibit superior, heritable attributes for biomanufacturing--new parental cell lines which are inherently more "fit for purpose." One-hundred and ninety-nine CHOK1SV clones were isolated from a donor CHOK1SV parental population by limiting dilution cloning and microplate image analysis, followed by primary analysis of variation in cell-specific proliferation rate during extended deep-well microplate suspension culture of individual clones to accelerate genetic drift in isolated cultures. A subset of 100 clones were comparatively evaluated for transient production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (Mab) and green fluorescent protein following transfection of a plasmid vector encoding both genes. The heritability of both cell-specific proliferation rate and Mab production was further assessed using a subset of 23 clones varying in functional capability that were subjected to cell culture regimes involving both cryopreservation and extended sub-culture. These data showed that whilst differences in transient Mab production capability were not heritable per se, clones exhibiting heritable variation in specific proliferation rate, endocytotic transfectability and N-glycan processing were identified. Finally, for clonal populations most "evolved" by extended sub-culture in vitro we investigated the relationship between cellular protein biomass content, specific proliferation rate and cell surface N-glycosylation. Rapid-specific proliferation rate was inversely correlated to CHO cell size and protein content, and positively correlated to cell surface glycan content, although substantial clone-specific variation in ability to accumulate cell biomass was evident. Taken together, our data reveal the dynamic nature of the CHO cell functional genome and the potential to evolve and
Estimating the Broad-Sense Heritability of Early Growth of Cowpea
Xu, Nicole W.; Xu, Shizhong; Ehlers, Jeff
2009-01-01
Cowpea is an important tropical crop. It provides a large proportion of the food resource for the African human population and their livestock. The yield and quality of cowpea have been dramatically improved through traditional breeding strategies for the past few decades. However, reports of heritability estimates for early growth of cowpea are rare. We designed a simple experiment to estimate the broad-sense heritability of early growth. We randomly selected 15 cowpea varieties among a tota...
Heritability of myopia and ocular biometrics in Koreans: the healthy twin study.
Kim, Myung Hun; Zhao, Di; Kim, Woori; Lim, Dong-Hui; Song, Yun-Mi; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee; Sung, Joohon; Chung, Eui-Sang; Chung, Tae-Young
2013-05-01
To estimate the heritabilities of myopia and ocular biometrics among different family types among a Korean population. We studied 1508 adults in the Healthy Twin Study. Spherical equivalent, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal astigmatism were measured by refraction, corneal topography, and A-scan ultrasonography. To see the degree of resemblance among different types of family relationships, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Variance-component methods were applied to estimate the genetic contributions to eye phenotypes as heritability based on the maximum likelihood estimation. Narrow sense heritability was calculated as the proportion of the total phenotypic variance explained by additive genetic effects, and linear and nonlinear effects of age, sex, and interactions between age and sex were adjusted. A total of 240 monozygotic twin pairs, 45 dizygotic twin pairs, and 938 singleton adult family members who were first-degree relatives of twins in 345 families were included in the study. ICCs for spherical equivalent from monozygotic twins, pooled first-degree pairs, and spouse pairs were 0.83, 0.34, and 0.20, respectively. The ICCs of other ocular biometrics were also significantly higher in monozygotic twins compared with other relative pairs, with greater consistency and conformity. The estimated narrow sense heritability (95% confidence interval) was 0.78 (0.71-0.84) for spherical equivalent; 0.86 (0.82-0.90) for axial length; 0.83 (0.76-0.91) for anterior chamber depth; and 0.70 (0.63-0.77) for corneal astigmatism. The estimated heritability of spherical equivalent and ocular biometrics in the Korean population suggests the compelling evidence that all traits are highly heritable.
Interpreting estimates of heritability--a note on the twin decomposition.
Stenberg, Anders
2013-03-01
While most outcomes may in part be genetically mediated, quantifying genetic heritability is a different matter. To explore data on twins and decompose the variation is a classical method to determine whether variation in outcomes, e.g. IQ or schooling, originate from genetic endowments or environmental factors. Despite some criticism, the model is still widely used. The critique is generally related to how estimates of heritability may encompass environmental mediation. This aspect is sometimes left implicit by authors even though its relevance for the interpretation is potentially profound. This short note is an appeal for clarity from authors when interpreting the magnitude of heritability estimates. It is demonstrated how disregarding existing theoretical contributions can easily lead to unnecessary misinterpretations and/or controversies. The key arguments are relevant also for estimates based on data of adopted children or from modern molecular genetics research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature (“meshed” network to negative curvature (“core concentric” network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.
Inverse curvature flows in asymptotically Robertson Walker spaces
Kröner, Heiko
2018-04-01
In this paper we consider inverse curvature flows in a Lorentzian manifold N which is the topological product of the real numbers with a closed Riemannian manifold and equipped with a Lorentzian metric having a future singularity so that N is asymptotically Robertson Walker. The flow speeds are future directed and given by 1 / F where F is a homogeneous degree one curvature function of class (K*) of the principal curvatures, i.e. the n-th root of the Gauss curvature. We prove longtime existence of these flows and that the flow hypersurfaces converge to smooth functions when they are rescaled with a proper factor which results from the asymptotics of the metric.
Gjerde, L C; Czajkowski, N; Røysamb, E; Orstavik, R E; Knudsen, G P; Ostby, K; Torgersen, S; Myers, J; Kendler, K S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T
2012-12-01
Personality disorders (PDs) have been shown to be modestly heritable. Accurate heritability estimates are, however, dependent on reliable measurement methods, as measurement error deflates heritability. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of DSM-IV avoidant and dependent personality disorder, by including two measures of the PDs at two time points. Data were obtained from a population-based cohort of young adult Norwegian twins, of whom 8045 had completed a self-report questionnaire assessing PD traits. 2794 of these twins subsequently underwent a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Questionnaire items predicting interview results were selected by multiple regression, and measurement models of the PDs were fitted in Mx. The heritabilities of the PD factors were 0.64 for avoidant PD and 0.66 for dependent PD. No evidence of common environment, that is, environmental factors that are shared between twins and make them similar, was found. Genetic and environmental contributions to avoidant and dependent PD seemed to be the same across sexes. The combination of both a questionnaire- and an interview assessment of avoidant and dependent PD results in substantially higher heritabilities than previously found using single-occasion interviews only. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Hocquelet, Arnaud; Cornelis, François; Jirot, Anna; Castaings, Laurent; de Sèze, Mathieu; Hauger, Olivier
2016-10-01
The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy and reliability of spinal curvatures and vertebral rotation data based on patient-specific 3D models created by 3D imaging system or by bi-planar imaging coupled with Moiré-Fringe projections. Sixty-two consecutive patients from a single institution were prospectively included. For each patient, frontal and sagittal calibrated low-dose bi-planar X-rays were performed and coupled simultaneously with an optical Moiré back surface-based technology. The 3D reconstructions of spine and pelvis were performed independently by one radiologist and one technician in radiology using two different semi-automatic methods using 3D radio-imaging system (method 1) or bi-planar imaging coupled with Moiré projections (method 2). Both methods were compared using Bland-Altman analysis, and reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC showed good to very good agreement. Between the two techniques, the maximum 95 % prediction limits was -4.9° degrees for the measurements of spinal coronal curves and less than 5° for other parameters. Inter-rater reliability was excellent for all parameters across both methods, except for axial rotation with method 2 for which ICC was fair. Method 1 was faster for reconstruction time than method 2 for both readers (13.4 vs. 20.7 min and 10.6 vs. 13.9 min; p = 0.0001). While a lower accuracy was observed for the evaluation of the axial rotation, bi-planar imaging coupled with Moiré-Fringe projections may be an accurate and reliable tool to perform 3D reconstructions of the spine and pelvis.
Curvature driven instabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, P.
1986-11-01
The electromagnetic ballooning mode, the curvature driven trapped electron mode and the toroidally induced ion temperature gradient mode have been studies. Eigenvalue equations have been derived and solved both numerically and analytically. For electromagnetic ballooning modes the effects of convective damping, finite Larmor radius, higher order curvature terms, and temperature gradients have been investigated. A fully toroidal fluid ion model has been developed. It is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for an instability below the MHD limit is the presence of an ion temperature gradient. Analytical dispersion relations giving results in good agreement with numerical solutions are also presented. The curvature driven trapped electron modes are found to be unstable for virtually all parameters with growth rates of the order of the diamagnetic drift frequency. Studies have been made, using both a gyrokinetic ion description and the fully toroidal ion model. Both analytical and numerical results are presented and are found to be in good agreement. The toroidally induced ion temperature gradients modes are found to have a behavior similar to that of the curvature driven trapped electron modes and can in the electrostatic limit be described by a simple quadratic dispersion equation. (author)
Sex differences in heritability of neck Pain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm
2006-01-01
Experimental studies have suggested biological factors as a possible explanation for gender disparities in perception of pain. Recently, heritability of liability to neck pain (NP) has been found to be statistically significantly larger in women compared to men. However, no studies have been...... conducted to determine whether the sex differences in heritability of NP are due to sex-specific genetic factors. Data on lifetime prevalence of NP from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 33,794 Danish twins were collected and age-stratified univariate biometrical modeling using sex......-limitation models was performed based on 10,605 dizygotic (DZ) twins of opposite sex to estimate the qualitative sex differences. In a full sex-limitation model the genetic component in females were higher than in males, but the genetic and the shared environmental correlations were equal to what is normally...
Statistical mechanics of paths with curvature dependent action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.; Jonsson, T.
1987-01-01
We analyze the scaling limit of discretized random paths with curvature dependent action. For finite values of the curvature coupling constant the theory belongs to the universality class of simple random walk. It is possible to define a non-trivial scaling limit if the curvature coupling tends to infinity. We compute exactly the two point function in this limit and discuss the relevance of our results for random surfaces and string theories. (orig.)
GDP growth and the yield curvature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Stig Vinther
2014-01-01
This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....
Low heritability of nest construction in a wild bird.
Järvinen, Pauliina; Kluen, Edward; Brommer, Jon E
2017-10-01
In birds and other taxa, nest construction varies considerably between and within populations. Such variation is hypothesized to have an adaptive (i.e. genetic) basis, but estimates of heritability in nest construction are largely lacking. Here, we demonstrate with data collected over 10 years from 1010 nests built by blue tits in nest-boxes that nest size (height of nest material) and nest composition (proportion of feathers in the nest) are repeatable but only weakly (12-13%) heritable female traits. These findings imply that nest construction may evolve but only if subjected to strong and consistent selection pressures. © 2017 The Author(s).
Face recognition based on depth maps and surface curvature
Gordon, Gaile G.
1991-09-01
This paper explores the representation of the human face by features based on the curvature of the face surface. Curature captures many features necessary to accurately describe the face, such as the shape of the forehead, jawline, and cheeks, which are not easily detected from standard intensity images. Moreover, the value of curvature at a point on the surface is also viewpoint invariant. Until recently range data of high enough resolution and accuracy to perform useful curvature calculations on the scale of the human face had been unavailable. Although several researchers have worked on the problem of interpreting range data from curved (although usually highly geometrically structured) surfaces, the main approaches have centered on segmentation by signs of mean and Gaussian curvature which have not proved sufficient in themselves for the case of the human face. This paper details the calculation of principal curvature for a particular data set, the calculation of general surface descriptors based on curvature, and the calculation of face specific descriptors based both on curvature features and a priori knowledge about the structure of the face. These face specific descriptors can be incorporated into many different recognition strategies. A system that implements one such strategy, depth template comparison, giving recognition rates between 80% and 90% is described.
INVESTIGATION OF CURVES SET BY CUBIC DISTRIBUTION OF CURVATURE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Ustenko
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Further development of the geometric modeling of curvelinear contours of different objects based on the specified cubic curvature distribution and setpoints of curvature in the boundary points. Methodology. We investigate the flat section of the curvilinear contour generating under condition that cubic curvature distribution is set. Curve begins and ends at the given points, where angles of tangent slope and curvature are also determined. It was obtained the curvature equation of this curve, depending on the section length and coefficient c of cubic curvature distribution. The analysis of obtained equation was carried out. As well as, it was investigated the conditions, in which the inflection points of the curve are appearing. One should find such an interval of parameter change (depending on the input data and the section length, in order to place the inflection point of the curvature graph outside the curve section borders. It was determined the dependence of tangent slope of angle to the curve at its arbitrary point, as well as it was given the recommendations to solve a system of integral equations that allow finding the length of the curve section and the coefficient c of curvature cubic distribution. Findings. As the result of curves research, it is found that the criterion for their selection one can consider the absence of inflection points of the curvature on the observed section. Influence analysis of the parameter c on the graph of tangent slope angle to the curve showed that regardless of its value, it is provided the same rate of angle increase of tangent slope to the curve. Originality. It is improved the approach to geometric modeling of curves based on cubic curvature distribution with its given values at the boundary points by eliminating the inflection points from the observed section of curvilinear contours. Practical value. Curves obtained using the proposed method can be used for geometric modeling of curvilinear
Generalized Curvature-Matter Couplings in Modified Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiberiu Harko
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this work, we review a plethora of modified theories of gravity with generalized curvature-matter couplings. The explicit nonminimal couplings, for instance, between an arbitrary function of the scalar curvature R and the Lagrangian density of matter, induces a non-vanishing covariant derivative of the energy-momentum tensor, implying non-geodesic motion and, consequently, leads to the appearance of an extra force. Applied to the cosmological context, these curvature-matter couplings lead to interesting phenomenology, where one can obtain a unified description of the cosmological epochs. We also consider the possibility that the behavior of the galactic flat rotation curves can be explained in the framework of the curvature-matter coupling models, where the extra terms in the gravitational field equations modify the equations of motion of test particles and induce a supplementary gravitational interaction. In addition to this, these models are extremely useful for describing dark energy-dark matter interactions and for explaining the late-time cosmic acceleration.
A curvature theory for discrete surfaces based on mesh parallelity
Bobenko, Alexander Ivanovich
2009-12-18
We consider a general theory of curvatures of discrete surfaces equipped with edgewise parallel Gauss images, and where mean and Gaussian curvatures of faces are derived from the faces\\' areas and mixed areas. Remarkably these notions are capable of unifying notable previously defined classes of surfaces, such as discrete isothermic minimal surfaces and surfaces of constant mean curvature. We discuss various types of natural Gauss images, the existence of principal curvatures, constant curvature surfaces, Christoffel duality, Koenigs nets, contact element nets, s-isothermic nets, and interesting special cases such as discrete Delaunay surfaces derived from elliptic billiards. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Disease Heritability Inferred from Familial Relationships Reported in Medical Records.
Polubriaginof, Fernanda C G; Vanguri, Rami; Quinnies, Kayla; Belbin, Gillian M; Yahi, Alexandre; Salmasian, Hojjat; Lorberbaum, Tal; Nwankwo, Victor; Li, Li; Shervey, Mark M; Glowe, Patricia; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Simmerling, Mary; Hripcsak, George; Bakken, Suzanne; Goldstein, David; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kenny, Eimear E; Dudley, Joel; Vawdrey, David K; Tatonetti, Nicholas P
2018-05-15
Heritability is essential for understanding the biological causes of disease but requires laborious patient recruitment and phenotype ascertainment. Electronic health records (EHRs) passively capture a wide range of clinically relevant data and provide a resource for studying the heritability of traits that are not typically accessible. EHRs contain next-of-kin information collected via patient emergency contact forms, but until now, these data have gone unused in research. We mined emergency contact data at three academic medical centers and identified 7.4 million familial relationships while maintaining patient privacy. Identified relationships were consistent with genetically derived relatedness. We used EHR data to compute heritability estimates for 500 disease phenotypes. Overall, estimates were consistent with the literature and between sites. Inconsistencies were indicative of limitations and opportunities unique to EHR research. These analyses provide a validation of the use of EHRs for genetics and disease research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fejer, R; Hartvigsen, J; Kyvik, K O
2006-01-01
73%) answered the questions regarding neck pain. Probandwise concordance rates, zygosity-specific odds ratios and tetrachoric correlations showed a significant genetic effect on neck pain. An overall additive genetic component of 44% was found. The genetic effect decreased with age, accounting...... for only 10% in the oldest male group and 0% in the oldest female group. There was a statistically significant difference in heritability between males and females (34 vs 52%, P... gradually less important with increasing age, and environmental factors dominate almost completely in the older age groups....
Translating solitons to symplectic and Lagrangian mean curvature flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Xiaoli; Li Jiayu
2007-05-01
In this paper, we construct finite blow-up examples for symplectic mean curvature flows and we study symplectic translating solitons. We prove that there is no translating solitons with vertical bar α vertical bar ≤ α 0 to the symplectic mean curvature flow or to the almost calibrated Lagrangian mean curvature flow for some α 0 . (author)
Curvature reduces bending strains in the quokka femur
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyle McCabe
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This study explores how curvature in the quokka femur may help to reduce bending strain during locomotion. The quokka is a small wallaby, but the curvature of the femur and the muscles active during stance phase are similar to most quadrupedal mammals. Our hypothesis is that the action of hip extensor and ankle plantarflexor muscles during stance phase place cranial bending strains that act to reduce the caudal curvature of the femur. Knee extensors and biarticular muscles that span the femur longitudinally create caudal bending strains in the caudally curved (concave caudal side bone. These opposing strains can balance each other and result in less strain on the bone. We test this idea by comparing the performance of a normally curved finite element model of the quokka femur to a digitally straightened version of the same bone. The normally curved model is indeed less strained than the straightened version. To further examine the relationship between curvature and the strains in the femoral models, we also tested an extra-curved and a reverse-curved version with the same loads. There appears to be a linear relationship between the curvature and the strains experienced by the models. These results demonstrate that longitudinal curvature in bones may be a manipulable mechanism whereby bone can induce a strain gradient to oppose strains induced by habitual loading.
Sequence periodicity in nucleosomal DNA and intrinsic curvature.
Nair, T Murlidharan
2010-05-17
Most eukaryotic DNA contained in the nucleus is packaged by wrapping DNA around histone octamers. Histones are ubiquitous and bind most regions of chromosomal DNA. In order to achieve smooth wrapping of the DNA around the histone octamer, the DNA duplex should be able to deform and should possess intrinsic curvature. The deformability of DNA is a result of the non-parallelness of base pair stacks. The stacking interaction between base pairs is sequence dependent. The higher the stacking energy the more rigid the DNA helix, thus it is natural to expect that sequences that are involved in wrapping around the histone octamer should be unstacked and possess intrinsic curvature. Intrinsic curvature has been shown to be dictated by the periodic recurrence of certain dinucleotides. Several genome-wide studies directed towards mapping of nucleosome positions have revealed periodicity associated with certain stretches of sequences. In the current study, these sequences have been analyzed with a view to understand their sequence-dependent structures. Higher order DNA structures and the distribution of molecular bend loci associated with 146 base nucleosome core DNA sequence from C. elegans and chicken have been analyzed using the theoretical model for DNA curvature. The curvature dispersion calculated by cyclically permuting the sequences revealed that the molecular bend loci were delocalized throughout the nucleosome core region and had varying degrees of intrinsic curvature. The higher order structures associated with nucleosomes of C.elegans and chicken calculated from the sequences revealed heterogeneity with respect to the deviation of the DNA axis. The results points to the possibility of context dependent curvature of varying degrees to be associated with nucleosomal DNA.
Lecture notes on mean curvature flow, barriers and singular perturbations
Bellettini, Giovanni
2013-01-01
The aim of the book is to study some aspects of geometric evolutions, such as mean curvature flow and anisotropic mean curvature flow of hypersurfaces. We analyze the origin of such flows and their geometric and variational nature. Some of the most important aspects of mean curvature flow are described, such as the comparison principle and its use in the definition of suitable weak solutions. The anisotropic evolutions, which can be considered as a generalization of mean curvature flow, are studied from the view point of Finsler geometry. Concerning singular perturbations, we discuss the convergence of the Allen–Cahn (or Ginsburg–Landau) type equations to (possibly anisotropic) mean curvature flow before the onset of singularities in the limit problem. We study such kinds of asymptotic problems also in the static case, showing convergence to prescribed curvature-type problems.
Narinc, D; Aygun, A; Karaman, E; Aksoy, T
2015-07-01
The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell ratio, egg shell strength, egg length, egg width and shell weight in Japanese quail eggs. External egg quality traits were measured on 5864 eggs of 934 female quails from a dam line selected for two generations. Within the Bayesian framework, using Gibbs Sampling algorithm, a multivariate animal model was applied to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for external egg quality traits. The heritability estimates for external egg quality traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.29 to 0.81. The heritability estimates for egg and shell weight of 0.81 and 0.76 were fairly high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between egg shell strength with specific gravity, shell ratio and shell weight ranging from 0.55 to 0.79 were relatively high. It can be concluded that it is possible to determine egg shell quality using the egg specific gravity values utilizing its high heritability and fairly high positive correlation with most of the egg shell quality traits. As a result, egg specific gravity may be the choice of selection criterion rather than other external egg traits for genetic improvement of egg shell quality in Japanese quails.
Novel Molecular Therapies for Heritable Skin Disorders
Uitto, Jouni; Christiano, Angela M.; Irwin McLean, W. H.; McGrath, John A.
2013-01-01
Tremendous progress has been made in the past two decades in molecular genetics of heritable skin diseases, and pathogenic mutations have been identified in as many as 500 distinct human genes. This progress has resulted in improved diagnosis with prognostic implications, refined genetic counseling, and has formed the basis for prenatal and presymptomatic testing as well as preimplantation genetic diagnosis. However, there has been relatively little progress in developing effective and specific treatments for these often devastating diseases. Very recently, however, a number of novel molecular strategies, including gene therapy, cell-based approaches, and protein replacement therapy have been explored for treatment of these conditions. This overview will focus on the prototypic heritable blistering disorders, epidermolysis bullosa and related keratinopathies, in which significant progress has been recently made towards treatment, and illustrate how some of the translational research therapies have already entered the clinical arena. PMID:22158553
Heritability of Performance Deficit Accumulation During Acute Sleep Deprivation in Twins
Kuna, Samuel T.; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Frances M.; Staley, Bethany; Hachadoorian, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F.; Pack, Allan I.
2012-01-01
Study Objectives: To determine if the large and highly reproducible interindividual differences in rates of performance deficit accumulation during sleep deprivation, as determined by the number of lapses on a sustained reaction time test, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), arise from a heritable trait. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: There were 59 monozygotic (mean age 29.2 ± 6.8 [SD] yr; 15 male and 44 female pairs) and 41 dizygotic (mean age 26.6 ± 7.6 yr; 15 male and 26 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs with a normal polysomnogram. Interventions: Thirty-eight hr of monitored, continuous sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Patients performed the 10-min PVT every 2 hr during the sleep deprivation protocol. The primary outcome was change from baseline in square root transformed total lapses (response time ≥ 500 ms) per trial. Patient-specific linear rates of performance deficit accumulation were separated from circadian effects using multiple linear regression. Using the classic approach to assess heritability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for accumulating deficits resulted in a broad sense heritability (h2) estimate of 0.834. The mean within-pair and among-pair heritability estimates determined by analysis of variance-based methods was 0.715. When variance components of mixed-effect multilevel models were estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and used to determine the proportions of phenotypic variance explained by genetic and nongenetic factors, 51.1% (standard error = 8.4%, P sleep deprivation. Citation: Kuna ST; Maislin G; Pack FM; Staley B; Hachadoorian R; Coccaro EF; Pack AI. Heritability of performance deficit accumulation during acute sleep deprivation in twins. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1223-1233. PMID:22942500
Dynamic curvature sensing employing ionic-polymer–metal composite sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahramzadeh, Yousef; Shahinpoor, Mohsen
2011-01-01
A dynamic curvature sensor is presented based on ionic-polymer–metal composite (IPMC) for curvature monitoring of deployable/inflatable dynamic space structures. Monitoring the curvature variation is of high importance in various engineering structures including shape monitoring of deployable/inflatable space structures in which the structural boundaries undergo a dynamic deployment process. The high sensitivity of IPMCs to the applied deformations as well as its flexibility make IPMCs a promising candidate for sensing of dynamic curvature changes. Herein, we explore the dynamic response of an IPMC sensor strip with respect to controlled curvature deformations subjected to different forms of input functions. Using a specially designed experimental setup, the voltage recovery effect, phase delay, and rate dependency of the output voltage signal of an IPMC curvature sensor are analyzed. Experimental results show that the IPMC sensor maintains the linearity, sensitivity, and repeatability required for curvature sensing. Besides, in order to describe the dynamic phenomena such as the rate dependency of the IPMC sensor, a chemo-electro-mechanical model based on the Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) equation for the kinetics of ion diffusion is presented. By solving the governing partial differential equations the frequency response of the IPMC sensor is derived. The physical model is able to describe the dynamic properties of the IPMC sensor and the dependency of the signal on rate of excitations
Heritability, variance components and genetic advance of some ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Heritability, variance components and genetic advance of some yield and yield related traits in Ethiopian ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... randomized complete block design at Adet Agricultural Research Station in 2008 cropping season.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Smet, A.A.
1985-01-01
This book offers the only comprehensive, concise summary of both the clinical and radiologic features of thoracic and lumbar spine deformity. Emphasis is placed on idiopathic scoliosis, which represents 85% of all patients with scoliosis, but less common areas of secondary scoliosis, kyphosis and lordosis are also covered
Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Del Re, Elisabetta C; Lam, Max; DeLisi, Lynn E; Donohoe, Gary; Walters, James T R; Seidman, Larry J; Petryshen, Tracey L
2017-07-01
Schizophrenia is characterized by neuropsychological deficits across many cognitive domains. Cognitive phenotypes with high heritability and genetic overlap with schizophrenia liability can help elucidate the mechanisms leading from genes to psychopathology. We performed a meta-analysis of 170 published twin and family heritability studies of >800 000 nonpsychiatric and schizophrenia subjects to accurately estimate heritability across many neuropsychological tests and cognitive domains. The proportion of total variance of each phenotype due to additive genetic effects (A), shared environment (C), and unshared environment and error (E), was calculated by averaging A, C, and E estimates across studies and weighting by sample size. Heritability ranged across phenotypes, likely due to differences in genetic and environmental effects, with the highest heritability for General Cognitive Ability (32%-67%), Verbal Ability (43%-72%), Visuospatial Ability (20%-80%), and Attention/Processing Speed (28%-74%), while the lowest heritability was observed for Executive Function (20%-40%). These results confirm that many cognitive phenotypes are under strong genetic influences. Heritability estimates were comparable in nonpsychiatric and schizophrenia samples, suggesting that environmental factors and illness-related moderators (eg, medication) do not substantially decrease heritability in schizophrenia samples, and that genetic studies in schizophrenia samples are informative for elucidating the genetic basis of cognitive deficits. Substantial genetic overlap between cognitive phenotypes and schizophrenia liability (average rg = -.58) in twin studies supports partially shared genetic etiology. It will be important to conduct comparative studies in well-powered samples to determine whether the same or different genes and genetic variants influence cognition in schizophrenia patients and the general population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of
The heritability of telomere length among the elderly and oldest-old
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bischoff, Claus; Graakjaer, Jesper; Petersen, Hans Christian
2005-01-01
. Structural equation models revealed that a model including additive genetic effects and non-shared environment was the best fitting model and that telomere length was moderately heritable, with an estimate that was sensitive to the telomere length standardization procedure. Sex-specific analyses showed lower...... heritability in males, although not statistically significant, which is in line with our earlier finding of a sex difference in telomere dynamics among the elderly and oldest-old....
Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Generoso, W.M.
1983-01-01
Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.
Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Generoso, W.M.
1983-01-01
Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed
Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Unknown
reproductive traits in a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using a threshold model. A GFCAT set of ..... pressure for longevity include low heritabilities, the increased generation interval necessary to obtain survival information, and automatic selection because long-lived cows contribute more offspring to subsequent ...
Continuous-Curvature Path Generation Using Fermat's Spiral
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anastasios M. Lekkas
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel methodology, based on Fermat's spiral (FS, for constructing curvature-continuous parametric paths in a plane. FS has a zero curvature at its origin, a property that allows it to be connected with a straight line smoothly, that is, without the curvature discontinuity which occurs at the transition point between a line and a circular arc when constructing Dubins paths. Furthermore, contrary to the computationally expensive clothoids, FS is described by very simple parametric equations that are trivial to compute. On the downside, computing the length of an FS arc involves a Gaussian hypergeometric function. However, this function is absolutely convergent and it is also shown that it poses no restrictions to the domain within which the length can be calculated. In addition, we present an alternative parametrization of FS which eliminates the parametric speed singularity at the origin, hence making the spiral suitable for path-tracking applications. A detailed description of how to construct curvature-continuous paths with FS is given.
Influence of Coanda surface curvature on performance of bladeless fan
Li, Guoqi; Hu, Yongjun; Jin, Yingzi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong
2014-10-01
The unique Coanda surface has a great influence on the performance of bladeless fan. However, there is few studies to explain the relationship between the performance and Coanda surface curvature at present. In order to gain a qualitative understanding of effect of the curvature on the performance of bladeless fan, numerical studies are performed in this paper. Firstly, three-dimensional numerical simulation is done by Fluent software. For the purpose to obtain detailed information of the flow field around the Coanda surface, two-dimensional numerical simulation is also conducted. Five types of Coanda surfaces with different curvature are designed, and the flow behaviour and the performance of them are analyzed and compared with those of the prototype. The analysis indicates that the curvature of Coanda surface is strongly related to blowing performance, It is found that there is an optimal curvature of Coanda surfaces among the studied models. Simulation result shows that there is a special low pressure region. With increasing curvature in Y direction, several low pressure regions gradually enlarged, then begin to merge slowly, and finally form a large area of low pressure. From the analyses of streamlines and velocity angle, it is found that the magnitude of the curvature affects the flow direction and reasonable curvature can induce fluid flow close to the wall. Thus, it leads to that the curvature of the streamlines is consistent with that of Coanda surface. Meanwhile, it also causes the fluid movement towards the most suitable direction. This study will provide useful information to performance improvements of bladeless fans.
Distributed mean curvature on a discrete manifold for Regge calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conboye, Rory; Miller, Warner A; Ray, Shannon
2015-01-01
The integrated mean curvature of a simplicial manifold is well understood in both Regge Calculus and Discrete Differential Geometry. However, a well motivated pointwise definition of curvature requires a careful choice of the volume over which to uniformly distribute the local integrated curvature. We show that hybrid cells formed using both the simplicial lattice and its circumcentric dual emerge as a remarkably natural structure for the distribution of this local integrated curvature. These hybrid cells form a complete tessellation of the simplicial manifold, contain a geometric orthonormal basis, and are also shown to give a pointwise mean curvature with a natural interpretation as the fractional rate of change of the normal vector. (paper)
Distributed mean curvature on a discrete manifold for Regge calculus
Conboye, Rory; Miller, Warner A.; Ray, Shannon
2015-09-01
The integrated mean curvature of a simplicial manifold is well understood in both Regge Calculus and Discrete Differential Geometry. However, a well motivated pointwise definition of curvature requires a careful choice of the volume over which to uniformly distribute the local integrated curvature. We show that hybrid cells formed using both the simplicial lattice and its circumcentric dual emerge as a remarkably natural structure for the distribution of this local integrated curvature. These hybrid cells form a complete tessellation of the simplicial manifold, contain a geometric orthonormal basis, and are also shown to give a pointwise mean curvature with a natural interpretation as the fractional rate of change of the normal vector.
Substrate curvature gradient drives rapid droplet motion.
Lv, Cunjing; Chen, Chao; Chuang, Yin-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yin, Yajun; Grey, Francois; Zheng, Quanshui
2014-07-11
Making small liquid droplets move spontaneously on solid surfaces is a key challenge in lab-on-chip and heat exchanger technologies. Here, we report that a substrate curvature gradient can accelerate micro- and nanodroplets to high speeds on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. Experiments for microscale water droplets on tapered surfaces show a maximum speed of 0.42 m/s, 2 orders of magnitude higher than with a wettability gradient. We show that the total free energy and driving force exerted on a droplet are determined by the substrate curvature and substrate curvature gradient, respectively. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we predict nanoscale droplets moving spontaneously at over 100 m/s on tapered surfaces.
Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system
Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.
2014-11-01
The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation.The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Physical properties and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of silica NPs, intrinsic coagulation activity after 3 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04128c
Effect of Plate Curvature on Blast Response of Structural Steel Plates
Veeredhi, Lakshmi Shireen Banu; Ramana Rao, N. V.; Veeredhi, Vasudeva Rao
2018-04-01
In the present work an attempt is made, through simulation studies, to determine the effect of plate curvature on the blast response of a door structure made of ASTM A515 grade 50 steel plates. A door structure with dimensions of 5.142 m × 2.56 m × 10 mm having six different radii of curvatures is analyzed which is subjected to blast load. The radii of curvature investigated are infinity (flat plate), 16.63, 10.81, 8.26, 6.61 and 5.56 m. In the present study, a stand-off distance of 11 m is considered for all the cases. Results showed that the door structure with smallest radius of curvature experienced least plastic deformation and yielding when compared to a door with larger radius of curvature with same projected area. From the present Investigation, it is observed that, as the radius of curvature of the plate increases, the deformation mode gradually shifts from indentation mode to flexural mode. The plates with infinity and 16.63 m radius of curvature have undergone flexural mode of deformation and plates with 6.61 and 5.56 m radius of curvature undergo indentation mode of deformation. Whereas, mixed mode of deformation that consists of both flexural and indentation mode of deformations are seen in the plates with radius of curvature 10.81 and 8.26 m. As the radius of curvature of the plate decreases the ability of the plate to mitigate the effect the blast loads increased. It is observed that the plate with smaller radius of curvature deflects most of the blast energy and results in least indentation mode of deformation. The most significant observation made in the present investigation is that the strain energy absorbed by the steel plate gets reduced to 1/3 rd when the radius of curvature is approximately equal to the stand-off distance which could be the critical radius of curvature.
On Riemannian manifolds (Mn, g) of quasi-constant curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.
1995-07-01
A Riemannian manifold (M n , g) of quasi-constant curvature is defined. It is shown that an (M n , g) in association with other class of manifolds gives rise, under certain conditions, to a manifold of quasi-constant curvature. Some observations on how a manifold of quasi-constant curvature accounts for a pseudo Ricci-symmetric manifold and quasi-umbilical hypersurface are made. (author). 10 refs
Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of quantitative ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ONOS
2010-05-10
May 10, 2010 ... coefficient of variation; h2, heritability; GA, genetic advance;. EMS, ethyl methane ... The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed the significance degree among the ... fullest extent. The estimates of range, phenotypic and.
Cholera toxin B subunit induces local curvature on lipid bilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pezeshkian, Weria; Nåbo, Lina J.; Ipsen, John H.
2017-01-01
B induces a local membrane curvature that is essential for its clathrin-independent uptake. Using all-atom molecular dynamics, we show that CTxB induces local curvature, with the radius of curvature around 36 nm. The main feature of the CTxB molecular structure that causes membrane bending is the protruding...... alpha helices in the middle of the protein. Our study points to a generic protein design principle for generating local membrane curvature through specific binding to their lipid anchors....
Curvature collineations for the field of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, K.P.; Singh, Gulab
1981-01-01
It has been shown that the space-times formed from a plane-fronted gravity wave and from a plane sandwich wave with constant polarisation admit proper curvature collineation in general. The curvature collineation vectors have been determined explicitly. (author)
Heritability and genetics of lipid metabolism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fenger, Mogens
2007-01-01
In this article, the concept of heritability and genetic effect will be reviewed and our current knowledge of the genetics of lipid metabolism summarized. The concepts of polygenic conditions and epistasis are discussed at length, and an effort is made to put the biological processes in context...
Heritability Estimates of Endophenotypes of Long and Health Life: The Long Life Family Study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matteini, Amy M; Fallin, M Daniele; Kammerer, Candace M
2010-01-01
survival were identified and heritability estimates were calculated. Principal components (PCs) analysis was carried out using 28 physiologic measurements from five trait domains (cardiovascular, cognition, physical function, pulmonary, and metabolic). RESULTS: The five most dominant PCs accounted for 50......% of underlying trait variance. The first PC (PC1), which consisted primarily of poor pulmonary and physical function, represented 14.3% of the total variance and had an estimated heritability of 39%. PC2 consisted of measures of good metabolic and cardiovascular function with an estimated heritability of 27%. PC...
Remarks on the boundary curve of a constant mean curvature topological disc
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Lopéz, Rafael
2017-01-01
We discuss some consequences of the existence of the holomorphic quadratic Hopf differential on a conformally immersed constant mean curvature topological disc with analytic boundary. In particular, we derive a formula for the mean curvature as a weighted average of the normal curvature of the bo......We discuss some consequences of the existence of the holomorphic quadratic Hopf differential on a conformally immersed constant mean curvature topological disc with analytic boundary. In particular, we derive a formula for the mean curvature as a weighted average of the normal curvature...
Norrie, Gillian; Farquharson, Roy G; Greaves, Mike
2009-01-01
The significance of heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure is controversial. We surveyed all UK Early Pregnancy Units and 70% responded. The majority test routinely for heritable thrombophilias; 80%, 76% and 88% undertook at least one screening test in late miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage and placental abruption, respectively. The range of thrombophilias sought is inconsistent: testing for proteins C and S deficiency and F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) is most prevalent. Detection of heritable thrombophilia frequently leads to administration of antithrombotics in subsequent pregnancies. Thus, thrombophilia testing and use of antithrombotics are widespread in the UK despite controversies regarding the role of heritable thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications, and the lack of robust evidence for the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy.
Heritability of asymmetry and lateral plate number in the threespine stickleback.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Loehr
Full Text Available The estimation of individual fitness and quality are important elements of evolutionary ecological research. Over the past six decades, there has been great interest in using fluctuating asymmetry (FA to represent individual quality, yet, serious technical problems have hampered efforts to estimate the heritability of FA, which, in turn, has limited progress in the investigation of FA from an evolutionary perspective. Here we estimate the heritability of number of lateral plates, their FA and directional asymmetry (DA in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. By (i using a meristic trait and (ii basing our calculations on a large half-sib design experiment involving 2,079 offspring from 84 families, we overcame many of the difficulties faced by earlier FA studies. Both lateral plate number and FA in lateral plates were heritable (h(2 = 0.46 and 0.21, respectively, even after controlling for marker genotypes linked to EDA (the major locus influencing plate number. Likewise, DA in lateral plates was heritable h(2 = 0.23. The additive genetic component of FA in lateral plates makes it a prime candidate for further investigation into the evolutionary implications of FA and the genetic underpinnings of developmental instability. This discovery in an evolutionary model species holds the possibility to invigorate the study of FA from an evolutionary perspective.
Cosmic curvature from de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.
Albrecht, Andreas
2011-10-07
I show that the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology generically predicts observable levels of curvature in the Universe today. The predicted value of the curvature, Ω(k), depends only on the ratio of the density of nonrelativistic matter to cosmological constant density ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and the value of the curvature from the initial bubble that starts the inflation, Ω(k)(B). The result is independent of the scale of inflation, the shape of the potential during inflation, and many other details of the cosmology. Future cosmological measurements of ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and Ω(k) will open up a window on the very beginning of our Universe and offer an opportunity to support or falsify the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.
Radion stabilization in higher curvature warped spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Ashmita [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Guwahati, Assam (India); Mukherjee, Hiya; Paul, Tanmoy; SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)
2018-02-15
We consider a five dimensional AdS spacetime in presence of higher curvature term like F(R) = R + αR{sup 2} in the bulk. In this model, we examine the possibility of modulus stabilization from the scalar degrees of freedom of higher curvature gravity free of ghosts. Our result reveals that the model stabilizes itself and the mechanism of modulus stabilization can be argued from a geometric point of view. We determine the region of the parametric space for which the modulus (or radion) can to be stabilized. We also show how the mass and coupling parameters of radion field are modified due to higher curvature term leading to modifications of its phenomenological implications on the visible 3-brane. (orig.)
Denaro, Vincenzo; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Berton, Alessandra; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Denaro, Luca
2015-11-01
Surgical management of patients with multilevel CSM aims to decompress the spinal cord and restore the normal sagittal alignment. The literature lacks of high level evidences about the best surgical approach. Posterior decompression and stabilization in lordosis allows spinal cord back shift, leading to indirect decompression of the anterior spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of posterior decompression and stabilization in lordosis for multilevel CSM. 36 out of 40 patients were clinically assessed at a mean follow-up of 5, 7 years. Outcome measures included EMS, mJOA Score, NDI and SF-12. Patients were asked whether surgery met their expectations and if they would undergo the same surgery again. Bone graft fusion, instrumental failure and cervical curvature were evaluated. Spinal cord back shift was measured and correlation with EMS and mJOA score recovery rate was analyzed. All scores showed a significative improvement (p 0.05). Ninety percent of patients would undergo the same surgery again. There was no deterioration of the cervical alignment, posterior grafted bones had completely fused and there were no instrument failures. The mean spinal cord back shift was 3.9 mm (range 2.5-4.5 mm). EMS and mJOA recovery rates were significantly correlated with the postoperative posterior cord migration (P lordosis is a valuable procedure for patients affected by multilevel CSM, leading to significant clinical improvement thanks to the spinal cord back shift. Postoperative lordotic alignment of the cervical spine is a key factor for successful treatment.
Robust modal curvature features for identifying multiple damage in beams
Ostachowicz, Wiesław; Xu, Wei; Bai, Runbo; Radzieński, Maciej; Cao, Maosen
2014-03-01
Curvature mode shape is an effective feature for damage detection in beams. However, it is susceptible to measurement noise, easily impairing its advantage of sensitivity to damage. To deal with this deficiency, this study formulates an improved curvature mode shape for multiple damage detection in beams based on integrating a wavelet transform (WT) and a Teager energy operator (TEO). The improved curvature mode shape, termed the WT - TEO curvature mode shape, has inherent capabilities of immunity to noise and sensitivity to damage. The proposed method is experimentally validated by identifying multiple cracks in cantilever steel beams with the mode shapes acquired using a scanning laser vibrometer. The results demonstrate that the improved curvature mode shape can identify multiple damage accurately and reliably, and it is fairly robust to measurement noise.
Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Product-moment correlations between breeding values for stayability traits were low. The highest correlation of 0.22 was obtained between the ages of 36 and 48 months. Heritability estimates and correlations between traits appear to be of such a low magnitude that selection for these characteristics would result in limited ...
Maddali, Prasanthi; Walker, Blake; Fisahn, Christian; Page, Jeni; Diaz, Vicki; Zwillman, Michael E; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane; Moisi, Marc
2017-02-16
Spinal hematomas are a rare but serious complication of spinal epidural anesthesia and are typically seen in the epidural space; however, they have been documented in the subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas likely exist within a traumatically induced space within the dural border cell layer, rather than an anatomical subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas present a dangerous clinical situation as they have the potential to cause significant compression of neural elements and can be easily mistaken for spinal epidural hematomas. Ultrasound can be an effective modality to diagnose subdural hematoma when no epidural blood is visualized. We have reviewed the literature and present a full literature review and a case presentation of an 82-year-old male who developed a thoracolumbar spinal subdural hematoma after spinal epidural anesthesia. Anticoagulant therapy is an important predisposing risk factor for spinal epidural hematomas and likely also predispose to spinal subdural hematomas. It is important to consider spinal subdural hematomas in addition to spinal epidural hematomas in patients who develop weakness after spinal epidural anesthesia, especially in patients who have received anticoagulation.
Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Xianghui
2014-04-15
Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result.
The speed-curvature power law of movements: a reappraisal.
Zago, Myrka; Matic, Adam; Flash, Tamar; Gomez-Marin, Alex; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2018-01-01
Several types of curvilinear movements obey approximately the so called 2/3 power law, according to which the angular speed varies proportionally to the 2/3 power of the curvature. The origin of the law is debated but it is generally thought to depend on physiological mechanisms. However, a recent paper (Marken and Shaffer, Exp Brain Res 88:685-690, 2017) claims that this power law is simply a statistical artifact, being a mathematical consequence of the way speed and curvature are calculated. Here we reject this hypothesis by showing that the speed-curvature power law of biological movements is non-trivial. First, we confirm that the power exponent varies with the shape of human drawing movements and with environmental factors. Second, we report experimental data from Drosophila larvae demonstrating that the power law does not depend on how curvature is calculated. Third, we prove that the law can be violated by means of several mathematical and physical examples. Finally, we discuss biological constraints that may underlie speed-curvature power laws discovered in empirical studies.
Sauce, Bruno; Matzel, Louis D
2018-01-01
Intelligence can have an extremely high heritability, but also be malleable; a paradox that has been the source of continuous controversy. Here we attempt to clarify the issue, and advance a frequently overlooked solution to the paradox: Intelligence is a trait with unusual properties that create a large reservoir of hidden gene-environment (GE) networks, allowing for the contribution of high genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in IQ. GE interplay is difficult to specify with current methods, and is underestimated in standard metrics of heritability (thus inflating estimates of "genetic" effects). We describe empirical evidence for GE interplay in intelligence, with malleability existing on top of heritability. The evidence covers cognitive gains consequent to adoption/immigration, changes in IQ's heritability across life span and socioeconomic status, gains in IQ over time consequent to societal development (the Flynn effect), the slowdown of age-related cognitive decline, and the gains in intelligence from early education. The GE solution has novel implications for enduring problems, including our inability to identify intelligence-related genes (also known as IQ's "missing heritability"), and the loss of initial benefits from early intervention programs (such as "Head Start"). The GE solution can be a powerful guide to future research, and may also aid policies to overcome barriers to the development of intelligence, particularly in impoverished and underprivileged populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Chen-Chiao; Mah, Dennis; Sharma, Rajiv; Landau, Evan; Garg, Madhur; Wu, Andrew
2011-01-01
Because of the dose limit for critical structures such as brainstem and spinal cord, administering a dose of 60 Gy to patients with recurrent head and neck cancer is challenging for those who received a previous dose of 60-70 Gy. Specifically, previously irradiated head and neck patients may have received doses close to the tolerance limit to their brainstem and spinal cord. In this study, a reproducible intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment design is presented to spare the doses to brainstem and spinal cord, with no compromise of prescribed dose delivery. Between July and November 2008, 7 patients with previously irradiated, recurrent head and neck cancers were treated with IMRT. The jaws of each field were set fixed with the goal of shielding the brainstem and spinal cord at the sacrifice of partial coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) from any particular beam orientation. Beam geometry was arranged to have sufficient coverage of the PTV and ensure that the constraints of spinal cord o , patients could be treated by 18 fields. Six patients met these criteria and were treated in 25 minutes per fraction. One patient exceeded a 30 o Cobb's angle and was treated by 31 fields in 45 minutes per fraction. We have demonstrated a new technique for retreatment of head and neck cancers. The angle of cervical spine curvature plays an important role in the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach.
The low single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of plasma and saliva cortisol levels.
Neumann, Alexander; Direk, Nese; Crawford, Andrew A; Mirza, Saira; Adams, Hieab; Bolton, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Strachan, David P; Payne, Erin K; Smith, Jennifer A; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda; Hottenga, Jouke J; de Geus, Eco; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van der Most, Peter J; de Rijke, Yolanda; Walker, Brian R; Tiemeier, Henning
2017-11-01
Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol levels with these methods. While the effects of several specific single genetic variants is known, the joint genome-wide contribution to cortisol levels is unclear. Our aim was to estimate the amount of cortisol variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms, i.e. the SNP heritability, using a variety of cortisol measures, cohorts and analysis approaches. We analyzed morning plasma (n=5705) and saliva levels (n=1717), as well as diurnal saliva levels (n=1541), in the Rotterdam Study using genomic restricted maximum likelihood estimation. Additionally, linkage disequilibrium score regression was fitted on the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) performed by the CORNET consortium on morning plasma cortisol (n=12,597) and saliva cortisol (n=7703). No significant SNP heritability was detected for any cortisol measure, sample or analysis approach. Point estimates ranged from 0% to 9%. Morning plasma cortisol in the CORNET cohorts, the sample with the most power, had a 6% [95%CI: 0-13%] SNP heritability. The results consistently suggest a low SNP heritability of these acute and short-term measures of cortisol. The low SNP heritability may reflect the substantial environmental and, in particular, situational component of these cortisol measures. Future GWAS will require very large sample sizes. Alternatively, more long-term cortisol measures such as hair cortisol samples are needed to discover further genetic pathways regulating cortisol concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity (AMSARA), 2015 Annual Report
2016-03-01
disorders are listed under the same standard within the medical standards for enlistment regardless of the type of curvature: scoliosis, lordosis ...spinal curvature disorders are referred to generically as scoliosis, estimates of the prevalence of lordosis and kyphosis are difficult to obtain...the specific type of spinal curvature disorder (i.e. scoliosis, lordosis , kyphosis) associated with disqualification or waiver could be
Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali, E-mail: shossein@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharifian, Elham, E-mail: e.sharifian@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-08-10
We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.
Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz; Sharifian, Elham
2016-01-01
We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.
Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzsch, Dominik; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus
2011-01-01
The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).
Positive spatial curvature does not falsify the landscape
Horn, B.
2017-12-01
We present a simple cosmological model where the quantum tunneling of a scalar field rearranges the energetics of the matter sector, sending a stable static ancestor vacuum with positive spatial curvature into an inating solution with positive curvature. This serves as a proof of principle that an observation of positive spatial curvature does not falsify the hypothesis that our current observer patch originated from false vacuum tunneling in a string or field theoretic landscape. This poster submission is a summary of the work, and was presented at the 3rd annual ICPPA held in Moscow from October 2 to 5, 2017, by Prof. Rostislav Konoplich on behalf of the author.
Curvature perturbation and waterfall dynamics in hybrid inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Sasaki, Misao
2011-01-01
We investigate the parameter spaces of hybrid inflation model with special attention paid to the dynamics of waterfall field and curvature perturbations induced from its quantum fluctuations. Depending on the inflaton field value at the time of phase transition and the sharpness of the phase transition inflation can have multiple extended stages. We find that for models with mild phase transition the induced curvature perturbation from the waterfall field is too large to satisfy the COBE normalization. We investigate the model parameter space where the curvature perturbations from the waterfall quantum fluctuations vary between the results of standard hybrid inflation and the results obtained here
Curvature perturbation and waterfall dynamics in hybrid inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: abolhasani@mail.ipm.ir, E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2011-10-01
We investigate the parameter spaces of hybrid inflation model with special attention paid to the dynamics of waterfall field and curvature perturbations induced from its quantum fluctuations. Depending on the inflaton field value at the time of phase transition and the sharpness of the phase transition inflation can have multiple extended stages. We find that for models with mild phase transition the induced curvature perturbation from the waterfall field is too large to satisfy the COBE normalization. We investigate the model parameter space where the curvature perturbations from the waterfall quantum fluctuations vary between the results of standard hybrid inflation and the results obtained here.
Heritability of performance deficit accumulation during acute sleep deprivation in twins.
Kuna, Samuel T; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Frances M; Staley, Bethany; Hachadoorian, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F; Pack, Allan I
2012-09-01
To determine if the large and highly reproducible interindividual differences in rates of performance deficit accumulation during sleep deprivation, as determined by the number of lapses on a sustained reaction time test, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), arise from a heritable trait. Prospective, observational cohort study. Academic medical center. There were 59 monozygotic (mean age 29.2 ± 6.8 [SD] yr; 15 male and 44 female pairs) and 41 dizygotic (mean age 26.6 ± 7.6 yr; 15 male and 26 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs with a normal polysomnogram. Thirty-eight hr of monitored, continuous sleep deprivation. Patients performed the 10-min PVT every 2 hr during the sleep deprivation protocol. The primary outcome was change from baseline in square root transformed total lapses (response time ≥ 500 ms) per trial. Patient-specific linear rates of performance deficit accumulation were separated from circadian effects using multiple linear regression. Using the classic approach to assess heritability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for accumulating deficits resulted in a broad sense heritability (h(2)) estimate of 0.834. The mean within-pair and among-pair heritability estimates determined by analysis of variance-based methods was 0.715. When variance components of mixed-effect multilevel models were estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and used to determine the proportions of phenotypic variance explained by genetic and nongenetic factors, 51.1% (standard error = 8.4%, P performance deficit accumulations on PVT during sleep deprivation.
Social disinhibition is a heritable subphenotype of tics in Tourette syndrome.
Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Darrow, Sabrina M; Illmann, Cornelia; Osiecki, Lisa; Grados, Marco; Sandor, Paul; Dion, Yves; King, Robert A; Pauls, David L; Budman, Cathy L; Cath, Danielle C; Greenberg, Erica; Lyon, Gholson J; Yu, Dongmei; McGrath, Lauren M; McMahon, William M; Lee, Paul C; Delucchi, Kevin L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A
2016-08-02
To identify heritable symptom-based subtypes of Tourette syndrome (TS). Forty-nine motor and phonic tics were examined in 3,494 individuals (1,191 TS probands and 2,303 first-degree relatives). Item-level exploratory factor and latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify tic-based subtypes. Heritabilities of the subtypes were estimated, and associations with clinical characteristics were examined. A 6-factor exploratory factor analysis model provided the best fit, which paralleled the somatotopic representation of the basal ganglia, distinguished simple from complex tics, and separated out socially disinhibited and compulsive tics. The 5-class LCA model best distinguished among the following groups: unaffected, simple tics, intermediate tics without social disinhibition, intermediate with social disinhibition, and high rates of all tic types. Across models, a phenotype characterized by high rates of social disinhibition emerged. This phenotype was associated with increased odds of comorbid psychiatric disorders, in particular, obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, earlier age at TS onset, and increased tic severity. The heritability estimate for this phenotype based on the LCA was 0.53 (SE 0.08, p 1.7 × 10(-18)). Expanding on previous modeling approaches, a series of TS-related phenotypes, including one characterized by high rates of social disinhibition, were identified. These phenotypes were highly heritable and may reflect underlying biological networks more accurately than traditional diagnoses, thus potentially aiding future genetic, imaging, and treatment studies. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line
2017-01-01
, the retinal vascular fractal dimension was measured using the box-counting method and compared within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs using Pearson correlation coefficients. Falconer's formula and quantitative genetic models were used to determine the genetic component of variation. Results: The mean...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0...
Bacterial cell curvature through mechanical control of cell growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cabeen, M.; Charbon, Godefroid; Vollmer, W.
2009-01-01
The cytoskeleton is a key regulator of cell morphogenesis. Crescentin, a bacterial intermediate filament-like protein, is required for the curved shape of Caulobacter crescentus and localizes to the inner cell curvature. Here, we show that crescentin forms a single filamentous structure...... that collapses into a helix when detached from the cell membrane, suggesting that it is normally maintained in a stretched configuration. Crescentin causes an elongation rate gradient around the circumference of the sidewall, creating a longitudinal cell length differential and hence curvature. Such curvature...... can be produced by physical force alone when cells are grown in circular microchambers. Production of crescentin in Escherichia coli is sufficient to generate cell curvature. Our data argue for a model in which physical strain borne by the crescentin structure anisotropically alters the kinetics...
Cognitive profiles and heritability estimates in the Old Order Amish.
Kuehner, Ryan M; Kochunov, Peter; Nugent, Katie L; Jurius, Deanna E; Savransky, Anya; Gaudiot, Christopher; Bruce, Heather A; Gold, James; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Hong, L Elliot
2016-08-01
This study aimed to establish the applicability of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in the Old Order Amish (OOA) and to assess the genetic contribution toward the RBANS total score and its cognitive domains using a large family-based sample of OOA. RBANS data were collected in 103 OOA individuals from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, including 85 individuals without psychiatric illness and 18 individuals with current psychiatric diagnoses. The RBANS total score and all five cognitive domains of in nonpsychiatric OOA were within half a SD of the normative data of the general population. The RBANS total score was highly heritable (h=0.51, P=0.019). OOA with psychiatric diagnoses had a numerically lower RBANS total score and domain scores compared with the nonpsychiatric participants. The RBANS appears to be a suitable cognitive battery for the OOA population as measurements obtained from the OOA are comparable with normative data in the US population. The heritability estimated from the OOA is in line with heritabilities of other cognitive batteries estimated in other populations. These results support the use of RBANS in cognitive assessment, clinical care, and behavioral genetic studies of neuropsychological functioning in this population.
The success of primary chemotherapy for group D heritable retinoblastoma.
Cohen, V M L; Kingston, J; Hungerford, J L
2009-07-01
To report the ocular survival and event-free survival following primary multiagent chemotherapy for group D, heritable bilateral retinoblastoma (RB). The RB database was used to identify children with heritable, bilateral RB treated with primary chemotherapy (six cycles of vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin). Only Group D eyes with more than 12 months' follow-up were analysed. The timing, number and type of salvage treatments were recorded. Kaplan-Meier estimates for the ocular survival and event-free survival (percentage of eyes that avoided external beam radiotherapy and/or enucleation) were performed as a function of time. Of 18 group D eyes, two (11%) were treated successfully with chemotherapy alone, nine (50%) underwent successful salvage treatment, and seven (39%) were enucleated. The median time from completing chemotherapy to enucleation was 9 months (range 4 to 25 months). Ocular survival was 67% at 2 years. External beam radiotherapy proved successful salvage treatment in five of nine eyes, so the event-free survival was 34% at 2 years. Multiagent chemotherapy alone is rarely sufficient for the preservation of group D eyes. External beam radiotherapy and plaque radiotherapy remain important salvage treatments for advanced, heritable retinoblastoma.
Discrimination of curvature from motion during smooth pursuit eye movements and fixation.
Ross, Nicholas M; Goettker, Alexander; Schütz, Alexander C; Braun, Doris I; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
2017-09-01
Smooth pursuit and motion perception have mainly been investigated with stimuli moving along linear trajectories. Here we studied the quality of pursuit movements to curved motion trajectories in human observers and examined whether the pursuit responses would be sensitive enough to discriminate various degrees of curvature. In a two-interval forced-choice task subjects pursued a Gaussian blob moving along a curved trajectory and then indicated in which interval the curve was flatter. We also measured discrimination thresholds for the same curvatures during fixation. Motion curvature had some specific effects on smooth pursuit properties: trajectories with larger amounts of curvature elicited lower open-loop acceleration, lower pursuit gain, and larger catch-up saccades compared with less curved trajectories. Initially, target motion curvatures were underestimated; however, ∼300 ms after pursuit onset pursuit responses closely matched the actual curved trajectory. We calculated perceptual thresholds for curvature discrimination, which were on the order of 1.5 degrees of visual angle (°) for a 7.9° curvature standard. Oculometric sensitivity to curvature discrimination based on the whole pursuit trajectory was quite similar to perceptual performance. Oculometric thresholds based on smaller time windows were higher. Thus smooth pursuit can quite accurately follow moving targets with curved trajectories, but temporal integration over longer periods is necessary to reach perceptual thresholds for curvature discrimination. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Even though motion trajectories in the real world are frequently curved, most studies of smooth pursuit and motion perception have investigated linear motion. We show that pursuit initially underestimates the curvature of target motion and is able to reproduce the target curvature ∼300 ms after pursuit onset. Temporal integration of target motion over longer periods is necessary for pursuit to reach the level of precision found
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The role of curvature in silica mesoporous crystals
Miyasaka, Keiichi
2012-02-08
Silica mesoporous crystals (SMCs) offer a unique opportunity to study micellar mesophases. Replication of non-equilibrium mesophases into porous silica structures allows the characterization of surfactant phases under a variety of chemical and physical perturbations, through methods not typically accessible to liquid crystal chemists. A poignant example is the use of electron microscopy and crystallography, as discussed herein, for the purpose of determining the fundamental role of amphiphile curvature, namely mean curvature and Gaussian curvature, which have been extensively studied in various fields such as polymer, liquid crystal, biological membrane, etc. The present work aims to highlight some current studies devoted to the interface curvature on SMCs, in which electron microscopy and electron crystallography (EC) are used to understand the geometry of silica wall surface in bicontinuous and cage-type mesostructures through the investigation of electrostatic potential maps. Additionally, we show that by altering the synthesis conditions during the preparation of SMCs, it is possible to isolate particles during micellar mesophase transformations in the cubic bicontinuous system, allowing us to view and study epitaxial relations under the specific synthesis conditions. By studying the relationship between mesoporous structure, interface curvature and micellar mesophases using electron microscopy and EC, we hope to bring new insights into the formation mechanism of these unique materials but also contribute a new way of understanding periodic liquid crystal systems. © 2012 The Royal Society.
The role of curvature in silica mesoporous crystals
Miyasaka, Keiichi; Bennett, Alfonso Garcia; Han, Lu; Han, Yu; Xiao, Changhong; Fujita, Nobuhisa; Castle, Toen; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Che, Shunai; Terasaki, Osamu
2012-01-01
Silica mesoporous crystals (SMCs) offer a unique opportunity to study micellar mesophases. Replication of non-equilibrium mesophases into porous silica structures allows the characterization of surfactant phases under a variety of chemical and physical perturbations, through methods not typically accessible to liquid crystal chemists. A poignant example is the use of electron microscopy and crystallography, as discussed herein, for the purpose of determining the fundamental role of amphiphile curvature, namely mean curvature and Gaussian curvature, which have been extensively studied in various fields such as polymer, liquid crystal, biological membrane, etc. The present work aims to highlight some current studies devoted to the interface curvature on SMCs, in which electron microscopy and electron crystallography (EC) are used to understand the geometry of silica wall surface in bicontinuous and cage-type mesostructures through the investigation of electrostatic potential maps. Additionally, we show that by altering the synthesis conditions during the preparation of SMCs, it is possible to isolate particles during micellar mesophase transformations in the cubic bicontinuous system, allowing us to view and study epitaxial relations under the specific synthesis conditions. By studying the relationship between mesoporous structure, interface curvature and micellar mesophases using electron microscopy and EC, we hope to bring new insights into the formation mechanism of these unique materials but also contribute a new way of understanding periodic liquid crystal systems. © 2012 The Royal Society.
Single Lipid Molecule Dynamics on Supported Lipid Bilayers with Membrane Curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philip P. Cheney
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The plasma membrane is a highly compartmentalized, dynamic material and this organization is essential for a wide variety of cellular processes. Nanoscale domains allow proteins to organize for cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis, and other essential processes. Even in the absence of proteins, lipids have the ability to organize into domains as a result of a variety of chemical and physical interactions. One feature of membranes that affects lipid domain formation is membrane curvature. To directly test the role of curvature in lipid sorting, we measured the accumulation of two similar lipids, 1,2-Dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DHPE and hexadecanoic acid (HDA, using a supported lipid bilayer that was assembled over a nanopatterned surface to obtain regions of membrane curvature. Both lipids studied contain 16 carbon, saturated tails and a head group tag for fluorescence microscopy measurements. The accumulation of lipids at curvatures ranging from 28 nm to 55 nm radii was measured and fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulated more than fluorescein labeled HDA at regions of membrane curvature. We then tested whether single biotinylated DHPE molecules sense curvature using single particle tracking methods. Similar to groups of fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulating at curvature, the dynamics of single molecules of biotinylated DHPE was also affected by membrane curvature and highly confined motion was observed.
Bijma, Piter
2011-12-01
Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population's intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects. Models accounting for indirect genetic effects, however, lack a general definition of heritable variation. Here I propose a general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection. This generalizes the concept of heritable variance to any inheritance model and level of organization. The result shows that heritable variance determining potential response to selection is the variance among individuals in the heritable quantity that determines the population mean trait value, rather than the usual additive genetic component of phenotypic variance. It follows, therefore, that heritable variance may exceed phenotypic variance among individuals, which is impossible in classical theory. This work also provides a measure of the utilization of heritable variation for response to selection and integrates two well-known models of maternal genetic effects. The result shows that relatedness between the focal individual and the individuals affecting its fitness is a key determinant of the utilization of heritable variance for response to selection.
New curvature-torsion relations through decomposition of the Bianchi identities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, J.B.
1988-01-01
The Bianchi Identities relating asymmetric curvature to torsion are obtained as a new set of equations governing second-order curvature tensors. The usual contribution of symmetric curvature to the gravitational field is found to be a subset of these identities though with an added contribution due to torsion gradients. The antisymmetric curvature two-tensor is shown to be related to the divergence of the torsion. Using a model of particle-antiparticle pair production, identification of certain torsion components with electroweak fields is proposed. These components obey equations, similar to Maxwell's that are subsets of these linear Bianchi identities. These results are shown to be consistent with gauge and other previous analyses
Effects on Buildings of Surface Curvature Caused by Underground Coal Mining
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haifeng Hu
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Ground curvature caused by underground mining is one of the most obvious deformation quantities in buildings. To study the influence of surface curvature on buildings and predict the movement and deformation of buildings caused by ground curvature, a prediction model of the influence function on mining subsidence was used to establish the relationship between surface curvature and wall deformation. The prediction model of wall deformation was then established and the surface curvature was obtained from mining subsidence prediction software. Five prediction lines were set up in the wall from bottom to top and the predicted deformation of each line was used to calculate the crack positions in the wall. Thus, the crack prediction model was obtained. The model was verified by a case study from a coalmine in Shanxi, China. The results show that when the ground curvature is positive, the crack in the wall is shaped like a “V”; when the ground curvature is negative, the crack is shaped like a “∧”. The conclusion provides the basis for a damage evaluation method for buildings in coalmine areas.
Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors
2010-09-01
ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii ,Institute for Astronomy,640 North A‘ohoku Place, #209 , Hilo ,HI,96720-2700 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors Christ Ftaclas1,2, Aglae Kellerer2 and Mark Chun2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii
Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system
Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.
2014-01-01
The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation ‘silent’ surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature shows denaturation and concomitant coagulation. PMID:25341004
Rice, Mabel L; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L; Gayán, Javier; Bontempo, Daniel E
2014-06-01
This study investigated the etiology of late language emergence (LLE) in 24-month-old twins, considering possible twinning, zygosity, gender, and heritability effects for vocabulary and grammar phenotypes. A population-based sample of 473 twin pairs participated. Multilevel modeling estimated means and variances of vocabulary and grammar phenotypes, controlling for familiality. Heritability was estimated with DeFries-Fulker regression and variance components models to determine effects of heritability, shared environment, and nonshared environment. Twins had lower average language scores than norms for single-born children, with lower average performance for monozygotic than dizygotic twins and for boys than girls, although gender and zygosity did not interact. Gender did not predict LLE. Significant heritability was detected for vocabulary (0.26) and grammar phenotypes (0.52 and 0.43 for boys and girls, respectively) in the full sample and in the sample selected for LLE (0.42 and 0.44). LLE and the appearance of Word Combinations were also significantly heritable (0.22-0.23). The findings revealed an increased likelihood of LLE in twin toddlers compared with single-born children that is modulated by zygosity and gender differences. Heritability estimates are consistent with previous research for vocabulary and add further suggestion of heritable differences in early grammar acquisition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang Chen
Full Text Available Height has an extremely polygenic pattern of inheritance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed hundreds of common variants that are associated with human height at genome-wide levels of significance. However, only a small fraction of phenotypic variation can be explained by the aggregate of these common variants. In a large study of African-American men and women (n = 14,419, we genotyped and analyzed 966,578 autosomal SNPs across the entire genome using a linear mixed model variance components approach implemented in the program GCTA (Yang et al Nat Genet 2010, and estimated an additive heritability of 44.7% (se: 3.7% for this phenotype in a sample of evidently unrelated individuals. While this estimated value is similar to that given by Yang et al in their analyses, we remain concerned about two related issues: (1 whether in the complete absence of hidden relatedness, variance components methods have adequate power to estimate heritability when a very large number of SNPs are used in the analysis; and (2 whether estimation of heritability may be biased, in real studies, by low levels of residual hidden relatedness. We addressed the first question in a semi-analytic fashion by directly simulating the distribution of the score statistic for a test of zero heritability with and without low levels of relatedness. The second question was addressed by a very careful comparison of the behavior of estimated heritability for both observed (self-reported height and simulated phenotypes compared to imputation R2 as a function of the number of SNPs used in the analysis. These simulations help to address the important question about whether today's GWAS SNPs will remain useful for imputing causal variants that are discovered using very large sample sizes in future studies of height, or whether the causal variants themselves will need to be genotyped de novo in order to build a prediction model that ultimately captures a large fraction of the
A geometric construction of the Riemann scalar curvature in Regge calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, Jonathan R; Miller, Warner A
2008-01-01
The Riemann scalar curvature plays a central role in Einstein's geometric theory of gravity. We describe a new geometric construction of this scalar curvature invariant at an event (vertex) in a discrete spacetime geometry. This allows one to constructively measure the scalar curvature using only clocks and photons. Given recent interest in discrete pre-geometric models of quantum gravity, we believe is it ever so important to reconstruct the curvature scalar with respect to a finite number of communicating observers. This derivation makes use of a new fundamental lattice cell built from elements inherited from both the original simplicial (Delaunay) spacetime and its circumcentric dual (Voronoi) lattice. The orthogonality properties between these two lattices yield an expression for the vertex-based scalar curvature which is strikingly similar to the corresponding hinge-based expression in Regge calculus (deficit angle per unit Voronoi dual area). In particular, we show that the scalar curvature is simply a vertex-based weighted average of deficits per weighted average of dual areas
A geometric construction of the Riemann scalar curvature in Regge calculus
McDonald, Jonathan R.; Miller, Warner A.
2008-10-01
The Riemann scalar curvature plays a central role in Einstein's geometric theory of gravity. We describe a new geometric construction of this scalar curvature invariant at an event (vertex) in a discrete spacetime geometry. This allows one to constructively measure the scalar curvature using only clocks and photons. Given recent interest in discrete pre-geometric models of quantum gravity, we believe is it ever so important to reconstruct the curvature scalar with respect to a finite number of communicating observers. This derivation makes use of a new fundamental lattice cell built from elements inherited from both the original simplicial (Delaunay) spacetime and its circumcentric dual (Voronoi) lattice. The orthogonality properties between these two lattices yield an expression for the vertex-based scalar curvature which is strikingly similar to the corresponding hinge-based expression in Regge calculus (deficit angle per unit Voronoi dual area). In particular, we show that the scalar curvature is simply a vertex-based weighted average of deficits per weighted average of dual areas.
Model-independent Constraints on Cosmic Curvature and Opacity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Guo-Jian; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xia, Jun-Qing; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wei, Jun-Jie, E-mail: gjwang@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: zxli918@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiajq@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2017-09-20
In this paper, we propose to estimate the spatial curvature of the universe and the cosmic opacity in a model-independent way with expansion rate measurements, H ( z ), and type Ia supernova (SNe Ia). On the one hand, using a nonparametric smoothing method Gaussian process, we reconstruct a function H ( z ) from opacity-free expansion rate measurements. Then, we integrate the H ( z ) to obtain distance modulus μ {sub H}, which is dependent on the cosmic curvature. On the other hand, distances of SNe Ia can be determined by their photometric observations and thus are opacity-dependent. In our analysis, by confronting distance moduli μ {sub H} with those obtained from SNe Ia, we achieve estimations for both the spatial curvature and the cosmic opacity without any assumptions for the cosmological model. Here, it should be noted that light curve fitting parameters, accounting for the distance estimation of SNe Ia, are determined in a global fit together with the cosmic opacity and spatial curvature to get rid of the dependence of these parameters on cosmology. In addition, we also investigate whether the inclusion of different priors for the present expansion rate ( H {sub 0}: global estimation, 67.74 ± 0.46 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}, and local measurement, 73.24 ± 1.74 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}) exert influence on the reconstructed H ( z ) and the following estimations of the spatial curvature and cosmic opacity. Results show that, in general, a spatially flat and transparent universe is preferred by the observations. Moreover, it is suggested that priors for H {sub 0} matter a lot. Finally, we find that there is a strong degeneracy between the curvature and the opacity.
Long-term Results of Ventral Penile Curvature Repair in Childhood.
Golomb, Dor; Sivan, Bezalel; Livne, Pinhas M; Nevo, Amihay; Ben-Meir, David
2018-02-01
To assess the postpubertal outcome of ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy in terms of recurrence and aesthetics. Postpubertal patients treated for hypospadias and ventral penile curvature in infancy at a tertiary medical center were invited to undergo assessment of the quality of the repair. Findings were compared between patients with a straight penis after skin release and patients who required dorsal plication. The cohort included 27 patients of mean age 16.5 years who were reported with straight penis after surgery. Postpubertal curvature was found in 6 of 14 patients (43%) successfully treated by skin release and 10 of 13 patients (77%) who underwent dorsal plication (P = .087). Significant curvature (≥30 degrees) was found in 1 of 14 patients in the skin-release group and 4 of 13 in the dorsal plication group (P = .16). Rates of redo urethroplasty were 2 of 14 (14%) and 5 of 10 (50%), respectively. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of the penis did not differ significantly. Ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy often recurs after puberty. The need for dorsal plication has a trend-level association with recurrence of penile curvature in puberty. It might also be related to the degree of postpubertal penile curvature and the need for redo urethroplasty. Procedure type does not affect patient satisfaction with the postpubertal appearance of the penis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Davis, L.K.; Yu, D.; Keenan, C.L.; Gamazon, E.R.; Konkashbaev, A.I.; Derks, E.M.; Neale, B.M.; Yang, J.; Lee, S.H.; Evans, P.; Barr, C.L.; Bellodi, L.; Benarroch, F.; Berrio, G.B.; Bienvenu, O.J.; Bloch, M.H.; Blom, R.M.; Bruun, R.D.; Budman, C.L.; Camarena, B.; Campbell, D.; Cappi, C.; Cardona Silgado, J.C.; Cath, D.C.; Cavallini, M.C.; Chavira, D.A.; Chouinard, S.; Conti, D.V.; Cook, E.H.; Coric, V.; Cullen, B.A.; Deforce, D.; Delorme, R.; Dion, Y.; Edlund, C.K.; Egberts, K.; Falkai, P.; Fernandez, T.V.; Gallagher, P.J.; Garrido, H.; Geller, D.; Girard, S.L.; Grabe, H.J.; Grados, M.A.; Greenberg, B.D.; Gross-Tsur, V.; Haddad, S.; Heiman, G.A.; Hemmings, S.M.; Hounie, A.G.; Illmann, C.; Jankovic, J.; Jenike, M.A.; Kennedy, J.L.; King, R.A.; Kremeyer, B.; Kurlan, R.; Lanzagorta, N.; Leboyer, M.; Leckman, J.F.; Lennertz, L.; Liu, C.; Lochner, C.; Lowe, T.L.; Macciardi, F.; McCracken, J.T.; McGrath, L.M.; Mesa Restrepo, S.C.; Moessner, R.; Morgan, J.; Muller, H.; Murphy, D.L.; Naarden, A.L.; Ochoa, W.C.; Ophoff, R.A.; Osiecki, L.; Pakstis, A.J.; Pato, M.T.; Piacentini, J.; Pittenger, C.; Pollak, Y.; Rauch, S.L.; Renner, T.J.; Reus, V.I.; Richter, M.A.; Riddle, M.A.; Robertson, M.M.; Romero, R.; Rosàrio, M.C.; Rosenberg, D.; Rouleau, G.A.; Ruhrmann, S.; Ruiz-Linares, A.; Sampaio, A.S.; Samuels, J.; Sandor, P.; Sheppard, B.; Singer, H.S.; Smit, J.H.; Stein, D.J.; Strengman, E.; Tischfield, J.A.; Valencia Duarte, A.V.; Vallada, H.; van Nieuwerburgh, F.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J.; Walitza, S.; Wang, Y.; Wendland, J.R.; Westenberg, H.G.; Shugart, Y.Y.; Miguel, E.C.; McMahon, W.; Wagner, M.; Nicolini, H.; Posthuma, D.; Hanna, G.L.; Heutink, P.; Denys, D.; Arnold, P.D.; Oostra, B.A.; Nestadt, G.; Freimer, N.B.; Pauls, D.L.; Wray, N.R.; Stewart, S.E.; Mathews, C.A.; Knowles, J.A.; Cox, N.J.; Scharf, J.M.
2013-01-01
The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease
Davis, Lea K.; Yu, Dongmei; Keenan, Clare L.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Derks, Eske M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Yang, Jian; Lee, S. Hong; Evans, Patrick; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrio, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, Oscar J.; Bloch, Michael H.; Blom, Rianne M.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond; Cappi, Carolina; Cardona Silgado, Julio C.; Cath, Danielle C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Conti, David V.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette A.; Deforce, Dieter; Delorme, Richard; Dion, Yves; Edlund, Christopher K.; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Haddad, Stephen; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Hounie, Ana G.; Illmann, Cornelia; Jankovic, Joseph; Jenike, Michael A.; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Macciardi, Fabio; McCracken, James T.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias J.; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosàrio, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, E.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C.; McMahon, William; Wagner, Michael; Nicolini, Humberto; Posthuma, Danielle; Hanna, Gregory L.; Heutink, Peter; Denys, Damiaan; Arnold, Paul D.; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson B.; Pauls, David L.; Wray, Naomi R.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A.; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.
2013-01-01
The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease
On the scalar curvature of self-dual manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.
1992-08-01
We generalize LeBrun's explicit ''hyperbolic ansatz'' construction of self-dual metrics on connected sums of conformally flat manifolds and CP 2 's through a systematic use of the theory of hyperbolic geometry and Kleinian groups. (This construction produces, for example, all self-dual manifolds with semi-free S 1 -action and with either nonnegative scalar curvature or positive-definite intersection form.) We then point out a simple criterion for determining the sign of the scalar curvature of these conformal metrics. Exploiting this, we then show that the sign of the scalar curvature can change on connected components of the moduli space of self-dual metrics, thereby answering a question raised by King and Kotschick. (author). Refs
On a curvature-statistics theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calixto, M; Aldaya, V
2008-01-01
The spin-statistics theorem in quantum field theory relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. Here we investigate an interesting correspondence or connection between curvature (κ = ±1) and quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein, respectively). The interrelation between both concepts is established through vacuum coherent configurations of zero modes in quantum field theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2; 1) (spatial) isometry subgroups of de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit, is retrieved as a (zero curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the physical significance of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem.
On a curvature-statistics theorem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: Manuel.Calixto@upct.es
2008-08-15
The spin-statistics theorem in quantum field theory relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. Here we investigate an interesting correspondence or connection between curvature ({kappa} = {+-}1) and quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein, respectively). The interrelation between both concepts is established through vacuum coherent configurations of zero modes in quantum field theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2; 1) (spatial) isometry subgroups of de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit, is retrieved as a (zero curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the physical significance of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Ciulla
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This research presents signal-image post-processing techniques called Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches with application to the diagnosis of human brain tumors detected through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Post-processing of the MRI of the human brain encompasses the following model functions: (i bivariate cubic polynomial, (ii bivariate cubic Lagrange polynomial, (iii monovariate sinc, and (iv bivariate linear. The following Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches were used: (i classic-curvature, (ii signal resilient to interpolation, (iii intensity-curvature measure and (iv intensity-curvature functional. The results revealed that the classic-curvature, the signal resilient to interpolation and the intensity-curvature functional are able to add additional information useful to the diagnosis carried out with MRI. The contribution to the MRI diagnosis of our study are: (i the enhanced gray level scale of the tumor mass and the well-behaved representation of the tumor provided through the signal resilient to interpolation, and (ii the visually perceptible third dimension perpendicular to the image plane provided through the classic-curvature and the intensity-curvature functional.
Statistical mechanics of surfaces with curvature dependent action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonsson, T.
1987-01-01
We review recent results about discretized random surfaces whose action (energy) depends on the extrinsic curvature. The surface tension scales to zero at an appropriate critical point if the coupling constant of the curvature term is taken to infinity. At this critical point one expects to be able to construct a continuum theory of smooth surfaces. (orig.)
Partitioning Heritability of Regulatory and Cell-Type-Specific Variants across 11 Common Diseases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gusev, Alexander; Lee, S Hong; Trynka, Gosia
2014-01-01
Regulatory and coding variants are known to be enriched with associations identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex disease, but their contributions to trait heritability are currently unknown. We applied variance-component methods to imputed genotype data for 11 common...... diseases to partition the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs (hg(2)) across functional categories (while accounting for shared variance due to linkage disequilibrium). Extensive simulations showed that in contrast to current estimates from GWAS summary statistics, the variance-component approach...... partitions heritability accurately under a wide range of complex-disease architectures. Across the 11 diseases DNaseI hypersensitivity sites (DHSs) from 217 cell types spanned 16% of imputed SNPs (and 24% of genotyped SNPs) but explained an average of 79% (SE = 8%) of hg(2) from imputed SNPs (5.1× enrichment...
Heritability analysis of surface-based cortical thickness estimation on a large twin cohort
Shen, Kaikai; Doré, Vincent; Rose, Stephen; Fripp, Jurgen; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Thompson, Paul M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Salvado, Olivier
2015-03-01
The aim of this paper is to assess the heritability of cerebral cortex, based on measurements of grey matter (GM) thickness derived from structural MR images (sMRI). With data acquired from a large twin cohort (328 subjects), an automated method was used to estimate the cortical thickness, and EM-ICP surface registration algorithm was used to establish the correspondence of cortex across the population. An ACE model was then employed to compute the heritability of cortical thickness. Heritable cortical thickness measures various cortical regions, especially in frontal and parietal lobes, such as bilateral postcentral gyri, superior occipital gyri, superior parietal gyri, precuneus, the orbital part of the right frontal gyrus, right medial superior frontal gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right paracentral lobule, left precentral gyrus, and left dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus.
A 1 + 5-dimensional gravitational-wave solution. Curvature singularity and spacetime singularity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yu-Zhu [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Li, Wen-Du [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Dai, Wu-Sheng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University and Tianjin University, LiuHui Center for Applied Mathematics, Tianjin (China)
2017-12-15
We solve a 1 + 5-dimensional cylindrical gravitational-wave solution of the Einstein equation, in which there are two curvature singularities. Then we show that one of the curvature singularities can be removed by an extension of the spacetime. The result exemplifies that the curvature singularity is not always a spacetime singularity; in other words, the curvature singularity cannot serve as a criterion for spacetime singularities. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, Z.M.; Khan, S.A.
2003-01-01
Partial regression coefficient, genotypic and phenotypic variabilities, heritability co-heritability and genetic advance were studied in 15 Potato varieties of exotic and local origin. Both genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations were high for scab and rhizoctonia incidence percentage. Significant partial regression coefficient for emergence percentage indicated its relative importance in tuber yield. High heritability (broadsense) estimates coupled with high genetic advance for plant height, number of stems per plant and scab percentage revealed substantial contribution of additive genetic variance in the expression of these traits. Hence, the selection based on these characters could play a significant role in their improvement the dominance and epistatic variance was more important for character expression of yield ha/sup -1/, emergence and rhizoctonia percentage. This phenomenon is mainly due to the accumulative effects of low heritability and low to moderate genetic advance. The high co-heritability coupled with negative genotypic and phenotypic covariance revealed that selection of varieties having low scab and rhizoctonia percentage resulted in more potato yield. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yin Song
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Though the importance of curvature continuity on compressor blade performances has been realized, there are two major questions that need to be solved, i.e., the respective effects of curvature continuity at the leading-edge blend point and the main surface, and the contradiction between the traditional theory and experimental observations in the effect of those novel leading-edge shapes with smaller curvature discontinuity and sharper nose. In this paper, an optimization method to design continuous-curvature blade profiles which deviate little from datum blades is proposed, and numerical and theoretical analysis is carried out to investigate the continuous-curvature effect on blade performances. The results show that the curvature continuity at the leading-edge blend point helps to eliminate the separation bubble, thus improving the blade performance. The main-surface curvature continuity is also beneficial, although its effects are much smaller than those of the blend-point curvature continuity. Furthermore, it is observed that there exist two factors controlling the leading-edge spike, i.e., the curvature discontinuity at the blend point which dominates at small incidences, and the nose curvature which dominates at large incidences. To the authors’ knowledge, such mechanisms have not been reported before, and they can help to solve the sharp-leading-edge paradox.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Xiao Qiang; Pryds, Anders; Carlsen, Jørn
2015-01-01
PURPOSE: To report atypical central serous chorioretinopathy and choroidal thickening in a patient with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS: A 40-year-old man with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension presented with blurred vision in his left eye and was followed up for 1 year...
Heritable symbiosis: The advantages and perils of an evolutionary rabbit hole.
Bennett, Gordon M; Moran, Nancy A
2015-08-18
Many eukaryotes have obligate associations with microorganisms that are transmitted directly between generations. A model for heritable symbiosis is the association of aphids, a clade of sap-feeding insects, and Buchnera aphidicola, a gammaproteobacterium that colonized an aphid ancestor 150 million years ago and persists in almost all 5,000 aphid species. Symbiont acquisition enables evolutionary and ecological expansion; aphids are one of many insect groups that would not exist without heritable symbiosis. Receiving less attention are potential negative ramifications of symbiotic alliances. In the short run, symbionts impose metabolic costs. Over evolutionary time, hosts evolve dependence beyond the original benefits of the symbiosis. Symbiotic partners enter into an evolutionary spiral that leads to irreversible codependence and associated risks. Host adaptations to symbiosis (e.g., immune-system modification) may impose vulnerabilities. Symbiont genomes also continuously accumulate deleterious mutations, limiting their beneficial contributions and environmental tolerance. Finally, the fitness interests of obligate heritable symbionts are distinct from those of their hosts, leading to selfish tendencies. Thus, genes underlying the host-symbiont interface are predicted to follow a coevolutionary arms race, as observed for genes governing host-pathogen interactions. On the macroevolutionary scale, the rapid evolution of interacting symbiont and host genes is predicted to accelerate host speciation rates by generating genetic incompatibilities. However, degeneration of symbiont genomes may ultimately limit the ecological range of host species, potentially increasing extinction risk. Recent results for the aphid-Buchnera symbiosis and related systems illustrate that, whereas heritable symbiosis can expand ecological range and spur diversification, it also presents potential perils.
Field heritability of a plant adaptation to fire in heterogeneous landscapes.
Castellanos, M C; González-Martínez, S C; Pausas, J G
2015-11-01
The strong association observed between fire regimes and variation in plant adaptations to fire suggests a rapid response to fire as an agent of selection. It also suggests that fire-related traits are heritable, a precondition for evolutionary change. One example is serotiny, the accumulation of seeds in unopened fruits or cones until the next fire, an important strategy for plant population persistence in fire-prone ecosystems. Here, we evaluate the potential of this trait to respond to natural selection in its natural setting. For this, we use a SNP marker approach to estimate genetic variance and heritability of serotiny directly in the field for two Mediterranean pine species. Study populations were large and heterogeneous in climatic conditions and fire regime. We first estimated the realized relatedness among trees from genotypes, and then partitioned the phenotypic variance in serotiny using Bayesian animal models that incorporated environmental predictors. As expected, field heritability was smaller (around 0.10 for both species) than previous estimates under common garden conditions (0.20). An estimate on a subset of stands with more homogeneous environmental conditions was not different from that in the complete set of stands, suggesting that our models correctly captured the environmental variation at the spatial scale of the study. Our results highlight the importance of measuring quantitative genetic parameters in natural populations, where environmental heterogeneity is a critical aspect. The heritability of serotiny, although not high, combined with high phenotypic variance within populations, confirms the potential of this fire-related trait for evolutionary change in the wild. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Computed tomography of the spinal canal for the cervical spine and spinal cord injury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Isao; Niimiya, Hikosuke; Nasu, Kichiro; Shioya, Akihide; Ohhama, Mitsuru
1983-01-01
The cervical spinal canal and cervical spinal cord were measured in normal cases and 34 cases of spinal or spinal cord injury. The anteroposterior diameter and area of the normal cervical spinal canal showed a high correlation. The area ratio of the normal cervical spinal canal to the cervical spinal cord showed that the proportion of the cervical spinal cord in the spinal canal was 1/3 - 1/5, Csub(4,5) showing a particularly large proportion. In acute and subacute spinal or spinal cord injury, CT visualized in more details of the spinal canal in cases that x-ray showed definite bone injuries. Computer assisted myelography visualized more clearly the condition of the spinal cord in cases without definite findings bone injuries on x-ray. Demonstrating the morphology of spinal injury in more details, CT is useful for selection of therapy for injured spines. (Chiba, N.)
Heritability, family, school and academic achievement in adolescence.
Pokropek, Artur; Sikora, Joanna
2015-09-01
We demonstrate how genetically informed designs can be applied to administrative exam data to study academic achievement. ACE mixture latent class models have been used with Year 6 and 9 exam data for seven cohorts of Polish students which include 24,285 pairs of twins. Depending on a learning domain and classroom environment history, from 58% to 88% of variance in exam results is attributable to heritability, up to 34% to shared environment and from 8% to 15% depends on unique events in students' lives. Moreover, between 54% and 66% of variance in students' learning gains made between Years 6 and 9 is explained by heritability. The unique environment accounts for between 34% and 46% of that variance. However, we find no classroom effects on student progress made between Years 6 and 9. We situate this finding against the view that classroom peer groups and teachers matter for adolescent learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Higher Curvature Gravity from Entanglement in Conformal Field Theories
Haehl, Felix M.; Hijano, Eliot; Parrikar, Onkar; Rabideau, Charles
2018-05-01
By generalizing different recent works to the context of higher curvature gravity, we provide a unifying framework for three related results: (i) If an asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime computes the entanglement entropies of ball-shaped regions in a conformal field theory using a generalized Ryu-Takayanagi formula up to second order in state deformations around the vacuum, then the spacetime satisfies the correct gravitational equations of motion up to second order around the AdS background. (ii) The holographic dual of entanglement entropy in higher curvature theories of gravity is given by the Wald entropy plus a particular correction term involving extrinsic curvatures. (iii) Conformal field theory relative entropy is dual to gravitational canonical energy (also in higher curvature theories of gravity). Especially for the second point, our novel derivation of this previously known statement does not involve the Euclidean replica trick.
ANOPHTHALMIA: A NON-HERITABLE EYE DEFORMITY IN Oreochromis mossambicus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Tave
1998-12-01
Full Text Available Seven male Oreochromis mossambicus with anophthalmia were found in a hatchery population. The deformity was not observed in either the Fl or F2 generations; consequently, it was a non-heritable congenital deformity.
Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...
Amphipathic motifs in BAR domains are essential for membrane curvature sensing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhatia, Vikram K; Madsen, Kenneth L; Bolinger, Pierre-Yves
2009-01-01
BAR (Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs) domains and amphipathic alpha-helices (AHs) are believed to be sensors of membrane curvature thus facilitating the assembly of protein complexes on curved membranes. Here, we used quantitative fluorescence microscopy to compare the binding of both motifs on single...... nanosized liposomes of different diameters and therefore membrane curvature. Characterization of members of the three BAR domain families showed surprisingly that the crescent-shaped BAR dimer with its positively charged concave face is not able to sense membrane curvature. Mutagenesis on BAR domains showed...... that membrane curvature sensing critically depends on the N-terminal AH and furthermore that BAR domains sense membrane curvature through hydrophobic insertion in lipid packing defects and not through electrostatics. Consequently, amphipathic motifs, such as AHs, that are often associated with BAR domains...
On the curvature of transmitted intensity plots in broad beam studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Kateb, A.H.
2000-01-01
Transmission of a broad beam of gamma rays of 81- and 356-keV energies from 133 Ba is studied singly and dually. This study is the first to deal with the curvatures of the intensity plots. The targets are dextrose solutions of percentage concentrations up to 0.125 and soil containing water with concentrations up to 0.319. The logarithmic intensity plots are expressed in terms of a polynomial in the concentration. The curvatures of the plots are measured and calculated on the basis of the theoretical mass attenuation coefficients. The results are discussed in conjunction with buildup factors and the probability of photoelectric and Compton interactions. The curvatures show maxima when incoherent interaction prevails. This is evidently proved in case of the single 356-keV and of the dual 81- and 356-keV applied energies. Comparison is performed between the measured and calculated curvatures. The concept of curvature is applied and discussed for published results of narrow beam geometry. Correspondingly, this is the first search to introduce curvature instead of buildup as a measure for transmitted collided photons
Michoński, Jakub; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Pakuła, Anna; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Sitnik, Robert
2016-01-01
Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topography (ST), systems designed for posture evaluation could potentially fill this void. A pilot study was conducted to test the potential of monitoring the change of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography. A single case was studied to test the methodology and preliminarily assess the usefulness of the procedure before performing a randomized trial. The apparatus used in this study was metrologically tested and utilized earlier in scoliosis screening. The subject was measured using a custom-made structured light illumination scanner with accuracy of 0.2 mm. Measurement was taken every 2 weeks, between 17th and 37th week of pregnancy, 11 measurements in total. From the measurement the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and vertical balance angle were extracted automatically. Custom-written software was used for analysis. Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI) was done with every measurement. The values were correctly extracted from the measurement. The results were: 50.9 ± 2.4° for kyphosis angle, 58.1 ± 2.1° for lordosis angle and 4.7 ± 1.7° for vertical balance angle. The registered change was 7.4° in kyphosis angle, 8.4° in lordosis angle and 5.5° in vertical balance angle. The calculated ODI values were between moderate disability and severe disability (22 to 58 %). This case study presents that surface topography may be suitable for monitoring of spinal curvature and posture change in pregnant women. The ionizing radiation studies
Evolution of curvature perturbation in generalized gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Tomohiro
2009-01-01
Using the cosmological perturbation theory in terms of the δN formalism, we find the simple formulation of the evolution of the curvature perturbation in generalized gravity theories. Compared with the standard gravity theory, a crucial difference appears in the end-boundary of the inflationary stage, which is due to the non-ideal form of the energy-momentum tensor that depends explicitly on the curvature scalar. Recent study shows that ultraviolet-complete quantum theory of gravity (Horava-Lifshitz gravity) can be approximated by using a generalized gravity action. Our paper may give an important step in understanding the evolution of the curvature perturbation during inflation, where the energy-momentum tensor may not be given by the ideal form due to the corrections from the fundamental theory.
Vibration Analysis of Circular Arch Element Using Curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Saffari
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a finite element technique was used to determine the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes of a circular arch element was based on the curvature, which can fully represent the bending energy and by the equilibrium equations, the shear and axial strain energy were incorporated into the formulation. The treatment of general boundary conditions dose need a consideration when the element is incorporated by the curvature-based formula. This can be obtained by the introduction of a transformation matrix between nodal curvatures and nodal displacements. The equation of the motion for the element was obtained by the Lagrangian equation. Four examples are presented in order to verify the element formulation and its analytical capability.
Heritability of psoriasis in a large twin sample
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Liselotte; Skytthe, A
2013-01-01
AIM: To study the concordance of psoriasis in a population-based twin sample. METHODS: Data on psoriasis in 10,725 twin pairs, 20-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry was collected via a questionnaire survey. The concordance and heritability of psoriasis were estimated. RESULTS: In total...
Geometry-specific scaling of detonation parameters from front curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, Scott I.; Short, Mark
2011-01-01
It has previously been asserted that classical detonation curvature theory predicts that the critical diameter and the diameter-effect curve of a cylindrical high-explosive charge should scale with twice the thickness of an analogous two-dimensional explosive slab. The varied agreement of experimental results with this expectation have led some to question the ability of curvature-based concepts to predict detonation propagation in non-ideal explosives. This study addresses such claims by showing that the expected scaling relationship (hereafter referred to d = 2w) is not consistent with curvature-based Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) theory.
Public and private space curvature in Robertson-Walker universes.
Rindler, W.
1981-05-01
The question is asked: what space curvature would a fundamental observer in an ideal Robertson-Walker universe obtain by direct local spatial measurements, i.e., without reference to the motion pattern of the other galaxies? The answer is that he obtains the curvatureK of his “private” space generated by all the geodesics orthogonal to his world line at the moment in question, and that ˜K is related to the usual curvatureK=k/R 2 of the “public” space of galaxies byK=K+H 2/c2, whereH is Hubble's parameter.
Studying biomolecule localization by engineering bacterial cell wall curvature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lars D Renner
Full Text Available In this article we describe two techniques for exploring the relationship between bacterial cell shape and the intracellular organization of proteins. First, we created microchannels in a layer of agarose to reshape live bacterial cells and predictably control their mean cell wall curvature, and quantified the influence of curvature on the localization and distribution of proteins in vivo. Second, we used agarose microchambers to reshape bacteria whose cell wall had been chemically and enzymatically removed. By combining microstructures with different geometries and fluorescence microscopy, we determined the relationship between bacterial shape and the localization for two different membrane-associated proteins: i the cell-shape related protein MreB of Escherichia coli, which is positioned along the long axis of the rod-shaped cell; and ii the negative curvature-sensing cell division protein DivIVA of Bacillus subtilis, which is positioned primarily at cell division sites. Our studies of intracellular organization in live cells of E. coli and B. subtilis demonstrate that MreB is largely excluded from areas of high negative curvature, whereas DivIVA localizes preferentially to regions of high negative curvature. These studies highlight a unique approach for studying the relationship between cell shape and intracellular organization in intact, live bacteria.
Courtney Jones, Stephanie K; Byrne, Phillip G
2017-12-01
Animals maintained in captivity exhibit rapid changes in phenotypic traits, which may be maladaptive for natural environments. The phenotype can shift away from the wild phenotype via transgenerational effects, with the environment experienced by parents influencing the phenotype and fitness of offspring. There is emerging evidence that controlling transgenerational effects could help mitigate the effects of captivity, improving the success of captively bred animals post release. However, controlling transgenerational effects requires knowledge of the mechanisms driving transgenerational changes. To better understand the genetic mechanisms that contribute to transgenerational effects in captivity we investigated the heritability of behavioral phenotypes using mid parent- and single parent-offspring regressions in a population of captive-reared house mouse (Mus musculus) that we had previously shown exhibit transgenerational changes in boldness and activity behavioral types. Slopes for boldness and activity were all positive, indicating a low to moderate degree of heritability. Though, none of the heritability estimates were statistically significant due to the large surrounding errors. However, the large error surrounding the heritability estimates may also indicate that there is variability in heritability between behavioral traits within the boldness and activity behavioral types. The implication of this finding is that the potential for heritable genetic changes in captivity varies considerably between traits. We conclude that continued investigation of the potential for traits to evolve in captivity is needed to better inform captive breeding and reintroduction programs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Heritability of metoprolol and torsemide pharmacokinetics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matthaei, Johannes; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Tzvetkov, Mladen
2015-01-01
Genetic variation in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and torsemide due to polymorphisms in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and OATP1B1 has been extensively studied. However, it is still unknown how much of variation in pharmacokinetics of these two clinically important drugs in total is due to genetic factors....... of the heritable variability in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and torsemide remains to be elucidated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....
Codimension two branes and distributional curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Traschen, Jennie
2009-01-01
In general relativity, there is a well-developed formalism for working with the approximation that a gravitational source is concentrated on a shell, or codimension one surface. In contrast, there are obstacles to concentrating sources on surfaces that have a higher codimension, for example, a string in a spacetime with a dimension greater than or equal to four. Here it is shown that, by giving up some of the generality of the codimension one case, curvature can be concentrated on submanifolds that have codimension two. A class of metrics is identified such that (1) the scalar curvature and Ricci densities exist as distributions with support on a codimension two submanifold, and (2) using the Einstein equation, the distributional curvature corresponds to a concentrated stress-energy with equation of state p = -ρ, where p is the isotropic pressure tangent to the submanifold, and ρ is the energy density. This is the appropriate stress-energy to describe a self-gravitating brane that is governed by an area action, or a braneworld deSitter cosmology. The possibility of having a different equation of state arise from a wider class of metrics is discussed.
Tic symptom dimensions and their heritabilities in Tourette's syndrome
de Haan, Marcel J; Delucchi, Kevin L; Mathews, Carol M; Cath, Danielle C
INTRODUCTION: Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (TS) is both genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous. Gene-finding strategies have had limited success, possibly because of symptom heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at specifically investigating heritabilities of tic symptom factors in
Directable weathering of concave rock using curvature estimation.
Jones, Michael D; Farley, McKay; Butler, Joseph; Beardall, Matthew
2010-01-01
We address the problem of directable weathering of exposed concave rock for use in computer-generated animation or games. Previous weathering models that admit concave surfaces are computationally inefficient and difficult to control. In nature, the spheroidal and cavernous weathering rates depend on the surface curvature. Spheroidal weathering is fastest in areas with large positive mean curvature and cavernous weathering is fastest in areas with large negative mean curvature. We simulate both processes using an approximation of mean curvature on a voxel grid. Both weathering rates are also influenced by rock durability. The user controls rock durability by editing a durability graph before and during weathering simulation. Simulations of rockfall and colluvium deposition further improve realism. The profile of the final weathered rock matches the shape of the durability graph up to the effects of weathering and colluvium deposition. We demonstrate the top-down directability and visual plausibility of the resulting model through a series of screenshots and rendered images. The results include the weathering of a cube into a sphere and of a sheltered inside corner into a cavern as predicted by the underlying geomorphological models.
CURVATURE-DRIVEN MOLECULAR FLOW ON MEMBRANE SURFACE.
Mikucki, Michael; Zhou, Y C
2017-01-01
This work presents a mathematical model for the localization of multiple species of diffusion molecules on membrane surfaces. Morphological change of bilayer membrane in vivo is generally modulated by proteins. Most of these modulations are associated with the localization of related proteins in the crowded lipid environments. We start with the energetic description of the distributions of molecules on curved membrane surface, and define the spontaneous curvature of bilayer membrane as a function of the molecule concentrations on membrane surfaces. A drift-diffusion equation governs the gradient flow of the surface molecule concentrations. We recast the energetic formulation and the related governing equations by using an Eulerian phase field description to define membrane morphology. Computational simulations with the proposed mathematical model and related numerical techniques predict (i) the molecular localization on static membrane surfaces at locations with preferred mean curvatures, and (ii) the generation of preferred mean curvature which in turn drives the molecular localization.
Comparisons of MR findings of the spinal metastasis and the spinal tuberculosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Myung Sun; Lee, Kil Woo; Kang, Ik Won; Yun, Ku Sub; Choi, Chul Sun; Bae, Sang Hoon
1994-01-01
MR findings of the spinal metastasis and the tuberculosis are well known, but sometimes it might be difficult to differentiate these lesions. Therefore we reviewed and analyzed the MR findings which would be useful for the differentiation. T1- and T2- weighted spin echo images and gadolinium-enhanced T1- weighted images were obtained with 1.5 T and 1.0 T superconductive MR imager. We reviewed MR findings in 16 cases of spinal metastases and 24 cases of spinal tuberculosis in terms of signal intensity, contrast enhancement pattern, disc space involvement, spinal canal compressing feature and paraspinal soft tissue mass. The signal intensities of both lesions were hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI except those of the metastatic lesions from the prostatic carcinoma. Heterogeneous enhancement was noted in 63% of metastasis, whereas peripheral rim enhancement was noted 83% of spinal tuberculosis(p < .001). Spinal canal compression by collapsed vertebra was only noted in spinal metastasis, and that by paraspinal soft tissue was noted in both spinal metastasis and tuberculosis(p<.001). Disc space invasion was noted in 19% of spinal metastasis and 88% of spinal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis was common at lower thoracic spine(T10) and typically involved two or more adjacent vertebral bodies(96%). The important differential point between spinal metastasis and tuberculosis was the enhancement pattern, involvement of two or more contiguous vertebral bodies and the feature of spinal canal compressing. The secondary importance was the disc space involvement pattern
Scalar curvature in conformal geometry of Connes-Landi noncommutative manifolds
Liu, Yang
2017-11-01
We first propose a conformal geometry for Connes-Landi noncommutative manifolds and study the associated scalar curvature. The new scalar curvature contains its Riemannian counterpart as the commutative limit. Similar to the results on noncommutative two tori, the quantum part of the curvature consists of actions of the modular derivation through two local curvature functions. Explicit expressions for those functions are obtained for all even dimensions (greater than two). In dimension four, the one variable function shows striking similarity to the analytic functions of the characteristic classes appeared in the Atiyah-Singer local index formula, namely, it is roughly a product of the j-function (which defines the A ˆ -class of a manifold) and an exponential function (which defines the Chern character of a bundle). By performing two different computations for the variation of the Einstein-Hilbert action, we obtain deep internal relations between two local curvature functions. Straightforward verification for those relations gives a strong conceptual confirmation for the whole computational machinery we have developed so far, especially the Mathematica code hidden behind the paper.
Quantitative analysis and prediction of curvature in leucine-rich repeat proteins.
Hindle, K Lauren; Bella, Jordi; Lovell, Simon C
2009-11-01
Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins form a large and diverse family. They have a wide range of functions most of which involve the formation of protein-protein interactions. All known LRR structures form curved solenoids, although there is large variation in their curvature. It is this curvature that determines the shape and dimensions of the inner space available for ligand binding. Unfortunately, large-scale parameters such as the overall curvature of a protein domain are extremely difficult to predict. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of determinants of curvature of this family. Individual repeats typically range in length between 20 and 30 residues and have a variety of secondary structures on their convex side. The observed curvature of the LRR domains correlates poorly with the lengths of their individual repeats. We have, therefore, developed a scoring function based on the secondary structure of the convex side of the protein that allows prediction of the overall curvature with a high degree of accuracy. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in selecting a suitable template for comparative modeling. We have developed an automated, quantitative protocol that can be used to predict accurately the curvature of leucine-rich repeat proteins of unknown structure from sequence alone. This protocol is available as an online resource at http://www.bioinf.manchester.ac.uk/curlrr/.
Heritability for Yield and Glycoalkaloid Content in Potato Breeding under Warm Environments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benavides Manuel A. Gastelo
2017-11-01
Full Text Available High temperatures affect potato production in the tropics, putting tuber yield and quality at risk and leading to increased glycoalkaloid concentration the cause of the bitter taste in potatoes and a cause for concern for human health. The International Potato Center (CIP, has developed new heat tolerant clones which are heat tolerant and also resistant to late blight. These clones offer an opportunity to evaluate yield and glycoalkaloid levels after growth under high temperature environments. We evaluated four sets of 16 full-sib families and 20 clones for tuber yield and glycoalkaloid content in order to estimate narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability respectively. We used a randomized complete block design replicated in three locations in Peru; San Ramon, La Molina and Majes At harvest, the number and weight of marketable and nonmarketable tubers were recorded. We analyzed samples of tubers from each clone for glycoalkaloid content using spectrophotometry. Narrow-sense heritability for tuber yield, tuber number and average tuber weight were 0.41, 0.50 and 0.83, respectively, indicating that further gains in breeding for heat tolerance will be possible. Broadsense heritability for glycoalkaloid content was 0.63 and correlation with tuber yield was weak, r=0.33 and R²=0.11 (P<0.01. High heritability and weak correlation will allow us to select clones with high tuber yield and low glycoalkaloid content, to serve as candidate varieties and parents in breeding programs.
Appetitive operant conditioning in mice: heritability and dissociability of training stages
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hemi A I Malkki
2010-11-01
Full Text Available To study the heritability of different training stages of appetitive operant conditioning, we carried out behavioural screening of 5 standard inbred mouse strains, 28 recombinant-inbred (BxD mouse lines and their progenitor strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also computed correlations between successive training stages to study whether learning deficits at an advanced stage of operant conditioning may be dissociated from normal performance in preceding phases of training.The training consisted of two phases: an operant nose poking phase, in which mice learned to collect a sucrose pellet from a food magazine by nose poking, and an operant lever press and nose poking phase, in which mice had to execute a sequence of these two actions to collect a food pellet. As a measure of magazine oriented exploration, we also studied the nose poke entries in the food magazine during the intertrial intervals at the beginning of the first session of the nose-poke training phase.We found significantly heritable components in initial magazine checking behaviour, operant nose-poking and lever press-nose poking. Performance levels in these phases were positively correlated, but several individual strains were identified that showed poor lever press-nose poking while performing well in preceding training stages. Quantitative trait loci mapping revealed suggestive likelihood ratio statistic peaks for initial magazine checking behaviour and lever press – nose poking. These findings indicate that consecutive stages towards more complex operant behavior show significant heritable components, as well as dissociability between stages in specific mouse strains. These heritable components may reside in different chromosomal areas.
Waterfall field in hybrid inflation and curvature perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Sasaki, Misao
2011-01-01
We study carefully the contribution of the waterfall field to the curvature perturbation at the end of hybrid inflation. In particular we clarify the parameter dependence analytically under reasonable assumptions on the model parameters. After calculating the mode function of the waterfall field, we use the δN formalism and confirm the previously obtained result that the power spectrum is very blue with the index 4 and is absolutely negligible on large scales. However, we also find that the resulting curvature perturbation is highly non-Gaussian and hence we calculate the bispectrum. We find that the bispectrum is at leading order independent of momentum and exhibits its peak at the equilateral limit, though it is unobservably small on large scales. We also present the one-point probability distribution function of the curvature perturbation
Waterfall field in hybrid inflation and curvature perturbation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: jgong@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2011-03-01
We study carefully the contribution of the waterfall field to the curvature perturbation at the end of hybrid inflation. In particular we clarify the parameter dependence analytically under reasonable assumptions on the model parameters. After calculating the mode function of the waterfall field, we use the δN formalism and confirm the previously obtained result that the power spectrum is very blue with the index 4 and is absolutely negligible on large scales. However, we also find that the resulting curvature perturbation is highly non-Gaussian and hence we calculate the bispectrum. We find that the bispectrum is at leading order independent of momentum and exhibits its peak at the equilateral limit, though it is unobservably small on large scales. We also present the one-point probability distribution function of the curvature perturbation.
Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Bae, Sang Jin
2004-01-01
We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance (ρ > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury
Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Jin [Sanggyepaik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2004-12-15
We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance ({rho} > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamasaki, K; Iwayama, T; Yajima, T
2011-01-01
The Okubo-Weiss field, frequently used for partitioning incompressible two-dimensional (2D) fluids into coherent and incoherent regions, corresponds to the Gaussian curvature of the stream function. Therefore, we consider the differential geometric structures of stream functions and calculate the Gaussian curvatures of some basic flows. We find the following. (I) The vorticity corresponds to the mean curvature of the stream function. Thus, the stream-function surface for an irrotational flow and that for a parallel shear flow correspond to the minimal surface and a developable surface, respectively. (II) The relationship between the coherency and the magnitude of the vorticity is interpreted by the curvatures. (III) Using the Gaussian curvature, stability of single and double point vortex streets is analyzed. The results of this analysis are compared with the well-known linear stability analysis. (IV) Conformal mapping in fluid mechanics is the physical expression of the geometric fact that the sign of the Gaussian curvature does not change in conformal mapping. These findings suggest that the curvatures of stream functions are useful for understanding the geometric structure of an incompressible 2D flow.
SNP based heritability estimation using a Bayesian approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krag, Kristian; Janss, Luc; Mahdi Shariati, Mohammad
2013-01-01
. Differences in family structure were in general not found to influence the estimation of the heritability. For the sample sizes used in this study, a 10-fold increase of SNP density did not improve precision estimates compared with set-ups with a less dense distribution of SNPs. The methods used in this study...
Modern approaches to discrete curvature
Romon, Pascal
2017-01-01
This book provides a valuable glimpse into discrete curvature, a rich new field of research which blends discrete mathematics, differential geometry, probability and computer graphics. It includes a vast collection of ideas and tools which will offer something new to all interested readers. Discrete geometry has arisen as much as a theoretical development as in response to unforeseen challenges coming from applications. Discrete and continuous geometries have turned out to be intimately connected. Discrete curvature is the key concept connecting them through many bridges in numerous fields: metric spaces, Riemannian and Euclidean geometries, geometric measure theory, topology, partial differential equations, calculus of variations, gradient flows, asymptotic analysis, probability, harmonic analysis, graph theory, etc. In spite of its crucial importance both in theoretical mathematics and in applications, up to now, almost no books have provided a coherent outlook on this emerging field.
The Riemann-Lovelock curvature tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kastor, David
2012-01-01
In order to study the properties of Lovelock gravity theories in low dimensions, we define the kth-order Riemann-Lovelock tensor as a certain quantity having a total 4k-indices, which is kth order in the Riemann curvature tensor and shares its basic algebraic and differential properties. We show that the kth-order Riemann-Lovelock tensor is determined by its traces in dimensions 2k ≤ D < 4k. In D = 2k + 1 this identity implies that all solutions of pure kth-order Lovelock gravity are 'Riemann-Lovelock' flat. It is verified that the static, spherically symmetric solutions of these theories, which are missing solid angle spacetimes, indeed satisfy this flatness property. This generalizes results from Einstein gravity in D = 3, which corresponds to the k = 1 case. We speculate about some possible further consequences of Riemann-Lovelock curvature. (paper)
Mice with a targeted deletion of the tetranectin gene exhibit a spinal deformity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iba, K; Durkin, M E; Johnsen, L
2001-01-01
and muscle. To test the functional role of tetranectin directly, we have generated mice with a targeted disruption of the gene. We report that the tetranectin-deficient mice exhibit kyphosis, a type of spinal deformity characterized by an increased curvature of the thoracic spine. The kyphotic angles were...... in the morphology of the vertebrae. Histological analysis of the spines of these mice revealed an apparently asymmetric development of the growth plate and of the intervertebral disks of the vertebrae. In the most advanced cases, the growth plates appeared disorganized and irregular, with the disk material...... in tissue growth and remodeling. The tetranectin-deficient mouse is the first mouse model that resembles common human kyphotic disorders, which affect up to 8% of the population....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seth M. Weinberg
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Previous research suggests that aspects of facial surface morphology are heritable. Traditionally, heritability studies have used a limited set of linear distances to quantify facial morphology and often employ statistical methods poorly designed to deal with biological shape. In this preliminary report, we use a combination of 3D photogrammetry and landmark-based morphometrics to explore which aspects of face shape show the strongest evidence of heritability in a sample of twins. Methods: 3D surface images were obtained from 21 twin pairs (10 monozygotic, 11 same-sex dizygotic. Thirteen 3D landmarks were collected from each facial surface and their coordinates subjected to geometric morphometric analysis. This involved superimposing the individual landmark configurations and then subjecting the resulting shape coordinates to a principal components analysis. The resulting PC scores were then used to calculate rough narrow-sense heritability estimates. Results: Three principal components displayed evidence of moderate to high heritability and were associated with variation in the breadth of orbital and nasal structures, upper lip height and projection, and the vertical and forward projection of the root of the nose due to variation in the position of nasion. Conclusions: Aspects of facial shape, primarily related to variation in length and breadth of central midfacial structures, were shown to demonstrate evidence of strong heritability. An improved understanding of which facial features are under strong genetic control is an important step in the identification of specific genes that underlie normal facial variation.
Curvature-driven acceleration: a utopia or a reality?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Sudipta; Banerjee, Narayan; Dadhich, Naresh
2006-01-01
The present work shows that a combination of nonlinear contributions from the Ricci curvature in Einstein field equations can drive a late time acceleration of expansion of the universe. The transit from the decelerated to the accelerated phase of expansion takes place smoothly without having to resort to a study of asymptotic behaviour. This result emphasizes the need for thorough and critical examination of models with nonlinear contribution from the curvature
Curvature-driven acceleration: a utopia or a reality?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Sudipta [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta-700 032 (India); Banerjee, Narayan [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta-700 032 (India); Dadhich, Naresh [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)
2006-06-21
The present work shows that a combination of nonlinear contributions from the Ricci curvature in Einstein field equations can drive a late time acceleration of expansion of the universe. The transit from the decelerated to the accelerated phase of expansion takes place smoothly without having to resort to a study of asymptotic behaviour. This result emphasizes the need for thorough and critical examination of models with nonlinear contribution from the curvature.
Estimation of heritability of the nectar guide of flowers in Brassica rapa L
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Syafaruddin; Kobayashi, K.; Yoshioka, Y.; Horisaki, A.; Niikura, S.
2006-01-01
Flowers of Brassica rapa L, produce a nectar guide, which consists of a coloured pattern (the dark, UV-absorbing centre of the flower) invisible to humans but visible to insect pollinators. As a result, the colour of the flowers typically appears as uniform light yellow to human eyes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mode of inheritance of this character by using two inbred lines and their Fsub(1), Fsub(2) and Fsub(3) progenies with a view to improving this character. After digitizing UV-photographs of each flower, we measured the UV-absorbing area (UVA) and the total flower area (FA), based on image analysis. The ratio of UVA to FA represented the UV colour proportion (UVP). We estimated the broad-sense and narrow-sense heritabilities from within-generation variances in the UVP scores and environmental variance from the average value of the variances in the parental lines. The value of broad-sense heritability of UVP was high (0.75) in the Fsub(2) generation (hBsup2[Fsub(2)]) and higher (0.84) in the Fsub(3) generation (hBsup2[Fsub(3)]), indicating that UVP is a heritable character. Moreover, the high value of broad-sense heritability of UVP indicates that breeders have not focused their selection intentionally on this character in B. rapa. In contrast, the value of narrow-sense heritability was much lower: 0.12 (hBsup2[Fsub(2)]) and 0.24 (hBsup2[Fsub(3)]), respectively, suggesting that the genetic variation in UVP was mainly due to dominance effects. If we attempt to breed new lines with larger or smaller UVP values, we need to select this trait in advanced generations, in which additive effects become larger
Connections and curvatures on complex Riemannian manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganchev, G.; Ivanov, S.
1991-05-01
Characteristic connection and characteristic holomorphic sectional curvatures are introduced on a complex Riemannian manifold (not necessarily with holomorphic metric). For the class of complex Riemannian manifolds with holomorphic characteristic connection a classification of the manifolds with (pointwise) constant holomorphic characteristic curvature is given. It is shown that the conformal geometry of complex analytic Riemannian manifolds can be naturally developed on the class of locally conformal holomorphic Riemannian manifolds. Complex Riemannian manifolds locally conformal to the complex Euclidean space are characterized with zero conformal fundamental tensor and zero conformal characteristic tensor. (author). 12 refs
Berry Curvature in Magnon-Phonon Hybrid Systems.
Takahashi, Ryuji; Nagaosa, Naoto
2016-11-18
We study theoretically the Berry curvature of the magnon induced by the hybridization with the acoustic phonons via the spin-orbit and dipolar interactions. We first discuss the magnon-phonon hybridization via the dipolar interaction, and show that the dispersions have gapless points in momentum space, some of which form a loop. Next, when both spin-orbit and dipolar interactions are considered, we show anisotropic texture of the Berry curvature and its divergence with and without gap closing. Realistic evaluation of the consequent anomalous velocity is given for yttrium iron garnet.
Heritability of non-HLA genetics in coeliac disease : a population-based study in 107 000 twins
Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Halfvarson, Jonas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
2016-01-01
Background and objective Almost 100% individuals with coeliac disease (CD) are carriers of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/DQ8 alleles. Earlier studies have, however, failed to consider the HLA system when estimating heritability in CD, thus violating an underlying assumption of heritability
Differential diagnoses of spinal tumors; Differenzialdiagnose spinaler Tumoren
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)
2011-12-15
A wide variety of degenerative, inflammatory and vascular diseases can resemble the clinical presentation and imaging findings of spinal tumors. This article provides an overview of the most frequent diseases which are important to recognize for diagnostic imaging of the spine. (orig.) [German] Eine Vielzahl degenerativer, entzuendlicher und vaskulaerer Erkrankungen kann das klinische Bild und radiologische Befunde spinaler Tumoren imitieren. Dieser Artikel dient der Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten dieser Erkrankungen, deren Kenntnis wichtig fuer die spinale Bildgebung ist. (orig.)
Distributed plasticity of locomotor pattern generators in spinal cord injured patients.
Grasso, Renato; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka; Molinari, Marco; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Castellano, Vincenzo; Macellari, Velio; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2004-05-01
Recent progress with spinal cord injured (SCI) patients indicates that with training they can recover some locomotor ability. Here we addressed the question of whether locomotor responses developed with training depend on re-activation of the normal motor patterns or whether they depend on learning new motor patterns. To this end we recorded detailed kinematic and EMG data in SCI patients trained to step on a treadmill with body-weight support (BWST), and in healthy subjects. We found that all patients could be trained to step with BWST in the laboratory conditions, but they used new coordinative strategies. Patients with more severe lesions used their arms and body to assist the leg movements via the biomechanical coupling of limb and body segments. In all patients, the phase-relationship of the angular motion of the different lower limb segments was very different from the control, as was the pattern of activity of most recorded muscles. Surprisingly, however, the new motor strategies were quite effective in generating foot motion that closely matched the normal in the laboratory conditions. With training, foot motion recovered the shape, the step-by-step reproducibility, and the two-thirds power relationship between curvature and velocity that characterize normal gait. We mapped the recorded patterns of muscle activity onto the approximate rostrocaudal location of motor neuron pools in the human spinal cord. The reconstructed spatiotemporal maps of motor neuron activity in SCI patients were quite different from those of healthy subjects. At the end of training, the locomotor network reorganized at both supralesional and sublesional levels, from the cervical to the sacral cord segments. We conclude that locomotor responses in SCI patients may not be subserved by changes localized to limited regions of the spinal cord, but may depend on a plastic redistribution of activity across most of the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Distributed plasticity underlies
Life course variations in the heritability of body size
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, J.; Luan, J.A.; Sharp, S.J.
aim was to use this approach to investigate the life course variations in heritability of body size. Methods: We analysed height, weight and body mass index variables at 11 time-points in 2,452 individuals (1,225 men, 1,227 women) born in 1946 and enrolled in the MRC National Survey of Health...... and Development (NSHD), with genotypes at 147,949 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on Metabochips which were subsequently imputed to 506,255 according to the 1000Genomes project. We obtained genome-wide kinship matrices using genotypes at SNPs on Metabochips and genotypes at all SNPs, which were used.......11(0-0.20), 0.10(0-0.22) for height, weight and body mass index, respectively. Variation in estimates was also seen between alternative procedures. Conclusion: This work supports the utility of large-scale genotype data in heritability estimation and highlights the age-related variability in genetic...
A curvature theory for discrete surfaces based on mesh parallelity
Bobenko, Alexander Ivanovich; Pottmann, Helmut; Wallner, Johannes
2009-01-01
We consider a general theory of curvatures of discrete surfaces equipped with edgewise parallel Gauss images, and where mean and Gaussian curvatures of faces are derived from the faces' areas and mixed areas. Remarkably these notions are capable
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jakub Michoński
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topography (ST, systems designed for posture evaluation could potentially fill this void. A pilot study was conducted to test the potential of monitoring the change of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography. A single case was studied to test the methodology and preliminarily assess the usefulness of the procedure before performing a randomized trial. The apparatus used in this study was metrologically tested and utilized earlier in scoliosis screening. Case presentation The subject was measured using a custom-made structured light illumination scanner with accuracy of 0.2 mm. Measurement was taken every 2 weeks, between 17th and 37th week of pregnancy, 11 measurements in total. From the measurement the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and vertical balance angle were extracted automatically. Custom-written software was used for analysis. Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI was done with every measurement. The values were correctly extracted from the measurement. The results were: 50.9 ± 2.4° for kyphosis angle, 58.1 ± 2.1° for lordosis angle and 4.7 ± 1.7° for vertical balance angle. The registered change was 7.4° in kyphosis angle, 8.4° in lordosis angle and 5.5° in vertical balance angle. The calculated ODI values were between moderate disability and severe disability (22 to 58 %. Conclusions This case study presents that surface topography may be suitable for monitoring of spinal curvature
Heritability, genetic advance and correlation studies of some important traits in rice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bughio, H.R.; Asad, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Bughio, M.S.
2009-01-01
Genetic variability, estimates of broad sense heritability, genetic advance as percent of mean and genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were observed in eight rice genotypes at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam in 2005. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was exhibited for number of fertile grains per panicle, number of productive tillers per plant and grain yield per plant, indicating additive gene action and possibility of improving these traits by simple selection. High heritability with moderate genetic advance was exhibited for plant height, 1000-grain weight and panicle length indicating the involvement of additive and non-additive type of gene action and postponement of selection programs for the improvement of these traits. The characters productive tillers per plant, panicle length, number of fertile grains per panicle, panicle fertility percentage and 1000-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield per plant. While plant height and days to 50% flowering were observed non-significant and negatively correlated with grain yield per plant. Fertile grain had significant and positive correlation with panicle fertility percentage. (author)
Chronic spinal subdural hematoma; Spinales chronisches subdurales Haematom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagen, T.; Lensch, T. [Radiologengemeinschaft, Augsburg (Germany)
2008-10-15
Compared with spinal epidural hematomas, spinal subdural hematomas are rare; chronic forms are even more uncommon. These hematomas are associated not only with lumbar puncture and spinal trauma, but also with coagulopathies, vascular malformations and tumors. Compression of the spinal cord and the cauda equina means that the patients develop increasing back or radicular pain, followed by paraparesis and bladder and bowel paralysis, so that in most cases surgical decompression is carried out. On magnetic resonance imaging these hematomas present as thoracic or lumbar subdural masses, their signal intensity varying with the age of the hematoma. We report the clinical course and the findings revealed by imaging that led to the diagnosis in three cases of chronic spinal subdural hematoma. (orig.) [German] Spinale subdurale Haematome sind im Vergleich zu epiduralen Haematomen selten, chronische Verlaufsformen noch seltener. Ursaechlich sind neben Lumbalpunktionen und traumatischen Verletzungen auch Blutgerinnungsstoerungen, Gefaessmalformationen und Tumoren. Aufgrund der Kompression von Myelon und Cauda equina kommt es zu zunehmenden Ruecken- oder radikulaeren Schmerzen mit anschliessender Paraparese sowie einer Darm- und Blasenstoerung, weshalb in den meisten Faellen eine operative Entlastung durchgefuehrt wird. Magnetresonanztomographisch stellen sich die Haematome meist als thorakale bzw. lumbale subdurale Raumforderungen dar, die Signalintensitaet variiert mit dem Blutungsalter. Wir berichten ueber den klinischen Verlauf und die bildgebende Diagnostik von 3 Patienten mit spinalen chronischen subduralen Haematomen. (orig.)
Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...
Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...
First contact: understanding the relationship between hominoid incisor curvature and diet.
Deane, Andrew
2009-03-01
Accurately interpreting fossil primate dietary behaviour is necessary to fully understand a species' ecology and connection to its environment. Traditional methods developed to infer diet from hominoid teeth successfully group taxa into broad dietary categories (i.e., folivore, frugivore) but often fail to represent the range of dietary variability characteristic of living apes. This oversimplification is not only a consequence of poor resolution, but may also reflect the use of similar fallback resources by closely related taxa with dissimilar diets. This study demonstrates that additional dietary specificity can be achieved using a morphometric approach to hominoid incisor curvature. High-resolution polynomial curve fitting (HR-PCF) was used to quantify the incisor curvatures of closely related hominoid taxa that have dissimilar diets but similar morphological adaptations to specific keystone resources (e.g., Gorilla gorilla beringei vs. G. g. gorilla). Given the key role of incisors in food processing, it is reasonable to assume that these teeth will be at least partially influenced by the unique selective pressures imposed by the mechanical loading specific to individual diets. Results from this study identify a strong correlation between hominoid dietary proportions and incisor linear dimensions and curvature, indicating that more pronounced incisor curvature is positively correlated with higher levels of frugivory. Hard-object frugivores have the greatest mesiodistal and cervico-incisal curvature and dedicated folivores have the least curved incisors. Mixed folivore/frugivores are morphological intermediates between dedicated folivores and hard- and soft-object frugivores. Mesiodistal curvature varied only in the degree of curvature; however, cervico-incisal curvature was shown to differ qualitatively between more frugivorous and more folivorous taxa. In addition to identifying a greater range of dietary variability among hominoids, this study also
Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back ... of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such ...
Heritability and genetics of lipid metabolism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fenger, Mogens
2007-01-01
In this article, the concept of heritability and genetic effect will be reviewed and our current knowledge of the genetics of lipid metabolism summarized. The concepts of polygenic conditions and epistasis are discussed at length, and an effort is made to put the biological processes in context...... in the search for genetic factors influencing the metabolic pathways. Particular physiological heterogeneity is addressed and procedures to handle this complex issue are suggested....
Curvature-Continuous 3D Path-Planning Using QPMI Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seong-Ryong Chang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available It is impossible to achieve vertex movement and rapid velocity control in aerial robots and aerial vehicles because of momentum from the air. A continuous-curvature path ensures such robots and vehicles can fly with stable and continuous movements. General continuous path-planning methods use spline interpolation, for example B-spline and Bézier curves. However, these methods cannot be directly applied to continuous path planning in a 3D space. These methods use a subset of the waypoints to decide curvature and some waypoints are not included in the planned path. This paper proposes a method for constructing a curvature-continuous path in 3D space that includes every waypoint. The movements in each axis, x, y and z, are separated by the parameter u. Waypoint groups are formed, each with its own continuous path derived using quadratic polynomial interpolation. The membership function then combines each continuous path into one continuous path. The continuity of the path is verified and the curvature-continuous path is produced using the proposed method.
Inflation in a shear-or curvature-dominated universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.
1983-01-01
We show that new inflation occurs even if the universe is shear-or (negative) curvature-dominated when the phase transition begins. In such situations the size of a causally coherent region, after inflation, is only slightly smaller (by powers, but not by exponential factors) than the usual result. The creation and evolution of density perturbations is unaffected. This result is marked contrast to 'old' inflation, where shear- or curvature-domination could quench inflation. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N Mahomed
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.
Inflationary scenario from higher curvature warped spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Narayan; Paul, Tanmoy
2017-01-01
We consider a five dimensional warped spacetime, in presence of the higher curvature term like F(R) = R + αR 2 in the bulk, in the context of the two-brane model. Our universe is identified with the TeV scale brane and emerges as a four dimensional effective theory. From the perspective of this effective theory, we examine the possibility of ''inflationary scenario'' by considering the on-brane metric ansatz as an FRW one. Our results reveal that the higher curvature term in the five dimensional bulk spacetime generates a potential term for the radion field. Due to the presence of radion potential, the very early universe undergoes a stage of accelerated expansion and, moreover, the accelerating period of the universe terminates in a finite time. We also find the spectral index of curvature perturbation (n s ) and the tensor to scalar ratio (r) in the present context, which match with the observational results based on the observations of Planck (Astron. Astrophys. 594, A20, 2016). (orig.)
Inflationary scenario from higher curvature warped spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Narayan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Paul, Tanmoy [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)
2017-10-15
We consider a five dimensional warped spacetime, in presence of the higher curvature term like F(R) = R + αR{sup 2} in the bulk, in the context of the two-brane model. Our universe is identified with the TeV scale brane and emerges as a four dimensional effective theory. From the perspective of this effective theory, we examine the possibility of ''inflationary scenario'' by considering the on-brane metric ansatz as an FRW one. Our results reveal that the higher curvature term in the five dimensional bulk spacetime generates a potential term for the radion field. Due to the presence of radion potential, the very early universe undergoes a stage of accelerated expansion and, moreover, the accelerating period of the universe terminates in a finite time. We also find the spectral index of curvature perturbation (n{sub s}) and the tensor to scalar ratio (r) in the present context, which match with the observational results based on the observations of Planck (Astron. Astrophys. 594, A20, 2016). (orig.)
Heritability of sperm length in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baer, Boris; de Jong, Gerdien; Schmid-Hempel, Regula
2006-01-01
estimates of narrow sense heritability of sperm length in a social insect, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. In spite of a balanced and straightforward rearing design of colonies, and the possibility to replicate measurements of sperm within single males nested within colonies, the analysis proved...
Superparasitism Drives Heritable Symbiont Epidemiology and Host Sex Ratio in a Wasp.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven R Parratt
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Heritable microbial symbionts have profound impacts upon the biology of their arthropod hosts. Whilst our current understanding of the dynamics of these symbionts is typically cast within a framework of vertical transmission only, horizontal transmission has been observed in a number of cases. For instance, several symbionts can transmit horizontally when their parasitoid hosts share oviposition patches with uninfected conspecifics, a phenomenon called superparasitism. Despite this, horizontal transmission, and the host contact structures that facilitates it, have not been considered in heritable symbiont epidemiology. Here, we tested for the importance of host contact, and resulting horizontal transmission, for the epidemiology of a male-killing heritable symbiont (Arsenophonus nasoniae in parasitoid wasp hosts. We observed that host contact through superparasitism is necessary for this symbiont's spread in populations of its primary host Nasonia vitripennis, such that when superparasitism rates are high, A. nasoniae almost reaches fixation, causes highly female biased population sex ratios and consequently causes local host extinction. We further tested if natural interspecific variation in superparasitism behaviours predicted symbiont dynamics among parasitoid species. We found that A. nasoniae was maintained in laboratory populations of a closely related set of Nasonia species, but declined in other, more distantly related pteromalid hosts. The natural proclivity of a species to superparasitise was the primary factor determining symbiont persistence. Our results thus indicate that host contact behaviour is a key factor for heritable microbe dynamics when horizontal transmission is possible, and that 'reproductive parasite' phenotypes, such as male-killing, may be of secondary importance in the dynamics of such symbiont infections.
Heritability and prevalence of selected osteochondrosis lesions in yearling Thoroughbred horses.
Russell, J; Matika, O; Russell, T; Reardon, R J M
2017-05-01
Osteochondrosis is considered multifactorial in origin, with factors such as nutrition, conformation, body size, trauma and genetics thought to contribute to its pathogenesis. Few studies have investigated the effects of genetic variability of osteochondrosis in Thoroughbreds. To describe the prevalence and genetic variability of a subset of osteochondrosis lesions in a group of Thoroughbred yearlings. Retrospective cohort study. Radiographs of 1962 Thoroughbred yearlings were retrieved from clinical records obtained between 2005 and 2013. Pedigree information was obtained from the Australian Stud Book. Osteochondrosis lesions were documented in selected joints and estimates of heritability were obtained by fitting linear mixed models in ASREML software. The overall prevalence of osteochondrosis was 23%. Osteochondrosis was identified in 10% of stifle joints, 6% of hock joints and 8% of fetlock joints. The heritability estimates ranged from 0 to 0.21. The largest estimates were 0.10, 0.14, 0.16 and 0.21 for lesions of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia, dorso-proximal proximal phalanx (P1), any stifle osteochondrosis, and lesions of the lateral trochlear ridge of the distal femur, respectively. Although calculated heritability estimates had high standard errors, meta-analyses combining the present results with published estimates were significant at 0.10, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.20 for stifle, tarsal, fetlock and these joints combined, respectively. In addition, there was a permanent environment attributable to the dam effect. Inclusion criteria were based on radiographic findings in specific joints at a specific age range in Thoroughbreds. The present results indicate that only a proportion of osteochondrosis in Thoroughbreds is heritable. The permanent environment effects of the dam were observed to have effects on some categories of osteochondrosis. © 2016 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.
Hyperacute spinal subdural haematoma as a complication of lumbar spinal anaesthesia: MRI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedraza Gutierrez, S.; Suescun, M.; Rovira Canellas, A.; Coll Masfarre, S.; Castano Duque, C.H.
1999-01-01
We report two cases of hyperacute spinal subdural haematoma secondary to lumbar spinal anaesthesia, identified with MRI. Prompt diagnosis of this infrequent, potentially serious complication of spinal anaesthesia is essential, as early surgical evacuation may be needed. Suggestive MRI findings in this early phase include diffuse occupation filling of the spinal canal with poor delineation of the spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and a poorly-defined high-signal lesion with a low-signal rim on T2-weighted images. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barenboim, Gabriela; Martínez, Enrique Fernández; Mena, Olga; Verde, Licia
2010-01-01
Geometrical tests such as the combination of the Hubble parameter H(z) and the angular diameter distance d A (z) can, in principle, break the degeneracy between the dark energy equation of state parameter w(z), and the spatial curvature Ω k in a direct, model-independent way. In practice, constraints on these quantities achievable from realistic experiments, such as those to be provided by Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) galaxy surveys in combination with CMB data, can resolve the cosmic confusion between the dark energy equation of state parameter and curvature only statistically and within a parameterized model for w(z). Combining measurements of both H(z) and d A (z) up to sufficiently high redshifts z ∼ 2 and employing a parameterization of the redshift evolution of the dark energy equation of state are the keys to resolve the w(z)−Ω k degeneracy
MULTIPLE SPINAL CANAL MENINGIOMAS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nandigama Pratap Kumar
2016-10-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningiomas of the spinal canal are common tumours with the incidence of 25 percent of all spinal cord tumours. But multiple spinal canal meningiomas are rare in compare to solitary lesions and account for 2 to 3.5% of all spinal meningiomas. Most of the reported cases are both intra cranial and spinal. Exclusive involvement of the spinal canal by multiple meningiomas are very rare. We could find only sixteen cases in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for single lesion. We analysed the literature, with illustration of our case. MATERIALS AND METHODS In September 2016, we performed a literature search for multiple spinal canal meningiomas involving exclusively the spinal canal with no limitation for language and publication date. The search was conducted through http://pubmed.com, a wellknown worldwide internet medical address. To the best of our knowledge, we could find only sixteen cases of multiple meningiomas exclusively confined to the spinal canal. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for solitary intradural extra medullary spinal canal meningioma at D4-D6 level, again presented with spastic quadriparesis of two years duration and MRI whole spine demonstrated multiple intradural extra medullary lesions, which were excised completely and the histopathological diagnosis was transitional meningioma. RESULTS Patient recovered from his weakness and sensory symptoms gradually and bladder and bowel symptoms improved gradually over a period of two to three weeks. CONCLUSION Multiple
The heritability of blood donation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus
2015-01-01
active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families.......BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Shen
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents computational algorithms for the design, analysis, and optimization of airfoil aerodynamic performance. The prescribed surface curvature distribution blade design (CIRCLE method is applied to a symmetrical airfoil NACA0012 and a non-symmetrical airfoil E387 to remove their surface curvature and slope-of-curvature discontinuities. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to investigate the effects of curvature distribution on aerodynamic performance of the original and modified airfoils. An inviscid–viscid interaction scheme is introduced to predict the positions of laminar separation bubbles. The results are compared with experimental data obtained from tests on the original airfoil geometry. The computed aerodynamic advantages of the modified airfoils are analyzed in different operating conditions. The leading edge singularity of NACA0012 is removed and it is shown that the surface curvature discontinuity affects aerodynamic performance near the stalling angle of attack. The discontinuous slope-of-curvature distribution of E387 results in a larger laminar separation bubble at lower angles of attack and lower Reynolds numbers. It also affects the inherent performance of the airfoil at higher Reynolds numbers. It is shown that at relatively high angles of attack, a continuous slope-of-curvature distribution reduces the skin friction by suppressing both laminar and turbulent separation, and by delaying laminar-turbulent transition. It is concluded that the surface curvature distribution has significant effects on the boundary layer behavior and consequently an improved curvature distribution will lead to higher aerodynamic efficiency.
Quantitative evaluation of the lumbosacral sagittal alignment in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis
Makirov, Serik K.; Jahaf, Mohammed T.; Nikulina, Anastasia A.
2015-01-01
LSB of 0.2 or less, so this value can be predictable for its development. It may suggest that spinal stenosis is more likely to occur in patients with the spinal curvature of this type because of abnormal distribution of the spine loads. This fact may have prognostic significance for develop vertebral column disease and evaluation of treatment results. PMID:26767160
Phase-space curvature in spin-orbit-coupled ultracold atomic systems
Armaitis, J.; Ruseckas, J.; Anisimovas, E.
2017-04-01
We consider a system with spin-orbit coupling and derive equations of motion which include the effects of Berry curvatures. We apply these equations to investigate the dynamics of particles with equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in one dimension. In our derivation, the adiabatic transformation is performed first and leads to quantum Heisenberg equations of motion for momentum and position operators. These equations explicitly contain position-space, momentum-space, and phase-space Berry curvature terms. Subsequently, we perform the semiclassical approximation and obtain the semiclassical equations of motion. Taking the low-Berry-curvature limit results in equations that can be directly compared to previous results for the motion of wave packets. Finally, we show that in the semiclassical regime, the effective mass of the equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled system can be viewed as a direct effect of the phase-space Berry curvature.
... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...
Heritability of Stroop and flanker performance in 12-year old children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Polderman Tinca JC
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is great interest in appropriate phenotypes that serve as indicator of genetically transmitted frontal (dysfunction, such as ADHD. Here we investigate the ability to deal with response conflict, and we ask to what extent performance variation on response interference tasks is caused by genetic variation. We tested a large sample of 12-year old monozygotic and dizygotic twins on two well-known and closely related response interference tasks; the color Stroop task and the Eriksen flanker task. Using structural equation modelling we assessed the heritability of several performance indices derived from those tasks. Results In the Stroop task we found high heritabilities of overall reaction time and – more important – Stroop interference (h2 = nearly 50 %. In contrast, we found little evidence of heritability on flanker performance. For both tasks no effects of sex on performance variation were found. Conclusions These results suggest that normal variation in Stroop performance is influenced by underlying genetic variation. Given that Stroop performance is often hampered not only in people suffering from frontal dysfunction, but also in their unaffected relatives, we conclude that this variable may constitute a suitable endophenotype for future genetic studies. We discuss several reasons for the absence of genetic effects on the flanker task.
F. Thomas Ledig; J.L. Whitmore
1981-01-01
Caribbean pine is an important exotic being bred throughout the tropics, but published estimates are lacking for heritability of economically important traits and the genetic correlations between them. Based on a Puerto Rican trial of 16 open-pollinated parents of var. hondurensis selected in Belize, heritabilities for a number of characteristics...
Harnessing genomics to identify environmental determinants of heritable disease
Yauk, Carole Lyn; Argueso, J. Lucas; Auerbach, Scott S.; Awadalla, Philip; Davis, Sean R.; DeMarini, David M.; Douglas, George R.; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Elespuru, Rosalie K.; Glover, Thomas W.; Hales, Barbara F.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Klein, Catherine B.; Lupski, James R.; Manchester, David K.; Marchetti, Francesco; Montpetit, Alexandre; Mulvihill, John J.; Robaire, Bernard; Robbins, Wendie A.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Shaughnessy, Daniel T.; Somers, Christopher M.; Taylor, James G.; Trasler, Jacquetta; Waters, Michael D.; Wilson, Thomas E.; Witt, Kristine L.; Bishop, Jack B.
2012-01-01
Next-generation sequencing technologies can now be used to directly measure heritable de novo DNA sequence mutations in humans. However, these techniques have not been used to examine environmental factors that induce such mutations and their associated diseases. To address this issue, a working group on environmentally induced germline mutation analysis (ENIGMA) met in October 2011 to propose the necessary foundational studies, which include sequencing of parent–offspring trios from highly exposed human populations, and controlled dose–response experiments in animals. These studies will establish background levels of variability in germline mutation rates and identify environmental agents that influence these rates and heritable disease. Guidance for the types of exposures to examine come from rodent studies that have identified agents such as cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, ionizing radiation, cigarette smoke, and air pollution as germ-cell mutagens. Research is urgently needed to establish the health consequences of parental exposures on subsequent generations. PMID:22935230
Full Text Available ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... What is a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Anthony Woodley of Menie
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The Continuous Parameter Estimation Model is applied to develop individual genomic-level heritabilities for the latent hierarchical structure and developmental dynamics of Life History (LH strategy LH strategies relate to the allocations of bioenergetic resources into different domains of fitness. LH has moderate to high population-level heritability in humans, both at the level of the high-order Super-K Factor and the lower-order factors, the K-Factor, Covitality Factor, and General Factor of Personality (GFP. Several important questions remain unexplored. We developed measures of genome-level heritabilities employing an American sample of 316 monozygotic (MZ and 274 dizygotic (DZ twin dyads and a Swedish sample of 863 MZ and 475 DZ twin dyads. This novel heritability index measures individual genetic transmissibility, therefore opening new avenues for analyzing complex interactions among heritable traits inaccessible to standard structural equations methods. For these samples: (1 moderate to high heritability of factor loadings of Super-K on its lower-order factors is demonstrated, evidencing biological preparedness, genetic accommodation, and the gene-culture coevolution of biased epigenetic rules of development; (2 moderate to high heritability of the magnitudes of the effect of the higher-order factors upon their loadings on their constituent factors, evidencing genetic constraints upon phenotypic plasticity; and (3 that heritability of the LH factors, of factor loadings, and of the magnitudes of the correlations among factors are weaker among those with slower LH speeds, demonstrating that inter-individual variation in transmissibility is a function of individual socioecological selection pressures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacob A Russell
Full Text Available Maternally transmitted bacteria have been important players in the evolution of insects and other arthropods, affecting their nutrition, defense, development, and reproduction. Wolbachia are the best studied among these and typically the most prevalent. While several other bacteria have independently evolved a heritable lifestyle, less is known about their host ranges. Moreover, most groups of insects have not had their heritable microflora systematically surveyed across a broad range of their taxonomic diversity. To help remedy these shortcomings we used diagnostic PCR to screen for five groups of heritable symbionts-Arsenophonus spp., Cardinium hertigii, Hamiltonella defensa, Spiroplasma spp., and Wolbachia spp.-across the ants and lepidopterans (focusing, in the latter case, on two butterfly families-the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae. We did not detect Cardinium or Hamiltonella in any host. Wolbachia were the most widespread, while Spiroplasma (ants and lepidopterans and Arsenophonus (ants only were present at low levels. Co-infections with different Wolbachia strains appeared especially common in ants and less so in lepidopterans. While no additional facultative heritable symbionts were found among ants using universal bacterial primers, microbes related to heritable enteric bacteria were detected in several hosts. In summary, our findings show that Wolbachia are the dominant heritable symbionts of ants and at least some lepidopterans. However, a systematic review of symbiont frequencies across host taxa revealed that this is not always the case across other arthropods. Furthermore, comparisons of symbiont frequencies revealed that the prevalence of Wolbachia and other heritable symbionts varies substantially across lower-level arthropod taxa. We discuss the correlates, potential causes, and implications of these patterns, providing hypotheses on host attributes that may shape the distributions of these influential bacteria.
International Spinal Cord Injury
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G
2015-01-01
STUDY DESIGN: Survey of expert opinion, feedback and final consensus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development and the variables included in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS......: A committee of experts was established to select and define data elements. The data set was then disseminated to the appropriate committees and organizations for comments. All suggested revisions were considered and both the International Spinal Cord Society and the American Spinal Injury Association endorsed...... spinal intervention and procedure is coded (variables 1 through 7) and the spinal segment level is described (variables 8 and 9). Sample clinical cases were developed to illustrate how to complete it. CONCLUSION: The International SCI Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data Set...
Boulet, Sebastien; Boudot, Elsa; Houel, Nicolas
2016-05-03
Back pain is a common reason for consultation in primary healthcare clinical practice, and has effects on daily activities and posture. Relationships between the whole spine and upright posture, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between each spinal curve and centre of pressure position as well as velocity for healthy subjects. Twenty-one male subjects performed quiet stance in natural position. Each upright posture was then recorded using an optoelectronics system (Vicon Nexus) synchronized with two force plates. At each moment, polynomial interpolations of markers attached on the spine segment were used to compute cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angle curves. Mean of centre of pressure position and velocity was then computed. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the position and velocity of centre of pressure associated with each part of the spinal curves were defined as best predictors of the lumbar lordosis angle (R(2)=0.45; p=1.65*10-10) and the thoracic kyphosis angle (R(2)=0.54; p=4.89*10-13) of healthy subjects in quiet stance. This study showed the relationships between each of cervical, thoracic, lumbar curvatures, and centre of pressure's fluctuation during free quiet standing using non-invasive full spinal curve exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forelimb bone curvature in terrestrial and arboreal mammals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keith Henderson
2017-04-01
Full Text Available It has recently been proposed that the caudal curvature (concave caudal side observed in the radioulna of terrestrial quadrupeds is an adaptation to the habitual action of the triceps muscle which causes cranial bending strains (compression on cranial side. The caudal curvature is proposed to be adaptive because longitudinal loading induces caudal bending strains (increased compression on the caudal side, and these opposing bending strains counteract each other leaving the radioulna less strained. If this is true for terrestrial quadrupeds, where triceps is required for habitual elbow extension, then we might expect that in arboreal species, where brachialis is habitually required to maintain elbow flexion, the radioulna should instead be cranially curved. This study measures sagittal curvature of the ulna in a range of terrestrial and arboreal primates and marsupials, and finds that their ulnae are curved in opposite directions in these two locomotor categories. This study also examines sagittal curvature in the humerus in the same species, and finds differences that can be attributed to similar adaptations: the bone is curved to counter the habitual muscle action required by the animal’s lifestyle, the difference being mainly in the distal part of the humerus, where arboreal animals tend have a cranial concavity, thought to be in response the carpal and digital muscles that pull cranially on the distal humerus.
Spinal cysts. Diagnostic workup and therapy; Spinale Zysten. Diagnostik und Therapie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simgen, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)
2018-02-15
Spinal cysts can be classified as meningeal, not meningeal, and tumor-associated cysts. Due to the widespread availability of high-resolution computed tomography and magnet resonance imaging, spinal cysts can be detected with high sensitivity these days. Concerning the variety of potential cystic differential diagnoses, a precise classification is difficult and can often only be realized after surgical inspection or histological examination. Spinal cysts are generally incidental findings during a routine diagnostic workup and need no further therapy. Surgical treatment can be necessary if the spinal cyst reaches a certain size and causes neurological symptoms due to the compression of the spinal cord or the nerve root. (orig.) [German] Spinale Zysten koennen in meningeale, nichtmeningeale und tumorassoziierte Zysten eingeteilt werden. Durch die weite Verbreitung von hochaufloesenden Computer- und Magnetresonanztomographen koennen spinale Zysten heutzutage mit einer hohen Sensitivitaet erkannt werden. Eine genaue Klassifikation kann sich unter der Vielzahl der moeglichen zystischen Differenzialdiagnosen schwierig gestalten und ist haeufig nur durch eine chirurgische Inspektion oder die histologische Untersuchung moeglich. Meistens werden spinale Zysten bei der Routinediagnostik als Zufallsbefunde entdeckt und benoetigen keine weitere Therapie. Erreichen sie allerdings eine gewisse Groesse, koennen sie raumfordernd auf das Myelon oder einzelne Nervenwurzeln wirken und somit ausgepraegte neurologische Symptome verursachen. In solchen Faellen ist ein chirurgisches Vorgehen zur Resektion einer spinalen Zyste notwendig. (orig.)
Multi-trait and random regression mature weight heritability and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Legendre polynomials of orders 4, 3, 6 and 3 were used for animal and maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects, respectively, considering five classes of residual variances. Mature weight (five years) direct heritability estimates were 0.35 (MM) and 0.38 (RRM). Rank correlation between sires' breeding values ...
Genetic variability and heritability studies of some reproductive traits ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
GRACE
2006-07-03
Jul 3, 2006 ... The success of most crop improvement programs largely depends upon the genetic variability and the heritability of desirable traits. The magnitude and type of genetic variability help the breeder to determine the selection criteria and breeding schemes to be used for improvement purposes. A screen.
Curvature-induced microswarming and clustering of self-propelled particles
Bruss, Isaac; Glotzer, Sharon
Non-equilibrium active matter systems exhibit many unique phenomena, such as motility-induced phase separation and swarming. However, little is known about how these behaviors depend on the geometry of the environment. To answer this question, we use Brownian dynamics simulations to study the effects of Gaussian curvature on self-propelled particles by confining them to the surface of a sphere. We find that a modest amount of curvature promotes phase separation by altering the shape of a cluster's boundary. Alternatively, particles on surfaces of high curvature experience reduced phase separation and instead form microswarms, where particles share a common orbit. We show that this novel flocking behavior is distinct from other previously studied examples, in that it is not explicitly incorporated into our model through Vicsek-like alignment rules nor torques. Rather, we find that microswarms emerge solely due to the geometric link between orientation and velocity, a property exclusive to surfaces with non-zero Gaussian curvature. These findings reveal the important role of local environment on the global emergent behavior of non-equilibrium systems. Center for Bio-Inspired Engineering (DOE Award # DE-SC0000989).
Heritability and linkage analysis of personality in bipolar disorder.
Greenwood, Tiffany A; Badner, Judith A; Byerley, William; Keck, Paul E; McElroy, Susan L; Remick, Ronald A; Dessa Sadovnick, A; Kelsoe, John R
2013-11-01
The many attempts that have been made to identify genes for bipolar disorder (BD) have met with limited success, which may reflect an inadequacy of diagnosis as an informative and biologically relevant phenotype for genetic studies. Here we have explored aspects of personality as quantitative phenotypes for bipolar disorder through the use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which assesses personality in seven dimensions. Four temperament dimensions are assessed: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (PS). Three character dimensions are also included: self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (CO), and self-transcendence (ST). We compared personality scores between diagnostic groups and assessed heritability in a sample of 101 families collected for genetic studies of BD. A genome-wide SNP linkage analysis was then performed in the subset of 51 families for which genetic data was available. Significant group differences were observed between BD subjects, their first-degree relatives, and independent controls for all but RD and PS, and all but HA and RD were found to be significantly heritable in this sample. Linkage analysis of the heritable dimensions produced several suggestive linkage peaks for NS (chromosomes 7q21 and 10p15), PS (chromosomes 6q16, 12p13, and 19p13), and SD (chromosomes 4q35, 8q24, and 18q12). The relatively small size of our linkage sample likely limited our ability to reach genome-wide significance in this study. While not genome-wide significant, these results suggest that aspects of personality may prove useful in the identification of genes underlying BD susceptibility. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Curvature effects in two-dimensional optical devices inspired by transformation optics
Yuan, Shuhao
2016-11-14
Light transport in curved quasi two-dimensional waveguides is considered theoretically. Within transformation optics and tensor theory, a concise description of curvature effects on transverse electric and magnetic waves is derived. We show that the curvature can induce light focusing and photonic crystal properties, which are confirmed by finite element simulations. Our results indicate that the curvature is an effective parameter for designing quasi two-dimensional optical devices in the fields of micro and nano photonics. Â© 2016 Author(s).
Quantifying the Relationship Between Curvature and Electric Potential in Lipid Bilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruhn, Dennis Skjøth; Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Khandelia, Himanshu
2016-01-01
Cellular membranes mediate vital cellular processes by being subject to curvature and transmembrane electrical potentials. Here we build upon the existing theory for flexoelectricity in liquid crystals to quantify the coupling between lipid bilayer curvature and membrane potentials. Using molecular...... dynamics simulations, we show that head group dipole moments, the lateral pressure profile across the bilayer and spontaneous curvature all systematically change with increasing membrane potentials. In particu- lar, there is a linear dependence between the bending moment (the product of bending rigidity...
El-Shimy, S.A.F.
1956-01-01
The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage was calculated of herd-registered cattle in Friesland. The estimates were based on daughter-dam comparisons. Comparisons covered the first three lactations. The average heritability estimates of milk yield within sires, and according to the different
Does the application site of spinal manipulative therapy alter spinal tissues loading?
Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N
2018-01-31
Previous studies found that the intervertebral disc (IVD) experiences the greatest loads during spinal manipulation therapy (SMT). Based on that, this study aimed to determine if loads experienced by spinal tissues are significantly altered when the application site of SMT is changed. A biomechanical robotic serial dissection study. Thirteen porcine cadaveric motion segments. Forces experienced by lumbar spinal tissues. A servo-controlled linear actuator provided standardized 300 N SMT simulations to six different cutaneous locations of the porcine lumbar spine: L2-L3 and L3-L4 facet joints (FJ), L3 and L4 transverse processes (TVP), and the space between the FJs and the TVPs (BTW). Vertebral kinematics were tracked optically using indwelling bone pins; the motion segment was removed and mounted in a parallel robot equipped with a six-axis load cell. Movements of each SMT application at each site were replayed by the robot with the intact specimen and following the sequential removal of spinal ligaments, FJs and IVD. Forces induced by SMT were recorded, and specific axes were analyzed using linear mixed models. Analyses yielded a significant difference (p<.05) in spinal structures loads as a function of the application site. Spinal manipulative therapy application at the L3 vertebra caused vertebral movements and forces between L3 and L4 spinal segment in the opposite direction to when SMT was applied at L4 vertebra. Additionally, SMT applications over the soft tissue between adjacent vertebrae significantly decreased spinal structure loads. Applying SMT with a constant force at different spinal levels creates different relative kinetics of the spinal segments and load spinal tissues in significantly different magnitudes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heritability and familial aggregation of refractive error in the Old Order Amish.
Peet, Jon A; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Stambolian, Dwight
2007-09-01
To determine the heritability of refractive error and familial aggregation of myopia and hyperopia in an elderly Old Order Amish (OOA) population. Nine hundred sixty-seven siblings (mean age, 64.2 years) in 269 families were recruited for the Amish Eye Study in the Lancaster County area of Pennsylvania. Refractive error was determined by noncycloplegic manifest refraction. Heritability of refractive error was estimated with multivariate linear regression as twice the residual sibling-sibling correlation after adjustment for age and gender. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the sibling recurrence odds ratio (OR(s)). Myopia and hyperopia were defined with five different thresholds. The age- and gender-adjusted heritability of refractive error was 70% (95% CI: 48%-92%) in the OOA. Age and gender-adjusted OR(s) and sibling recurrence risk (lambda(s)), with different thresholds defining myopia ranged from 3.03 (95% CI: 1.58-5.80) to 7.02 (95% CI: 3.41-14.46) and from 2.36 (95% CI: 1.65-3.19) to 5.61 (95% CI: 3.06-9.34). Age and gender-adjusted OR(s) and lambda(s) for different thresholds of hyperopia ranged from 2.31 (95% CI: 1.56-3.42) to 2.94 (95% CI: 2.04-4.22) and from 1.33 (95% CI: 1.22-1.43) to 1.85 (95% CI: 1.18-2.78), respectively. Women were significantly more likely than men to have hyperopia. There was no significant gender difference in the risk of myopia. In the OOA, refractive error is highly heritable. Hyperopia and myopia aggregate strongly in OOA families.
Distal root curvatures in mandibular molars: analysis using digital panoramic X-rays.
Fuentes, R; Farfán, C; Astete, N; Navarro, P; Arias, A
2018-01-01
The aim of this study was to describe the degree of curvature in distal roots in the first and second permanent mandibular molars in a Chilean patient sample. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in which digital panoramic X-rays were analysed. Examinations of patients under 18 years, with signs of distortion or alteration in the contrast or the presence of pathologies that affected visualisation of the roots and pulp-chamber floor of the teeth to be analysed were excluded. Using the AutoCad software, an angle was drawn to represent the curve of the root in its different thirds, drawing lines inside the root canal from the pulp-chamber floor to the dental apex. Using the classic definition of dilaceration (root curvature > 90°), its prevalence was established. 412 teeth and roots were analysed, finding a dilaceration prevalence of 0.73% (n = 3). 84.72% of the roots presented some type of curvature. The middle third had the highest percentage of curvatures and the greatest average of angular curvature, whereas the cervical third was the straightest. No significant differences were found between the degree of curvature and the gender of the subjects, except for the apical third of tooth 3.6. The analysis of curvature by root third offers to the clinician a better perspective of the directional change of the roots and does not limit it to just the presence of curves in the apical third. The report of the angular degree of the curvatures, in addition to the prevalence of dilacerations, informs to the clinicians about the likelihood of finding difficulties when treating root canals. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 131-137).
The spinning particle with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhar, A.
1988-01-01
We construct and analyse an action for the spinning particle which contains an extrinsic curvature term. A possible generalization of this construction to the case of the spinning string is also discussed. (orig.)
Modern spinal instrumentation. Part 1: Normal spinal implants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, W.; Allouni, A.K.; Mankad, K.; Prezzi, D.; Elias, T.; Rankine, J.; Davagnanam, I.
2013-01-01
The general radiologist frequently encounters studies demonstrating spinal instrumentation, either as part of the patient's postoperative evaluation or as incidental to a study performed for another purpose. There are various surgical approaches and devices used in spinal surgery with an increased understanding of spinal and spinal implant biomechanics drives development of modern fixation devices. It is, therefore, important that the radiologist can recognize commonly used devices and identify their potential complications demonstrated on imaging. The aim of part 1 of this review is to familiarize the reader with terms used to describe surgical approaches to the spine, review the function and normal appearances of commonly used instrumentations, and understand the importance of the different fixation techniques. The second part of this review will concentrate on the roles that the different imaging techniques play in assessing the instrumented spine and the recognition of complications that can potentially occur.
Curvature effects on the electronic and transport properties of semiconductor films
Batista, F. F.; Chaves, Andrey; da Costa, D. R.; Farias, G. A.
2018-05-01
Within the effective mass approximation, we study the curvature effects on the electronic and transport properties of semiconductor films. We investigate how the geometry-induced potential resulting exclusively from periodic ripples in the film induces electronic confinement and a superlattice band structure. For fixed curvature parameters, such a confinement can be easily tuned by an external electric field, hence features of the superlattice band structure such as its energy gaps and band curvature can be controlled by an external parameter. We also show that, for some values of curvature and electric field, it is possible to obtain massless Dirac bands for a smooth curved structure. Moreover, we use a wave packet propagation method to demonstrate that the ripples are responsible for a significant inter-sub-band transition, specially for moderate values of the ripple height.
On the asymptotically Poincaré-Einstein 4-manifolds with harmonic curvature
Hu, Xue
2018-06-01
In this paper, we discuss the mass aspect tensor and the rigidity of an asymptotically Poincaré-Einstein (APE) 4-manifold with harmonic curvature. We prove that the trace-free part of the mass aspect tensor of an APE 4-manifold with harmonic curvature and normalized Einstein conformal infinity is zero. As to the rigidity, we first show that a complete noncompact Riemannian 4-manifold with harmonic curvature and positive Yamabe constant as well as a L2-pinching condition is Einstein. As an application, we then obtain that an APE 4-manifold with harmonic curvature and positive Yamabe constant is isometric to the hyperbolic space provided that the L2-norm of the traceless Ricci tensor or the Weyl tensor is small enough and the conformal infinity is a standard round 3-sphere.
Measurement of curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Wen; Quan Chenggen; Cho Jui Tay
2008-01-01
Measurement of curvature and twist is an important aspect in the study of object deformation. In recent years, several methods have been proposed to determine curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital shearography. Here we propose a novel method to determine the curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography and a complex phasor. A sine/cosine transformation method and two-dimensional short time Fourier transform are proposed subsequently to process the wrapped phase maps. It is shown that high-quality phase maps corresponding to curvature and twist can be obtained. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method
Heritability of methane emissions from dairy cows over a lactation measured on commercial farms.
Pszczola, M; Rzewuska, K; Mucha, S; Strabel, T
2017-11-01
Methane emission is currently an important trait in studies on ruminants due to its environmental and economic impact. Recent studies were based on short-time measurements on individual cows. As methane emission is a longitudinal trait, it is important to investigate its changes over a full lactation. In this study, we aimed to estimate the heritability of the estimated methane emissions from dairy cows using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy during milking in an automated milking system by implementing the random regression method. The methane measurements were taken on 485 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows at 2 commercial farms located in western Poland. The overall daily estimated methane emission was 279 g/d. Genetic variance fluctuated over the course of lactation around the average level of 1,509 (g/d), with the highest level, 1,866 (g/d), at the end of the lactation. The permanent environment variance values started at 2,865 (g/d) and then dropped to around 846 (g/d) at 100 d in milk (DIM) to reach the level of 2,444 (g/d) at the end of lactation. The residual variance was estimated at 2,620 (g/d). The average repeatability was 0.25. The heritability level fluctuated over the course of lactation, starting at 0.23 (SE 0.12) and then increasing to its maximum value of 0.3 (SE 0.08) at 212 DIM and ending at the level of 0.27 (SE 0.12). Average heritability was 0.27 (average SE 0.09). We have shown that estimated methane emission is a heritable trait and that the heritability level changes over the course of lactation. The observed changes and low genetic correlations between distant DIM suggest that it may be important to consider the period in which methane phenotypes are collected.
Glioblastoma with spinal seeding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Diekmann, K.; Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Prayer, D.
2004-01-01
Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)
Glioblastoma with spinal seeding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)
2004-07-01
Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)
The Tapestry of Life: Lateral Transfers of Heritable Elements - Scientific Meeting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Claire M. Fraser, Ph.D.
2005-12-31
The Sackler Colloquium The Tapestry of Life: Lateral Transfers of Heritable Elements was held on December 12-13, 2005. What Darwin saw as a tree of life descending in a linear fashion, is now more accurately seen as a tapestry of life, an anastomosing network, with important lateral transfers of heritable elements among parallel lines of descent These transfers range in complexity from small insertion sequences, to whole genes, gene islands, and portions of whole genomes which may be combined in symbiogenesis. The colloquium brought together researchers, empirical and theoretical, working at all levels on genomics, comparative genomics, and metagenomics to identify common and differentiating features of lateral gene transfer and to examine their implications for science and for human concerns.
The heritability of acceptability in South African Merino sheep ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Selection for production and reproduction in South African Merino sheep is always combined with selection based on visual appraisal and will, in all probability, remain so for many years to come. Heritabilities for acceptability were estimated using a threshold model to analyse data from two parent Merino studs. Effects ...
Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Most, Peter J.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Boezen, H. Marike; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Franke, Lude; van der Harst, Pim; Navis, Gerjan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rots, Marianne G.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Swertz, Morris A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Snieder, Harold
Despite the recent explosive rise in number of genetic markers for complex disease traits identified in genome-wide association studies, there is still a large gap between the known heritability of these traits and the part explained by these markers. To gauge whether this 'heritability gap' is
Numerical studies of transverse curvature effects on transonic flow stability
Macaraeg, M. G.; Daudpota, Q. I.
1992-01-01
A numerical study of transverse curvature effects on compressible flow temporal stability for transonic to low supersonic Mach numbers is presented for axisymmetric modes. The mean flows studied include a similar boundary-layer profile and a nonsimilar axisymmetric boundary-layer solution. The effect of neglecting curvature in the mean flow produces only small quantitative changes in the disturbance growth rate. For transonic Mach numbers (1-1.4) and aerodynamically relevant Reynolds numbers (5000-10,000 based on displacement thickness), the maximum growth rate is found to increase with curvature - the maximum occurring at a nondimensional radius (based on displacement thickness) between 30 and 100.
Influence of firing time and framework thickness on veneered Y-TZP discs curvature.
Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J; Douillard, Thierry; Mainjot, Amélie K
2014-02-01
The objective of the present work was to study the curvature of very thinly, veneered Y-TZP discs of different framework thicknesses submitted to different firing times. Fifteen 20-mm-wide Y-TZP discs were produced in three different thicknesses: 0.75, 1, 1.5mm. One disc from each group was left unveneered while the others were layered with a 0.1mm veneering ceramic layer. All discs underwent five firing cycles for a total cumulative firing time of 30 min, 1, 2, 5 and 10h at 900°C. The curvature profile was measured using a profilometer after the veneering process and after each firing cycle respectively. A fitted curve was then used to estimate the, curvature radius. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) measurements were taken on veneering, ceramic and Y-TZP beam samples that underwent the same firing schedule. Those data were used to calculate the curvature generated by CTE variations over firing time. All bilayered samples exhibited a curvature that increased over firing time inversely to framework thickness. However non-veneered samples did not exhibit any curvature modification. The results of the present study reveal that even a very thin veneer layer (0.1mm) can induce a significant curvature of Y-TZP discs. The dilatometric results showed that Tg and CTE, variations are not sufficient to explain this curvature. A chemical-induced zirconia volume, augmentation located at the framework sub-surface near the interface could explain the sample, curvature and its increase with firing time. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shape discrimination by total curvature, with a view to cancer diagnostics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gardner, R.J.; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel
2005-01-01
This paper investigates the use of total curvature for shape discrimination of objects via profiles of their planar sections (not assumed to be star shaped). Methods of estimating total curvature from observation of a finite number of points on the boundary of the object are investigated, includi...... a simple discrete approximation method and various interpolation methods. Total curvature is capable of revealing shape differences on a local scale, as demonstrated by the analysis of two data sets of malignant and normal or benign tumour cell nuclear profiles....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raj Kumar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.
Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces
Sun, Xiang
2012-01-01
This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Bo
2016-01-01
Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...
Awareness Becomes Necessary Between Adaptive Pattern Coding of Open and Closed Curvatures
Sweeny, Timothy D.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru
2012-01-01
Visual pattern processing becomes increasingly complex along the ventral pathway, from the low-level coding of local orientation in the primary visual cortex to the high-level coding of face identity in temporal visual areas. Previous research using pattern aftereffects as a psychophysical tool to measure activation of adaptive feature coding has suggested that awareness is relatively unimportant for the coding of orientation, but awareness is crucial for the coding of face identity. We investigated where along the ventral visual pathway awareness becomes crucial for pattern coding. Monoptic masking, which interferes with neural spiking activity in low-level processing while preserving awareness of the adaptor, eliminated open-curvature aftereffects but preserved closed-curvature aftereffects. In contrast, dichoptic masking, which spares spiking activity in low-level processing while wiping out awareness, preserved open-curvature aftereffects but eliminated closed-curvature aftereffects. This double dissociation suggests that adaptive coding of open and closed curvatures straddles the divide between weakly and strongly awareness-dependent pattern coding. PMID:21690314
Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.
2004-01-01
Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system
Wasnik, Vaibhav; Wingreen, Ned; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan
2012-02-01
Recent experiments suggest that in the bacterium, B. subtilis, the cue for the localization of small sporulation protein, SpoVM, that plays a central role in spore coat formation, is curvature of the bacterial plasma membrane. This curvature-dependent localization is puzzling given the orders of magnitude difference in lengthscale of an individual protein and radius of curvature of the membrane. Here we develop a minimal model to study the relationship between curvature-dependent membrane absorption of SpoVM and clustering of membrane-associated SpoVM and compare our results with experiments.
Curvature effects in carbon nanomaterials: Exohedral versus endohedral supercapacitors
Huang, Jingsong; Bobby,; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Meunier, Vincent; Yushin, Gleb; Portet, Cristelle; Gogotsi, Yury
2010-01-01
Capacitive energy storage mechanisms in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors hinge on endohedral interactions in carbon materials with macro-, meso-, and micropores that have negative surface curvature. In this article, we show that because of the positive curvature found in zero-dimensional carbon onions or one-dimensional carbon nanotube arrays, exohedral interactions cause the normalized capacitance to increase with decreasing particle size or tube diameter, in sharp contrast to the behavior ...
Heritability of and mortality prediction with a longevity phenotype
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sanders, Jason L; Minster, Ryan L; Barmada, M Michael
2014-01-01
Longevity-associated genes may modulate risk for age-related diseases and survival. The Healthy Aging Index (HAI) may be a subphenotype of longevity, which can be constructed in many studies for genetic analysis. We investigated the HAI's association with survival in the Cardiovascular Health Stu...... and heritability in the Long Life Family Study....
A non-differential elastomer curvature sensor for softer-than-skin electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majidi, C; Kramer, R; Wood, R J
2011-01-01
We extend soft lithography microfabrication and design methods to introduce curvature sensors that are elastically soft (modulus 0.1–1 MPa) and stretchable (100–1000% strain). In contrast to existing curvature sensors that measure differential strain, sensors in this new class measure curvature directly and allow for arbitrary gauge factor and film thickness. Moreover, each sensor is composed entirely of a soft elastomer (PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) or Ecoflex ® ) and conductive liquid (eutectic gallium indium, eGaIn) and thus remains functional even when stretched to several times its natural length. The electrical resistance in the embedded eGaIn microchannel is measured as a function of the bending curvature for a variety of sensor designs. In all cases, the experimental measurements are in reasonable agreement with closed-form algebraic approximations derived from elastic plate theory and Ohm's law
A non-differential elastomer curvature sensor for softer-than-skin electronics
Majidi, C.; Kramer, R.; Wood, R. J.
2011-10-01
We extend soft lithography microfabrication and design methods to introduce curvature sensors that are elastically soft (modulus 0.1-1 MPa) and stretchable (100-1000% strain). In contrast to existing curvature sensors that measure differential strain, sensors in this new class measure curvature directly and allow for arbitrary gauge factor and film thickness. Moreover, each sensor is composed entirely of a soft elastomer (PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) or Ecoflex®) and conductive liquid (eutectic gallium indium, eGaIn) and thus remains functional even when stretched to several times its natural length. The electrical resistance in the embedded eGaIn microchannel is measured as a function of the bending curvature for a variety of sensor designs. In all cases, the experimental measurements are in reasonable agreement with closed-form algebraic approximations derived from elastic plate theory and Ohm's law.
Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...
Embedded positive constant r-mean curvature hypersurfaces in Mm × R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng Xu
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Let M be an m-dimensional Riemannian manifold with sectional curvature bounded from below. We consider hypersurfaces in the (m + 1-dimensional product manifold M x R with positive constant r-mean curvature. We obtain height estimates of certain compact vertical graphs in M x R with boundary in M x {0}. We apply this to obtain topological obstructions for the existence of some hypersurfaces. We also discuss the rotational symmetry of some embedded complete surfaces in S² x R of positive constant 2-mean curvature.
Heritability of eleven metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Shuxia; Duan, Hongmei; Pang, Zengchang
2013-01-01
modeling was performed on full and nested models with the best fitting models selected. Results: Heritability estimates were compared between Danish and Chinese samples to identify differential genetic influences on each of the phenotypes. Except for hip circumference, all other body measures exhibited...
Prevalence and heritability of psoriasis and benign migratory glossitis in one Brazilian population*
Jorge, Maria Augusta; Gonzaga, Heron Fernando de Sousa; Tomimori, Jane; Picciani, Bruna Lavinas Sayed; Barbosa, Calógeras Antônio
2017-01-01
Background An oral condition associated to psoriasis is benign migratory glossitis. The review of the literature does not show any publication about heritability in both soriasis and benign migratory glossitis and prevalence of psoriasis in the Brazilian population. Objective This research was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of psoriasis and benign migratory glossitis in the Brazilian population from a Brazilian sample, as well as the heritability in these conditions. Methods Six thousand patients were studied from the records of the outpatient dermatology department. The sample had 129 patients with cutaneous psoriasis, 399 with benign migratory glossitis without psoriasis and a control group with 5,472 patients. After data collection, the statistical analysis was made using Woolf, Chi-square and Falconer tests. Results The prevalence of psoriasis was 2.15% and the benign migratory glossitis was 7.0%. The prevalence of benign migratory glossitis in the psoriasis group was high (16.3%), and that was statistically significant. Family history in the psoriasis group was 38% for the condition itself and 2,75% for benign migratory glossitis and in the benign migratory glossitis group was 17.54% for the condition itself and 1.5% for psoriasis. The study of heritability was 38.8% for psoriasis and 36.6% for benign migratory glossitis, both with medium heritability. Study limitations This study was only in the state of São Paulo. Conclusion This is the first publication that quantifies how much of these conditions have a genetic background and how important the environmental factors are in triggering them. PMID:29364438
Survey of the Heritability and Sparse Architecture of Gene Expression Traits across Human Tissues.
Wheeler, Heather E; Shah, Kaanan P; Brenner, Jonathon; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Cox, Nancy J; Nicolae, Dan L; Im, Hae Kyung
2016-11-01
Understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression traits is key to elucidating the underlying mechanisms of complex traits. Here, for the first time, we perform a systematic survey of the heritability and the distribution of effect sizes across all representative tissues in the human body. We find that local h2 can be relatively well characterized with 59% of expressed genes showing significant h2 (FDR Decomposition (OTD) approach. Through a series of simulations we show that the cross-tissue and tissue-specific components are identifiable via OTD. Heritability and sparsity estimates of these derived expression phenotypes show similar characteristics to the original traits. Consistent properties relative to prior GTEx multi-tissue analysis results suggest that these traits reflect the expected biology. Finally, we apply this knowledge to develop prediction models of gene expression traits for all tissues. The prediction models, heritability, and prediction performance R2 for original and decomposed expression phenotypes are made publicly available (https://github.com/hakyimlab/PrediXcan).
Some curvature properties of quarter symmetric metric connections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rastogi, S.C.
1986-08-01
A linear connection Γ ji h with torsion tensor T j h P i -T i h P j , where T j h is an arbitrary (1,1) tensor field and P i is a 1-form, has been called a quarter-symmetric connection by Golab. Some properties of such connections have been studied by Rastogi, Mishra and Pandey, and Yano and Imai. In this paper based on the curvature tensor of quarter-symmetric metric connection we define a tensor analogous to conformal curvature tensor and study some properties of such a tensor. (author)
Low heritability in pharmacokinetics of talinolol
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matthaei, Johannes; Tzvetkov, Mladen V; Gal, Valerie
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Efflux transporters like MDR1 and MRP2 may modulate the pharmacokinetics of about 50 % of all drugs. It is currently unknown how much of the variation in the activities of important drug membrane transporters like MDR1 or MRP2 is determined by genetic or by environmental factors...... of talinolol was predefined as the primary parameter. Heritability was analyzed by structural equation modeling and by within- and between-subject variance and talinolol clearance was correlated with polymorphisms in MDR1, MRP2, BCRP, MDR5, OATP1B1, and OCT1. RESULTS: Talinolol clearance varied approximately...
No large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of hybrid inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan
2011-01-01
In this paper the possibility of generating large scale curvature perturbations induced from the entropic perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of the standard hybrid inflation model is studied. We show that whether or not appreciable amounts of large scale curvature perturbations are produced during the waterfall phase transition depends crucially on the competition between the classical and the quantum mechanical backreactions to terminate inflation. If one considers only the classical evolution of the system, we show that the highly blue-tilted entropy perturbations induce highly blue-tilted large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition which dominate over the original adiabatic curvature perturbations. However, we show that the quantum backreactions of the waterfall field inhomogeneities produced during the phase transition dominate completely over the classical backreactions. The cumulative quantum backreactions of very small scale tachyonic modes terminate inflation very efficiently and shut off the curvature perturbation evolution during the waterfall phase transition. This indicates that the standard hybrid inflation model is safe under large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition.
Intracellular magnetophoresis of amyloplasts and induction of root curvature
Kuznetsov, O. A.; Hasenstein, K. H.
1996-01-01
High-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) were used to induce intracellular magnetophoresis of amyloplasts. The HGMFs were generated by placing a small ferromagnetic wedge into a uniform magnetic field or at the gap edge between two permanent magnets. In the vicinity of the tip of the wedge the dynamic factor of the magnetic field, delta(H2/2), was about 10(9) Oe2.cm-1, which subjected the amyloplasts to a force comparable to that of gravity. When roots of 2-d-old seedlings of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) were positioned vertically and exposed to an HGMF, curvature away from the wedge was transient and lasted approximately 1 h. Average curvature obtained after placing magnets, wedge and seedlings on a 1-rpm clinostat for 2 h was 33 +/- 5 degrees. Roots of horizontally placed control seedlings without rotation curved about 47 +/- 4 degrees. The time course of curvature and changes in growth rate were similar for gravicurvature and for root curvature induced by HGMFs. Microscopy showed displacement of amyloplasts in vitro and in vivo. Studies with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. showed that the wild type responded to HGMFs but the starchless mutant TC7 did not. The data indicate that a magnetic force can be used to study the gravisensing and response system of roots.
Heritability and confirmation of genetic association studies for childhood asthma in twins.
Ullemar, V; Magnusson, P K E; Lundholm, C; Zettergren, A; Melén, E; Lichtenstein, P; Almqvist, C
2016-02-01
Although the genetics of asthma has been extensively studied using both quantitative and molecular genetic analysis methods, both approaches lack studies specific to the childhood phenotype and including other allergic diseases. This study aimed to give specific estimates for the heritability of childhood asthma and other allergic diseases, to attempt to replicate findings from genomewide association studies (GWAS) for childhood asthma and to test the same variants against other allergic diseases. In a cohort of 25 306 Swedish twins aged 9 or 12 years, data on asthma were available from parental interviews and population-based registers. The interviews also inquired about wheeze, hay fever, eczema, and food allergy. Through structural equation modeling, the heritability of all phenotypes was calculated. A subset of 10 075 twins was genotyped for 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from previous GWAS; these were first tested for association with asthma and significant findings also against the other allergic diseases. The heritability of any childhood asthma was 0.82 (95% CI 0.79-0.85). For the other allergic diseases, the range was approximately 0.60-0.80. Associations for six SNPs with asthma were replicated, including rs2305480 in the GSDMB gene (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.86, P = 1.5*10(-8) ; other significant associations all below P = 3.5*10(-4) ). Of these, only rs3771180 in IL1RL1 was associated with any other allergic disease (for hay fever, OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.53-0.77, P = 2.5*10(-6) ). Asthma and allergic diseases of childhood are highly heritable, and these high-risk genetic variants associated specifically with childhood asthma, except for one SNP shared with hay fever. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Spatial Structure of Planform Migration - Curvature Relation of Meandering Rivers
Guneralp, I.; Rhoads, B. L.
2005-12-01
Planform dynamics of meandering rivers have been of fundamental interest to fluvial geomorphologists and engineers because of the intriguing complexity of these dynamics, the role of planform change in floodplain development and landscape evolution, and the economic and social consequences of bank erosion and channel migration. Improved understanding of the complex spatial structure of planform change and capacity to predict these changes are important for effective stream management, engineering and restoration. The planform characteristics of a meandering river channel are integral to its planform dynamics. Active meandering rivers continually change their positions and shapes as a consequence of hydraulic forces exerted on the channel banks and bed, but as the banks and bed change through sediment transport, so do the hydraulic forces. Thus far, this complex feedback between form and process is incompletely understood, despite the fact that the characteristics and the dynamics of meandering rivers have been studied extensively. Current theoretical models aimed at predicting planform dynamics relate rates of meander migration to local and upstream planform curvature where weighting of the influence of curvature on migration rate decays exponentially over distance. This theoretical relation, however, has not been rigorously evaluated empirically. Furthermore, although models based on exponential-weighting of curvature effects yield fairly realistic predictions of meander migration, such models are incapable of reproducing complex forms of bend development, such as double heading or compound looping. This study presents the development of a new methodology based on parametric cubic spline interpolation for the characterization of channel planform and the planform curvature of meandering rivers. The use of continuous mathematical functions overcomes the reliance on bend-averaged values or piece-wise discrete approximations of planform curvature - a major limitation
Local divergence and curvature divergence in first order optics
Mafusire, Cosmas; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.
2018-06-01
The far-field divergence of a light beam propagating through a first order optical system is presented as a square root of the sum of the squares of the local divergence and the curvature divergence. The local divergence is defined as the ratio of the beam parameter product to the beam width whilst the curvature divergence is a ratio of the space-angular moment also to the beam width. It is established that the beam’s focusing parameter can be defined as a ratio of the local divergence to the curvature divergence. The relationships between the two divergences and other second moment-based beam parameters are presented. Their various mathematical properties are presented such as their evolution through first order systems. The efficacy of the model in the analysis of high power continuous wave laser-based welding systems is briefly discussed.
Heritability of Biomarkers of Oxidized Lipoproteins: Twin Pair Study.
Rao, Fangwen; Schork, Andrew J; Maihofer, Adam X; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Marcovina, Santica M; Miller, Elizabeth R; Witztum, Joseph L; O'Connor, Daniel T; Tsimikas, Sotirios
2015-07-01
To determine whether biomarkers of oxidized lipoproteins are genetically determined. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a heritable risk factor and carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). We measured oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (OxPL-apoB), Lp(a), IgG, and IgM autoantibodies to malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes in 386 monozygotic and dizygotic twins to estimate trait heritability (h(2)) and determine specific genetic effects among traits. A genome-wide linkage study followed by genetic association was performed. The h(2) (scale: 0-1) for Lp(a) was 0.91±0.01 and for OxPL-apoB 0.87±0.02, which were higher than physiological, inflammatory, or lipid traits. h(2) of IgM malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes were 0.69±0.04, 0.67±0.05, and 0.80±0.03, respectively, and for IgG malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes 0.62±0.05, 0.52±0.06, and 0.53±0.06, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between the major apo(a) isoform and OxPL-apoB (R=-0.49; Plipoprotein and copper oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and apoB-immune complexes. Sib-pair genetic linkage of the Lp(a) trait revealed that single nucleotide polymorphism rs10455872 was significantly associated with OxPL-apoB after adjusting for Lp(a). OxPL-apoB and other biomarkers of oxidized lipoproteins are highly heritable cardiovascular risk factors that suggest novel genetic origins of atherothrombosis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Changes in lumbosacral spinal nerve roots on diffusion tensor imaging in spinal stenosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhong-jun Hou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Lumbosacral degenerative disc disease is a common cause of lower back and leg pain. Conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI scans are commonly used to image spinal cord degeneration. However, these modalities are unable to image the entire lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Thus, in the present study, we assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for quantitative assessment of compressed lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Subjects were 20 young healthy volunteers and 31 patients with lumbosacral stenosis. T2WI showed that the residual dural sac area was less than two-thirds that of the corresponding normal area in patients from L 3 to S 1 stenosis. On T1WI and T2WI, 74 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots from 31 patients showed compression changes. DTI showed thinning and distortion in 36 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (49% and abruption in 17 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (23%. Moreover, fractional anisotropy values were reduced in the lumbosacral spinal nerve roots of patients with lumbosacral stenosis. These findings suggest that DTI can objectively and quantitatively evaluate the severity of lumbosacral spinal nerve root compression.
Changes in lumbosacral spinal nerve roots on diffusion tensor imaging in spinal stenosis.
Hou, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Yong; Fan, Zi-Wen; Li, Xin-Chun; Cao, Bing-Yi
2015-11-01
Lumbosacral degenerative disc disease is a common cause of lower back and leg pain. Conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) scans are commonly used to image spinal cord degeneration. However, these modalities are unable to image the entire lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Thus, in the present study, we assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for quantitative assessment of compressed lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Subjects were 20 young healthy volunteers and 31 patients with lumbosacral stenosis. T2WI showed that the residual dural sac area was less than two-thirds that of the corresponding normal area in patients from L3 to S1 stenosis. On T1WI and T2WI, 74 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots from 31 patients showed compression changes. DTI showed thinning and distortion in 36 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (49%) and abruption in 17 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (23%). Moreover, fractional anisotropy values were reduced in the lumbosacral spinal nerve roots of patients with lumbosacral stenosis. These findings suggest that DTI can objectively and quantitatively evaluate the severity of lumbosacral spinal nerve root compression.
Kan, Kees-Jan; Wicherts, Jelte M; Dolan, Conor V; van der Maas, Han L J
2013-12-01
To further knowledge concerning the nature and nurture of intelligence, we scrutinized how heritability coefficients vary across specific cognitive abilities both theoretically and empirically. Data from 23 twin studies (combined N = 7,852) showed that (a) in adult samples, culture-loaded subtests tend to demonstrate greater heritability coefficients than do culture-reduced subtests; and (b) in samples of both adults and children, a subtest's proportion of variance shared with general intelligence is a function of its cultural load. These findings require an explanation because they do not follow from mainstream theories of intelligence. The findings are consistent with our hypothesis that heritability coefficients differ across cognitive abilities as a result of differences in the contribution of genotype-environment covariance. The counterintuitive finding that the most heritable abilities are the most culture-dependent abilities sheds a new light on the long-standing nature-nurture debate of intelligence.
Curvature-Controlled Topological Defects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luka Mesarec
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Effectively, two-dimensional (2D closed films exhibiting in-plane orientational ordering (ordered shells might be instrumental for the realization of scaled crystals. In them, ordered shells are expected to play the role of atoms. Furthermore, topological defects (TDs within them would determine their valence. Namely, bonding among shells within an isotropic liquid matrix could be established via appropriate nano-binders (i.e., linkers which tend to be attached to the cores of TDs exploiting the defect core replacement mechanism. Consequently, by varying configurations of TDs one could nucleate growth of scaled crystals displaying different symmetries. For this purpose, it is of interest to develop a simple and robust mechanism via which one could control the position and number of TDs in such atoms. In this paper, we use a minimal mesoscopic model, where variational parameters are the 2D curvature tensor and the 2D orientational tensor order parameter. We demonstrate numerically the efficiency of the effective topological defect cancellation mechanism to predict positional assembling of TDs in ordered films characterized by spatially nonhomogeneous Gaussian curvature. Furthermore, we show how one could efficiently switch among qualitatively different structures by using a relative volume v of ordered shells, which represents a relatively simple naturally accessible control parameter.
Disentangling environmental and heritable nestmate recognition cues in a carpenter ant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Zweden, Jelle S; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia
2009-01-01
Discriminating between group members and strangers is a key feature of social life. Nestmate recognition is very effective in social insects and is manifested by aggression and rejection of alien individuals, which are prohibited to enter the nest. Nestmate recognition is based on the quantitative...... variation in cuticular hydrocarbons, which can include heritable cues from the workers, as well as acquired cues from the environment or queen-derived cues. We tracked the profile of six colonies of the ant Camponotus aethiops for a year under homogeneous laboratory conditions. We performed chemical...... diagnostic power between colonies. The presence of a queen had little influence on nestmate discrimination abilities. Our results suggest that heritable cues of workers are the dominant factor influencing nestmate discrimination in these carpenter ants and highlight the importance of colony kin structure...
Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Thiago S.; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Carneiro, Saulo
2015-01-01
If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature
Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, Thiago S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-970, Londrina – PR (Brazil); Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Carneiro, Saulo, E-mail: tspereira@uel.br, E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador – BA (Brazil)
2015-07-01
If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature.
On $L_p$ Affine Surface Area and Curvature Measures
Zhao, Yiming
2015-01-01
The relationship between $L_p$ affine surface area and curvature measures is investigated. As a result, a new representation of the existing notion of $L_p$ affine surface area depending only on curvature measures is derived. Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. The proofs show that the new representation is, in a sense, "polar" to that of Lutwak's and "dual" to that of Sch\\"utt & Werner's.
On harmonic curvatures of a Frenet curve in Lorentzian space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuelahci, Mihriban; Bektas, Mehmet; Erguet, Mahmut
2009-01-01
In this paper, we consider curves of AW(k)-type, 1 ≤ k ≤ 3, in Lorentzian space. We give curvature conditions of these kind of curves. Furthermore, we study harmonic curvatures of curves of AW(k)-type. We investigate that under what conditions AW(k)-type curves are helix. Some related theorems and corollaries are also proved.
Heritability and correlates of maize yield ( Zea mays L .) under ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Heritability and correlates of maize yield ( Zea mays L .) under varying drought conditions. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... Correlation analysis revealed that days to 50% tasseling and silking under non-stress, ASI and leaf senescence under severe stress exhibited negative and significant correlations with grain yield.
Non-linear realizations and higher curvature supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' Galileo Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Ferrara, S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, U.C.L.A., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Luest, D. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)
2017-12-15
We focus on non-linear realizations of local supersymmetry as obtained by using constrained superfields in supergravity. New constraints, beyond those of rigid supersymmetry, are obtained whenever curvature multiplets are affected as well as higher derivative interactions are introduced. In particular, a new constraint, which removes a very massive gravitino is introduced, and in the rigid limit it merely reduces to an explicit supersymmetry breaking. Higher curvature supergravities free of ghosts and instabilities are also obtained in this way. Finally, we consider direct coupling of the goldstino multiplet to the super Gauss-Bonnet multiplet and discuss the emergence of a new scalar degree of freedom. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
In Vivo Spinal Posture during Upright and Reclined Sitting in an Office Chair
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roland Zemp
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Increasing numbers of people spend the majority of their working lives seated in an office chair. Musculoskeletal disorders, in particular low back pain, resulting from prolonged static sitting are ubiquitous, but regularly changing sitting position throughout the day is thought to reduce back problems. Nearly all currently available office chairs offer the possibility to alter the backrest reclination angles, but the influence of changing seating positions on the spinal column remains unknown. In an attempt to better understand the potential to adjust or correct spine posture using adjustable seating, five healthy subjects were analysed in an upright and reclined sitting position conducted in an open, upright MRI scanner. The shape of the spine, as described using the vertebral bodies’ coordinates, wedge angles, and curvature angles, showed high inter-subject variability between the two seating positions. The mean lumbar, thoracic, and cervical curvature angles were 29±15°, -29±4°, and 13±8° for the upright and 33±12°, -31±7°, and 7±7° for the reclined sitting positions. Thus, a wide range of seating adaptation is possible through modification of chair posture, and dynamic seating options may therefore provide a key feature in reducing or even preventing back pain caused by prolonged static sitting.
Miranda-Lora, América L; Vilchis-Gil, Jenny; Molina-Díaz, Mario; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel
2017-04-01
To estimate the heritability, parental transmission and environmental contributions to the phenotypic variation in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits in families of Mexican children and adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study of 184 tri-generational pedigrees with a total of 1160 individuals (99 families with a type 2 diabetes mellitus proband before age 19). The family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus in three generations was obtained by interview. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and lifestyle information was corroborated in parents and offspring. We obtained correlations for metabolic traits between relative pairs, and variance component methods were used to determine the heritability and environmental components. The heritability of early-onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 0.50 (p1.0e-7). The heritability was greater than 0.5 for hypertension, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, 2-h insulin, and cholesterol (p1). In contrast, we observed a high environmental correlation (>0.50) for blood pressure, HbA1c and HDL-cholesterol after multivariate adjustment (ptype 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, were significantly correlated only through the mother and others, such as hypertriglyceridemia, were significantly correlated only through the father. This study demonstrates that type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome-related traits are highly heritable among Mexican children and adolescents. Furthermore, several cardiometabolic factors have strong heritability and/or high environmental contributions that highlight the complex architecture of these alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Glass, Clive A; Tesio, Luigi; Itzkovich, Malka; Soni, Bakul M; Silva, Pedro; Mecci, Munawar; Chadwick, Raymond; el Masry, Waghi; Osman, Aheed; Savic, Gordana; Gardner, Brian; Bergström, Ebba; Catz, Amiram
2009-09-01
To examine the validity, reliability and usefulness of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure for the UK spinal cord injury population. Multi-centre cohort study. Four UK regional spinal cord injury centres. Eighty-six people with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord Independence Measure and Functional Independence Measure on admission analysed using inferential statistics, and Rasch analysis of Spinal Cord Independence Measure. Internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, discriminant validity; Spinal Cord Independence Measure subscale match between distribution of item difficulty and patient ability measurements; reliability of patient ability measures; fit of data to Rasch model; unidimensionality of subscales; hierarchical ordering of categories within items; differential item functioning across patient groups. Scale reliability (kappa coefficients range 0.491-0.835; (p Spinal Cord Independence Measure subscales compatible with stringent Rasch requirements; mean infit indices high; distinct strata of abilities identified; most thresholds ordered; item hierarchy stable across clinical groups and centres. Misfit and differences in item hierarchy identified. Difficulties assessing central cord injuries highlighted. Conventional statistical and Rasch analyses justify the use of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure in clinical practice and research in the UK. Cross-cultural validity may be further improved.
Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...
Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farhatullah, N.K.; Khalil, I.H.; Nahed, H.
2015-01-01
Higher heritability estimates along with high genetic advance values are effective in envisaging gain under selection in developing genotypes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate variability, heritability and genetic advance in 10 interspecific F2-3 families of Brassica species (B. napus * B. juncea, B. napus * B. rapa). These families were studied for heterospecific introgression of biochemical traits. Low to high heritability estimates were recorded for seed quality traits. Considerable variations within F2-3 families were observed for biochemical traits. Most of the F2-3 families for oil content and erucic showed moderate to high heritability indicating the slightest influence of environment thus modification of trait by selection would be more effective. Among F2-3 introgressed families Bn-510 x Bj-109 produced high oil i.e., 49.5% while Bn-532 x Br-118 (24.4%), Bn-533 x Bj-109 (24.1%) and high protein percentage in terms of mean performance. In the present research, individual segregating progenies of interspecific cross populations i.e., which possessed combination of desirable traits, were identified which could be incorporated in the future Breeding programs and it may facilitate varietal development. (author)
Curvature perturbation spectra from waterfall transition, black hole constraints and non-Gaussianity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bugaev, Edgar; Klimai, Peter, E-mail: bugaev@pcbai10.inr.ruhep.ru, E-mail: pklimai@gmail.com [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-11-01
We carried out numerical calculations of a contribution of the waterfall field to the primordial curvature perturbation (on uniform density hypersurfaces) ζ, which is produced during waterfall transition in hybrid inflation scenario. The calculation is performed for a broad interval of values of the model parameters. We show that there is a strong growth of amplitudes of the curvature perturbation spectrum in the limit when the bare mass-squared of the waterfall field becomes comparable with the square of Hubble parameter. We show that in this limit the primordial black hole constraints on the curvature perturbations must be taken into account. It is shown that, in the same limit, peak values of the curvature perturbation spectra are far beyond horizon, and the spectra are strongly non-Gaussian.
Curvature perturbation spectra from waterfall transition, black hole constraints and non-Gaussianity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugaev, Edgar; Klimai, Peter
2011-01-01
We carried out numerical calculations of a contribution of the waterfall field to the primordial curvature perturbation (on uniform density hypersurfaces) ζ, which is produced during waterfall transition in hybrid inflation scenario. The calculation is performed for a broad interval of values of the model parameters. We show that there is a strong growth of amplitudes of the curvature perturbation spectrum in the limit when the bare mass-squared of the waterfall field becomes comparable with the square of Hubble parameter. We show that in this limit the primordial black hole constraints on the curvature perturbations must be taken into account. It is shown that, in the same limit, peak values of the curvature perturbation spectra are far beyond horizon, and the spectra are strongly non-Gaussian
Heritability of caffeine metabolism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matthaei, Johannes; Tzvetkov, Mladen V; Strube, Jakob
2016-01-01
Heritability of caffeine pharmacokinetics and CYP1A2 activity is controversial. Here we analyzed the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, an in vivo probe drug for CYP1A2 and arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) activity, in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. In the entire group, common and unique...... environmental effects explained most variation in caffeine AUC. Apparently, smoking and hormonal contraceptives masked the genetic effects on CYP1A2 activity. However, when excluding smokers and users of hormonal contraceptives, 89% of caffeine AUC variation was due to genetic effects and even in the entire...... group, 8% of caffeine AUC variation could be explained by a CYP1A1/1A2 promotor polymorphism (rs2470893). In contrast, nearly all of the variation (99%) of NAT2 activity was explained by genetic effects. This study illustrates two very different situations in pharmacogenetics, from an almost exclusively...
Heritable genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Wei
Full Text Available We report the establishment of an efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis method in the silkworm Bombyx mori using modified type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR with an associated protein (Cas9 system. Using four loci Bm-ok, BmKMO, BmTH, and Bmtan as candidates, we proved that genome alterations at specific sites could be induced by direct microinjection of specific guide RNA and Cas9-mRNA into silkworm embryos. Mutation frequencies of 16.7-35.0% were observed in the injected generation, and DNA fragments deletions were also noted. Bm-ok mosaic mutants were used to test for mutant heritability due to the easily determined translucent epidermal phenotype of Bm-ok-disrupted cells. Two crossing strategies were used. In the first, injected Bm-ok moths were crossed with wild-type moths, and a 28.6% frequency of germline mutation transmission was observed. In the second strategy, two Bm-ok mosaic mutant moths were crossed with each other, and 93.6% of the offsprings appeared mutations in both alleles of Bm-ok gene (compound heterozygous. In summary, the CRISPR/Cas9 system can act as a highly specific and heritable gene-editing tool in Bombyx mori.
Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...
Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...
Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...
Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J
2017-10-01
Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Evaluation of Some Litter Traits and Heritability Estimates of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
SH
The heritability estimates were 0.00 ± 0.04 for litter size at weaning and. 0.37 ± 0.12 for ... not sustainable in South-western Nigeria. Balogun (1981) ... sources for the people that eat pork. Dalton ... size and on body weight at birth and at weaning of .... Indigenous and Large White Pigs in a humid tropical environment. Asian.
Measurements of the Curvature of Protrusions/Retrusions on Migrating Recrystallization Boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, Dorte
2009-01-01
Two methods to quantify protrusions/retrusions and to estimate local boundary curvature from sample plane sections are proposed. The methods are used to evaluate the driving force due to curvature of the protrusions/retrusions for partially recrystallized pure nickel cold rolled to 96% reduction...
Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...
Bertels, Frederic; Marzel, Alex; Leventhal, Gabriel; Mitov, Venelin; Fellay, Jacques; Günthard, Huldrych F; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Klimkait, Thomas; Aubert, Vincent; Battegay, Manuel; Rauch, Andri; Cavassini, Matthias; Calmy, Alexandra; Bernasconi, Enos; Schmid, Patrick; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Müller, Viktor; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Kouyos, Roger; Regoes, Roland R
2018-01-01
Pathogen strains may differ in virulence because they attain different loads in their hosts, or because they induce different disease-causing mechanisms independent of their load. In evolutionary ecology, the latter is referred to as "per-parasite pathogenicity". Using viral load and CD4+ T-cell measures from 2014 HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if virulence-measured as the rate of decline of CD4+ T cells-and per-parasite pathogenicity are heritable from donor to recipient. We estimated heritability by donor-recipient regressions applied to 196 previously identified transmission pairs, and by phylogenetic mixed models applied to a phylogenetic tree inferred from HIV pol sequences. Regressing the CD4+ T-cell declines and per-parasite pathogenicities of the transmission pairs did not yield heritability estimates significantly different from zero. With the phylogenetic mixed model, however, our best estimate for the heritability of the CD4+ T-cell decline is 17% (5-30%), and that of the per-parasite pathogenicity is 17% (4-29%). Further, we confirm that the set-point viral load is heritable, and estimate a heritability of 29% (12-46%). Interestingly, the pattern of evolution of all these traits differs significantly from neutrality, and is most consistent with stabilizing selection for the set-point viral load, and with directional selection for the CD4+ T-cell decline and the per-parasite pathogenicity. Our analysis shows that the viral genotype affects virulence mainly by modulating the per-parasite pathogenicity, while the indirect effect via the set-point viral load is minor. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
A high resolution electron microscopy investigation of curvature in carbon nanotubes
Weldon, D. N.; Blau, W. J.; Zandbergen, H. W.
1995-07-01
Evidence for heptagon inclusion in multi-walled carbon nanotubes was sought in arc-produced carbon deposits. Transmission electron microscopy revealed many curved nanotubes although their relative abundance was low. Close examination of the micrographs in the regions of expected heptagon inclusion shows that the curvature is accomplished by folding or fracture of the lattice planes. This observed phenomenon contradicts the theoretical modelling studies which predict stable structures with negative curvature accomplished by heptagon/pentagon pairs. A possible explanation for curvature in single-walled tubes is presented based on a molecular mechanics geometry optimisation study of spa inclusion in a graphite sheet.
Curvature contributions to the static electrical properties of push-pull molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Squitieri, Emilio
2005-01-01
Calculations of the curvature contribution to the diagonals components of the static dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α), first (β) and second (γ) hyperpolarizability of push-pull molecules are presented. This contribution was obtained from the analytical evaluation of electrical properties method using the harmonic zero-point energy. The valence-bond charge-transfer model was employed to obtain the field-dependent force constant and their derivates with respect to electric field. Our results show a relationship between the curvature and electronic contributions. We have also found that the curvature contribution is important in a numerical estimation of β and γ
Characterizing the location of spinal and vertebral levels in the human cervical spinal cord.
Cadotte, D W; Cadotte, A; Cohen-Adad, J; Fleet, D; Livne, M; Wilson, J R; Mikulis, D; Nugaeva, N; Fehlings, M G
2015-04-01
Advanced MR imaging techniques are critical to understanding the pathophysiology of conditions involving the spinal cord. We provide a novel, quantitative solution to map vertebral and spinal cord levels accounting for anatomic variability within the human spinal cord. For the first time, we report a population distribution of the segmental anatomy of the cervical spinal cord that has direct implications for the interpretation of advanced imaging studies most often conducted across groups of subjects. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent a T2-weighted, 3T MRI of the cervical spinal cord. Two experts marked the C3-C8 cervical nerve rootlets, C3-C7 vertebral bodies, and pontomedullary junction. A semiautomated algorithm was used to locate the centerline of the spinal cord and measure rostral-caudal distances from a fixed point in the brain stem, the pontomedullary junction, to each of the spinal rootlets and vertebral bodies. Distances to each location were compared across subjects. Six volunteers had 2 additional scans in neck flexion and extension to measure the effects of patient positioning in the scanner. We demonstrated that substantial variation exists in the rostral-caudal position of spinal cord segments among individuals and that prior methods of predicting spinal segments are imprecise. We also show that neck flexion or extension has little effect on the relative location of vertebral-versus-spinal levels. Accounting for spinal level variation is lacking in existing imaging studies. Future studies should account for this variation for accurate interpretation of the neuroanatomic origin of acquired MR signals. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Disorders of spinal blood circulation
Hevyak, O.M.; Kuzminskyy, A.P.
2017-01-01
Spinal strokes are rare. The most common causes of the haemorrhage are spinal cord trauma, vasculitis with signs of haemorrhagic diathesis, spinal vascular congenital anomalies (malformations) and haemangioma. By localization, haemorrhagic strokes are divided into three groups: haematomyelia, spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage, epidural hematoma. Most cavernous malformations are localized at the cervical level, fewer — at thoracic and lumbar levels of the spinal cord. The clinical case of diagno...
Heritability of cold tolerance in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles
Charo-Karisa, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.
2005-01-01
The inability of tilapia to tolerate low temperatures is of major economic concern as it reduces their growing season and leads to over winter mortality. In this study, cold tolerance of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated and heritability estimates obtained. A total of 80
Frame-Covariant Formulation of Inflation in Scalar-Curvature Theories
Burns, Daniel; Pilaftsis, Apostolos
2016-01-01
We develop a frame-covariant formulation of inflation in the slow-roll approximation by generalizing the inflationary attractor solution for scalar-curvature theories. Our formulation gives rise to new generalized forms for the potential slow-roll parameters, which enable us to examine the effect of conformal transformations and inflaton reparameterizations in scalar-curvature theories. We find that cosmological observables, such as the power spectrum, the spectral indices and their runnings, can be expressed in a concise manner in terms of the generalized potential slow-roll parameters which depend on the scalar-curvature coupling function, the inflaton wavefunction, and the inflaton potential. We show how the cosmological observables of inflation are frame-invariant in this generalized potential slow-roll formalism, as long as the end-of-inflation condition is appropriately extended to become frame-invariant as well. We then apply our formalism to specific scenarios, such as the induced gravity inflation, H...
The scalar curvature problem on the four dimensional half sphere
Ben-Ayed, M; El-Mehdi, K
2003-01-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of prescribing the scalar curvature under minimal boundary conditions on the standard four dimensional half sphere. We provide an Euler-Hopf type criterion for a given function to be a scalar curvature for some metric conformal to the standard one. Our proof involves the study of critical points at infinity of the associated variational problem.
Repeatability and heritability of reproductive traits in free-ranging snakes.
Brown, G P; Shine, R
2007-03-01
The underlying genetic basis of life-history traits in free-ranging animals is critical to the effects of selection on such traits, but logistical constraints mean that such data are rarely available. Our long-term ecological studies on free-ranging oviparous snakes (keelbacks, Tropidonophis mairii (Gray, 1841), Colubridae) on an Australian floodplain provide the first such data for any tropical reptile. All size-corrected reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch size, clutch mass and post-partum maternal mass) were moderately repeatable between pairs of clutches produced by 69 female snakes after intervals of 49-1152 days, perhaps because maternal body condition was similar between clutches. Parent-offspring regression of reproductive traits of 59 pairs of mothers and daughters revealed high heritability for egg mass (h2= 0.73, SE=0.24), whereas heritability for the other three traits was low (snakes occurs because each female snake must allocate a finite amount of energy into eggs of a genetically determined size.
HERITABLE VARIATION FOR AGGRESSION AS A REFLECTION OF INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES
BENUS, RF; BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; VANOORTMERSSEN, GA
1991-01-01
Evidence is presented in rodents, that individual differences in aggression reflect heritable, fundamentally different, but equally valuable alternative strategies to cope with environmental demands. Generally, aggressive individuals show an active response to aversive situations. In a social
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb
2016-01-01
Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined...... with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell...... lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic...
Probing interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Miao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xin
2009-01-01
In this paper we place observational constraints on the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model. We consider three kinds of phenomenological interactions between holographic dark energy and matter, i.e., the interaction term Q is proportional to the energy densities of dark energy (ρ Λ ), matter (ρ m ), and matter plus dark energy (ρ m +ρ Λ ). For probing the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model, we use the latest observational data including the type Ia supernovae (SNIa) Constitution data, the shift parameter of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) given by the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP5) observations, and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our results show that the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model are both rather small. Besides, it is interesting to find that there exists significant degeneracy between the phenomenological interaction and the spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model
Prescribed curvature tensor in locally conformally flat manifolds
Pina, Romildo; Pieterzack, Mauricio
2018-01-01
A global existence theorem for the prescribed curvature tensor problem in locally conformally flat manifolds is proved for a special class of tensors R. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a metric g ¯ , conformal to Euclidean g, are determined such that R ¯ = R, where R ¯ is the Riemannian curvature tensor of the metric g ¯ . The solution to this problem is given explicitly for special cases of the tensor R, including the case where the metric g ¯ is complete on Rn. Similar problems are considered for locally conformally flat manifolds.
Principal Curvature Measures Estimation and Application to 3D Face Recognition
Tang, Yinhang
2017-04-06
This paper presents an effective 3D face keypoint detection, description and matching framework based on three principle curvature measures. These measures give a unified definition of principle curvatures for both smooth and discrete surfaces. They can be reasonably computed based on the normal cycle theory and the geometric measure theory. The strong theoretical basis of these measures provides us a solid discrete estimation method on real 3D face scans represented as triangle meshes. Based on these estimated measures, the proposed method can automatically detect a set of sparse and discriminating 3D facial feature points. The local facial shape around each 3D feature point is comprehensively described by histograms of these principal curvature measures. To guarantee the pose invariance of these descriptors, three principle curvature vectors of these principle curvature measures are employed to assign the canonical directions. Similarity comparison between faces is accomplished by matching all these curvature-based local shape descriptors using the sparse representation-based reconstruction method. The proposed method was evaluated on three public databases, i.e. FRGC v2.0, Bosphorus, and Gavab. Experimental results demonstrated that the three principle curvature measures contain strong complementarity for 3D facial shape description, and their fusion can largely improve the recognition performance. Our approach achieves rank-one recognition rates of 99.6, 95.7, and 97.9% on the neutral subset, expression subset, and the whole FRGC v2.0 databases, respectively. This indicates that our method is robust to moderate facial expression variations. Moreover, it also achieves very competitive performance on the pose subset (over 98.6% except Yaw 90°) and the occlusion subset (98.4%) of the Bosphorus database. Even in the case of extreme pose variations like profiles, it also significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches with a recognition rate of 57.1%. The
Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces
Sun, Xiang
2012-06-01
This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads to great interest in studying discrete surfaces. With the rich smooth surface theory in hand, one would hope that this elegant theory can still be applied to the discrete counter part. Such a generalization, however, is not always successful. While discrete surfaces have the advantage of being finite dimensional, thus easier to treat, their geometric properties such as curvatures are not well defined in the classical sense. Furthermore, the powerful calculus tool can hardly be applied. The methods in this thesis, including angular defect formula, cotangent formula, parallel meshes, relative geometry etc. are approaches based on offset meshes or generalized offset meshes. As an important application, we discuss discrete minimal surfaces and discrete Koenigs meshes.
Measuring the composition-curvature coupling in binary lipid membranes by computer simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barragán Vidal, I. A.; Müller, M.; Rosetti, C. M.; Pastorino, C.
2014-01-01
The coupling between local composition fluctuations in binary lipid membranes and curvature affects the lateral membrane structure. We propose an efficient method to compute the composition-curvature coupling in molecular simulations and apply it to two coarse-grained membrane models—a minimal, implicit-solvent model and the MARTINI model. Both the weak-curvature behavior that is typical for thermal fluctuations of planar bilayer membranes as well as the strong-curvature regime corresponding to narrow cylindrical membrane tubes are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results are analyzed by using a phenomenological model of the thermodynamics of curved, mixed bilayer membranes that accounts for the change of the monolayer area upon bending. Additionally the role of thermodynamic characteristics such as the incompatibility between the two lipid species and asymmetry of composition are investigated
Measuring the composition-curvature coupling in binary lipid membranes by computer simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barragán Vidal, I. A., E-mail: vidal@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de; Müller, M., E-mail: mmueller@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rosetti, C. M., E-mail: carla@dqb.fcq.unc.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones en Química Biológica de Córdoba, Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); Pastorino, C., E-mail: pastor@cnea.gov.ar [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, CNEA/CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2014-11-21
The coupling between local composition fluctuations in binary lipid membranes and curvature affects the lateral membrane structure. We propose an efficient method to compute the composition-curvature coupling in molecular simulations and apply it to two coarse-grained membrane models—a minimal, implicit-solvent model and the MARTINI model. Both the weak-curvature behavior that is typical for thermal fluctuations of planar bilayer membranes as well as the strong-curvature regime corresponding to narrow cylindrical membrane tubes are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results are analyzed by using a phenomenological model of the thermodynamics of curved, mixed bilayer membranes that accounts for the change of the monolayer area upon bending. Additionally the role of thermodynamic characteristics such as the incompatibility between the two lipid species and asymmetry of composition are investigated.
Plan curvature and landslide probability in regions dominated by earth flows and earth slides
Ohlmacher, G.C.
2007-01-01
Damaging landslides in the Appalachian Plateau and scattered regions within the Midcontinent of North America highlight the need for landslide-hazard mapping and a better understanding of the geomorphic development of landslide terrains. The Plateau and Midcontinent have the necessary ingredients for landslides including sufficient relief, steep slope gradients, Pennsylvanian and Permian cyclothems that weather into fine-grained soils containing considerable clay, and adequate precipitation. One commonly used parameter in landslide-hazard analysis that is in need of further investigation is plan curvature. Plan curvature is the curvature of the hillside in a horizontal plane or the curvature of the contours on a topographic map. Hillsides can be subdivided into regions of concave outward plan curvature called hollows, convex outward plan curvature called noses, and straight contours called planar regions. Statistical analysis of plan-curvature and landslide datasets indicate that hillsides with planar plan curvature have the highest probability for landslides in regions dominated by earth flows and earth slides in clayey soils (CH and CL). The probability of landslides decreases as the hillsides become more concave or convex. Hollows have a slightly higher probability for landslides than noses. In hollows landslide material converges into the narrow region at the base of the slope. The convergence combined with the cohesive nature of fine-grained soils creates a buttressing effect that slows soil movement and increases the stability of the hillside within the hollow. Statistical approaches that attempt to determine landslide hazard need to account for the complex relationship between plan curvature, type of landslide, and landslide susceptibility. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Influence of Shoreline Curvature on Rates of Shoreline Change on Sandy Coasts
Murray, A. B.; Lauzon, R.; Cheng, S.; Liu, J.; Lazarus, E.
2017-12-01
The sandy, low-lying barrier islands which characterize much of the US East and Gulf coasts are popular spots to live and vacation, and are often heavily developed. However, sandy shorelines and barriers are also naturally mobile landforms, which are vulnerable to sea level rise and storms and can experience high rates of shoreline change. Many previous studies have attempted to understand and quantify the factors that contribute to those rates of shoreline change, such as grain size, underlying geology, sea level rise, and anthropogenic modification. Shoreline curvature has not been considered in such analyses, but previous research has demonstrated that subtle coastline curvature (and therefore alongshore variation in relative offshore wave angle) can result in gradients in net alongshore transport that cause significant shoreline erosion or accretion. Here we present the results of a spatially extensive analysis of the correlation between shoreline curvature and shoreline change rates for the sandy shorelines of the US East and Gulf coasts. We find that, for wave-dominated sandy coasts where nourishment and shoreline stabilization do not dominate the shoreline change signal (such as parts of Texas, North Carolina, and Florida), there is a significant negative correlation between shoreline curvature and shoreline change rates over 1 - 5 km and decadal to centurial space and time scales. This correlation indicates that a portion of the coastal erosion (and accretion) observed in these areas can be explained by the smoothing of subtle coastline curvature by gradients in alongshore transport, and suggests that shoreline curvature should be included in future attempts to understand historical and future rates of shoreline change. Shoreline stabilization, especially through beach nourishment, complicates the relationship between curvature and shoreline change. Beach construction during nourishment creates a seaward convex curvature in the part of the shoreline moves
Soliton surfaces via a zero-curvature representation of differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grundland, A M; Post, S
2012-01-01
The main aim of this paper is to introduce a new version of the Fokas–Gel’fand formula for immersion of soliton surfaces in Lie algebras. The paper contains a detailed exposition of the technique for obtaining exact forms of 2D surfaces associated with any solution of a given nonlinear ordinary differential equation which can be written in the zero-curvature form. That is, for any generalized symmetry of the zero-curvature condition of the associated integrable model, it is possible to construct soliton surfaces whose Gauss–Mainardi–Codazzi equations are equivalent to infinitesimal deformations of the zero-curvature representation of the considered model. Conversely, it is shown (proposition 1) that for a given immersion function of a 2D soliton surface in a Lie algebra, it is possible to derive the associated generalized vector field in the evolutionary form which characterizes all symmetries of the zero-curvature condition. The theoretical considerations are illustrated via surfaces associated with the Painlevé equations P1, P2 and P3, including transcendental functions, the special cases of the rational and Airy solutions of P2 and the classical solutions of P3. (paper)
Stonecipher, T K; Vanderby, R; Sciammarella, C A; Lei, S S; Fisk, J R
1983-01-01
The mechanical behavior of pseudarthrosis in posterior spinal fusion was investigated. A canine model was developed in which an incompletely ossified posterior fusion mass was consistently produced. The spines were excised, and the motion segments were mechanically tested using a specially developed loading apparatus. Tests were performed to evaluate stiffness of the segments to loading with compression, torsion, and anterioposterior and lateral bending shear stiffness. Changes in other modes of loading were less consistent. The motion characteristics of the pseudarthrosis could not be predicted from the extent of the osseous defect noted on roentgenograms. These findings correlate clinically with the progression of curvature seen with pseudarthrosis in scoliosis surgery and the unpredictable results of pseudarthrosis in posterior fusion performed in treatment of degenerative disc disease.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma. Josefa Pante
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Genetic improvement of performance traits of maricultured species is becoming an important concern. Improvement of performance traits is important for two reasons: it enhances the growth and survival of the animals and it translates to economic gains to the fish farmer. In the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla, growth performance of the different families and heritabilities for wet weight, test diameter and test height were estimated from 1,020 offspring from a mating of each of the 15 males with 1 or 2 females. Measurements were done monthly starting at the grow-out stage or four months after hatching. There were significant family differences for the performance traits in sea urchin reared in tanks at the BML hatchery as revealed by ANOVA. Estimates of heritabilities based on the sire component of variance were low for wet weight (0.027, test diameter (0.033 and zero for test height. Heritabilities estimated from the dam component of variance were low for wet weight (0.063, moderate for test diameter (0.286 and test height (0.227. The results indicate that test diameter and wet weight have lowly heritable traits, which means that mass or individual selection may not be the best method for improving the traits for sea urchin populations in Bolinao. Other methods such as family and combined family selection should be explored.
Harmonic curvatures and generalized helices in En
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camci, Cetin; Ilarslan, Kazim; Kula, Levent; Hacisalihoglu, H. Hilmi
2009-01-01
In n-dimensional Euclidean space E n , harmonic curvatures of a non-degenerate curve defined by Ozdamar and Hacisalihoglu [Ozdamar E, Hacisalihoglu HH. A characterization of Inclined curves in Euclidean n-space. Comm Fac Sci Univ Ankara, Ser A1 1975;24:15-23]. In this paper, we give some characterizations for a non-degenerate curve α to be a generalized helix by using its harmonic curvatures. Also we define the generalized Darboux vector D of a non-degenerate curve α in n-dimensional Euclidean space E n and we show that the generalized Darboux vector D lies in the kernel of Frenet matrix M(s) if and only if the curve α is a generalized helix in the sense of Hayden.
Mean cortical curvature reflects cytoarchitecture restructuring in mild traumatic brain injury
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jace B. King
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the United States alone, the number of persons living with the enduring consequences of traumatic brain injuries is estimated to be between 3.2 and 5 million. This number does not include individuals serving in the United States military or seeking care at Veterans Affairs hospitals. The importance of understanding the neurobiological consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has increased with the return of veterans from conflicts overseas, many of who have suffered this type of brain injury. However, identifying the neuroanatomical regions most affected by mTBI continues to prove challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the use of mean cortical curvature as a potential indicator of progressive tissue loss in a cross-sectional sample of 54 veterans with mTBI compared to 31 controls evaluated with MRI. It was hypothesized that mean cortical curvature would be increased in veterans with mTBI, relative to controls, due in part to cortical restructuring related to tissue volume loss. Mean cortical curvature was assessed in 60 bilateral regions (31 sulcal, 29 gyral. Of the 120 regions investigated, nearly 50% demonstrated significantly increased mean cortical curvature in mTBI relative to controls with 25% remaining significant following multiple comparison correction (all, pFDR < .05. These differences were most prominent in deep gray matter regions of the cortex. Additionally, significant relationships were found between mean cortical curvature and gray and white matter volumes (all, p < .05. These findings suggest potentially unique patterns of atrophy by region and indicate that changes in brain microstructure due to mTBI are sensitive to measures of mean curvature.
Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal Centre: Experience at Enugu, Nigeria. ... The thoracic spine{9(41%)}was most often involved. ... Five (23%) patients with injury at cervical level died from respiratory failure.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Curvature was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell using the ArcGIS 3D Analyst "Curvature" Tool. Curvature describes the rate of change of...
... in the spine that was present from birth Narrow spinal canal that the person was born with Herniated or slipped disk, which ... when you sit down or lean forward. Most people with spinal stenosis cannot walk for a long ... During a physical exam, your health care provider will try to ...
Atomic fine structure in a space of constant curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bessis, N.; Bessis, G.; Shamseddine, R.
1982-01-01
As a contribution to a tentative formulation of atomic physics in a curved space, the determination of atomic fine structure energies in a space of constant curvature is investigated. Starting from the Dirac equation in a curved space-time, the analogue of the Pauli equation in a general coordinate system is derived. The theoretical curvature induced shifts and splittings of the fine structure energy levels are put in evidence and examined for the particular case of the hydrogenic n=2 levels. (author)
Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.
1990-01-01
We tested the involvement of ethylene in maize (Zea mays L.) root gravitropism by measuring the kinetics of curvature and lateral auxin movement in roots treated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, or inhibitors of ethylene action. In the presence of ethylene the latent period of gravitropic curvature appeared to be increased somewhat. However, ethylene-treated roots continued to curve after control roots had reached their final angle of curvature. Consequently, maximum curvature in the presence of ethylene was much greater in ethylene-treated roots than in controls. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action had effects on the kinetics of curvature opposite to that of ethylene, i.e. the latent period appeared to be shortened somewhat while total curvature was reduced relative to that of controls. Label from applied 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was preferentially transported toward the lower side of stimulated roots. In parallel with effects on curvature, ethylene treatment delayed the development of gravity-induced asymmetric auxin movement across the root but extended its duration once initiated. The auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid reduced both gravitropic curvature and the effect of ethylene on curvature. Since neither ethylene nor inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action prevented curvature, we conclude that ethylene does not mediate the primary differential growth response causing curvature. Because ethylene affects curvature and auxin transport in parallel, we suggest that ethylene modifies curvature by affecting gravity-induced lateral transport of auxin, perhaps by interfering with adaptation of the auxin transport system to the gravistimulus.
A Brain–Spinal Interface Alleviating Gait Deficits after Spinal Cord Injury in Primates
Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Buse, Nicolas; Gandar, Jerome; Barraud, Quentin; Xing, David; Rey, Elodie; Duis, Simone; Jianzhong, Yang; Ko, Wai Kin D.; Li, Qin; Detemple, Peter; Denison, Tim; Micera, Silvestro; Bezard, Erwan; Bloch, Jocelyne; Courtine, Grégoire
2016-01-01
Spinal cord injury disrupts the communication between the brain and the spinal circuits that orchestrate movement. To bypass the lesion, brain–computer interfaces1–3 have directly linked cortical activity to electrical stimulation of muscles, which have restored grasping abilities after hand paralysis1,4. Theoretically, this strategy could also restore control over leg muscle activity for walking5. However, replicating the complex sequence of individual muscle activation patterns underlying natural and adaptive locomotor movements poses formidable conceptual and technological challenges6,7. Recently, we showed in rats that epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord can reproduce the natural activation of synergistic muscle groups producing locomotion8–10. Here, we interfaced leg motor cortex activity with epidural electrical stimulation protocols to establish a brain–spinal interface that alleviated gait deficits after a spinal cord injury in nonhuman primates. Rhesus monkeys were implanted with an intracortical microelectrode array into the leg area of motor cortex; and a spinal cord stimulation system composed of a spatially selective epidural implant and a pulse generator with real-time triggering capabilities. We designed and implemented wireless control systems that linked online neural decoding of extension and flexion motor states with stimulation protocols promoting these movements. These systems allowed the monkeys to behave freely without any restrictions or constraining tethered electronics. After validation of the brain–spinal interface in intact monkeys, we performed a unilateral corticospinal tract lesion at the thoracic level. As early as six days post-injury and without prior training of the monkeys, the brain–spinal interface restored weight-bearing locomotion of the paralyzed leg on a treadmill and overground. The implantable components integrated in the brain–spinal interface have all been approved for investigational
Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow ...
Existence of conformal metrics on spheres with prescribed Paneitz curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben Ayed, Mohamed; El Mehdi, Khalil
2003-07-01
In this paper we study the problem of prescribing a fourth order conformal invariant (the Paneitz curvature) on the n-spheres, with n ≥ 5. Using tools from the theory of critical points at infinity, we provide some topological conditions on the level sets of a given function defined on the sphere, under which we prove the existence of conformal metric with prescribed Paneitz curvature. (author)
Existence of conformal metrics on spheres with prescribed Paneitz curvature
Ben-Ayed, M
2003-01-01
In this paper we study the problem of prescribing a fourth order conformal invariant (the Paneitz curvature) on the n-spheres, with n >= 5. Using tools from the theory of critical points at infinity, we provide some topological conditions on the level sets of a given function defined on the sphere, under which we prove the existence of conformal metric with prescribed Paneitz curvature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul-Madsen, Helle R.; Krogh-Meibom, Thomas; Heryon, Mark
2006-01-01
antibodies to this protein and established an immunoassay to quantify pMBL-A in serum. Using this assay, we found breed differences in pMBL-A concentration distributions and heritability estimates. In the Duroc breed (n=588), pMBL-A concentrations show a unimodal distribution with a mean of 9,125 ng....../ml. In contrast, the pMBL-A concentration distributions in the Landrace breed (n=533) show three distinct mean values: 301, 2,385, and 11,507 ng/ml. Furthermore, heritability calculations based on an additive genetic variance model with no fixed effects indicate that serum pMBL-A concentration is highly heritable...
Fernandes, Sofia R.; Salvador, Ricardo; Wenger, Cornelia; de Carvalho, Mamede; Miranda, Pedro C.
2018-06-01
Objective. Our aim was to perform a computational study of the electric field (E-field) generated by transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) applied over the thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal cord, in order to assess possible neuromodulatory effects on spinal cord circuitry related with lower limb functions. Approach. A realistic volume conductor model of the human body consisting of 14 tissues was obtained from available databases. Rubber pad electrodes with a metallic connector and a conductive gel layer were modelled. The finite element (FE) method was used to calculate the E-field when a current of 2.5 mA was passed between two electrodes. The main characteristics of the E-field distributions in the spinal grey matter (spinal-GM) and spinal white matter (spinal-WM) were compared for seven montages, with the anode placed either over T10, T8 or L2 spinous processes (s.p.), and the cathode placed over right deltoid (rD), umbilicus (U) and right iliac crest (rIC) areas or T8 s.p. Anisotropic conductivity of spinal-WM and of a group of dorsal muscles near the vertebral column was considered. Main results. The average E-field magnitude was predicted to be above 0.15 V m-1 in spinal cord regions located between the electrodes. L2-T8 and T8-rIC montages resulted in the highest E-field magnitudes in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (>0.30 V m-1). E-field longitudinal component is 3 to 6 times higher than the ventral-dorsal and right-left components in both the spinal-GM and WM. Anatomical features such as CSF narrowing due to vertebrae bony edges or disks intrusions in the spinal canal correlate with local maxima positions. Significance. Computational modelling studies can provide detailed information regarding the electric field in the spinal cord during tsDCS. They are important to guide the design of clinical tsDCS protocols that optimize stimulation of application-specific spinal targets.
Curvature tensor copies in affine geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, P.P.
1981-01-01
The sets of space-time and spin-connections which give rise to the same curvature tensor are constructed. The corresponding geometries are compared. Results are illustrated by an explicit calculation and comment on the copies in Einstein-Cartan and Weyl-Cartan geometries. (Author) [pt
Resolving curvature singularities in holomorphic gravity
Mantz, C.L.M.; Prokopec, T.
2011-01-01
We formulate a holomorphic theory of gravity and study how the holomorphy symmetry alters the two most important singular solutions of general relativity: black holes and cosmology. We show that typical observers (freely) falling into a holomorphic black hole do not encounter a curvature
Biharmonic Submanifolds with Parallel Mean Curvature Vector in Pseudo-Euclidean Spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Yu, E-mail: yufudufe@gmail.com [Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, School of Mathematics and Quantitative Economics (China)
2013-12-15
In this paper, we investigate biharmonic submanifolds in pseudo-Euclidean spaces with arbitrary index and dimension. We give a complete classification of biharmonic spacelike submanifolds with parallel mean curvature vector in pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We also determine all biharmonic Lorentzian surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector field in pseudo-Euclidean spaces.
Biharmonic Submanifolds with Parallel Mean Curvature Vector in Pseudo-Euclidean Spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Yu
2013-01-01
In this paper, we investigate biharmonic submanifolds in pseudo-Euclidean spaces with arbitrary index and dimension. We give a complete classification of biharmonic spacelike submanifolds with parallel mean curvature vector in pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We also determine all biharmonic Lorentzian surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector field in pseudo-Euclidean spaces
Non osseous intra-spinal tumors in children and adolescents: spinal column deformity (in french)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghanem, I.; Zeller, R.; Dubousset, J.
1997-01-01
Purpose of the study. The delay in diagnosis of spinal tumors is not rare. The chief complaint may include pain, walking disability and spinal or limb deformities. The purpose of our study is to analyze the spinal deformities associated with non osseous intra-spinal tumors, to assess the complications of treatment, and to set out a preventive protocol. Methods. The incidence and pattern of spinal deformity was assessed before tumor treatment and ultimately after laminectomy or osteoplastic laminotomy (or lamino-plasty). Results. Among the 9 cases with preexisting spinal deformity, the curve magnitude increased after laminectomy in 4. A kyphotic, kyphoscoliotic or scoliotic deformity developed in 18 cases after surgery for tumor resection. Among these 18 patients, only one had bad an adequate osteoplastic laminotomy. The treatment of spinal deformities was surgical in 12 cases, and done by either posterior or anterior and posterior combined arthrodesis. Discussion. Spinal deformity may be the main complaint of a patient who has intraspinal tumor. Prevention of post-laminectomy spinal deformity is mandatory, and could be done by osteoplastic laminotomy and the use of a brace during a minimum period of 4 to 6 months after surgery. Conclusion. Diagnosis of intraspinal tumors in children and adolescents should be done early, and lamino-arthrectomy should be replaced by osteoplastic laminotomy. (authors)
A prescribing geodesic curvature problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, K.C.; Liu, J.Q.
1993-09-01
Let D be the unit disk and k be a function on S 1 = δD. Find a flat metric which is pointwise conformal to the standard metric and has k as the geodesic curvature of S 1 . A sufficient condition for the existence of such a metric is that the harmonic extension of k in D has saddle points. (author). 11 refs
Chronic spinal subdural hematoma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagen, T.; Lensch, T.
2008-01-01
Compared with spinal epidural hematomas, spinal subdural hematomas are rare; chronic forms are even more uncommon. These hematomas are associated not only with lumbar puncture and spinal trauma, but also with coagulopathies, vascular malformations and tumors. Compression of the spinal cord and the cauda equina means that the patients develop increasing back or radicular pain, followed by paraparesis and bladder and bowel paralysis, so that in most cases surgical decompression is carried out. On magnetic resonance imaging these hematomas present as thoracic or lumbar subdural masses, their signal intensity varying with the age of the hematoma. We report the clinical course and the findings revealed by imaging that led to the diagnosis in three cases of chronic spinal subdural hematoma. (orig.) [de
Linearized curvatures for auxiliary fields in the de Sitter space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasiliev, M A
1988-09-19
New consistent linearized curvatures in the de Sitter space are constructed. The sequence of actions, describing bosonic and fermionic gauge auxiliary fields, is found based on these curvatures. The proposed actions are parametrized by two integer parameters, n greater than or equal to 0 and m greater than or equal to 0. The simplest case n=m=0 corresponds in the flat limit to the auxiliary fields of 'new minimal' supergravity. The hamiltonian formulation is developed for the auxiliary fields suggested; hamiltonians and first- and second-class constraints are constructed. Using these results, it is shown that the systems of fields proposed possess no dynamical degrees of freedom in de Sitter and flat spaces. In addition the hamiltonian formalism is analysed for some free dynamical systems based on linearized higher-spin curvatures introduced previously.
Higher curvature corrections to primordial fluctuations in slow-roll inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satoh, Masaki; Soda, Jiro
2008-01-01
We study higher curvature corrections to the scalar spectral index, the tensor spectral index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the polarization of gravitational waves. We find that there are cases where the higher curvature corrections cannot be negligible in the dynamics of the scalar field, although they are always negligible energetically. Indeed, it turns out that the tensor-to-scalar ratio could be enhanced and the tensor spectral index could be blue due to the Gauss–Bonnet term. We estimate the degree of circular polarization of gravitational waves generated during the slow-roll inflation. We argue that the circular polarization could be observable with the help of both the Gauss–Bonnet and the parity violating terms. We also present several examples to reveal observational implications of higher curvature corrections for chaotic inflationary models
Gordon, Stuart G; Lipps, Patrick E; Pratt, Richard C
2006-06-01
ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most important foliar diseases of maize. This study was undertaken to estimate heritability of C. zeae-maydis resistance and examine the relationship between previously identified resistance loci and certain components of resistance including incubation period, lesion number, and maximum lesion length. Partially inbred progenies arising from hybridization between maize inbred lines VO613Y (high level of partial resistance) and Pa405 (susceptible) were examined in Ohio and South Africa. Heritability estimates of resistance were calculated based on severity and incubation period values. The range of heritability estimates based on severity was broad, with values ranging from approximately 0.46 to 0.81 (mean = 0.59). Estimates of mean heritability for incubation period were lowest (0.18), indicating that this component would likely be unsuitable for selection of germ plasm intended for deployment in diverse regions. Length of GLS lesions was significantly affected by host genotype, with resistant genotypes having shorter lesions from one site in Ohio during two seasons. Genotype also had a significant effect on incubation period and lesion number; the lower values for these components also were associated with resistant genotypes. The combined action of these resistance components resulted in lower overall disease severity.
Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodiek, S.O.
2001-01-01
A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de
Heritability and Seasonal Changes in Viscosity of Slash Pine Oleoresin
Robert D. McReynolds
1971-01-01
Oleoresin viscosity was measured in slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) trees of known genetic origin over a 1-year period. A strong broad-sense heritability of this trait was found. Seasonal variation followed a definite pattern, with the highest viscosities occurring in early spring and a gradual decline occurring in...
Generalization of the swelling method to measure the intrinsic curvature of lipids
Barragán Vidal, I. A.; Müller, M.
2017-12-01
Via computer simulation of a coarse-grained model of two-component lipid bilayers, we compare two methods of measuring the intrinsic curvatures of the constituting monolayers. The first one is a generalization of the swelling method that, in addition to the assumption that the spontaneous curvature linearly depends on the composition of the lipid mixture, incorporates contributions from its elastic energy. The second method measures the effective curvature-composition coupling between the apposing leaflets of bilayer structures (planar bilayers or cylindrical tethers) to extract the spontaneous curvature. Our findings demonstrate that both methods yield consistent results. However, we highlight that the two-leaflet structure inherent to the latter method has the advantage of allowing measurements for mixed lipid systems up to their critical point of demixing as well as in the regime of high concentration (of either species).
Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
2007-05-01
Personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by questionnaires and personal interviews are heritable. However, we know neither how much unreliability of measurement impacts on heritability estimates nor whether the genetic and environmental risk factors assessed by these two methods are the same. We wish to know whether the same set of PD vulnerability factors are assessed by these two methods. A total of 3334 young adult twin pairs from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel (NIPHTP) completed a questionnaire containing 91 PD items. One to 6 years later, 1386 of these pairs were interviewed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Self-report items predicting interview results were selected by regression. Measurement models were fitted using Mx. In the best-fit models, the latent liabilities to paranoid personality disorder (PPD), schizoid personality disorder (SPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) were all highly heritable with no evidence of shared environmental effects. For PPD and STPD, only unique environmental effects were specific to the interview measure whereas both environmental and genetic effects were found to be specific to the questionnaire assessment. For SPD, the best-fit model contained genetic and environmental effects specific to both forms of assessment. The latent liabilities to the cluster A PDs are highly heritable but are assessed by current methods with only moderate reliability. The personal interviews assessed the genetic risk for the latent trait with excellent specificity for PPD and STPD and good specificity for SPD. However, for all three PDs, the questionnaires were less specific, also indexing an independent set of genetic risk factors.
Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S
2012-12-01
Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40-.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders.
Global and local curvature in density functional theory.
Zhao, Qing; Ioannidis, Efthymios I; Kulik, Heather J
2016-08-07
Piecewise linearity of the energy with respect to fractional electron removal or addition is a requirement of an electronic structure method that necessitates the presence of a derivative discontinuity at integer electron occupation. Semi-local exchange-correlation (xc) approximations within density functional theory (DFT) fail to reproduce this behavior, giving rise to deviations from linearity with a convex global curvature that is evidence of many-electron, self-interaction error and electron delocalization. Popular functional tuning strategies focus on reproducing piecewise linearity, especially to improve predictions of optical properties. In a divergent approach, Hubbard U-augmented DFT (i.e., DFT+U) treats self-interaction errors by reducing the local curvature of the energy with respect to electron removal or addition from one localized subshell to the surrounding system. Although it has been suggested that DFT+U should simultaneously alleviate global and local curvature in the atomic limit, no detailed study on real systems has been carried out to probe the validity of this statement. In this work, we show when DFT+U should minimize deviations from linearity and demonstrate that a "+U" correction will never worsen the deviation from linearity of the underlying xc approximation. However, we explain varying degrees of efficiency of the approach over 27 octahedral transition metal complexes with respect to transition metal (Sc-Cu) and ligand strength (CO, NH3, and H2O) and investigate select pathological cases where the delocalization error is invisible to DFT+U within an atomic projection framework. Finally, we demonstrate that the global and local curvatures represent different quantities that show opposing behavior with increasing ligand field strength, and we identify where these two may still coincide.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Giannoglou
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Scoliosis is a 3D deformity of the human spinal column that is caused from the bending of the latter, causing pain, aesthetic and respiratory problems. This internal deformation is reflected in the outer shape of the human back. The golden standard for diagnosis and monitoring of scoliosis is the Cobb angle, which refers to the internal curvature of the trunk. This work is the first part of a post-doctoral research, presenting the most important researches that have been done in the field of scoliosis, concerning its digital visualisation, in order to provide a more precise and robust identification and monitoring of scoliosis. The research is divided in four fields, namely, the X-ray processing, the automatic Cobb angle(s calculation, the 3D modelling of the spine that provides a more accurate representation of the trunk and the reduction of X-ray radiation exposure throughout the monitoring of scoliosis. Despite the fact that many researchers have been working on the field for the last decade at least, there is no reliable and universal tool to automatically calculate the Cobb angle(s and successfully perform proper 3D modelling of the spinal column that would assist a more accurate detection and monitoring of scoliosis.
Comparative effectiveness of metal ions in inducing curvature of primary roots of Zea mays
Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.; Stinemetz, C. L.; Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.; Koon, E. C.; Higby, M. A.; Smucker, A. J.
1988-01-01
We used five cultivars of Zea mays (Bear Hybrid WF9 * 38MS, B73 * Missouri 17, Yellow Dent, Merit, and Great Lakes Hybrid 422) to reinvestigate the specificity of metal ions for inducing root curvature. Of 17 cations tested, 6 (Al3+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) induced curvature. Roots curved away from Al3+, Ba2+, and Cd2+. Roots curved away from low (0.1 millimolar) concentrations of Cu2+ but toward higher (1-5 millimolar) concentrations. Roots initially curved away from Zn2+ but the direction of the subsequent curvature was unpredictable. In most cases, roots of all cultivars curved towards calcium. However, in some tests there was no response to calcium or even (especially in the cultivars Merit and B73 * Missouri 17) substantial curvature away from calcium. The results indicate that the induction of root curvature is not specific for calcium. The results are discussed relative to the possible role of calmodulin as a mediator of ion-induced root curvature.
Full Text Available ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...
Heritability of the Effective Connectivity in the Resting-State Default Mode Network.
Xu, Junhai; Yin, Xuntao; Ge, Haitao; Han, Yan; Pang, Zengchang; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Shuwei; Friston, Karl
2017-12-01
The default mode network (DMN) is thought to reflect endogenous neural activity, which is considered as one of the most intriguing phenomena in cognitive neuroscience. Previous studies have found that key regions within the DMN are highly interconnected. Here, we characterized the genetic influences on causal or directed information flow within the DMN during the resting state. In this study, we recruited 46 pairs of twins and collected fMRI imaging data using a 3.0 T scanner. Dynamic causal modeling was conducted for each participant, and a structural equation model was used to calculate the heritability of DMN in terms of its effective connectivity. Model comparison favored a full-connected model. Structural equal modeling was used to estimate the additive genetics (A), common environment (C) and unique environment (E) contributions to variance for the DMN effective connectivity. The ACE model was preferred in the comparison of structural equation models. Heritability of DMN effective connectivity was 0.54, suggesting that the genetic made a greater contribution to the effective connectivity within DMN. Establishing the heritability of default-mode effective connectivity endorses the use of resting-state networks as endophenotypes or intermediate phenotypes in the search for the genetic basis of psychiatric or neurological illnesses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Heritable alteration of DNA methylation induced by whole-chromosome aneuploidy in wheat.
Gao, Lihong; Diarso, Moussa; Zhang, Ai; Zhang, Huakun; Dong, Yuzhu; Liu, Lixia; Lv, Zhenling; Liu, Bao
2016-01-01
Aneuploidy causes changes in gene expression and phenotypes in all organisms studied. A previous study in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana showed that aneuploidy-generated phenotypic changes can be inherited to euploid progenies and implicated an epigenetic underpinning of the heritable variations. Based on an analysis by amplified fragment length polymorphism and methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we found that although genetic changes at the nucleotide sequence level were negligible, extensive changes in cytosine DNA methylation patterns occurred in all studied homeologous group 1 whole-chromosome aneuploid lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), with monosomic 1A showing the greatest amount of methylation changes. The changed methylation patterns were inherited by euploid progenies derived from the aneuploid parents. The aneuploidy-induced DNA methylation alterations and their heritability were verified at selected loci by bisulfite sequencing. Our data have provided empirical evidence supporting earlier suggestions that heritability of aneuploidy-generated, but aneuploidy-independent, phenotypic variations may have an epigenetic basis. That at least one type of aneuploidy - monosomic 1A - was able to cause significant epigenetic divergence of the aneuploid plants and their euploid progenies also lends support to recent suggestions that aneuploidy may have played an important and protracted role in polyploid genome evolution. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitz, Annette; Bayer, Jan; Dechamps, Nathalie; Goldin, Lynn; Thomas, Gilles
2007-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the heritability of intrinsic radiosensitivity, the induction of apoptosis in lymphocyte subpopulations was determined on samples from related individuals belonging to large kindred families. Methods and Materials: Quiescent lymphocytes from 334 healthy individuals were gamma-irradiated in vitro. Apoptosis was determined 18 h after irradiation by eight-color flow cytometry. Radiosensitivity was quantified from dose-effect curves. Intrafamilial correlations and heritability were computed for 199 father-mother-offspring trios using the programs SOLAR (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines) and SAGE (Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology). Segregation analyses were conducted using SAGE. Results: Marked differential susceptibility of naive and memory T lymphocytes was demonstrated. Also, although age and gender were significant covariates, their effects only accounted for a minor part of the inter-individual variation. Parent-offspring and sib-sib correlations were significant for the radiosensitivity of B cells, T4, and T8 and of effector memory T4 and T8 subpopulations. In the T4-effector memory subpopulation, the phenotype showed correlations most consistent with dominant or additive genetic effects, and the results of the segregation analysis were consistent with the contribution of a bi-allelic dominant locus. Conclusions: Heritability was demonstrated for the susceptibility to ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis of lymphocyte populations, and the segregation of the T4-effector memory radiosensitivity phenotype was consistent with a simple mendelian transmission model involving one major gene
Heritability estimates on resting state fMRI data using ENIGMA analysis pipeline.
Adhikari, Bhim M; Jahanshad, Neda; Shukla, Dinesh; Glahn, David C; Blangero, John; Reynolds, Richard C; Cox, Robert W; Fieremans, Els; Veraart, Jelle; Novikov, Dmitry S; Nichols, Thomas E; Hong, L Elliot; Thompson, Paul M; Kochunov, Peter
2018-01-01
Big data initiatives such as the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis consortium (ENIGMA), combine data collected by independent studies worldwide to achieve more generalizable estimates of effect sizes and more reliable and reproducible outcomes. Such efforts require harmonized image analyses protocols to extract phenotypes consistently. This harmonization is particularly challenging for resting state fMRI due to the wide variability of acquisition protocols and scanner platforms; this leads to site-to-site variance in quality, resolution and temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR). An effective harmonization should provide optimal measures for data of different qualities. We developed a multi-site rsfMRI analysis pipeline to allow research groups around the world to process rsfMRI scans in a harmonized way, to extract consistent and quantitative measurements of connectivity and to perform coordinated statistical tests. We used the single-modality ENIGMA rsfMRI preprocessing pipeline based on modelfree Marchenko-Pastur PCA based denoising to verify and replicate resting state network heritability estimates. We analyzed two independent cohorts, GOBS (Genetics of Brain Structure) and HCP (the Human Connectome Project), which collected data using conventional and connectomics oriented fMRI protocols, respectively. We used seed-based connectivity and dual-regression approaches to show that the rsfMRI signal is consistently heritable across twenty major functional network measures. Heritability values of 20-40% were observed across both cohorts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakagawa, Hiroshi
1982-01-01
Methods of CT of the cervical and thoracic spines were explained, and normal CT pictures of them were described. Spinal CT was evaluated in comparison with other methods in various spinal diseases. Plain CT revealed stenosis due to spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and hernia of intervertebral disc. CT took an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with calcification and destruction of the bone. CT scan in combination with other methods was also useful for the diagnosis of spinal injuries, congenital anomalies and infections. (Ueda, J.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)
2007-04-15
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo
2007-01-01
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...
No Large Scale Curvature Perturbations during Waterfall of Hybrid Inflation
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan
2010-01-01
In this paper the possibility of generating large scale curvature perturbations induced from the entropic perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of standard hybrid inflation model is studied. We show that whether or not appreciable amounts of large scale curvature perturbations are produced during the waterfall phase transition depend crucially on the competition between the classical and the quantum mechanical back-reactions to terminate inflation. If one considers only the clas...
Protein shape and crowding drive domain formation and curvature in biological membranes
Frese, R.N.; Pamies, Josep C.; Olsen, John D.; Bahatyrova, S.; van der Weij-de Wit, Chantal D.; Aartsma, Thijs J.; Otto, Cornelis; Hunter, C. Neil; Frenkel, Daan; van Grondelle, Rienk
2007-01-01
Folding, curvature, and domain formation are characteristics of many biological membranes. Yet the mechanisms that drive both curvature and the formation of specialized domains enriched in particular protein complexes are unknown. For this reason, studies in membranes whose shape and organization
Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.; Hertel, R.
1990-01-01
We compared the kinetics of auxin redistribution across the caps of primary roots of 2-day-old maize (Zea mays, cv Merit) seedlings with the time course of gravitropic curvature. [3H] indoleacetic acid was applied to one side of the cap in an agar donor and radioactivity moving across the cap was collected in an agar receiver applied to the opposite side. Upon gravistimulation the roots first curved upward slightly, then returned to the horizontal and began curving downward, reaching a final angle of about 67 degrees. Movement of label across the caps of gravistimulated roots was asymmetric with preferential downward movement (ratio downward/upward = ca. 1.6, radioactivity collected during the 90 min following beginning of gravistimulation). There was a close correlation between the development of asymmetric auxin movement across the root cap and the rate of curvature, with both values increasing to a maximum and then declining as the roots approached the final angle of curvature. In roots preadapted to gravity (alternate brief stimulation on opposite flanks over a period of 1 hour) the initial phase of upward curvature was eliminated and downward bending began earlier than for controls. The correlation between asymmetric auxin movement and the kinetics of curvature also held in comparisons between control and preadapted roots. Both downward auxin transport asymmetry and downward curvature occurred earlier in preadapted roots than in controls. These findings are consistent with suggestions that the root cap is not only the site of perception but also the location of the initial redistribution of effectors that ultimately leads to curvature.
Gauge and non-gauge curvature tensor copies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, P.P.
1982-10-01
A procedure for constructing curvature tensor copies is discussed using the anholonomic geometrical framework. The corresponding geometries are compared and the notion of gauge copy is elucidated. An explicit calculation is also made. (author)
Familial Risk and Heritability of Cancer Among Twins in Nordic Countries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mucci, Lorelei A.; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.; Harris, Jennifer R.
2016-01-01
Importance: Estimates of familial cancer risk from population-based studies are essential components of cancer risk prediction. Objective: To estimate familial risk and heritability of cancer types in a large twin cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective study of 80 309 monozygotic ...
Stress-induced DNA methylation changes and their heritability in asexual dandelions
Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Jansen, J.J.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Biere, A.
2010-01-01
• DNA methylation can cause heritable phenotypic modifications in the absence of changes in DNA sequence. Environmental stresses can trigger methylation changes and this may have evolutionary consequences, even in the absence of sequence variation. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent
Stress-induced DNA methylation changes and their heritability in asexual dandelions
Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Jansen, J.J.; Dijk, P.J.; Biere, A.
2010-01-01
DNA methylation can cause heritable phenotypic modifications in the absence of changes in DNA sequence. Environmental stresses can trigger methylation changes and this may have evolutionary consequences, even in the absence of sequence variation. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent
Parker, David
2017-01-01
Finding a treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) focuses on reconnecting the spinal cord by promoting regeneration across the lesion site. However, while regeneration is necessary for recovery, on its own it may not be sufficient. This presumably reflects the requirement for regenerated inputs to interact appropriately with the spinal cord, making sub-lesion network properties an additional influence on recovery. This review summarizes work we have done in the lamprey, a model system for SCI research. We have compared locomotor behavior (swimming) and the properties of descending inputs, locomotor networks, and sensory inputs in unlesioned animals and animals that have received complete spinal cord lesions. In the majority (∼90%) of animals swimming parameters after lesioning recovered to match those in unlesioned animals. Synaptic inputs from individual regenerated axons also matched the properties in unlesioned animals, although this was associated with changes in release parameters. This suggests against any compensation at these synapses for the reduced descending drive that will occur given that regeneration is always incomplete. Compensation instead seems to occur through diverse changes in cellular and synaptic properties in locomotor networks and proprioceptive systems below, but also above, the lesion site. Recovery of locomotor performance is thus not simply the reconnection of the two sides of the spinal cord, but reflects a distributed and varied range of spinal cord changes. While locomotor network changes are insufficient on their own for recovery, they may facilitate locomotor outputs by compensating for the reduction in descending drive. Potentiated sensory feedback may in turn be a necessary adaptation that monitors and adjusts the output from the “new” locomotor network. Rather than a single aspect, changes in different components of the motor system and their interactions may be needed after SCI. If these are general features, and where
Curvature effect on nuclear 'pasta': Is it helpful for gyroid appearance?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro
2011-01-01
In supernova cores and neutron star crusts, nuclei are thought to deform to rodlike and slablike shapes, which are often called nuclear pasta. We study the equilibrium properties of the nuclear pasta by using a liquid-drop model with curvature corrections. It is confirmed that the curvature effect acts to lower the transition densities between different shapes. We also examine the gyroid structure, which was recently suggested as a different type of nuclear pasta by analogy with the polymer systems. The gyroid structure investigated in this paper is approximately formulated as an extension of the periodic minimal surface whose mean curvature vanishes. In contrast to our expectations, we find, from the present approximate formulation, that the curvature corrections act to slightly disfavor the appearance of the gyroid structure. By comparing the energy corrections in the gyroid phase and the hypothetical phases composed of d-dimensional spheres, where d is a general dimensionality, we show that the gyroid is unlikely to belong to a family of the generalized dimensional spheres.
Stokes, Paul R A; Shotbolt, Paul; Mehta, Mitul A; Turkheimer, Eric; Benecke, Aaf; Copeland, Caroline; Turkheimer, Federico E; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver D
2013-01-01
Striatal dopamine function is important for normal personality, cognitive processes and behavior, and abnormalities are linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, no studies have examined the relative influence of genetic inheritance and environmental factors in determining striatal dopamine function. Using [18F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET), we sought to determine the heritability of presynaptic striatal dopamine function by comparing variability in uptake values in same sex monozygotic (MZ) twins to dizygotic (DZ) twins. Nine MZ and 10 DZ twin pairs underwent high-resolution [18F]-DOPA PET to assess presynaptic striatal dopamine function. Uptake values for the overall striatum and functional striatal subdivisions were determined by a Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. Heritability, shared environmental effects and non-shared individual-specific effects were estimated using a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a confirmatory parametric analysis. Overall striatal heritability estimates from the ROI and parametric analyses were 0.44 and 0.33, respectively. We found a distinction between striatal heritability in the functional subdivisions, with the greatest heritability estimates occurring in the sensorimotor striatum and the greatest effect of individual-specific environmental factors in the limbic striatum. Our results indicate that variation in overall presynaptic striatal dopamine function is determined by a combination of genetic factors and individual-specific environmental factors, with familial environmental effects having no effect. These findings underline the importance of individual-specific environmental factors for striatal dopaminergic function, particularly in the limbic striatum, with implications for understanding neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and addictions. PMID:23093224
Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...
FY 2016 Status Report: CIRFT Testing Data Analyses and Updated Curvature Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2016-08-01
This report provides a detailed description of FY15 test result corrections/analysis based on the FY16 Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) test program methodology update used to evaluate the vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under normal transportation conditions. The CIRFT consists of a U-frame testing setup and a real-time curvature measurement method. The three-component U-frame setup of the CIRFT has two rigid arms and linkages to a universal testing machine. The curvature of rod bending is obtained through a three-point deflection measurement method. Three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) are used and clamped to the side connecting plates of the U-frame to capture the deformation of the rod. The contact-based measurement, or three-LVDT-based curvature measurement system, on SNF rods has been proven to be quite reliable in CIRFT testing. However, how the LVDT head contacts the SNF rod may have a significant effect on the curvature measurement, depending on the magnitude and direction of rod curvature. It has been demonstrated that the contact/curvature issues can be corrected by using a correction on the sensor spacing. The sensor spacing defines the separation of the three LVDT probes and is a critical quantity in calculating the rod curvature once the deflections are obtained. The sensor spacing correction can be determined by using chisel-type probes. The method has been critically examined this year and has been shown to be difficult to implement in a hot cell environment, and thus cannot be implemented effectively. A correction based on the proposed equivalent gauge-length has the required flexibility and accuracy and can be appropriately used as a correction factor. The correction method based on the equivalent gauge length has been successfully demonstrated in CIRFT data analysis for the dynamic tests conducted on Limerick (LMK) (17 tests), North Anna (NA) (6 tests), and Catawba mixed oxide (MOX
On Mass, Spacetime Curvature, and Gravity
Janis, Allen I.
2018-01-01
The frequently used analogy of a massive ball distorting an elastic sheet, which is used to illustrate why mass causes spacetime curvature and gravitational attraction, is criticized in this article. A different analogy that draws on the students' previous knowledge of spacetime diagrams in special relativity is suggested.
Black hole production in particle collisions and higher curvature gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rychkov, Vyacheslav S.
2004-01-01
The problem of black hole production in trans-Planckian particle collisions is revisited, in the context of large extra dimensions scenarios of TeV-scale gravity. The validity of the standard description of this process (two colliding Aichelburg-Sexl shock waves in classical Einstein gravity) is questioned. It is observed that the classical spacetime has large curvature along the transverse collision plane, as signaled by the curvature invariant (R μνλσ ) 2 . Thus quantum gravity effects, and in particular higher curvature corrections to the Einstein gravity, cannot be ignored. To give a specific example of what may happen, the collision is reanalyzed in the Einstein-Lanczos-Lovelock gravity theory, which modifies the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian by adding a particular 'Gauss-Bonnet' combination of curvature squared terms. The analysis uses a series of approximations, which reduce the field equations to a tractable second order nonlinear PDE of the Monge-Ampere type. It is found that the resulting spacetime is significantly different from the pure Einstein case in the future of the transverse collision plane. These considerations cast serious doubts on the geometric cross section estimate, which is based on the classical Einstein gravity description of the black hole production process
Curvature correction of retinal OCTs using graph-based geometry detection
Kafieh, Raheleh; Rabbani, Hossein; Abramoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan
2013-05-01
In this paper, we present a new algorithm as an enhancement and preprocessing step for acquired optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the retina. The proposed method is composed of two steps, first of which is a denoising algorithm with wavelet diffusion based on a circular symmetric Laplacian model, and the second part can be described in terms of graph-based geometry detection and curvature correction according to the hyper-reflective complex layer in the retina. The proposed denoising algorithm showed an improvement of contrast-to-noise ratio from 0.89 to 1.49 and an increase of signal-to-noise ratio (OCT image SNR) from 18.27 to 30.43 dB. By applying the proposed method for estimation of the interpolated curve using a full automatic method, the mean ± SD unsigned border positioning error was calculated for normal and abnormal cases. The error values of 2.19 ± 1.25 and 8.53 ± 3.76 µm were detected for 200 randomly selected slices without pathological curvature and 50 randomly selected slices with pathological curvature, respectively. The important aspect of this algorithm is its ability in detection of curvature in strongly pathological images that surpasses previously introduced methods; the method is also fast, compared to the relatively low speed of similar methods.
Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes
Sun, Xiang
2016-08-12
This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ŉormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Safari
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature is investigated experimentally and numerically. For laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature, a new and comprehensive method is proposed in this paper. This method contains simple linear irradiating lines and using an analytical method, required process parameters for laser forming of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is proposed. In this method, laser output power, laser scanning speed and laser beam diameter are selected based on laser machine and process limitations. As in the laser forming of a cylindrical surface, parallel irradiating lines are needed; therefore key parameter for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is the number of irradiating lines. Hence, in the proposed analytical method, the required number of irradiating lines for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is suggested. Performance of the proposed method for production of cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is verified with experimental tests. The results show that using proposed analytical method, cylindrical surfaces with any radius of curvature can be produced successfully.
The Role of Membrane Curvature in Nanoscale Topography-Induced Intracellular Signaling.
Lou, Hsin-Ya; Zhao, Wenting; Zeng, Yongpeng; Cui, Bianxiao
2018-05-15
Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in developing biosensors and devices with nanoscale and vertical topography. Vertical nanostructures induce spontaneous cell engulfment, which enhances the cell-probe coupling efficiency and the sensitivity of biosensors. Although local membranes in contact with the nanostructures are found to be fully fluidic for lipid and membrane protein diffusions, cells appear to actively sense and respond to the surface topography presented by vertical nanostructures. For future development of biodevices, it is important to understand how cells interact with these nanostructures and how their presence modulates cellular function and activities. How cells recognize nanoscale surface topography has been an area of active research for two decades before the recent biosensor works. Extensive studies show that surface topographies in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers can significantly affect cell functions, behaviors, and ultimately the cell fate. For example, titanium implants having rough surfaces are better for osteoblast attachment and host-implant integration than those with smooth surfaces. At the cellular level, nanoscale surface topography has been shown by a large number of studies to modulate cell attachment, activity, and differentiation. However, a mechanistic understanding of how cells interact and respond to nanoscale topographic features is still lacking. In this Account, we focus on some recent studies that support a new mechanism that local membrane curvature induced by nanoscale topography directly acts as a biochemical signal to induce intracellular signaling, which we refer to as the curvature hypothesis. The curvature hypothesis proposes that some intracellular proteins can recognize membrane curvatures of a certain range at the cell-to-material interface. These proteins then recruit and activate downstream components to modulate cell signaling and behavior. We discuss current technologies
Lee, Jong-Ki; Ha, Byung-Hyun; Choi, Jeong-Ho; Heo, Seok-Mo; Perinpanayagam, Hiran
2006-10-01
In endodontic therapy, access and instrumentation are strongly affected by root canal curvature. However, the few studies that have actually measured curvature are mostly from two-dimensional radiographs. The purpose of this study was to measure the three-dimensional (3D) canal curvature in maxillary first molars using micro-computed tomography (microCT) and mathematical modeling. Extracted maxillary first molars (46) were scanned by microCT (502 image slices/tooth, 1024 X 1024 pixels, voxel size of 19.5 x 19.5 x 39.0 microm) and their canals reconstructed by 3D modeling software. The intersection of major and minor axes in the canal space of each image slice were connected to create an imaginary central axis for each canal. The radius of curvature of the tangential circle was measured and inverted as a measure of curvature using custom-made mathematical modeling software. Root canal curvature was greatest in the apical third and least in the middle third for all canals. The greatest curvatures were in the mesiobuccal (MB) canal (0.76 +/- 0.48 mm(-1)) with abrupt curves, and the least curvatures were in the palatal (P) canal (0.38 +/- 0.34 mm(-1)) with a gradual curve. This study has measured the 3D curvature of root canals in maxillary first molars and reinforced the value of microCT with mathematical modeling.
Higher Curvature Supergravity, Supersymmetry Breaking and Inflation
Ferrara, Sergio
2017-01-01
In these lectures, after a short introduction to cosmology, we discuss the supergravity embedding of higher curvature models of inflation. The supergravity description of such models is presented for the two different formulations of minimal supergravity.
Identification of two heritable cross-disorder endophenotypes for Tourette Syndrome
Darrow, Sabrina M.; Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Davis, Lea K.; Illmann, Cornelia; Osiecki, Lisa; Grados, Marco; Sandor, Paul; Dion, Yves; King, Robert; Pauls, David; Budman, Cathy L.; Cath, Danielle C.; Greenberg, Erica; Lyon, Gholson J.; Yu, Dongmei; McGrath, Lauren M.; McMahon, William M.; Lee, Paul C.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.
2016-01-01
Objective Phenotypic heterogeneity in Tourette syndrome (TS) is partly due to complex genetic relationships between TS, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying symptom-based endophenotypes across diagnoses may aid gene-finding efforts. Method 3494 individuals recruited for genetic studies were assessed for TS, OCD, and ADHD symptoms. Symptom-level factor and latent class analyses were conducted in TS families and replicated in an independent sample. Classes were characterized by comorbidity rates and proportion of parents. Heritability and TS-, OCD-, and ADHD-associated polygenic load were estimated. Results We identified two cross-disorder symptom-based phenotypes across analyses: symmetry (symmetry, evening up, checking obsessions; ordering, arranging, counting, writing-rewriting compulsions, repetitive writing tics) and disinhibition (uttering syllables/words, echolalia/palilalia, coprolalia/copropraxia and obsessive urges to offend/mutilate/be destructive). Heritability estimates for both endophenotypes were high (disinhibition factor= 0.35, SE=0.03, p= 4.2 ×10−34; symmetry factor= 0.39, SE=0.03, p= 7.2 ×10−31; symmetry class=0.38, SE=0.10, p=0.001). Mothers of TS probands had high rates of symmetry (49%) but not disinhibition (5%). Polygenic risk scores derived from a TS genome-wide association study (GWAS) were associated with symmetry (p= 0.02), while risk scores derived from an OCD GWAS were not. OCD polygenic risk scores were associated with disinhibition (p =0.03), while TS and ADHD risk scores were not. Conclusions We identified two heritable TS-related endophenotypes that cross traditional diagnostic boundaries. The symmetry phenotype correlated with TS polygenic load, and was present in otherwise “TS-unaffected” mothers, suggesting that this phenotype may reflect additional TS (rather than OCD) genetic liability that is not captured by traditional DSM-based diagnoses. PMID:27809572
Aorta measurements are heritable and influenced by bicuspid aortic valve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lisa J Martin
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Word Count 266, 1609 charactersObjectives: To determine whether the contributions of genetics and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV independently influence aortic (Ao dimensions.Background: Ao dilation is a risk factor for aneurysm, dissection, and sudden cardiac death. Frequent association of BAV with Ao dilation implicates a common underlying defect possibly due to genetic factors. Methods: Families enriched for BAV underwent standardized transthoracic echocardiography. In addition to BAV status, echocardiographic measures of Ao (annulus to descending Ao, pulmonary artery and mitral valve annulus diameters were obtained. Using variance components analysis, heritability was estimated with and without BAV status. Additionally, bivariate genetic analyses between Ao dimensions and BAV were performed.Results: Our cohort was obtained from 209 families enriched for BAV. After adjusting for age, body surface area and sex, individuals with BAV had a statistically significant increase in all echocardiographic measurements (p < 0.006 except descending Ao and mitral valve annulus. Individuals with BAV were at greater odds of having Ao dilation (OR = 4.44, 95% CI 2.93 – 6.72 than family members without BAV. All echocardiographic measurements exhibited moderate to strong heritability (0.25 to 0.53, and these estimates were not influenced by inclusion of BAV as a covariate. Bivariate genetic analyses supported that the genetic correlation between BAV and echo measures were not significantly different from zero.Conclusions: We show for the first time that echocardiographic measurements of Ao, pulmonary artery and mitral valve annulus diameters are quantitative traits that exhibit significant heritability. In addition, our results suggest the presence of BAV independently influences the proximal Ao and pulmonary artery measures but not those in the descending Ao or mitral valve annulus.
Regional surface geometry of the rat stomach based on three-dimensional curvature analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao Donghua [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Zhao Jingbo [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Gregersen, Hans [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark)
2005-01-21
A better understanding of gastric accommodation and gastric perception requires knowledge of regional gastric geometry and local gastric tension throughout the stomach. An analytic method based on medical imaging data was developed in this study to describe the three-dimensional (3D) rat stomach geometry and tension distribution. The surface principal radii of curvatures were simulated and the surface tension was calculated in the glandular and non-glandular region of the stomach at pressures from 0 Pa to 800 Pa. The radii of curvature and tension distribution in the stomach were non-homogeneous. The radii of curvature in the glandular stomach were larger than those in the non-glandular region at pressures less than 100 Pa (P < 0.001). When the pressure increased to more than 200 Pa, the radii of curvature in the non-glandular stomach was larger than in the glandular stomach (P < 0.05). The curvature and tension distribution mapping using medical imaging technology and 3D models can be used to characterize and distinguish the physical behaviour in separate regions of the stomach.
Regional surface geometry of the rat stomach based on three-dimensional curvature analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao Donghua; Zhao Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans
2005-01-01
A better understanding of gastric accommodation and gastric perception requires knowledge of regional gastric geometry and local gastric tension throughout the stomach. An analytic method based on medical imaging data was developed in this study to describe the three-dimensional (3D) rat stomach geometry and tension distribution. The surface principal radii of curvatures were simulated and the surface tension was calculated in the glandular and non-glandular region of the stomach at pressures from 0 Pa to 800 Pa. The radii of curvature and tension distribution in the stomach were non-homogeneous. The radii of curvature in the glandular stomach were larger than those in the non-glandular region at pressures less than 100 Pa (P < 0.001). When the pressure increased to more than 200 Pa, the radii of curvature in the non-glandular stomach was larger than in the glandular stomach (P < 0.05). The curvature and tension distribution mapping using medical imaging technology and 3D models can be used to characterize and distinguish the physical behaviour in separate regions of the stomach
Revertant Mosaicism in Heritable Skin Diseases - Mechanisms of Natural Gene Therapy
Pasmooij, Anna M. G.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Uitto, Jouni
Revertant mosaicism (RM) refers to the co-existence of cells carrying disease-causing mutations with cells in which the inherited mutation is genetically corrected by a spontaneous event. It has been discovered in an increasing number of heritable skin diseases: ichthyosis with confetti and
Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder
Rommelse, N.N.J.; Franke, B.; Geurts, H.M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.
2010-01-01
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting