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Sample records for hereditary hemochromatosis gene

  1. Hereditary hemochromatosis: An opportunity for gene therapy

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    FERNANDO EZQUER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of body iron should be tightly controlled to prevent the formation of oxygen radicals, lipoperoxidation, genotoxicity, and the production of cytotoxic cytokines, which result in damage to a number of organs. Enterocytes in the intestinal villae are involved in the apical uptake of iron from the intestinal lumen; iron is further exported from the cells into the circulation. The apical divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1 transports ferrous iron from the lumen into the cells, while the basolateral transporter ferroportin extrudes iron from the enterocytes into the circulation. Patients with hereditary hemochromatosis display an accelerated transepithelial uptake of iron, which leads to body iron accumulation that results in cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatitis, and cardiomyopathy. Hereditary hemochromatosis, a recessive genetic condition, is the most prevalent genetic disease in Caucasians, with a prevalence of one in 300 subjects. The majority of patients with hereditary hemochromatosis display mutations in the gene coding for HFE, a protein that normally acts as an inhibitor of transepithelial iron transport. We discuss the different control points in the homeostasis of iron and the different mutations that exist in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. These control sites may be influenced by gene therapeutic approaches; one general therapy for hemochromatosis of different etiologies is the inhibition of DMT1 synthesis by antisense-generating genes, which has been shown to markedly inhibit apical iron uptake by intestinal epithelial cells. We further discuss the most promising strategies to develop gene vectors and deliver them into enterocytes

  2. Hereditary hemochromatosis

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    Stephen A. Geller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is the most commonly identified autosomal recessive genetic disorder in the white population, characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption and secondary abnormal accumulation in parenchymal organs, not infrequently accompanied by functional impairment. This entity is associated with mutations of the HFE gene (located on the short arm of chromosome 6 at location 6p22.2; closely linked to the HLA-A3 locus, which encodes the HFE protein, a membrane protein thought to regulate iron absorption by affecting the interaction between transferrin receptor and transferrin.

  3. Hereditary Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemochromatosis occurs when a child inherits a mutated HFE gene from his or her parents. This mutated gene ... a special test to look for an abnormal HFE gene. This test would tell their doctor if they ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hemochromatosis

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    ... Type 1 hemochromatosis results from mutations in the HFE gene, and type 2 hemochromatosis results from mutations in ... about the genes associated with hereditary hemochromatosis HAMP HFE HJV PNPLA3 SLC40A1 TFR2 Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene mutation and how do ...

  5. Characteristics of gene mutation in Chinese patients with hereditary hemochromatosis

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    LYU Tingxia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the characteristics of gene mutation in Chinese patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH. MethodsA total of 9 patients with HH who visited Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2013 to December 2015 were enrolled. The genomic DNA was extracted, and PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing were performed for all the exons of four genotypes of HH, i.e., HFE (type Ⅰ, HJV (type ⅡA, HAMP (type ⅡB, TFR2 (type Ⅲ, and SLC40A1 (type Ⅳ to analyze gene mutations. A total of 50 healthy subjects were enrolled as control group to analyze the prevalence of identified gene mutations in a healthy population. ResultsOf all patients, 2 had H63D mutation of HFE gene in type Ⅰ HH, 1 had E3D mutation of HJV gene in type ⅡA HH, 2 had I238M mutation of TFR2 gene in type Ⅲ HH, and 1 had IVS 3+10 del GTT splice mutation of SLC40A1 gene in type Ⅳ HH. No patients had C282Y mutation of HFE gene in type Ⅰ HH which was commonly seen in European and American populations. Five patients had no missense mutation or splice mutation. In addition, it was found in a family that a HH patient had E3D mutation of HJV gene, H63D mutation of HFE gene, and I238M mutation of TFR2 gene, but the healthy brother and sister carrying two of these mutations did not had the phenotype of HH. ConclusionHH gene mutations vary significantly across patients of different races, and non-HFE-HH is dominant in the Chinese population. There may be HH genes which are different from known genes, and further investigation is needed.

  6. Learning about Hereditary Hemochromatosis

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    Skip to main content Learning About Hereditary Hemochromatosis Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research ...

  7. Prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and hereditary hemochromatosis gene mutations in Algarve, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto da Silva, Marta; Gaio, Vânia; Fernandes, Aida; Mendonça, Francisco; Horta Correia, Filomena; Beleza, Álvaro; Gil, Ana Paula; Bourbon, Mafalda; Vicente, A.M.; Dias, Carlos Matias

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) are two of the most fatal genetic disorders in adult life, affecting million individuals worldwide. They are often under-diagnosed conditions and diagnosis is only made when the patient is already in the advanced stages of damage. AAT deficiency results from mutations in one highly pleiomorphic gene located on chromosome 14, SERPINA 1, being Z and S mutations the most relevant clinically. These mutations will lead to an ...

  8. A family with hereditary hemochromatosis carrying HFE gene splice site mutation: a case report

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    NING Huibin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate a new type of HFE gene mutation in a family with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH. MethodsThe analysis of HFE gene was performed for one patient with a confirmed diagnosis of HH and five relatives. Blood genomic DNA was extracted and PCR multiplication was performed for the exon and intron splice sequences of related HFE, HJV, HAMP, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2, and SLC40A1 genes. After agarose gel electrophoresis and purification, bi-directional direct sequencing was performed to detect mutation sites. ResultsThe proband had abnormal liver function and increases in serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum ferritin, and transferrin saturation, as well as T→C homozygous mutation in the fourth base of intron 2 in the intervening sequence of the exon EXON2 of HFE gene (IVs 2+4T→C, C/C homozygous, splicing, abnormal. There were no abnormalities in HJV, HAMP, TfR2, and SLC40A1 genes. The proband′s son had the same homozygous mutation, three relatives had heterozygous mutations, and one relative had no abnormal mutations. ConclusionGene detection plays an important role in the diagnosis of hemochromatosis, and IVs 2+4T→C mutation may be a new pathogenic mutation for HH in China.

  9. Prevalence of H63D, S65C, and C282Y hereditary hemochromatosis gene variants in Madeira Island (Portugal).

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    Spínola, Carla; Brehm, António; Spínola, Hélder

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary HFE Hemochromatosis is an inherited disorder of iron metabolism that results from mutations in the HFE gene. Almost all patients with hereditary hemochromatosis show a C282Y mutation in homozygosity or in compound heterozygosity with H63D. Also, the mutation S65C has been shown to be associated to a milder iron overload. Since allele and genotype frequencies of these three variants of the HFE gene vary between populations, the determination of their prevalence in Madeira Island will clarify the population susceptibility to hereditary hemochromatosis. One hundred and fifty-four samples from Madeira Island were genotyped for the three most common HFE gene mutations, H63D, C282Y, and S65C, by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results have shown a prevalence of 20.5%, 0.33%, and 1% for H63D, C282Y, and S65C, respectively. Accordingly to our estimates, both genotypes associated to hereditary hemochromatosis, C282Y homozygotes and C282/H63D compound heterozygotes, could be present in Madeira Island population in 1,648 individuals, which represents 0.65% of the total population.

  10. Hereditary hemochromatosis: genetic complexity and new diagnostic approaches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, D.W.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Bergmans, J.; Marx, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of the hemochromatosis gene (HFE) in 1996, several novel gene defects have been detected, explaining the mechanism and diversity of iron-overload diseases. At least 4 main types of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) have been identified. Surprisingly, genes involved in HH encode for

  11. Diagnosis and management of hereditary hemochromatosis.

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    Salgia, Reena J; Brown, Kimberly

    2015-02-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a rare genetic disorder that can have significant clinical consequences. Hemochromatosis is associated with iron overload, and can initially be recognized through laboratory testing for serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Genetic testing for the HFE mutation can be performed in patients with elevated iron indices and a suspicion for hemochromatosis or liver disease. The main pathway resulting in iron overload is through altered hepcidin levels. Treatment of patients with the clinical phenotype of hereditary hemochromatosis is commonly through phlebotomy for removal of excess iron stores. This article highlights the current information and data regarding the diagnosis and management of hemochromatosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of novel mutations in HFE, HFE2, TfR2, and SLC40A1 genes in Chinese patients affected by hereditary hemochromatosis.

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    Wang, Yongwei; Du, Yali; Liu, Gang; Guo, Shanshan; Hou, Bo; Jiang, Xianyong; Han, Bing; Chang, Yanzhong; Nie, Guangjun

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a group of inherited iron-overload disorders associated with pathogenic defects in the genes encoding hemochromatosis (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV/HFE2), hepcidin (HAMP), transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2), and ferroportin (FPN1/SLC40A1) proteins, and the clinical features are well described. However, there have been only a few detailed reports of HH in Chinese populations. Thus, there is insufficient patient information for population-based analyses in Chinese populations or comparative studies among different ethical groups. In the current work, we describe eight Chinese cases of hereditary hemochromatosis. Gene sequencing results revealed eight mutations (five novel mutations) in HFE, HFE2, TfR2, and SLC40A1 genes in these Chinese HH patients. In addition, we used Polymorphism Phenotyping v2 (Polyphen), Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT), and a sequence alignment program to predict the molecular consequences of missense mutations.

  13. Molecular Diagnostic and Pathogenesis of Hereditary Hemochromatosis

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    Paulo C. J. L. Santos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by enhanced intestinal absorption of dietary iron. Without therapeutic intervention, iron overload leads to multiple organ damage such as liver cirrhosis, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, arthritis, hypogonadism and skin pigmentation. Most HH patients carry HFE mutant genotypes: homozygosity for p.Cys282Tyr or p.Cys282Tyr/p.His63Asp compound heterozygosity. In addition to HFE gene, mutations in the genes that encode hemojuvelin (HJV, hepcidin (HAMP, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2 and ferroportin (SLC40A1 have been associated with regulation of iron homeostasis and development of HH. The aim of this review was to identify the main gene mutations involved in the pathogenesis of type 1, 2, 3 and 4 HH and their genetic testing indication. HFE testing for the two main mutations (p.Cys282Tyr and p.His63Asp should be performed in all patients with primary iron overload and unexplained increased transferrin saturation and/or serum ferritin values. The evaluation of the HJV p.Gly320Val mutation must be the molecular test of choice in suspected patients with juvenile hemochromatosis with less than 30 years and cardiac or endocrine manifestations. In conclusion, HH is an example that genetic testing can, in addition to performing the differential diagnostic with secondary iron overload, lead to more adequate and faster treatment.

  14. Effects of strain and age on hepatic gene expression profiles in murine models of HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis.

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    Lee, Seung-Min; Loguinov, Alexandre; Fleming, Robert E; Vulpe, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder most commonly caused by a defect in the HFE gene. While the genetic defect is highly prevalent, the majority of individuals do not develop clinically significant iron overload, suggesting the importance of genetic modifiers. Murine hfe knockout models have demonstrated that strain background has a strong effect on the severity of iron loading. We noted that hepatic iron loading in hfe-/- mice occurs primarily over the first postnatal weeks (loading phase) followed by a timeframe of relatively static iron concentrations (plateau phase). We thus evaluated the effects of background strain and of age on hepatic gene expression in Hfe knockout mice (hfe-/-). Hepatic gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarrays in 4- and 8-week-old hfe-/- and wild-type mice on two different genetic backgrounds, C57BL/6J (C57) and AKR/J (AKR). Genes differentially regulated in all hfe-/- mice groups, compared with wild-type mice, including those involved in cell survival, stress and damage responses and lipid metabolism. AKR strain-specific changes in lipid metabolism genes and C57 strain-specific changes in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix protein genes were detected in hfe-/- mice. Mouse strain and age are each significantly associated with hepatic gene expression profiles in hfe-/- mice. These affects may underlie or reflect differences in iron loading in these mice.

  15. Population-based analysis of the frequency of HFE gene polymorphisms: Correlation with the susceptibility to develop hereditary hemochromatosis.

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    Katsarou, Martha-Spyridoula; Latsi, Rosana; Papasavva, Maria; Demertzis, Nikolaos; Kalogridis, Thodoris; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Drakoulis, Nikolaos

    2016-07-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, characterized by increased dietary iron absorption. Due to the absence of an effective excretory mechanism, the excess iron in the body may accumulate resulting in toxic effects. The HFE gene also affects the activity of hepcidin, a hormone which acts as a negative regulator of iron metabolism. In this study, we performed a population-based analysis of the distribution of three hemochromatosis-related polymorphisms in the HFE gene (rs1800562, rs1799945 and rs1800730). DNA from 1,446 non‑related individuals of Greek ethnicity was collected and analyzed, either from whole blood or buccal swabs. The frequency distribution of these HFE gene polymorphisms was then determined. The results revealed that in our Greek population cohort (gr) the frequencies of each polymorphism were as follows: rs1800562: GG (wild‑type)=97.0%, GA=1.5%, AA=1.5%; rs1799945: CC (wild‑type)=74.4%, CG=23.4%, GG=2.2%; rs1800730: AA (wild‑type)=98.1%, AT=1.5% and TT=0.4%. No association between the HFE polymorphisms rs1800562, rs1799945 and rs1800730 and gender could be established. As regards the rs1800562 polymorphism, the A allele (mutant) was ~1.8‑fold more frequent in the European population (eur) than in the Greek population [(gr)=2,3%<(eur)=4%]. As for the rs1799945 polymorphism, the G allele (mutant) was 1.2‑fold more frequent in the European population than in the Greek population [(gr)=13,9%<(eur)=17%]. As regards the rs1800730 polymorphism, the T allele (mutant) was ~1.7‑fold more frequent in the European population than in the Greek population [(gr)=1.2%<(eur)=2%]. However, these pathogenic mutations were found more frequently in the Greek population compared to the global population (gl) [rs1800562: (gl)=1%<(gr)=2,3%; rs1799945: (gl)=7%<(gr)=13,9%; rs1800730: (gl)=<1%<(gr)=1.2%]. This suggests that the Greek population may differ genetically from the northern European population

  16. Musculoskeletal disease burden of hereditary hemochromatosis.

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    Sahinbegovic, Enijad; Dallos, Tomáš; Aigner, Elmar; Axmann, Roland; Manger, Bernhard; Englbrecht, Matthias; Schöniger-Hekele, Maximilian; Karonitsch, Thomas; Stamm, Tanja; Farkas, Martin; Karger, Thomas; Stölzel, Ulrich; Keysser, Gernot; Datz, Christian; Schett, Georg; Zwerina, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence, clinical picture, and disease burden of arthritis in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. In this cross-sectional observational study of 199 patients with hemochromatosis and iron overload, demographic and disease-specific variables, genotype, and organ involvement were recorded. The prevalence, intensity, and localization of joint pain were assessed, and a complete rheumatologic investigation was performed. Radiographs of the hands, knees, and ankles were scored for joint space narrowing, erosions, osteophytes, and chondrocalcinosis. In addition, the number and type of joint replacement surgeries were recorded. Joint pain was reported by 72.4% of the patients. Their mean ± SD age at the time of the initial joint symptoms was 45.8 ± 13.2 years. If joint pain was present, it preceded the diagnosis of hemochromatosis by a mean ± SD of 9.0 ± 10.7 years. Bony enlargement was observed in 65.8% of the patients, whereas synovitis was less common (13.6%). Joint space narrowing and osteophytes as well as chondrocalcinosis of the wrist and knee joints were frequent radiographic features of hemochromatosis. Joint replacement surgery was common, with 32 patients (16.1%) undergoing total joint replacement surgery due to severe OA. The mean ± SD age of these patients was 58.3 ± 10.4 years at time of joint replacement surgery. Female sex, metacarpophalangeal joint involvement, and the presence of chondrocalcinosis were associated with a higher risk of early joint failure (i.e., the need for joint replacement surgery). Arthritis is a frequent, early, and severe symptom of hemochromatosis. Disease is not confined to involvement of the metacarpophalangeal joints and often leads to severe damage requiring the replacement of joints. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. The prevalence of primary hereditary hemochromatosis in central Anatolia.

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    Karaca, Halit; Güven, Kadri; Önal, Müge; Gürsoy, Şebnem; Başkol, Mevlüt; Özkul, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with the HFE genes. Early identification and diagnosis is important as end stage organ damage may occur if treatment is delayed.. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of hereditary hemochromatosis in Kayseri and surroundings known as Central Anatolia. 2304 participants (1220 males, 1084 females) who were older then the age of 17 were included in the study conducted between December 2005 and December 2006 in Kayseri, Turkey. Transferin saturation was measured from overnight fasting blood samples. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferin saturation were measured. Serum ferritin levels and hereditary hemochromatosis genetic analysis were also performed after an overnight fasting blood samples from participants whose transferin saturation results were more than 50% in man and more than 45% in women. The homozygote C282Y mutation and heterozygote C282Y mutation prevalences were found as 0.08% (1/1220) and 0.08% (1/1220) in male participants, respectively. The heterozygote H63D mutation prevalence was found in 0.09% (1/1084) of female participants. Calculated prevalences in general population are as follows; The homozygote C282Y mutation prevalence is 0.043% (1/2304), the heterozygote C282Y mutation prevalence is 0.043% (1/2304) and the heterozygote H63D mutation prevalence is 0.043% (1/2304). The prevalence of hereditary hemochromatosis in Central Anatolia is 0.043% (1/2304). Because of the relatively low frequency, population screening studies are not cost-effective.

  18. [Molecular genetic diagnostics and screening of hereditary hemochromatosis].

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    Zlocha, J; Kovács, L; Pozgayová, S; Kupcová, V; Durínová, S

    2006-06-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is considered one of the most common hereditary diseases in population of Caucasian origin. In recent years, a candidate gene for HLA-linked hemochromatosis, HFE, has been cloned, and a single G-to-A mutation resulting in a cysteine-to-tyrosine substitution (C282Y) has been identified in up to 80% of study patients with type 1 hereditary hemochromatosis. The purpose of the paper was to confirm the importance of genetic testing for HFE mutations in making the diagnosis of hemochromatosis and find out a suitable diagnostic algorithm for the indication of this form of diagnostics in patients suspected of hereditary hemochromatosis. The examination of C282Y mutation was conducted in 500 subjects. The most frequent indications for DNA analysis were hepatopathy of unknown ethiology, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, bronze skin pigmentation in connection with high serum iron concentration, elevated transferrin saturation and elevated serum ferritin levels. In our group of patients, 29 homozygotes and 75 heterozygotes for C282Y mutation were identified, 10 patients carried both C282Y and H63D mutations of HFE gene (compound heterozygotes), whereas in 386 subjects the mutation was not found. The genotype-phenotype correlation showed that 22 homozygotes had liver affection proved by imaging and/or histologic methods. Except the liver disorders, the most common symptoms of these patients were type 2 diabetes mellitus or glucose tolerance disorder (10 patients), arthritis or joint pain (9 patients) and cardiovascular disorders, such as cardiomyopathy (2 patients). Bronze skin pigmentation was present in 9 homozygotes. Transferin saturation values were significantly higher in homozygotes for C282Y mutation as compared to C282Y heterozygotes (p diagnostics of this severe, but in early recognition curable disease. Early detection and phlebotomy treatment prior to the onset of cirrhosis can reduce morbidity and normalize life expectancy. It is readily

  19. Hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE) genotypes in heart failure: relation to etiology and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Daniel Vega; Pecini, Redi; Gustafsson, Finn

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) might play a role in cardiac disease (heart failure (HF) and ischemia). Mutations within several genes are HH-associated, the most common being the HFE gene. In a large cohort of HF patients, we sought to determine the etiological role...... and the prognostic significance of HFE genotypes....

  20. Coinheritance of hereditary spherocytosis and reversibility of cirrhosis in a young female patient with hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höblinger, A; Erdmann, C; Strassburg, C P; Sauerbruch, T; Lammert, F

    2009-04-16

    Here we report a 33-years-old woman with hereditary spherocytosis and hemochromatosis due to homozygosity for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. The coinheritance of both conditions led to severe iron overload and liver cirrhosis at young age. The patient was treated by repeated phlebotomy, and reversibility of cirrhosis was documented by transient elastography. This report discusses the pathophysiology of iron accumulation in patients with hemolytic anemia combined with HFE C282Y homozygosity. The case indicates that patients with hematological disorders characterized by increased erythropoetic activity should be screened for HFE mutations.

  1. Monocyte transferrin-iron uptake in hereditary hemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizemore, D.J.; Bassett, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Transferrin-iron uptake by peripheral blood monocytes was studied in vitro to test the hypothesis that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hereditary hemochromatosis results from a defect in uptake of iron from transferrin. Monocytes from nine control subjects and 17 patients with hemochromatosis were cultured in the presence of 59Fe-labelled human transferrin. There was no difference in 59Fe uptake between monocytes from control subjects and monocytes from patients with hemochromatosis who had been treated by phlebotomy and who had normal body iron stores. However, 59Fe uptake by monocytes from iron-loaded patients with hemochromatosis was significantly reduced compared with either control subjects or treated hemochromatosis patients. It is likely that this was a secondary effect of iron loading since iron uptake by monocytes from treated hemochromatosis patients was normal. Assuming that monocytes in culture reflect mononuclear phagocyte iron metabolism in vivo, this study suggests that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hemochromatosis is not related to an abnormality in transferrin-iron uptake by these cells

  2. Hereditary hemochromatosis and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that the hereditary hemochromatosis genotypes C282Y/C282Y, C282Y/H63D, or C282Y/wild-type are risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective study of 9178 individuals from the Danish...

  3. An extensive analysis of the hereditary hemochromatosis gene HFE and neighboring histone genes: associations with childhood leukemia.

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    Davis, Charronne F; Dorak, M Tevfik

    2010-04-01

    The most common mutation of the HFE gene C282Y has shown a risk association with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Welsh and Scottish case-control studies. This finding has not been replicated outside Britain. Here, we present a thorough analysis of the HFE gene in a panel of HLA homozygous reference cell lines and in the original population sample from South Wales (117 childhood ALL cases and 414 newborn controls). The 21 of 24 variants analyzed were from the HFE gene region extending 52 kb from the histone gene HIST1H1C to HIST1H1T. We identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs807212 as a tagging SNP for the most common HFE region haplotype, which contains wild-type alleles of all HFE variants examined. This intergenic SNP rs807212 yielded a strong male-specific protective association (per allele OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.22-0.64, P (trend) = 0.0002; P = 0.48 in females), which accounted for the original C282Y risk association. In the HapMap project data, rs807212 was in strong linkage disequilibrium with 25 other SNPs spanning 151 kb around HFE. Minor alleles of these 26 SNPs characterized the most common haplotype for the HFE region, which lacked all disease-associated HFE variants. The HapMap data suggested positive selection in this region even in populations where the HFE C282Y mutation is absent. These results have implications for the sex-specific associations observed in this region and suggest the inclusion of rs807212 in future studies of the HFE gene and the extended HLA class I region.

  4. Hemochromatosis C282Y gene mutation as a potential susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.M. Mokhtar

    2017-08-12

    Aug 12, 2017 ... Background: Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most frequent cause of primary iron overload that is associated with HFE gene's mutation especially the C282Y mutation. The interaction between hemoglo- bin chain synthesis' disorders and the C282Y mutation may worsen the clinical picture of beta-.

  5. Hemochromatosis

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    Onur Albayrak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemochromatosis is the most common form of iron overload disease. Iron builds up in the body’s organs and damages them. Hemochromatosis is presented with arthropathy, cirrhosis of the liver, melanoderma, heart failure, diabetes mellitus and other endocrine deficiencies. There are two type of this disease. Primary hemochromatosis is known as an inherited disease. Herediter hemochromatosis is caused by the mutations of HFE gene. The most common mutations are H63D (Histidine- Aspartat and C282Y (Cysteine-Tyrosine on the gene. Secondary hemochromatosis is caused by anemia, alcoholism, and some of the other disorders. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 268-275

  6. Prevalence of H63D, S65C and C282Y hereditary hemochromatosis gene mutations in Slovenian population by an improved high-throughput genotyping assay

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    Rupreht Ruth

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is a common genetic disease characterized by excessive iron overload that leads to multi-organ failure. Although the most prevalent genotype in HH is homozygosity for C282Y mutation of the HFE gene, two additional mutations, H63D and S65C, appear to be associated with a milder form of HH. The aim of this study was to develop a high-throughput assay for HFE mutations screening based on TaqMan technology and to determine the frequencies of HFE mutations in the Slovenian population. Methods Altogether, 1282 randomly selected blood donors from different Slovenian regions and 21 HH patients were analyzed for the presence of HFE mutations by an in-house developed real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan technology using shorter non-interfering fluorescent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-specific MGB probes. The assay was validated by RFLP analysis and DNA sequencing. Results The genotyping assay of the H63D, S65C and C282Y mutations in the HFE gene, based on TaqMan technology proved to be fast, reliable, with a high-throughput capability and 100% concordant with genotypes obtained by RFLP and DNA sequencing. The observed frequency of C282Y homozygotes in the group of HH patients was only 48%, others were of the heterogeneous HFE genotype. Among 1282 blood donors tested, the observed H63D, S65C and C282Y allele frequency were 12.8% (95% confidence interval (CI 11.5 – 14.2%, 1.8% (95% CI 1.4 – 2.5% and 3.6% (95% CI 3.0 – 4.5%, respectively. Approximately 33% of the tested subjects had at least one of the three HH mutations, and 1% of them were C282Y homozygotes or compound heterozygotes C282Y/H63D or C282Y/S65C, presenting an increased risk for iron overload disease. A significant variation in H63D allele frequency was observed for one of the Slovenian regions. Conclusion The improved real-time PCR assay for H63D, S65C and C282Y mutations detection is accurate, fast, cost-efficient and ready for

  7. Visão atual da hemocromatose hereditária Current approach to hereditary hemochromatosis

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    Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A hemocromatose hereditária (HH está relacionada a diversos distúrbios do metabolismo do ferro que ocasionam sua sobrecarga tecidual. A HH clássica está associada às mutações do gene HFE (homozigose para C282Y ou duplo heterozigose para C282Y/H63D, sendo encontrada quase exclusivamente em descendentes do norte Europeu. A hemocromatose hereditária, quando não relacionada ao gene HFE, é causada por mutações de outros genes, recentemente identificados, envolvidos no metabolismo do ferro. Hepcedina é o hormônio regulador do ferro que inibe a ferroportina, proteína exportadora de ferro dos enterócitos e dos macrófagos; um defeito na expressão do gene da hepcedina ou na sua função costuma ser a causa da maioria dos tipos de hemocromatose hereditária. Os alvos acometidos pela HH são órgãos e tecidos - fígado, coração, pâncreas, articulações e pele -, sendo a cirrose e o diabetes melito os sinais tardios da doença em pacientes com expressivo aumento da concentração hepática de ferro. Pacientes com diagnóstico estabelecido de hemocromatose hereditária e sobrecarga de ferro devem ser tratados com flebotomia para a obtenção de depleção do ferro do organismo; em seguida, com flebotomia de manutenção. As causas mais frequentes de morte por hemocromatose hereditária são câncer hepático, cirrose, miocardiopatia e diabete; entretanto, pacientes submetidos à depleção do ferro de maneira satisfatória e antes do desenvolvimento da cirrose ou da diabete podem ter sobrevida normal.Hereditary hemochromatosis refers to several inherited disorders of the iron metabolism that lead to tissue iron overload. Classical hereditary hemochromatosis is associated with mutations of the HFE gene (C282Y homozygotes or C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes and is almost exclusively found in populations of northern European descent. Non-HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis is caused by mutations in other recently identified genes

  8. [Molecular genetic analysis and clinical aspects of patients with hereditary hemochromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, U; Teichmann, J; Dischereit, G

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to perform a molecular genetic analysis and to document clinical aspects in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. The study included 33 outpatients (23 males average age 50.6 years and 10 females average age 60.6 years) with a disorder of iron metabolism (transferrin saturation > 75 %) as confirmation of hemochromatosis who were subjected to molecular genetic and clinical analyses. A homozygous mutation of the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene (C282YY) was detected in 63.6 %, a compound heterozygous mutation (C282Y/H63D) in 30.3% and no mutation of the HFE gene was detected in 6.1 %. The following organ manifestations could be objectified: arthralgia (78.8 %), liver disease (39.9 %), skin hyperpigmentation (30.3 %), osteoporosis (24.2 %), diabetes mellitus (24.2 %) and cardiomyopathy (12.1 %). Comparison between patients with heterozygous and homozygous hemochromatosis revealed the following differences: compound heterozygote patients presented less frequently with osteoarthritis of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and hands (85.7 %/71.4 % homozygotes vs. 60 %/60 % heterozygotes). Osteoarthritis of the shoulder joints and osteoporosis as well as hypothyroidism were more frequent in compound heterozygote patients, whereas osteoarthritis of the knee and hip joints as well as liver disease were more common in homozygote patients. No differences between both groups were seen with respect to the clinical manifestations of cardiomyopathy and diabetes mellitus. Prevalent causes of death in hereditary hemochromatosis are heart failure, liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) and portal hypertension. Therefore, an early diagnosis, adequate therapy and genetic screening of family members are of great importance. Medicinal treatment will only effectively prevent deleterious organ involvement and subsequent complications if initiated at an early stage. Furthermore, an overview of the current data is given.

  9. R2*-relaxometry of the pancreas in patients with human hemochromatosis protein associated hereditary hemochromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, B., E-mail: benjamin.henninger@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rauch, S. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Zoller, H. [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Plaikner, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • MRI with R2* relaxometry is suitable to detect iron overload of the pancreas. • Pancreatic iron overload can be present in HFE associated hereditary hemochromatosis. • R2* relaxometry of the pancreas should then be performed when liver iron is present. • It can be omitted in cases with no sign of hepatic iron. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate pancreatic iron in patients with human hemochromatosis protein associated hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) using R2* relaxometry. Materials and methods: 81 patients (58 male, 23 female; median age 49.5, range 10–81 years) with HHC were retrospectively studied. All underwent 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. A fat-saturated multi-gradient echo sequence with 12 echoes (TR = 200 ms; TE-initial 0.99 ms; Delta-TE 1.41 ms; 12 echoes; flip-angle: 20°) was used for the R2* quantification of the liver and the pancreas. Parameter maps were analyzed using regions of interest (3 in the liver and 2 in the pancreas) and R2* values were correlated. Results: 59/81 patients had a liver R2* ≥ 70 1/s of which 10/59 patients had a pancreas R2* ≥ 50 1/s. No patient presented with a liver R2* < 70 1/s and pancreas R2* ≥ 50 1/s. All patients with pancreas R2* values ≥ 50 1/s had liver R2* values ≥ 70 1/s. ROC analysis resulted in a threshold of 209.4 1/s for liver R2* values to identify HFE positive patients with pancreas R2* values ≥ 50 1/s with a median specificity of 78.87% and a median sensitivity of 90%. Conclusion: In patients with HHC R2* relaxometry of the pancreas should be performed when liver iron overload is present and can be omitted in cases with no sign of hepatic iron.

  10. R2*-relaxometry of the pancreas in patients with human hemochromatosis protein associated hereditary hemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, B.; Rauch, S.; Zoller, H.; Plaikner, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • MRI with R2* relaxometry is suitable to detect iron overload of the pancreas. • Pancreatic iron overload can be present in HFE associated hereditary hemochromatosis. • R2* relaxometry of the pancreas should then be performed when liver iron is present. • It can be omitted in cases with no sign of hepatic iron. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate pancreatic iron in patients with human hemochromatosis protein associated hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) using R2* relaxometry. Materials and methods: 81 patients (58 male, 23 female; median age 49.5, range 10–81 years) with HHC were retrospectively studied. All underwent 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. A fat-saturated multi-gradient echo sequence with 12 echoes (TR = 200 ms; TE-initial 0.99 ms; Delta-TE 1.41 ms; 12 echoes; flip-angle: 20°) was used for the R2* quantification of the liver and the pancreas. Parameter maps were analyzed using regions of interest (3 in the liver and 2 in the pancreas) and R2* values were correlated. Results: 59/81 patients had a liver R2* ≥ 70 1/s of which 10/59 patients had a pancreas R2* ≥ 50 1/s. No patient presented with a liver R2* < 70 1/s and pancreas R2* ≥ 50 1/s. All patients with pancreas R2* values ≥ 50 1/s had liver R2* values ≥ 70 1/s. ROC analysis resulted in a threshold of 209.4 1/s for liver R2* values to identify HFE positive patients with pancreas R2* values ≥ 50 1/s with a median specificity of 78.87% and a median sensitivity of 90%. Conclusion: In patients with HHC R2* relaxometry of the pancreas should be performed when liver iron overload is present and can be omitted in cases with no sign of hepatic iron.

  11. Frequency of Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HFE) Gene Mutations in Egyptian Beta Thalassemia Patients and its Relation to Iron Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enein, Azza Aboul; El Dessouky, Nermine A; Mohamed, Khalda S; Botros, Shahira K A; Abd El Gawad, Mona F; Hamdy, Mona; Dyaa, Nehal

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to detect the most common HFE gene mutations (C282Y, H63D, and S56C) in Egyptian beta thalassemia major patients and its relation to their iron status. The study included 50 beta thalassemia major patients and 30 age and sex matched healthy persons as a control group. Serum ferritin, serum iron and TIBC level were measured. Detection of the three HFE gene mutations (C282Y, H63D and S65C) was done by PCR-RFLP analysis. Confirmation of positive cases for the mutations was done by sequencing. Neither homozygote nor carrier status for the C282Y or S65C alleles was found. The H63D heterozygous state was detected in 5/50 (10%) thalassemic patients and in 1/30 (3.3%) controls with no statistically significant difference between patients and control groups (p = 0.22). Significantly higher levels of the serum ferritin and serum iron in patients with this mutation (p = 001). Our results suggest that there is an association between H63D mutation and the severity of iron overload in thalassemic patients.

  12. Prevalence of C282Y, H63D, and S65C mutations in hereditary HFE-hemochromatosis gene in Lithuanian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinskas, Laimutis; Juzenas, Simonas; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Cedaviciute, Ruta; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Kalibatas, Vytenis; Kondrackiene, Jurate; Kupcinskas, Limas

    2012-04-01

    HFE-hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive disease caused by HFE gene mutations and characterized as iron overload and failure of different organs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C282Y (c.845 G>A), H63D (c.187 C>G), and S65C (c.193A>T) alleles of HFE gene in the Lithuanian population. One thousand and eleven healthy blood donors of Lithuanian nationality were examined in four different ethnic Lithuanian regions to determine HFE gene alleles and genotype frequencies. The samples of DNA were analyzed for the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphism and validated by DNA sequencing. Among 1,011 blood donors tested, the frequency of C282Y, H63D, and S65C alleles were 2.6%, 15.9%, and 1.9%, respectively. One third of the tested subjects (n = 336) had at least one of the C282Y or H63D HFE gene mutations. The screening of Lithuanian blood donors has detected 13 (1.3%) subjects with a genotype C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D responsible for the development of HFE-hemochromatosis. The prevalence of C282Y mutation was significantly higher among the inhabitants of Zemaitija (Somogitia) at the Baltic Sea area (5.9%) in comparison to the regions of continental part of Lithuania (2.4% in Dzukija, 2.3% in Aukstaitija, and 2% in Suvalkija, p HFE gene mutations in ethnic Lithuanians showed that the frequencies of H63D, C282Y, and S65C of HFE gene alleles are similar to the other North-Eastern Europeans, especially in the Baltic region (Estonia, Latvia), Poland, and part of Russia (Moscow region).

  13. Effect of Hereditary Hemochromatosis Gene H63D and C282Y Mutations on Iron Overload in Sickle Cell Disease Patients

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    Yunus Kasım Terzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disease that is one of the most important reasons for iron overload. Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy that occurs as a result of a homozygous mutation in the hemoglobin gene. Erythrocyte transfusion is frequently used in the treatment of this disease. Iron overload as a result of transfusion is important in the mortality and morbidity of sickle cell anemia patients as well as in other hemoglobinopathies. In this study, the effect of hemochromatosis gene (HFE p.H63D and p.C282Y mutations on transfusion-related cardiac and liver iron overload in sickle cell disease patients who carry homozygous hemoglobin S mutation has been investigated. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective single-center crosssectional study in patients with homozygous hemoglobin S mutation between the years 2008 and 2013. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group (group A, n=31 was receiving chelation therapy and the second group (group B, n=13 was not. Direct and indirect iron loads were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging and biochemically, respectively. HFE gene mutations were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Statistical analyses were performed by independent samples t-test. Results: p.H63D mutation was detected in 10 (32.3% patients in group A and in only 1 patient (7.7% in group B. When the 2 groups were compared for iron overload, iron deposition in the liver was significantly higher in group B (p=0.046. In addition, in group A, iron deposition was significantly higher in HFE mutation carriers compared to patients without the mutation (p=0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that HFE gene mutations are important in iron deposition in the liver in patients with sickle cell disease.

  14. Preliminary investigation of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for hfe gene-related hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brianne E; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Archer, Linda L; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Hemochromatosis (iron storage disease) has been reported in diverse mammals including bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The primary cause of excessive iron storage in humans is hereditary hemochromatosis. Most human hereditary hemochromatosis cases (up to 90%) are caused by a point mutation in the hfe gene, resulting in a C282Y substitution leading to iron accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of a hereditary hemochromatosis-like genetic predisposition in dolphins, we sequenced the bottlenose dolphin hfe gene, using reverse transcriptase-PCR and hfe primers designed from the dolphin genome, from liver of affected and healthy control dolphins. Sample size included two case animals and five control animals. Although isotype diversity was evident, no coding differences were identified in the hfe gene between any of the animals examined. Because our sample size was small, we cannot exclude the possibility that hemochromatosis in dolphins is due to a coding mutation in the hfe gene. Other potential causes of hemochromatosis, including mutations in different genes, diet, primary liver disease, and insulin resistance, should be evaluated.

  15. R2*-relaxometry of the pancreas in patients with human hemochromatosis protein associated hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, B; Rauch, S; Zoller, H; Plaikner, M; Jaschke, W; Kremser, C

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate pancreatic iron in patients with human hemochromatosis protein associated hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) using R2* relaxometry. 81 patients (58 male, 23 female; median age 49.5, range 10-81 years) with HHC were retrospectively studied. All underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. A fat-saturated multi-gradient echo sequence with 12 echoes (TR=200ms; TE-initial 0.99ms; Delta-TE 1.41ms; 12 echoes; flip-angle: 20°) was used for the R2* quantification of the liver and the pancreas. Parameter maps were analyzed using regions of interest (3 in the liver and 2 in the pancreas) and R2* values were correlated. 59/81 patients had a liver R2*≥70 1/s of which 10/59 patients had a pancreas R2*≥50 1/s. No patient presented with a liver R2*pancreas R2*≥50 1/s. All patients with pancreas R2* values≥50 1/s had liver R2* values≥70 1/s. ROC analysis resulted in a threshold of 209.4 1/s for liver R2* values to identify HFE positive patients with pancreas R2* values≥50 1/s with a median specificity of 78.87% and a median sensitivity of 90%. In patients with HHC R2* relaxometry of the pancreas should be performed when liver iron overload is present and can be omitted in cases with no sign of hepatic iron. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic Erythrocytapheresis in the Initial Treatment of Hereditary Hemochromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Řeháček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current treatment of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH consists of performing periodic whole blood phlebotomies. Erythrocytapheresis (EA can remove up to three times more red blood cells per single procedure and could thus have a clinical benefit. A prospective study of 30 consecutive cases of HH were included in a periodic EA program. Methods and patients: EA were performed using a discontinuous flow cell separators. The protocol consisted of a bimonthly EA until normalization of the serum ferritin was reached. The aim was to reduce the total erythrocyte volume by 25–35%, eventually, to adjust the amount so that hematocrit would not drop below 0.25. Results: 530 ± 101 ml of erythrocytes were removed (median 517, range 116–761 ml. Iron depletion (ferritin < 20 μg/l was achieved in all patients after a mean 6.9 ± 7.6 months, median 5 months, range 1–36 months and a mean 14 EA sessions. The procedures were well tolerated and there were no severe side-effects. Conclusions: We conclude that HH patients treated with EA achieved iron depletion quickly under good conditions of tolerance. The efficacy, speed, tolerability, and more favorable schedule of an EA program facilitate treatment of HH.

  17. Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hemochromatosis Back Hemochromatosis affects ...

  18. Does bilirubin protect against hemochromatosis gene (HFE) related mortality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Njajou, Omer T.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; de Jong, Gerard; Vergeer, Jeannette M.; Hofman, Albert; Pols, Huibert A.P.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2004-01-01

    Serum bilirubin is an important antioxidant that is found at increased levels in hereditary hemochromatosis patients. We hypothesized that increased levels of serum bilirubin may play a protective role against oxidative stress induced by iron overload in carriers of mutations in the hereditary

  19. Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HFE genotypes in heart failure: Relation to etiology and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torp-Pedersen Christian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that hereditary hemochromatosis (HH might play a role in cardiac disease (heart failure (HF and ischemia. Mutations within several genes are HH-associated, the most common being the HFE gene. In a large cohort of HF patients, we sought to determine the etiological role and the prognostic significance of HFE genotypes. Methods We studied 667 HF patients (72.7% men with depressed systolic function, enrolled in a multicentre trial with a follow-up period of up to 5 years. All were genotyped for the known HFE variants C282Y, H63D and S65C. Results The genotype and allele frequencies in the HF group were similar to the frequencies determined in the general Danish population. In multivariable analysis mortality was not predicted by C282Y-carrier status (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.7; H63D-carrier status (HR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.7-1.3; nor S65C-carrier status (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.7-2.0. We identified 27 (4.1% homozygous or compound heterozygous carriers of HFE variants. None of these carriers had a clinical presentation suggesting hemochromatosis, but hemoglobin and ferritin levels were higher than in the rest of the cohort. Furthermore, a trend towards reduced mortality was seen in this group in univariate analyses (HR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03, but not in multivariate (HR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-1.2. Conclusion HFE genotypes do not seem to be a significant contributor to the etiology of heart failure in Denmark. HFE variants do not affect mortality in HF.

  20. Clinical penetrance in hereditary hemochromatosis: estimates of the cumulative incidence of severe liver disease among HFE C282Y homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Gurrin, Lyle C; Bertalli, Nadine A; Allen, Katrina J

    2018-04-01

    Iron overload (hemochromatosis) can cause serious, symptomatic disease that is preventable if detected early and managed appropriately. The leading cause of hemochromatosis in populations of predominantly European ancestry is homozygosity of the C282Y variant in the HFE gene. Screening of adults for iron overload or associated genotypes is controversial, largely because of a belief that severe phenotypes are uncommon, although cascade testing of first-degree relatives of patients is widely endorsed. We contend that severe liver disease (cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer) is not at all uncommon among older males with hereditary hemochromatosis. Our review of the published data from a variety of empirical sources indicates that roughly 1 in 10 male HFE C282Y homozygotes is likely to develop severe liver disease during his lifetime unless iron overload is detected early and treated. New evidence from a randomized controlled trial of treatment allows for evidence-based management of presymptomatic patients. Although population screening for HFE C282Y homozygosity faces multiple barriers, a potentially effective strategy for increasing the early detection and prevention of clinical iron overload and severe disease is to include HFE C282Y homozygosity in lists of medically actionable gene variants when reporting the results of genome or exome sequencing.

  1. Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones know how you feel and what they can do to help you. Screening Family Members for Hemochromatosis Parents, grandparents, ...

  2. Urinary excretion of biomarkers of oxidatively damaged DNA and RNA in hereditary hemochromatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Poulsen, Henrik E; Weimann, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids is considered to play a significant role in carcinogenesis, and it has been shown that people with hereditary hemochromatosis are at increased risk of cancer. In this study we used a new refined liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method...... of the iron overload seen in this disease. By this mechanism cellular damage resulting in end organ damage, typically seen in the liver of such patients, may be mediated....

  3. Lymphocyte gene expression signatures from patients and mouse models of hereditary hemochromatosis reveal a function of HFE as a negative regulator of CD8+ T-lymphocyte activation and differentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mónica; Cruz, Eugénia; Oliveira, Susana; Benes, Vladimir; Ivacevic, Tomi; Silva, Maria João; Vieira, Inês; Dias, Francisco; Fonseca, Sónia; Gonçalves, Marta; Lima, Margarida; Leitão, Catarina; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Pinto, Jorge; Porto, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally low CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers is characteristic of some patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), a MHC-linked disorder of iron overload. Both environmental and genetic components are known to influence CD8+ T-lymphocyte homeostasis but the role of the HH associated protein HFE is still insufficiently understood. Genome-wide expression profiling was performed in peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes from HH patients selected according to CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers and from Hfe-/- mice maintained either under normal or high iron diet conditions. In addition, T-lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle progression were analyzed by flow cytometry in HH patients. HH patients with low CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers show a differential expression of genes related to lymphocyte differentiation and maturation namely CCR7, LEF1, ACTN1, NAA50, P2RY8 and FOSL2, whose expression correlates with the relative proportions of naïve, central and effector memory subsets. In addition, expression levels of LEF1 and P2RY8 in memory cells as well as the proportions of CD8+ T cells in G2/M cell cycle phase are significantly different in HH patients compared to controls. Hfe-/- mice do not show alterations in CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers but differential gene response patterns. We found an increased expression of S100a8 and S100a9 that is most pronounced in high iron diet conditions. Similarly, CD8+ T lymphocytes from HH patients display higher S100a9 expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Altogether, our results support a role for HFE as a negative regulator of CD8+ T-lymphocyte activation. While the activation markers S100a8 and S100a9 are strongly increased in CD8+ T cells from both, Hfe-/- mice and HH patients, a differential profile of genes related to differentiation/maturation of CD8+ T memory cells is evident in HH patients only. This supports the notion that HFE contributes, at least in part, to the generation of low peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes in HH.

  4. Association of mutations in the hemochromatosis gene with shorter life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, L; Christiansen, L; Nybo, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether the frequency of carriers of mutations in the HFE gene associated with hereditary hemochromatosis diminishes with age as an indication that HFE mutations are associated with increased mortality. It is of value in the debate concerning screening for hereditary...... hemochromatosis to determine the significance of heterozygosity. METHODS: Genotyping for mutations in exons 2 and 4 of the HFE gene using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in 1784 participants aged 45 to 100 years from 4 population-based studies: all 183 centenarians from the Danish Centenarian Study, 601...... in the distribution of mutations in exon 2 in the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-carrier frequency population like Denmark, mutations in HFE show an age-related reduction in the frequency of heterozygotes for C282Y, which suggests that carrier status is associated with shorter life expectancy....

  5. EMQN best practice guidelines for the molecular genetic diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Graça; Brissot, Pierre; Swinkels, Dorine W; Zoller, Heinz; Kamarainen, Outi; Patton, Simon; Alonso, Isabel; Morris, Michael; Keeney, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic testing for hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is recognized as a reference test to confirm the diagnosis of suspected HH or to predict its risk. The vast majority (typically >90%) of patients with clinically characterized HH are homozygous for the p.C282Y variant in the HFE gene, referred to as HFE-related HH. Since 1996, HFE genotyping was implemented in diagnostic algorithms for suspected HH, allowing its early diagnosis and prevention. However, the penetrance of disease in p.C282Y homozygotes is incomplete. Hence, homozygosity for p.C282Y is not sufficient to diagnose HH. Neither is p.C282Y homozygosity required for diagnosis as other rare forms of HH exist, generally referred to as non-HFE-related HH. These pose significant challenges when defining criteria for referral, testing protocols, interpretation of test results and reporting practices. We present best practice guidelines for the molecular genetic diagnosis of HH where recommendations are classified, as far as possible, according to the level and strength of evidence. For clarification, the guidelines' recommendations are preceded by a detailed description of the methodology and results obtained with a series of actions taken in order to achieve a wide expert consensus, namely: (i) a survey on the current practices followed by laboratories offering molecular diagnosis of HH; (ii) a systematic literature search focused on some identified controversial topics; (iii) an expert Best Practice Workshop convened to achieve consensus on the practical recommendations included in the guidelines. PMID:26153218

  6. Impact of HFE genetic testing on clinical presentation of hereditary hemochromatosis: new epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chandran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism in Northern European populations. The discovery of a candidate gene in 1996 (HFE, and of its main mutation (C282Y, has radically altered the way to diagnose this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the HFE gene discovery on the clinical presentation and epidemiology of HH. Methods We studied our cohort of 415 patients homozygous for the C282Y allele and included in a phlebotomy program in a blood centre in western Brittany, France. Results In this cohort, 56.9% of the patients were male and 21.9% began their phlebotomy program before the implementation of the genetic test. A significant decrease in the sex ratio was noticed following implementation of this DNA test, from 3.79 to 1.03 (p -5, meaning that the proportion of diagnosed females relatives to males greatly increased. The profile of HH patients at diagnosis changed after the DNA test became available. Serum ferritin and iron values were lower and there was a reduced frequency of clinical signs displayed at diagnosis, particularly skin pigmentation (20.1 vs. 40.4%, OR = 0.37, p Conclusion This study highlights the importance of the HFE gene discovery, which has simplified the diagnosis of HH and modified its clinical presentation and epidemiology. This study precisely measures these changes. Enhanced diagnosis of HFE-related HH at an early stage and implementation of phlebotomy treatment are anticipated to maintain normal life expectancy for these patients.

  7. Hemochromatosis (HFE gene mutations in Brazilian chronic hemodialysis patients

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    F.V. Perícole

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI have reduced hemoglobin levels, mostly as a result of decreased kidney production of erythropoietin, but the relation between renal insufficiency and the magnitude of hemoglobin reduction has not been well defined. Hereditary hemochromatosis is an inherited disorder of iron metabolism. The importance of the association of hemochromatosis with treatment for anemia among patients with CRI has not been well described. We analyzed the frequency of the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene in 201 Brazilian individuals with CRI undergoing hemodialysis. The analysis of the effects of HFE mutations on iron metabolism and anemia with biochemical parameters was possible in 118 patients of this study (hemoglobin, hematocrit, ferritin levels, transferrin saturation, and serum iron. A C282Y heterozygous mutation was found in 7/201 (3.4% and H63D homozygous and heterozygous mutation were found in 2/201 (1.0% and 46/201 (22.9%, respectively. The allelic frequencies of the HFE mutations (0.017 for C282Y mutation and 0.124 for H63D mutation did not differ between patients with CRI and healthy controls. Regarding the biochemical parameters, no differences were observed between HFE heterozygous and mutation-negative patients, although ferritin levels were not higher among patients with the H63D mutation (P = 0.08. From what we observed in our study, C282Y/H63D HFE gene mutations are not related to degrees of anemia or iron stores in CRI patients receiving intravenous iron supplementation (P > 0.10. Nevertheless, the present data suggest that the H63D mutation may have an important function as a modulating factor of iron overload in these patients.

  8. Iron overload in a murine model of hereditary hemochromatosis is associated with accelerated progression of osteoarthritis under mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, A; Simão, M; Ea, H-K; Cohen-Solal, M; Richette, P; Branco, J; Cancela, M L

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a disease caused by mutations in the Hfe gene characterised by systemic iron overload and associated with an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) but the role of iron overload in the development of OA is still undefined. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved we have used a murine model of HH and studied the progression of experimental OA under mechanical stress. OA was surgically induced in the knee joints of 10-week-old C57BL6 (wild-type) mice and Hfe-KO mice. OA progression was assessed using histology, micro CT, gene expression and immunohistochemistry at 8 weeks after surgery. Hfe-KO mice showed a systemic iron overload and an increased iron accumulation in the knee synovial membrane following surgery. The histological OA score was significantly higher in the Hfe-KO mice at 8 weeks after surgery. Micro CT study of the proximal tibia revealed increased subchondral bone volume and increased trabecular thickness. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP-3) in the joints of Hfe-KO mice compared with control mice at 8 weeks after surgery. HH was associated with an accelerated development of OA in mice. Our findings suggest that synovial iron overload has a definite role in the progression of HH-related OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic disruption of NRF2 promotes the development of necroinflammation and liver fibrosis in a mouse model of HFE-hereditary hemochromatosis.

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    Duarte, Tiago L; Caldas, Carolina; Santos, Ana G; Silva-Gomes, Sandro; Santos-Gonçalves, Andreia; Martins, Maria João; Porto, Graça; Lopes, José Manuel

    2017-04-01

    In hereditary hemochromatosis, iron deposition in the liver parenchyma may lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Most cases are ascribed to a common mutation in the HFE gene, but the extent of clinical expression is greatly influenced by the combined action of yet unidentified genetic and/or environmental modifying factors. In mice, transcription factor NRF2 is a critical determinant of hepatocyte viability during exposure to acute dietary iron overload. We evaluated if the genetic disruption of Nrf2 would prompt the development of liver damage in Hfe -/- mice (an established model of human HFE-hemochromatosis). Wild-type, Nrf2 -/- , Hfe -/- and double knockout (Hfe/Nrf2 -/- ) female mice on C57BL/6 genetic background were sacrificed at the age of 6 (young), 12-18 (middle-aged) or 24 months (old) for evaluation of liver pathology. Despite the parenchymal iron accumulation, Hfe -/- mice presented no liver injury. The combination of iron overload (Hfe -/- ) and defective antioxidant defences (Nrf2 -/- ) increased the number of iron-related necroinflammatory lesions (sideronecrosis), possibly due to the accumulation of toxic oxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-protein adducts. The engulfment of dead hepatocytes led to a gradual accumulation of iron within macrophages, featuring large aggregates. Myofibroblasts recruited towards the injury areas produced substantial amounts of collagen fibers involving the liver parenchyma of double-knockout animals with increased hepatic fibrosis in an age-dependent manner. The genetic disruption of Nrf2 promotes the transition from iron accumulation (siderosis) to liver injury in Hfe -/- mice, representing the first demonstration of spontaneous hepatic fibrosis in the long term in a mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis displaying mildly elevated liver iron. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene of Brazilian individuals with clinical suspicion of hereditary hemochromatosis Prevalência das mutações C282Y e H63D no gene HFE em indivíduos brasileiros com suspeita clínica de hemocromatose hereditária

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    Alessandro C. S. Ferreira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical hereditary hemochromatosis is a recessive autosomal disease related to a systemic iron overload that is frequently related to C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene. In Brazil, reports on HFE gene mutation frequencies are rare, mainly in regards to a representative sample population. This study intended to determine the prevalence of C282Y and H63D mutations among individuals with clinical suspicion of hereditary hemochromatosis. A total of 1955 patients were studied with C282Y and H63D mutations being detected by the polymerase chain reaction technique followed by enzymatic restriction. The sample consisted of 76.6% men and 23.4% women. The highest percentage of analyzed individuals (56.9% was concentrated in the 41 to 60-year-old age group. Although there were no genic or genotypic differences between genders, a higher number of over 60-year-old women was observed. The C282Y mutation was found as homozygous in 2.9% of the cases and as heterozygous in 10.1%, while the H63D was homozygous in 4.3% and heterozygous in 30.6%. The C282Y and H63D mutant allele frequencies were 0.079 and 0.196, respectively. The highest frequency was observed for H63D which was in genetic equilibrium. This work is important to determine the genetic profile of the population with hereditary hemochromatosis in Brazi.A hemocromatose hereditária clássica (HH é uma doença autossômica recessiva caracterizada por uma sobrecarga sistêmica de ferro, a qual está freqüentemente relacionada às mutações C282Y e H63D no gene HFE. No Brasil, registros das freqüências das mutações no gene HFE são raros, principalmente envolvendo uma amostra representativa da população. Este estudo teve como objetivo a determinação da prevalência das mutações C282Y e H63D em indivíduos com suspeita clínica de HH. Para isto, foram estudados 1955 pacientes para os quais as mutações C282Y e H63D foram pesquisadas pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase

  11. Effect of C282Y genotype on self-reported musculoskeletal complications in hereditary hemochromatosis.

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    Camacho, António; Funck-Brentano, Thomas; Simão, Márcio; Cancela, Leonor; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Richette, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Arthropathy that mimics osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) is considered a complication of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). We have limited data comparing OA and OP prevalence among HH patients with different hemochromatosis type 1 (HFE) genotypes. We investigated the prevalence of OA and OP in patients with HH by C282Y homozygosity and compound heterozygosity (C282Y/H63D) genotype. A total of 306 patients with HH completed a questionnaire. Clinical and demographic characteristics and presence of OA, OP and related complications were compared by genotype, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), current smoking and menopausal status. In total, 266 of the 306 patients (87%) were homozygous for C282Y, and 40 (13%) were compound heterozygous. The 2 groups did not differ by median age [60 (interquartile range [IQR] 53 to 68) vs. 61 (55 to 67) years, P=0.8], sex (female: 48.8% vs. 37.5%, P=0.18) or current smoking habits (12.4% vs. 10%, P=0.3). As compared with compound heterozygous patients, C282Y homozygous patients had higher median serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis [1090 (IQR 610 to 2210) vs. 603 (362 to 950) µg/L, P<0.001], higher median transferrin saturation [80% (IQR 66 to 91%) vs. 63% (55 to 72%), P<0.001]) and lower median BMI [24.8 (22.1 to 26.9) vs. 26.2 (23.5 to 30.3) kg/m2, P<0.003]. The overall prevalence of self-reported OA was significantly higher with C282Y homozygosity than compound heterozygosity (53.4% vs. 32.5%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.4 [95% confidence interval 1.2-5.0]), as was self-reported OP (25.6% vs. 7.5%; aOR 3.5 [1.1-12.1]). Patients with C282Y homozygosity may be at increased risk of musculoskeletal complications of HH.

  12. The cost-effectiveness of screening for hereditary hemochromatosis in Germany: a remodeling study.

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    Rogowski, Wolf H

    2009-01-01

    Genetic tests for hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) are currently included in the German ambulatory care reimbursement scheme but only for symptomatic individuals and the offspring of HH patients. This study synthesizes the most current evidence to examine whether screening in the broader population is cost-effective and to identify the best choice of initial and follow-up screening tests. A probabilistic decision-analytic model was constructed to calculate cost per life year gained (LYG) for HH screening among male Caucasians aged 30. Three strategies were considered in both the general population and male offspring of HH patients: phenotypic (transferrin saturation, TS), genotypic (C282Y mutation), and sequential (genotype if TS is elevated) screening. The incremental cost-effectiveness of sequential screening among male offspring, sequential population-wide screening, and genotypic screening is 41000, 124000, and 161000 Eero/LYG, respectively. All other strategies were subject to simple or extended dominance. The results are subject to high uncertainty. The most influential parameters in the deterministic one-way sensitivity analysis are discounting of life years gained and the adherence of patients to preventive phlebotomy. The current German policy of only screening at-risk individuals is consistent with health economic decision making based on typically accepted thresholds. However, conducting the DNA test after the first elevated TS result is more cost-effective than waiting for a second TS result as recommended by the German guidelines. Further empirical work regarding adherence to long-term prevention recommendations and explicit and well-justified guidance for the choice of discount rates in German economic evaluation are needed.

  13. A Mouse Model of Cardiomyopathy Induced by Mutations in the Hemochromatosis HFE Gene.

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    Djemai, Haidar; Thomasson, Rémi; Trzaskus, Yvan; Mougenot, Nathalie; Meziani, Amira; Toussaint, Jean-François; Noirez, Philippe; Vitiello, Damien

    2017-07-01

    The heart is 1 of the organs most affected by hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). The clinical impact of cardiomyopathy in patients with HH requires a particular diagnosis and less invasive treatments. We developed a model of cardiomyopathy in knockout (KO) mice for the high-Fe (HFE) gene and assessed left ventricular (LV) function and structure from 7-20 months. Male wild-type (WT) heterozygous and KO SV129 mice for the HFE gene were used in this study. Twenty-four mice were used to assess LV function and structure by echocardiography at 7, 14, 18, and 20 months. Evaluations of LV function and structure and myocardial fibrosis were performed at 7 and 20 months. The percent decrease of LV thickness-to-radius ratio between 7 and 20 months was higher in KO mice compared with WT mice (-30.2% ± 5.3% vs -10.5% ± 4.9%; P HFE-related hemochromatosis. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular basis of HFE-hemochromatosis

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    Vujić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Iron-overload disorders owing to genetic misregulation of iron acquisition are referred to as hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). The most prevalent genetic iron overload disorder in Caucasians is caused by mutations in the HFE gene, an atypical MHC class I molecule. Recent studies classified HFE/Hfe-hemochromatosis as a liver disease with the primarily failure in the production of the liver iron hormone hepcidin in hepatocytes. Inadequate hepcidin expression signals for excessive iron absorptio...

  15. Mutations in the HFE, TFR2, and SLC40A1 genes in patients with hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Castillo-Rueda, Alejandro; Moreno-Carralero, María-Isabel; Cuadrado-Grande, Nuria; Alvarez-Sala-Walther, Luis-Antonio; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Rafael; Méndez, Manuel; Morán-Jiménez, María-Josefa

    2012-10-15

    Hereditary hemochromatosis causes iron overload and is associated with a variety of genetic and phenotypic conditions. Early diagnosis is important so that effective treatment can be administered and the risk of tissue damage avoided. Most patients are homozygous for the c.845G>A (p.C282Y) mutation in the HFE gene; however, rare forms of genetic iron overload must be diagnosed using a specific genetic analysis. We studied the genotype of 5 patients who had hyperferritinemia and an iron overload phenotype, but not classic mutations in the HFE gene. Two patients were undergoing phlebotomy and had no iron overload, 1 with metabolic syndrome and no phlebotomy had mild iron overload, and 2 patients had severe iron overload despite phlebotomy. The patients' first-degree relatives also underwent the analysis. We found 5 not previously published mutations: c.-408_-406delCAA in HFE, c.1118G>A (p.G373D), c.1473G>A (p.E491E) and c.2085G>C (p.S695S) in TFR2; and c.-428_-427GG>TT in SLC40A1. Moreover, we found 3 previously published mutations: c.221C>T (p.R71X) in HFE; c.1127C>A (p.A376D) in TFR2; and c.539T>C (p.I180T) in SLC40A1. Four patients were double heterozygous or compound heterozygous for the mutations mentioned above, and the patient with metabolic syndrome was heterozygous for a mutation in the TFR2 gene. Our findings show that hereditary hemochromatosis is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and that acquired factors may modify or determine the phenotype. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Alterações moleculares associadas à hemocromatose hereditária Molecular changes associated with hereditary hemochromatosis

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    Paulo C. J. L. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A hemocromatose hereditária (HH é a mais comum doença autossômica em caucasianos e caracteriza-se pelo aumento da absorção intestinal de ferro, o qual resulta em acúmulo progressivo de ferro no organismo. A classificação da HH é realizada de acordo com a alteração genética encontrada, sendo os casos divididos em tipos 1, 2A, 2B, 3 e 4, quando a sobrecarga de ferro for associada aos genes HFE, HJV, HAMP, TFR2 e SLC40A1, respectivamente. Não existem estudos brasileiros que avaliaram a presença de mutações em genes relacionados à fisiopatologia da HH (genes HJV, HAMP, TFR2 e SLC40A1, além da pesquisa das três mutações no gene HFE (C282Y, H63D e S65C. Porém, está descrito, nos estudos realizados no Brasil, que alguns pacientes com sobrecarga de ferro primária não são portadores da HH tipo 1 (associada ao gene HFE. Portanto, é de suma importância a identificação das características genéticas dessa população, uma vez que outras mutações nos genes HJV, HAMP, TFR2 e SLC40A1 podem estar associadas à fisiopatologia da doença, podendo haver interações entre os genes alterados, de forma que possa auxiliar no entendimento da fisiopatologia da HH em pacientes brasileiros.Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH is the most common autosomal disease in Caucasians. It is characterized by an increase in intestinal absorption of iron, which results in a progressive accumulation of iron in the body. The classification of HH is carried out according to the genetic alteration found; thus cases of HH are divided into Types 1, 2A, 2B, 3 and 4, when the iron overload is associated to the HFE, HJV, HAMP, TFR2 and SLC40A1 genes, respectively. There is research on the three HFE gene mutations (C282Y, H63D and S65C in the Brazilian population however there are no Brazilian studies that evaluate the presence of mutations in other genes related to the pathophysiology of HH (HJV, HAMP, TFR2 and SLC40A1 genes. Nevertheless, studies conducted in

  17. Frequency of the Hemochromatosis Gene (HFE Variants in a Jordanian Arab Population and in Diabetics from the Same Region

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    Asem Alkhateeb

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary HFE-linked hemochromatosis is a frequent recessive disorder among individuals of northern European ancestry. The clinical characteristic of this disease is the gradual accumulation of iron in internal organs, which ultimately may lead to organ damage and death. Three allelic variants of HFE gene have been correlated with hereditary hemochromatosis: C282Y is significantly associated with hereditary hemochromatosis in populations of Celtic origin, H63D and S65C are associated with milder form of iron overload. In this study we performed mutation analysis to identify allele frequency of the three variants of HFE gene in Jordanian Arab population, to assess deviations of these frequencies from those detected elsewhere, and to determine if there is an increased frequency of these variants in a diabetic population (Type 2 diabetes from the same area. DNA was extracted from blood samples of 440 individuals attending King Abdullah University Hospital for ambulatory services. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify exons 2 and 4 of the HFE gene then restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method to detect the variants. There were neither homozygous nor heterozygous for C282Y variant. For the H63D variant, 0.68% were homozygous and 21.1% were heterozygous. For the S65C variant, there were no homozygous and 0.23% were heterozygous. Allelic frequencies were, 0%, 11.25%, and 0.11% for C282Y, H63D, and S65C, respectively. Our samples were subdivided into two categories of type 2 diabetic (89 cases and controls (blood donors, 204 cases and compared with regard to the H63D variant. Both groups did not have homozygous H63D variant. H63D heterozygous in diabetics were 23.60% and in blood donor controls 22.55%. Allelic frequency of the mutant H63D allele was 11.80% in diabetics and 11.27% for the blood donor controls. This is the first study to show the frequency of the three hemochromatosis gene variants in Jordan with the interesting

  18. A new 500 kb haplotype associated with high CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers predicts a less severe expression of hereditary hemochromatosis

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    Mascarenhas Cláudia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary Hemochromatosis(HH is a common genetic disorder of iron overload where the large majority of patients are homozygous for one ancestral mutation in the HFE gene. In spite of this remarkable genetic homogeneity, the condition is clinically heterogeneous, varying from a severe disease to an asymptomatic phenotype with only abnormal biochemical parameters. The recent recognition of the variable penetrance of the HH mutation in different large population studies demands the need to search for new modifiers of its phenotypic expression. The present study follows previous observations that MHC class-I linked genetic markers, associated with the setting of CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers, could be clinically relevant modifiers of the phenotypic expression in HH, and aimed to find new markers that could be used as more reliable prognostic variables. Methods Haplotype analysis, including seven genetic markers within a 1 Mb region around the microsatellite D6S105 was performed in a group of 56 previously characterized C282Y homozygous Portuguese patients. Parameters analyzed in this study were total body iron stores, clinical manifestations related with HH and immunological parameters (total lymphocyte numbers, CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers. An independent group of 10 C282Y homozygous patients from Vancouver, Canada, were also included in this study and analyzed for the same parameters. Results A highly conserved ancestral haplotype defined by the SNP markers PGBD1-A, ZNF193-A, ZNF165-T (designated as A-A-T was found associated with both abnormally low CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers and the development of a severe clinical expression of HH. In a small proportion of patients, another conserved haplotype defined by the SNP markers PGBD1-G, ZNF193-G, ZNF165-G (designated as G-G-G was found associated with high CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers and a milder clinical expression. Remarkably, the two conserved haplotypes defined in Portuguese

  19. Analysis of HFE and non-HFE gene mutations in Brazilian patients with hemochromatosis.

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    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Marin, Maria Lúcia Carnevale; Couto, Cláudia Alves; Cançado, Eduardo Luiz Rachid; Carrilho, Flair José; Goldberg, Anna Carla

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one-half of Brazilian patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) are neither homozygous for the C282Y mutation nor compound heterozygous for the H63D and C282Y mutations that are associated with HH in Caucasians. Other mutations have been described in the HFE gene as well as in genes involved in iron metabolism, such as transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and ferroportin 1 (SCL40A1). To evaluate the role of HFE, TfR2 and SCL40A1 mutations in Brazilian subjects with HH. Nineteen male subjects (median age 42 [range: 20-72] years) with HH were evaluated using the Haemochromatosis StripAssay A. This assay is capable of detecting twelve HFE mutations, which are V53M, V59M, H63D, H63H, S65C, Q127H, P160delC, E168Q, E168X, W169X, C282Y and Q283, four TfR2 mutations, which are E60X, M172K, Y250X, AVAQ594-597del, and two SCL40A1 mutations, which are N144H and V162del. In our cohort, nine (47%) patients were homozygous for the C282Y mutation, two (11%) were heterozygous for the H63D mutation, and one each (5%) was either heterozygous for C282Y or compound heterozygous for C282Y and H63D. No other mutations in the HFE, TfR2 or SCL40A1 genes were observed in the studied patients. One-third of Brazilian subjects with the classical phenotype of HH do not carry HFE or other mutations that are currently associated with the disease in Caucasians. This observation suggests a role for other yet unknown mutations in the aforementioned genes or in other genes involved in iron homeostasis in the pathogenesis of HH in Brazil.

  20. Analysis of HFE and non-HFE gene mutations in Brazilian patients with hemochromatosis

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    Paulo Lisboa Bittencourt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately one-half of Brazilian patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH are neither homozygous for the C282Y mutation nor compound heterozygous for the H63D and C282Y mutations that are associated with HH in Caucasians. Other mutations have been described in the HFE gene as well as in genes involved in iron metabolism, such as transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2 and ferroportin 1 (SCL40A1. AIMS: To evaluate the role of HFE, TfR2 and SCL40A1 mutations in Brazilian subjects with HH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nineteen male subjects (median age 42 [range: 20-72] years with HH were evaluated using the Haemochromatosis StripAssay A®. This assay is capable of detecting twelve HFE mutations, which are V53M, V59M, H63D, H63H, S65C, Q127H, P160delC, E168Q, E168X, W169X, C282Y and Q283, four TfR2 mutations, which are E60X, M172K, Y250X, AVAQ594-597del, and two SCL40A1 mutations, which are N144H and V162del. RESULTS: In our cohort, nine (47% patients were homozygous for the C282Y mutation, two (11% were heterozygous for the H63D mutation, and one each (5% was either heterozygous for C282Y or compound heterozygous for C282Y and H63D. No other mutations in the HFE, TfR2 or SCL40A1 genes were observed in the studied patients. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of Brazilian subjects with the classical phenotype of HH do not carry HFE or other mutations that are currently associated with the disease in Caucasians. This observation suggests a role for other yet unknown mutations in the aforementioned genes or in other genes involved in iron homeostasis in the pathogenesis of HH in Brazil.

  1. Precipitating factors of porphyria cutanea tarda in Brazil with emphasis on hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations. Study of 60 patients.

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    Vieira, Fatima Mendonça Jorge; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice Pires; Cançado, Eduardo Luiz Rachid; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos

    2013-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda is the most common form of porphyria, characterized by the decreased activity of the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase enzyme. Several reports associated HFE gene mutations of hereditary hemochromatosis with porphyria cutanea tarda worldwide, although up to date only one study has been conducted in Brazil. Investigation of porphyria cutanea tarda association with C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene. Identification of precipitating factors (hepatitis C, HIV, alcoholism and estrogen) and their link with HFE mutations. An ambispective study of 60 patients with PCT was conducted during the period from 2003 to 2012. Serological tests for hepatitis C and HIV were performed and histories of alcohol abuse and estrogen intake were investigated. HFE mutations were identified with real-time PCR. Porphyria cutanea tarda predominated in males and alcohol abuse was the main precipitating factor. Estrogen intake was the sole precipitating factor present in 25% of female patients. Hepatitis C was present in 41.7%. All HIV-positive patients (15.3%) had a history of alcohol abuse. Allele frequency for HFE mutations, i.e., C282Y (p = 0.0001) and H63D (p = 0.0004), were significantly higher in porphyria cutanea tarda patients, compared to control group. HFE mutations had no association with the other precipitating factors. Alcohol abuse, hepatitis C and estrogen intake are prevalent precipitating factors in our porphyria cutanea tarda population; however, hemochromatosis in itself can also contribute to the outbreak of porphyria cutanea tarda, which makes the research for HFE mutations necessary in these patients.

  2. A phase 1/2, dose-escalation trial of deferasirox for the treatment of iron overload in HFE-related hereditary hemochromatosis.

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    Phatak, Pradyumna; Brissot, Pierre; Wurster, Mark; Adams, Paul C; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Gross, John; Malfertheiner, Peter; McLaren, Gordon D; Niederau, Claus; Piperno, Alberto; Powell, Lawrie W; Russo, Mark W; Stoelzel, Ulrich; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Griffel, Louis; Lynch, Nicola; Zhang, Yiyun; Pietrangelo, Antonello

    2010-11-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption that may result in iron overload. Although phlebotomy is widely practiced, it is poorly tolerated or contraindicated in patients with anemias, severe heart disease, or poor venous access, and compliance can vary. The once-daily, oral iron chelator, deferasirox (Exjade) may provide an alternative treatment option. Patients with HH carrying the HFE gene who were homozygous for the Cys282Tyr mutation, serum ferritin levels of 300-2000 ng/mL, transferrin saturation ≥ 45%, and no known history of cirrhosis were enrolled in this dose-escalation study to characterize the safety and efficacy of deferasirox, comprising a core and an extension phase (each 24 weeks). Forty-nine patients were enrolled and received starting deferasirox doses of 5 (n = 11), 10 (n = 15), or 15 (n = 23) mg/kg/day. Adverse events were generally dose-dependent, the most common being diarrhea, headache, and nausea (n = 18, n = 10, and n = 8 in the core and n = 1, n = 1, and n = 0 in the extension, respectively). More patients in the 15 mg/kg/day than in the 5 or 10 mg/kg/day cohorts experienced increases in alanine aminotransferase and serum creatinine levels during the 48-week treatment period; six patients had alanine aminotransferase > 3 × baseline and greater than the upper limit of normal range, and eight patients had serum creatinine > 33% above baseline and greater than upper limit of normal on two consecutive occasions. After receiving deferasirox for 48 weeks, median serum ferritin levels decreased by 63.5%, 74.8%, and 74.1% in the 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg/day cohorts, respectively. In all cohorts, median serum ferritin decreased to < 250 ng/mL. Deferasirox doses of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg/day can reduce iron burden in patients with HH. Based on the safety and efficacy results, starting deferasirox at 10 mg/kg/day appears to be most appropriate for further study in this patient population.

  3. Hereditary Hemochromatosis (For Parents)

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    ... Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & ... children's multivitamin that doesn't have iron. Not cooking ... may be possible for iron from the pan to get into the food you cook, although ...

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies TF as a significant modifier gene of iron metabolism in HFE hemochromatosis.

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    de Tayrac, Marie; Roth, Marie-Paule; Jouanolle, Anne-Marie; Coppin, Hélène; le Gac, Gérald; Piperno, Alberto; Férec, Claude; Pelucchi, Sara; Scotet, Virginie; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Ropert, Martine; Bouvet, Régis; Génin, Emmanuelle; Mosser, Jean; Deugnier, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is the most common form of genetic iron loading disease. It is mainly related to the homozygous C282Y/C282Y mutation in the HFE gene that is, however, a necessary but not a sufficient condition to develop clinical and even biochemical HH. This suggests that modifier genes are likely involved in the expressivity of the disease. Our aim was to identify such modifier genes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using DNA collected from 474 unrelated C282Y homozygotes. Associations were examined for both quantitative iron burden indices and clinical outcomes with 534,213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotypes, with replication analyses in an independent sample of 748 C282Y homozygotes from four different European centres. One SNP met genome-wide statistical significance for association with transferrin concentration (rs3811647, GWAS p value of 7×10(-9) and replication p value of 5×10(-13)). This SNP, located within intron 11 of the TF gene, had a pleiotropic effect on serum iron (GWAS p value of 4.9×10(-6) and replication p value of 3.2×10(-6)). Both serum transferrin and iron levels were associated with serum ferritin levels, amount of iron removed and global clinical stage (pHFE-associated HH (HFE-HH) patients, identified the rs3811647 polymorphism in the TF gene as the only SNP significantly associated with iron metabolism through serum transferrin and iron levels. Because these two outcomes were clearly associated with the biochemical and clinical expression of the disease, an indirect link between the rs3811647 polymorphism and the phenotypic presentation of HFE-HH is likely. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular basis of HFE-hemochromatosis

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    Maja eVujic Spasic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron-overload disorders owing to genetic misregulation of iron acquisition are referred to as hereditary hemochromatosis (HH. The most prevalent genetic iron overload disorder in Caucasians is caused by mutations in the HFE gene, an atypical MHC class I molecule. Recent studies classified HFE/Hfe-hemochromatosis as a liver disease with the primarily failure in the production of the liver iron hormone hepcidin in hepatocytes. Inadequate hepcidin expression signals for excessive iron absorption from the diet and iron deposition in tissues causing multiple organ damage and failure. This review focuses on the molecular actions of the HFE/Hfe and hepcidin in maintaining systemic iron homeostasis and approaches undertaken so far to combat iron overload in HFE/Hfe-HH. In the light of the recent investigations, novel roles of extra-hepatocytic Hfe are discussed raising a question to the relevance of the multipurpose functions of Hfe for the understanding of HH associated pathologies.

  6. Analysis of HLA-A antigens and C282Y and H63D mutations of the HFE gene in Brazilian patients with hemochromatosis

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    Bittencourt P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemochromatosis gene, HFE, is located on chromosome 6 in close proximity to the HLA-A locus. Most Caucasian patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH are homozygous for HLA-A3 and for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene, while a minority are compound heterozygotes for C282Y and H63D. The prevalence of these mutations in non-Caucasian patients with HH is lower than expected. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequencies of HLA-A antigens and the C282Y and H63D mutations of the HFE gene in Brazilian patients with HH and to compare clinical and laboratory profiles of C282Y-positive and -negative patients with HH. The frequencies of HLA-A and C282Y and H63D mutations were determined by PCR-based methods in 15 male patients (median age 44 (20-72 years with HH. Eight patients (53% were homozygous and one (7% was heterozygous for the C282Y mutation. None had compound heterozygosity for C282Y and H63D mutations. All but three C282Y homozygotes were positive for HLA-A3 and three other patients without C282Y were shown to be either heterozygous (N = 2 or homozygous (N = 1 for HLA-A3. Patients homozygous for the C282Y mutation had higher ferritin levels and lower age at onset, but the difference was not significant. The presence of C282Y homozygosity in roughly half of the Brazilian patients with HH, together with the findings of HLA-A homozygosity in C282Y-negative subjects, suggest that other mutations in the HFE gene or in other genes involved in iron homeostasis might also be linked to HH in Brazil.

  7. Sample-to-SNP kit: a reliable, easy and fast tool for the detection of HFE p.H63D and p.C282Y variations associated to hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Peter B; Petersen, Maja S; Ystaas, Viviana; Andersen, Rolf V; Hansen, Karin M; Blaabjerg, Vibeke; Refstrup, Mette

    2012-10-01

    Classical hereditary hemochromatosis involves the HFE-gene and diagnostic analysis of the DNA variants HFE p.C282Y (c.845G>A; rs1800562) and HFE p.H63D (c.187C>G; rs1799945). The affected protein alters the iron homeostasis resulting in iron overload in various tissues. The aim of this study was to validate the TaqMan-based Sample-to-SNP protocol for the analysis of the HFE-p.C282Y and p.H63D variants with regard to accuracy, usefulness and reproducibility compared to an existing SNP protocol. The Sample-to-SNP protocol uses an approach where the DNA template is made accessible from a cell lysate followed by TaqMan analysis. Besides the HFE-SNPs other eight SNPs were used as well. These SNPs were: Coagulation factor II-gene F2 c.20210G>A, Coagulation factor V-gene F5 p.R506Q (c.1517G>A; rs121917732), Mitochondria SNP: mt7028 G>A, Mitochondria SNP: mt12308 A>G, Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9-gene PCSK9 p.R46L (c.137G>T), Plutathione S-transferase pi 1-gene GSTP1 p.I105V (c313A>G; rs1695), LXR g.-171 A>G, ZNF202 g.-118 G>T. In conclusion the Sample-to-SNP kit proved to be an accurate, reliable, robust, easy to use and rapid TaqMan-based SNP detection protocol, which could be quickly implemented in a routine diagnostic or research facility. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The efficiency of therapeutic erythrocytapheresis compared to phlebotomy: a mathematical tool for predicting response in hereditary hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and secondary erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Dorothea; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis; Van Egmond, Liane; Schipperus, Martin R; Wijermans, Pierre W

    2014-06-01

    Recently, therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TE) was suggested to be more efficient in depletion of red blood cells (RBC) compared to manual phlebotomy in the treatment of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), polycythemia vera (PV), and secondary erythrocytosis (SE). The efficiency rate (ER) of TE, that is, the increase in RBC depletion achieved with one TE cycle compared to one phlebotomy procedure, can be calculated based on estimated blood volume (BV), preprocedural hematocrit (Hct(B)), and delta-hematocrit (ΔHct). In a retrospective evaluation of 843 TE procedures (in 45 HH, 33 PV, and 40 SE patients) the mean ER was 1.86 ± 0.62 with the highest rates achieved in HH patients. An ER of 1.5 was not reached in 37.9% of all procedures mainly concerning patients with a BV below 4,500 ml. In 12 newly diagnosed homozygous HH patients, the induction phase duration was medially 38.4 weeks (medially 10.5 procedures). During the maintenance treatment of HH, PV, and SE, the interval between TE procedures was medially 13.4 weeks. This mathematical model can help select the proper treatment modality for the individual patient. Especially for patients with a large BV and high achievable ΔHct, TE appears to be more efficient than manual phlebotomy in RBC depletion thereby potentially reducing the numbers of procedures and expanding the interprocedural time period for HH, PV, and SE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Review: Clinical aspects of hereditary DNA Mismatch repair gene mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    Inherited mutations of the DNA Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 can result in two hereditary tumor syndromes: the adult-onset autosomal dominant Lynch syndrome, previously referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) and the childhood-onset autosomal recessive

  10. Evidence that the ancestral haplotype in Australian hemochromatosis patients may be associated with a common mutation in the gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, D H; Powell, L W; Leggett, B A; Francis, J S; Fletcher, L M; Webb, S I; Halliday, J W; Jazwinska, E C

    1995-01-01

    Hemochromatosis (HC) is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism for which neither the gene nor biochemical defect have yet been identified. The aim of this study was to look for clinical evidence that the predominant ancestral haplotype in Australian patients is associated with a common mutation in the gene. We compared indices of iron metabolism and storage in three groups of HC patients categorized according to the presence of the ancestral haplotype (i.e., patients with two copies, ...

  11. Eighty percent of French sport winners in Olympic, World and Europeans competitions have mutations in the hemochromatosis HFE gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermine, Olivier; Dine, Gérard; Genty, Vincent; Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Fumagalli, Gabriela; Tafflet, Muriel; Guillem, Flavia; Van Lierde, Françoise; Rousseaux-Blanchi, Marie-Philippe; Palierne, Christian; Lapostolle, Jean-Claude; Cervetti, Jean-Pierre; Frey, Alain; Jouven, Xavier; Noirez, Philippe; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    The HFE gene encodes a protein involved in iron homeostasis; individuals with mutations in both alleles develop hemochromatosis. 27% of the French population is heterozygous for mutations in this gene. We found that 80% of the French athletes who won international competitions in rowing, Nordic skiing and judo display mutations in one allele of HFE, thus demonstrating the existence of a favourable phenotype linked to this heterozygosity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Lack of association of C282Y and H63D mutations in the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene with diabetes mellitus type 2 in a case-control study of women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, K B; Carvalho, M G; Coelho, F F; Rodrigues, I F; Soares, A L; Guimarães, D A; Fernandes, A P

    2009-10-27

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases; it is characterized by excess absorption of iron. Clinically, the major challenge is to diagnose increased iron deposition before irreversible tissue damage has occurred. C282Y and H63D are the main mutations related to hereditary hemochromatosis; these mutations have been reported to be associated with increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). We investigated whether these mutations are associated with increased risk for the development of DM2 in women in Brazil. Seventy-two women with clinical diagnosis of DM2 under treatment with hypoglycemic agents and a control group composed of 72 women with no clinical history of diabetes were studied. The C282Y and H63D mutations were determined by PCR-RFLP. Significant differences were not observed for C282Y and H63D, when we compared diabetic and non-diabetic women. We suggest that mutations C282Y and H63D in the HFE gene are not significant risk factors for the development of DM2 in Brazilian women.

  13. Hemochromatosis C282Y gene mutation as a potential susceptibility factor for iron-overload in Egyptian beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Mokhtar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most frequent cause of primary iron overload that is associated with HFE gene’s mutation especially the C282Y mutation. The interaction between hemoglobin chain synthesis’ disorders and the C282Y mutation may worsen the clinical picture of beta-thalassemia major (β-TM. Aim: To establish the prevalence of the C282Y mutations in Egyptian β-TM patients and to address its adverse effects. Methods: Two-hundred and five β-TM patients were recruited and divided into two groups based on their serum ferritin (SF; group I (N = 125 (SF ≤ 2500 ng/dl and group II (N = 80 (SF > 2500 ng/dl. All patients were subjected to clinical and laboratory assessment with special emphasis on iron overload complications. Genotyping was assessed by polymerase chain reaction for detection of C282Y mutation in HFE gene. Results: The C282Y mutation was not detected in the studied β-TM neither in homozygous nor heterozygous state. There were several iron overload complications including cardiac complication (9.1%, liver disease (36.6%, delayed puberty (56.6%, primary (35.71% and secondary amenorrhea (21.42%, short stature (27.3%, diabetes (3.4%, neutropenia (9.7%, arthralgia (10.2%, gastrointestinal (21.1%, depression (2.9% and others (12.05%. Group I showed a statistically significant lower rate of taking iron-rich diet when compared to group II. Group II showed significant longer mean duration of disease, higher total transfusion rate per life, lower mean HbF% level, higher mean HbA% level, and higher rate of elevated liver enzymes than patients with SF ≤ 2500 ng/dl. Conclusion: The C282Y mutation was not detected in the studied cohort of Egyptian β-TM patients neither in homozygous nor heterozygous state in spite of manifestations of iron overload complications. Keywords: Beta-thalassemia major, Hereditary hemochromatosis, The C282Y mutation, Iron overload complications, Egyptian

  14. Mutations in HAMP and HJV genes and their impact on expression of clinical hemochromatosis in a cohort of 100 Spanish patients homozygous for the C282Y mutation of HFE gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altès, Albert; Bach, Vanessa; Ruiz, Angels; Esteve, Anna; Felez, Jordi; Remacha, Angel F; Sardà, M Pilar; Baiget, Montserrat

    2009-10-01

    Most hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) patients are homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. Nevertheless, penetrance of the disease is very variable. In some patients, penetrance can be mediated by concomitant mutations in other iron master genes. We evaluated the clinical impact of hepcidin (HAMP) and hemojuvelin mutations in a cohort of 100 Spanish patients homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. HAMP and hemojuvelin mutations were evaluated in all patients by bidirectional direct cycle sequencing. Phenotype-genotype interactions were evaluated. A heterozygous mutation of the HAMP gene (G71D) was found in only one out of 100 cases. Following, we performed a study of several members of that family, and we observed several members had a digenic inheritance of the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and the G71D mutation of the HAMP gene. This mutation in the HAMP gene did not modify the phenotype of the individuals who were homozygous for the C282Y mutation. One other patient presented a new polymorphism in the hemojuvelin gene, without consequences in iron load or clinical course of the disease. In conclusion, HAMP and hemojuvelin mutations are rare among Spanish HH patients, and their impact in this population is not significant.

  15. Hereditary Ovarian Cancer: Not Only BRCA 1 and 2 Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Toss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one-fifth of ovarian tumors have hereditary susceptibility and, in about 65–85% of these cases, the genetic abnormality is a germline mutation in BRCA genes. Nevertheless, several other suppressor genes and oncogenes have been associated with hereditary ovarian cancers, including the mismatch repair (MMR genes in Lynch syndrome, the tumor suppressor gene, TP53, in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and several other genes involved in the double-strand breaks repair system, such as CHEK2, RAD51, BRIP1, and PALB2. The study of genetic discriminators and deregulated pathways involved in hereditary ovarian syndromes is relevant for the future development of molecular diagnostic strategies and targeted therapeutic approaches. The recent development and implementation of next-generation sequencing technologies have provided the opportunity to simultaneously analyze multiple cancer susceptibility genes, reduce the delay and costs, and optimize the molecular diagnosis of hereditary tumors. Particularly, the identification of mutations in ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in healthy women may result in a more personalized cancer risk management with tailored clinical and radiological surveillance, chemopreventive approaches, and/or prophylactic surgeries. On the other hand, for ovarian cancer patients, the identification of mutations may provide potential targets for biologic agents and guide treatment decision-making.

  16. Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and response to chloroquine in porphyria cutanea tarda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölzel, Ulrich; Köstler, Erich; Schuppan, Detlef; Richter, Matthias; Wollina, Uwe; Doss, Manfred O; Wittekind, Christian; Tannapfel, Andrea

    2003-03-01

    To examine the role of hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations, which are associated with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), in the therapeutic response to chloroquine. We retrospectively analyzed a database (Excel version 2001 [Microsoft Excel, Redmond, Wash]; date range of search, 1985-1999) of chloroquine-treated patients with PCT on whether HFE mutations (C282Y and H63D) might have influenced the clinical response, urinary porphyrin excretion, liver enzyme activities, and serum iron markers. Serum samples and corresponding complete sets of data before and after therapy were available in 62 of 207 patients with PCT who were treated exclusively with chloroquine. Academic teaching hospital. For treatment, low-dose chloroquine diphosphate, 125 to 250 mg twice weekly, was used during a median time of 16 months (range, 12-26 months). Of the 62 German patients with PCT, 37 (60%) carries HFE mutations. Chloroquine therapy was accompanied by clinical remission and reduced urinary porphyrin excretion (P<.001) in the 24 patients (39%) with HFE wild type as well as in 35 HFE heterozygous patients with PCT (56%). Decreases of serum iron markers following chloroquine therapy were limited to patients with PCT and HFE wild type. All patients homozygous for the C282Y mutation (3 [5%] of 62) had high serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation and failed to respond to chloroquine treatment. The therapeutic response to chloroquine was not compromised by C282Y heterozygosity and compound heterozygosity of HFE mutations. Because HFE C282Y homozygotes (+/+) did not respond to chloroquine and a decrease in serum iron concentration was limited to patients with PCT and HFE wild type, phlebotomy should be first-line therapy in patients with PCT and HFE mutations.

  17. Rational hemochromatosis therapy with erythrocytapheresis under low doses of erythropoietin

    OpenAIRE

    Brückl, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Hereditary hemochromatosis with an incidence of 1:200 – 1:400 is the most common hereditary disease. It is characterized by increased iron absorption and deposition in various organs, leading to organ damage and even death. To date, phlebotomy (bloodletting) is the standard therapy of iron-overload in hemochromatosis. However, this treatment is long lasting, frequently intolerable and/or remains limited due the development of significant anemia. All these difficulties might be ov...

  18. Molecular basis of HFE-hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Iron-overload disorders owing to genetic misregulation of iron acquisition are referred to as hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). The most prevalent genetic iron overload disorder in Caucasians is caused by mutations in the HFE gene, an atypical MHC class I molecule. Recent studies classified HFE/Hfe-HH as a liver disease with the primarily failure in the production of the liver iron hormone hepcidin in hepatocytes. Inadequate hepcidin expression signals for excessive iron absorption from the diet and iron deposition in tissues causing multiple organ damage and failure. This review focuses on the molecular actions of the HFE/Hfe and hepcidin in maintaining systemic iron homeostasis and approaches undertaken so far to combat iron overload in HFE/Hfe-HH. In the light of the recent investigations, novel roles of extra-hepatocytic Hfe are discussed raising a question to the relevance of the multipurpose functions of Hfe for the understanding of HH-associated pathologies.

  19. Hereditary cancer genes are highly susceptible to splicing mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemedi, Rachel; Maguire, Samantha; Murray, Michael F.; Monaghan, Sean F.

    2018-01-01

    Substitutions that disrupt pre-mRNA splicing are a common cause of genetic disease. On average, 13.4% of all hereditary disease alleles are classified as splicing mutations mapping to the canonical 5′ and 3′ splice sites. However, splicing mutations present in exons and deeper intronic positions are vastly underreported. A recent re-analysis of coding mutations in exon 10 of the Lynch Syndrome gene, MLH1, revealed an extremely high rate (77%) of mutations that lead to defective splicing. This finding is confirmed by extending the sampling to five other exons in the MLH1 gene. Further analysis suggests a more general phenomenon of defective splicing driving Lynch Syndrome. Of the 36 mutations tested, 11 disrupted splicing. Furthermore, analyzing past reports suggest that MLH1 mutations in canonical splice sites also occupy a much higher fraction (36%) of total mutations than expected. When performing a comprehensive analysis of splicing mutations in human disease genes, we found that three main causal genes of Lynch Syndrome, MLH1, MSH2, and PMS2, belonged to a class of 86 disease genes which are enriched for splicing mutations. Other cancer genes were also enriched in the 86 susceptible genes. The enrichment of splicing mutations in hereditary cancers strongly argues for additional priority in interpreting clinical sequencing data in relation to cancer and splicing. PMID:29505604

  20. Hereditary cancer genes are highly susceptible to splicing mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy L Rhine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Substitutions that disrupt pre-mRNA splicing are a common cause of genetic disease. On average, 13.4% of all hereditary disease alleles are classified as splicing mutations mapping to the canonical 5' and 3' splice sites. However, splicing mutations present in exons and deeper intronic positions are vastly underreported. A recent re-analysis of coding mutations in exon 10 of the Lynch Syndrome gene, MLH1, revealed an extremely high rate (77% of mutations that lead to defective splicing. This finding is confirmed by extending the sampling to five other exons in the MLH1 gene. Further analysis suggests a more general phenomenon of defective splicing driving Lynch Syndrome. Of the 36 mutations tested, 11 disrupted splicing. Furthermore, analyzing past reports suggest that MLH1 mutations in canonical splice sites also occupy a much higher fraction (36% of total mutations than expected. When performing a comprehensive analysis of splicing mutations in human disease genes, we found that three main causal genes of Lynch Syndrome, MLH1, MSH2, and PMS2, belonged to a class of 86 disease genes which are enriched for splicing mutations. Other cancer genes were also enriched in the 86 susceptible genes. The enrichment of splicing mutations in hereditary cancers strongly argues for additional priority in interpreting clinical sequencing data in relation to cancer and splicing.

  1. Multilocular Hepatic Abscess Formation and Sepsis due to Yersinia enterocolitica in a Patient with Hereditary Hemochromatosis and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Sauter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica (YE typically presents with mild gastroenteritis without systemic infection. However, systemic YE infection has been described in states of iron overload. We present the case of a patient with sepsis with hepatic abscesses due to YE infection. Workup revealed a past diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and hemochromatosis which had been untreated for the previous 5 years due to patient refusal. This case highlights risk factors for systemic infection with YE. A high degree of suspicion for YE infection is warranted in patients with iron overload, diabetes mellitus, or immunosuppression.

  2. Hemochromatosis mutations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rolf Vaern; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Appleyard, Merete

    2004-01-01

    The progression rate of iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis in individuals in the general population is unknown. We therefore examined in the general population iron overload progression rate in C282Y homozygotes. Using a cohort study of the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City...... saturation and ferritin levels increased slightly in male and female C282Y homozygotes. None of the C282Y homozygotes developed clinically overt hemochromatosis. In conclusion, individuals in the general population with C282Y homozygosity at most demonstrate modest increases in transferrin saturation...

  3. Recent Advancements in Gene Therapy for Hereditary Retinal Dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Öner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary retinal dystrophies (HRDs are degenerative diseases of the retina which have marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Common presentations among these disorders include night or colour blindness, tunnel vision, and subsequent progression to complete blindness. The known causative disease genes have a variety of developmental and functional roles, with mutations in more than 120 genes shown to be responsible for the phenotypes. In addition, mutations within the same gene have been shown to cause different disease phenotypes, even amongst affected individuals within the same family, highlighting further levels of complexity. The known disease genes encode proteins involved in retinal cellular structures, phototransduction, the visual cycle, and photoreceptor structure or gene regulation. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been proposed as potentially efficacious therapies. Because of its favorable anatomical and immunological characteristics, the eye has been at the forefront of translational gene therapy. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Dozens of promising proofs of concept have been obtained in animal models of HRDs and some of them have been relayed to the clinic. The results from the first clinical trials for a congenital form of blindness have generated great interest and have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of intraocular administrations of viral vectors in humans. This review summarizes the clinical development of retinal gene therapy.

  4. Panhypopituitarism Due to Hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Özkaya; Kadir Gis; Ali Çetinkaya

    2013-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is an iron storage disease. Panhypopituitarism is a clinical condition in which the anterior pituitary hormones are deficient. Herein, we report a rare case of panhypopituitarism due to hemochromatosis. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 125-6

  5. Evidence that the ancestral haplotype in Australian hemochromatosis patients may be associated with a common mutation in the gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.H.G.; Powell, L.W.; Leggett, B.A. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Hemochromatosis (HC) is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism for which neither the gene nor biochemical defect have yet been identified. The aim of this study was to look for clinical evidence that the predominant ancestral haplotype in Australian patients is associated with a common mutation in the gene. We compared indices of iron metabolism and storage in three groups of HC patients categorized according to the presence of the ancestral haplotype (i.e., patients with two copies, one copy, and no copies of the ancestral haplotype). We also examined iron indices in two groups of HC heterozygotes (those with the ancestral haplotype and those without) and in age-matched controls. These analyses indicate that (i) HC patients with two copies of the ancestral haplotype show significantly more severe expression of the disorder than those with one copy or those without, (ii) HC heterozygotes have partial clinical expression, which may be influenced by the presence of the ancestral haplotype in females but not in males, and (iii) the high population frequency of the HC gene may be the result of the selective advantage conferred by protecting heterozygotes against iron deficiency. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Mutaciones del gen de la Hemocromatosis en donantes de sangre voluntarios y en pacientes con Porfiria cutánea tarda en Chile Mutations of hemochromatosis gene in volunteer blood donors and Chilean porphyria cutanea tarda patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Wolff F

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La acumulación de hierro hepático asociada a mutaciones en el gen HFE de la hemocromatosis hereditaria (HH en los pacientes con porfiria cutánea tarda (PCT podría tener un papel en la etiología y en la expresión clínica de esta enfermedad. Se estudió la frecuencia de las mutaciones H63D y C282Y en un grupo de pacientes con PCT y se la comparó con la observada en un grupo de donantes voluntarios de sangre. Los pacientes con PCT fueron catalogados como portadores de la forma hereditaria o adquirida de la enfermedad, según presentaran o no mutaciones en el gen uroporfirinógeno decarboxilasa (UROD. El 50% de los pacientes con PCT eran portadores de la forma genética de la enfermedad, porcentaje significativamente mayor que lo informado en otras series. El 23% de los donantes voluntarios de sangre eran portadores de la mutación H63D y 2.4% lo era de la mutación C282Y. Frecuencias similares a lo encontrado por otros autores en población chilena de etnia blanca, en población argentina y española, pero significativamente más alta que lo encontrado en estudios en población aborigen araucana. Esto tiene, probablemente, relación con el predominio de ascendencia española en la población blanca chilena. La frecuencia de mutación en el gen HFE en pacientes con PCT no fue significativamente diferente que la observada en donantes voluntarios de sangre. Tampoco hubo diferencias significativas en la frecuencia de estas mutaciones entre los casos con PCT adquirida respecto de aquellos en que ésta era de origen genético. Los resultados obtenidos no permiten afirmar que exista asociación entre la PCT y la condición de portador de mutaciones del gen HFE de la hemocromatosis hereditaria.In patients with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT, hepatic iron accumulation associated to hereditary hemochromatosis (HH could play a role in the etiology and in the clinical expression of the disease. The H63D and C282Y mutations of the HFE gene frequency were

  7. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) and hepcidin response to iron load in two species of pteropodid fruit bats relative to the common vampire bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Iga M; Smith, Dale A; Ganz, Tomas; Crawshaw, Graham J; Hammermueller, Jutta D; Bienzle, Dorothee; Lillie, Brandon N

    2018-07-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis in the body. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) is a frequent cause of liver disease and mortality in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), but reasons underlying this condition are unknown. Hereditary hemochromatosis in humans is due to deficiency of hepcidin or resistance to the action of hepcidin. Here, we investigated the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism in one species of pteropodid bat that is prone to iron storage disease [Egyptian fruit bat (with and without hemochromatosis)], one species of pteropodid bat where iron storage disease is rare [straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum)], and one species of bat with a natural diet very high in iron, in which iron storage disease is not reported [common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus)]. Iron challenge via intramuscular injection of iron dextran resulted in significantly increased liver iron content and histologic iron scores in all three species, and increased plasma iron in Egyptian fruit bats and straw-colored fruit bats. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased in response to iron administration in healthy Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, but not in straw-colored fruit bats or Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis. Hepcidin gene expression significantly correlated with liver iron content in Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, and with transferrin saturation and plasma ferritin concentration in Egyptian fruit bats. Induction of hepcidin gene expression in response to iron challenge is absent in straw-colored fruit bats and in Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis and, relative to common vampire bats and healthy humans, is low in Egyptain fruit bats without hemochromatosis. Limited hepcidin response to iron challenge may contribute to the increased susceptibility of Egyptian fruit bats to iron storage disease.

  8. Study of the effect of HFE gene mutations on iron overload in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HFE gene mutations have been shown to be responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis. Their effect on iron load in β-thalassemia patients and carriers remains controversial. Objectives: We aimed to determine the prevalence of HFE gene mutations (C282Y and H63D) in β-thalassemia patients and carriers ...

  9. Hemochromatosis and diabetes mellitus: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Biavatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemochromatosis is a disorder characterized by iron storage amended. The acquired form of the disease can be caused by iron overload, alcoholism, infection by  C virus hepatitis, non-alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease. The hereditary form can be caused by different mutations, being the C282Y and H63D the most frequent, 83% of cases are homozigotous for C282Y and 4% are compound heterozygous (C282Y/H63D. Hemochromatosis is a condition that can affect several organs, including: heart, joints, liver, hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas and gonads. The aim of this study was to report a case of hemochromatosis and review the literature, with special attention to the association of hemochromatosis and diabetes mellitus. Patient 53 years, male presented to the doctor with arthralgia metacarpophalangeal, ankles, knees, coxofemoral right, and cervical and lumbar, complaints of fatigue and weight loss. Between 3 brothers, one of them had a diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis, with PCR demonstrating homozygous for C282Y. Labs: GOT 128 U/L, ALT 231 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 258 U/L, abdominal ultrasound with hepatomegaly and spleen at the upper limit of normal. Liver biopsy demonstrated portal fibrosis extension with hemosiderosis intense. It also made the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. The research confirmed the same mutation of the changing family: homozygous for C282Y

  10. [Analysis of H63D mutation in hemochromatosis (HFE) gene in populations of central Eurasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusainova, R I; Khusnutdinova, N N; Litvinov, S S; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2013-02-01

    An analysis of the frequency of H63D (c. 187C>G) mutations in the HFEgene in 19 populations from Central Eurasia demonstrated that the distribution of the mutation in the region of interest was not uniform and that there were the areas of H63D accumulation. The investigation of three polymorphic variants, c.340+4T>C (rs2071303, IVS2(+4)T>C), c.893-44T>C (rs1800708, IVS4(-44)T>C), and c.1007-47G>A (rs1572982, IVS5(-47)A>G), in the HFE gene in individuals homozygous for H63D mutations in the HFE gene revealed the linkage of H63D with three haplotypes, *CTA, *TG, and *TTA. These findings indicated the partial spread of the mutation in Central Eurasia from Western Europe, as well as the possible repeated appearance of the mutation on the territory on interest.

  11. Tmprss6 is a genetic modifier of the Hfe-hemochromatosis phenotype in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Rebecca L.; Andrews, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    The hereditary hemochromatosis protein HFE promotes the expression of hepcidin, a circulating hormone produced by the liver that inhibits dietary iron absorption and macrophage iron release. HFE mutations are associated with impaired hepatic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD signaling for hepcidin production. TMPRSS6, a transmembrane serine protease mutated in iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia, inhibits hepcidin expression by dampening BMP/SMAD signaling. In the present study, we used genetic approaches in mice to examine the relationship between Hfe and Tmprss6 in the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. Heterozygous loss of Tmprss6 in Hfe−/− mice reduced systemic iron overload, whereas homozygous loss caused systemic iron deficiency and elevated hepatic expression of hepcidin and other Bmp/Smad target genes. In contrast, neither genetic loss of Hfe nor hepatic Hfe overexpression modulated the hepcidin elevation and systemic iron deficiency of Tmprss6−/− mice. These results indicate that genetic loss of Tmprss6 increases Bmp/Smad signaling in an Hfe-independent manner that can restore Bmp/Smad signaling in Hfe−/− mice. Furthermore, these results suggest that natural genetic variation in the human ortholog TMPRSS6 might modify the clinical penetrance of HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis, raising the possibility that pharmacologic inhibition of TMPRSS6 could attenuate iron loading in this disorder. PMID:21355094

  12. Genes for Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant ("SPTLC1"…

  13. Expanding the genotype-phenotype spectrum in hereditary colorectal cancer by gene panel testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, Anna; Rambech, Eva; Kvist, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary syndromes causing colorectal cancer include both polyposis and non-polyposis syndromes. Overlapping phenotypes between the syndromes have been recognized and this make targeted molecular testing for single genes less favorable, instead there is a gaining interest for multi-gene panel...

  14. [The progress and prospect of application of genetic testing technology-based gene detection technology in the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J X; Jiang, Y F

    2017-08-06

    Hereditary cancer is caused by specific pathogenic gene mutations. Early detection and early intervention are the most effective ways to prevent and control hereditary cancer. High-throughput sequencing based genetic testing technology (NGS) breaks through the restrictions of pedigree analysis, provide a convenient and efficient method to detect and diagnose hereditary cancer. Here, we introduce the mechanism of hereditary cancer, summarize, discuss and prospect the application of NGS and other genetic tests in the diagnosis of hereditary retinoblastoma, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, hereditary colorectal cancer and other complex and rare hereditary tumors.

  15. Development and validation of a 36-gene sequencing assay for hereditary cancer risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina S. Vysotskaia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have brought many important advances in our understanding of the hereditary susceptibility to cancer. Numerous studies have provided convincing evidence that identification of germline mutations associated with hereditary cancer syndromes can lead to reductions in morbidity and mortality through targeted risk management options. Additionally, advances in gene sequencing technology now permit the development of multigene hereditary cancer testing panels. Here, we describe the 2016 revision of the Counsyl Inherited Cancer Screen for detecting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs, short insertions and deletions (indels, and copy number variants (CNVs in 36 genes associated with an elevated risk for breast, ovarian, colorectal, gastric, endometrial, pancreatic, thyroid, prostate, melanoma, and neuroendocrine cancers. To determine test accuracy and reproducibility, we performed a rigorous analytical validation across 341 samples, including 118 cell lines and 223 patient samples. The screen achieved 100% test sensitivity across different mutation types, with high specificity and 100% concordance with conventional Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. We also demonstrated the screen’s high intra-run and inter-run reproducibility and robust performance on blood and saliva specimens. Furthermore, we showed that pathogenic Alu element insertions can be accurately detected by our test. Overall, the validation in our clinical laboratory demonstrated the analytical performance required for collecting and reporting genetic information related to risk of developing hereditary cancers.

  16. [Mutation analysis of FGFR3 gene in a family featuring hereditary dwarfism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Jiang, Hai-ou; Quan, Qing-li; Li, Jun; He, Ting; Huang, Xue-shuang

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the clinical symptoms and potential mutation in FGFR3 gene for a family featuring hereditary dwarfism in order to attain diagnosis and provide prenatal diagnosis. Five patients and two unaffected relatives from the family, in addition with 100 healthy controls, were recruited. Genome DNA was extracted. Exons 10 and 13 of the FGFR3 gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were sequenced in both directions. All patients had similar features including short stature, short limbs, lumbar hyperlordosis but normal craniofacial features. A heterozygous mutation G1620T (N540K) was identified in the cDNA from all patients but not in the unaffected relatives and 100 control subjects. A heterozygous G380R mutation was excluded. The hereditary dwarfism featured by this family has been caused by hypochondroplasia (HCH) due to a N540K mutation in the FGFR3 gene.

  17. Germline mutations in 40 cancer susceptibility genes among Chinese patients with high hereditary risk breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junyan; Jing, Ruilin; Wei, Hongyi; Wang, Minghao; Qi, Xiaowei; Liu, Haoxi; Liu, Jian; Ou, Jianghua; Jiang, Weihua; Tian, Fuguo; Sheng, Yuan; Li, Hengyu; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Ruishan; Guan, Aihua; Liu, Ke; Jiang, Hongchuan; Ren, Yu; He, Jianjun; Huang, Weiwei; Liao, Ning; Cai, Xiangjun; Ming, Jia; Ling, Rui; Xu, Yan; Hu, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianguo; Guo, Baoliang; Ouyang, Lizhi; Shuai, Ping; Liu, Zhenzhen; Zhong, Ling; Zeng, Zhen; Zhang, Ting; Xuan, Zhaoling; Tan, Xuanni; Liang, Junbin; Pan, Qinwen; Chen, Li; Zhang, Fan; Fan, Linjun; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Xinhua; Li, Jingbo; Chen, Chongjian; Jiang, Jun

    2018-05-12

    Multigene panel testing of breast cancer predisposition genes have been extensively conducted in Europe and America, which is relatively rare in Asia however. In this study, we assessed the frequency of germline mutations in 40 cancer predisposition genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, among a large cohort of Chinese patients with high hereditary risk of BC. From 2015 to 2016, consecutive BC patients from 26 centers of China with high hereditary risk were recruited (n=937). Clinical information was collected and next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed using blood samples of participants to identify germline mutations. In total, we acquired 223 patients with putative germline mutations, including 159 in BRCA1/2, 61 in 15 other BC susceptibility genes and 3 in both BRCA1/2 and non-BRCA1/2 gene. Major mutant non-BRCA1/2 genes were TP53 (n=18), PALB2 (n=11), CHEK2 (n=6), ATM (n=6), and BARD1 (n=5). No factors predicted pathologic mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes when treated as a whole. TP53 mutations were associated with HER-2 positive BC and younger age at diagnosis; and CHEK2 and PALB2 mutations were enriched in patients with luminal BC. Among high hereditary risk Chinese BC patients, 23.8% contained germline mutations, including 6.8% in non-BRCA1/2 genes. TP53 and PALB2 had a relatively high mutation rates (1.9% and 1.2%). Although no factors predicted for detrimental mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes, some clinical features were associated with mutations of several particular genes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  18. HFE mutations and hemochromatosis in Danish patients admitted for HFE genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, P; Dalhoff, K; Dissing, J

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the common C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene is widely used to diagnose hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency with which different hospitals and general practitioners select patients for HH genotype and to determine the distribution...... of HFE mutations in such patients. Nine hundred unrelated patients from Danish hospitals and general practitioners (group A) and 69 consecutive patients from a specialized liver unit (group B) were examined for HFE substitutions using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. In group A we found 13...... in the H63D homozygotes or S65C heterozygotes. Moreover, 7 wild-type patients, 2 C282Y heterozygote patients and one H63D heterozygote patient fulfilled the criteria for HH. The significant enrichment of HH among associated genotype samples submitted for HFE testing indicates that the clinical selection...

  19. Germ line mutations of mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients with small bowel cancer: International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours Collaborative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jae-Gahb; Kim, Duck-Woo; Hong, Chang Won

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of study was to determine the clinical characteristics and mutational profiles of the mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients with small bowel cancer (SBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A questionnaire was mailed to 55 members of the Internatio......PURPOSE: The aim of study was to determine the clinical characteristics and mutational profiles of the mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients with small bowel cancer (SBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A questionnaire was mailed to 55 members...... of the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, requesting information regarding patients with HNPCC-associated SBC and germ line mismatch repair gene mutations. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 85 HNPCC patients with identified mismatch repair gene mutations and SBCs. SBC was the first...... HNPCC-associated malignancy in 14 of 41 (34.1%) patients for whom a personal history of HNPCC-associated cancers was available. The study population harbored 69 different germ line mismatch repair gene mutations, including 31 mutations in MLH1, 34 in MSH2, 3 in MSH6, and 1 in PMS2. We compared...

  20. [Mutations of ACVRL1 gene in a pedigree with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie-wei; Chen, Hui; Yang, Liu-qing; Zhu, Ai-lan; Wu, Yan-an; Li, Jian-wei

    2008-06-01

    To identify the activin A receptor type II-like 1 gene (ACVRL1) mutations in a Chinese family with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT2). The exons 3, 7 and 8 of ACVRL1 gene of the proband and her five family members were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PCR products were sequenced. The proband had obvious telangiectasis of gastric mucosa, and small arteriovenous fistula in the right kidney. All the patients in the HHT2 family had iterative epistaxis or bleeding in other sites, and had telangiectasis of nasal mucosa, tunica mucosa oris and finger tips. ACVRL1 gene analysis confirmed that there is frameshift mutation caused by deletion of G145 in exon 3 in the 4 patients, but the mutation is absent in 2 members without HHT2. The HHT2 family is caused by a 145delG mutation of ACVRL1 gene, resulting in frameshift and a new stop codon at codon 53.

  1. Effects of hemochromatosis and transferrin gene mutations on peripheral iron dyshomeostasis in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eMariani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of iron metabolism has been observed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. We have carried out a molecular analysis investigating the interaction between iron specific gene variants [transferrin (TF, P589S, hemochromatosis (HFE C282Y and H63D], iron biochemical variables [iron, Tf, ceruloplasmin (Cp, Cp:Tf ratio and % of Tf saturation (% Tf-sat] Impairment (MCI, 78 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients and 139 healthy controls to investigate mechanisms of iron regulation or toxicity. No difference in genetic variant distributions between patients and controls was found in our Italian sample, but the stratification for the APOE e4 allele revealed that among the APOE e4 carriers was higher the frequency of those carriers of at least a mutated TF P589S allele. Decreased Tf in both AD and MCI and increased Cp:Tf ratio in AD vs. controls were detected. A multinomial logistic regression model revealed that increased iron and Cp:Tf ratio and being man instead of woman increased the risk of having PD, that increased values of Cp:Tf ratio corresponded to a 4-fold increase of the relative risk of having MCI, while higher Cp levels were protective for PD and MCI. Our study has some limitations: the small size of the sample, one ethnic group considered, the rarity of some alleles which prevent the statistical power of some genetic analysis. Even though they need confirmation in larger cohorts, our data suggest the hypothesis that deregulation of iron metabolism, in addition to other factors, has some effect on the PD disease risk.

  2. HFE Cys282Tyr homozygotes with serum ferritin concentrations below 1000 microg/L are at low risk of hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katrina J; Bertalli, Nadine A; Osborne, Nicholas J; Constantine, Clare C; Delatycki, Martin B; Nisselle, Amy E; Nicoll, Amanda J; Gertig, Dorota M; McLaren, Christine E; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Anderson, Gregory J; Olynyk, John K; Powell, Lawrie W; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2010-09-01

    Hemochromatosis gene (HFE)-associated hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic predisposition to iron overload and subsequent signs and symptoms of disease that potentially affects approximately 80,000 persons in Australia and almost 1 million persons in the United States. Most clinical cases are homozygous for the Cys282Tyr (C282Y) mutation in the HFE gene, with serum ferritin (SF) concentration >1000 microg/L as the strongest predictor of cirrhosis. The optimal treatment regimen for those with SF concentrations above the normal range but aged 40-69 years. An HFE-stratified random sample of 1438 participants including all C282Y homozygotes with iron studies 12 years apart were examined by physicians blinded to participants' HFE genotype. All previously undiagnosed C282Y homozygotes (35 male, 67 female) and all HFE wild-types (131 male, 160 female) with baseline and follow-up SF concentrations age when disease would be expected to have developed. These observations have implications for the management of C282Y homozygotes.

  3. Haemochromatosis HFE gene polymorphisms as potential modifiers of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer risk and onset age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Johnstone, Daniel; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; Evans, Tiffany-Jane; Spigelman, Allan D; Groombridge, Claire; Milward, Elizabeth A; Olynyk, John K; Suchy, Janina; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Lubinski, Jan; Scott, Rodney J

    2009-07-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is characterized by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes; however, variation in disease expression suggests that there are potential modifying factors. Polymorphisms of the HFE gene, which cause the iron overload disorder hereditary haemochromatosis, have been proposed as potential risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). To understand the relationship between HNPCC disease phenotype and polymorphisms of the HFE gene, a total of 362 individuals from Australia and Poland with confirmed causative MMR gene mutations were genotyped for the HFE C282Y and H63D polymorphisms. A significantly increased risk of developing CRC was observed for H63D homozygotes when compared with combined wild-type homozygotes and heterozygotes (hazard ratio = 2.93, p = 0.007). Evidence for earlier CRC onset was also observed in H63D homozygotes with a median age of onset 6 years earlier than wild type or heterozygous participants (44 vs. 50 years of age). This effect was significant by all tests used (log-rank test p = 0.026, Wilcoxon p = 0.044, Tarone-Ware p = 0.035). No association was identified for heterozygosity of either polymorphism and limitations on power-prevented investigation of C282Y homozygosity or compound C282Y/H63D heterozygosity. In the Australian sample only, women had a significantly reduced risk of developing CRC when compared with men (hazard ratio = 0.58, p = 0.012) independent of HFE genotype for either single nucleotide polymorphisms. In conclusion, homozygosity for the HFE H63D polymorphism seems to be a genetic modifier of disease expression in HNPCC. Understanding the mechanisms by which HFE interrelates with colorectal malignancies could lead to reduction of disease risk in HNPCC.

  4. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Söylemez, Esma [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Middle Black Sea Passage Generation of Agricultural Research Station Director, Tokat (Turkey); Söylemezoğlu, Tülin [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels.

  5. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-01-01

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels.

  6. Anti-Obesity and Pro-Diabetic Effects of Hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Mousa Al; Abraham, Deveraprabu; Kushner, James P.; McClain, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Levels of tissue iron contribute to determining diabetes risk, but little is known about the effects of higher iron levels on weight, nor on the interaction of weight and iron overload on diabetes risk. We therefore examined the effect of iron on body mass index and diabetes in individuals with iron overload from hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), compared to non-HH siblings and historical controls. Methods Chart reviews were performed on a cohort of adults (age ≥40, N=101) with the c...

  7. Role of the duplicated CCAAT box region in γ-globin gene regulation and hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ronchi (Antonella); M. Berry (Meera); S. Raguz (Selina); A.M.A. Imam (Ali); N. Yannoutsos (Nikos); S. Ottolenghi (Sergio); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); N.O. Dillon (Niall)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractHereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) is a clinically important condition in which a change in the developmental specificity of the gamma-globin genes results in varying levels of expression of fetal haemoglobin in the adult. The condition is benign and can significantly

  8. Molecular Analysis: Microsatellite Instability and Loss of Heterozygosity of Tumor Suppressor Gene in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Hadžiavdić

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available HNPCC (Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer development is caused by mutation of genes included in system of mismatch repair genes. The mutation exists at 60% of patients in hMSH2 gene, 30% in hMLH1 and 10% both in hPMS1and hPMS2 genes. RER+ exists in about 90% in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and about 15-28% in sporadic cancers.The purpose of the study was to determine highly sensitive microsatellite markers which can be fast and efficient way of microsatellite screening for detection of HNPCC patients. Moreover, we have analysed the loss of heterozygosity of tumour suppressor genes which could have the diagnostic value in detection of HPNCC patients.

  9. Allelic Dropout in the ENG Gene, Affecting the Results of Genetic Testing in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Pernille M; Kjeldsen, A.D.; Ousager, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal-dominant vascular disorder with three disease-causing genes identified to date: ENG, ACVRL1, and SMAD4. We report an HHT patient with allelic dropout that on routine sequence analysis for a known mutation in the family (c.817......-3T>G in ENG) initially seemed to be homozygous for the mutation. Aim: To explore the possibility of allelic dropout causing a false result in this patient. Methods: Mutation analysis of additional family members was performed and haplotype analysis carried out. New primers were designed to reveal...... the presence of a possible sequence variant, which could explain the presumed allelic dropout. Results: Allelic dropout caused by a six-nucleotide duplication close to the standard reverse primer was the assumed cause of a false homozygous diagnosis. Conclusion: Sequence variants outside of the primer regions...

  10. Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Mi Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP is an autosomal neuropathy that is commonly caused by a reciprocal 1.5 Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2, at the site of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 gene. Other patients with similar phenotypes have been shown to harbor point mutations or small deletions, although there is some clinical variation across these patients. In this report, we describe a case of HNPP with copy number changes in exon or promoter regions of PMP22. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis revealed an exon 1b deletion in the patient, who had been diagnosed with HNPP in the first decade of life using molecular analysis.

  11. Hereditary thrombophilia: identification of nonsense and missense mutations in the protein C gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeo, G.; Hassan, H.J.; Staempfli, S.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the gene for protein C, an anticoagulant serine protease, was analyzed in 29 unrelated patients with hereditary thrombophilia and protein C deficiency. Gene deletion(s) or gross rearrangement(s) was not demonstrable by Southern blot hybridization to cDNA probes. However, two unrelated patients showed a variant restriction pattern after Pvu II or BamHi digestion, due to mutations in the last exon: analysis of their pedigrees, including three or seven heterozygotes, respectively, with ∼50% reduction of both enzymatic and antigen level, showed the abnormal restriction pattern in all heterozygous individuals, but not in normal relatives. Cloning of protein C gene and sequencing of the last exon allowed the authors to identify a nonsense and a missense mutation, respectively. In the first case, codon 306 (CGA, arginine) is mutated to an inframe stop codon, thus generating a new Pvu II recognition site. In the second case, a missense mutation in the BamHI palindrome (GGATCC → GCATCC) leads to substitution of a key amino acid (a tryptophan to cysteine substitution at position 402), invariantly conserved in eukaryotic serine proteases. These point mutations may explain the protein C-deficiency phenotype of heterozygotes in the two pedigrees

  12. In silico prediction of functional loss of cst3 gene in hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Choudhary

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The computational identification of missense mutation in CST3 (CYSTATIN 3 or CYSTATIN C gene has been done in the present study. The missense mutations in the CST3 gene will leads to hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy The initiation of the analysis was done with SIFT followed by POLYPHEN-2 and I-Mutant 2.0 using 24 variants of CST3 gene of Homo sapiens which were derived from dbSNP. The analysis showed that 5 variants (Y60C, C123Y, L19P, Y88C, L94Q were found to be less stable and damaging by SIFT, POLYPHEN-2 and I-MUTANT2.0. Furthermore the outputs of SNP & GO are collaborated with PHD-SNP (Predictor of Human Deleterious-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and PANTHER to predict 5 variants (Y60C, Y88C, C123Y, L19P, and L94Q having clinical impact in causing the disease. These findings will be certainly helpful for the present medical practitioners for the treatment of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

  13. Absorption of manganese and iron in a mouse model of hemochromatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghan Kim

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disease associated with excessive intestinal iron absorption, is commonly caused by loss of HFE gene function. Both iron and manganese absorption are regulated by iron status, but the relationships between the transport pathways of these metals and how they are affected by HFE-associated hemochromatosis remain poorly understood. Loss of HFE function is known to alter the intestinal expression of DMT1 (divalent metal transporter-1 and Fpn (ferroportin, transporters that have been implicated in absorption of both iron and manganese. Although the influence of HFE deficiency on dietary iron absorption has been characterized, potential effects on manganese metabolism have yet to be explored. To investigate the role of HFE in manganese absorption, we characterized the uptake and distribution of the metal in Hfe (-/- knockout mice after intravenous, intragastric, and intranasal administration of (54Mn. These values were compared to intravenous and intragastric administration of (59Fe. Intestinal absorption of (59Fe was increased and clearance of injected (59Fe was also increased in Hfe(-/- mice compared to controls. Hfe (-/- mice displayed greater intestinal absorption of (54Mn compared to wild-type Hfe(+/+ control mice. After intravenous injection, the distribution of (59Fe to heart and liver was greater in Hfe (-/- mice but no remarkable differences were observed for (54Mn. Although olfactory absorption of (54Mn into blood was unchanged in Hfe (-/- mice, higher levels of intranasally-instilled (54Mn were associated with Hfe(-/- brain compared to controls. These results show that manganese transport and metabolism can be modified by HFE deficiency.

  14. Absorption of Manganese and Iron in a Mouse Model of Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghan; Buckett, Peter D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disease associated with excessive intestinal iron absorption, is commonly caused by loss of HFE gene function. Both iron and manganese absorption are regulated by iron status, but the relationships between the transport pathways of these metals and how they are affected by HFE-associated hemochromatosis remain poorly understood. Loss of HFE function is known to alter the intestinal expression of DMT1 (divalent metal transporter-1) and Fpn (ferroportin), transporters that have been implicated in absorption of both iron and manganese. Although the influence of HFE deficiency on dietary iron absorption has been characterized, potential effects on manganese metabolism have yet to be explored. To investigate the role of HFE in manganese absorption, we characterized the uptake and distribution of the metal in Hfe −/− knockout mice after intravenous, intragastric, and intranasal administration of 54Mn. These values were compared to intravenous and intragastric administration of 59Fe. Intestinal absorption of 59Fe was increased and clearance of injected 59Fe was also increased in Hfe−/− mice compared to controls. Hfe −/− mice displayed greater intestinal absorption of 54Mn compared to wild-type Hfe+/+ control mice. After intravenous injection, the distribution of 59Fe to heart and liver was greater in Hfe −/− mice but no remarkable differences were observed for 54Mn. Although olfactory absorption of 54Mn into blood was unchanged in Hfe −/− mice, higher levels of intranasally-instilled 54Mn were associated with Hfe−/− brain compared to controls. These results show that manganese transport and metabolism can be modified by HFE deficiency. PMID:23705020

  15. Genes for hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: a genotype–phenotype correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; Vriendt, Els De; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Lévy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andrés; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant (SPTLC1 and RAB7) and five genes for autosomal recessive forms of HSAN (WNK1/HSN2, NTRK1, NGFB, CCT5 and IKBKAP). We performed a systematic mutation screening of the coding sequences of six of these genes on a cohort of 100 familial and isolated patients diagnosed with HSAN. In addition, we screened the functional candidate gene NGFR (p75/NTR) encoding the nerve growth factor receptor. We identified disease-causing mutations in SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1/HSN2 and NTRK1 in 19 patients, of which three mutations have not previously been reported. The phenotypes associated with mutations in NTRK1 and WNK1/HSN2 typically consisted of congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis, and early-onset ulcero-mutilating sensory neuropathy, respectively. RAB7 mutations were only found in patients with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B (CMT2B) phenotype, an axonal sensory-motor neuropathy with pronounced ulcero-mutilations. In SPTLC1, we detected a novel mutation (S331F) corresponding to a previously unknown severe and early-onset HSAN phenotype. No mutations were found in NGFB, CCT5 and NGFR. Overall disease-associated mutations were found in 19% of the studied patient group, suggesting that additional genes are associated with HSAN. Our genotype–phenotype correlation study broadens the spectrum of HSAN and provides additional insights for molecular and clinical diagnosis. PMID:19651702

  16. From genes to pain: nerve growth factor and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsoni, Simona

    2014-02-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN V) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the loss of deep pain perception. The anomalous pain and temperature sensations are due to the absence of nociceptive sensory innervation. The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), by binding to tropomyosin receptor A (TrkA) and p75NTR receptors, is essential for the development and survival of sensory neurons, and for pain perception during adulthood. Recently a homozygous missense mutation (R100W) in the NGF gene has been identified in HSAN V patients. Interestingly, alterations in NGF signalling, due to mutations in the NGF TRKA gene, have also been involved in another congenital insensitivity to pain, HSAN IV, characterized not only by absence of reaction to painful stimuli, but also anhidrosis and mental retardation. These symptoms are absent in HSAN V patients. Unravelling the mechanisms that underlie the differences between HSAN IV and V could assist in better understanding NGF biology. This review highlights the recent key findings in the understanding of HSAN V, including insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease, derived from genetic studies of patients with this disorder. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Long-term outcomes of gene therapy for the treatment of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Ma, Si-Qi; Wan, Xing; He, Heng; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-Jian; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-Wen; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Yuan, Jia-Jia; Li, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a disease that leads to blindness. Gene therapy has been investigated with some success, and could lead to important advancements in treating LHON. This was a prospective, open-label trial involving 9 LHON patients at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China, from August 2011 to December 2015. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of gene therapy for LHON. Nine LHON patients voluntarily received an intravitreal injection of rAAV2-ND4. Systemic examinations and visual function tests were performed during the 36-month follow-up period to determine the safety and efficacy of this gene therapy. Based on successful experiments in an animal model of LHON, 1 subject also received an rAAV2-ND4 injection in the second eye 12months after gene therapy was administered in the first eye. Recovery of visual acuity was defined as the primary outcome of this study. Changes in the visual field, visual evoked potential (VEP), optical coherence tomography findings, liver and kidney function, and antibodies against AAV2 were defined as secondary endpoints. Eight patients (Patients 2-9) received unilateral gene therapy and visual function improvement was observed in both treated eyes (Patients 4, 6, 7, and 8) and untreated eyes (Patients 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8). Visual regression fluctuations, defined as changes in visual acuity greater than or equal to 0.3 logMAR, were observed in Patients 2 and 9. Age at disease onset, disease duration, and the amount of remaining optic nerve fibers did not have a significant effect on the visual function improvement. The visual field and pattern reversal VEP also improved. The patient (Patient 1) who received gene therapy in both eyes had improved visual acuity in the injected eye after the first treatment. Unfortunately, visual acuity in this eye decreased 3months after he received gene therapy in the second eye. Animal experiments suggested that ND4 expression remains stable in the

  18. Long-term outcomes of gene therapy for the treatment of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a disease that leads to blindness. Gene therapy has been investigated with some success, and could lead to important advancements in treating LHON. This was a prospective, open-label trial involving 9 LHON patients at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China, from August 2011 to December 2015. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of gene therapy for LHON. Nine LHON patients voluntarily received an intravitreal injection of rAAV2-ND4. Systemic examinations and visual function tests were performed during the 36-month follow-up period to determine the safety and efficacy of this gene therapy. Based on successful experiments in an animal model of LHON, 1 subject also received an rAAV2-ND4 injection in the second eye 12 months after gene therapy was administered in the first eye. Recovery of visual acuity was defined as the primary outcome of this study. Changes in the visual field, visual evoked potential (VEP, optical coherence tomography findings, liver and kidney function, and antibodies against AAV2 were defined as secondary endpoints. Eight patients (Patients 2–9 received unilateral gene therapy and visual function improvement was observed in both treated eyes (Patients 4, 6, 7, and 8 and untreated eyes (Patients 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8. Visual regression fluctuations, defined as changes in visual acuity greater than or equal to 0.3 logMAR, were observed in Patients 2 and 9. Age at disease onset, disease duration, and the amount of remaining optic nerve fibers did not have a significant effect on the visual function improvement. The visual field and pattern reversal VEP also improved. The patient (Patient 1 who received gene therapy in both eyes had improved visual acuity in the injected eye after the first treatment. Unfortunately, visual acuity in this eye decreased 3 months after he received gene therapy in the second eye. Animal experiments suggested that ND4 expression remains

  19. Screening for susceptibility genes in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Yin, Bo; Qu, Kaiying; Li, Jingjing; Jin, Qiao; Liu, Ling; Liu, Chunlan; Zhu, Yuxing; Wang, Qi; Peng, Xiaowei; Zhou, Jianda; Cao, Peiguo; Cao, Ke

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) susceptibility genes were screened for using whole exome sequencing in 3 HNPCC patients from 1 family and using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays in 96 other colorectal cancer and control samples. Peripheral blood was obtained from 3 HNPCC patients from 1 family; the proband and the proband's brother and cousin. High-throughput sequencing was performed using whole exome capture technology. Sequences were aligned against the HAPMAP, dbSNP130 and 1,000 Genome Project databases. Reported common variations and synonymous mutations were filtered out. Non-synonymous single nucleotide variants in the 3 HNPCC patients were integrated and the candidate genes were identified. Finally, SNP genotyping was performed for the genes in 96 peripheral blood samples. In total, 60.4 Gb of data was retrieved from the 3 HNPCC patients using whole exome capture technology. Subsequently, according to certain screening criteria, 15 candidate genes were identified. Among the 96 samples that had been SNP genotyped, 92 were successfully genotyped for 15 gene loci, while genotyping for HTRA1 failed in 4 sporadic colorectal cancer patient samples. In 12 control subjects and 81 sporadic colorectal cancer patients, genotypes at 13 loci were wild-type, namely DDX20, ZFYVE26, PIK3R3, SLC26A8, ZEB2, TP53INP1, SLC11A1, LRBA, CEBPZ, ETAA1, SEMA3G, IFRD2 and FAT1 . The CEP290 genotype was mutant in 1 sporadic colorectal cancer patient and was wild-type in all other subjects. A total of 5 of the 12 control subjects and 30 of the 81 sporadic colorectal cancer patients had a mutant HTRA1 genotype. In all 3 HNPCC patients, the same mutant genotypes were identified at all 15 gene loci. Overall, 13 potential susceptibility genes for HNPCC were identified, namely DDX20, ZFYVE26, PIK3R3, SLC26A8, ZEB2, TP53INP1, SLC11A1, LRBA, CEBPZ, ETAA1, SEMA3G, IFRD2 and FAT1 .

  20. Rare HFE variants are the most frequent cause of hemochromatosis in non-c282y homozygous patients with hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi-Rozé, Houda; Beaumont-Epinette, Marie-Pascale; Ben Ali, Zeineb; Le Lan, Caroline; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Causse, Xavier; Loreal, Olivier; Deugnier, Yves; Brissot, Pierre; Jouanolle, Anne-Marie; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard

    2016-12-01

    p.Cys282Tyr (C282Y) homozygosity explains most cases of HFE-related hemochromatosis, but a significant number of patients presenting with typical type I hemochromatosis phenotype remain unexplained. We sought to describe the clinical relevance of rare HFE variants in non-C282Y homozygotes. Patients referred for hemochromatosis to the National Reference Centre for Rare Iron Overload Diseases from 2004 to 2010 were studied. Sequencing was performed for coding region and intronic flanking sequences of HFE, HAMP, HFE2, TFR2, and SLC40A1. Nine private HFE variants were identified in 13 of 206 unrelated patients. Among those, five have not been previously described: p.Leu270Argfs*4, p.Ala271Valfs*25, p.Tyr52*, p.Lys166Asn, and p.Asp141Tyr. Our results show that rare HFE variants are identified more frequently than variants in the other genes associated with iron overload. Rare HFE variants are therefore the most frequent cause of hemochromatosis in non-C282Y homozygote HFE patients. Am. J. Hematol. 91:1202-1205, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Genes for hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies : a genotype-phenotype correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven

  2. Frequency of the hemochromatosis HFE mutations C282Y, H63D, and S65C in blood donors in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; á Steig, Torkil; Koefoed, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    on the HFE gene was assessed by genotyping using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and calculated from direct allele counting. We found no C282Y homozygous subjects; 28 (14.0%) subjects were C282Y heterozygous and four subjects were C282Y/H63D compound heterozygous (2.0%). The C282Y allele......The aim of the study was to assess the frequencies of the hereditary hemochromatosis HFE mutations C282Y, H63D, and S65C in the population in the Faroe Islands. The series comprised 200 randomly selected blood donors of Faroese heritage. The frequency of the C282Y, H63D, and S65C mutations.......6%. Screening of larger groups of the Faroese population for HFE mutations especially C282Y should be considered in order to establish the penetrance....

  3. Dog as a model in studies on human hereditary diseases and their gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switonski, Marek

    2014-03-01

    During the last 15 years spectacular progress has been achieved in knowledge on the dog genome organization and the molecular background of hereditary diseases in this species. A majority of canine genetic diseases have their counterparts in humans and thus dogs are considered as a very important large animal model in human biomedicine. Among canine monogenic diseases with known causative gene mutations there are two large groups classified as retinal dystrophies and lysosomal storage diseases. Specific types of these diseases are usually diagnosed in a single or several breeds. A well known disorder, restricted to a single breed, is congenital stationary night blindness described in Briards. This disease is a counterpart of Leber amaurosis in children. On the other hand, one of the most common monogenic human diseases (Duchenne muscular dystrophy), has its canine counterparts in several breeds (e.g., the Golden retriever, Beagle and German short-haired pointer). For some of the canine diseases gene therapy strategy was successfully applied, e.g., for congenital stationary night blindness, rod-cone dystrophy and muccopolysaccharydoses type I, IIIB and VII. Since phenotypic variability between the breeds is exceptionally high, the dog is an interesting model to study the molecular background of congenital malformations (e.g., dwarfism and osteoporosis imperfecta). Also disorders of sexual development (DSD), especially testicular or ovotesticular DSD (78,XX; SRY-negative), which is widely distributed across dozens of breeds, are of particular interest. Studies on the genetic background of canine cancers, a major health problem in this species, are also quite advanced. On the other hand, genetic studies on canine counterparts of major human complex diseases (e.g., obesity, the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus) are still in their infancy. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish

  4. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with cerebellar ataxia: a complex phenotype associated with a new SPG4 gene mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Johnson, B; Koefoed, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    Complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are rare and usually transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. A family of four generations with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) and a complex phenotype with variably expressed co-existing ataxia, dysarthria......, unipolar depression, epilepsy, migraine, and cognitive impairment was investigated. Genetic linkage analysis and sequencing of the SPG4 gene was performed and electrophysiologic investigations were carried out in six individuals and positron emission tomography (PET) in one patient. The disease was linked...... in those individuals who were clinically affected by a complex phenotype consisting of HSP and cerebellar ataxia. Other features noted in this kindred including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, depression, and migraine did not segregate with the HSP phenotype or mutation, and therefore the significance...

  5. [Double mutant alleles in the EXT1 gene not previously reported in a teenager with hereditary multiple exostoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco; Cozar, Mónica; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana; Asteggiano, Carla G; Martínez-Domenech, Gustavo; Bracho, Ana; Sánchez, Yanira; Stock, Frances; Delgado-Luengo, Wilmer; Zara-Chirinos, Carmen; Chacín, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary forms of multiple exostoses, now called EXT1/EXT2-CDG within Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, are the most common benign bone tumors in humans and clinical description consists of the formation of several cartilage-capped bone tumors, usually benign and localized in the juxta-epiphyseal region of long bones, although wide body dissemination in severe cases is not uncommon. Onset of the disease is variable ranging from 2-3 years up to 13-15 years with an estimated incidence ranging from 1/18,000 to 1/50,000 cases in European countries. We present a double mutant alleles in the EXT1 gene not previously reported in a teenager and her family with hereditary multiple exostoses.

  6. Analysis of eye lens-specific genes in congenital hereditary cataracts and microphthalmia of the miniature schnauzer dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R L; Samuelson, D A; Zhang, Z G; Reddy, V N; Shastry, B S

    1991-08-01

    The congenital hereditary cataracts and microphthalmia in the miniature schnauzer dog are inherited by an autosomal recessive mode. To understand the genetic basis of these diseases, the authors purified and analyzed leukocyte deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from affected and normal animals using a candidate gene approach. Because the genes that encode the lens-specific proteins, specifically, alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins and the membrane protein (MP26), are known to maintain the structure and function of the lens, the authors used complimentary DNA (cDNA) fragments that corresponded to the above genes to search for the mutations at their loci in the affected animals. They found no evidence of the gene deletion and rearrangement in any of the five loci. In addition, the hybridizable sequences of the dog DNA to the specific probes for the human chromosome 4 and 18 loci, which are reported to be involved in the abnormality of the human eye, seem to be unaffected. These data support the notion that the hereditary cataracts and microphthalmia in the dog may be associated with genes other than those reported for several animal systems.

  7. Frequency of mutations in the genes associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy in a UK cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, G L; Murphy, S M; Polke, J M; Laura, M; Salih, M A M; Muntoni, F; Blake, J; Brandner, S; Davies, N; Horvath, R; Price, S; Donaghy, M; Roberts, M; Foulds, N; Ramdharry, G; Soler, D; Lunn, M P; Manji, H; Davis, M B; Houlden, H; Reilly, M M

    2012-08-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, also known as the hereditary sensory neuropathies) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, characterised by a progressive sensory neuropathy often complicated by ulcers and amputations, with variable motor and autonomic involvement. To date, mutations in twelve genes have been identified as causing HSAN. To study the frequency of mutations in these genes and the associated phenotypes, we screened 140 index patients in our inherited neuropathy cohort with a clinical diagnosis of HSAN for mutations in the coding regions of SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1/HSN2, FAM134B, NTRK1 (TRKA) and NGFB. We identified 25 index patients with mutations in six genes associated with HSAN (SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1/HSN2, FAM134B, NTRK1 and NGFB); 20 of which appear to be pathogenic giving an overall mutation frequency of 14.3%. Mutations in the known genes for HSAN are rare suggesting that further HSAN genes are yet to be identified. The p.Cys133Trp mutation in SPTLC1 is the most common cause of HSAN in the UK population and should be screened first in all patients with sporadic or autosomal dominant HSAN.

  8. Frequency of mutations in the genes associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy in a UK cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davidson, G L

    2012-08-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, also known as the hereditary sensory neuropathies) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, characterised by a progressive sensory neuropathy often complicated by ulcers and amputations, with variable motor and autonomic involvement. To date, mutations in twelve genes have been identified as causing HSAN. To study the frequency of mutations in these genes and the associated phenotypes, we screened 140 index patients in our inherited neuropathy cohort with a clinical diagnosis of HSAN for mutations in the coding regions of SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1\\/HSN2, FAM134B, NTRK1 (TRKA) and NGFB. We identified 25 index patients with mutations in six genes associated with HSAN (SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1\\/HSN2, FAM134B, NTRK1 and NGFB); 20 of which appear to be pathogenic giving an overall mutation frequency of 14.3%. Mutations in the known genes for HSAN are rare suggesting that further HSAN genes are yet to be identified. The p.Cys133Trp mutation in SPTLC1 is the most common cause of HSAN in the UK population and should be screened first in all patients with sporadic or autosomal dominant HSAN.

  9. Introduction of Molecular Diagnosis of Hemochromatosis Type 1 in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Aramís Cervera García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: hemochromatosis type 1 is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which should be diagnosed during its preclinical phase in order to prevent severe organ damage. Objective: to establish the diagnosis of hemochromatosis type 1 in Cuba, and calculate its frequencies in patients with hepatopathies. Methods: an analytic cross-sectional study was conducted including 65 patients with liver disease, who were referred to the laboratory of Molecular Biology of the National Medical Genetics Center by clinical geneticists. A PCR-RFLP analysis was used for detecting the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene. Results: PCR-RFLP analysis was standardized for the detection of C282Y and H63D mutations. Frequencies of C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene in patients with hepatopathies were 6.3% and 18.2% respectively. Conclusions: molecular diagnosis of C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene causing hemochromatosis type 1 contributed to the identification of 28 carriers in the 65 patients who were studied, as well as a homozygous individual for the H63D mutation, which shows the high prevalence of these mutations in Cuban patients with liver disease.

  10. Predicting C282Y Homozygote Genotype for Hemochromatosis Using Serum Ferritin and Transferrin Saturation Values from 44,809 Participants of the HEIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The simultaneous interpretation of serum ferritin level and transferrin saturation has been used as a clinical guide to diagnose genetic hemochromatosis. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS Study screened 101,168 North American participants for serum ferritin level and transferrin saturation, and C282Y genotyping for the HFE gene.

  11. Mutation analysis of the ERCC4/FANCQ gene in hereditary breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kohlhase

    Full Text Available The ERCC4 protein forms a structure-specific endonuclease involved in the DNA damage response. Different cancer syndromes such as a subtype of Xeroderma pigmentosum, XPF, and recently a subtype of Fanconi Anemia, FA-Q, have been attributed to biallelic ERCC4 gene mutations. To investigate whether monoallelic ERCC4 gene defects play some role in the inherited component of breast cancer susceptibility, we sequenced the whole ERCC4 coding region and flanking untranslated portions in a series of 101 Byelorussian and German breast cancer patients selected for familial disease (set 1, n = 63 or for the presence of the rs1800067 risk haplotype (set 2, n = 38. This study confirmed six known and one novel exonic variants, including four missense substitutions but no truncating mutation. Missense substitution p.R415Q (rs1800067, a previously postulated breast cancer susceptibility allele, was subsequently screened for in a total of 3,698 breast cancer cases and 2,868 controls from Germany, Belarus or Russia. The Gln415 allele appeared protective against breast cancer in the German series, with the strongest effect for ductal histology (OR 0.67; 95%CI 0.49; 0.92; p = 0.003, but this association was not confirmed in the other two series, with the combined analysis yielding an overall Mantel-Haenszel OR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.81; 1.08. There was no significant effect of p.R415Q on breast cancer survival in the German patient series. The other three detected ERCC4 missense mutations included two known rare variants as well as a novel substitution, p.E17V, that we identified on a p.R415Q haplotype background. The p.E17V mutation is predicted to be probably damaging but was present in just one heterozygous patient. We conclude that the contribution of ERCC4/FANCQ coding mutations to hereditary breast cancer in Central and Eastern Europe is likely to be small.

  12. HFE Gene Mutations and Iron Status in 100 Healthy Polish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorowska-Hac, Barbara; Luszczyk, Marcin; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Adamkiewicz-Drozynska, Elzbieta; Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Milosz, Ewa; Kaczor, Jan J

    2017-07-01

    Iron participates in oxygen transport, energetic, metabolic, and immunologic processes. There are 2 main causes of iron overload: hereditary hemochromatosis which is a primary cause, is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations of genes that control iron metabolism and secondary hemochromatosis caused by multitransfusions, chronic hemolysis, and intake of iron rich food. The most common type of hereditary hemochromatosis is caused by HFE gene mutation. In this study, we analyzed iron metabolism in 100 healthy Polish children in relation to their HFE gene status. The wild-type HFE gene was predominant being observed in 60 children (60%). Twenty-five children (25%), presented with heterozygotic H63D mutation, and 15 children (15%), presented with other mutations (heterozygotic C282Y and S65C mutation, compound heterozygotes C282Y/S65C, C282Y/H63D, H63D homozygote). The mean concentration of iron, the level of ferritin, and transferrin saturation were statistically higher in the group of HFE variants compared with the wild-type group. H63D carriers presented with higher mean concentration of iron, ferritin levels, and transferrin saturation compared with the wild-type group. Male HFE carriers presented with higher iron concentration, transferrin saturation, and ferritin levels than females. This preliminary investigation demonstrates allelic impact on potential disease progression from childhood.

  13. Hereditary pancreatitis for the endoscopist

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Milan R.; Eppolito, Amanda L.; Willingham, Field F.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis shares a majority of clinical and morphologic features with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, but may present at an earlier age. The term hereditary pancreatitis has primarily been associated with mutations in the serine protease 1 gene (PRSS1) which encodes for cationic trypsinogen. PRSS1 mutations account for approximately 68–81% of hereditary pancreatitis. Mutations in other genes, primarily serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) and the cystic fibrosis trans...

  14. FAMILY ANAMNESIS OF CHILDREN WITH MUTATION OF THE INHERITED HEMOCHROMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Polyakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherited burdened is studied on diseases, associated with an overload iron in 41 children with frequent mutations of the inherited hemochromatosis (IG of a 1 type (C282y, H63d, S65c. Control group was made by 27 children with undiscovered frequent mutations of NG. Frequencies of iron-associated diseases are compared for 560 members of families which have children with mutations of IG and 390 members of families which have children without IG mutations. Some features of medical-genealogical anamnesis, which can be conditioned of siderosis, are exposed, and indirectly specify in the presence of mutations in the gene of HFE. So, the high frequency of oncologic diseases, diabetes mellitus, hepatocirrhosis and deaths of relatives under the age of 50 years are the foundation for research of exchange of iron and holding of molecular-genetic research of the inherited hemochromatosis. Key words: inherited hemochromatosis, heredity, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:52-56

  15. Hereditary Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…

  16. Prevalence of Germline Mutations in Genes Engaged in DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination in Patients with Triple-Negative and Hereditary Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Domagala

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the prevalence of common germline mutations in several genes engaged in the repair of DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers. Tumors deficient in this type of DNA damage repair are known to be especially sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents (e.g., platinum drugs and to poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors.Genetic testing was performed for 36 common germline mutations in genes engaged in the repair of DNA by homologous recombination, i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, ATM, PALB2, BARD1, and RAD51D, in 202 consecutive patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers.Thirty five (22.2% of 158 patients in the triple-negative group carried mutations in genes involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination, while 10 (22.7% of the 44 patients in the hereditary non-triple-negative group carried such mutations. Mutations in BRCA1 were most frequent in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (18.4%, and mutations in CHEK2 were most frequent in patients with hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers (15.9%. In addition, in the triple-negative group, mutations in CHEK2, NBN, and ATM (3.8% combined were found, while mutations in BRCA1, NBN, and PALB2 (6.8% combined were identified in the hereditary non-triple-negative group.Identifying mutations in genes engaged in DNA damage repair by homologous recombination other than BRCA1/2 can substantially increase the proportion of patients with triple-negative breast cancer and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancer who may be eligible for therapy using PARP inhibitors and platinum drugs.

  17. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  18. Sequence analysis of the Ras-MAPK pathway genes SOS1, EGFR & GRB2 in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes): candidate genes for hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jo-Anna B J; Tully, Sara J; Dawn Marshall, H

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis (HHG) is an autosomal recessive disease that presents with progressive gingival proliferation in farmed silver foxes. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is an analogous condition in humans that is genetically heterogeneous with several known autosomal dominant loci. For one locus the causative mutation is in the Son of sevenless homologue 1 (SOS1) gene. For the remaining loci, the molecular mechanisms are unknown but Ras pathway involvement is suspected. Here we compare sequences for the SOS1 gene, and two adjacent genes in the Ras pathway, growth receptor bound protein 2 (GRB2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), between HHG-affected and unaffected foxes. We conclude that the known HGF causative mutation does not cause HHG in foxes, nor do the coding regions or intron-exon boundaries of these three genes contain any candidate mutations for fox gum disease. Patterns of molecular evolution among foxes and other mammals reflect high conservation and strong functional constraints for SOS1 and GRB2 but reveal a lineage-specific pattern of variability in EGFR consistent with mutational rate differences, relaxed functional constraints, and possibly positive selection.

  19. Total and cause-specific mortality by elevated transferrin saturation and hemochromatosis genotype in individuals with diabetes - two general population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveMortality is increased in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, in individuals from the general population with increased transferrin saturation(TS), and also in patients with diabetes type 1 and increased TS from a highly specialised diabetes clinic. Thus, we have recommended targeted...... and hemochromatosis genotype(HFE) C282Y/C282Y in individuals with diabetes(type 1,N=118;type 2,N=3228;total,N=3346).ResultsThe cumulative survival was reduced in individuals with diabetes with TS≥50% vs....

  20. Combined mutation and rearrangement screening by quantitative PCR high-resolution melting: is it relevant for hereditary recurrent Fever genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pallares-Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent identification of genes implicated in hereditary recurrent fevers has allowed their specific diagnosis. So far however, only punctual mutations have been identified and a significant number of patients remain with no genetic confirmation of their disease after routine molecular approaches such as sequencing. The possible involvement of sequence rearrangements in these patients has only been examined in familial Mediterranean fever and was found to be unlikely. To assess the existence of larger genetic alterations in 3 other concerned genes, MVK (Mevalonate kinase, NLRP3 (Nod like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 and TNFRSF1A (TNF receptor superfamily 1A, we adapted the qPCR-HRM method to study possible intragenic deletions and duplications. This single-tube approach, combining both qualitative (mutations and quantitative (rearrangement screening, has proven effective in Lynch syndrome diagnosis. Using this approach, we studied 113 unselected (prospective group and 88 selected (retrospective group patients and identified no intragenic rearrangements in the 3 genes. Only qualitative alterations were found with a sensitivity similar to that obtained using classical molecular techniques for screening punctual mutations. Our results support that deleterious copy number alterations in MVK, NLRP3 and TNFRSF1A are rare or absent from the mutational spectrum of hereditary recurrent fevers, and demonstrate that a routine combined method such as qPCR-HRM provides no further help in genetic diagnosis. However, quantitative approaches such as qPCR or SQF-PCR did prove to be quick and effective and could still be useful after non contributory punctual mutation screening in the presence of clinically evocative signs.

  1. Startle responses in hereditary hyperekplexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Voorkamp, L. M.; Padberg, G. W.; van Dijk, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hereditary hyperekplexia have excessive startle responses that are accompanied by transient stiffness and also continuous stiffness in infancy. A point of mutation has been identified for the major form of hereditary hyperekplexia in the gene encoding the alpha 1 subunit of

  2. Startle responses in hereditary hyperekplexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Voorkamp, LM; Padberg, GW; vanDijk, JG

    Background: Patients with hereditary hyperekplexia have excessive startle responses that are accompanied by transient stiffness and also continuous stiffness in infancy. A point of mutation has been identified for the major form of hereditary hyperekplexia in the gene encoding the alpha 1 subunit of

  3. Frequent genes in rare diseases: panel-based next generation sequencing to disclose causal mutations in hereditary neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrn, Maike F; Glöckle, Nicola; Mulahasanovic, Lejla; Heller, Corina; Mohr, Julia; Bauer, Christine; Riesch, Erik; Becker, Andrea; Battke, Florian; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Hornemann, Thorsten; Suriyanarayanan, Saranya; Blankenburg, Markus; Schulz, Jörg B; Claeys, Kristl G; Gess, Burkhard; Katona, Istvan; Ferbert, Andreas; Vittore, Debora; Grimm, Alexander; Wolking, Stefan; Schöls, Ludger; Lerche, Holger; Korenke, G Christoph; Fischer, Dirk; Schrank, Bertold; Kotzaeridou, Urania; Kurlemann, Gerhard; Dräger, Bianca; Schirmacher, Anja; Young, Peter; Schlotter-Weigel, Beate; Biskup, Saskia

    2017-12-01

    Hereditary neuropathies comprise a wide variety of chronic diseases associated to more than 80 genes identified to date. We herein examined 612 index patients with either a Charcot-Marie-Tooth phenotype, hereditary sensory neuropathy, familial amyloid neuropathy, or small fiber neuropathy using a customized multigene panel based on the next generation sequencing technique. In 121 cases (19.8%), we identified at least one putative pathogenic mutation. Of these, 54.4% showed an autosomal dominant, 33.9% an autosomal recessive, and 11.6% an X-linked inheritance. The most frequently affected genes were PMP22 (16.4%), GJB1 (10.7%), MPZ, and SH3TC2 (both 9.9%), and MFN2 (8.3%). We further detected likely or known pathogenic variants in HINT1, HSPB1, NEFL, PRX, IGHMBP2, NDRG1, TTR, EGR2, FIG4, GDAP1, LMNA, LRSAM1, POLG, TRPV4, AARS, BIC2, DHTKD1, FGD4, HK1, INF2, KIF5A, PDK3, REEP1, SBF1, SBF2, SCN9A, and SPTLC2 with a declining frequency. Thirty-four novel variants were considered likely pathogenic not having previously been described in association with any disorder in the literature. In one patient, two homozygous mutations in HK1 were detected in the multigene panel, but not by whole exome sequencing. A novel missense mutation in KIF5A was considered pathogenic because of the highly compatible phenotype. In one patient, the plasma sphingolipid profile could functionally prove the pathogenicity of a mutation in SPTLC2. One pathogenic mutation in MPZ was identified after being previously missed by Sanger sequencing. We conclude that panel based next generation sequencing is a useful, time- and cost-effective approach to assist clinicians in identifying the correct diagnosis and enable causative treatment considerations. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. A novel mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D gene in siblings with the hereditary paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaithra Prasad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene are now known to be associated with hereditary paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma syndromes. Since the initial succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene mutation was identified about a decade ago, more than 131 unique variants have been reported. We report the case of two siblings presenting with multiple paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas; they were both found to carry a mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene involving a substitution of thymine to guanine at nucleotide 236 in exon 3. This particular mutation of the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene has only been reported in one previous patient in Japan; this is, therefore, the first report of this pathogenic mutation in siblings and the first report of this mutation in North America. With continued screening of more individuals, we will be able to create a robust mutation database that can help us understand disease patterns associated with particular variants and may be a starting point in the development of new therapies for familial paraganglioma syndromes.

  5. Differing impact of the deletion of hemochromatosis-associated molecules HFE and transferrin receptor-2 on the iron phenotype of mice lacking bone morphogenetic protein 6 or hemojuvelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Chloé; Besson-Fournier, Céline; Meynard, Delphine; Silvestri, Laura; Gourbeyre, Ophélie; Aguilar-Martinez, Patricia; Schmidt, Paul J; Fleming, Mark D; Roth, Marie-Paule; Coppin, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis, which is characterized by inappropriately low levels of hepcidin, increased dietary iron uptake, and systemic iron accumulation, has been associated with mutations in the HFE, transferrin receptor-2 (TfR2), and hemojuvelin (HJV) genes. However, it is still not clear whether these molecules intersect in vivo with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)/mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) homolog signaling, the main pathway up-regulating hepcidin expression in response to elevated hepatic iron. To answer this question, we produced double knockout mice for Bmp6 and β2-microglobulin (a surrogate for the loss of Hfe) and for Bmp6 and Tfr2, and we compared their phenotype (hepcidin expression, Bmp/Smad signaling, hepatic and extrahepatic tissue iron accumulation) with that of single Bmp6-deficient mice and that of mice deficient for Hjv, alone or in combination with Hfe or Tfr2. Whereas the phenotype of Hjv-deficient females was not affected by loss of Hfe or Tfr2, that of Bmp6-deficient females was considerably worsened, with decreased Smad5 phosphorylation, compared with single Bmp6-deficient mice, further repression of hepcidin gene expression, undetectable serum hepcidin, and massive iron accumulation not only in the liver but also in the pancreas, the heart, and the kidneys. These results show that (1) BMP6 does not require HJV to transduce signal to hepcidin in response to intracellular iron, even if the loss of HJV partly reduces this signal, (2) another BMP ligand can replace BMP6 and significantly induce hepcidin expression in response to extracellular iron, and (3) BMP6 alone is as efficient at inducing hepcidin as the other BMPs in association with the HJV/HFE/TfR2 complex; they provide an explanation for the compensatory effect of BMP6 treatment on the molecular defect underlying Hfe hemochromatosis in mice. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... them there. Depending on the lab, the level is 25 to 50 µg/L. After phlebotomy reduces serum ferritin levels to the desired level, patients may need maintenance phlebotomy treatment every few months. Some ...

  7. Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  8. Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment, the disease can cause these organs to fail. Iron is an essential nutrient found in many ... Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give ...

  9. HEMOCHROMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frijo jose

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available 36 year old male with no history of blood transfusion in the past, presented with features of left heart failure and presyncope. He had sparse facial, axillary and pubic hair, hyperpigmentation of skin, palms, palate and history of impotence.

  10. Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider sends the liver sample to a pathology lab where the pathologist—a doctor who specializes ... Journal of Pediatrics. 2009;155(4):566–571. March 2014 Share This content is provided as a ...

  11. Hereditary angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease; HAE- Hereditary angioedema; Kallikrein inhibitor-HAE: bradykinin receptor antagonist-HAE; C1-inhibitors-HAE; Hives-HAE ... aunt, uncle, or grandparent. Dental procedures, sickness (including colds and the flu), and surgery may trigger HAE ...

  12. Exceptions to the rule: case studies in the prediction of pathogenicity for genetic variants in hereditary cancer genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, E T; Bowles, K R; Pruss, D; van Kan, A; Vail, P J; McElroy, H; Wenstrup, R J

    2015-12-01

    Based on current consensus guidelines and standard practice, many genetic variants detected in clinical testing are classified as disease causing based on their predicted impact on the normal expression or function of the gene in the absence of additional data. However, our laboratory has identified a subset of such variants in hereditary cancer genes for which compelling contradictory evidence emerged after the initial evaluation following the first observation of the variant. Three representative examples of variants in BRCA1, BRCA2 and MSH2 that are predicted to disrupt splicing, prematurely truncate the protein, or remove the start codon were evaluated for pathogenicity by analyzing clinical data with multiple classification algorithms. Available clinical data for all three variants contradicts the expected pathogenic classification. These variants illustrate potential pitfalls associated with standard approaches to variant classification as well as the challenges associated with monitoring data, updating classifications, and reporting potentially contradictory interpretations to the clinicians responsible for translating test outcomes to appropriate clinical action. It is important to address these challenges now as the model for clinical testing moves toward the use of large multi-gene panels and whole exome/genome analysis, which will dramatically increase the number of genetic variants identified. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Obstetrical Complications and Outcome in Two Families with Hereditary Angioedema due to Mutation in the F12 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Picone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud. Hereditary angioedema (HAE is characterized by recurrent swelling of the skin, the abdomen (causing severe acute pain, and the airways. A recently discovered type caused by mutations in the factor XII gene (designated as HAE type III occurs mainly in women. Estrogens may play an important role, but few obstetrical complications have been reported. Case. We report the symptoms and obstetrical complications of women in two families with HAE attributable to the p. Thr328Lys mutation in the F12 gene. Clinical manifestations included acute and severe maternal abdominal pain, with transient ascites, laryngeal edema, and fetal and neonatal deaths. Patients had normal C4 levels and a normal C1 inhibitor gene. Administration of C1-inhibitor concentration twice monthly decreased the attack rate in one mother, and its predelivery administration (1000 U led to the delivery of healthy girls. Conclusions. Obstetricians and anesthesiologists should be aware of this rare cause of unexplained maternal ascites and in utero or fetal death associated with edema.

  14. Hereditary familial vestibular degenerative diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Alphen, A.M. van; Wagenaar, M.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Hoogenraad, C.C.; Hasson, T.; Koekkoek, S.K.; Bohne, B.A.; Zeeuw, C.I. de

    2001-01-01

    Identification of genes involved in hereditary vestibular disease is growing at a remarkable pace. Mutant mouse technology can be an important tool for understanding the biological mechanism of human vestibular diseases.

  15. HFE gene mutations in coronary atherothrombotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calado R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although iron can catalyze the production of free radicals involved in LDL lipid peroxidation, the contribution of iron overload to atherosclerosis remains controversial. The description of two mutations in the HFE gene (Cys282Tyr and His63Asp related to hereditary hemochromatosis provides an opportunity to address the question of the association between iron overload and atherosclerosis. We investigated the prevalence of HFE mutations in 160 survivors of myocardial infarction with angiographically demonstrated severe coronary atherosclerotic disease, and in 160 age-, gender- and race-matched healthy control subjects. PCR amplification of genomic DNA followed by RsaI and BclI restriction enzyme digestion was used to determine the genotypes. The frequency of the mutant Cys282Tyr allele was identical among patients and controls (0.022; carrier frequency, 4.4%, whereas the mutant His63Asp allele had a frequency of 0.143 (carrier frequency, 27.5% in controls and of 0.134 (carrier frequency, 24.5% in patients. Compound heterozygotes were found in 2 of 160 (1.2% controls and in 1 of 160 (0.6% patients. The finding of a similar prevalence of Cys282Tyr and His63Asp mutations in the HFE gene among controls and patients with coronary atherothrombotic disease, indirectly questions the possibility of an association between hereditary hemochromatosis and atherosclerosis.

  16. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  17. Canine hereditary ataxia in old english sheepdogs and gordon setters is associated with a defect in the autophagy gene encoding RAB24.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryline Agler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters suffer from a juvenile onset, autosomal recessive form of canine hereditary ataxia primarily affecting the Purkinje neuron of the cerebellar cortex. The clinical and histological characteristics are analogous to hereditary ataxias in humans. Linkage and genome-wide association studies on a cohort of related Old English Sheepdogs identified a region on CFA4 strongly associated with the disease phenotype. Targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing of the region identified an A to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located at position 113 in exon 1 of an autophagy gene, RAB24, that segregated with the phenotype. Genotyping of six additional breeds of dogs affected with hereditary ataxia identified the same polymorphism in affected Gordon Setters that segregated perfectly with phenotype. The other breeds tested did not have the polymorphism. Genome-wide SNP genotyping of Gordon Setters identified a 1.9 MB region with an identical haplotype to affected Old English Sheepdogs. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural evaluation of the brains of affected dogs from both breeds identified dramatic Purkinje neuron loss with axonal spheroids, accumulation of autophagosomes, ubiquitin positive inclusions and a diffuse increase in cytoplasmic neuronal ubiquitin staining. These findings recapitulate the changes reported in mice with induced neuron-specific autophagy defects. Taken together, our results suggest that a defect in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, is highly associated with and may contribute to canine hereditary ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters. This finding suggests that detailed investigation of autophagy pathways should be undertaken in human hereditary ataxia.

  18. Therapeutic Depletion of Iron Stores Is Not Associated with a Reduced Hemoglobin Mass in a Hemochromatosis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Wrobel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hereditary hemochromatosis features a dysregulated iron absorption leading to iron overload and organ damage. The regulation of total hemoglobin mass during depletion of iron deposits by therapeutic phlebotomy has not been studied. Case Presentation: The initial ferritin level of the 52-year-old male subject was 1,276 μg/l. Despite successful depletion of iron stores (ferritinmin: 53 μg/l through phlebotomies, total hemoglobin mass stabilized at the pretherapy level. However, regeneration of total hemoglobin mass was accelerated (up to 10.8 g/day. Conclusion: In this hemochromatosis patient, the total hemoglobin mass was not altered in the long term, but regeneration was accelerated, possibly due to elevated body iron content.

  19. Intronic deletions in the SLC34A3 gene: A cautionary tale for mutation analysis of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Tuchman, Shamir; Padgett, Leah R.; Gray, Amie K.; Baluarte, H. Jorge; Econs, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare metabolic disorder, characterized by hypophosphatemia, variable degrees of rickets/osteomalacia, and hypercalciuria secondary to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels. HHRH is caused by mutations in the SLC34A3 gene, which encodes sodium-phosphate co-transporter type IIc. A 6 ½-year-old female presented with a history of nephrolithiasis. Her metabolic evaluation revealed increased 24- hour urine cal...

  20. Evaluation of a workplace hemochromatosis screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, G M; Mignogna, J J; Powell, G S; Hunt, C M

    1999-05-01

    Hemochromatosis is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism with significant health consequences for the employed population. Although screening for hemochromatosis has been recommended, workplace screening programs remain uncommon. In the first year of a newly initiated corporate screening program, 1968 employees were tested. The screening algorithm included measurement of serum iron and transferrin and subsequent ferritin levels in those employees with elevated iron/transferrin ratios. Thirteen percent of men and 21% of women had elevated iron/transferrin ratios. Of these, 14 men and 2 women had elevated ferritin levels. Of these 16, three had liver biopsies and all three have hemochromatosis. The cost of the screening program was $27,850. The cost per diagnosis was $9283 and the cost per year of life saved was $928. These costs compare very favorably with other common workplace screening programs. Several barriers to obtaining definitive diagnoses on all patients with a positive screening result were identified; strategies to overcome these barriers would further enhance the cost effectiveness of the program. We conclude that workplace hemochromatosis screening is highly cost effective and should be incorporated into health promotion/disease prevention programs.

  1. Anti-obesity and pro-diabetic effects of hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mousa Al; Abraham, Deveraprabu; Kushner, James P; McClain, Donald A

    2014-10-01

    Levels of tissue iron contribute to determining diabetes risk, but little is known about the effects of higher iron levels on weight, and on the interaction of weight and iron overload on diabetes risk. Therefore, the effect of iron on body mass index and diabetes in individuals with iron overload from hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), compared to non-HH siblings and historical controls was examined. Chart reviews were performed on a cohort of adults (age ≥40, N = 101) with the common C282Y/C282Y HFE genotype, compared to wild type siblings (N = 32) and comparable NHANES cohorts, with respect to body mass index and diabetes status. Males with HH have lower body mass index (BMI) than control siblings. Females had a trend toward decreased BMI that was not significant, possibly related to decreased degrees of iron overload. In both males and females, increased rates of diabetes were seen, especially in the overweight or obese. High tissue iron levels may be both pro- and anti-diabetic. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in HH is likely dependent upon the degree of iron overload, caloric intake, and other genetic and environmental factors, contributing to the observed heterogeneity in the frequency of disease-related morbidities in HH. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. The infectious disease blood safety risk of Australian hemochromatosis donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Veronica; Bentley, Peter; Bell, Barbara; Pathak, Praveen; Chan, Hiu Tat; Keller, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that blood donors with hereditary hemochromatosis may pose an increased infectious disease risk and adversely affect recipient outcomes. This study compares the infectious disease risk of whole blood (WB) donors enrolled as therapeutic (T) donors to voluntary WB donors to evaluate the safety of blood products provided by the T donors. This was a retrospective cohort study of all WB donations at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service who donated between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, comparing a yearly mean of 11,789 T donors with 107,773 total donations and a yearly mean of 468,889 voluntary WB donors with 2,584,705 total donations. We compared postdonation notification of infectious illnesses, bacterial contamination screening results, and positive tests for blood borne viruses in T and WB donors. Rates of transfusion-transmissible infections in donations destined for component manufacture were significantly lower in therapeutic donations compared to voluntary donations (8.4 vs. 21.6 per 100,000 donations). Bacterial contamination (43.0 vs. 45.9 per 100,000 donations) and postdonation illness reporting (136.2 vs. 110.8 per 100,000 donations) were similar in both cohorts. The Australian therapeutic venisection program enables T donors to provide a safe and acceptable source of donated WB that has a low infectious disease risk profile. © 2016 AABB.

  3. Hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Francisco A

    2005-11-01

    Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal-dominant deficiency of C1 inhibitor--a serpin inhibitor of kallikrein, C1r, C1s, factor XII, and plasmin. Quantitative or qualitative deficiency of C1 inhibitor leads to the generation of vasoactive mediators, most likely bradykinin. The clinical syndrome is repeated bouts of nonpruritic, nonpitting edema of the face, larynx, extermities, and intestinal viscera. Recently, investigators, physicians, and industry have demonstrated a renewed interest in the biology and treatment of hereditary angioedema. Investigators have generated a C1INH-/- mouse model that has demonstrated the importance of the contact activation system for hereditary angioedema-related vascular permeability. An interactive database of mutations is available electronically. Investigators have continued exploration into mRNA/protein levels. The proceedings of a recent workshop have been impressive in the scope and depth. Clinicians have produced consensus documents and expert reviews. The pharmaceutical industry has initiated clinical trails with novel agents. Hereditary angioedema is often misdiagnosed and poorly treated. Diagnosis requires careful medical and family history and the measurement of functional C1 inhibitor and C4 levels. Attenuated androgens, anti-fibrinolytics, and C1 inhibitor concentrates are used for long-term and preprocedure prophylaxis, but have significant drawbacks. C1 inhibitor concentrates and fresh frozen plasma are available for acute intervention. The mainstays of supportive care are airway monitoring, pain relief, hydration, and control of nausea. New agents such as recombinant C1 inhibitor, kallikrein inhibitors, and bradykinin inhibitors may offer safer and more tolerable treatments.

  4. Novel LOVD databases for hereditary breast cancer and colorectal cancer genes in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Cong, Peikuan; Wang, Yue; Lin, Changsong; Yuan, Ying; Dong, Jian; Banerjee, Santasree; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yanling; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Mingqing; Hu, Peter; Zheng, Shu; Zhang, Jin; Qi, Ming

    2011-12-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) is an international consortium of clinicians, geneticists, and researchers from over 30 countries, aiming to facilitate the establishment and maintenance of standards, systems, and infrastructure for the worldwide collection and sharing of all genetic variations effecting human disease. The HVP-China Node will build new and supplement existing databases of genetic diseases. As the first effort, we have created a novel variant database of BRCA1 and BRCA2, mismatch repair genes (MMR), and APC genes for breast cancer, Lynch syndrome, and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), respectively, in the Chinese population using the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD) format. We searched PubMed and some Chinese search engines to collect all the variants of these genes in the Chinese population that have already been detected and reported. There are some differences in the gene variants between the Chinese population and that of other ethnicities. The database is available online at http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/. Our database will appear to users who survey other LOVD databases (e.g., by Google search, or by NCBI GeneTests search). Remote submissions are accepted, and the information is updated monthly. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Correlation of Cardiac and Hepatic Hemosiderosis as Measured by T2*MRI Technique with Ferritin Levels and Hemochromatosis Gene Mutations in Iranian Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Soleiman Soltanpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Organ-specific hemosiderosis and iron overload complications are more serious and more frequent in some patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM compared with others. We investigated whether coinheritance of HFE H63D or C282Y gene mutations in patients with BTM contributes to the phenotypic variation of iron overload complications and assessed the correlation of cardiac and hepatic hemosiderosis with plasma ferritin levels. Methods: We studied 60 patients with BTM with a mean age of 17.5±9.1 years from the Northwest of Iran. HFE gene mutations were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Cardiac and hepatic hemosiderosis was assessed using T2*magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ferritin levels were measured using the enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Ferritin levels showed a strong inverse correlation with hepatic T2*MRI values (r = -0.631, p = 0.001 but a poor correlation with cardiac T2*MRI values (r = -0.297, p = 0.044. The correlation between cardiac T2*MRI values and hepatic T2*MRI values was poor and insignificant (r = 0.287, p = 0.058. Genotype and allele distribution of HFE H63D and C282Y mutation did not differ significantly between patients with and without hepatic or cardiac hemosiderosis (p > 0.050. However, carriers of HFE 63D allele had significantly higher ferritin levels compared with non-carriers (1 903±993 vs. 992±683, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Cardiac T2*MRI values showed a poor correlation with hepatic T2*MRI values and ferritin levels. Accurate assessment of cardiac iron overload in patients with BTM can only be done using the T2*MRI technique. Additionally, HFE H63D is a significant determinant factor for elevated ferritin levels in BTM patients.

  6. The impact of H63D HFE gene carriage on hemoglobin and iron status in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Kaczorowska-Hac; Marcin, Luszczyk; Jedrzej, Antosiewicz; Wieslaw, Ziolkowski; Elzbieta, Adamkiewicz-Drozynska; Malgorzata, Mysliwiec; Ewa, Milosz; Jacek, Kaczor Jan

    2016-12-01

    The molecular mechanism that regulates iron homeostasis is based on a network of signals, which reflect on the iron requirements of the body. Hereditary hemochromatosis is a heterogenic metabolic syndrome which is due to unchecked transfer of iron into the bloodstream and its toxic effects on parenchymatous organs. It is caused by the mutation of genes that encode proteins that help hepcidin to monitor serum iron. These proteins include the human hemochromatosis protein -HFE, transferrin-receptor 2, hemojuvelin in rare instances, and ferroportin. HFE-related hemochromatosis is the most frequent form of the disease. Interestingly, the low penetrance of polymorphic HFE genes results in rare clinical presentation of the disease, predominantly in middle-aged males. Taking into account the wide dispersion of HFE mutation in our population and also its unknown role in heterozygotes, we analyzed the impact of H63D HFE carriage in the developmental age, with respect to gender, on the iron status and hemoglobin concentration of carriers in comparison to those of wild-type HFE gene (12.7 ± 3.07 years, 42 boys and 41 girls). H63D carriers presented higher blood iron, transferrin saturation, and ferritin concentration than wild-type probands (p HFE heterozygotes.

  7. CYBRD1 as a modifier gene that modulates iron phenotype in HFE p.C282Y homozygous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelucchi, Sara; Mariani, Raffaella; Calza, Stefano; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Modignani, Giulia Litta; Bertola, Francesca; Busti, Fabiana; Trombini, Paola; Fraquelli, Mirella; Forni, Gian Luca; Girelli, Domenico; Fargion, Silvia; Specchia, Claudia; Piperno, Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Most patients with hereditary hemochromatosis in the Caucasian population are homozygous for the p.C282Y mutation in the HFE gene. The penetrance and expression of hereditary hemochromatosis differ largely among cases of homozygous p.C282Y. Genetic factors might be involved in addition to environmental factors. In the present study, we analyzed 50 candidate genes involved in iron metabolism and evaluated the association between 214 single nucleotide polymorphisms in these genes and three phenotypic outcomes of iron overload (serum ferritin, iron removed and transferrin saturation) in a large group of 296 p.C282Y homozygous Italians. Polymorphisms were tested for genetic association with each single outcome using linear regression models adjusted for age, sex and alcohol consumption. We found a series of 17 genetic variants located in different genes with possible additive effects on the studied outcomes. In order to evaluate whether the selected polymorphisms could provide a predictive signature for adverse phenotype, we re-evaluated data by dividing patients in two extreme phenotype classes based on the three phenotypic outcomes. We found that only a small improvement in prediction could be achieved by adding genetic information to clinical data. Among the selected polymorphisms, a significant association was observed between rs3806562, located in the 5'UTR of CYBRD1, and transferrin saturation. This variant belongs to the same haplotype block that contains the CYBRD1 polymorphism rs884409, found to be associated with serum ferritin in another population of p.C282Y homozygotes, and able to modulate promoter activity. A luciferase assay indicated that rs3806562 does not have a significant functional role, suggesting that it is a genetic marker linked to the putative genetic modifier rs884409. While our results support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in genes regulating iron metabolism may modulate penetrance of HFE-hereditary hemochromatosis, with emphasis on

  8. Hereditary forms of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, V.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common oncologic disease in the female population. Besides the sporadic occurrence it occurs in the familial and hereditary form. Persons with the occurrence of positive family anamnesis of breast cancer should be actively investigated. In the indicated cases it is necessary to send the woman to genetic examination. In case that the hereditary form of breast cancer is affirmed it is necessary to examine her family relatives. Women with the hereditary form of breast cancer occur in about 5 – 10 % portion from all women diagnosed with breast cancer. Nowadays we already know that 80 % of hereditary breast cancers are due to germ mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 gene. Persons with detected gene mutations must be dispensarized in the centres intended for it. (author)

  9. Proximal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominance association with mutation in the TRK-fused gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Soo; Lee, Hye Jin; Park, Jin-Mo; Hong, Young Bin; Park, Kee-Duk; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Koo, Heasoo; Jung, Sung-Chul; Park, Hyung Soon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Min Goo; Hyun, Young Se; Nakhro, Khriezhanou; Chung, Ki Wha; Choi, Byung-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominance (HMSN-P) has been reported as a rare type of autosomal dominant adult-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. HMSN-P has been described only in Japanese descendants since 1997, and the causative gene has not been found. To identify the genetic cause of HMSN-P in a Korean family and determine the pathogenic mechanism. Genetic and observational analysis. Translational research center for rare neurologic disease. Twenty-eight individuals (12 men and 16 women) from a Korean family with HMSN-P. Whole-exome sequencing, linkage analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging. Through whole-exome sequencing, we revealed that HMSN-P is caused by a mutation in the TRK-fused gene (TFG). Clinical heterogeneities were revealed in HMSN-P between Korean and Japanese patients. The patients in the present report showed faster progression of the disease compared with the Japanese patients, and sensory nerve action potentials of the sural nerve were lost in the early stages of the disease. Moreover, tremor and hyperlipidemia were frequently found. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lower extremity revealed a distinct proximal dominant and sequential pattern of muscular involvement with a clearly different pattern than patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Particularly, endoneural blood vessels revealed marked narrowing of the lumen with swollen vesicular endothelial cells. The underlying cause of HMSN-P proves to be a mutation in TFG that lies on chromosome 3q13.2. This disease is not limited to Japanese descendants, and marked narrowing of endoneural blood vessels was noted in the present study. We believe that TFG can affect the peripheral nerve tissue.

  10. [The polymorphism of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and hemochromatosis (HFE) genes in the radiocontaminated regions residents with different chromosome aberration frequency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T I; Kondrashova, T V; Krikunova, L I; Smirnova, I A; Shentereva, N I; Sychenkova, N I; Rykova, E V; Zharikova, I A; Khorokhorina, V A; Riabchenko, N I; Zamulaeva, I A

    2010-01-01

    The association between polymorphisms in genes COMT, HFE that takes part in oxidative stress regulation, and chromosome aberration frequency in lymphocytes was assessed in 278 female residents of radiation polluted regions of Central Russia: Bryansk (322 kBk/m2) and Tula Districts (137Cs - 171 kBk/m2). The C187G, G845A genotyping of HFE and G1947A (H/L) of COMT was done by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Studied population was divided into 3 subgroups by level of chromosome aberrations per cell (0-2, 3-4, >5). There was shown statistically significant difference in distribution of COMTand HFE genotypes between the groups. The high frequency of chromosome aberrations (> or = 5%) was associated with homozygotes of the high activity COMT G/G and HFE CC. Heterozygotes for G1947A COMT and C187G HFE reveal negative association with the high frequency of chromosome aberrations and correspond to "resistance factors".

  11. An ochre mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene causes hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-resistant rickets in three families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, H.H.; Hughes, M.R.; Thompson, E.T.; Pike, J.W.; O'Malley, B.W.; Malloy, P.J.; Feldman, D.; Hochberg, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -resistant rickets is a rare autosomal-recessive disease resulting from target-organ resistance to the action of the active hormonal form of vitamin D. Four affected children from three related families with the classical syndrome of hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -resistant rickets and the absence of detectable binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in cultured fibroblasts or lymphoblasts were examined for genetic abnormalities in the VDR gene. Genomic DNA from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts of eight family members was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction techniques. Amplified fragments containing the eight structural exons encoding the VDR protein were sequenced. The DNA from all affected children exhibited a single C → A base substitution within exon 7 at nucleotide 970. Although the affected children were all homozygotic for the mutation, the four parents tested all exhibited both wild-type and mutant alleles, indicating a heterozygous state. Recreated mutant receptor exhibited no specific 1,25-[ 3 H]dihydroxyvitamin D 3 binding and failed to activate a cotransfected VDR promoter-reporter gene construct. Thus these findings identify an ochre mutation in a human steroid hormone receptor in patients with hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -resistant rickets

  12. An ochre mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene causes hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D sub 3 -resistant rickets in three families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, H.H.; Hughes, M.R.; Thompson, E.T.; Pike, J.W.; O' Malley, B.W. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Malloy, P.J.; Feldman, D. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA)); Hochberg, Z. (Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel))

    1989-12-01

    Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets is a rare autosomal-recessive disease resulting from target-organ resistance to the action of the active hormonal form of vitamin D. Four affected children from three related families with the classical syndrome of hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets and the absence of detectable binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in cultured fibroblasts or lymphoblasts were examined for genetic abnormalities in the VDR gene. Genomic DNA from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts of eight family members was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction techniques. Amplified fragments containing the eight structural exons encoding the VDR protein were sequenced. The DNA from all affected children exhibited a single C {yields} A base substitution within exon 7 at nucleotide 970. Although the affected children were all homozygotic for the mutation, the four parents tested all exhibited both wild-type and mutant alleles, indicating a heterozygous state. Recreated mutant receptor exhibited no specific 1,25-({sup 3}H)dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} binding and failed to activate a cotransfected VDR promoter-reporter gene construct. Thus these findings identify an ochre mutation in a human steroid hormone receptor in patients with hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets.

  13. Non-coding keratin variants associate with liver fibrosis progression in patients with hemochromatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Strnad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18 are intermediate filament proteins that protect the liver from various forms of injury. Exonic K8/K18 variants associate with adverse outcome in acute liver failure and with liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection or primary biliary cirrhosis. Given the association of K8/K18 variants with end-stage liver disease and progression in several chronic liver disorders, we studied the importance of keratin variants in patients with hemochromatosis. METHODS: The entire K8/K18 exonic regions were analyzed in 162 hemochromatosis patients carrying homozygous C282Y HFE (hemochromatosis gene mutations. 234 liver-healthy subjects were used as controls. Exonic regions were PCR-amplified and analyzed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and DNA sequencing. Previously-generated transgenic mice overexpressing K8 G62C were studied for their susceptibility to iron overload. Susceptibility to iron toxicity of primary hepatocytes that express K8 wild-type and G62C was also assessed. RESULTS: We identified amino-acid-altering keratin heterozygous variants in 10 of 162 hemochromatosis patients (6.2% and non-coding heterozygous variants in 6 additional patients (3.7%. Two novel K8 variants (Q169E/R275W were found. K8 R341H was the most common amino-acid altering variant (4 patients, and exclusively associated with an intronic KRT8 IVS7+10delC deletion. Intronic, but not amino-acid-altering variants associated with the development of liver fibrosis. In mice, or ex vivo, the K8 G62C variant did not affect iron-accumulation in response to iron-rich diet or the extent of iron-induced hepatocellular injury. CONCLUSION: In patients with hemochromatosis, intronic but not exonic K8/K18 variants associate with liver fibrosis development.

  14. The TRK-fused gene is mutated in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Sako, Wataru; Yoshida, Mari; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Tanabe, Osamu; Goto, Jun; Takahashi, Yuji; Date, Hidetoshi; Mitsui, Jun; Ahsan, Budrul; Ichikawa, Yaeko; Iwata, Atsushi; Yoshino, Hiide; Izumi, Yuishin; Fujita, Koji; Maeda, Kouji; Goto, Satoshi; Koizumi, Hidetaka; Morigaki, Ryoma; Ikemura, Masako; Yamauchi, Naoko; Murayama, Shigeo; Nicholson, Garth A; Ito, Hidefumi; Sobue, Gen; Nakagawa, Masanori; Kaji, Ryuji; Tsuji, Shoji

    2012-08-10

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread fasciculations, proximal-predominant muscle weakness, and atrophy followed by distal sensory involvement. To date, large families affected by HMSN-P have been reported from two different regions in Japan. Linkage and haplotype analyses of two previously reported families and two new families with the use of high-density SNP arrays further defined the minimum candidate region of 3.3 Mb in chromosomal region 3q12. Exome sequencing showed an identical c.854C>T (p.Pro285Leu) mutation in the TRK-fused gene (TFG) in the four families. Detailed haplotype analysis suggested two independent origins of the mutation. Pathological studies of an autopsied patient revealed TFG- and ubiquitin-immunopositive cytoplasmic inclusions in the spinal and cortical motor neurons. Fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, a frequent finding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, was also observed in the motor neurons with inclusion bodies. Moreover, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43)-positive cytoplasmic inclusions were also demonstrated. In cultured cells expressing mutant TFG, cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 was demonstrated. These findings indicate that formation of TFG-containing cytoplasmic inclusions and concomitant mislocalization of TDP-43 underlie motor neuron degeneration in HMSN-P. Pathological overlap of proteinopathies involving TFG and TDP-43 highlights a new pathway leading to motor neuron degeneration. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined segregation and linkage analysis of genetic hemochromatosis using affection status, serum iron, and HLA.

    OpenAIRE

    Borecki, I B; Lathrop, G M; Bonney, G E; Yaouanq, J; Rao, D C

    1990-01-01

    Characterizing the distribution of parameters of iron metabolism by hemochromatosis genotype remains an important goal vis-à-vis potential screening strategies to identify individuals at genetic risk, since a specific marker to detect the abnormal gene has not been identified as yet. In the present investigation, we analyze serum iron values in ascertained families using a method which incorporates both segregation of the clinical affection status and the HLA linkage information to identify t...

  16. Four novel germline mutations in the MLH1 and PMS2 mismatch repair genes in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer Haghighi, Mahdi; Radpour, Ramin; Aghajani, Katayoun; Zali, Narges; Molaei, Mahsa; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2009-08-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is the most common cause of early onset hereditary colorectal cancer. In the majority of HNPCC families, microsatellite instability (MSI) and germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes are found. The entire coding sequence of MMR genes (MLH1, MLH2, MLH6, and PMS2) was analyzed using direct sequencing. Also, tumor tests were done as MSI and immunohistochemistry testing. We were able to find three novel MLH1 and one novel PMS2 germline mutations in three Iranian HNPCC patients. The first was a transversion mutation c.346A>C (T116P) and happened in the highly conserved HATPase-c region of MLH1 protein. The second was a transversion mutation c.736A>T (I246L), which caused an amino acid change of isoleucine to leucine. The third mutation (c.2145,6 delTG) was frameshift and resulted in an immature stop codon in five codons downstream. All of these three mutations were detected in the MLH1 gene. The other mutation was a transition mutation, c.676G>A (G207E), which has been found in exon six of the PMS2 gene and caused an amino acid change of glycine to glutamic acid. MSI assay revealed high instability in microsatellite for two patients and microsatellite stable for one patient. In all patients, an abnormal expression of the MMR proteins in HNPCC was related to the above novel mutations.

  17. Neonatal hemochromatosis. Case series from Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M; Mohamed, Afaf M

    2013-12-01

    To review clinical presentations, diagnosis, response to treatment, and outcome of infants with neonatal hemochromatosis (NH). This is a retrospective review of all cases admitted to the Pediatric Department at Salmaniya Medical Center, Manama, Bahrain between March 2008 and May 2011. The diagnosis was based on serum iron and ferritin, alpha-fetoprotein levels (AFP), liver and buccal biopsies, and abdominal MRI scan. Ten patients (8 males and 2 females) were diagnosed with NH. Two patients were intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and 6 were preterm. The median birth weight was 1.700 grams. The median age at presentation was 16 days, and at diagnosis was 23 days. Two patients had positive consanguinity. Clinical presentations of the infants were hepatosplenomegaly (n=5), ascites (n=3), and hypoglycemia (n=6). All patients had raised ferritin levels, prolonged prothrombin time, and 9 patients had high serum iron and serum AFP. Abdominal MRI showed iron overload in the liver (n=8). Liver biopsies showed evidence of hemochromatosis (n=3). Buccal biopsies stained positive for iron (n=1). Eight patients received antioxidant therapy and survived. Two patients passed away. Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare liver disease of newborns with a spectrum of clinical severity. Elevated serum ferritin and AFP support the diagnosis after excluding other causes of neonatal liver failure. The use of antioxidant therapy helps to improve the outcome.

  18. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 is mutated in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalaydjieva, L.; Gresham, D.; Gooding, R.; Heather, L.; Baas, F.; de Jonge, R.; Blechschmidt, K.; Angelicheva, D.; Chandler, D.; Worsley, P.; Rosenthal, A.; King, R. H.; Thomas, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, to which Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease belongs, are a common cause of disability in adulthood. Growing awareness that axonal loss, rather than demyelination per se, is responsible for the neurological deficit in demyelinating CMT disease has focused

  19. Survey of HFE Gene C282Y Mutation in Turkish Beta-Thalassemia Patients and Healthy Population: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Ünal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was planned in order to determine the effect of C282Y mutation in development of secondary hemochromatosis in beta-thalassemia patients and to determine the prevalence and allele frequency of this mutation in a healthy control group. METHODS: Eighty-seven children and young adults (46 males and 41 females; mean age: 15.6±6.1 years, range: 3-30 years with beta-thalassemia major (BTM and 13 beta-thalassemia intermedia (BTI patients (6 males and 7 females; mean age: 19.6±3.5 years, range: 13-26 years were included in the study. The control group comprised 100 healthy blood donors. RESULTS: Neither heterozygous nor homozygous HFE gene C282Y mutation was detected in patients with BTM or BTI, or in control group. CONCLUSION: The C282Y mutation, which is supposed to be responsible for the majority of hereditary hemochromatosis, was not found to have a role in the development of hemochromatosis in beta-thalassemia patients and was not detected in a healthy Turkish population. However, research on larger cohorts of individuals is required in order to determine the exact prevalence of the HFE gene mutation in Turkish populations from diverse ethnic origins and whether it would have an impact on iron loading in thalassemic populations.

  20. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  1. Germline pathogenic variants in PALB2 and other cancer-predisposing genes in families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer without CDH1 mutation: a whole-exome sequencing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewings, Eleanor; Larionov, Alexey; Redman, James; Goldgraben, Mae A; Scarth, James; Richardson, Susan; Brewer, Carole; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ellis, Ian; Evans, D Gareth; Halliday, Dorothy; Izatt, Louise; Marks, Peter; McConnell, Vivienne; Verbist, Louis; Mayes, Rebecca; Clark, Graeme R; Hadfield, James; Chin, Suet-Feung; Teixeira, Manuel R; Giger, Olivier T; Hardwick, Richard; di Pietro, Massimiliano; O'Donovan, Maria; Pharoah, Paul; Caldas, Carlos; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Tischkowitz, Marc

    2018-04-26

    Germline pathogenic variants in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) are strongly associated with the development of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. There is a paucity of data to guide risk assessment and management of families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer that do not carry a CDH1 pathogenic variant, making it difficult to make informed decisions about surveillance and risk-reducing surgery. We aimed to identify new candidate genes associated with predisposition to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer in affected families without pathogenic CDH1 variants. We did whole-exome sequencing on DNA extracted from the blood of 39 individuals (28 individuals diagnosed with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and 11 unaffected first-degree relatives) in 22 families without pathogenic CDH1 variants. Genes with loss-of-function variants were prioritised using gene-interaction analysis to identify clusters of genes that could be involved in predisposition to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. Protein-affecting germline variants were identified in probands from six families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer; variants were found in genes known to predispose to cancer and in lesser-studied DNA repair genes. A frameshift deletion in PALB2 was found in one member of a family with a history of gastric and breast cancer. Two different MSH2 variants were identified in two unrelated affected individuals, including one frameshift insertion and one previously described start-codon loss. One family had a unique combination of variants in the DNA repair genes ATR and NBN. Two variants in the DNA repair gene RECQL5 were identified in two unrelated families: one missense variant and a splice-acceptor variant. The results of this study suggest a role for the known cancer predisposition gene PALB2 in families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and no detected pathogenic CDH1 variants. We also identified new candidate genes associated with disease risk in these families. UK Medical

  2. Andermann syndrome can be a phenocopy of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy--report of a discordant sibship with a compound heterozygous mutation of the KCC3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnik-Schöneborn, S; Hehr, U; von Kalle, T; Bornemann, A; Winkler, J; Zerres, K

    2009-06-01

    Andermann syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), progressive motor-sensory neuropathy, mental retardation and facial features. We report on two siblings with the clinical picture of a demyelinating hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), where only the presence of ACC in the younger brother pointed to the diagnosis of Andermann syndrome. Mutation analysis of the KCC3 (SLC12A6) gene showed a compound heterozygous mutation; a maternal missense mutation c.1616G>A (p.G539D) and a paternal splice mutation c.1118+1G>A in both siblings. We hypothesize that mutations of the KCC3 gene may result in non-syndromic childhood onset HMSN.

  3. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  4. QUOTE-gene(ca): development of a counselee-centered instrument to measure needs and preferences in genetic counseling for hereditary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Arwen; van Dulmen, Sandra; Ausems, Margreet; Schoemaker, Angela; Beemer, Frits; Bensing, Jozien

    2005-05-01

    Counselees' motives for seeking genetic counseling for hereditary cancer have already been investigated, however not using instruments based on counselees' perspective. In addition, expectations regarding the process of counseling have scarcely been assessed. This article describes the construction and psychometric properties of the QUOTE-gene(ca), a counselee-centered instrument intended to measure needs and preferences in genetic counseling for hereditary cancer. Formulation of the items involved input from counselees and the instrument was derived from a conceptual framework for measuring patient satisfaction. Two-hundred new counselees completed a questionnaire containing the instrument and measures of coping style (TMSI), generalized anxiety (STAI) and cancer-related stress reactions (IES), prior to their first consultation. Results showed that the instrument captures relevant issues of concern with high internal consistency, and was associated, as expected, with validated measures of coping style and distress. Responses showed that major concerns prior to counseling relate to: receiving information about risk and preventive strategies; the procedure of counseling; and preferences on how the interaction with the counselor proceeds. Receiving emotional support and discussing emotional aspects were considered relatively less important. Increasing insight into individual needs may help counselors in better addressing these concerns, potentially increasing the likelihood of successful counseling. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Oral manifestations, dental management, and a rare homozygous mutation of the PRDM12 gene in a boy with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VIII: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhennawy, Karim; Reda, Seif; Finke, Christian; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Bartzela, Theodosia

    2017-08-15

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VIII is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder. Chen et al. recently identified the causative gene and characterized biallelic mutations in the PR domain-containing protein 12 gene, which plays a role in the development of pain-sensing nerve cells. Our patient's family was included in Chen and colleagues' study. We performed a literature review of the PubMed library (January 1985 to December 2016) on hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I to VIII genetic disorders and their orofacial manifestations. This case report is the first to describe the oral manifestations, and their treatment, of the recently discovered hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VIII in the medical and dental literature. We report on the oral manifestations and dental management of an 8-month-old white boy with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy-VIII over a period of 16 years. Our patient was homozygous for a mutation of PR domain-containing protein 12 gene and was characterized by insensitivity to pain and thermal stimuli, self-mutilation behavior, reduced sweat and tear production, absence of corneal reflexes, and multiple skin and bone infections. Oral manifestations included premature loss of teeth, associated with dental traumata and self-mutilation, severe soft tissue injuries, dental caries and submucosal abscesses, hypomineralization of primary teeth, and mandibular osteomyelitis. The lack of scientific knowledge on hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy due to the rarity of the disease often results in a delay in diagnosis, which is of substantial importance for the prevention of many complications and symptoms. Interdisciplinary work of specialized medical and dental teams and development of a standardized treatment protocols are essential for the management of the disease. There are many knowledge gaps concerning the management of patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy

  6. Identification of Two Disease-causing Genes TJP2 and GJB2 in a Chinese Family with Unconditional Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hereditary Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 300 genetic loci that have been found to be related to hereditary hearing impairment (HHI, including 92 causative genes for nonsyndromic hearing loss, among which 34 genes are related to autosomal dominant nonsyndromic HHI (ADNSHHI. Traditional linkage analysis and candidate gene sequencing are not effective at detecting the ADNSHHI, especially for the unconditional families that may have more than one pathogenic cause. This study identified two disease-causing genes TJP2 and GJB2 in a Chinese family with unconditional ADNSHHI. Methods: To decipher the genetic code of a Chinese family (family 686 with ADNSHHI, different gene screening techniques have been performed, including linkage analysis, candidate genes screening, high-throughput sequencing and Sanger sequencing. These techniques were done on samples obtained from this family over a period of 10 years. Results: We identified a pathogenic missense mutation, c. 2081G>A (p.G694E, in TJP2, a gene that plays a crucial role in apoptosis and age-related hearing loss (ARHL. The mutation was co-segregated in this pedigree in all, but not in the two patients who presented with different phenotypes from the other affected family members. In one of the two patients, we confirmed that the compound heterozygosity for p.Y136FNx01 and p.G45E in the GJB2 gene may account for the phenotype shown in this patient. Conclusions: We identified the co-occurrence of two genetic causes in family 686. The possible disease-causing missense mutation of TJP2 in family 686 presents an opportunity for further investigation into ARHL. It is necessary to combine various genes screening methods, especially for some unconventional cases.

  7. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  8. A monograph proposing the use of canine mammary tumours as a model for the study of hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Katie; Merner, Nancy D

    2017-05-01

    Canines are excellent models for cancer studies due to their similar physiology and genomic sequence to humans, companion status and limited intra-breed heterogeneity. Due to their affliction to mammary cancers, canines can serve as powerful genetic models of hereditary breast cancers. Variants within known human breast cancer susceptibility genes only explain a fraction of familial cases. Thus, further discovery is necessary but such efforts have been thwarted by genetic heterogeneity. Reducing heterogeneity is key, and studying isolated human populations have helped in the endeavour. An alternative is to study dog pedigrees, since artificial selection has resulted in extreme homogeneity. Identifying the genetic predisposition to canine mammary tumours can translate to human discoveries - a strategy currently underutilized. To explore this potential, we reviewed published canine mammary tumour genetic studies and proposed benefits of next generation sequencing canine cohorts to facilitate moving beyond incremental advances.

  9. A novel A792D mutation in the CSF1R gene causes hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids characterized by slow progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiho Ueda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS is an autosomal dominant white matter disease that causes adult-onset cognitive impairment. The clinical manifestations are a variable combination of personality and behavioral changes, cognitive decline, parkinsonism, spasticity, and epilepsy. In 2012, mutations in the gene encoding colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R were identified as the cause of HDLS. As the numbers of reported mutations are limited, the understanding of whole pathogenesis needs accumulation of disease-causing mutations with detailed clinical descriptions. We describe a Japanese family with autosomal dominant adult-onset cognitive impairment and characteristic white matter lesions. Genetic testing revealed a novel p.A792D mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of CSF1R in two affected family members. The symptom profile of the present cases mostly matched the previously reported cases, with the notable exceptions of late-onset and long disease duration.

  10. Characterization of the hepcidin gene in eight species of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Iga M; Smith, Dale A; Crawshaw, Graham J; Hammermueller, Jutta D; Bienzle, Dorothee; Lillie, Brandon N

    2014-02-01

    Hemochromatosis, or iron storage disease, has been associated with significant liver disease and mortality in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus). The physiologic basis for this susceptibility has not been established. In humans, a deficiency or resistance to the iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin has been implicated in the development of hereditary hemochromatosis. In the present study, we compared the coding sequence of the hepcidin gene in eight species of bats representing three distinct taxonomic families with diverse life histories and dietary preferences. Bat hepcidin mRNA encoded a 23 amino acid signal peptide, a 34 or 35 amino acid pro-region, and a 25 amino acid mature peptide, similar to other mammalian species. Differences in the sequence of the portion of the hepcidin gene that encodes the mature peptide that might account for the increased susceptibility of the Egyptian fruit bat to iron storage disease were not identified. Variability in gene sequence corresponded to the taxonomic relationship amongst species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New allelic variant of autosomal recessive hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 2S resulted from mutations in gene IGHMBP2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Dadali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders with more than 80 genes linked to different phenotypes, including IGHMBP2 gene responsible for HMSN type 2S (OMIM 616155. Until recently, mutations in IGHMBP2 were exclusively associated with neonatal distal spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD1, OMIM 604320. A case report presents a boy with infant onset decreased distal muscle tone and weakness, distal wasting and deformation in legs and hands, areflexia and decreased sensation without respiratory involvement; at age seven he had severe fixed kypho-scoliosis. EMG revealed signs distal axonal neuropathy. The exsome sequencing confirmed the allelic variant of two compound heterozygous mutations in gene IGHMBP2: known missens mutation с.1616С>Т (р.Ser539Leu in exone 11 and a novel deletion с.2601_2602delGA in exone 13. The diagnosis of infant HMSN type 2S was confirmed. The phenotype of HMSN type 2S and its diagnostics differences between SMARD1 are discussed.

  12. Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease......-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid...... in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain.Objective and methodsTo perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX...

  13. Hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Craig

    2018-01-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders with the common feature of prominent lower-extremity spasticity, resulting from a length-dependent axonopathy of corticospinal upper motor neurons. The HSPs exist not only in "pure" forms but also in "complex" forms that are associated with additional neurologic and extraneurologic features. The HSPs are among the most genetically diverse neurologic disorders, with well over 70 distinct genetic loci, for which about 60 mutated genes have already been identified. Numerous studies elucidating the molecular pathogenesis underlying HSPs have highlighted the importance of basic cellular functions - especially membrane trafficking, mitochondrial function, organelle shaping and biogenesis, axon transport, and lipid/cholesterol metabolism - in axon development and maintenance. An encouragingly small number of converging cellular pathogenic themes have been identified for the most common HSPs, and some of these pathways present compelling targets for future therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mössner Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic pancreatitis of other causes. The clinical presentation is highly variable and includes chronic abdominal pain, impairment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, nausea and vomiting, maldigestion, diabetes, pseudocysts, bile duct and duodenal obstruction, and rarely pancreatic cancer. Fortunately, most patients have a mild disease. Mutations in the PRSS1 gene, encoding cationic trypsinogen, play a causative role in chronic pancreatitis. It has been shown that the PRSS1 mutations increase autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, and thus probably cause premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation disturbing the intrapancreatic balance of proteases and their inhibitors. Other genes, such as the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2, the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1 and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis (idiopathic and hereditary as well. Genetic testing should only be performed in carefully selected patients by direct DNA sequencing and antenatal diagnosis should not be encouraged. Treatment focuses on enzyme and nutritional supplementation, pain management, pancreatic diabetes, and local organ complications, such as pseudocysts, bile duct or duodenal obstruction. The disease course and prognosis of patients with HCP is unpredictable. Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated. Therefore, HCP patients should strongly avoid environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer.

  15. [Connexin gene 26 (GJB2) mutations in patients with hereditary non-syndromic sensorineural loss of hearing in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, N A; Dzhemileva, L U; Fedorova, S A; Maksimova, N R; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the causes of hereditary non-syndromic loss of hearing, a frequent monogene pathology in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). A search for mutations in the coding sequence of the connexin 26 gene gap-junction B2 (GJB2) was undertaken in 79 members of 65 unrelated families with the diagnosis of grade III-IV non-syndromic bilateral sensorineural loss of hearing. Five recessive mutations (35delG, V371, 312-326del14, 333-334delAA, R127H) and three polymorphic variants (V271, M34T, E114G) were identified in Yakut patients. Mutations 35delG (41.7%), 312-326dell4 (4.2%), and 333-334delAA (4.2%) were found in Caucasian patients (Russians, Ukrainians, Inguish). Yakuts were carriers of mutations 35delG (2.1%), V371 (2.1%), R127H (1.0%) and sequence variants V271 (6.3%), M34T (1.0%), E114G (1.0%). GJB2 mutations were identified in 50.1% of the Caucasian patients and in 7.2% of the Yakut patients. The low frequency of GJB2 mutations in Yakuts with non-syndromic sensorineural loss of hearing testifies to the presence of mutations of other genes controlling sound perception in this population.

  16. The hemochromatosis protein HFE 20 years later: An emerging role in antigen presentation and in the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Alexandre; Chung, Jacqueline W; Lapointe, Réjean; Santos, Manuela M

    2017-09-01

    Since its discovery, the hemochromatosis protein HFE has been primarily defined by its role in iron metabolism and homeostasis, and its involvement in the genetic disease termed hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). While HH patients are typically afflicted by dysregulated iron levels, many are also affected by several immune defects and increased incidence of autoimmune diseases that have thereby implicated HFE in the immune response. Growing evidence has supported an immunological role for HFE with recent studies describing HFE specifically as it relates to MHC I antigen presentation. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of the relationship between iron metabolism, HFE, and the immune system to better understand the origin and cause of immune defects in HH patients. We further describe the role of HFE in MHC I antigen presentation and its potential to impair autoimmune responses in homeostatic conditions, a mechanism which may be exploited by tumors to evade immune surveillance. Overall, this increased understanding of the role of HFE in the immune response sets the stage for better treatment and management of HH and other iron-related diseases, as well as of the immune defects related to this condition. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP): report of a family with a new point mutation in PMP22 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Carlo; Spagnoli, Carlotta; Salerno, Grazia Gabriella; Pavlidis, Elena; Frattini, Daniele; Pisani, Francesco

    2017-10-27

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder most commonly presenting with acute-onset, non-painful focal sensory and motor mononeuropathy. Approximately 80% of patients carry a 1.5 Mb deletion of chromosome 17p11.2 involving the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene (PMP22), the same duplicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A patients. In a small proportion of patients the disease is caused by PMP22 point mutations. We report on a familial case harbouring a new point mutation in the PMP22 gene. The proband is a 4-years-old girl with acute onset of focal numbness and weakness in her right hand. Electroneurography demonstrated transient sensory and motor radial nerves involvement. In her father, reporting chronic symptoms (cramps and exercise-induced myalgia), we uncovered mild atrophy and areflexia on clinical examination and a mixed (predominantly demyelinating) polyneuropathy with sensory-motor involvement on electrophysiological study. Both carried a nucleotidic substitution c.178 + 2 T > C on intron 3 of the PMP22 gene, involving the splicing donor site, not reported on databases but predicted to be likely pathogenic. We described a previously unreported point mutation in PMP22 gene, which led to the development of a HNPP phenotype in a child and her father. In children evaluated for a sensory and motor transient episode, HNPP disorder due to PMP22 mutations should be suspected. Clinical and electrophysiological studies should be extended to all family members even in the absence of previous episodes suggestive for HNPP.

  18. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, H. F.; Wijnen, J. T.; Menko, F. H.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Taal, B. G.; Griffioen, G.; Nagengast, F. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, E. H.; Bertario, L.; Varesco, L.; Bisgaard, M. L.; Mohr, J.; Fodde, R.; Khan, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers. The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of carriers within

  19. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, HFA; Wijnen, JT; Menko, FH; Kleibeuker, JH; Taal, BG; Griffioen, G; Nagengast, FM; MeijersHeijboer, EH; Bertario, L; Varesco, L; Bisgaard, ML; Mohr, J; Fodde, R; Khan, PM

    Background & Aims: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers, The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of

  20. Risk factors for development of dementia in a unique six-year cohort study. I. An exploratory, pilot study of involvement of the E4 allele of apolipoprotein E, mutations of the hemochromatosis-HFE gene, type 2 diabetes, and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Maire; Somerville, Martin J; Hicks, Mark; Garcia, Angeles; Colelli, Teresa; Wright, Emily; Kitaygorodsky, Julia; Jiang, Amy; Ho, Valerie; Parpia, Alyssa; Wong, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for dementia development are not well-defined. We evaluated several factors alone and in combination in a unique cohort of Caucasian volunteers over an approximately 6-year observation window using a nested case/control design. Factors included: apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene variants (the E4 allele is the strongest confirmed genetic predisposing factor for Alzheimer's disease), the hemochromatosis-HFE gene mutations (H63D and C282Y), diabetes, and stroke. At study entry, subjects were ≥65 years of age (M ± SD = 73.0 ± 4.9), had an MMSE score ≥24, and no evidence of cerebrovascular disease or current depression. Genotyping was completed on 163 available DNA samples from three different groups at the study end: those who still had normal cognitive function; those who had developed dementia; and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Analyses were interpreted at the 95% confidence level without Bonferroni corrections. In the subgroup with dementia, all cases of diabetes were type 2 and present at study entry, whereas all strokes occurred during the study. The results highlight apparently synergistic interactions between genetic and medical risk factors for dementia development, gender differences in risk factors, and involvement of HFE mutations. Having E4 (i.e., either of E3/4 or E4/4), C282Y, H63D, diabetes, or stroke alone did not attain significance. Significant predisposing factors with post-hoc power ≥80% were: E4 homozygosity (E4/4)males+females, odds ratio (OR) = 56.0); E4+diabetes (males+females, OR = 13.7; E4+H63D+diabetes (females, OR = 52.0); E4+stroke (males, OR = 46.5). The importance of preventing diabetes and stroke to ward off dementia and the possible role of iron dysmetabolism in dementia are discussed.

  1. HLA haplotype map of river valley populations with hemochromatosis traced through five centuries in Central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, K Sigvard; Ritter, Bernd; Hansson, Norbeth; Chowdhury, Ruma R

    2008-07-01

    The hemochromatosis mutation, C282Y of the HFE gene, seems to have originated from a single event which once occurred in a person living in the north west of Europe carrying human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A3-B7. In descendants of this ancestor also other haplotypes appear probably caused by local recombinations and founder effects. The background of these associations is unknown. Isolated river valley populations may be fruitful for the mapping of genetic disorders such as hemochromatosis. In this study, we try to test this hypothesis in a study from central Sweden where the haplotyope A1-B8 was common. HLA haplotypes and HFE mutations were studied in hemochromatosis patients with present or past parental origin in a sparsely populated (1/km(2)) rural district (n = 8366 in the year of 2005), in central Sweden. Pedigrees were constructed from the Swedish church book registry. Extended haplotypes were studied to evaluate origin of recombinations. There were 87 original probands, 36 females and 51 males identified during 30 yr, of whom 86% carried C282Y/C282Y and 14% C282Y/H63D. Of 32 different HLA haplotypes A1-B8 was the most common (34%), followed by A3-B7 (16%), both in strong linkage disequilibrium with controls, (P females. River valley populations may contain HLA haplotypes reflecting their demographic history. This study has demonstrated that the resistance against recombinations between HLA-A and HFE make HLA haplotypes excellent markers for population movements. Founder effects and genetic drift from bottleneck populations (surviving the plague?) may explain the commonness of the mutation in central Scandinavia. The intergenerational time difference >30 yr was greater than expected and means that the age of the original mutation may be underestimated.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Hereditary pancreatitis Hereditary pancreatitis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary pancreatitis is a genetic condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  3. Mutation in the RPE65 gene causing hereditary retinal dystrophy in the Briard dogs: application of a new detection method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bechyňová, Renata; Dostál, Jaromír; Stratil, Antonín; Jílek, F.; Horák, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2008), s. 176-179 ISSN 1212-1819 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500450578; GA ČR GD523/03/H076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : RPE65 gene * CSNB * dog Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.735, year: 2008

  4. Hereditary pancreatitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael KL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kara L Raphael, Field F Willingham Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Hereditary pancreatitis (HP is a rare cause of acute, recurrent acute, and chronic pancreatitis. It may present similarly to other causes of acute and chronic pancreatitis, and often there has been a protracted evaluation prior to the diagnosis of HP. Since it was first described in 1952, multiple genetic defects that affect the action of digestive enzymes in the pancreas have been implicated. The most common mutations involve the PRSS1, CFTR, SPINK1, and CTRC genes. New mutations in these genes and previously unrecognized mutations in other genes are being discovered due to the increasing use of next-generation genomic sequencing. While the inheritance pathways of these genetic mutations may be variable and complex, sometimes involving coinheritance of other mutations, the clinical presentation of patients tends to be similar. Interactions with environmental triggers often play a role. Patients tend to present at an early age (prior to the second decade of life and have a significantly increased risk for the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients with HP may develop sequelae of chronic pancreatitis such as strictures and fluid collections as well as exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Management of patients with HP involves avoidance of environmental triggers, surveillance for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, medical therapy for endocrine and exocrine insufficiency, pain management, and endoscopic or surgical treatment for complications. Care for affected patients should be individualized, with an emphasis on early diagnosis and multidisciplinary involvement to develop a comprehensive treatment strategy. Keywords: pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, idiopathic pancreatitis, pancreatitis, familial pancreatitis, genetic mutations

  5. HFE gene variants affect iron in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandar, Wint; Connor, James R

    2011-04-01

    Iron accumulation in the brain and increased oxidative stress are consistent observations in many neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, we have begun examination into gene mutations or allelic variants that could be associated with loss of iron homeostasis. One of the mechanisms leading to iron overload is a mutation in the HFE gene, which is involved in iron metabolism. The 2 most common HFE gene variants are C282Y (1.9%) and H63D (8.9%). The C282Y HFE variant is more commonly associated with hereditary hemochromatosis, which is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by iron overload in a number of systemic organs. The H63D HFE variant appears less frequently associated with hemochromatosis, but its role in the neurodegenerative diseases has received more attention. At the cellular level, the HFE mutant protein resulting from the H63D HFE gene variant is associated with iron dyshomeostasis, increased oxidative stress, glutamate release, tau phosphorylation, and alteration in inflammatory response, each of which is under investigation as a contributing factor to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the HFE gene variants are proposed to be genetic modifiers or a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases by establishing an enabling milieu for pathogenic agents. This review will discuss the current knowledge of the association of the HFE gene variants with neurodegenerative diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ischemic stroke. Importantly, the data herein also begin to dispel the long-held view that the brain is protected from iron accumulation associated with the HFE mutations.

  6. Intronic deletions in the SLC34A3 gene: A cautionary tale for mutation analysis of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Tuchman, Shamir; Padgett, Leah R.; Gray, Amie K.; Baluarte, H. Jorge; Econs, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare metabolic disorder, characterized by hypophosphatemia, variable degrees of rickets/osteomalacia, and hypercalciuria secondary to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels. HHRH is caused by mutations in the SLC34A3 gene, which encodes sodium-phosphate co-transporter type IIc. A 6 ½-year-old female presented with a history of nephrolithiasis. Her metabolic evaluation revealed increased 24- hour urine calcium excretion with high serum calcium, low intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and elevated 1,25(OH)2D level. In addition, the patient had low to low-normal serum phosphorus with high urine phosphorus. The patient had normal stature; without rachitic or boney deformities or a history of fractures. Genetic analysis of SLC34A3 revealed the patient to be a compound heterozygote for a novel single base pair deletion in exon 12 (c.1304delG) and 30-base pair deletion in intron 6 (g.1440–1469del). The single-base pair mutation causes a frameshift, which results in premature stop codon. The intronic deletion is likely caused by misalignment of the 4-basepair homologous repeats and results in the truncation of an already small intron to 63 bp, which would impair proper RNA splicing of the intron. This is the fourth unique intronic deletion identified in patients with HHRH, suggesting the frequent occurrence of sequence misalignments in SLC34A3 and the importance of screening introns in patients with HHRH. PMID:24176905

  7. BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-song TENG; Yi ZHENG; Hao-hao WANG

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women today. Some of the patients are hereditary, with a large proportion characterized by mutation in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes. In this review, we provide an overview of these two genes,focusing on their relationship with hereditary breast cancers. BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancers have unique features that differ from the general breast cancers, including alterations in cellular molecules, pathological bases, biological behavior, and a different prevention strategy. But the outcome of BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancers still remains controversial;further studies are needed to elucidate the nature of BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancers.

  8. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Vase, P; Green, A

    1999-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease characterized by telangiectatic lesions. The disease manifestations are variable and include epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Early...

  9. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ulrich Weiss

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli – like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells - and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1 gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare cause of chronic pancreatic inflammation with an early onset, mostly during childhood. Hereditary pancreatitis often starts with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis and the clinical phenotype is not very much different from other etiologies of the disease. The long-lasting inflammation however generates a tumor promoting environment and represents a major risk factor for tumor development This review will reflect our knowledge concerning the specific risk of hereditary pancreatitis patients to develop pancreatic cancer.

  10. Investigação genética da surdez hereditária: mutação do gene da Conexina 26 Genetic investigation of hereditary deafness: connexin 26 gene mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Michele da Silva Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos houve grande progresso na localização de genes associados à deficiência auditiva hereditária, possibilitando diagnósticos cada vez mais precisos e precoces. Mutações no gene da Conexina 26 (GJB2 - Cx26 causam deficiência auditiva. Pela facilidade e benefício do rastreamento de mutações no gene GJB2, o teste genético está se tornando um importante recurso na saúde pública. O objetivo foi realizar pesquisa bibliográfica sobre a mutação do gene da Conexina 26 e sua influência na audição. Foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico por meio de busca eletrônica utilizando os descritores: perda auditiva, genética, triagem genética, Conexina 26, nas bases de dados MEDLINE, SciELO e LILACS, desde a década de 90 até os dias atuais. Concluiu-se que a mutação 35delG da Conexina 26 está potencialmente vinculada a alguns casos de perda auditiva não esclarecida. A pesquisa desta mutação poderia ser incluída na bateria de exames de investigação etiológica da surdez indeterminada, uma vez que esclarece a etiologia de alguns casos e a sua identificação possibilita o aconselhamento genético.In the last few years, great progress has been made in the search for genes associated to hereditary hearing impairment, allowing more precise and earlier diagnosis. Connexin 26 gene mutations (GJB2 - Cx26 cause hearing impairment. Due to the easiness and benefits of the screening of mutations on the gene GJB2, genetic testing is becoming an important resource in public health. The aim of the present study was to conduct a literature research about the mutation of the Connexin 26 gene and its influence in hearing. It was carried out a literature review through electronic search using the keywords: hearing loss, genetics, genetic screening, and Connexin 26, at the databases MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS, from the 90s to the present days. The results indicate that the 35delG mutation of Connexin 26 is potentially associated

  11. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers......Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  12. Expression analysis of the N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 indicates that myelinating Schwann cells are the primary disease target in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Philipp; Sirkowski, Erich E; Scherer, Steven S; Suter, Ueli

    2004-11-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) lead to truncations of the encoded protein and are associated with an autosomal recessive demyelinating neuropathy--hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom. NDRG1 protein is highly expressed in peripheral nerve and is localized in the cytoplasm of myelinating Schwann cells, including the paranodes and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. In contrast, sensory and motor neurons as well as their axons lack NDRG1. NDRG1 mRNA levels in developing and injured adult sciatic nerves parallel those of myelin-related genes, indicating that the expression of NDRG1 in myelinating Schwann cells is regulated by axonal interactions. Oligodendrocytes also express NDRG1, and the subtle CNS deficits of affected patients may result from a lack of NDRG1 in these cells. Our data predict that the loss of NDRG1 leads to a Schwann cell autonomous phenotype resulting in demyelination, with secondary axonal loss.

  13. Organization and Running of the First Comprehensive Hereditary Cancer Clinic in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar T

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary cancers are thought to account for around 5% of cancers, particularly breast/ovarian and colorectal cancers. In India there is a paucity of data on hereditary cancers and the mutations in some of the common genes linked to hereditary cancers, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, hMSH2 and hMLH1. The country's first comprehensive hereditary cancer clinic was established in February 2002. The article describes the organization and running of the Clinic. It also discusses some of the social issues relevant to the given population in running the Hereditary Cancer Clinic.

  14. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  15. Imaging of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carette, Marie-France; Nedelcu, Cosmina; Tassart, Marc; Grange, Jean-Didier; Wislez, Marie; Khalil, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    This pictorial review is based on our experience of the follow-up of 120 patients at our multidisciplinary center for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or HHT is a multiorgan autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance, characterized by epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The research on gene mutations is fundamental and family screening by clinical examination, chest X-ray, research of pulmonary shunting, and abdominal color Doppler sonography is absolutely necessary. The angioarchitecture of pulmonary AVMs can be studied by unenhanced multidetector computed tomography; however, all other explorations of liver, digestive bowels, or brain require administration of contrast media. Magnetic resonance angiography is helpful for central nervous system screening, in particular for the spinal cord, but also for pulmonary, hepatic, and pelvic AVMs. Knowledge of the multiorgan involvement of HHT, mechanism of complications, and radiologic findings is fundamental for the correct management of these patients.

  16. Hemochromatosis C282Y gene mutation as a potential susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.M. Mokhtar

    2017-08-12

    Aug 12, 2017 ... ease (36.6%), delayed puberty (56.6%), primary (35.71%) and secondary amenorrhea (21.42%), short stature. (27.3%) .... guineous marriage (61.5%) and a high rate of positive family his- .... Safer food, better business.

  17. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Frank U.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli – like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells - and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare cause of chronic...

  18. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  19. Analysis of HFE gene mutations and HLA-A alleles in Brazilian patients with iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hemochromatosis is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism and one of the most important causes of iron overload. The objective was to analyze the presence of C282Y, H63D and S65C mutations in the HFE gene and HLA-A alleles for a group of Brazilian patients with iron overload, and to correlate genotype with clinical and laboratory variables. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study, in Discipline of Hematology and Oncology, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. METHODS: We studied 35 patients with iron overload seen at our outpatient unit between January 2001 and December 2003. Fasting levels of serum iron and ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity, were assayed using standard techniques. Determinations of C282Y, H63D and S65C mutations in the HFE gene and of HLA-A alleles were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: Twenty-six out of 35 patients (74% presented at least one of the HFE gene mutations analyzed. Among these, five (14% were C282Y/C282Y, four (11% C282Y/H63D, one (3% H63D/H63D, six (17% C282Y/WT and ten (29% H63D/WT. No patients had the S65C mutation and nine (25% did not present any of the three HFE mutations. Four out of five patients with C282Y/C282Y genotype (80% and three out of four patients with C282Y/H63D genotype (75% were HLA A*03. CONCLUSION: Analysis of HFE gene mutations constitutes an important procedure in identifying patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, particularly for patients with iron overload.

  20. [Using value of information analysis in decision making about applied research. The case of genetic screening for hemochromatosis in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, W H; Grosse, S D; Meyer, E; John, J; Palmer, S

    2012-05-01

    Public decision makers face demands to invest in applied research in order to accelerate the adoption of new genetic tests. However, such an investment is profitable only if the results gained from further investigations have a significant impact on health care practice. An upper limit for the value of additional information aimed at improving the basis for reimbursement decisions is given by the expected value of perfect information (EVPI). This study illustrates the significance of the concept of EVPI on the basis of a probabilistic cost-effectiveness model of screening for hereditary hemochromatosis among German men. In the present example, population-based screening can barely be recommended at threshold values of 50,000 or 100,000 Euro per life year gained and also the value of additional research which might cause this decision to be overturned is small: At the mentioned threshold values, the EVPI in the German public health care system was ca. 500,000 and 2,200,000 Euro, respectively. An analysis of EVPI by individual parameters or groups of parameters shows that additional research about adherence to preventive phlebotomy could potentially provide the highest benefit. The potential value of further research also depends on methodological assumptions regarding the decision maker's time horizon as well as on scenarios with an impact on the number of affected patients and the cost-effectiveness of screening.

  1. Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis in Eight Chinese Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Chao Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mutations of transthyretin (TTR cause the most common type of autosomal-dominant hereditary systemic amyloidosis, which occurs worldwide. To date, more and more mutations in the TTR gene have been reported. Some variations in the clinical presentation are often observed in patients with the same mutation or the patients in the same family. The purpose of this study was to find out the clinicopathologic and genetic features of Chinese patients with hereditary TTR amyloidosis. Methods: Clinical and necessary examination materials were collected from nine patients of eight families with hereditary TTR amyloidosis at Peking University First Hospital from January 2007 to November 2014. Sural nerve biopsies were taken for eight patients and skin biopsies were taken in the calf/upper arm for two patients, for light and electron microscopy examination. The TTR genes from the nine patients were analyzed. Results: The onset age varied from 23 to 68 years. The main manifestations were paresthesia, proximal and/or distal weakness, autonomic dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, vitreous opacity, hearing loss, and glossohypertrophia. Nerve biopsy demonstrated severe loss of myelinated fibers in seven cases and amyloid deposits in three. One patient had skin amyloid deposits which were revealed from electron microscopic examination. Genetic analysis showed six kinds of mutations of TTR gene, including Val30Met, Phe33Leu, Ala36Pro, Val30Ala, Phe33Val, and Glu42Gly in exon 2. Conclusions: Since the pathological examinations of sural nerve were negative for amyloid deposition in most patients, the screening for TTR mutations should be performed in all the adult patients, who are clinically suspected with hereditary TTR amyloidosis.

  2. EAMJ Oct Hereditary.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HEREDITARY GINGIVAL FIBROMATOSIS: REPORT OF FAMILY CASE SERIES. E. G. Wagaiyu ... Senior Lecturer, Department of Periodontology/Community and Preventive Dentistry, ... fibrous connective tissue held in chronically inflamed.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary fructose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Hereditary fructose intolerance Hereditary fructose intolerance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary fructose intolerance is a condition that affects a person's ...

  4. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with cerebellar ataxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Johnsen, B; Koefoed, P

    2004-01-01

    Complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are rare and usually transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. A family of four generations with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) and a complex phenotype with variably expressed co-existing ataxia, dysarthria......, unipolar depression, epilepsy, migraine, and cognitive impairment was investigated. Genetic linkage analysis and sequencing of the SPG4 gene was performed and electrophysiologic investigations were carried out in six individuals and positron emission tomography (PET) in one patient. The disease was linked...... in those individuals who were clinically affected by a complex phenotype consisting of HSP and cerebellar ataxia. Other features noted in this kindred including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, depression, and migraine did not segregate with the HSP phenotype or mutation, and therefore the significance...

  5. Molecular biology of hereditary diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T Mary; Bichet, Daniel G

    2005-10-01

    The identification, characterization, and mutational analysis of three different genes-the arginine vasopressin gene (AVP), the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 gene (AVPR2), and the vasopressin-sensitive water channel gene (aquaporin 2 [AQP2])-provide the basis for understanding of three different hereditary forms of "pure" diabetes insipidus: Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), and non-X-linked NDI, respectively. It is clinically useful to distinguish two types of hereditary NDI: A "pure" type characterized by loss of water only and a complex type characterized by loss of water and ions. Patients who have congenital NDI and bear mutations in the AVPR2 or AQP2 genes have a "pure" NDI phenotype with loss of water but normal conservation of sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium. Patients who bear inactivating mutations in genes (SLC12A1, KCNJ1, CLCNKB, CLCNKA and CLCNKB in combination, or BSND) that encode the membrane proteins of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle have a complex polyuro-polydipsic syndrome with loss of water, sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. These advances provide diagnostic and clinical tools for physicians who care for these patients.

  6. Hemochromatosis enhances tumor progression via upregulation of intracellular iron in head and neck cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lenarduzzi

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in treatment strategies for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC, outcomes have not significantly improved; highlighting the importance of identifying novel therapeutic approaches to target this disease. To address this challenge, we proceeded to evaluate the role of iron in HNSCC.Expression levels of iron-related genes were evaluated in HNSCC cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR. Cellular phenotypic effects were assessed using viability (MTS, clonogenic survival, BrdU, and tumor formation assays. The prognostic significance of iron-related proteins was determined using immunohistochemistry.In a panel of HNSCC cell lines, hemochromatosis (HFE was one of the most overexpressed genes involved in iron regulation. In vitro knockdown of HFE in HNSCC cell lines significantly decreased hepcidin (HAMP expression and intracellular iron level. This in turn, resulted in a significant decrease in HNSCC cell viability, clonogenicity, DNA synthesis, and Wnt signalling. These cellular changes were reversed by re-introducing iron back into HNSCC cells after HFE knockdown, indicating that iron was mediating this phenotype. Concordantly, treating HNSCC cells with an iron chelator, ciclopirox olamine (CPX, significantly reduced viability and clonogenic survival. Finally, patients with high HFE expression experienced a reduced survival compared to patients with low HFE expression.Our data identify HFE as potentially novel prognostic marker in HNSCC that promotes tumour progression via HAMP and elevated intracellular iron levels, leading to increased cellular proliferation and tumour formation. Hence, these findings suggest that iron chelators might have a therapeutic role in HNSCC management.

  7. Hereditary angioedema in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillet Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women with hereditary angioedema (HAE are more likely to be symptomatic that men. Hormonal factors (puberty, contraception, pregnancy,.... play a significant role in the precipitation or worsening of the condition in women. So, combined contraceptive pills are not indicated and progestogen pill must be preferred. During pregnancy, attack rate can increase (38-48% of women. C1Inhibitor concentrate and tranexamic acid can be used during pregnancy. Attenuated androgens for long term prophylaxis are effective but side effects appear more often in female patients. These side effects are dose dependant and can be attenuated by titrating the dose down the lowest effective level.

  8. Hereditary Angioedema in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Line; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare inherited disease that is often difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy with a spontaneous mutation causing HAE, diagnosed after a life-threatening episode of angioedema of the head and upper respiratory tract after a 5-year history of r...... of recurrent skin swellings and abdominal pain leading to several hospital admissions. The aim of this report is to direct focus on this rare disease, which can be treated effectively, to diminish morbidity and mortality of children suffering from undiagnosed HAE....

  9. Diagnosis of hepatic iron overload: a family study illustrating pitfalls in diagnosing hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranz, Melanie; Talasz, Heribert; Graziadei, Ivo; Winder, Thomas; Sergi, Consolato; Bogner, Klaus; Vogel, Wolfgang; Zoller, Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Recent identification of genetic variants in iron storage disease has changed the classification system and diagnostic algorithms for hemochromatosis. Clinical diagnosis of the disease requires phenotypic evidence of iron overload because the commonly disease-associated HFE genotypes have an incomplete penetrance. Furthermore, approximately 20% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of hemochromatosis have no disease-associated genotype, which underlines the importance of clear phenotypic criteria of hemochromatosis. A diagnosis of hemochromatosis cannot be made even in patients with liver cirrhosis simply on the basis of genetic testing that indicates that iron overload is the cause of the disease and not its consequence. Proper diagnosis requires integration of clinical presentation, family history, and the results of biochemical and histopathologic tests. Here we propose a rational diagnostic algorithm for hepatic iron overload syndromes and illustrate potential pitfalls by presenting a family study in a pedigree with rare HFE variants (H63D and E168Q), in cis on the same chromosome. Although the clinical suspicion of hemochromatosis was confirmed by histology, chemical analysis of liver tissue revealed a normal hepatic iron concentration, which is compatible with the genetic finding of 1 normal and 1 doubly mutated allele. In conclusion, clinical suspicion of hemochromatosis and elevated serum iron parameters should prompt HFE genotyping for C282Y and H63D. Should they be uninformative, further genetic tests should be recommended only if iron overload in liver tissue has been confirmed chemically.

  10. A Comparison Between Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Detecting Mutations in Genes Associated with Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and the Identification of 9 New Mutations Previously Unidentified by DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meldrum Cliff J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography is a relatively new method by which heteroduplex structures formed during the PCR amplification of heterozygote samples can be rapidly identified. The use of this technology for mutation detection in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC has the potential to appreciably shorten the time it takes to analyze genes associated with this disorder. Prior to acceptance of this method for screening genes associated with HNPCC, assessment of the reliability of this method should be performed. In this report we have compared mutation and polymorphism detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC in a set of 130 families. All mutations/polymorphisms representing base substitutions, deletions, insertions and a 23 base pair inversion were detected by DHPLC whereas DGGE failed to identify four single base substitutions and a single base pair deletion. In addition, we show that DHPLC has been used for the identification of 5 different mutations in exon 7 of hMSH2 that could not be detected by DGGE. From this study we conclude that DHPLC is a more effective and rapid alternative to the detection of mutations in hMSH2 and hMLH1 with the same or better accuracy than DGGE. Furthermore, this technique offers opportunities for automation, which have not been realised for the majority of other methods of gene analysis.

  11. Long-term auxological and pubertal outcome of patients with hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency (Laron and growth hormone-gene deletion syndrome) treated with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, M F; Arrigo, T; Valenzise, M; Ghizzoni, L; Caruso-Nicoletti, M; Zucchini, S; Chiabotto, P; Crisafulli, G; Zirilli, G; De Luca, F

    2011-04-01

    GH-IGF-I axis is mainly involved in the complex process of somatic growth but emerging evidence suggests that it also influences hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function. We report some data regarding long-term auxological and pubertal outcome of five female patients with hereditary forms of GH-IGF-I deficiency (Laron and GH-gene deletion syndrome) and a mean age of 23.4±5.3 yr (range 19-32). All the patients received recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I, Pharmacia and Upjohn, Stockholm, Sweden, and rhIGF-I, Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA) from a mean age of 8.6 yr (range 3.2-14.2) up to the final height. Final height was very disappointing (≤ -5.0 SD scores) and lower than target height in all the patients. Pubertal onset was delayed in most of them but menarche occurred spontaneously in all the patients. Median age at menarche was 15.1 yr. Menstrual cycles were regular for several years. Median duration of gynecological follow- up was 8.3 yr with the longest span of 17.2 yr. We can assert that GH-IGF-I axis has an essential role in promoting linear growth in humans and its physiological action cannot be replaced by pharmacological treatment in most patients with hereditary forms of IGF-I insufficiency as demonstrated by their subnormal final height. Our clinical observations can also support an essential role of IGF-I in genitalia growth but not in the function of HPG axis as demonstrated by the maintenance of regular menstrual cycles in the presence of subnormal levels of IGF-I after treatment discontinuation.

  12. Surveillance for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: a long-term study on 114 families.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos tot Nederveen Cappel, W.H. de; Nagengast, F.M.; Griffioen, G.; Menko, F.H.; Taal, B.G.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Vasen, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Mutation carriers have a 60 to 85 percent risk of developing colorectal cancer. In the Netherlands hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families are monitored in an intensive

  13. Surveillance for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer - A long-term study on 114 families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappel, WHDTN; Nagengast, FM; Griffioen, G; Menko, FH; Taal, BG; Kleibeuker, JH; Vasen, HF

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Mutation carriers have a 60 to 85 percent risk of developing colorectal cancer. In the Netherlands hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families are monitored in an intensive

  14. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  15. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  16. Advances and challenges in hereditary cancer pharmacogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascorbi, Ingolf; Werk, Anneke Nina

    2017-01-01

    Cancer pharmacogenetics usually considers tumor-specific targets. However, hereditary genetic variants may interfere with the pharmacokinetics of antimetabolites and other anti-cancer drugs, which may lead to severe adverse events. Areas covered: Here, the impact of hereditary genes considered in drug labels such as thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UTG1A1) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) are discussed with respect to guidelines of the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC). Moreover, the association between genetic variants of drug transporters with the clinical outcome is comprehensively discussed. Expert opinion: Precision therapy in the field of oncology is developing tremendously. There are a number of somatic tumor genetic markers that are indicative for treatment with anti-cancer drugs. By contrast, for some hereditary variants, recommendations have been developed. Although we have vast knowledge on the association between drug transporter variants and clinical outcome, the overall data is inconsistent and the predictability of the related phenotype is low. Further developments in research may lead to the discovery of rare, but functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms and a better understanding of multiple genomic, epigenomic as well as phenotypic factors, contributing to drug response in malignancies.

  17. Hereditary neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezsarlak, O. E-mail: ozkan.ozsarlak@uza.be; Schepens, E.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W. van; Vanhoenacker, F.; Schepper, A.M. de; Martin, J.J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents the actual classification of neuromuscular diseases based on present expansion of our knowledge and understanding due to genetic developments. It summarizes the genetic and clinical presentations of each disorder together with CT findings, which we studied in a large group of patients with neuromuscular diseases. The muscular dystrophies as the largest and most common group of hereditary muscle diseases will be highlighted by giving detailed information about the role of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis. The radiological features of neuromuscular diseases are atrophy, hypertrophy, pseudohypertrophy and fatty infiltration of muscles on a selective basis. Although the patterns and distribution of involvement are characteristic in some of the diseases, the definition of the type of disease based on CT scan only is not always possible.

  18. Hereditary breast cancer: from molecular pathology to tailored therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D S P; Marchiò, C; Reis-Filho, J S

    2008-10-01

    Hereditary breast cancer accounts for up to 5-10% of all breast carcinomas. Recent studies have demonstrated that mutations in two high-penetrance genes, namely BRCA1 and BRCA2, are responsible for about 16% of the familial risk of breast cancer. Even though subsequent studies have failed to find another high-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene, several genes that confer a moderate to low risk of breast cancer development have been identified; moreover, hereditary breast cancer can be part of multiple cancer syndromes. In this review we will focus on the hereditary breast carcinomas caused by mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, Fanconi anaemia (FANC) genes, CHK2 and ATM tumour suppressor genes. We describe the hallmark histological features of these carcinomas compared with non-hereditary breast cancers and show how an accurate histopathological diagnosis may help improve the identification of patients to be screened for mutations. Finally, novel therapeutic approaches to treat patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ line mutations, including cross-linking agents and PARP inhibitors, are discussed.

  19. Neonatal hemochromatosis and patent ductus venosus: clinical course and diagnostic pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Andy; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Sena, Laureen M.; Kim, Heung Bae; Fishman, Steven J.; Alomari, Ahmad I.

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by excessive iron deposition within the liver leading to hepatic failure and portal hypertension. We describe the clinical course and imaging findings in three infants with neonatal hemochromatosis associated with patent ductus venosus. We paid special attention to the diagnostic challenges encountered in these patients in order to emphasize some of the potential diagnostic pitfalls. We conducted a comprehensive search of our radiology database of the last 10 years (1999-2008) for the keywords ''neonatal hemochromatosis.'' Medical records and imaging studies of various modalities were reviewed. Three neonates were found to have neonatal hemochromatosis; all of them were associated with patent ductus venosus. Two of these patients were referred to our tertiary center for embolization of an inaccurately diagnosed hepatic vascular malformation. Two patients underwent successful liver transplantation and one died shortly after referral. The awareness and inclusion of neonatal hemochromatosis in the differential diagnosis of newborns with liver failure and patent ductus venosus has critical treatment implications. (orig.)

  20. Neonatal hemochromatosis and patent ductus venosus: clinical course and diagnostic pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Sena, Laureen M. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, Heung Bae; Fishman, Steven J. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Alomari, Ahmad I. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by excessive iron deposition within the liver leading to hepatic failure and portal hypertension. We describe the clinical course and imaging findings in three infants with neonatal hemochromatosis associated with patent ductus venosus. We paid special attention to the diagnostic challenges encountered in these patients in order to emphasize some of the potential diagnostic pitfalls. We conducted a comprehensive search of our radiology database of the last 10 years (1999-2008) for the keywords ''neonatal hemochromatosis.'' Medical records and imaging studies of various modalities were reviewed. Three neonates were found to have neonatal hemochromatosis; all of them were associated with patent ductus venosus. Two of these patients were referred to our tertiary center for embolization of an inaccurately diagnosed hepatic vascular malformation. Two patients underwent successful liver transplantation and one died shortly after referral. The awareness and inclusion of neonatal hemochromatosis in the differential diagnosis of newborns with liver failure and patent ductus venosus has critical treatment implications. (orig.)

  1. A role for MLH3 in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y; Berends, MJW; Sijmons, RH; Mensink, RGJ; Verlind, E; Kooi, KA; van der Sluis, T; Kempinga, C; van der Zee, AGJ; Hollema, H; Buys, CHCM; Kleibeuker, JH; Hofstra, RMW

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a possible role of the mismatch-repair gene MLH3 in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer by scanning for mutations in 39 HNPCC families and in 288 patients suspected of having HNPCC. We identified ten different germline MLH3 variants, one frameshift and nine missense mutations,

  2. Alterations of red blood cell metabolome in overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darghouth, D.; Koehl, B.; Heilier, J.F.; Madalinski, G.; Bovee, P.H.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Delaunay, J.; Junot, C.; Romeo, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, clinically characterized by hemolytic anemia, is a rare disorder of the erythrocyte membrane permeability to monovalent cations, associated with mutations in the Rh-associated glycoprotein gene. We assessed the red blood cell metabolome of 4 patients with this

  3. Intragenic duplication: a novel mutational mechanism in hereditary pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Maiken T; Geisz, Andrea; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In a hereditary pancreatitis family from Denmark, we identified a novel intragenic duplication of 9 nucleotides in exon-2 of the human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene (c.63_71dup) which at the amino-acid level resulted in the insertion of 3 amino acids within the activation peptide of cationic...

  4. Genetics and ionizing radiations. 1. Genetics and hereditary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrillaux, B.

    1980-01-01

    The desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the chemical vehicle of heredity. Each hereditary character is determined by a short segment of the DNA molecule called gene. Gene operations are governed by regulating systems. The DNA is located in the chromosomes, easily analysed by light microscopy. The chromosome number and form are fairly characteristic of a species. Ours has 46 chromosomes, i.e. 23 pairs. Anomalies of the hereditary stock can be qualitative: affecting one gene they are expressed by diversely serious diseases. They can be quantitative and bear on the lack or excess of a chromosome or a segment of chromosome; most often, resulting diseases are very serious; Downs's syndrome is a well-known example. The various modes of transmission of these hereditary characters are analysed. The change of a chromosome or a gene from a normal to an abnormal form is called a mutation. It occurs scarcely, but the effects of mutations accumulate. At birth, nearly 10% of children should have one abnormal hereditary character at least, however most of these characters do not induce a true disease. Anomalies are more frequent at conception, many abnormal embryos or foetuses being aliminated by miscarriages [fr

  5. Friedreich's ataxia mimicking hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panas, Marios; Kalfakis, Nikolaos; Karadima, Georgia; Davaki, Panagiota; Vassilopoulos, Demetris

    2002-11-01

    Four patients from three unrelated families, with clinical and electrophysiological findings compatible with the diagnosis of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, are presented. The molecular analysis showed that the affected individuals were homozygous for the mutation in the X25 gene, characteristic of Friedreich's ataxia. These patients seem to represent a form of Friedreich's ataxia mimicking Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

  6. HFE gene: Structure, function, mutations, and associated iron abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Edwards, Corwin Q; Acton, Ronald T

    2015-12-15

    The hemochromatosis gene HFE was discovered in 1996, more than a century after clinical and pathologic manifestations of hemochromatosis were reported. Linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p, HFE encodes the MHC class I-like protein HFE that binds beta-2 microglobulin. HFE influences iron absorption by modulating the expression of hepcidin, the main controller of iron metabolism. Common HFE mutations account for ~90% of hemochromatosis phenotypes in whites of western European descent. We review HFE mapping and cloning, structure, promoters and controllers, and coding region mutations, HFE protein structure, cell and tissue expression and function, mouse Hfe knockouts and knockins, and HFE mutations in other mammals with iron overload. We describe the pertinence of HFE and HFE to mechanisms of iron homeostasis, the origin and fixation of HFE polymorphisms in European and other populations, and the genetic and biochemical basis of HFE hemochromatosis and iron overload. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inactivation of the Tumor Suppressor Genes Causing the Hereditary Syndromes Predisposing to Head and Neck Cancer via Promoter Hypermethylation in Sporadic Head and Neck Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ian M.; Mithani, Suhail K.; Mydlarz, Wojciech K.; Chang, Steven S.; Califano, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) and dyskeratosis congenita (DC) are rare inherited syndromes that cause head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Prior studies of inherited forms of cancer have been extremely important in elucidating tumor suppressor genes inactivated in sporadic tumors. Here, we studied whether sporadic tumors have epigenetic silencing of the genes causing the inherited forms of HNSCC. Using bisulfite sequencing, we investigated the incidence of promoter hypermethylation of the 17 Fan...

  8. Difference between age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in the hereditary contribution of the A69S variant of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene (ARMS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Suiho; Kondo, Naoshi; Miki, Akiko; Matsumiya, Wataru; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Tsukahara, Yasutomo; Honda, Shigeru; Negi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether the A69S variant of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene (ARMS2) has a different hereditary contribution in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). We initially conducted a comparative genetic analysis of neovascular AMD and PCV, genotyping the ARMS2 A69S variant in 181 subjects with neovascular AMD, 198 subjects with PCV, and 203 controls in a Japanese population. Genotyping was conducted using TaqMan technology. Results were then integrated into a meta-analysis of previous studies representing an assessment of the association between the ARMS2 A69S variant and neovascular AMD and/or PCV, comprising a total of 3,828 subjects of Asian descent. The Q-statistic test was used to assess between-study heterogeneity. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a fixed effects model. The genetic effect of the A69S variant was stronger in neovascular AMD (allelic summary OR=3.09 [95% CI, 2.71-3.51], fixed effects parchitecture of this phenotypically heterogeneous disorder.

  9. Intragenic Duplication A Novel Mutational Mechanism in Hereditary Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, M. T.; Geisz, A.; Brusgaard, K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In a hereditary pancreatitis family from Denmark, we identified a novel intragenic duplication of 9 nucleotides in exon-2 of the human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene (c.63_71dup) which at the amino-acid level resulted in the insertion of 3 amino acids within the activation peptide...... pancreatitis. The accelerated activation of p.K23_I24insIDK by cathepsin B is a unique biochemical property not found in any other pancreatitis-associated trypsinogen mutant. In contrast, the robust autoactivation of the novel mutant confirms the notion that increased autoactivation is a disease......-relevant mechanism in hereditary pancreatitis....

  10. Hereditary Gigantism-the biblical giant Goliath and his brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Deirdre E; Morrison, Patrick J

    2014-05-01

    The biblical giant Goliath has an identifiable family tree suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. We suggest that he had a hereditary pituitary disorder possibly due to the AIP gene, causing early onset and familial acromegaly or gigantism. We comment on the evidence within the scriptures for his other relatives including a relative with six digits and speculate on possible causes of the six digits. Recognition of a hereditary pituitary disorder in the biblical Goliath and his family sheds additional information on his and other family members' battles with David and his relatives.

  11. Is Pancreatic Cancer Hereditary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for BRCA2 gene mutations. We advise that people speak with a trained cancer genetics counselor before undergoing genetic ... and PALB2 gene mutations. We advise that people speak with a trained cancer genetics counselor before undergoing genetic ...

  12. Clinical and genetic characteristics of Chinese hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xu-Lin; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Cai, Shan-Rong; Huang, Yan-Qin; Jiang, Qiang; Zheng, Shu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical characteristics of Chinese hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families and to screen the germline mutations of human mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 in the probands.

  13. Effects of highly conserved major histocompatibility complex (MHC extended haplotypes on iron and low CD8+ T lymphocyte phenotypes in HFE C282Y homozygous hemochromatosis patients from three geographically distant areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Costa

    Full Text Available Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH is a recessively inherited disorder of iron overload occurring commonly in subjects homozygous for the C282Y mutation in HFE gene localized on chromosome 6p21.3 in linkage disequilibrium with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A locus. Although its genetic homogeneity, the phenotypic expression is variable suggesting the presence of modifying factors. One such genetic factor, a SNP microhaplotype named A-A-T, was recently found to be associated with a more severe phenotype and also with low CD8(+T-lymphocyte numbers. The present study aimed to test whether the predictive value of the A-A-T microhaplotype remained in other population settings. In this study of 304 HH patients from 3 geographically distant populations (Porto, Portugal 65; Alabama, USA 57; Nord-Trøndelag, Norway 182, the extended haplotypes involving A-A-T were studied in 608 chromosomes and the CD8(+ T-lymphocyte numbers were determined in all subjects. Patients from Porto had a more severe phenotype than those from other settings. Patients with A-A-T seemed on average to have greater iron stores (p = 0.021, but significant differences were not confirmed in the 3 separate populations. Low CD8(+ T-lymphocytes were associated with HLA-A*03-A-A-T in Porto and Alabama patients but not in the greater series from Nord-Trøndelag. Although A-A-T may signal a more severe iron phenotype, this study was unable to prove such an association in all population settings, precluding its use as a universal predictive marker of iron overload in HH. Interestingly, the association between A-A-T and CD8(+ T-lymphocytes, which was confirmed in Porto and Alabama patients, was not observed in Nord-Trøndelag patients, showing that common HLA haplotypes like A*01-B*08 or A*03-B*07 segregating with HFE/C282Y in the three populations may carry different messages. These findings further strengthen the relevance of HH as a good disease model to search for novel candidate loci

  14. Hemochromatosis Enhances Tumor Progression via Upregulation of Intracellular Iron in Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarduzzi, Michelle; Hui, Angela B. Y.; Yue, Shijun; Ito, Emma; Shi, Wei; Williams, Justin; Bruce, Jeff; Sakemura-Nakatsugawa, Noriko; Xu, Wei; Schimmer, Aaron; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite improvements in treatment strategies for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), outcomes have not significantly improved; highlighting the importance of identifying novel therapeutic approaches to target this disease. To address this challenge, we proceeded to evaluate the role of iron in HNSCC. Experimental Design Expression levels of iron-related genes were evaluated in HNSCC cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR. Cellular phenotypic effects were assessed using viability (MTS), clonogenic survival, BrdU, and tumor formation assays. The prognostic significance of iron-related proteins was determined using immunohistochemistry. Results In a panel of HNSCC cell lines, hemochromatosis (HFE) was one of the most overexpressed genes involved in iron regulation. In vitro knockdown of HFE in HNSCC cell lines significantly decreased hepcidin (HAMP) expression and intracellular iron level. This in turn, resulted in a significant decrease in HNSCC cell viability, clonogenicity, DNA synthesis, and Wnt signalling. These cellular changes were reversed by re-introducing iron back into HNSCC cells after HFE knockdown, indicating that iron was mediating this phenotype. Concordantly, treating HNSCC cells with an iron chelator, ciclopirox olamine (CPX), significantly reduced viability and clonogenic survival. Finally, patients with high HFE expression experienced a reduced survival compared to patients with low HFE expression. Conclusions Our data identify HFE as potentially novel prognostic marker in HNSCC that promotes tumour progression via HAMP and elevated intracellular iron levels, leading to increased cellular proliferation and tumour formation. Hence, these findings suggest that iron chelators might have a therapeutic role in HNSCC management. PMID:23991213

  15. The natural history of serum iron indices for HFE C282Y homozygosity associated with hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrin, Lyle C; Osborne, Nicholas J; Constantine, Clare C; McLaren, Christine E; English, Dallas R; Gertig, Dorota M; Delatycki, Martin B; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Anderson, Gregory J; Olynyk, John K; Powell, Laurie W; Allen, Katrina J

    2008-12-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TS) levels in individuals homozygous for the C282Y mutation. We characterized the development of elevated iron measures in C282Y homozygotes followed for 12 years. From 31,192 people aged 40-69 years at baseline, we identified 203 C282Y homozygotes (95 males), of whom 116 had SF and fasting TS levels measured at baseline (mean age, 55 years) and 86 were untreated and had iron measures at follow-up (mean, 12 years later). The probabilities of SF at follow-up exceeding clinical thresholds were predicted from baseline SF and TS under a multivariate normal model. For C282Y homozygotes, at baseline, 84% of males and 65% of females had elevated SF and 37% of males and 3% of females had SF >1000 microg/L. For males with SF 300-1000 microg/L at baseline, the predicted probability of progressing to SF >1000 microg/L at follow-up was between 13% and 35% and, for females, between 16% and 22%. For C282Y homozygotes with normal baseline SF, 1000 microg/L if left untreated. The majority of C282Y homozygotes who are likely to develop SF levels sufficient to place them at risk of iron overload-related disease will have done so by mean age 55 years. TS >95% at mean age 55 years in males increases the likelihood that SF levels will be elevated at mean age 65 years, but this effect is absent in females, most likely because of physiologic blood loss associated with menstruation.

  16. HFE gene polymorphism defined by sequence-based typing of the Brazilian population and a standardized nomenclature for HFE allele sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, W N; Massaro, J D; Martinelli, A L C; Halliwell, J A; Marsh, S G E; Mendes-Junior, C T; Donadi, E A

    2017-10-01

    The HFE molecule controls iron uptake from gut, and defects in the molecule have been associated with iron overload, particularly in hereditary hemochromatosis. The HFE gene including both coding and boundary intronic regions were sequenced in 304 Brazilian individuals, encompassing healthy individuals and patients exhibiting hereditary or acquired iron overload. Six sites of variation were detected: (1) H63D C>G in exon 2, (2) IVS2 (+4) T>C in intron 2, (3) a C>G transversion in intron 3, (4) C282Y G>A in exon 4, (5) IVS4 (-44) T>C in intron 4, and (6) a new guanine deletion (G>del) in intron 5, which were used for haplotype inference. Nine HFE alleles were detected and six of these were officially named on the basis of the HLA Nomenclature, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System, and published via the IPD-IMGT/HLA website. Four alleles, HFE*001, *002, *003, and *004 exhibited variation within their exon sequences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Changes of iron concentrations in skin and plasma of patients with hemochromatosis along therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Alves, L.C.; Neres, M.; Pinheiro, T.; Barreiros, A.; Fleming, R.; Silva, J.N.; Filipe, P.; Silva, R.

    2009-01-01

    Skin as a manageable organ can provide direct or indirect information of tissue iron overload resulting from inherited disorders as hemochromatosis. Patients with hemochromatosis were evaluated at three consecutive phases along the therapy programme. Nuclear microprobe techniques were used to assess skin iron and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence to determine the plasma iron concentrations. Results showed that iron pools were differently correlated at the three therapy phases. These variations highlighted the value of skin iron content to assess organ iron deposition and therapy efficacy. Skin iron content can be used for a better management of patients with iron overload pathologies. (author)

  18. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Polymorphisms in Iron Homeostasis Genes: New Insights from a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Castiglione

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Even if various pathophysiological events have been proposed as explanations, the putative cause of sudden hearing loss remains unclear. Objectives. To investigate and to reveal associations (if any between the main iron-related gene variants and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Study Design. Case-control study. Materials and Methods. A total of 200 sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients (median age 63.65 years; range 10–92 were compared with 400 healthy control subjects. The following genetic variants were investigated: the polymorphism c.−8CG in the promoter of the ferroportin gene (FPN1; SLC40A1, the two isoforms C1 and C2 (p.P570S of the transferrin protein (TF, the amino acidic substitutions p.H63D and p.C282Y in the hereditary hemochromatosis protein (HFE, and the polymorphism c.–582AG in the promoter of the HEPC gene, which encodes the protein hepcidin (HAMP. Results. The homozygous genotype c.−8GG of the SLC40A1 gene revealed an OR for ISSNHL risk of 4.27 (CI 95%, 2.65–6.89; P=0.001, being overrepresented among cases. Conclusions. Our study indicates that the homozygous genotype FPN1 −8GG was significantly associated with increased risk of developing sudden hearing loss. These findings suggest new research should be conducted in the field of iron homeostasis in the inner ear.

  19. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Diffuse Gastric Cancer MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Gastric Cancer National Cancer ... Option Overview General Information from MedlinePlus ( ...

  1. Analysis of PALB2 gene in BRCA1/BRCA2 negative Spanish hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families with pancreatic cancer cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Blanco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The PALB2 gene, also known as FANCN, forms a bond and co-localizes with BRCA2 in DNA repair. Germline mutations in PALB2 have been identified in approximately 1% of familial breast cancer and 3-4% of familial pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in a population of BRCA1/BRCA2 negative breast cancer patients selected from either a personal or family history of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: 132 non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families with at least one pancreatic cancer case were included in the study. PALB2 mutational analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all coding exons and intron/exon boundaries, as well as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. RESULTS: Two PALB2 truncating mutations, the c.1653T>A (p.Tyr551Stop previously reported, and c.3362del (p.Gly1121ValfsX3 which is a novel frameshift mutation, were identified. Moreover, several PALB2 variants were detected; some of them were predicted as pathological by bioinformatic analysis. Considering truncating mutations, the prevalence rate of our population of BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients with pancreatic cancer is 1.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of PALB2 mutations in non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families, selected from either a personal or family pancreatic cancer history, is similar to that previously described for unselected breast/ovarian cancer families. Future research directed towards identifying other gene(s involved in the development of breast/pancreatic cancer families is required.

  2. Cellular characteristics of hereditary diseases of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao

    1978-01-01

    Hereditary diseases of which abnormal characters could be detected at cultured cell level were introduced, and tissue cultures of them were described. Characteristics such as reproduction, disorder, elimination, and repair of DNA in hereditary diseases with high cancer risk such as Bloom syndrome, etc. were investigated. Radiosensitivity of these hereditary diseases was also described, and factors of carcinogenesis were investigated. (Serizawa, K.)

  3. The hepcidin gene promoter nc.-1010C > T; -582A > G haplotype modulates serum ferritin in individuals carrying the common H63D mutation in HFE gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruno; Pita, Lina; Gomes, Susana; Gonçalves, João; Faustino, Paula

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe iron overload. It is usually associated with homozygosity for the HFE gene mutation c.845G > A; p.C282Y. However, in some cases, another HFE mutation (c.187C > G; p.H63D) seems to be associated with the disease. Its penetrance is very low, suggesting the possibility of other iron genetic modulators being involved. In this work, we have screened for HAMP promoter polymorphisms in 409 individuals presenting normal or increased serum ferritin levels together with normal or H63D-mutated HFE genotypes. Our results show that the hepcidin gene promoter TG haplotype, originated by linkage of the nc.-1010C > T and nc.-582A > G polymorphisms, is more frequent in the HFE_H63D individuals presenting serum ferritin levels higher than 300 μg/L than in those presenting the HFE_H63D mutation but with normal serum ferritin levels or in the normal control group.Moreover, it was observed that the TG haplotype was associated to increased serum ferritin levels in the overall pool of HFE_H63D individuals. Thus, our data suggest that screening for these polymorphisms could be of interest in order to explain the phenotype. However, this genetic condition seems to have no clinical significance.

  4. Analysis of Genetic Mutations in a Cohort of Hereditary Optic Neuropathy in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Dekang; Li, Mengwei; Wu, Jihong; Sun, Xinghuai; Tian, Guohong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical classification and characteristics of hereditary optic neuropathy patients in a single center in China. Retrospective case study. Patients diagnosed with hereditary optic neuropathy between January 2014 and December 2015 in the neuro-ophthalmology division in Shanghai Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were recruited. Clinical features as well as visual field, brain/orbital MRI, and spectrum domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were analyzed. Eighty-two patients diagnosed by gene test were evaluated, including 66 males and 16 females. The mean age of the patients was 19.4 years (range, 5-46 years). A total of 158 eyes were analyzed, including 6 unilateral, 61 bilateral, and 15 sequential. The median duration of the disease was 0.5 year (range, 0.1-20 years). Genetic test identified 68 patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, 9 with dominant optic neuropathy, and 2 with a Wolfram gene mutation. There was also one case of hereditary spastic paraplegia, spinocerebellar ataxia, and polymicrogyria with optic nerve atrophy, respectively. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is the most common detected type of hereditary optic neuropathy in Shanghai, China. The detection of other autosomal mutations in hereditary optic neuropathy is limited by the currently available technique.

  5. Drug therapy for hereditary cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyanitov Evgeny N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumors arising in patients with hereditary cancer syndromes may have distinct drug sensitivity as compared to their sporadic counterparts. Breast and ovarian neoplasms from BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by deficient homologous recombination (HR of DNA, that makes them particularly sensitive to platinum compounds or inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. Outstandingly durable complete responses to high dose chemotherapy have been observed in several cases of BRCA-related metastatic breast cancer (BC. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that women with BRCA1-related BC may derive less benefit from taxane-based treatment than other categories of BC patients. There is virtually no reports directly assessing drug response in hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC patients; studies involving non-selected (i.e., both sporadic and hereditary CRC with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H suggest therapeutic advantage of irinotecan. Celecoxib has been approved for the treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP. Hereditary medullary thyroid cancers (MTC have been shown to be highly responsive to a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib, which exerts specific activity towards mutated RET receptor. Given the rapidly improving accessibility of DNA analysis, it is foreseen that the potential predictive value of cancer-associated germ-line mutations will be increasingly considered in the future studies.

  6. Chaperonopathies: spotlight on hereditary motor neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Lupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMN comprise a group of rare hereditary neuromuscular disorders characterized by a peroneal muscular atrophy without sensory symptoms. To date twenty-three genes for dHMN have been reported and four of them encode for chaperones: DNAJB2, which encodes a member of the HSP40/DNAJ co-chaperone family, and HSPB1, HSPB3 and HSPB8, which encode three members of the family of small heat shock proteins. Except for HSPB1, with around thirty different mutations, the remaining three genes comprise a much low number of cases. Thus, only one case has been described caused by an HSPB3 mutation, whereas few DNAJB2 and HSPB8 cases are known, most of them caused by a founder c.352+1G>A mutation in DNAJB2 and by mutations affecting the hot spot K141 residue of the HSPB8 chaperone. This low number of cases makes it difficult to understand the pathomechanism underlying the neuropathy. Chaperones can assemble in multi-chaperone complexes forming an integrative chaperone network in the cell, which plays relevant cellular roles in a variety of processes such as the correct folding of newly synthesized proteins, their escort to their precise cellular locations to form functional proteins and complexes and the response to protein misfolding, including the degradation of proteins that fail to refold properly. Despite of this variety of functions, mutations in some of them lead to diseases with a similar clinical picture, suggesting common pathways. This review gives an overview of the genetics of dHMNs caused by mutations in four genes, DNAJB2, HSPB1, HSPB3 and HSPB8, which encode chaperones and show a common disease mechanism.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of HFE gene polymorphic variants (C282Y, H63D and S65C) in the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L N R; Santos, E V W; Stur, E; Silva Conforti, A M A; Louro, I D

    2016-04-27

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to progressive iron accumulation and may cause cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, diabetes, and heart failure. Most cases of HH have been linked to mutations in genes associated with iron homeostasis. There have been three major variants in the high Fe (HFE) gene associated with the disease: C282Y, H63D and S65C. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the polymorphic variants (C282Y, H63D and S65C) of the HFE gene in the population of the Espírito Santo State (ES), Brazil by analyzing three different groups: general population (N = 120), Pomeranian descendants (N = 59), and patients with HH (N = 20). Using genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood, polymorphic variant identification was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistically significant differences were observed for genotype distribution of C282Y (P HFE gene allele frequencies for the general population, Pomeranian subpopulation, and patients with HH of ES, Brazil.

  8. Hereditary epilepsy syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, PMC; Brouwer, OF

    This paper reviews the present knowledge on the genetics of the epilepsies. Main clinical features, gene localization and pattern of inheritance of the idiopathic epilepsies, the progressive myoclonus epilepsies, and some other genetic disorders often associated with epilepsy, are described. (C)

  9. Association between C282Y and H63D mutations of the HFE gene with hepatocellular carcinoma in European populations: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Xi-Zhong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is an autosomal recessive disorder mainly associated with homozygosity for the C282Y and H63D mutations in the hemochromatosis (HFE gene. The reports about the C282Y and H63D mutations and hepatocellular carninoma (HCC were controversial. To clarify the relationship between C282Y and H63D mutations and HCC, a meta-analysis including nine studies (1102 HCC cases and 3766 controls, mainly came from European populations was performed. Methods The association was measured using random-effect (RE or fixed-effect (FE odds ratios (ORs combined with 95% confidence intervals (CIs according to the studies' heterogeneity. Results Meta-analysis of nine studies showed that Y allele of C282Y was associated with HCC risk: RE OR reached 1.50 (95%CI: 1.05-2.14, p for heterogeneity = 0.02, I2 = 0.57. Subgroup analysis of seven studies also showed Y allele was associated with HCC risk in healthy populations: RE OR reached 1.61 (95%CI: 1.08-2.39, p for heterogeneity = 0.04, I2 = 0.55. We further did subgroup analysis in alcoholic liver cirrhosis (LC patients of four studies (224 cases and 380 controls and found that both the dominant model and Y allele of C282Y were associated with HCC risk (FE OR reached 4.06, 95%CI: 2.08-7.92 and 3.41, 95%CI: 1.81-6.41, respectively. There was no distinct heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 0. Sensitivity analyses showed the results were robust in the subgroup analysis of alcoholic LC patients. Conclusions C282Y mutation was associated with HCC in European alcoholic LC patients.

  10. Deletion of a region that is a candidate for the difference between the deletion forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and deltabeta-thalassemia affects beta- but not gamma-globin gene expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Calzolari (Roberta); T. McMorrow (Tara); N. Yannoutsos (Nikos); A. Langeveld (An); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe analysis of a number of cases of beta-globin thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) due to large deletions in the beta-globin locus has led to the identification of several DNA elements that have been implicated in the switch

  11. The molecular basis of hereditary enamel defects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J T; Carrion, I A; Morris, C

    2015-01-01

    The formation of human enamel is highly regulated at the molecular level and involves thousands of genes. Requisites for development of this highly mineralized tissue include cell differentiation; production of a unique extracellular matrix; processing of the extracellular matrix; altering of cell function during different stages of enamel formation; cell movement and attachment; regulation of ion and protein movement; and regulation of hydration, pH, and other conditions of the microenvironment, to name just a few. Not surprising, there is a plethora of hereditary conditions with an enamel phenotype. The objective of this review was to identify the hereditary conditions listed on Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) that have an associated enamel phenotype and whether a causative gene has been identified. The OMIM database was searched with the terms amelogenesis, enamel, dental, and tooth, and all results were screened by 2 individuals to determine if an enamel phenotype was identified. Gene and gene product function was reviewed on OMIM and from publications identified in PubMed. The search strategy revealed 91 conditions listed in OMIM as having an enamel phenotype, and of those, 71 have a known molecular etiology or linked genetic loci. The purported protein function of those conditions with a known genetic basis included enzymes, regulatory proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, transcription factors, and transmembrane proteins. The most common enamel phenotype was a deficient amount of enamel, or enamel hypoplasia, with hypomineralization defects being reported less frequently. Knowing these molecular defects allows an initial cataloging of molecular pathways that lead to hereditary enamel defects in humans. This knowledge provides insight into the diverse molecular pathways involved in enamel formation and can be useful when searching for the genetic etiology of hereditary conditions that involve enamel. © International & American Associations for

  12. The Molecular Basis of Hereditary Enamel Defects in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, I.A.; Morris, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of human enamel is highly regulated at the molecular level and involves thousands of genes. Requisites for development of this highly mineralized tissue include cell differentiation; production of a unique extracellular matrix; processing of the extracellular matrix; altering of cell function during different stages of enamel formation; cell movement and attachment; regulation of ion and protein movement; and regulation of hydration, pH, and other conditions of the microenvironment, to name just a few. Not surprising, there is a plethora of hereditary conditions with an enamel phenotype. The objective of this review was to identify the hereditary conditions listed on Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) that have an associated enamel phenotype and whether a causative gene has been identified. The OMIM database was searched with the terms amelogenesis, enamel, dental, and tooth, and all results were screened by 2 individuals to determine if an enamel phenotype was identified. Gene and gene product function was reviewed on OMIM and from publications identified in PubMed. The search strategy revealed 91 conditions listed in OMIM as having an enamel phenotype, and of those, 71 have a known molecular etiology or linked genetic loci. The purported protein function of those conditions with a known genetic basis included enzymes, regulatory proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, transcription factors, and transmembrane proteins. The most common enamel phenotype was a deficient amount of enamel, or enamel hypoplasia, with hypomineralization defects being reported less frequently. Knowing these molecular defects allows an initial cataloging of molecular pathways that lead to hereditary enamel defects in humans. This knowledge provides insight into the diverse molecular pathways involved in enamel formation and can be useful when searching for the genetic etiology of hereditary conditions that involve enamel. PMID:25389004

  13. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life...... and a structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  14. Computational Profiling of Deleterious Non-Synonymous SNP’s in HFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarath Raj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis describes a condition where scar tissue gradually replaces healthy cells in liver. The main causes are sustained, excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis B and C, and fatty liver disease - however, there are other possible causes. Hemochromatosis is most common form of iron overload disease. Three types of hemochromatosis are primary hemochromatosis, also called hereditary hemochromatosis; secondary hemochromatosis; and neonatal hemochromatosis. The HFE gene helps regulate the amount of iron absorbed from food and inherited genetic defects or mutation in HFE [C282Y] cause primary hemochromatosis. Computational approach is sought to determine other similar mutations in this gene. In-silico tools such as SIFT, Polyphen 2.0, and PROVEAN were employed to determine the various deleterious ns-SNPs of HFE that may influence cystic fibrosis.

  15. Mechanistic basis of an epistatic interaction reducing age at onset in hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Timothy; Allison, Rachel; Edgar, James R; Lumb, Jennifer H; Rodger, Catherine E; Manna, Paul T; Rizo, Tania; Kohl, Zacharias; Nygren, Anders O H; Arning, Larissa; Schüle, Rebecca; Depienne, Christel; Goldberg, Lisa; Frahm, Christiane; Stevanin, Giovanni; Durr, Alexandra; Schöls, Ludger; Winner, Beate; Beetz, Christian; Reid, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Many genetic neurological disorders exhibit variable expression within affected families, often exemplified by variations in disease age at onset. Epistatic effects (i.e. effects of modifier genes on the disease gene) may underlie this variation, but the mechanistic basis for such epistatic interactions is rarely understood. Here we report a novel epistatic interaction between SPAST and the contiguous gene DPY30, which modifies age at onset in hereditary spastic paraplegia, a genetic axonopathy. We found that patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by genomic deletions of SPAST that extended into DPY30 had a significantly younger age at onset. We show that, like spastin, the protein encoded by SPAST, the DPY30 protein controls endosomal tubule fission, traffic of mannose 6-phosphate receptors from endosomes to the Golgi, and lysosomal ultrastructural morphology. We propose that additive effects on this pathway explain the reduced age at onset of hereditary spastic paraplegia in patients who are haploinsufficient for both genes.

  16. Ancestral association between HLA and HFE H63D and C282Y gene mutations from northwest Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Libia M; Giraldo, Mabel C; Velasquez, Laura I; Alvarez, Cristiam M; Garcia, Luis F; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    A significant association between HFE gene mutations and the HLA-A*03-B*07 and HLA-A*29-B*44 haplotypes has been reported in the Spanish population. It has been proposed that these mutations are probably connected with Celtic and North African ancestry, respectively. We aimed to find the possible ancestral association between HLA alleles and haplotypes associated with the HFE gene (C282Y and H63D) mutations in 214 subjects from Antioquia, Colombia. These were 18 individuals with presumed hereditary hemochromatosis ("HH") and 196 controls. The HLA-B*07 allele was in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with C282Y, while HLA-A*23, A*29, HLA-B*44, and B*49 were in LD with H63D. Altogether, our results show that, although the H63D mutation is more common in the Antioquia population, it is not associated with any particular HLA haplotype, whereas the C282Y mutation is associated with HLA-A*03-B*07, this supporting a northern Spaniard ancestry.

  17. HFE gene mutation and iron overload in Egyptian pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashedi, Farida H; El-Hawy, Mahmoud A; El-Hefnawy, Sally M; Mohammed, Mona M

    2017-08-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations have a role in iron overload in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors. We aimed to evaluate the genotype frequency and allelic distribution of the two HFE gene mutations (C282Y and H63D) in a sample of Egyptian pediatric ALL survivors and to detect the impact of these two mutations on their iron profile. This study was performed on 35 ALL survivors during their follow-up visits to the Hematology and Oncology Unit, Pediatric Department, Menoufia University Hospitals. Thirty-five healthy children of matched age and sex were chosen as controls. After completing treatment course, ALL survivors were screened for the prevalence of these two mutations by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum ferritin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). C282Y mutation cannot be detected in any of the 35 survivors or the 35 controls. The H63D heterozygous state (CG) was detected in 28.6% of the survivors group and in 20% of controls, while the H63D homozygous (GG) state was detected in 17.1% of survivors. No compound heterozygosity (C282Y/H63D) was detected at both groups with high G allele frequency (31.4%) in survivors more than controls (10%). There were significant higher levels of iron parameters in homozygote survivors than heterozygotes and the controls. H63D mutation aggravates the iron overload status in pediatric ALL survivors.

  18. Ancestral association between HLA and HFE H63D and C282Y gene mutations from northwest Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia M Rodriguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant association between HFE gene mutations and the HLA-A*03-B*07 and HLA-A*29-B*44 haplotypes has been reported in the Spanish population. It has been proposed that these mutations are probably connected with Celtic and North African ancestry, respectively. We aimed to find the possible ancestral association between HLA alleles and haplotypes associated with the HFE gene (C282Y and H63D mutations in 214 subjects from Antioquia, Colombia. These were 18 individuals with presumed hereditary hemochromatosis (“HH” and 196 controls. The HLA-B*07 allele was in linkage disequilibrium (LD with C282Y, while HLA-A*23, A*29, HLA-B*44, and B*49 were in LD with H63D. Altogether, our results show that, although the H63D mutation is more common in the Antioquia population, it is not associated with any particular HLA haplotype, whereas the C282Y mutation is associated with HLA-A*03-B*07, this supporting a northern Spaniard ancestry.

  19. A comprehensive custom panel design for routine hereditary cancer testing: preserving control, improving diagnostics and revealing a complex variation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Elisabeth; Gel, Bernat; Rosas, Inma; Tornero, Eva; Santín, Sheila; Pluvinet, Raquel; Velasco, Juan; Sumoy, Lauro; Del Valle, Jesús; Perucho, Manuel; Blanco, Ignacio; Navarro, Matilde; Brunet, Joan; Pineda, Marta; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Capellá, Gabi; Lázaro, Conxi; Serra, Eduard

    2017-01-04

    We wanted to implement an NGS strategy to globally analyze hereditary cancer with diagnostic quality while retaining the same degree of understanding and control we had in pre-NGS strategies. To do this, we developed the I2HCP panel, a custom bait library covering 122 hereditary cancer genes. We improved bait design, tested different NGS platforms and created a clinically driven custom data analysis pipeline. The I2HCP panel was developed using a training set of hereditary colorectal cancer, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and neurofibromatosis patients and reached an accuracy, analytical sensitivity and specificity greater than 99%, which was maintained in a validation set. I2HCP changed our diagnostic approach, involving clinicians and a genetic diagnostics team from panel design to reporting. The new strategy improved diagnostic sensitivity, solved uncertain clinical diagnoses and identified mutations in new genes. We assessed the genetic variation in the complete set of hereditary cancer genes, revealing a complex variation landscape that coexists with the disease-causing mutation. We developed, validated and implemented a custom NGS-based strategy for hereditary cancer diagnostics that improved our previous workflows. Additionally, the existence of a rich genetic variation in hereditary cancer genes favors the use of this panel to investigate their role in cancer risk.

  20. Hemochromatosis: abnormalities of bones and joints: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farao, S.R.F.; Pereira, E.M.; Harima, H.A.; Rocha Correa Fernandes, A. da; Pavin, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 49 years-old male patient with emphasis in the arthropathy of hemochromatosis. The arthropathy was the first manifestation: the patient had been complaining of pain on the right hip for eight years. The other specific clinical manifestations: diabetes, abnormal pigmentation appeared after six years. The roentgenographic features of bone and joint involvement include abnormalites at metacarpophalangeal joints with osteophytes on the metacarpal heads and in the hip, joint space narrowing, was seen. In the knee involvement is characterized by subchondral cyst and osteophytosis. Laboratory analysis are: serum iron = 191 mg/dl (normal value: 50-150 mg/dl), ferritin > 400 ng/ml (normal value: 42-26 ng/ml). Iron within the parenchymal cells of the liver cirrhosis was detected by hepatic biopsy. Hemochromatosis was pathologically characterized by tissue damage produced by iron deposition. (author) [pt

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Mutation Associated with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Douglas C.; Singh, Gurparkash; Lott, Marie T.; Hodge, Judy A.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Lezza, Angela M. S.; Elsas, Louis J.; Nikoskelainen, Eeva K.

    1988-12-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited disease resulting in optic nerve degeneration and cardiac dysrhythmia. A mitochondrial DNA replacement mutation was identified that correlated with this disease in multiple families. This mutation converted a highly conserved arginine to a histidine at codon 340 in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene and eliminated an Sfa NI site, thus providing a simple diagnostic test. This finding demonstrated that a nucleotide change in a mitochondrial DNA energy production gene can result in a neurological disease.

  2. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about......, they may be inadequate in patients diagnosed so late that extensive body deposits of metal have been developed. The main research needs in this field are to further clarify molecular mechanisms of disease progression and to develop new chelators that are more effective and less toxic than those presently...

  3. The effect of the hemochromatosis (HFE genotype on lead load and iron metabolism among lead smelter workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqin Fan

    Full Text Available Both an excess of toxic lead (Pb and an essential iron disorder have been implicated in many diseases and public health problems. Iron metabolism genes, such as the hemochromatosis (HFE gene, have been reported to be modifiers for lead absorption and storage. However, the HFE gene studies among the Asian population with occupationally high lead exposure are lacking.To explore the modifying effects of the HFE genotype (wild-type, H63D variant and C282Y variant on the Pb load and iron metabolism among Asian Pb-workers with high occupational exposure.Seven hundred and seventy-one employees from a lead smelter manufacturing company were tested to determine their Pb intoxication parameters, iron metabolic indexes and identify the HFE genotype. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted.Forty-five H63D variant carriers and no C282Y variant carrier were found among the 771 subjects. Compared with subjects with the wild-type genotype, H63D variant carriers had higher blood lead levels, even after controlling for factors such as age, sex, marriage, education, smoking and lead exposure levels. Multivariate analyses also showed that the H63D genotype modifies the associations between the blood lead levels and the body iron burden/transferrin.No C282Y variant was found in this Asian population. The H63D genotype modified the association between the lead and iron metabolism such that increased blood lead is associated with a higher body iron content or a lower transferrin in the H63D variant. It is indicated that H63D variant carriers may be a potentially highly vulnerable sub-population if they are exposed to high lead levels occupationally.

  4. The effect of the hemochromatosis (HFE) genotype on lead load and iron metabolism among lead smelter workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangqin; Du, Guihua; Li, Huijun; Lin, Fen; Sun, Ziyong; Yang, Wei; Feng, Chang; Zhu, Gaochun; Li, Yanshu; Chen, Ying; Jiao, Huan; Zhou, Fankun

    2014-01-01

    Both an excess of toxic lead (Pb) and an essential iron disorder have been implicated in many diseases and public health problems. Iron metabolism genes, such as the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene, have been reported to be modifiers for lead absorption and storage. However, the HFE gene studies among the Asian population with occupationally high lead exposure are lacking. To explore the modifying effects of the HFE genotype (wild-type, H63D variant and C282Y variant) on the Pb load and iron metabolism among Asian Pb-workers with high occupational exposure. Seven hundred and seventy-one employees from a lead smelter manufacturing company were tested to determine their Pb intoxication parameters, iron metabolic indexes and identify the HFE genotype. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted. Forty-five H63D variant carriers and no C282Y variant carrier were found among the 771 subjects. Compared with subjects with the wild-type genotype, H63D variant carriers had higher blood lead levels, even after controlling for factors such as age, sex, marriage, education, smoking and lead exposure levels. Multivariate analyses also showed that the H63D genotype modifies the associations between the blood lead levels and the body iron burden/transferrin. No C282Y variant was found in this Asian population. The H63D genotype modified the association between the lead and iron metabolism such that increased blood lead is associated with a higher body iron content or a lower transferrin in the H63D variant. It is indicated that H63D variant carriers may be a potentially highly vulnerable sub-population if they are exposed to high lead levels occupationally.

  5. Hereditary & familial colorectal cancer : Identification, characteristics, surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 15-20% is related to familial or hereditary factors. Diagnosing familial and hereditary CRC syndromes is important for several reasons. One of these is that surveillance colonoscopies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality importantly. A complete family history

  6. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Central OMIM: JUVENILE POLYPOSIS/HEREDITARY HEMORRHAGIC TELANGIECTASIA SYNDROME McDonald J, Bayrak-Toydemir P, Pyeritz RE. Hereditary hemorrhagic ... 10.1097/GIM.0b013e3182136d32. Review. Citation on PubMed McDonald J, Wooderchak-Donahue W, VanSant Webb C, Whitehead ...

  7. Pattern multiplicity and fumarate hydratase (FH)/S-(2-succino)-cysteine (2SC) staining but not eosinophilic nucleoli with perinucleolar halos differentiate hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal cell carcinomas from kidney tumors without FH gene alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Marie; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Salleron, Julia; Genestie, Catherine; Deveaux, Sophie; Slama, Abdelhamid; de Paillerets, Brigitte Bressac; Richard, Stéphane; Benusiglio, Patrick R; Ferlicot, Sophie

    2018-02-06

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome is characterized by an increased risk of agressive renal cell carcinoma, often of type 2 papillary histology, and is caused by FH germline mutations. A prominent eosinophilic macronucleolus with a perinucleolar clear halo is distinctive of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome-associated renal cell carcinoma according to the 2012 ISUP and 2016 WHO kidney tumor classification. From an immunohistochemistry perspective, tumors are often FH-negative and S-(2-succino)-cysteine (2SC) positive. We performed a pathology review of 24 renal tumors in 23 FH mutation carriers, and compared them to 12 type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas from FH wild-type patients. Prominent eosinophilic nucleoli with perinucleolar halos were present in almost all FH-deficient renal cell carcinomas (23/24). Unexpectedly, they were also present in 58% of type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas from wild-type patients. Renal cell carcinoma in mutation carriers displayed a complex architecture with multiple patterns, typically papillary, tubulopapillary, and tubulocystic, but also sarcomatoid and rhabdoid. Such pattern diversity was not seen in non-carriers. FH/2SC immunohistochemistry was informative as all hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal cell carcinomas were either FH- or 2SC+. For FH and 2SC immunohistochemistries taken separately, sensitivity of negative anti-FH immunohistochemistry was 87.5% and specificity was 100%. For positive anti-2SC immunohistochemistry, sensitivity, and specificity were 91.7% and 91.7%, respectively. All FH wild-type renal cell carcinoma were FH-positive, and all but one were 2SC-negative. In conclusion, multiplicity of architectural patterns, rhabdoid/sarcomatoid components and combined FH/2SC staining, but not prominent eosinophilic nucleoli with perinucleolar halos, differentiate hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal

  8. Increased Retinal Expression of the Pro-Angiogenic Receptor GPR91 via BMP6 in a Mouse Model of Juvenile Hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Pachiappan; Gnanaprakasam, Jaya P; Ananth, Sudha; Romej, Michelle A; Rajalakshmi, Veeranan-Karmegam; Prasad, Puttur D; Martin, Pamela M; Gurusamy, Mariappan; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Bhutia, Yangzom D; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2016-04-01

    Hemochromatosis, an iron-overload disease, occurs as adult and juvenile types. Mutations in hemojuvelin (HJV), an iron-regulatory protein and a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor, underlie most of the juvenile type. Hjv(-/-) mice accumulate excess iron in retina and exhibit aberrant vascularization and angiomas. A succinate receptor, GPR91, is pro-angiogenic in retina. We hypothesized that Hjv(-/-) retinas have increased BMP signaling and increased GPR91 expression as the basis of angiomas. Expression of GPR91 was examined by qPCR, immunofluorescence, and Western blot in wild-type and Hjv(-/-) mouse retinas and pRPE cells. Influence of excess iron and BMP6 on GPR91 expression was investigated in ARPE-19 cells, and wild-type and Hjv(-/-) pRPE cells. Succinate was used to activate GPR91 and determine the effects of GPR91 signaling on VEGF expression. Signaling of BMP6 was studied by the expression of Smad1/5/8 and pSmad4, and the BMP-target gene Id1. The interaction of pSmad4 with GPR91 promoter was studied by ChIP. Expression of GPR91 was higher in Hjv(-/-) retinas and RPE than in wild-type counterparts. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling was increased, not decreased, in Hjv(-/-) retinas and RPE. Bone morphogenetic protein 6 induced GPR91 in RPE, suggesting that increased BMP signaling in Hjv(-/-) retinas was likely responsible for GPR91 upregulation. Exposure of RPE to excess iron and succinate as well as BMP6 and succinate increased VEGF expression. Bone morphogenetic protein 6 promoted the interaction of pSmad4 with GPR91 promoter in RPE. G-protein-coupled receptor 91 is a BMP6 target and Hjv deletion enhances BMP signaling in retina, thus underscoring a role for excess iron and hemochromatosis in abnormal retinal vascularization.

  9. Profound morphological changes in the erythrocytes and fibrin networks of patients with hemochromatosis or with hyperferritinemia, and their normalization by iron chelators and other agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheresia Pretorius

    Full Text Available It is well-known that individuals with increased iron levels are more prone to thrombotic diseases, mainly due to the presence of unliganded iron, and thereby the increased production of hydroxyl radicals. It is also known that erythrocytes (RBCs may play an important role during thrombotic events. Therefore the purpose of the current study was to assess whether RBCs had an altered morphology in individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH, as well as some who displayed hyperferritinemia (HF. Using scanning electron microscopy, we also assessed means by which the RBC and fibrin morphology might be normalized. An important objective was to test the hypothesis that the altered RBC morphology was due to the presence of excess unliganded iron by removing it through chelation. Very striking differences were observed, in that the erythrocytes from HH and HF individuals were distorted and had a much greater axial ratio compared to that accompanying the discoid appearance seen in the normal samples. The response to thrombin, and the appearance of a platelet-rich plasma smear, were also markedly different. These differences could largely be reversed by the iron chelator desferal and to some degree by the iron chelator clioquinol, or by the free radical trapping agents salicylate or selenite (that may themselves also be iron chelators. These findings are consistent with the view that the aberrant morphology of the HH and HF erythrocytes is caused, at least in part, by unliganded ('free' iron, whether derived directly via raised ferritin levels or otherwise, and that lowering it or affecting the consequences of its action may be of therapeutic benefit. The findings also bear on the question of the extent to which accepting blood donations from HH individuals may be desirable or otherwise.

  10. Pathophysiological consequences and benefits of HFE mutations: 20 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollerer, Ina; Bachmann, André; Muckenthaler, Martina U.

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE (hemochromatosis) gene cause hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disorder that is hallmarked by excessive accumulation of iron in parenchymal organs. The HFE mutation p.Cys282Tyr is pathologically most relevant and occurs in the Caucasian population with a carrier frequency of up to 1 in 8 in specific European regions. Despite this high prevalence, the mutation causes a clinically relevant phenotype only in a minority of cases. In this review, we summarize historical facts and recent research findings about hereditary hemochromatosis, and outline the pathological consequences of the associated gene defects. In addition, we discuss potential advantages of HFE mutations in asymptomatic carriers. PMID:28280078

  11. HFE C282Y/H63D Compound Heterozygotes Are at Low Risk of Hemochromatosis-Related Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrin, Lyle C.; Bertalli, Nadine A.; Dalton, Gregory W.; Osborne, Nicholas J.; Constantine, Clare C.; McLaren, Christine E.; English, Dallas R.; Gertig, Dorota M.; Delatycki, Martin B.; Nicoll, Amanda J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Giles, Graham G.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Olynyk, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity is unknown among HFE compound heterozygotes (C282Y/H63D). We used a prospective population-based cohort study to estimate the prevalence of elevated iron indices and hemochromatosis-related morbidity for compound heterozygotes. In all, 31,192 subjects of northern European descent were genotyped for HFE C282Y and H63D. An HFE-genotype stratified random sample of 1,438 subjects, followed for an average of 12 years to a mean age of 65 years, complete...

  12. Usefulness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Diagnosis of Hemochromatosis with Severe Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yuichi; Sato, Noriko; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Kojima, Yasushi; Umemoto, Kumiko; Mishima, Saori; Mikami, Shintaro; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Igari, Toru; Akiyama, Junichi; Imamura, Masatoshi; Masaki, Naohiko; Yanase, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of the number of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to the total number of patients with liver dysfunction has increased in many countries around the world. Liver dysfunction is also caused by multiple blood transfusions in patients with leukemia and other hematological diseases, with liver dysfunction often accompanied by secondary hemochromatosis. This study describes a 25-year-old man with secondary hemochromatosis combined with NASH. Magnetic resonance imaging was useful for visualizing the distributions of both iron and fat in the liver of this patient in order to make a differential diagnosis and to evaluate the effect of treatment.

  13. Prophylactic Therapy for Hereditary Angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Hilary; Zinser, Emily

    2017-08-01

    Long-term prophylaxis is needed in many patients with hereditary angioedema and poses many challenges. Attenuated androgens are effective in many but are limited by side effect profiles. There is less evidence for efficacy of tranexamic acid and progestagens; however, the small side effect profile makes tranexamic acid an option for prophylaxis in children and progestagens an option for women. C1 inhibitor is beneficial, but at present requires intravenous delivery and may need dose titration for maximum efficacy. Short-term prophylaxis should be considered for all procedures. New therapies are promising in overcoming many problems encountered with current options for long-term prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hereditary syndromes with enhanced radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, D.

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity to ionizing radiation is modified by heritable genetic factors. This is exemplified by heritable disorders that are characterized by predisposition to the development of neoplasms. Cells derived from patients with ataxia telangiectasia, Nijmegen breakage syndrome and ataxia telangiektasia-like disorder show a markedly changed reaction to exposure to ionizing radiation. Correspondingly, at least in patients with ataxia telangiectasia, an enhanced radiosensitivity that is of clinical importance has been observed. In addition to these recessive disorders, some autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndromes are associated with increased radiosensitivity. As cells from these patients still have a normal allele (that is dominant over the mutant allele), the cellular phenotype is most often normal. Specifically, there is no overtly altered reaction in response to ionizing radiation. Nevertheless, two dominant cancer predisposition syndromes, namely hereditary retinoblastoma and naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, are associated with a enhanced radiosensitivity as indicated by increased development of tumors following radiation therapy. (orig.) [de

  15. Prophylactic total gastrectomy in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Linda; Hansen, Thomas V O; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in the CDH1 (E-cadherin) gene are the predisposing cause of gastric cancer in most families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). The lifetime risk of cancer in mutation positive members is more than 80 % and prophylactic total gastrectomy is recommended. Not all...... mutations in the CDH1 gene are however pathogenic and it is important to classify mutations before this major operation is performed. Probands from two Danish families with gastric cancer and a history suggesting HDGC were screened for CDH1 gene mutations. Two novel CDH1 gene mutations were identified....... Hospital stay was 6-8 days and there were no complications. Small foci of diffuse gastric cancer were found in all patients-intramucosal in six and advanced in one. Preoperative endoscopic biopsies had revealed a microscopic cancer focus in two of the patients. Our data confirmed the pathogenic nature...

  16. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Cherise; Van Stavern, Greg; McClelland, Collin

    2015-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is one of the most common inherited optic neuropathies causing bilateral central vision loss. The disorder results from point mutations in mitochondrial DNA and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction. The primary cell type that is lost in LHON is the retinal ganglion cell, which is highly susceptible to disrupted ATP production and oxidative stress. Inheritance of LHON follows that of mitochondrial genetics, and it has a highly variable clinical phenotype, as other genetic and environmental factors also play a role. Although LHON usually presents with isolated vision loss, some patients suffer other neurological sequelae. For ill-defined reasons, male LHON mutation carriers are more affected than females. Most LHON patients remain legally blind, but a small proportion can experience spontaneous partial recovery, often within the first year of symptom onset. Unfortunately, at this time there are no established curative interventions and treatment is largely supportive. Patients should be offered low vision services and counseled on mitigating risk factors for additional vision loss, such as smoking and consuming alcohol. Encouraging treatments currently undergoing investigation includes ubiquinone analogs, such as idebenone, as well as gene therapy and stem cells to restore ATP synthesis and provide neuroprotection to surviving retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26170609

  17. [Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 4A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagina, O A; Dadali, E L; Fedotov, V P; Tiburkova, T B; Poliakov, A V

    2010-01-01

    The first in the Russian Federation clinical cases of patients with autosomal-recessive type of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, type 4A, (HMSN 4A) are presented. In all cases, the diagnosis has been verified using molecular-genetic methods (DNA diagnostics). An analysis of features of clinical manifestations was performed in patients, aged from 5 to 34 years, with different disease duration (from 3-to 29 years). Criteria of selection of patients for DNA diagnostics for searching mutations in the GDAP1 gene are specified.

  18. Kindler syndrome - a rare type of hereditary epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Albanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kindler syndrome is one of the types of hereditary epidermolysis bullosa with its onset related to mutations of the KIND1 gene. The authors describe a case of a family with three members suffering from this rare disease. All of these patients have typical clinical manifestations of the Kindler syndrome such as the formation of blisters on the skin and mucous membranes right after the birth, scarring with the formation of contractures, pseudosyndactyly, microstomia and ankyloglossia, progressive poikiloderma, photosensibility, affections of the gastrointestinal tract - dysphagia, esophagostenosis, stool disorders, dental pathology, phimosis vaginalis in women.

  19. Converging cellular themes for the hereditary spastic paraplegias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Craig

    2018-05-10

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are neurologic disorders characterized by prominent lower-extremity spasticity, resulting from a length-dependent axonopathy of corticospinal upper motor neurons. They are among the most genetically-diverse neurologic disorders, with >80 distinct genetic loci and over 60 identified genes. Studies investigating the molecular pathogenesis underlying HSPs have emphasized the importance of converging cellular pathogenic themes in the most common forms of HSP, providing compelling targets for therapy. Most notably, these include organelle shaping and biogenesis as well as membrane and cargo trafficking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Blocking protein quality control to counter hereditary cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmeyer, Caroline; Nielsen, Sofie V.; Clausen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    cancer susceptibility syndromes, such as Lynch syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau disease, are caused by missense mutations in tumor suppressor genes, and in some cases, the resulting amino acid substitutions in the encoded proteins cause the cellular PQC system to target them for degradation, although...... by stabilizing with chemical chaperones, or by targeting molecular chaperones or the ubiquitin-proteasome system, may thus avert or delay the disease onset. Here, we review the potential of targeting the PQC system in hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes....

  1. Genetics 101 --The Hereditary Material of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 Genetics 101 — The Hereditary Material of Life Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents Genetics is the study of heredity, the process in ...

  2. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. ... families, hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets has had an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, which means one copy of an ...

  4. Clinical features of Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber disease (ROW), is an autosomal dominant disease with multi-systemic vascular dysplasia characterized by mucocutaneous telangiectasia, arteriovenous malformations and recurrent spontaneous epistaxis (nosebleeds). Most cases

  5. Splenic Involvement in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takamatsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old man who presented with prolonged epigastric pain was referred to our hospital. He had experienced recurrent epistaxis and had a family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed splenomegaly and a 9 cm hypervascular mass in his spleen. Computed tomography also showed a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and heterogeneous enhancement of the liver parenchyma, suggesting the presence of arteriosystemic shunts and telangiectases. Based on these findings, the patient was definitely diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia according to Curaçao criteria. He underwent splenectomy, and his symptoms disappeared after surgery. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the hypervascular lesion of the spleen was not a tumor but was composed of abnormal vessels associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Symptomatic splenic involvement may be a rare manifestation of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia but can be revealed by imaging modalities.

  6. A Review of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fructose intolerance is a metabolic disorder with hereditary determinism, clinically manifested on terms of fructose intake. Untreated, hereditary fructose intolerance may result in renal and hepatic failure. Unfortunately, there are no formal diagnostic and surveillance guidelines for this disease. If identified and treated before the occurrence of permanent organ damage, patients can improve their symptoms and self-rated health. Implementation and adherence to a strict fructose free diet is often difficult, but not impossible.

  7. Whole-exome sequencing for diagnosis of hereditary ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, J C; Kulseth, M A; Rypdal, K B; Skodje, T; Sheng, Y; Retterstøl, L

    2018-02-14

    Hereditary ichthyosis constitutes a diverse group of cornification disorders. Identification of the molecular cause facilitates optimal patient care. We wanted to estimate the diagnostic yield of applying whole-exome sequencing (WES) in the routine genetic workup of inherited ichthyosis. During a 3-year-period, all ichthyosis patients, except X-linked and mild vulgar ichthyosis, consecutively admitted to a university hospital clinic were offered WES with subsequent analysis of ichthyosis-related genes as a first-line genetic investigation. Clinical and molecular data have been collected retrospectively. Genetic variants causative for the ichthyosis were identified in 27 of 34 investigated patients (79.4%). In all, 31 causative mutations across 13 genes were disclosed, including 12 novel variants. TGM1 was the most frequently mutated gene, accounting for 43.7% of patients suffering from autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). Whole-exome sequencing appears an effective tool in disclosing the molecular cause of patients with hereditary ichthyosis seen in clinical practice and should be considered a first-tier genetic test in these patients. © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Inherited focal, episodic neuropathies: hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Phillip F

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP; also called tomaculous neuropathy) is an autosomal-dominant disorder that produces a painless episodic, recurrent, focal demyelinating neuropathy. HNPP generally develops during adolescence, and may cause attacks of numbness, muscular weakness, and atrophy. Peroneal palsies, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other entrapment neuropathies may be frequent manifestations of HNPP. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities may be reduced in clinically affected patients, as well as in asymptomatic gene carriers. The histopathological changes observed in peripheral nerves of HNPP patients include segmental demyelination and tomaculous or "sausage-like" formations. Mild overlap of clinical features with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1 (CMT1) may lead patients with HNPP to be misdiagnosed as having CMT1. HNPP and CMT1 are both demyelinating neuropathies, however, their clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological features are quite distinct. HNPP is most frequently associated with a 1.4-Mb pair deletion on chromosome 17p12. A duplication of the identical region leads to CMT1A. Both HNPP and CMT1A result from a dosage effect of the PMP22 gene, which is contained within the deleted/duplicated region. This is reflected in reduced mRNA and protein levels in sural nerve biopsy samples from HNPP patients. Treatment for HNPP consists of preventative and symptom-easing measures. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA; also called familial brachial plexus neuropathy) is an autosomal-dominant disorder causing episodes of paralysis and muscle weakness initiated by severe pain. Individuals with HNA may suffer repeated episodes of intense pain, paralysis, and sensory disturbances in an affected limb. The onset of HNA is at birth or later in childhood with prognosis for recovery usually favorable; however, persons with HNA may have permanent residual neurological dysfunction following attack(s). Episodes are often

  9. Primary hemochromatosis: anatomic and physiologic characteristics of the cardiac ventricles and their response to phlebotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabestani, A.; Child, J.S.; Henze, E.; Perloff, J.K.; Schon, H.; Figueroa, W.G.; Schelbert, H.R.; Thessomboon, S.

    1984-01-01

    M-mode and 2-dimensional echocardiography and gated equilibrium blood pool imaging (rest and exercise) were used in 10 patients with primary hemochromatosis to characterize the spectrum of pathophysiologic abnormalities of the cardiac ventricles and to determine the response to chronic therapeutic phlebotomy. Dilated and restrictive cardiomyopathic patterns were identified in 1 patient each, but our data do not permit conclusions on when in the natural history a given pattern becomes overt. On entry into study, 3 patients had normal ventricles and 7 had ventricular abnormalities on echocardiography and blood pool angiography. In 2 of the latter patients, biventricular dysfunction and increased left ventricular (LV) mass normalized after phlebotomy; 1 patient achieved a normal LV response to exercise. Of the 4 patients with isolated abnormal LV ejection fraction responses to exercise, the EF normalized in 2 after phlebotomy. In 1 patient, isolated right ventricular enlargement and dysfunction (echocardiographic and radionuclide imaging) normalized after phlebotomy. Thus, primary hemochromatosis can effect LV and RV size and function; clinically occult cardiac involvement can be identified by echocardiography and equilibrium blood pool imaging; therapeutic phlebotomy can ameliorate or reverse the deleterious effects of excess cardiac iron deposition which appears to exert its harm, at least in part, by a mechanism other than irreversible connective tissue replacement

  10. Liver steatosis correlates with iron overload but not with HFE gene mutations in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, Katarzyna; Stalke, Piotr; Romanowski, Tomasz; Rzepko, Robert; Bielawski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2013-08-01

    Liver steatosis and iron overload, which are frequently observed in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), may contribute to the progression of liver injury. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between liver steatosis and iron overload in Polish patients with CHC compared to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and HFE-hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) patients. A total of 191 CHC patients were compared with 67 NAFLD and 21 HH patients. Liver function tests, serum markers of iron metabolism, cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed. The inflammatory activity, fibrosis, iron deposits and steatosis stages were assessed in liver specimens. HFE gene polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-RFLP. Liver steatosis was associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus. This disease was confirmed in 76/174 (44%) CHC patients, most of whom were infected with genotype 1. The average grade of steatosis was higher in NAFLD patients. CHC patients had significantly higher iron concentrations and transferrin saturations than NAFLD patients. Compared with CHC patients, HH patients had higher values of serum iron parameters and more intensive hepatocyte iron deposits without differences in the prevalence and intensity of liver steatosis. In the CHC group, lipids accumulation in hepatocytes was significantly associated with the presence of serum markers of iron overload. No correlation between the HFE gene polymorphism and liver steatosis in CHC patients was found. Liver steatosis was diagnosed in nearly half of CHC patients, most of whom were infected with genotype 1. The intensity of steatosis was lower in CHC patients than that in NAFLD patients because of a less frequent diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Only in CHC patients were biochemical markers of iron accumulation positively correlated with liver steatosis; these findings were independent of HFE gene mutations.

  11. The technical hereditary of CWD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smulders, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the activities of the Dutch foundation CWD since 1975. The financing of the foundation stopped July 1st 1990. From 1975 the CWD stimulated the use of small scale wind energy to pump up water in developing countries. The hereditary of the CWD consists of knowledge of the design and performance of components of wind mills, knowledge to design integral systems based on these components and preconditions, and knowledge how to manufacture, install and maintain the wind mills locally. The CWD designed three wind mill pumps of which 250 have been brought into operation in developing countries. A CWD-type pump was developed in Sri-Lanka of which 150 pumps were installed. Also attention is paid to the external situation which effected the CWD activities: the lack of interest from the Dutch industry to cooperate in developing CWD pumps; the actual market far away in developing countries; and too little competition in the research and development. The nature of the CWD-participants caused some internal friction which did not contribute to the effectivity of the CWD organisation. It is recommended to continue the development and testing of small wind energy systems and to preserve the knowledge gained by the CWD. 3 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  12. Movement disorders in hereditary ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen

    2002-10-15

    Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Secondary Hemochromatosis due to Chronic Oral Iron Supplementation

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    Ronald Lands

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron may accumulate in excess due to a mutation in the HFE gene that upregulates absorption or when it is ingested or infused at levels that exceed the body’s ability to clear it. Excess iron deposition in parenchymal tissue causes injury and ultimately organ dysfunction. Diabetes mellitus and hepatic cirrhosis due to pancreas and liver damage are just two examples of diseases that result from iron overload. Despite the rapid growth of information regarding iron metabolism and iron overload states, the most effective treatment is still serial phlebotomies. We present a patient who developed iron overload due to chronic ingestion of oral ferrous sulfate. This case illustrates the importance of querying geriatric patients regarding their use of nonprescription iron products without a medical indication.

  14. Inflammation and neuropathic attacks in hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C; Dyck, P; Friedenberg, S; Burns, T; Windebank, A; Dyck, P

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of mechanical, infectious, and inflammatory factors inducing neuropathic attacks in hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy (HBPN), an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by attacks of pain and weakness, atrophy, and sensory alterations of the shoulder girdle and upper limb muscles. Methods: Four patients from separate kindreds with HBPN were evaluated. Upper extremity nerve biopsies were obtained during attacks from a person of each kindred. In situ hybridisation for common viruses in nerve tissue and genetic testing for a hereditary tendency to pressure palsies (HNPP; tomaculous neuropathy) were undertaken. Two patients treated with intravenous methyl prednisolone had serial clinical and electrophysiological examinations. One patient was followed prospectively through pregnancy and during the development of a stereotypic attack after elective caesarean delivery. Results: Upper extremity nerve biopsies in two patients showed prominent perivascular inflammatory infiltrates with vessel wall disruption. Nerve in situ hybridisation for viruses was negative. There were no tomaculous nerve changes. In two patients intravenous methyl prednisolone ameliorated symptoms (largely pain), but with tapering of steroid dose, signs and symptoms worsened. Elective caesarean delivery did not prevent a typical postpartum attack. Conclusions: Inflammation, probably immune, appears pathogenic for some if not all attacks of HBPN. Immune modulation may be useful in preventing or reducing the neuropathic attacks, although controlled trials are needed to establish efficacy, as correction of the mutant gene is still not possible. The genes involved in immune regulation may be candidates for causing HBPN disorders. PMID:12082044

  15. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: genetics and molecular diagnostics in a new era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie eMcDonald

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT is a vascular dysplasia characterized by telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in particular locations described in consensus clinical diagnostic criteria published in 2000. Two genes in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling pathway, ENG and ACVRL1, were discovered almost two decades ago, and mutations in these genes have been reported to cause up to 85% of HHT. In our experience, approximately 96% of individuals with HHT have a mutation in these two genes, when published (Curaçao diagnostic criteria for HHT are strictly applied. More recently, two additional genes in the same pathway, SMAD4 and GDF2, have been identified in a much smaller number of patients with a similar or overlapping phenotype to HHT. Yet families still exist with compelling evidence of a hereditary telangiectasia disorder, but no identifiable mutation in a known gene. Recent availability of whole exome and genome testing has created new opportunities to facilitate gene discovery, identify genetic modifiers to explain clinical variability, and potentially define an increased spectrum of hereditary telangiectasia disorders. An expanded approach to molecular diagnostics for inherited telangiectasia disorders that incorporates a multi-gene next generation sequencing (NGS HHT panel is proposed.

  16. The Hereditary Hyperferritinemia-Cataract Syndrome in 2 Italian Families

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    Katia Perruccio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two 8- and 9-year-old brothers were referred to the Pediatric Oncology Unit, Perugia General Hospital, because of hyperferritinemia. Both had a history of bilateral cataract and epilepsy. Genetic investigation revealed two distinct mutations in iron haemostasis genes; homozygosity for the HFE gene H63D mutation in the younger and heterozygosity in the elder. Both displayed heterozygosity for C33T mutation in the ferritin light chain iron response element. A 7-year-old boy from another family was referred to our unit because of hyperferritinemia. Genetic analyses did not reveal HFE gene mutations. Family history showed that his mother was also affected by hyperferritinemia without HFE gene mutations. Magnetic resonance imaging in the mother was positive for iron overload in the spleen. Cataract was diagnosed in mother and child. Further genetic investigation revealed the C29G mutation of the ferritin light chain iron response element. C33T and C29G mutations in the ferritin light chain iron response element underlie the Hereditary Hyperferritinemia-Cataract Syndrome (HHCS. The HFE gene H63D mutation underlies Hereditary Haemochromatosis (HH, which needs treatment to prevent organ damages by iron overload. HHCS was definitively diagnosed in all three children. HHCS is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by increased L-ferritin production. L-Ferritin aggregates accumulate preferentially in the lens, provoking bilateral cataract since childhood, as unique known organ damage. Epilepsy in one case and the spleen iron overload in another could suggest the misleading diagnosis of HH. Consequently, the differential diagnosis between alterations of iron storage system was essential, particularly in children, and required further genetic investigation.

  17. A mutation in an alternative untranslated exon of hexokinase 1 associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy -- Russe (HMSNR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hantke, Janina; Chandler, David; King, Rosalind; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Angelicheva, Dora; Tournev, Ivailo; McNamara, Elyshia; Kwa, Marcel; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Kaneva, Radka; Baas, Frank; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy -- Russe (HMSNR) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder, identified in the Gypsy population. Our previous studies mapped the gene to 10q22-q23 and refined the gene region to approximately 70 kb. Here we report the comprehensive sequencing analysis and fine

  18. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensory neuropathy type IA Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is a condition characterized by nerve abnormalities in ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions HLRCC Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer ( HLRCC ) is a disorder in which affected individuals ...

  20. [Paediatric retinal detachment and hereditary vitreoretinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, P

    2013-09-01

    The number of retinal detachments in children is very low in comparison to the number in adults. One predisposing factor for development of paediatric retinal detachment is suffering from hereditary vitreoretinal degeneration (e.g., Stickler syndrome, Wagner syndrome, Kniest dysplasia, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, congenital X-linked retinoschisis, Knobloch syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, Norrie disease). Hereditary vitreoretinopathies are characterised by an abnormal-appearing vitreous gel with associated retinal changes. In most of these eyes further ocular abnormalities can be diagnosed. A group of hereditary disorders is associated with characteristic systemic abnormalities. Allied conditions should be considered in the clinical diagnosis. Vitreoretinopathies are the most common cause of inherited retinal detachment. In most eyes primary vitrectomy is necessary, and disease-specific surgical treatment is discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Hand muscles corticomotor excitability in hereditary spastic paraparesis type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginanneschi, Federica; Carluccio, Maria A; Mignarri, Andrea; Tessa, Alessandra; Santorelli, Filippo M; Rossi, Alessandro; Federico, Antonio; Dotti, Maria T

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies on the pathways to the upper limbs have revealed inconsistent results in patients harboring mutations in SPAST/SPG4 gene, responsible for the commonest form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). This paper is addressed to study the corticomotor excitability of the pathways to the upper limbs in SPG4 subjects. We assessed the corticomotor excitability of hand muscles in 12 subjects belonging to 7 unrelated SPG4 families and in 12 control subjects by stimulus-response curve [input-output (I-O) curve]. All the parameters of the recruitment curve (threshold, V50, slope and plateau) did not differ significantly from those of the controls. Presence of upper limb hyper-reflexia did not influence the results of I-O curve. Considering the multiplicity of possible genes/loci accounting for pure HSPs, performing TMS analyses could be helpful in differential diagnosis of pure HSPs in the absence of other clinical or neuroimaging tools.

  2. Differential HFE gene expression is regulated by alternative splicing in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rute; Silva, Bruno; Proença, Daniela; Faustino, Paula

    2011-03-03

    The pathophysiology of HFE-derived Hereditary Hemochromatosis and the function of HFE protein in iron homeostasis remain uncertain. Also, the role of alternative splicing in HFE gene expression regulation and the possible function of the corresponding protein isoforms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the physiological significance of these alternative HFE variants. Alternatively spliced HFE transcripts in diverse human tissues were identified by RT-PCR, cloning and sequencing. Total HFE transcripts, as well as two alternative splicing transcripts were quantified using a real-time PCR methodology. Intracellular localization, trafficking and protein association of GFP-tagged HFE protein variants were analysed in transiently transfected HepG2 cells by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays. Alternatively spliced HFE transcripts present both level- and tissue-specificity. Concerning the exon 2 skipping and intron 4 inclusion transcripts, the liver presents the lowest relative level, while duodenum presents one of the highest amounts. The protein resulting from exon 2 skipping transcript is unable to associate with β2M and TfR1 and reveals an ER retention. Conversely, the intron 4 inclusion transcript gives rise to a truncated, soluble protein (sHFE) that is mostly secreted by cells to the medium in association with β2M. HFE gene post-transcriptional regulation is clearly affected by a tissue-dependent alternative splicing mechanism. Among the corresponding proteins, a sHFE isoform stands out, which upon being secreted into the bloodstream, may act in remote tissues. It could be either an agonist or antagonist of the full length HFE, through hepcidin expression regulation in the liver or by controlling dietary iron absorption in the duodenum.

  3. Examination of HFE associations with childhood leukemia risk and extension to other iron regulatory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, M Fatih; Scheurer, Michael E; Baum, Marianna K; Dorak, M Tevfik

    2014-09-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE) variants correlating with body iron levels have shown associations with cancer risk, including childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using a multi-ethnic sample of cases and controls from Houston, TX, we examined two HFE variants (rs1800562 and rs1799945), one transferrin receptor gene (TFRC) variant (rs3817672) and three additional iron regulatory gene (IRG) variants (SLC11A2 rs422982; TMPRSS6 rs855791 and rs733655) for their associations with childhood ALL. Being positive for either of the HFE variants yielded a modestly elevated odds ratio (OR) for childhood ALL risk in males (1.40, 95% CI=0.83-2.35), which increased to 2.96 (95% CI=1.29-6.80) in the presence of a particular TFRC genotype for rs3817672 (P interaction=0.04). The TFRC genotype also showed an ethnicity-specific association, with increased risk observed in non-Hispanic Whites (OR=2.54, 95% CI=1.05-6.12; P interaction with ethnicity=0.02). The three additional IRG SNPs all showed individual risk associations with childhood ALL in males (OR=1.52-2.60). A polygenic model based on the number of variant alleles in five IRG SNPs revealed a linear increase in risk among males with the increasing number of variants possessed (OR=2.0 per incremental change, 95% CI=1.29-3.12; P=0.002). Our results replicated previous HFE risk associations with childhood ALL in a US population and demonstrated novel associations for IRG SNPs, thereby strengthening the hypothesis that iron excess mediated by genetic variants contributes to childhood ALL risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential HFE gene expression is regulated by alternative splicing in human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Martins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of HFE-derived Hereditary Hemochromatosis and the function of HFE protein in iron homeostasis remain uncertain. Also, the role of alternative splicing in HFE gene expression regulation and the possible function of the corresponding protein isoforms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the physiological significance of these alternative HFE variants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alternatively spliced HFE transcripts in diverse human tissues were identified by RT-PCR, cloning and sequencing. Total HFE transcripts, as well as two alternative splicing transcripts were quantified using a real-time PCR methodology. Intracellular localization, trafficking and protein association of GFP-tagged HFE protein variants were analysed in transiently transfected HepG2 cells by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays. Alternatively spliced HFE transcripts present both level- and tissue-specificity. Concerning the exon 2 skipping and intron 4 inclusion transcripts, the liver presents the lowest relative level, while duodenum presents one of the highest amounts. The protein resulting from exon 2 skipping transcript is unable to associate with β2M and TfR1 and reveals an ER retention. Conversely, the intron 4 inclusion transcript gives rise to a truncated, soluble protein (sHFE that is mostly secreted by cells to the medium in association with β2M. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HFE gene post-transcriptional regulation is clearly affected by a tissue-dependent alternative splicing mechanism. Among the corresponding proteins, a sHFE isoform stands out, which upon being secreted into the bloodstream, may act in remote tissues. It could be either an agonist or antagonist of the full length HFE, through hepcidin expression regulation in the liver or by controlling dietary iron absorption in the duodenum.

  5. An unfortunate case of acquired hemochromatosis: a case report review of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anam Tariq,1 Kevin Westra,2 Arben Santo3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Pinnacle Health Internal Medicine, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Harrisburg Gastroenterology, Harrisburg, PA, 3Department of Pathology, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine-Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA Background: While blood transfusions are commonly used for prophylaxis and treatment for acute chest syndromes and strokes in sickle cell patients, accumulation of excess iron resulting in secondary hemochromatosis remains a rare disease. Chelation is the mainstay for preventing and treating iron overload to deter potential end-organ damages; it is rare when therapy fails. Case report: A 52-year-old African American woman with chronic anemia secondary to sickle cell anemia and history of multiple blood transfusions presented with elevated serum ferritin (8000 ng/mL and bilirubin (16.8 mg/dL. She had no previous personal or family history of liver disease. A magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP and a liver biopsy confirmed the secondary hemochromatosis with marked fibrosis and 4+ iron deposits, but since she was therapeutically on deferasirox, her treatment regimen involved only closer monitoring. Her hemochromatosis led to readmission within a year for rapid progression of cardiac and hepatic failure. Conclusion: Since chronically transfused sickle cell patients are at a significantly higher risk of mortality due to the secondary hemochromatosis and end-stage organ damage, knowledge of prophylactic iron chelation is important. Minimizing unnecessary transfusions should be strongly emphasized to reduce the sequelae as iron burden remains a threat. The effectiveness of iron-chelating therapy is best monitored via periodic magnetic resonance imaging, liver transaminases, bilirubin, creatinine, ferritin, and cardiac function tests. Despite the prophylactic treatment and quarterly blood work, in this case the initial presentation did not correlate with

  6. Therapeutic Strategies for Hereditary Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidana, Abhinav; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad

    2016-08-01

    The study of hereditary forms of kidney cancer has vastly increased our understanding of metabolic and genetic pathways involved in the development of both inherited and sporadic kidney cancers. The recognition that diverse molecular events drive different forms of kidney cancers has led to the preclinical and clinical development of specific pathway-directed strategies tailored to treat distinct subgroups of kidney cancer. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of several different types of hereditary renal cancers, review their clinical characteristics, and summarize the treatment strategies for the management of these cancers.

  7. CHEK2 1100DELC germline mutation: a frequency study in hereditary breast and colon cancer Brazilian families Mutação germinativa 1100delC no gene CHEK2: estudo da frequência em famílias brasileiras com câncer de mama e cólon hereditários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Abud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: CHEK2 encodes a cell cycle checkpoint kinase that plays an important role in the DNA damage repair pathway, activated mainly by ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated in response to double-stranded DNA breaks. A germline mutation in CHEK2, 1100delC, has been described as a low penetrance allele in a significant number of families with breast and colorectal cancer in certain countries and is also associated with increased risk of contralateral breast cancer in women previously affected by the disease. About 5%-10% of all breast and colorectal cancers are associated with hereditary predisposition and its recognition is of great importance for genetic counseling and cancer risk management. OBJECTIVES: Here, we have assessed the frequency of the CHEK2 1100delC mutation in the germline of 59 unrelated Brazilian individuals with clinical criteria for the hereditary breast and colorectal cancer syndrome. METHODS: A long-range PCR strategy followed by gene sequencing was used. RESULTS: The 1100delC mutation was encountered in the germline of one (1.7% individual in this high risk cohort. This indicates that the CHEK2 1100delC is not commonly encountered in Brazilian families with multiple diagnoses of breast and colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: These results should be confirmed in a larger series of families and further testing should be undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the hereditary breast and colorectal cancer phenotype.INTRODUÇÃO: CHEK2 codifica uma proteína quinase envolvida em um ponto de checagem do ciclo celular que desempenha um papel importante na via de reparação do DNA, danos ativados principalmente por ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutado em resposta a danos na dupla hélice do DNA. A mutação germinativa 1100delC no gene CHEK2 tem sido descrita como um alelo de baixa penetrância em um número significativo de famílias com câncer de mama e cólon em certos países e também está associada com risco

  8. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Eleanna; Tucci, Arianna; Manzoni, Claudia; Lynch, David S.; Elpidorou, Marilena; Bettencourt, Conceicao; Chelban, Viorica; Manole, Andreea; Hamed, Sherifa A.; Haridy, Nourelhoda A.; Federoff, Monica; Preza, Elisavet; Hughes, Deborah; Pittman, Alan; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Brandner, Sebastian; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Wiethoff, Sarah; Schottlaender, Lucia; Proukakis, Christos; Morris, Huw; Warner, Tom; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Korlipara, L.V. Prasad; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hardy, John; Wood, Nicholas W.; Lewis, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The hereditary spastic paraplegias are a heterogeneous group of degenerative disorders that are clinically classified as either pure with predominant lower limb spasticity, or complex where spastic paraplegia is complicated with additional neurological features, and are inherited in autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked patterns. Genetic defects have been identified in over 40 different genes, with more than 70 loci in total. Complex recessive spastic paraplegias have in the past been frequently associated with mutations in SPG11 (spatacsin), ZFYVE26/SPG15 , SPG7 (paraplegin) and a handful of other rare genes, but many cases remain genetically undefined. The overlap with other neurodegenerative disorders has been implied in a small number of reports, but not in larger disease series. This deficiency has been largely due to the lack of suitable high throughput techniques to investigate the genetic basis of disease, but the recent availability of next generation sequencing can facilitate the identification of disease-causing mutations even in extremely heterogeneous disorders. We investigated a series of 97 index cases with complex spastic paraplegia referred to a tertiary referral neurology centre in London for diagnosis or management. The mean age of onset was 16 years (range 3 to 39). The SPG11 gene was first analysed, revealing homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in 30/97 (30.9%) of probands, the largest SPG11 series reported to date, and by far the most common cause of complex spastic paraplegia in the UK, with severe and progressive clinical features and other neurological manifestations, linked with magnetic resonance imaging defects. Given the high frequency of SPG11 mutations, we studied the autophagic response to starvation in eight affected SPG11 cases and control fibroblast cell lines, but in our restricted study we did not observe correlations between disease status and autophagic or lysosomal markers. In the remaining

  9. Hereditary kidney cancer syndromes: Genetic disorders driven by alterations in metabolism and epigenome regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasumi, Hisashi; Yao, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    Although hereditary kidney cancer syndrome accounts for approximately five percent of all kidney cancers, the mechanistic insight into tumor development in these rare conditions has provided the foundation for the development of molecular targeting agents currently used for sporadic kidney cancer. In the late 1980s, the comprehensive study for hereditary kidney cancer syndrome was launched in the National Cancer Institute, USA and the first kidney cancer-associated gene, VHL, was identified through kindred analysis of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome in 1993. Subsequent molecular studies on VHL function have elucidated that the VHL protein is a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which provided the basis for the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the HIF-VEGF/PDGF pathway. Recent whole-exome sequencing analysis of sporadic kidney cancer exhibited the recurrent mutations in chromatin remodeling genes and the later study has revealed that several chromatin remodeling genes are altered in kidney cancer kindred at the germline level. To date, more than 10 hereditary kidney cancer syndromes together with each responsible gene have been characterized and most of the causative genes for these genetic disorders are associated with either metabolism or epigenome regulation. In this review article, we describe the molecular mechanisms of how an alteration of each kidney cancer-associated gene leads to renal tumorigenesis as well as denote therapeutic targets elicited by studies on hereditary kidney cancer. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Misdiagnosed as Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michelle Fog; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    however not always have to be caused by angioedema but can relate to other concomitant disorders. In this report we are focusing on misdiagnosis in a patient with known hereditary angioedema, whose bleeding episode caused by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was mistaken for an acute attack...

  11. Hereditary spherocytosis: Consequences of delayed diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Steward

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether patients with undiagnosed hereditary spherocytosis hospitalized for transfusions might have avoided hospitalization via earlier diagnosis. Study design: Charts of all (N = 30 patients with hereditary spherocytosis seen in pediatric hematology at West Virginia University-Charleston were reviewed. Family and transfusion history and presence of neonatal jaundice were recorded. Complete blood count and reticulocyte values during infancy were available for 20 of 30 patients, while baseline steady-state values were available for all 30. Results: Transfusions were given to 22 patients; 12 of 14 with an aplastic crisis were undiagnosed. In 10 of 12, the severity of anemia led to hospitalization (3 to intensive care. All 10 had prior mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and/or red cell distribution width elevations and a history of neonatal jaundice; 7 of 10 had a positive family history. Conclusions: Undiagnosed hereditary spherocytosis may lead to inpatient transfusions for severe anemia. Earlier detection of hereditary spherocytosis is easily achievable and may reduce hospitalizations via closer monitoring.

  12. Major and minor form of hereditary hyperekplexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Vergouwe, MN; van Dijk, JG; Rees, M; Frants, RR; Brown, P

    Hyperekplexia is a hereditary neurological disorder characterized by excessive startle responses. Within the disorder two clinical forms can be distinguished. The major form is characterized by continuous generalized stiffness in the first year of life and an exaggerated startle reflex, accompanied

  13. MRI in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Lucy; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and a multiple sclerosis (MS)-like illness appear to coexist 50 times more frequently than would be expected by chance. This association of LHON and MS (LMS) raises an important question about whether there could be a common pathophysiological...

  14. Autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathipala, Dulika S; Abeysekera, Gayan S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Tallaksen, Chantal ME; Dissanayake, Vajira HW

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders. Prevalence of SCA subtypes differ worldwide. Autosomal dominant ataxias are the commonest types of inherited ataxias seen in Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to determine the genetic etiology of patients with autosomal dominant ataxia in Sri Lanka and to describe the clinical features of each genetic subtype. Methods ...

  15. Epidemiology of Non-hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Flemming; Attermann, Jorn; Linneberg, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of non-hereditary angioedema was investigated in a general population sample (n = 7,931) and in a sample of Danish patients (n = 7,433) tested for deficiency of functional complement C1 esterase inhibitor protein (functional C1 INH). The general population sample (44% response rate...

  16. Epidemiology of Non-hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Flemming; Attermann, Jørn; Linneberg, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of non-hereditary angioedema was investigated in a general population sample (n¿=¿7,931) and in a sample of Danish patients (n¿=¿7,433) tested for deficiency of functional complement C1 esterase inhibitor protein (functional C1 INH). The general population sample (44% response rate...

  17. Revisited diagnostics of hereditary epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Albanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary epidermolysis bullosa is a big group of hereditary diseases with the main manifestations in the form of blisters on the skin and mucous coat after slight mechanical injuries. It is not always possible to diagnose this disease based on the clinical picture. The article discusses current laboratory diagnostics methods for hereditary epidermolysis bullosa including immunofluorescence antigen mapping (IFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and genetic analysis (molecular or DNA diagnostics as well as their advantages and disadvantages. TEM determines the micro splitting level and nature of ultrafine changes in the area of the dermoepidermal junction; at the same time, such tests need special expensive equipment. Substantial experience is also needed to analyze the resulting submicroscopic images. IFM determines whether expression of the affected protein related to the disease development is reduced or absent; however, invalid (false positive or false negative results can be obtained in patients with the reduced expression of the affected protein. Genetic analysis plays a key role for prenatal diagnostics. Therefore, to make an exact diagnosis of hereditary epidermolysis bullosa, it is expedient to apply IFM, TEM and genetic analysis. The need to set an exact diagnosis of the disease is related to the fact that the promising treatment methods being currently developed are aimed at treating patients with certain forms of the disease.

  18. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia clinical and molecular genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letteboer, T.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber (ROW) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by vascular malformations in multiple organ systems. HHT has an age-related penetrance and variable clinical expression. The clinical symptoms are caused by direct

  19. [Review of the recent literature on hereditary neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birouk, N

    2014-12-01

    The recent literature included interesting reports on the pathogenic mechanisms of hereditary neuropathies. The axonal traffic and its abnormalities in some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease were particularly reviewed by Bucci et al. Many genes related to CMT disease code for proteins that are involved directly or not in intracellular traffic. KIF1B controls vesicle motility on microtubules. MTMR2, MTMR13 and FIG4 regulate the metabolism of phosphoinositide at the level of endosomes. The HSPs are involved in the proteasomal degradation. GDAP1 and MFN2 regulate the mitochondrial fission and fusion respectively and the mitochondial transport within the axon. Pareyson et al. reported a review on peripheral neuropathies in mitochondrial disorders. They used the term of "mitochondrial CMT" for the forms of CMT with abnormal mitochondrial dynamic or structure. Among the new entities, we can draw the attention to a proximal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance, which is characterized by motor deficit with cramps and fasciculations predominating in proximal muscles. Distal sensory deficit can be present. The gene TFG on chromosome 3 has been recently identified to be responsible for this form. Another rare form of axonal autosomal recessive neuropathy due to HNT1 gene mutation is characterized by the presence of hands myotonia that appears later than neuropathy but constitute an interesting clinical hallmark to orientate the diagnosis of this form. In terms of differential diagnosis, CMT4J due to FIG4 mutation can present with a rapidly progressive and asymmetric weakness that resembles CIDP. Bouhy et al. made an interesting review on the therapeutic trials, animal models and the future therapeutic strategies to be developed in CMT disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Research on Potential Biomarkers in Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Botella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, involving mutations in two predominant genes known as Endoglin (ENG; HHT1 and Activin receptor like kinase 1 (ACVRL1/ALK1; HHT2, as well as in some less frequent genes, such as MADH4/SMAD4 (JP-HHT or BMP9/GDF2 (HHT5. The diagnosis of HHT patients currently remains at the clinical level, according to the Curaçao criteria, whereas the molecular diagnosis is used to confirm or rule out suspected HHT cases, especially when a well characterized index case is present in the family or in an isolated population. Unfortunately, many suspected patients do not present a clear HHT diagnosis or do not show pathogenic mutations in HHT genes, prompting the need to investigate additional biomarkers of the disease. Here, several HHT biomarkers and novel methodological approaches developed during the last years will be reviewed. On one hand, products detected in plasma or serum samples: soluble proteins (VEGF, TGF-β1, soluble endoglin, angiopoietin-2 and microRNA variants (miR-27a, miR-205, miR-210. On the other hand, differential HHT gene expression fingerprinting, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS of a panel of genes involved in HHT, and infrared spectroscopy combined with Artificial Neural Network (ANN patterns will also be reviewed. All these biomarkers might help to improve and refine HHT diagnosis by distinguishing from the non-HHT population.

  1. Therapeutic avenues for hereditary forms of retinal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannabiran, Chitra; Mariappan, Indumathi

    2018-03-01

    Hereditary retinal diseases, known as retinal degenerations or dystrophies, are a large group of inherited eye disorders resulting in irreversible visual loss and blindness. They develop due to mutations in one or more genes that lead to the death of the retinal photoreceptor cells. Till date, mutations in over 200 genes are known to be associated with all different forms of retinal disorders. The enormous genetic heterogeneity of this group of diseases has posedmany challenges in understanding the mechanisms of disease and in developing suitable therapies. Therapeutic avenues that are being investigated for these disorders include gene therapy to replace the defective gene, treatment with neurotrophic factors to stimulate the growth of photoreceptors, cell replacement therapy, and prosthetic devices that can capture light and transmit electrical signals through retinal neurons to the brain. Several of these are in process of human trials in patients, and have shown safety and efficacy of the treatment. A combination of approaches that involve both gene replacement and cell replacement may be required for optimum benefit.

  2. Mutation in HFE gene decreases manganese accumulation and oxidative stress in the brain after olfactory manganese exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qi; Kim, Jonghan

    2016-06-01

    Increased accumulation of manganese (Mn) in the brain is significantly associated with neurobehavioral deficits and impaired brain function. Airborne Mn has a high systemic bioavailability and can be directly taken up into the brain, making it highly neurotoxic. While Mn transport is in part mediated by several iron transporters, the expression of these transporters is altered by the iron regulatory gene, HFE. Mutations in the HFE gene are the major cause of the iron overload disorder, hereditary hemochromatosis, one of the prevalent genetic diseases in humans. However, whether or not HFE mutation modifies Mn-induced neurotoxicity has not been evaluated. Therefore, our goal was to define the role of HFE mutation in Mn deposition in the brain and the resultant neurotoxic effects after olfactory Mn exposure. Mice carrying the H67D HFE mutation, which is homologous to the H63D mutation in humans, and their control, wild-type mice, were intranasally instilled with MnCl2 with different doses (0, 0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 mg kg(-1)) daily for 3 days. Mn levels in the blood, liver and brain were determined using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). H67D mutant mice showed significantly lower Mn levels in the blood, liver, and most brain regions, especially in the striatum, while mice fed an iron-overload diet did not. Moreover, mRNA expression of ferroportin, an essential exporter of iron and Mn, was up-regulated in the striatum. In addition, the levels of isoprostane, a marker of lipid peroxidation, were increased in the striatum after Mn exposure in wild-type mice, but were unchanged in H67D mice. Together, our results suggest that the H67D mutation provides decreased susceptibility to Mn accumulation in the brain and neurotoxicity induced by inhaled Mn.

  3. Sepsis and siderosis, Yersinia enterocolitica and hereditary haemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, Phoebe A; Woods, Marion L

    2017-01-04

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted with sepsis, relative bradycardia, CT evidence of numerous small liver abscesses and 'skin bronzing' consistent with hereditary haemochromatosis (HH). Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 infection was confirmed by serology specimens taken 10 days apart. Iron overload was detected, and homozygous C282Y gene mutation confirmed HH. Liver biopsy revealed grade IV siderosis with micronodular cirrhosis. Haemochromatosis is a common, inherited disorder leading to iron overload that can produce end-organ damage from excess iron deposition. Haemochromatosis diagnosis allowed aggressive medical management with phlebotomy achieving normalisation of iron stores. Screening for complications of cirrhosis was started that included hepatoma surveillance. Iron overload states are known to increase patient susceptibility to infections caused by lower virulence bacteria lacking sophisticated iron metabolism pathways, for example, Yersinia enterocolitica Although these serious disseminated infections are rare, they may serve as markers for occult iron overload and should prompt haemochromatosis screening. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. [Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II A: early neurological and skeletal findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmer, C; Díaz Zambrano, S; Santos Díaz, M A; González Huerta, L M; Cuevas Covarrubias, S A; Bravo Oro, A

    2014-04-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are genetic disorders characterized by the loss of sensation including pain, tactile and temperature. Its clinical and molecular features vary widely; the symptoms may begin from birth or be noticed in the first or second decade, with different types of complications of trauma to the extremities such as ulcers, mutilations and acral amputations. They are classified into six groups from I to VI, determined by the abnormality in eleven genes leading to phenotypic variations in the age of onset and the presence or absence of dysautonomia signs. With the exception of type I, all are autosomal recessive. The type II of these neuropathies is characterized by insensitivity to pain, heat and proprioception. We describe three members of a Mexican family with WNK1 gene mutation that caused hereditary neuropathy IIA. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varalakshmi Muthukrishnan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we present a young patient with type 1 diabetes who had hereditary chronic pancreatitis. We evaluated him for the cause of pancreatitis, but it was inconclusive and finally the genetic testing was done for him, which revealed heterozygous missense mutation in exon 3 of the PRSS1 gene (protease serine 1 gene on chromosome 7. Hence, we were able to make the diagnosis of hereditary chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis secondary to any cause can lead to permanent diabetes, which is typically difficult to control. However, in this case, the episodes of recurrent pancreatitis were present after the onset of type 1 diabetes as compared to the usual presentation of diabetes after the advancement of chronic pancreatitis.

  6. Comprehensive mutational screening in a cohort of Danish families with hereditary congenital cataract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Mikkelsen, Annemette; Nürnberg, Peter

    2009-01-01

    , and a gene conversion is the most likely mutational event causing this variant. Ten families had microcornea cataract, and a mutation was identified in eight of those. Most families displayed mixed phenotypes with nuclear, lamellar, and polar opacities and no apparent genotype-phenotype correlation emerged......PURPOSE: Identification of the causal mutations in 28 unrelated families and individuals with hereditary congenital cataract identified from a national Danish register of hereditary eye diseases. Seven families have been published previously, and the data of the remaining 21 families are presented...... together with an overview of the results in all families. METHODS: A combined screening approach of linkage analysis and sequencing of 17 cataract genes were applied to mutation analyses of total 28 families. RESULTS: The study revealed a disease locus in seven of eight families that were amenable...

  7. Rodent models of congenital and hereditary cataract in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, B J; Tripathi, R C; Borisuth, N S; Dhaliwal, R; Dhaliwal, D

    1991-01-01

    Because the organogenesis and physiology of the lens are essentially similar in various mammals, an understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the formation of cataract in an animal model will enhance our knowledge of cataractogenesis in man. In this review, we summarize the background, etiology, and pathogenesis of cataracts that occur in rodents. The main advantages of using rodent mutants include the well-researched genetics of the animals and the comparative ease of breeding of large litters. Numerous rodent models of congenital and hereditary cataracts have been studied extensively. In mice, the models include the Cts strain, Fraser mouse, lens opacity gene (Lop) strain, Lop-2 and Lop-3 strains, Philly mouse, Nakano mouse, Nop strain, Deer mouse, Emory mouse, Swiss Webster strain, Balb/c-nct/nct mouse, and SAM-R/3 strain. The rat models include BUdR, ICR, Sprague-Dawley, and Wistar rats, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), the John Rapp inbred strain of Dahl salt-sensitive rat, as well as WBN/Kob, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS), and Brown-Norway rats. Other proposed models for the study of hereditary cataract include the degu and the guinea pig. Because of the ease of making clinical observations in vivo and the subsequent availability of the intact lens for laboratory analyses at different stages of cataract formation, these animals provide excellent models for clinicopathologic correlations, for monitoring of the natural history of the aging process and of metabolic defects, as well as for investigations on the effect of cataract-modulating agents and drugs, including the prospect of gene therapy.

  8. The influence of iron status and genetic polymorphisms in the HFE gene on the risk for postoperative complications after bariatric surgery: a prospective cohort study in 1,064 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freedman-Weiss Mollie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric bypass surgery is a highly effective therapy for long-term weight loss in severely obese patients, but carries significant perioperative risks including infection, wound dehiscence, and leaks from staple breakdown. Iron status can affect immune function and wound healing, thus may influence peri-operative complications. Common mutations in the HFE gene, the gene responsible for the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis, may impact iron status. Methods We analyzed 1064 extremely obese Caucasian individuals who underwent open and laparoscopic Roux-n-Y gastric bypass surgery at the Geisinger Clinic. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and iron binding capacity were measured pre-operatively. All patients had intra-operative liver biopsies and were genotyped for the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene. Associations between surgical complications and serum iron measures, HFE gene status, and liver iron histology were determined. Results We found that increased serum iron and transferrin saturation were present in patients with any post-operative complication, and that increased serum ferritin was also increased in patients with major complications. Increased serum transferrin saturation was also associated with wound complications in open RYGB, and transferrin saturation and ferritin with prolonged lengths of stay. The presence of 2 or more HFE mutations was associated with overall complications as well as wound complications in open RYGB. No differences were found in complication rates between those with stainable liver iron and those without. Conclusion Serum iron status and HFE genotype may be associated with complications following RYGB surgery in the extremely obese.

  9. Subtle neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive changes in hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis (AGel amyloidosis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kantanen, Mari; Kiuru-Enari, Sari; Salonen, Oili; Kaipainen, Markku; Hokkanen, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis (AGel amyloidosis) is an autosomal dominant form of systemic amyloidosis caused by a c.640G>A or c.640G>T mutation in the gene coding for gelsolin. Principal clinical manifestations include corneal lattice dystrophy, cranial neuropathy and cutis laxa with vascular fragility. Signs of minor CNS involvement have also been observed, possibly related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). To investigate further if AGel amyloidosis carries a risk for a specific neuro...

  10. DNA testing in hereditary neuropathies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Sinéad M

    2013-01-01

    The inherited neuropathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders in which there have been rapid advances in the last two decades. Molecular genetic testing is now an integral part of the evaluation of patients with inherited neuropathies. In this chapter we describe the genes responsible for the primary inherited neuropathies. We briefly discuss the clinical phenotype of each of the known inherited neuropathy subgroups, describe algorithms for molecular genetic testing of affected patients and discuss genetic counseling. The basic principles of careful phenotyping, documenting an accurate family history, and testing the available genes in an appropriate manner should identify the vast majority of individuals with CMT1 and many of those with CMT2. In this chapter we also describe the current methods of genetic testing. As advances are made in molecular genetic technologies and improvements are made in bioinformatics, it is likely that the current time-consuming methods of DNA sequencing will give way to quicker and more efficient high-throughput methods, which are briefly discussed here.

  11. Hereditary noetherian prime rings and idealizers

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Lawrence S

    2011-01-01

    The direct sum behaviour of its projective modules is a fundamental property of any ring. Hereditary Noetherian prime rings are perhaps the only noncommutative Noetherian rings for which this direct sum behaviour (for both finitely and infinitely generated projective modules) is well-understood, yet highly nontrivial. This book surveys material previously available only in the research literature. It provides a re-worked and simplified account, with improved clarity, fresh insights and many original results about finite length modules, injective modules and projective modules. It culminates in the authors' surprisingly complete structure theorem for projective modules which involves two independent additive invariants: genus and Steinitz class. Several applications demonstrate its utility. The theory, extending the well-known module theory of commutative Dedekind domains and of hereditary orders, develops via a detailed study of simple modules. This relies upon the substantial account of idealizer subrings wh...

  12. Calcium absorption, kinetics, bone density, and bone structure in patients with hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR) is caused by mutations in the vitamin D receptor gene. Children with HVDRR suffer from severe hypocalcemia and rickets that are treatable with extremely high-dose calcium supplements. Surprisingly, spontaneous recovery of calcium metabolis...

  13. Cancer risk in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer due to MSH6 mutations: impact on counseling and surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Yvonne M. C.; Wagner, Anja; Morreau, Hans; Menko, Fred; Stormorken, Astrid; Quehenberger, Franz; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk; Møller, Pal; Genuardi, Maurizio; van Houwelingen, Hans; Tops, Carli; van Puijenbroek, Marjo; Verkuijlen, Paul; Kenter, Gemma; van Mil, Anneke; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Tan, Gita B.; Breuning, Martijn H.; Fodde, Riccardo; Wijnen, Juul Th; Bröcker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; Vasen, Hans

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) is caused by a mutated mismatch repair (MMR) gene. The aim of our study was to determine the cumulative risk of developing cancer in a large series of MSH6 mutation carriers. METHODS: Mutation analysis was performed in 20

  14. Presymptomatic diagnosis using a deletion of a single codon in families with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus S.; Katballe, Niels; Wikman, Friedrik P.

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is often confirmed by a mutation in one of several mismatch-repair genes, in particular MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. Presymptomatic diagnosis requires the identification of a mutation causing the disease. Three different deletions...

  15. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer presenting as metastatic kidney cancer at 18 years of age : implications for surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y.; Badeloe, Sadhanna; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Semmelink, Harry J. F.; van Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A.; van Waesberghe, Jan Hein; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Menko, Fred H.

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skin piloleiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas and papillary type 2 renal cancer caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Previously, we proposed renal imaging for FH mutation

  16. Characterization of a dehydrogenase activity responsible for oxidation of 11-cis-retinol in the retinal pigment epithelium of mice with a disrupted RDH5 gene. A model for the human hereditary disease fundus albipunctatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, G.F.; Hooser, J.P. van; Kuksa, V.; McBee, J.K.; He, Y.G.; Janssen, J.J.M.; Driessen, C.A.G.G.; Palczewski, K.

    2001-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, the final step of visual chromophore production is the oxidation of 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal. This reaction is catalyzed by 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenases (11-cis-RDHs), prior to the chromophore rejoining with the visual pigment apo-proteins. The RDH5 gene encodes a

  17. Mechanisms of Disease and Clinical Features of Mutations of the Gene for Mitofusin 2: An Important Cause of Hereditary Peripheral Neuropathy with Striking Clinical Variability in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrier, Robert; Grew, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Mitofusin 2, a large transmembrane GTPase located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, promotes membrane fusion and is involved in the maintenance of the morphology of axonal mitochondria. Mutations of the gene encoding mitofusin 2 ("MFN2") have recently been identified as the cause of approximately one-third of dominantly inherited cases of the…

  18. Multiple Hereditary Osteochondromatosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    K???kesmen, ?i?dem; ?zen, Bu?ra; Ak?am, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Common carious lesions owing to vomiting are not widespread in children. In this case, we aimed to report an 11-years-old male patient with common carious lesions due to repeated vomitings, chewing and eating difficulty and retarded growth with Multiple Hereditary Osteochondromatosis (MHO). Case Report An 11-years-old boy was referred to Department of Pediatric Dentistry in Faculty of Dentistry because of eating difficulty owing to common carious lesions. It was seen that the patie...

  19. Mania associated with complicated hereditary spastic paraparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra B Nayak; Govind S Bhogale; Nanasaheb M Patil; Aditya A Pandurangi

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is an inherited group of neurological disorders with progressive lower limb spasticity. HSP can be clinically grouped into pure and complicated forms. Pure HSP is one without any associated neurological/psychiatric comorbidity. Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity. Presence of mania or bipolar affective illness with HSP is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with classical features of HSP with complaints ...

  20. Cellular Pathways of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia*

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstone, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Human voluntary movement is controlled by the pyramidal motor system, a long CNS pathway comprising corticospinal and lower motor neurons. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a large, genetically diverse group of inherited neurologic disorders characterized by a length-dependent distal axonopathy of the corticospinal tracts, resulting in lower limb spasticity and weakness. A range of studies are converging on alterations in the shaping of organelles, particularly the endoplasmic reticul...

  1. Current problems in haematology. 2: Hereditary spherocytosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Smedley, J C; Bellingham, A J

    1991-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is a relatively common haematological disorder and will be encountered by all haematologists. The abundance of new information, dealing principally with molecular and genetic aspects of pathophysiology, is beginning to have implications for its investigation and management. While these advances have not yet exerted a large influence at therapeutic level, the promise of such advents as prenatal diagnosis make this an exciting field to watch.

  2. Multimodality imaging features of hereditary multiple exostoses

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, H K; Fitzgerald, L; Campbell, N; Lyburn, I D; Munk, P L; Buckley, O; Torreggiani, W C

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or diaphyseal aclasis is an inherited disorder characterised by the formation of multiple osteochondromas, which are cartilage-capped osseous outgrowths, and the development of associated osseous deformities. Individuals with HME may be asymptomatic or develop clinical symptoms, which prompt imaging studies. Different modalities ranging from plain radiographs to cross-sectional and nuclear medicine imaging studies can be helpful in the diagnosis and detecti...

  3. Disease expression in women with hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouillet, Laurence; Longhurst, Hilary; Boccon-Gibod, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fluctuations in sex hormones can trigger angioedema attacks in women with hereditary angioedema. Combined oral contraceptive therapies, as well as pregnancy, can induce severe attacks. The course of angioedema may be very variable in different women. STUDY DESIGN: Within the PREHAEAT p......-sensitive phenotype for some patients. CONCLUSION: The course of angioedema in women with C1 inhibitor deficiency is affected by physiologic hormonal changes; consequently, physicians should take these into account when advising on management.......OBJECTIVE: Fluctuations in sex hormones can trigger angioedema attacks in women with hereditary angioedema. Combined oral contraceptive therapies, as well as pregnancy, can induce severe attacks. The course of angioedema may be very variable in different women. STUDY DESIGN: Within the PREHAEAT...... project launched by the European Union, data on 150 postpubertal women with hereditary angioedema were collected in 8 countries, using a patient-based questionnaire. RESULTS: Puberty worsened the disease for 62%. Combined oral contraceptives worsened the disease for 79%, whereas progestogen-only pills...

  4. Hereditary pituitary hyperplasia with infantile gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläsker, Sven; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Lafferty, Antony R A; Hofman, Paul L; Li, Jie; Weil, Robert J; Zhuang, Zhengping; Oldfield, Edward H

    2011-12-01

    We report hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. The objective of the study was to describe the results of the clinical and laboratory analysis of this rare instance of hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. The study is a retrospective analysis of three cases from one family. The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health, a tertiary referral center. A mother and both her sons had very early-onset gigantism associated with high levels of serum GH and prolactin. The condition was treated by total hypophysectomy. We performed clinical, pathological, and molecular evaluations, including evaluation basal and provocative endocrine testing, neuroradiological assessment, and assessment of the pituitary tissue by microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. All three family members had very early onset of gigantism associated with abnormally high serum levels of GH and prolactin. Serum GHRH levels were not elevated in either of the boys. The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and histological findings indicated mammosomatotroph hyperplasia. The pituitary gland of both boys revealed diffuse mammosomatotroph hyperplasia of the entire pituitary gland without evidence of adenoma. Prolactin and GH were secreted by the same cells within the same secretory granules. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of GHRH in clusters of cells distributed throughout the hyperplastic pituitary of both boys. This hereditary condition seems to be a result of embryonic pituitary maldevelopment with retention and expansion of the mammosomatotrophs. The findings suggest that it is caused by paracrine or autocrine pituitary GHRH secretion during pituitary development.

  5. Prevalence of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in patients with colorectal cancer in Iran: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Esmaeilzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and hereditary factors and family history are responsible for the incidence and development of the disease in 20 to 30% of cases. Lynch syndrome, or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, is the most common hereditary form of CRC that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This study consisted of a systematic literature review of research articles that described the prevalence of HNPCC in Iranian patients with CRC. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant articles that describe HNPCC or Lynch syndrome in patients with CRC in Iran. For this purpose, a keyword search of the following terms was employed: (((Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer OR HNPCC OR Lynch syndrome AND (colorectal cancer OR familial colorectal cancer OR colon cancer OR rectal cancer OR bowel cancer AND IRAN. All eligible documents were collected, and the desired data were qualitatively analyzed.Result: Of the 67 articles that were found via the initial database search, only 12 were deemed to be of relevance to the current study. These articles included a total population of 3237 and this sample was selected and qualitatively analyzed. The findings of the review revealed that the frequency of mutation in MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6 genes varied between 23.1% and 62.5% among the studied families. This indicated that HNPCC is linked with up to 5.5% of the total cases of colorectal cancers in Iran.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the hereditary form of HNPCC or Lynch syndrome is significantly high among patients with CRC in Iran

  6. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: impact of genetic hemochromatosis on outcome and overall survival after surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpice, Laurent; Rayar, Michel; Boucher, Eveline; Pele, Fabienne; Pracht, Marc; Meunier, Bernard; Boudjema, Karim

    2013-03-01

    The influence of genetic hemochromatosis (GH) on outcomes following surgical resections for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) has not been evaluated. All patients with ICC who underwent a surgical resection between January 1997 and August 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Risk factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Eighty-seven patients were analyzed; 16 of these patients (18.4%) had GH. Among the 71 non-GH patients, 52 (73.2%) and 19 (26.8%) had normal or cirrhotic parenchyma, respectively. There was no significant difference in survival between the GH and non-GH patients. A univariate analysis showed that major hepatectomy (P = 0.012), intraoperative blood transfusion (P = 0.007), tumor size >5 cm (P = 0.006), several nodules (P < 0.001), and microvascular invasion (P = 0.04) were significantly associated with poor survival. A multivariate analysis showed that intraoperative blood infusion (HR 0.37; CI 95% [0.19; 0.71]) and more than one nodule (HR 2.5; CI 95% [1.06; 5.8]) were associated with a lower survival rate. Although the incidence of GH was high in our series, the presence of GH did not affect the outcomes after a liver hepatectomy for ICC. GH does not appear to increase recurrences or worsen the overall and disease-free survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: More than an upper motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, L; Fenu, S; Stevanin, G; Durr, A

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of rare inherited neurological diseases characterized by extreme heterogeneity in both their clinical manifestations and genetic backgrounds. Based on symptoms, HSPs can be divided into pure forms, presenting with pyramidal signs leading to lower-limb spasticity, and complex forms, when additional neurological or extraneurological symptoms are detected. The clinical diversity of HSPs partially reflects their underlying genetic backgrounds. To date, 76 loci and 58 corresponding genes [spastic paraplegia genes (SPGs)] have been linked to HSPs. The genetic diagnosis is further complicated by the fact that causative mutations of HSP can be inherited through all possible modes of transmission (autosomal-dominant and -recessive, X-linked, maternal), with some genes showing multiple inheritance patterns. The pathogenic mutations of SPGs primarily lead to progressive degeneration of the upper motor neurons (UMNs) comprising corticospinal tracts. However, it is possible to observe lower-limb muscle atrophy and fasciculations on clinical examination that are clear signs of lower motor neuron (LMN) involvement. The purpose of this review is to classify HSPs based on their degree of motor neuron involvement, distinguishing forms in which only UMNs are affected from those involving both UMN and LMN degeneration, and to describe their differential diagnosis from diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Diabetes mellitus caused by secondary hemochromatosis after multiple blood transfusions in 2 patients with severe aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jin Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemochromatosis is an inherited or secondary disorder caused by excessive iron storage leading to multiple organ damage. We describe 2 patients with diabetes mellitus caused by hemochromatosis secondary to multiple blood transfusions due to severe aplastic anemia. Subject 1, who was diagnosed with severe aplastic anemia at 15 years of age, received multiple red blood cell transfusions before he underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT at 22 years of age. At 21 years of age, hyperglycemia was detected with increased hemoglobin A1c and serum ferritin levels, 9.7% and 12,910 ng/mL (normal range, 20–320 ng/mL, respectively. The 24-hour urine C-peptide level was normal with negative antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibody. Subsequently, metformin and an iron-chelating agent were administered. However, an intensive insulin regimen was necessary 2 years after the onset of diabetes. Subject 2, who was diagnosed with severe aplastic anemia at 2 years of age, received multiple blood transfusions until she underwent haploidentical PBSCT at 13 years of age. At 11 years of age, she developed diabetes mellitus with a high serum ferritin level (12,559.8 ng/mL. She is currently 18 years old and has been treated with an intensive insulin regimen and estrogen/progesterone replacement therapy because of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It is presumed that the loss of insulin secretory capacity and insulin resistance played a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus due to hemochromatosis in these cases.

  9. HFE C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes are at low risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrin, Lyle C; Bertalli, Nadine A; Dalton, Gregory W; Osborne, Nicholas J; Constantine, Clare C; McLaren, Christine E; English, Dallas R; Gertig, Dorota M; Delatycki, Martin B; Nicoll, Amanda J; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Anderson, Gregory J; Olynyk, John K; Powell, Lawrie W; Allen, Katrina J

    2009-07-01

    The risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity is unknown among HFE compound heterozygotes (C282Y/H63D). We used a prospective population-based cohort study to estimate the prevalence of elevated iron indices and hemochromatosis-related morbidity for compound heterozygotes. In all, 31,192 subjects of northern European descent were genotyped for HFE C282Y and H63D. An HFE-genotype stratified random sample of 1,438 subjects, followed for an average of 12 years to a mean age of 65 years, completed questionnaires and gave blood. Clinical examinations were blinded to HFE genotype. A total of 180 (84 males) clinically examined C282Y/H63D participants were compared with 330 (149 males) controls with neither HFE mutation; 132 (65 males) and 270 (122 males), respectively, had serum iron measures at both timepoints. Mean serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TS) were significantly greater for male and female compound heterozygotes than for wild-types at baseline and follow-up (all P females who were premenopausal at baseline, where SF was similar in both genotype groups. For subjects with serum measures from both baseline and follow-up, mean SF and TS levels did not change significantly for men or for postmenopausal women, but for premenopausal women SF levels increased from 43 to 109 microg/L for compound heterozygotes and from 35 to 64 microg/L for wild-types (both P female compound heterozygotes had a similar prevalence of hemochromatosis-related morbidity to wild-types. One of 82 males and zero of 95 females had documented iron overload-related disease. For male compound heterozygotes, mean iron indices do not change during middle age but for female compound heterozygotes menopause results in increased mean SF. Although compound heterozygotes might maintain elevated iron indices during middle age, documented iron overload-related disease is rare.

  10. Atypical hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV with neither mental retardation nor pain insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chae Lim; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Byoung Joon; Lee, Jong-Hyuck; Sung, Ki-Sun; Kim, Jong-Won; Park, Youn-Soo

    2013-12-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe mental retardation and self-mutilation-related complications. Recently, we investigated a 16-year-old Korean boy with normal intelligence. He had preserved pain sensation but was suspected of having hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV because of the recurrent bone fractures and painless joint destruction in the absence of any predisposing medical conditions. Genetic analysis of the NTRK1 gene revealed compound heterozygous mutations including c.851-33T>A and c.2303C>T (p.Pro768Leu) in the NTRK1 gene. The p.Pro768Leu mutation has been identified in 2 Japanese patients with a mild phenotype. Therefore, although it is rare, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV should be considered in patients with recurrent bone fractures and painless joint destruction who do not have any predisposing conditions even when they do not have typical clinical features such as mental retardation or pain insensitivity.

  11. Iron overload: what is the role of public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulihan, Mary M; Sayers, Cindy A; Grosse, Scott D; Garrison, Cheryl; Grant, Althea M

    2011-12-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis type 1, also known as hereditary hemochromatosis classical (HHC), is an iron overload disorder associated, in most cases, with mutations of the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene. Although suggested algorithms for diagnosing iron overload are available, there are still questions about options for genetic and biochemical screening for hemochromatosis and duration of treatment. This article provides a summary of an expert workgroup meeting convened on September 24-25, 2009, entitled "Iron Overload: What is the Role of Public Health?" The purpose of the meeting was to enable subject matter experts to share their most recent clinical and scientific iron overload information and to facilitate the discussion of future endeavors, with special emphasis on the role of public health in this field. The two main topics were the research priorities of the field, including clinical, genetic, and public health issues, and the concerns about the validity of current screening recommendations for the condition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Clinical and electromyographic criteria for the diagnosis of hereditary myotonic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Fedotov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary myotonic syndromes (HMS are a group of genetically heterogeneous diseases of the chlorine and sodium ion channels (channelopathies with evident clinical polymorphism and high prevalence in the population. The differential diagnosis of early‑stage NMS poses a challenge to clinicians to this day. The investigation has attempted to elaborate informative differentiating criteria on the basis of a clinical and electromyographic study of 2 groups of patients with hereditary Thomsen or Becker myotonia (n = 45 and myotonic dystrophy type 1 (n = 39 verified by DNA analysis of the CLCN1 and DMPK genes. Along with the clinical symptoms, there may be the value of M‑response amplitude decrement in rhythmic stimulation of the n. ulnaris and the duration of myotonic discharges at pin electromyography of the m. tibialis anterior.

  13. [Hereditary motor and sensory Lom-neuropathy--first Hungarian case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Antal; Siska, Eva; Molnár, Mária Judit

    2007-01-20

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom is an autosomal recessive disorder of the peripheral nervous system, which occurs only in the european Roma population. The symptoms start in the first decade with slowly progressive gait disturbance, weakness and wasting of distal upper extremity muscles, joint deformities and hearing loss develop later in the second and third decades. This disorder is caused by a homozygous missense mutation of the NDRG1 gene, located in the 8q24 region. The Schwann cell dysfunction is most probably caused by altered lipid metabolism as a consequence of the NDRG1 mutation. Molecular genetic testing can be a first diagnostic step among roma individuals showing a Lom neuropathy phenotype, making evaluation of such patients and also genetic counselling faster and easier. Screening for hereditary neuromuscular disorders in this genetically isolated community may become an important public health issue in the near future.

  14. An effect from anticipation also in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families without identified mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timshel, Susanne; Therkildsen, Christina; Bendahl, Pär-Ola

    2009-01-01

    Optimal prevention of hereditary cancer is central and requires initiation of surveillance programmes and/or prophylactic measures at a safe age. Anticipation, expressed as an earlier age at onset in successive generations, has been demonstrated in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC......). We specifically addressed anticipation in phenotypic HNPCC families without disease-predisposing mismatch repair (MMR) defects since risk estimates and age at onset are particularly difficult to determine in this cohort. The national Danish HNPCC register was used to identify families who fulfilled...... the Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC and showed normal MMR function and/or lack of disease-predisposing MMR gene mutation. In total, 319 cancers from 212 parent-child pairs in 99 families were identified. A paired t-test and a bivariate statistical model were used to assess anticipation. Both methods demonstrated...

  15. Generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells from Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-En Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease caused by homoplasmic point mutations in complex I subunit genes of mitochondrial DNA. In this report, we generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs line, TVGH-iPSC-010-09, from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a female patient with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON by using the Sendai-virus delivery system. The resulting iPSCs retained the disease-causing mitochondrial DNA mutation, expressed pluripotent markers and could differentiate into the three germ layers. We believe LHON patient-specific iPSCs provide a powerful in vitro model for evaluating the pathological phenotypes of the disease.

  16. Suspected Perinatal Depression Revealed to be Hereditary Diffuse Leukoencephalopathy with Spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Josefine; Weissert, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Early motor symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases often appear in combination with psychiatric symptoms, such as depression or personality changes, and are in danger of being misdiagnosed as psychogenic in young patients. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with rapid-onset depression, followed by a hypokinetic movement disorder and cognitive decline during pregnancy. Genetic testing revealed a mutation in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene, which led to the diagnosis of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids. Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is probably an under-recognized disease. HDLS should be considered in patients with rapidly progressing parkinsonian symptoms and dementia accompanied by white matter lesions.

  17. Suspected Perinatal Depression Revealed to be Hereditary Diffuse Leukoencephalopathy with Spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Blume

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early motor symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases often appear in combination with psychiatric symptoms, such as depression or personality changes, and are in danger of being misdiagnosed as psychogenic in young patients. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with rapid-onset depression, followed by a hypokinetic movement disorder and cognitive decline during pregnancy. Genetic testing revealed a mutation in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene, which led to the diagnosis of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids. Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS is probably an under-recognized disease. HDLS should be considered in patients with rapidly progressing parkinsonian symptoms and dementia accompanied by white matter lesions.

  18. Brain abscesses and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Daniel A.; Bauni, Carlos E.; Mendoza, Monica E.

    2003-01-01

    Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a generalized familial angiodysplastic disorder. The neurological manifestations of this entity are due to Central Nervous System vascular lesions or to complications of other visceral lesions such as pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae. This report describes two patients (males, 40 and 61 years old), with brain abscesses associated with HHT. The CT, MRI and Angiographic findings as well as the therapeutic approach are analyzed. Patients with brain abscess of unknown origin must be evaluated for the presence of lung vascular malformation in association with HHT. (author)

  19. Bone scintigraphy in hereditary multiple exostoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, D.A.; Levin, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Two adult patients with multiple hereditary exostoses, a skeletal disorder with recognized malignant potential, each demonstrated increased /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate uptake in an exostosis in which renewed growth had begun. None of the other multiple exostoses in either patient showed abnormal uptake. Histologic study of the lesions demonstrated chondrosarcoma in one case and benign osteochondroma in the second. Although bone scintigraphy nonspecifically identifies bone growth rather than malignant degeneration, it is more useful than radiographic bone survey in the periodic surveillance of adult patients with this disorder

  20. Skin deposits in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Blöndal, H; Gudmundsson, G

    1990-01-01

    Clinically normal skin from 47 individuals aged 9-70 years was investigated. Cystatin C amyloid deposits were found in various locations of the skin by light and/or electron microscopy, in all 12 patients with a clinical history of hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis (HCCA). Six asymptomatic...... individuals, who had the Alu 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker reported to cosegregate with the disease, also had cystatin C amyloid deposits in the skin. Three asymptomatic individuals (age 17-46) belonging to the HCCA families were without amyloid in the skin but had Alu 1 RFLP marker...

  1. Iron-related gene variants and brain iron in multiple sclerosis and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hagemeier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain iron homeostasis is known to be disturbed in multiple sclerosis (MS, yet little is known about the association of common gene variants linked to iron regulation and pathological tissue changes in the brain. In this study, we investigated the association of genetic determinants linked to iron regulation with deep gray matter (GM magnetic susceptibility in both healthy controls (HC and MS patients. Four hundred (400 patients with MS and 150 age- and sex-matched HCs were enrolled and obtained 3 T MRI examination. Three (3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with iron regulation were genotyped: two SNPs in the human hereditary hemochromatosis protein gene HFE: rs1800562 (C282Y mutation and rs1799945 (H63D mutation, as well as the rs1049296 SNP in the transferrin gene (C2 mutation. The effects of disease and genetic status were studied using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM voxel-based analysis (VBA and region-of-interest (ROI analysis of the deep GM. The general linear model framework was used to compare groups. Analyses were corrected for age and sex, and adjusted for false discovery rate. We found moderate increases in susceptibility in the right putamen of participants with the C282Y (+6.1 ppb and H63D (+6.9 ppb gene variants vs. non-carriers, as well as a decrease in thalamic susceptibility of progressive MS patients with the C282Y mutation (left: −5.3 ppb, right: −6.7 ppb, p < 0.05. Female MS patients had lower susceptibility in the caudate (−6.0 ppb and putamen (left: −3.9 ppb, right: −4.6 ppb than men, but only when they had a wild-type allele (p < 0.05. Iron-gene linked increases in putamen susceptibility (in HC and relapsing remitting MS and decreases in thalamus susceptibility (in progressive MS, coupled with apparent sex interactions, indicate that brain iron in healthy and disease states may be influenced by genetic factors.

  2. Knowledge regarding basic concepts of hereditary cancers, and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In families with hereditary cancer, at-risk individuals can benefit from genetic counselling and testing. General practitioners (GPs) are ideally placed to identify such families and refer them appropriately. Objective. To assess the practices, knowledge and attitudes of GPs regarding common hereditary cancers.

  3. Attitude towards pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, Chantal; Bleiker, Eveline; Aaronson, Neil; Vriends, Annette; Ausems, Margreet; Jansweijer, Maaike; Wagner, Anja; Sijmons, Rolf; van den Ouweland, Ans; van der Luijt, Rob; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Gómez García, Encarna; Ruijs, Mariëlle; Verhoef, Senno

    2009-01-01

    The use of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for hereditary cancer is subject to on-going debate, particularly among professionals. This study evaluates the attitude towards PGD and attitude-associated characteristics of those concerned: family members with a hereditary cancer predisposition.

  4. Hereditary lymphedema of the leg – A Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinig, Birgit; Lotti, T.; Tchernev, Georgi; Wollina, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Primary of hereditary lymphedema is a rare but progressive disease. It is yet not curable. We present a 48-year-old male patient with hereditary lymphedema of his left leg, that was realised by minor trauma (able twist) when he was seven years old. He had never been treated for lymphedema but

  5. Copy Number Variation in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer

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    Garry N. Hannan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC is the commonest form of inherited colorectal cancer (CRC predisposition and by definition describes families which conform to the Amsterdam Criteria or reiterations thereof. In ~50% of patients adhering to the Amsterdam criteria germline variants are identified in one of four DNA Mismatch repair (MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Loss of function of any one of these genes results in a failure to repair DNA errors occurring during replication which can be most easily observed as DNA microsatellite instability (MSI—a hallmark feature of this disease. The remaining 50% of patients without a genetic diagnosis of disease may harbour more cryptic changes within or adjacent to MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 or elsewhere in the genome. We used a high density cytogenetic array to screen for deletions or duplications in a series of patients, all of whom adhered to the Amsterdam/Bethesda criteria, to determine if genomic re-arrangements could account for a proportion of patients that had been shown not to harbour causative mutations as assessed by standard diagnostic techniques. The study has revealed some associations between copy number variants (CNVs and HNPCC mutation negative cases and further highlights difficulties associated with CNV analysis.

  6. Impaired Mitochondrial Dynamics Underlie Axonal Defects in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Kyle; Mou, Yongchao; Xu, Chong-Chong; Shah, Dhruvi; Chang, Jaerak; Blackstone, Craig; Li, Xue-Jun

    2018-05-02

    Mechanisms by which long corticospinal axons degenerate in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are largely unknown. Here, we have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with two autosomal recessive forms of HSP, SPG15 and SPG48, which are caused by mutations in the ZFYVE26 and AP5Z1 genes encoding proteins in the same complex, the spastizin and AP5Z1 proteins, respectively. In patient iPSC-derived telencephalic glutamatergic and midbrain dopaminergic neurons, neurite number, length and branching are significantly reduced, recapitulating disease-specific phenotypes. We analyzed mitochondrial morphology and noted a significant reduction in both mitochondrial length and their densities within axons of these HSP neurons. Mitochondrial membrane potential was also decreased, confirming functional mitochondrial defects. Notably, mdivi-1, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission GTPase DRP1, rescues mitochondrial morphology defects and suppresses the impairment in neurite outgrowth and late-onset apoptosis in HSP neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of these HSP genes causes similar axonal defects, also mitigated by treatment with mdivi-1. Finally, neurite outgrowth defects in SPG15 and SPG48 cortical neurons can be rescued by knocking down DRP1 directly. Thus, abnormal mitochondrial morphology caused by an imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion underlies specific axonal defects and serves as a potential therapeutic target for SPG15 and SPG48.

  7. Genetic linkage analyses and Cx50 mutation detection in a large multiplex Chinese family with hereditary nuclear cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Li, Xin; Chen, Jiajing; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Feng; Dai, Qiushi; Cui, Hao; Wang, Duen-Mei; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Lu, Shan

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the underlying mutation in a large multiplex Chinese family with hereditary nuclear cataract. A 6-generation Chinese family having hereditary nuclear cataract was recruited and clinically verified. Blood DNA samples were obtained from 53 available family members. Linkage analyses were performed on the known candidate regions for hereditary cataract with 36 polymorphic microsatellite markers. To identify mutations related to cataract, a direct sequencing approach was applied to a candidate gene residing in our linkage locus. A linkage locus was identified with a maximum 2-point LOD score of 4.31 (recombination fraction = 0) at marker D1S498 and a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.7 between markers D1S2344 and D1S498 on chromosome 1q21.1, where the candidate gene Cx50 is located. Direct sequencing of Cx50 showed a 139 G to A transition occurred in all affected family members. This transitional mutation resulted in a replacement of aspartic acid by asparagine at residue 47 (D47N) and led to a loss-of-function of the protein. The D47N mutation of Cx50 causes the hereditary nuclear cataract in this family in an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance.

  8. Pavlodar city children's some hereditary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shajmardanova, B. Kh.; Gorbach, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Territory of the Pavlodar region directly adjoining to the Semipalatinsk test site is unique object for study of many year tests consequences on population health. Health worsening caused by small doses of radiation on artificial pollution background is defined. Purpose of the work is Pavlodar city children's some hereditary diseases (Downs syndrome, crack of upper lip and/or palate, hemophilia) under study of frequency dynamic of statistical data within period from 1980 by 1995. It is defined: a) tendency to growth Downs syndrome frequency has been distinctly observed beginning of the 1982; b) it is noted Downs syndrome frequency growth stabilization within period from 1988 by 1991; c) among children with Downs syndrome is distinguished low viability; d) there is rather higher correlation rate of Downs syndrome and congenial heart threshold against average statistical index; e) character of frequencies changes of crack of upper lip and/or palate has tendency to growth; f) it is defined that boys predominate among children with this disease; g) congenial crack of soft palate have being revealed as solitary thresholds of development; h) genealogy analysis of hemophilia sick reveals, that it has only hereditary character. 8 refs

  9. Genetics of Hereditary Ataxia in Scottish Terriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urkasemsin, G; Nielsen, D M; Singleton, A; Arepalli, S; Hernandez, D; Agler, C; Olby, N J

    2017-07-01

    Scottish Terriers have a high incidence of juvenile onset hereditary ataxia primarily affecting the Purkinje neuron of the cerebellar cortex and causing slowly progressive cerebellar dysfunction. To identify chromosomal regions associated with hereditary ataxia in Scottish Terriers. One hundred and fifty-three Scottish Terriers were recruited through the Scottish Terrier Club of America. Prospective study. Dogs were classified as affected if they had slowly progressive cerebellar signs. When possible, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological evaluation of the brain were completed as diagnostic aids. To identify genomic regions connected with the disease, genome-wide mapping was performed using both linkage- and association-based approaches. Pedigree evaluation and homozygosity mapping were also performed to examine mode of inheritance and to investigate the region of interest, respectively. Linkage and genome-wide association studies in a cohort of Scottish Terriers both identified a region on CFA X strongly associated with the disease trait. Homozygosity mapping revealed a 4 Mb region of interest. Pedigree evaluation failed to identify the possible mode of inheritance due to the lack of complete litter information. This finding suggests that further genetic investigation of the potential region of interest on CFA X should be considered in order to identify the causal mutation as well as develop a genetic test to eliminate the disease from this breed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Surgical treatment of hereditary lens subluxations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdek, Sengul; Sari, Ayca; Bilgihan, Kamil; Akata, Fikret; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and results of pars plana vitreolensectomy approach with transscleral fixation of intraocular lens in hereditary lens subluxations. Fifteen eyes of 9 consecutive patients with a mean age of 12.8+/-6.2 years (6-26 years) with hereditary lens subluxation were operated on and the results were evaluated in a prospective study. Surgery was considered if best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was less than 20/70. All eyes underwent a 2-port pars plana vitreolensectomy and transscleral fixation of an intraocular lens (IOL). The mean follow-up period was 12.6+/-7.5 months (6-22 months). There was no major intraoperative complication. Preoperatively, 8 eyes (53.3%) had a BSCVA of counting fingers (CF) and 7 eyes (46.6%) had a BSCVA of 20/200 to 20/70. Postoperatively, 14 eyes (93.3%) had a BSCVA of 20/50 or better. None of the patients had IOL decentration or intraocular pressure (IOP) increase during the follow-up period. There was a macular hole formation in 1 eye postoperatively. The early results of pars plana vitreolensectomy with IOL implantation using scleral fixation technique had shown that it not only promises a rapid visual rehabilitation but it is also a relatively safe method. More serious complications, however, may occur in the long term.

  11. Recommendations regarding splenectomy in hereditary hemolytic anemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, Achille; Andolfo, Immacolata; Barcellini, Wilma; Corcione, Francesco; Garçon, Loïc; De Franceschi, Lucia; Pignata, Claudio; Graziadei, Giovanna; Pospisilova, Dagmar; Rees, David C.; de Montalembert, Mariane; Rivella, Stefano; Gambale, Antonella; Russo, Roberta; Ribeiro, Leticia; Vives-Corrons, Jules; Martinez, Patricia Aguilar; Kattamis, Antonis; Gulbis, Beatrice; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Roberts, Irene; Tamary, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders with a variety of causes, including red cell membrane defects, red blood cell enzyme disorders, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, thalassemia syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. As damaged red blood cells passing through the red pulp of the spleen are removed by splenic macrophages, splenectomy is one possible therapeutic approach to the management of severely affected patients. However, except for hereditary spherocytosis for which the effectiveness of splenectomy has been well documented, the efficacy of splenectomy in other anemias within this group has yet to be determined and there are concerns regarding short- and long-term infectious and thrombotic complications. In light of the priorities identified by the European Hematology Association Roadmap we generated specific recommendations for each disorder, except thalassemia syndromes for which there are other, recent guidelines. Our recommendations are intended to enable clinicians to achieve better informed decisions on disease management by splenectomy, on the type of splenectomy and the possible consequences. As no randomized clinical trials, case control or cohort studies regarding splenectomy in these disorders were found in the literature, recommendations for each disease were based on expert opinion and were subsequently critically revised and modified by the Splenectomy in Rare Anemias Study Group, which includes hematologists caring for both adults and children. PMID:28550188

  12. Hereditary multiple exostoses: from genetics to clinical syndrome and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoenacker, Filip M.; Hul, Wim van; Wuyts, Wim; Willems, P.J.; Schepper, Arthur M. de

    2001-12-01

    Objective: To give an overview of genetic, clinical and radiological aspects in two families over four generations with known hereditary multiple exostoses (HME). Methods and material: After linkage analysis in both families to localize the defective gene, mutation analysis was performed in these genes to identify the underlying mutation. In the 31 affected individuals, location, number and morphology and evolution of exostosis, evolution of remodeling defects at the metaphysis, and the extent of possible complications were evaluated on clinical and imaging (plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) data over a lifetime period. Results and conclusions: Both families demonstrate the gene defect in the same EXT-2 gene locus on chromosome 11p. Exostoses are preferentially located in the lower extremity (hip, knee and lower leg), humerus, and forearm. Any other bone may be involved, except for the calvaria of the skull and the mandible. Exostoses are rather sessile than pedunculated. Exostosis is rarely present at birth but develops gradually and may persist to grow slowly after closure of the growth plates. Preferential expression of the remodeling defect was seen in the hip, distal femur (trumpet-shaped metaphysis) and forearm (shortening of the ulna with secondary bowing of the radius and development of a pseudo-Madelung deformity). These radiological manifestations start at the age of 4-5 years and become more obvious as the enchondral bone formation progresses with age. Reported complications in these families consist of local entrapment phenomenons (vessel, tendon, nerve), frictional bursitis, and sarcomatous transformation. MRI was able to suggest these complications and is the imaging technique of choice in the evaluation of symptomatic exostoses.

  13. Hereditary multiple exostoses: from genetics to clinical syndrome and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoenacker, Filip M.; Hul, Wim van; Wuyts, Wim; Willems, P.J.; Schepper, Arthur M. de

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To give an overview of genetic, clinical and radiological aspects in two families over four generations with known hereditary multiple exostoses (HME). Methods and material: After linkage analysis in both families to localize the defective gene, mutation analysis was performed in these genes to identify the underlying mutation. In the 31 affected individuals, location, number and morphology and evolution of exostosis, evolution of remodeling defects at the metaphysis, and the extent of possible complications were evaluated on clinical and imaging (plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) data over a lifetime period. Results and conclusions: Both families demonstrate the gene defect in the same EXT-2 gene locus on chromosome 11p. Exostoses are preferentially located in the lower extremity (hip, knee and lower leg), humerus, and forearm. Any other bone may be involved, except for the calvaria of the skull and the mandible. Exostoses are rather sessile than pedunculated. Exostosis is rarely present at birth but develops gradually and may persist to grow slowly after closure of the growth plates. Preferential expression of the remodeling defect was seen in the hip, distal femur (trumpet-shaped metaphysis) and forearm (shortening of the ulna with secondary bowing of the radius and development of a pseudo-Madelung deformity). These radiological manifestations start at the age of 4-5 years and become more obvious as the enchondral bone formation progresses with age. Reported complications in these families consist of local entrapment phenomenons (vessel, tendon, nerve), frictional bursitis, and sarcomatous transformation. MRI was able to suggest these complications and is the imaging technique of choice in the evaluation of symptomatic exostoses

  14. Aqueous humor ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzhofer, Markus; Schroedl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Wiedemann, Helmut; Strohmaier, Clemens; Hohensinn, Melchior; Strasser, Michael; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Grabner, Guenther; Aigner, Elmar; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, characterized by hyperferritinemia but with absence of body iron excess and early onset of bilateral cataracts. Although 5- to 20-fold increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported in HHCS patients, data of ferritin levels in aqueous humor have not been obtained. We therefore aimed to investigate the ferritin levels in aqueous humor and serum and further present histological and ultrastructural data of the lens. During cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, aqueous humor and lens aspirate of a 37-year-old HHCS patient were obtained from both eyes. Ferritin levels in serum and aqueous humor were quantitatively analyzed via immunoassays in the HHCS patient and healthy control subjects (n = 6). Lens aspirate in HHCS was analyzed histologically and at the ultrastructural level. Further, genetic mutation screening by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in blood was performed. Serum ferritin levels in the control group were 142.2 ± 38.7 μg/L, whereas in the HHCS patient, this parameter was excessively increased (1086 μg/L). Analysis of ferritin in aqueous humor revealed 6.4 ± 3.8 μg/L in normal control subjects and 146.3 μg/L (OD) and 160.4 μg/L (OS) in the HHCS patient. DNA analysis detected a C>A mutation on position +18, a T>G mutation on position +22, a T>C mutation on position +24, and a T>G polymorphism on position +26 in the iron-responsive element of the light-chain ferritin (L-ferritin) gene. In the HHCS patient, a 23-fold (OD) to 25-fold (OS) increased aqueous humor ferritin level was detected. Therefore, the formation of bilateral cataract in HHCS is most likely a result of elevated aqueous humor ferritin. In addition, a novel mutation in this rare disease in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin gene is reported.

  15. Advances in the diagnosis of hereditary kidney cancer: Initial results of a multigene panel test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kevin A; Syed, Jamil S; Espenschied, Carin R; LaDuca, Holly; Bhagat, Ansh M; Suarez-Sarmiento, Alfredo; O'Rourke, Timothy K; Brierley, Karina L; Hofstatter, Erin W; Shuch, Brian

    2017-11-15

    Panel testing has been recently introduced to evaluate hereditary cancer; however, limited information is available regarding its use in kidney cancer. The authors retrospectively reviewed test results and clinical data from patients who underwent targeted multigene panel testing of up to 19 genes associated with hereditary kidney cancer from 2013 to 2016. The frequency of positive (mutation/variant likely pathogenic), inconclusive (variant of unknown significance), and negative results was evaluated. A logistic regression analysis evaluated predictive factors for a positive test. Patients (n = 1235) had a median age at diagnosis of 46 years, which was significantly younger than the US population of individuals with kidney cancer (P kidney cancer. Panel tests may be particularly useful for patients who lack distinguishing clinical characteristics of known hereditary kidney cancer syndromes. The current results support the use of early age of onset for genetic counseling and/or testing. Cancer 2017;123:4363-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Utilization of the higher plants in a study on hereditary effect of low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Jun

    1976-01-01

    Some problems in a study of hereditary effect of low-dose irradiation, which used the higher plants (tradescantia, peas, etc.) as materials, were mentioned. Conditions to be used as materials were mentioned as follows: 1) the materials must have high radio-sensitivity, 2) the natural mutation of the materials must be low, 3) hereditary uniformity and stability of genes in the materials were important, and 4) in case of considering the materials as environmental radiation monitors, the observation period must be long and the duration from exposure to detection of mutation must be short. Tradescantia has most of these conditions, but the greatest fault is that the object of its observation is mutation of somatic cells, and hereditary study is impossible. Therefore, it is necessary to find out other materials in order to solve the problem whether there is a difference in relative frequency of chromosomal abnormalities, which occurrs in germinal cells and is transmitted to posterity, between low and high doses or not. (Serizawa, K.)

  17. Brazilian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giavina-Bianchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by edema attacks with multiple organ involvement. It is caused by a quantitative or functional deficiency of the C1 inhibitor, which is a member of the serine protease inhibitor family. Hereditary angioedema is unknown to many health professionals and is therefore an underdiagnosed disease. The causes of death from hereditary angioedema include laryngeal edema with asphyxia. The estimated mortality rate in patients in whom the disease goes undetected and who are therefore incorrectly treated is 25-40%. In addition to edema of the glottis, hereditary angioedema often results in edema of the gastrointestinal tract, which can be incapacitating. Patients with hereditary angioedema may undergo unnecessary surgical interventions because the digestive tract can be the primary or only organ system involved, thus mimicking acute surgical abdomen. It is estimated that patients with hereditary angioedema experience some degree of disability 20-100 days per year. The Experts in Clinical Immunology and Allergy of the "Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunopatologia -ASBAI" developed these guidelines for the diagnosis, therapy, and management of hereditary angioedema.

  18. Brazilian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; França, Alfeu T; Grumach, Anete S; Motta, Abílio A; Fernandes, Fátima R; Campos, Regis A; Valle, Solange O; Rosário, Nelson A; Sole, Dirceu

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by edema attacks with multiple organ involvement. It is caused by a quantitative or functional deficiency of the C1 inhibitor, which is a member of the serine protease inhibitor family. Hereditary angioedema is unknown to many health professionals and is therefore an underdiagnosed disease. The causes of death from hereditary angioedema include laryngeal edema with asphyxia. The estimated mortality rate in patients in whom the disease goes undetected and who are therefore incorrectly treated is 25-40%. In addition to edema of the glottis, hereditary angioedema often results in edema of the gastrointestinal tract, which can be incapacitating. Patients with hereditary angioedema may undergo unnecessary surgical interventions because the digestive tract can be the primary or only organ system involved, thus mimicking acute surgical abdomen. It is estimated that patients with hereditary angioedema experience some degree of disability 20-100 days per year. The Experts in Clinical Immunology and Allergy of the "Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunopatologia -ASBAI" developed these guidelines for the diagnosis, therapy, and management of hereditary angioedema.

  19. C282Y and H63D Mutation Frequencies in a Population from Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alvarez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the frequency of hereditary hemochromatosis gene mutations, C282Y and H63D, from 125 autochthonous blood donors originating from a Central region of Spain, to provide epidemiological data about HFE gene in the Iberian Peninsula.

  20. The role of Clinical Geneticists in Hereditary Cancer Management and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Meijers Heijboer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary cancer refers to cancers caused by germline mutations in cancer predisposing genes. These mutations confer a significantly increased risk of cancer, are rare, and are in the majority of cases autosomal dominantly inherited.  Since the eighties of last century more than 115 cancer predisposing genes have been identified. In many Western countries genetic testing of patients and families with clustering of cancers started early, and was often performed by clinical geneticists (MDs performed the counselling and pedigree analyses and by molecular biologists (in laboratories within departments of clinical genetics.  It turned out to be a long path to fully realize the promise of cancer predisposing genes. The clinical utility of many cancer genetic tests and subsequent risk reducing interventions has not yet been validated and pitfalls in e.g. misinterpretation of genetic variants showed up. However, without doubt genetic testing for mutations will eventually turn out as a strong tool to save lives from early cancer death and will become part of standard cancer care throughout the developed world.  Apart from primary surgical prevention, major progress is to be expected in earlier diagnoses, tailored therapies, and possibly chemoprevention.  Ideally researchers, clinical geneticists, molecular biologists, surgeons, oncologists, gynaecologists and other professionals will work together to reach this goal. Keywords : clinical genetics, germline, hereditary cancers, cancer predisposing genes

  1. Dementia in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blöndal, H; Guomundsson, G; Benedikz, Eirikur

    1989-01-01

    in seventeen cases of whom two presented with dementia. At the last examination the majority had severe dementia and severely abnormal EEG. Anti-cystatin C positive amyloid vascular and perivascular infiltrates were found. The resulting damage to the microvasculature of the brain and secondary hemorrhages......Nineteen cases with verified Hereditary Cystatin C Amyloid Angiopathy are presented. All of the cases had one or more cerebrovascular insults starting at the age of 20-41 years and survived from 10 days to 23 years after the first insult. Progressive dementia was a prominent clinical feature...... and infarctions were considered to be an adequate explanation for the dementia in these cases. Skin biopsies can now probably be used to demonstrate cystatin C positive amyloid deposits conclusively in the tissues of these patients....

  2. Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wu Chang

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease that primarily affects the optic nerve, causing bilateral vision loss in juveniles and young adults. A 12-year-old boy had complained of blurred vision in both eyes for more than 1 year. His best-corrected visual acuity was 0.08 in the right eye and 0.1 in the left. Ophthalmologic examination showed bilateral optic disc hyperemia and margin blurring, peripapillary telangiectasis, and a relative afferent pupil defect in his right eye. Fluorescein angiography showed no stain or leakage around the optic disc in the late phase. Visual field analysis showed central scotoma in the left eye and a near-total defect in the right. Upon examination of the patient's mitochondrial DNA, a point mutation at nucleotide position 11778 was found, and the diagnosis of LHON was confirmed. Coenzyme Q10 was used to treat the patient.

  3. Mania associated with complicated hereditary spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra B Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP is an inherited group of neurological disorders with progressive lower limb spasticity. HSP can be clinically grouped into pure and complicated forms. Pure HSP is one without any associated neurological/psychiatric comorbidity. Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity. Presence of mania or bipolar affective illness with HSP is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with classical features of HSP with complaints of excessive happiness, irritability, increased self-esteem and decreased sleep since 1 month. The patient also had complex partial seizure ever since he had features of HSP. The patient′s father and younger sister suffer from pure HSP. The patient was diagnosed to have first episode mania with complicated HSP. The details of treatment and possible neurobiology are discussed in this case report.

  4. Mania associated with complicated hereditary spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Raghavendra B; Bhogale, Govind S; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Pandurangi, Aditya A

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is an inherited group of neurological disorders with progressive lower limb spasticity. HSP can be clinically grouped into pure and complicated forms. Pure HSP is one without any associated neurological/psychiatric comorbidity. Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity. Presence of mania or bipolar affective illness with HSP is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with classical features of HSP with complaints of excessive happiness, irritability, increased self-esteem and decreased sleep since 1 month. The patient also had complex partial seizure ever since he had features of HSP. The patient's father and younger sister suffer from pure HSP. The patient was diagnosed to have first episode mania with complicated HSP. The details of treatment and possible neurobiology are discussed in this case report.

  5. Deprivation amblyopia and congenital hereditary cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Behzad; Stacy, Rebecca C; Kruger, Joshua; Cestari, Dean M

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision associated with decreased visual acuity, poor or absent stereopsis, and suppression of information from one eye.(1,2) Amblyopia may be caused by strabismus (strabismic amblyopia), refractive error (anisometropic amblyopia), or deprivation from obstructed vision (deprivation amblyopia). 1 In the developed world, amblyopia is the most common cause of childhood visual impairment, 3 which reduces quality of life 4 and also almost doubles the lifetime risk of legal blindness.(5, 6) Successful treatment of amblyopia greatly depends on early detection and treatment of predisposing disorders such as congenital cataract, which is the most common cause of deprivational amblyopia. Understanding the genetic causes of congenital cataract leads to more effective screening tests, early detection and treatment of infants and children who are at high risk for hereditary congenital cataract.

  6. Recurrent IVF failure and hereditary thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdarian, Leila; Najmi, Zahra; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Aghahosseini, Marzieh; Rashidi, Mandana; Asadollah, Sara

    2014-07-01

    The largest percentage of failed invitro fertilization (IVF (cycles, are due to lack of implantation. As hereditary thrombophilia can cause in placentation failure, it may have a role in recurrent IVF failure. Aim of this case-control study was to determine whether hereditary thrombophilia is more prevalent in women with recurrent IVF failures. Case group comprised 96 infertile women, with a history of recurrent IVF failure. Control group was comprised of 95 healthy women with proven fertility who had conceived spontaneously. All participants were assessed for the presence of inherited thrombophilias including: factor V Leiden, methilen tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation, prothrombin mutation, homocystein level, protein S and C deficiency, antithrombin III (AT-III) deficiency and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mutation. Presence of thrombophilia was compared between groups. Having at least one thrombophilia known as a risk factor for recurrent IVF failure (95% CI=1.74-5.70, OR=3.15, p=0.00). Mutation of factor V Leiden (95% CI=1.26-10.27, OR=3.06, P=0.01) and homozygote form of MTHFR mutation (95% CI=1.55-97.86, OR=12.33, p=0.05) were also risk factors for recurrent IVF failure. However, we could not find significant difference in other inherited thrombophilia's. Inherited thrombophilia is more prevalent in women with recurrent IVF failure compared with healthy women. Having at least one thrombophilia, mutation of factor V Leiden and homozygote form of MTHFR mutation were risk factors for recurrent IVF failure.

  7. Gender specific issues in hereditary ocular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragavarapu, Saradha; Gorin, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current knowledge from basic science and clinical medical literature cited within PubMed that pertain to gender-related factors and affect those individuals with hereditary ocular disorders. We consider gender-related biological factors that (a) affect disease onset and progression, (b) gender differences for major X-linked ocular disorders, (c) gender-specific conditions, (d) medications that may influence genetic eye disorders, and finally, (e) gender-related issues that influence the management and quality of life of these patients. Several studies have demonstrated the manner in which sex-related hormones in animal models are capable of influencing cell pathway and survival that are likely to affect hereditary eye disorders. There are very few clinical studies that provide compelling evidence for gender differences in human ocular conditions, other than for a number of X-linked disorders. Disease expression for X-linked disorders may be impacted by genetic mechanisms such as lyonization or uniparental disomy. Clinical evidence regarding the impact of gender-related medical conditions and therapies on eye conditions is extremely limited and primarily based on anecdotal evidence. Gender-specific factors may play a major role in the underlying biological pathways that influence the onset, rate of progression, and clinical findings associated with ocular genetic conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the variable phenotypes observed in female carriers of X-linked disorders of gender specific issues, many of which are inadequately addressed in the current literature. Clinicians need to be sensitive to gender differences in social, cultural, and religious systems and they should also be aware of how their own gender biases may influence how they counsel patients. Finally, it is clear that the lack of effective clinical studies in this area creates an opportunity for future research that will have real benefits for these

  8. Genetic and Clinical Analyses of DOA and LHON in 304 Chinese Patients with Suspected Childhood-Onset Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadi Li

    Full Text Available Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON and dominant optic atrophy (DOA, the most common forms of hereditary optic neuropathy, are easily confused, and it is difficult to distinguish one from the other in the clinic, especially in young children. The present study was designed to survey the mutation spectrum of common pathogenic genes (OPA1, OPA3 and mtDNA genes and to analyze the genotype-phenotype characteristics of Chinese patients with suspected childhood-onset hereditary optic neuropathy. Genomic DNA and clinical data were collected from 304 unrelated Chinese probands with suspected hereditary optic neuropathy with an age of onset below 14 years. Sanger sequencing was used to screen variants in the coding and adjacent regions of OPA1, OPA3 and the three primary LHON-related mutation sites in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA (m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and were compared with age-matched controls. We identified 89/304 (29.3% primary mtDNA mutations related to LHON in 304 probands, including 76 mutations at m.11778 (76/89, 85.4% of all mtDNA mutations, four at m.3460 (4/89, 4.5% and nine at m.14484 (9/89, 10.1%. This result was similar to the mutation frequency among Chinese patients with LHON of any age. Screening of OPA1 revealed 23 pathogenic variants, including 11 novel and 12 known pathogenic mutations. This study expanded the OPA1 mutation spectrum, and our results showed that OPA1 mutation is another common cause of childhood-onset hereditary optic neuropathy in Chinese pediatric patients, especially those with disease onset during preschool age.

  9. Molecular and Genetic Basis of Hereditary Connective-Tissue Diseases Accompanied by Frequent Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Yakhyaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent bone fractures in infancy require the elimination of a large number (> 100 of genetic disorders. The modern diagnostic method of hereditary diseases characterized by debilitating course is a new generation sequencing. The article presents the results of molecular-genetic study conducted in 18 patients with clinical symptoms of connective tissue disorders. 10 (56% patients had mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen chains, leading to the development of osteogenesis imperfecta, 5 (28% — mutations in IV and V type collagen genes that are responsible for the development of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. 3 (17% patients had mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 protein, deficiency of which is manifested by Marfan syndrome. However, the correlation between patient's phenotype and discovered mutations in the investigated gene is established not in all cases.

  10. Management of upper airway edema caused by hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema is a rare disorder with a genetic background involving mutations in the genes encoding C1-INH and of factor XII. Its etiology is unknown in a proportion of cases. Recurrent edema formation may involve the subcutis and the submucosa - the latter can produce obstruction in the upper airways and thereby lead to life-threatening asphyxia. This is the reason for the high, 30-to 50-per-cent mortality of undiagnosed or improperly managed cases. Airway obstruction can be prevented through early diagnosis, meaningful patient information, timely recognition of initial symptoms, state-of-the-art emergency therapy, and close monitoring of the patient. Prophylaxis can substantially mitigate the risk of upper airway edema and also improve the patients' quality of life. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any form of upper airway edema should be regarded as a potentially life-threatening condition. None of the currently available prophylactic modalities is capable of preventing UAE with absolute certainty.

  11. Hereditary breast/ovarian cancer--pitfalls in genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, E; Gershoni-Baruch, R

    2001-10-01

    Genetic counseling and risk assessment, given to women with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer, are regularly based on pedigree analysis. In the Ashkenazi Jewish population, hereditary breast/ovarian cancer is mainly attributed to three founder mutations, namely, 185delAG, 5382insC, and 6174delT, in BRCA1/2 genes. The overall frequency of these mutations, in the Jewish Ashkenazi population, is as high as 2.5%. Based on clinical and family history data, the results of BRCA molecular testing, in Ashkenazi individuals at risk, are appropriately anticipated in most cases. Here we report on five families, in which the segregation of BRCA1/2 mutations, in affected and unaffected family members, was unexpected, emphasizing the need to test, for founder mutations, every Ashkenazi individual at risk, irrespective of the genotype of affected family members. Ultimately, risk assessments and recommendations, in Ashkenazi women, should be invariably based on the results of genetic testing.

  12. The Southern French registry of genetic hemochromatosis: a tool for determining clinical prevalence of the disorder and genotype penetrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Martinez, Patricia; Bismuth, Michael; Blanc, François; Blanc, Pierre; Cunat, Severine; Dereure, Olivier; Dujols, Pierre; Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel; Jorgensen, Christian; Konate, Amadou; Larrey, Dominique; Le Quellec, Alain; Mura, Thibault; Raingeard, Isabelle; Ramos, Jeanne; Renard, Eric; Rousseau, Florence; Schved, Jean-François; Picot, Marie-Christine

    2010-04-01

    Despite great progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying genetic hemochromatosis, data on the prevalence and the penetrance of the disorder are conflicting. A registry of patients with genetic hemochromatosis was established in the South of France and a regional health network was developed to allow the inclusion of all the diagnosed patients. C282Y homozygous patients classified in stages 2 (biological iron overload), 3 and 4 (clinical manifestations of iron overload, stage 4 being the more severe) according to the classification of the French National Authority for Health were included in the registry over a 6-year period. A total of 352 symptomatic C282Y homozygotes were identified, resulting in a total prevalence of 1.83 per 10,000 (95% CI: 1.63 to 2.02) in subjects over 20 years and 2.40 per 10,000 (95% CI, 2.15 to 2.65) among subjects of European descent. Among Europeans, the total calculated penetrance was 15.8% in stage 2 or higher, 12.1% in stage 3 or 4 and 2.9% in stage 4. The penetrance was slightly higher in males (18.7%) than in females (13.2%). It was 19.9% for individuals over 40 years of age (24.1% and 16.3% in males and females, respectively) with a maximum of 31% in subjects between 50 and 54 years old. Among 249 patients with complete records, 24% were in stage 2, the majority (58%) were in stage 3, and 18% in stage 4. There was a higher proportion of males, and excessive alcohol intake was more prevalent in stage 4 than in stages 2 and 3 combined. A French Mediterranean regional hemochromatosis registry with strict inclusion criteria is a useful tool for characterizing the history of this disease, particularly for the most severely affected patients, as defined by the disease severity classification. The total prevalence of symptomatic C282Y homozygotes in the region was found to be low. However, clinical penetrance (stages 3 and 4) was not negligible.

  13. Studies on congenital hereditary cataract and microphthalmia of the miniature schnauzer dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, B S; Reddy, V N

    1994-09-30

    Hereditary cataract in dogs occurs as an autosomal recessive trait. The opacity is primarily in the lens nucleus and posterior cortex. The affected animals also have other ocular abnormalities such as microphthalmia. To understand the genetic basis of this disorder, we have analyzed leukocyte DNA from affected and normal dogs for possible mutations in the homeobox containing gene and myotonic dystrophy locus. The results show that there are no signs of microdeletion, insertion, point mutation and rearrangements in these loci. Although these observations cannot completely rule out the possibility of point mutations, they suggest that the above loci are unlikely to be associated with the disease.

  14. Hereditary Neuropathy With Liability to Pressure Palsies: Diverse Phenotypes in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yohei; Puwanant, Araya; Herrmann, David N

    2016-12-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder that most commonly produces recurrent painless focal sensory and motor neuropathies often preceded by minor, mechanical stress, or minor trauma. Herein, we report 2 pediatric cases of HNPP with atypical presentations; isolated muscle cramping and toe walking. Electrophysiologic testing disclosed multifocal sensorimotor polyneuropathy with slowing of sensory conduction velocities in both cases, which prompted PMP 22 gene deletion testing. Multifocal sensorimotor electrophysiologic abnormalities, with slowing of sensory conduction velocities should raise consideration of HNPP in childhood. These case reports emphasize that the diagnosis of HNPP in children requires a high index of suspicion.

  15. Polymorphism of the Hereditary Sigma Virus in Natural Populations of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, A

    1980-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that, in natural French populations of Drosophila melanogaster, 10 to 20% of the flies are infected by the noncontagious, hereditary rhabdovirus sigma responsible for CO(2) sensitivity. These populations are also polymorphic for two alleles [ref(2)P(o) and ref(2)P(p)] of a gene for resistance to the sigma virus. Evidence is given here that two viral genetic types, differing in their response to the ref(2)P(p) allele, are present in these populations of flies; the most common type is only slightly sensitive to the ref(2)P(p) allele.

  16. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy due to a new ND1 mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soldath, Patrick; Wegener, Marianne; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    We report a proband with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), in whom we have identified a novel homoplasmic m.3,395A>G mutation in the ND1 gene. The mutation alters a highly conserved amino acid in codon 30 which previously has been associated with LHON and leads to a severe selective complex...... and is present in the early stage of the disease. Furthermore, evaluation of two unaffected mutation carriers disclosed asymptomatic borderline ganglion cell loss and thin pRNFL in one....

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma complicating an hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mseddi, M.; Turki, H.; Marrekchi, S.; Abdelmaksoud, W.; Masmoudi, A.; Bouassida, S.; Zahaf, A.

    2004-01-01

    The dystrophic form of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa is associated with an increased frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. We report a new case. An 18-year-old patient, carrying a Hallopeau Siemens hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa, presented a subcutaneous nodular lesion, for 1 year that ulcerated and budded with inguinal lymphadenopathy. The histological study ted to the conclusion of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated surgically. Tumor and metastatic lymph nodes were excised. A radiotherapy was decided but the postoperative course was fatal due to an infection and to a deterioration of her general condition. Squamous cell carcinoma frequently occurs on the cicatricial lesion of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa and usually affects males with recessive hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa. Metastases are frequent, precocious and multiple. The treatment may be surgical. The particularities of our observation are the young age of patient and the localization. (author)

  18. Hereditary Lymphedema of the Leg – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Heinig

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary of hereditary lymphedema is a rare but progressive disease. It is yet not curable. We present a 48-year-old male patient with hereditary lymphedema of his left leg, that was realised by minor trauma (able twist when he was seven years old. He had never been treated for lymphedema but experienced multiple erysipelas during his life. After diagnostic procedures to exclude other causes of leg swelling, the diagnosis of hereditary lymphedema of the leg, stage III was confirmed. We initialized complex decongestive therapy. During two weeks of intensive treatment, the circumference of the left leg could be reduced by 10 cm. This case illustrates the "natural course" hereditary lymphedema. But it raises the hope that even after decades of ignorance, the patients benefits from complex decongestive treatment. Therapeutic nihilism is unnecessary and poses lymphedema patients to risks of infection and secondary malignancies like Stewart-Trewes syndrome.

  19. New forms of -compactness with respect to hereditary classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Mohammed Qahis

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available A hereditary class on a set X is a nonempty collection of subsets closed under heredity. The aim of this paper is to introduce and study strong forms of u-compactness in generalized topological spaces with respect to a hereditary class, called  SuH-compactness and S- SuH-compactness. Also several of their properties are presented. Finally some eects of various kinds of functions on them are studied.

  20. Risk of iron overload in carriers of genetic mutations associated with hereditary haemochromatosis: UK Food Standards Agency workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta; Ashwell, Margaret; Sanderson, Peter; Cade, Janet; Moreton, Jennifer; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Roe, Mark; Marx, Joannes J M; Worwood, Mark; Cook, James D

    2006-10-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating diet and carriers of genetic mutations associated with hereditary haemochromatosis. The workshop concluded that individuals who are heterozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene do not appear to respond abnormally to dietary Fe and therefore do not need to change their diet to prevent accumulation of body Fe.

  1. Modeling neurodevelopment and cortical dysfunction in SPG11-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia using human induced pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Himanshu Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited motor neuron diseases characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. Mutations in the Spastic Paraplegia Gene11 (SPG11), encoding spatacsin, cause the most frequent form of autosomal recessive HSP. SPG11 patients are clinically distinguishable from most other HSPs, by severe cortical atrophy and presence of a thin corpus callosum (TCC), associated with cognitive deficits. Partly due to l...

  2. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy Lom type in a Serbian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacković, J; Keckarević-Marković, M; Komazec, Z; Rakocević-Stojanović, V; Lavrnić, D; Stević, Z; Ribarić, K; Romac, S; Apostolski, S

    2008-10-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy Lom type (HMSNL), also called CMT 4D, a hereditary autosomal recessive neuropathy, caused by mutation in N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1 gene), was first described in a Bulgarian Gypsy population near Lom and later has been found in Gypsy communities in Italy, Spain, Slovenia and Hungary. We present two siblings with HMSNL, female and male, aged 30 and 26, respectively in a Serbian non-consanguineous family of Gypsy ethnic origin. They had normal developmental milestones. Both had symptoms of lower limb muscle weakness and walking difficulties with frequent falls, which began at the age of seven. At the age of 12, they developed hearing problems and at the age of 15 hand muscle weakness. Neurological examination revealed sensorineural hearing loss, dysarthria, severe distal and mild proximal muscle wasting and weakness, areflexia and impairment of all sensory modalities of distal distribution. Electrophysiological study revealed denervation with severe and early axonal loss. Sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed on electrocochleography and brainstem evoked potentials. Molecular genetic testing confirmed homozygote C564t (R148X) mutation in NDRG1 gene.

  3. Evidence-based management of epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, I; Sunkaraneni, V S

    2015-05-01

    There are currently no guidelines in the UK for the specific management of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia related epistaxis. The authors aimed to review the literature and provide an algorithm for the management of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia related epistaxis. The Medline and Embase databases were interrogated on 15 November 2013 using the search items 'hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia' (title), 'epistaxis' (title) and 'treatment' (title and abstract), and limiting the search to articles published in English. A total of 46 publications were identified, comprising 1 systematic review, 2 randomised, controlled trials, 27 case series, 9 case reports, 4 questionnaire studies and 3 in vitro studies. There is a lack of high-level evidence for the use of many of the available treatments for the specific management of epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Current management should be based on a multidisciplinary team approach involving both a hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia physician and an ENT surgeon, especially when systemic therapy is being considered. The suggested treatment algorithm considers that the severity of epistaxis merits intervention at different levels of the treatment ladder. The patient should be assessed using a reproducible validated assessment tool, for example an epistaxis severity score, to guide treatment. More research is required, particularly in the investigation of topical agents targeting the development and fragility of telangiectasiae in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

  4. Autoimmune Conditions in 235 Hemochromatosis Probands with HFE C282Y Homozygosity and Their First-Degree Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study of autoimmune conditions (ACs in 235 hemochromatosis probands at diagnosis by analyzing age, sex, ACs, history of first-degree family members with ACs (FH, diabetes, heavy ethanol consumption, elevated serum ALT/AST, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, iron removed to achieve iron depletion (QFe, and positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA haplotypes A∗01, B∗08; A∗02, B∗44; A∗03, B∗07; A∗03, B∗14; and A∗29, B∗44. There were 138 men (58.7%. Median followup was 19.6 y. One or more of 19 ACs were diagnosed in each of 35 probands (14.9%. Prevalences of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis were 8.1% (95% CI: [5.1, 12.5], 1.7% [0.6, 4.6], and 0.0085 [0.0015, 0.0337], respectively. Eighteen probands (7.7% had a FH. Eight probands with ACs had 9 family members with ACs. In a logistic regression, ACs were less likely in men (odds ratio (OR 0.3 [0.1, 0.6] and more likely in probands with a FH (OR 4.1 [1.4, 11.8]. Overall ACs risk was not significantly associated with QFe or HLA haplotypes. Estimated survival of probands with and without ACs did not differ significantly. We conclude that ACs are common in hemochromatosis probands, especially women and probands with a FH.

  5. MSH2 mutation carriers are at higher risk of cancer than MLH1 mutation carriers : A study of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, HFA; Stormorken, A; Menko, FH; Nagengast, FM; Kleibeuker, JH; Griffioen, G; Taal, BG; Moller, P; Wijnen, JT

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the clustering of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and various other cancers. The disease is caused by mutations in DNA-mismatch-repair (MMR) genes, most frequently in MLH1, MSH2, and

  6. MSH2 mutation carriers are at higher risk of cancer than MLH1 mutation carriers: a study of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, H.F.; Stormorken, A.; Menko, F.H.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Griffioen, G.; Taal, B.G.; Moller, P.; Wijnen, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the clustering of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and various other cancers. The disease is caused by mutations in DNA-mismatch-repair (MMR) genes, most frequently in MLH1, MSH2, and

  7. The mitochondrial DNA mutation ND6*14,484C associated with leber hereditary optic neuropathy, leads to deficiency of complex I of the respiratory chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; van Galen, M. J.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.; van den Bogert, C.

    1995-01-01

    The electron transfer activity of Complex I of the respiratory chain and Complex I-linked ATP synthesis were investigated in leukocytes of four males affected by Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and a mutation in the ND6 gene at nucleotide position 14,484 of mtDNA. The electron transfer activity in

  8. The 3p21.1-p21.3 hereditary vascular retinopathy locus increases the risk for Raynaud's phenomenon and migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hottenga, J. J.; Vanmolkot, K. R. J.; Kors, E. E.; Kheradmand Kia, S.; de Jong, P. T. V. M.; Haan, J.; Terwindt, G. M.; Frants, R. R.; Ferrari, M. D.; van den Maagdenberg, A. M. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we described a large Dutch family with hereditary vascular retinopathy (HVR), Raynaud's phenomenon and migraine. A locus for HVR was mapped on chromosome 3p21.1-p21.3, but the gene has not yet been identified. The fact that all three disorders share a vascular aetiology prompted us to

  9. Hereditary neuropathies: systematization and diagnostics (clinical case of hereditary motor and sensor neuropathy of the IA type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolokolova A.M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the value of routine methods (clinical symptoms, electrophysiological findings and results of DNA analysis in diagnostics of hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type IA in outpatient clinics. Material and Methods. The review of foreign literature is represented. The phenotypic polymorphism, genetic heterogeneity and the difficulties of diagnostics are identified. A family with hereditary motor sensory neuropathy of lAtype is presented, which was diagnosed on the base of available methods in outpatient practice (clinical symptoms, genealogical method, electro-physiological findings and DNA analysis results. Results. Routine algorithm (consistent valuation of clinical symptoms, neurophysiologic findings and the results of DNA analysis helped to verify the diagnosis of hereditary motor sensory neuropathy of lAtype in outpatient practice after more than 20 years of the onset of the disease. Conclusion. The neurologists of outpatient clinics and other specialists must be informed about the availability of diagnostics of hereditary diseases of nervous system.

  10. Hereditary and non-hereditary microangiopathies in the young. An up-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelstein, E Bernd; Kleffner, Ilka; Dittrich, Ralf; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Ritter, Martin A

    2010-12-15

    In recent years, a considerable number of new sporadic or hereditary small artery diseases of the brain have been detected which preferably occur in younger age, below 45 years. Cerebral microangiopathies constitute an appreciable portion of all strokes. In middle aged patients, hereditary cerebral small vessel diseases have to be separated from sporadic degenerative cerebral microangiopathy which is mainly due to a high vascular risk load. Features of the following disorders and details how to differentiate them, are reviewed here, namely CADASIL, MELAS, AD-RVLC, HEMID, CARASIL, PADMAL, FABRY, COL4A1-related cerebral small vessel diseases and a Portuguese type of autosomal dominant cerebral small vessel disease (SVDB). The symptomatic overlap of the cerebral microangiopathies include also other distinctive non-hereditary diseases like posterior (reversible) encephalopathy and Susac's syndrome which are also described. Some of the microangiopathies described here are not only seen in the young but also in the elderly. The precise diagnosis has direct therapeutic implications in several of these entities. Cerebral microangiopathies cause recurring strokes and diffuse white matter lesions leading to a broad spectrum of gait disturbances and in most of these disorders cognitive impairment or even vascular dementia in the long term. Often, they also involve the eye, the inner ear or the kidney. Several typical imaging findings from illustrative cases are presented. The order in which these diseases are presented here is not dictated by an inner logic principle, because a genetically or pathophysiologically based classification system of all these entities does not exist yet. Some entities are well established and not unusual, whereas others have only been described in a few cases in total. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibody-based screening for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma compared with microsatellite analysis and sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mariann; Katballe, Niels; Wikman, Friedrik

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes, MSH2, MLH1, and others are associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Due to the high costs of sequencing, cheaper screening methods are needed to identify HNPCC cases. Ideally, these methods should have a high...... carcinoma of whom 11 met the Amsterdam criteria and 31 were suspected to belong to HNPCC families. Thirty-five patients were examined by microsatellite analysis, 40 by immunohistochemical staining, and in 31 patients both the MLH1 and MSH2 genes were sequenced. RESULTS: Ninety-two percent of patients...... the three methods was found in 74 % of the tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The authors suggest that immunohistochemistry should be used in combination with microsatellite analysis to prescreen suspected HNPCC patients for the selection of cases where sequencing of the MLH1 and MSH2 mismatch repair genes is indicated....

  12. Familial cosegregation of manic-depressive illness and a form of hereditary cerebellar ataxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqueras, J.F.; Santos, J.; Puertollano, R. [Universidad Autonoma, Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    1995-06-19

    We report on a Spanish family with co-occurrence of manic-depression and a form of hereditary cerebellar ataxia. All affected individuals in the second generation showed cerebellar ataxia and manic-depression simultaneously. Since anticipation has been described in both disorders and the pattern of segregation may be autosomal as well as X-linked, we have searched for a possible involvement of two candidate genes which are located either on an autosome (SCA1) or on the X-chromosome (GABRA3). We concluded that expansion of trinucleotide repeats at SCA1 gene cannot be considered as a disease-causing mutation, and this gene should be initially discarded. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Genetic Testing for Wolfram Syndrome Mutations in a Sample of 71 Patients with Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and Negative Genetic Test Results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia; Schatz, Patrik

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the authors present a sample of 71 patients with hereditary optic neuropathy and negative genetic test results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON. All of these patients later underwent genetic testing to rule out WFS. As a result, 53 patients (74.7%) were negative and 18 patients (25.3%) were positive for some type of mutation or variation in the WFS gene. The authors believe that this study is interesting because it shows that a sizeable percentage (25.3%) of patients with hereditary optic 25 neuropathy and negative genetic test results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON had WFS mutations or variants.

  14. CLINICAL APPROACH TO HEREDITARY HEMORRHAGIC TELANGIECTASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hachmeriyan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a rare syndrome, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incidence of 1/10000. The clinical manifestations are due to vascular malformations and predisposition to hemorrhages in different organs, the leading symptom being recurrent epistaxis. If diagnosed with HHT, the patient and his relatives and especially children have to be screened for occult vascular malformations.Case report: A 30 years old woman was treated for cerebral stroke, epistaxis, anemia, arterio-venous malformations for over 6 months. Only at this point she was diagnosed with HHT, after noticing the typical mucosal changes. Focused family history revealed symptoms of HHT in her only child, her father, aunt and two cousins The child was screened for occult vascular malformations – attainment of the nasal mucosa, lungs, gastrointestinal system, liver and brain. Pulmonary and gastrointestinal arterio-venous malformations were proven.Conclusion: Any case of recurrent epistaxis should be evaluated for HHT. After confirmation of the diagnosis every patient and close relatives have to be screened for attainment of other organs and followed up in order to prevent severe life threatening complications.

  15. Genetics of hereditary neurological disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Yu, Sui; Wu, Zhanhe; Tang, Beisha

    2014-04-01

    Hereditary neurological disorders (HNDs) are relatively common in children compared to those occurring in adulthood. Recognising clinical manifestations of HNDs is important for the selection of genetic testing, genetic testing results interpretation, and genetic consultation. Meanwhile, advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have significantly enabled the discovery of genetic causes of HNDs and also challenge paediatricians on applying genetic investigation. Combination of both clinical information and advanced technologies will enhance the genetic test yields in clinical setting. This review summarises the clinical presentations as well as genetic causes of paediatric neurological disorders in four major areas including movement disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuron peripheral disorders and epilepsy. The aim of this review is to help paediatric neurologists not only to see the clinical features but also the complex genetic aspect of HNDs in order to utilise genetic investigation confidently in their clinical practice. A smooth transition from research based to clinical use of comprehensive genetic testing in HNDs in children could be foreseen in the near future while genetic testing, genetic counselling and genetic data interpretation are in place appropriately.

  16. Hereditary motor and autonomic neuronopathy 1 maps to chromosome 20q13.2-13.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marques Jr.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The spinal muscular atrophies (SMA or hereditary motor neuronopathies result from the continuous degeneration and death of spinal cord lower motor neurons, leading to progressive muscular weakness and atrophy. We describe a large Brazilian family exhibiting an extremely rare, late-onset, dominant, proximal, and progressive SMA accompanied by very unusual manifestations, such as an abnormal sweating pattern, and gastrointestinal and sexual dysfunctions, suggesting concomitant involvement of the autonomic nervous system. We propose a new disease category for this disorder, `hereditary motor and autonomic neuronopathy', and attribute the term, `survival of motor and autonomic neurons 1' (SMAN1 to the respective locus that was mapped to a 14.5 cM region on chromosome 20q13.2-13.3 by genetic linkage analysis and haplotype studies using microsatellite polymorphic markers. This locus lies between markers D20S120 and D20S173 showing a maximum LOD score of 4.6 at D20S171, defining a region with 33 known genes, including several potential candidates. Identifying the SMAN1 gene should not only improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying lower motor neuron diseases but also help to clarify the relationship between motor and autonomic neurons.

  17. Targeted high-throughput sequencing identifies mutations in atlastin-1 as a cause of hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelly, Christian; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Leonardis, Lea; Papić, Lea; Zidar, Janez; Schabhüttl, Maria; Strohmaier, Heimo; Weis, Joachim; Strom, Tim M; Baets, Jonathan; Willems, Jan; De Jonghe, Peter; Reilly, Mary M; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Hatz, Martina; Trajanoski, Slave; Pieber, Thomas R; Janecke, Andreas R; Blackstone, Craig; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2011-01-07

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is an axonal form of autosomal-dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy distinguished by prominent sensory loss that leads to painless injuries. Unrecognized, these can result in delayed wound healing and osteomyelitis, necessitating distal amputations. To elucidate the genetic basis of an HSN I subtype in a family in which mutations in the few known HSN I genes had been excluded, we employed massive parallel exon sequencing of the 14.3 Mb disease interval on chromosome 14q. We detected a missense mutation (c.1065C>A, p.Asn355Lys) in atlastin-1 (ATL1), a gene that is known to be mutated in early-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG3A and that encodes the large dynamin-related GTPase atlastin-1. The mutant protein exhibited reduced GTPase activity and prominently disrupted ER network morphology when expressed in COS7 cells, strongly supporting pathogenicity. An expanded screen in 115 additional HSN I patients identified two further dominant ATL1 mutations (c.196G>C [p.Glu66Gln] and c.976 delG [p.Val326TrpfsX8]). This study highlights an unexpected major role for atlastin-1 in the function of sensory neurons and identifies HSN I and SPG3A as allelic disorders.

  18. The prevalence of depression in hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahter, L; Braschinsky, M; Haldre, S; Gross-Paju, K

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of depression and sensitivity and specificity of the single-item interview 'Are you depressed?' for people with hereditary spastic paraplegia in Estonia. Single-item interview 'Are you depressed?' was used as a screening question for depression; all participants then completed the Beck Depression Inventory. People with hereditary spastic paraplegia identified from the epidemiological database who agreed to participate in the study. Beck Depression Inventory, clinical interview. The epidemiological database consisted of 59 patients with clinically confirmed diagnosis of hereditary spastic paraplegia. Forty-eight of these consented to participate in the study. The Beck Depression Inventory score was higher than cut-off point in 58% (28/48) and lower in 42% (20/48). Of the study group, 44% (21/48) had mild, 13% (6/48) moderate and one person revealed severe depression. There was a statistically significant correlation between Beck Depression Inventory score and level of mobility; no other significant correlations with other measures were detected. Of the participants, 54% (26/48) had subjective complaints about depression and answered 'Yes' to the single-item interview 'Are you depressed?'. The sensitivity of the one-item interview in the hereditary spastic paraplegia group was 75% and specificity 75%. Our results show that mild depression is prevalent among people with hereditary spastic paraplegia. Although the single question may be helpful, it cannot be relied upon entirely when assessing a person for depression.

  19. Outcomes of Lensectomy in Hereditary Lens Subluxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Dehghan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of pars plana lensectomy in patients with hereditary lens subluxation. METHOD: Hospital records of patients with hereditary lens subluxation who had undergone pars plana lensectomy at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran-Iran from 1996 to 2003 were reviewed. Patients with more than 6 months of follow up were included. Underlying disorders, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA before and after surgery, intraocular pressure (IOP, postoperative refraction and complications were evaluated. RESULTS: Overall, records of 87 eyes of 49 patients including 27 male and 22 female subjects were reviewed. Mean follow up duration was 20±18 months. Underlying disorders leading to lens subluxation included Marfan syndrome (79.5%, Weill-Marchesani syndrome (8.2%, simple ectopia lentis (8.2%, and homocystinuria (4.1%. The most common indication for surgery was non-correctable refractive error (92.1%. Mean BCVA was 1.13 LogMAR (20/250 preoperatively, which improved to 0.26 LogMAR (20/30-20/40 postoperatively (P < 0.001. BCVA better than 20/40 was achieved in 82.8% of cases after surgery. Angle-supported anterior chamber intraocular lens (ACIOL was implanted in

  20. Re-emergence of hereditary polyneuropathy in scandinavian alaskan malamute dogs-old enemy or new entity? A case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Rohdin, Cecilia; Berendt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    A homozygous mutation has been identified in the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in recent cases of polyneuropathy in Alaskan malamute dogs from the Nordic countries and USA. The objective of the present study was to determine if cases diagnosed 30-40 years ago with polyneuropathy...... in the Alaskan malamute breed in Norway had the same hereditary disease as the recent cases. Fourteen historical cases and 12 recently diagnosed Alaskan malamute dogs with hereditary polyneuropathy, and their parents and littermates (n = 88) were included in this study (total n = 114). After phenotyping...... of historical and recent cases, NDRG1 genotyping was performed using DNA extracted from archived material from five Norwegian dogs affected by the disease in the late 1970s and 1980s. In addition, pedigrees were analysed. Our study concluded that historical and recent phenotypic polyneuropathy cases were...

  1. Identification of a comprehensive spectrum of genetic factors for hereditary breast cancer in a Chinese population by next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    Full Text Available The genetic etiology of hereditary breast cancer has not been fully elucidated. Although germline mutations of high-penetrance genes such as BRCA1/2 are implicated in development of hereditary breast cancers, at least half of all breast cancer families are not linked to these genes. To identify a comprehensive spectrum of genetic factors for hereditary breast cancer in a Chinese population, we performed an analysis of germline mutations in 2,165 coding exons of 152 genes associated with hereditary cancer using next-generation sequencing (NGS in 99 breast cancer patients from families of cancer patients regardless of cancer types. Forty-two deleterious germline mutations were identified in 21 genes of 34 patients, including 18 (18.2% BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, 3 (3% TP53 mutations, 5 (5.1% DNA mismatch repair gene mutations, 1 (1% CDH1 mutation, 6 (6.1% Fanconi anemia pathway gene mutations, and 9 (9.1% mutations in other genes. Of seven patients who carried mutations in more than one gene, 4 were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, and their average onset age was much younger than patients with only BRCA1/2 mutations. Almost all identified high-penetrance gene mutations in those families fulfill the typical phenotypes of hereditary cancer syndromes listed in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN guidelines, except two TP53 and three mismatch repair gene mutations. Furthermore, functional studies of MSH3 germline mutations confirmed the association between MSH3 mutation and tumorigenesis, and segregation analysis suggested antagonism between BRCA1 and MSH3. We also identified a lot of low-penetrance gene mutations. Although the clinical significance of those newly identified low-penetrance gene mutations has not been fully appreciated yet, these new findings do provide valuable epidemiological information for the future studies. Together, these findings highlight the importance of genetic testing based on NCCN guidelines and a multi-gene analysis

  2. Utilization of multigene panels in hereditary cancer predisposition testing: analysis of more than 2,000 patients

    OpenAIRE

    LaDuca, Holly; Stuenkel, A J; Dolinsky, Jill S.; Keiles, Steven; Tandy, Stephany; Pesaran, Tina; Chen, Elaine; Gau, Chia-Ling; Palmaer, Erika; Shoaepour, Kamelia; Shah, Divya; Speare, Virginia; Gandomi, Stephanie; Chao, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and molecular characteristics of 2,079 patients who underwent hereditary cancer multigene panel testing. Methods: Panels included comprehensive analysis of 14–22 cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2 not included), depending on the panel ordered (BreastNext, OvaNext, ColoNext, or CancerNext). Next-generation sequencing and deletion/duplication analyses were performed for all genes except EPCAM (deletion/duplication analysis o...

  3. Evidence of digenic inheritance in autoinflammation-associated genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6European University of Cyprus, The School of Medicine, 1516 Egkomi, Cyprus. Abstract. Familial .... effect of variants in alternative hereditary autoinflammatory genes was ..... ing of disease pathogenesis, used for more effective diagnos-.

  4. HSJ1-related hereditary neuropathies: novel mutations and extended clinical spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gess, Burkhard; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Schirmacher, Anja; Strom, Tim; Zitzelsberger, Manuela; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Röhr, Dominik; Halfter, Hartmut; Young, Peter; Senderek, Jan

    2014-11-04

    To determine the nature and frequency of HSJ1 mutations in patients with hereditary motor and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies. Patients were screened for mutations by genome-wide or targeted linkage and homozygosity studies, whole-exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing. RNA and protein studies of skin fibroblasts were used for functional characterization. We describe 2 additional mutations in the HSJ1 gene in a cohort of 90 patients with autosomal recessive distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). One family with a dHMN phenotype showed the homozygous splice-site mutation c.229+1G>A, which leads to retention of intron 4 in the HSJ1 messenger RNA with a premature stop codon and loss of protein expression. Another family, presenting with a CMT2 phenotype, carried the homozygous missense mutation c.14A>G (p.Tyr5Cys). This mutation was classified as likely disease-related by several automatic algorithms for prediction of possible impact of an amino acid substitution on the structure and function of proteins. Both mutations cosegregated with autosomal recessive inheritance of the disease and were absent from the general population. Taken together, in our cohort of 90 probands, we confirm that HSJ1 mutations are a rare but detectable cause of autosomal recessive dHMN and CMT2. We provide clinical and functional information on an HSJ1 splice-site mutation and report the detailed phenotype of 2 patients with CMT2, broadening the phenotypic spectrum of HSJ1-related neuropathies. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Hereditary angioedema: a bradykinin-mediated swelling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkqvist, Jenny; Sala-Cunill, Anna; Renné, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Edema is tissue swelling and is a common symptom in a variety of diseases. Edema form due to accumulation of fluids, either through reduced drainage or increased vascular permeability. There are multiple vascular signalling pathways that regulate vessel permeability. An important mediator that increases vascular leak is the peptide hormone bradykinin, which is the principal agent in the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema. The disease is autosomal dominant inherited and presents clinically with recurrent episodes of acute swelling that can be life-threatening involving the skin, the oropharyngeal, laryngeal, and gastrointestinal mucosa. Three different types of hereditary angiodema exist in patients. The review summarises current knowledge on the pathophysiology of hereditary angiodema and focuses on recent experimental and pharmacological findings that have led to a better understanding and new treatments for the disease.

  6. Neuromyelitis optica antibody in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mesquita Simão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica antibody (or aquaporin-4 antibody is a well stablished serum marker associated to high-risk neuromyelitis optica syndrome that presents as an inflammatory demyelinating disease characterized by the occurrence of bilateral and simultaneous optic neuritis without complete visual recovery or it occurs as an isolated episode of transverse myelitis accompanied by longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions. On the other hand, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is a primarily hereditary disorder that affects all tissues of the body and its clinical presentation is tissue-specific for the optic nerve and, eventually, it might reach the spinal cord. Overlapping clinical features of neuromyelitis optica and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy may suggest common target organ diseases. The case report described herein emphasizes the coexistence of serum markers of both diseases, and suggests that further investigation of this challenging clinical presentation is warranted to confirm or rule out this association.

  7. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Nicolas; Howard, Heidi C; Mathieu, Jean; Karpati, George; Vanasse, Michel; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Carpenter, Stirling; Rouleau, Guy A

    2003-07-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (OMIM 218000) is an autosomal recessive disease of early onset characterized by a delay in developmental milestones, a severe sensory-motor polyneuropathy with areflexia, a variable degree of agenesis of the corpus callosum, amyotrophy, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment. Although this disorder has rarely been reported worldwide, it has a high prevalence in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean region of the province of Quebec (Canada) predominantly because of a founder effect. The gene defect responsible for this disorder recently has been identified, and it is a protein-truncating mutation in the SLC12A6 gene, which codes for a cotransporter protein known as KCC3. Herein, we provide the first extensive review of this disorder, covering epidemiological, clinical, and molecular genetic studies.

  8. Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome due to a BMPR1A mutation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Riordan, J M

    2010-06-01

    The conditions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS) and Hereditary Mixed Polyposis Syndrome (HMPS) are associated with an increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. The genetic mechanisms which explain these conditions have until recently been poorly understood. Recent interest has focused on the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signalling pathway and, in particular, on mutations in the SMAD4 gene. However, not all cases of JPS and HMPS have mutations in SMAD4 and focus has now shifted to other components of the TGF-beta pathway to clarify the genetic mechanisms involved in these conditions. In this report, we describe the significance of a bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A gene mutation in an Irish family.

  9. SPG20 mutation in three siblings with familial hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardour, Leila; Roelens, Filip; Race, Valerie; Souche, Erika; Holvoet, Maureen; Devriendt, Koen

    2017-07-01

    Troyer syndrome (MIM#275900) is an autosomal recessive form of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia. It is characterized by progressive lower extremity spasticity and weakness, dysarthria, distal amyotrophy, developmental delay, short stature, and subtle skeletal abnormalities. It is caused by deleterious mutations in the SPG20 gene, encoding spartin, on Chromosome 13q13. Until now, six unrelated families with a genetically confirmed diagnosis have been reported. Here we report the clinical findings in three brothers of a consanguineous Moroccan family, aged 24, 17, and 7 yr old, with spastic paraplegia, short stature, motor and cognitive delay, and severe intellectual disability. Targeted exon capture and sequencing showed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the SPG20 gene, c.1369C>T (p.Arg457*), in the three affected boys. © 2017 Dardour et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG4) using direct mutation detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen E; Koefoed, Pernille; Kjaergaard, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a report on prenatal diagnosis using direct SPG4 gene analysis in a family with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP). METHODS: Genetic linkage and haplotype analysis were previously carried out with chromosome 2p markers. DNA was obtained from affected...... individuals, the affected father, the mother, and fetal DNA from an ongoing pregnancy by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the first trimester. The spastin gene (SPG4) was completely sequenced. RESULTS: A novel 832insGdelAA frameshift mutation, predicted to cause loss of functional protein, was identified...... in the affected father and in the fetal DNA. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on direct prenatal diagnosis of chromosome 2p-linked AD-HSP (SPG4). In addition, we report a novel SPG4-combined small insertion/deletion mutation in exon 5, which may be the first SPG4 mutational hot spot....

  11. [Experience in molecular diagnostic in hereditary neuropathies in a pediatric tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín A; López-Laso, Eduardo; Camino-León, Rafael; Gascón-Jiménez, Francisco J; Jiménez-González, M Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is the most common hereditary sensory motor neuropathy. Advances in molecular diagnosis have increased the diagnostic possibilities of these patients. Retrospective study of 36 pediatric patients diagnosed with CMT in a tertiary center in 2003-2015. We found 16 patients were diagnosed by a duplication in PMP22; two cases were diagnosed of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, one with a point mutation in PMP22; a male with a mild demyelinating phenotype, without family history, was diagnosed with GJB1 mutation; in a patient with a peripheral hypotonia at birth and axonal pattern in EMG by mutation in MFN2; a gypsy patient, with consanguineous family, CMT4D, was identified by a mutation in the gene NDRG1; a patient with multiplex congenital arthrogryposis and vocal cord paralysis, whose mother had a scapular-peroneal syndrome, had a congenital spinal muscular atrophy with mild distal axonal neuropathy by mutation in gene TRPV4; three girls, from a gypsy consanguineous family, with axonal CMT with neuromyotonic discharges were diagnosed by a mutation in the gene HINT1; twelve patients haven't molecular diagnosis currently. CMT1A predominated in our series (44%), as previous studies. We emphasize the description of a patient with a mutation in TRPV4 recently described as a cause of CMT2C and three cases, of gypsy consanguineous family, with the same mutation in HINT1 gene, recently described as a cause of axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia, autosomal recessive (AR-CMT2). The proportion of patients without molecular diagnosis is similar to main European series.

  12. Fetal MRI of hereditary multiple intestinal atresia with postnatal correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Githu, Tangayi; Merrow, Arnold C.; Lee, Jason K.; Garrison, Aaron P.; Brown, Rebeccah L.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary multiple intestinal atresia (HMIA) is an extremely uncommon cause of congenital bowel obstruction. The morbidity and mortality of this disease differ significantly from those of isolated intestinal atresias and non-hereditary forms of multiple intestinal atresia. Most notably, despite successful operative repairs of the atresias found in this disease, HMIA maintains a 100% lethality rate from continued post-operative intestinal failure and an associated severe immunodeficiency. We present a case of HMIA evaluated with fetal MRI and subsequently diagnosed by a combination of corroborative postnatal imaging with surgical exploration and pathological examination. (orig.)

  13. Dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joseph; Yung, Katherine C

    2014-11-01

    This case report is the first documentation of dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia as a complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Case report of a 40-year-old man with HHT presenting with 2 years of worsening hoarseness. Hoarseness corresponded with a period of anticoagulation. Endoscopy revealed vocal fold scarring, vocal fold telangiectasias, and plica ventricular is suggestive of previous submucosal vocal fold hemorrhage and subsequent counterproductive compensation with ventricular phonation. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may present as dysphonia with vocal fold telangiectasias and place patients at risk of vocal fold hemorrhage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Fetal MRI of hereditary multiple intestinal atresia with postnatal correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Githu, Tangayi [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Radiology of Huntsville, P.C., Huntsville, AL (United States); Merrow, Arnold C.; Lee, Jason K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Garrison, Aaron P. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgical Services, Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Akron Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Surgery, Akron, OH (United States); Brown, Rebeccah L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgical Services, Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Hereditary multiple intestinal atresia (HMIA) is an extremely uncommon cause of congenital bowel obstruction. The morbidity and mortality of this disease differ significantly from those of isolated intestinal atresias and non-hereditary forms of multiple intestinal atresia. Most notably, despite successful operative repairs of the atresias found in this disease, HMIA maintains a 100% lethality rate from continued post-operative intestinal failure and an associated severe immunodeficiency. We present a case of HMIA evaluated with fetal MRI and subsequently diagnosed by a combination of corroborative postnatal imaging with surgical exploration and pathological examination. (orig.)

  15. Hereditary dentine disorders: dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentine dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKie Iain

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary dentine disorders, dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI and dentine dysplasia (DD, comprise a group of autosomal dominant genetic conditions characterised by abnormal dentine structure affecting either the primary or both the primary and secondary dentitions. DGI is reported to have an incidence of 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 8,000, whereas that of DD type 1 is 1 in 100,000. Clinically, the teeth are discoloured and show structural defects such as bulbous crowns and small pulp chambers radiographically. The underlying defect of mineralisation often results in shearing of the overlying enamel leaving exposed weakened dentine which is prone to wear. Currently, three sub-types of DGI and two sub-types of DD are recognised but this categorisation may change when other causative mutations are found. DGI type I is inherited with osteogenesis imperfecta and recent genetic studies have shown that mutations in the genes encoding collagen type 1, COL1A1 and COL1A2, underlie this condition. All other forms of DGI and DD, except DD-1, appear to result from mutations in the gene encoding dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP, suggesting that these conditions are allelic. Diagnosis is based on family history, pedigree construction and detailed clinical examination, while genetic diagnosis may become useful in the future once sufficient disease-causing mutations have been discovered. Differential diagnoses include hypocalcified forms of amelogenesis imperfecta, congenital erythropoietic porphyria, conditions leading to early tooth loss (Kostmann's disease, cyclic neutropenia, Chediak-Hegashi syndrome, histiocytosis X, Papillon-Lefevre syndrome, permanent teeth discolouration due to tetracyclines, Vitamin D-dependent and vitamin D-resistant rickets. Treatment involves removal of sources of infection or pain, improvement of aesthetics and protection of the posterior teeth from wear. Beginning in infancy, treatment usually continues into adulthood with a

  16. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... becomes difficult. Muscle wasting may cause changes in posture or in the appearance of the shoulder, back, ... HM, Worrall BB, Lovitt S, Appel SH, Andermann E, Bird TD, Chance PF. SEPT9 gene sequencing analysis reveals ...

  17. Association of HFE gene C282Y and H63D mutations with liver cirrhosis in the Lithuanian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzėnas, Simonas; Kupčinskas, Juozas; Valantienė, Irena; Šumskienė, Jolanta; Petrenkienė, Vitalija; Kondrackienė, Jūrate; Kučinskas, Laimutis; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Skiecevičienė, Jurgita; Kupčinskas, Limas

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the end-stage disease of chronic liver injury. Due to differences in the natural course of chronic liver diseases, identification of genetic factors that influence individual outcomes is warranted. HFE-linked hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) predisposes disease progression to cirrhosis; however, the role of heterozygous C282Y or H63D mutations in the development of cirrhosis in the presence of other etiological factors is still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the association between heterozygous C282Y and H63D mutations and non-HH liver cirrhosis in Lithuanian population. The patient cohort consisted of 209 individuals. Diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by clinical, laboratory parameters, liver biopsy, and radiological imaging. Control samples were obtained from 1005 randomly selected unrelated healthy individuals. HFE gene mutations were determined using the PCR-RFLP method. The most common causes of cirrhosis were hepatitis C (33.9%), hepatitis B (13.6%), and alcohol (25.8%). C282Y allele was associated with the presence of cirrhosis (OR=2.07; P=0.005); this was also observed under recessive model for C282Y (OR=2.06, P=0.008). The prevalence of C282Y allele was higher in cirrhotic men than in controls (7.0% vs. 2.8%, P=0.002). The carriage of H63D risk allele (OR=1.54; P=0.02), heterozygous C282Y/wt and homozygous H63D/H63D genotypes were associated with liver cirrhosis in males (OR=2.48, P=0.008, and OR=4.13, P=0.005, respectively). Heterozygous C282Y mutation of the HFE gene was associated with liver cirrhosis in the Lithuanian population. In gender-related analysis, heterozygous C282Y and homozygous H63D mutations were linked to liver cirrhosis in men, not in women. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Higher occurrence of childhood cancer in families with germline mutations in BRCA2, MMR and CDKN2A genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S.; Borg, A.; Kristoffersson, U.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of hereditary factors for development of childhood tumors is limited to some few known syndromes associated with predominance of tumors in childhood. Occurrence of childhood tumors in hereditary cancer syndromes such as BRCA1/2 associated breast and ovarian cancer, DNA-mismatch r......-mismatch repair (MMR) genes associated hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer and CDKN2A associated familial malignant melanoma are very little studied. Herein we report the prevalence of childhood tumors (diagnosed...

  19. [Progress in research on pathogenic genes and gene therapy for inherited retinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Cao, Cong; Sun, Jiji; Gao, Tao; Liang, Xiaoyang; Nie, Zhipeng; Ji, Yanchun; Jiang, Pingping; Guan, Minxin

    2017-02-10

    Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs), including retinitis pigmentosa, Usher syndrome, Cone-Rod degenerations, inherited macular dystrophy, Leber's congenital amaurosis, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy are the most common and severe types of hereditary ocular diseases. So far more than 200 pathogenic genes have been identified. With the growing knowledge of the genetics and mechanisms of IRDs, a number of gene therapeutic strategies have been developed in the laboratory or even entered clinical trials. Here the progress of IRD research on the pathogenic genes and therapeutic strategies, particularly gene therapy, are reviewed.

  20. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  1. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy: a brief review with a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Masroor, Mohamed Sufian

    2012-03-01

    Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder and is usually characterized by episodes of recurrent and painless focal motor and sensory peripheral mononeuropathy. This condition is usually localized around areas of entrapment (predominantly the wrists, knees, elbows, and shoulders). The genetic locus of the disease is chromosome 17p12. A deletion of the PMP22 gene results in the lack of peripheral myelin protein, a key component to the myelin sheet of peripheral nerves. However, this disease may be completely asymptomatic until an event, such as a minor trauma, triggers these episodes, as seen in our presented case report. The diagnosis of HNPP can be somewhat challenging, as other diseases, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT) and Hereditary Neuralgic Amyotrophy (HNA) must be included in the differential diagnosis due to their overlapping clinical features. There are currently no treatments to cure the disease, but therapies seek to alleviate the symptoms and recurring episodes.

  2. Best practice guidelines for the molecular genetic diagnosis of Type 1 (HFE-related hereditary haemochromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton David E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary haemochromatosis (HH is a recessively-inherited disorder of iron over-absorption prevalent in Caucasian populations. Affected individuals for Type 1 HH are usually either homozygous for a cysteine to tyrosine amino acid substitution at position 282 (C282Y of the HFE gene, or compound heterozygotes for C282Y and for a histidine to aspartic acid change at position 63 (H63D. Molecular genetic testing for these two mutations has become widespread in recent years. With diverse testing methods and reporting practices in use, there was a clear need for agreed guidelines for haemochromatosis genetic testing. The UK Clinical Molecular Genetics Society has elaborated a consensus process for the development of disease-specific best practice guidelines for genetic testing. Methods A survey of current practice in the molecular diagnosis of haemochromatosis was conducted. Based on the results of this survey, draft guidelines were prepared using the template developed by UK Clinical Molecular Genetics Society. A workshop was held to develop the draft into a consensus document. The consensus document was then posted on the Clinical Molecular Genetics Society website for broader consultation and amendment. Results Consensus or near-consensus was achieved on all points in the draft guidelines. The consensus and consultation processes worked well, and outstanding issues were documented in an appendix to the guidelines. Conclusion An agreed set of best practice guidelines were developed for diagnostic, predictive and carrier testing for hereditary haemochromatosis and for reporting the results of such testing.

  3. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis: A report of two cases in the same family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanali V Umrania

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overgrowth of keratinized gingival tissues is a common condition and is described under variety of names. Causes of such enlargement can be medications, hereditary, and/or local irritating factors. Mutation in SOS1, son-of-sevenless gene, is thought to be responsible for hereditary gingival fibromatosis. This report shows a case of 19-year-old male and his 15-year-old sister, with a chief complaint of overgrowth of gingival and irregularly placed teeth. A similar overgrowth was also found in other members of the same family, without any drug history or syndromic conditions. An occurrence of the disease has been found in two generations of this family and therefore, it may be following autosomal dominant trait of inheritance. Since it is idiopathic and has a genetic cause for its occurrence, it cannot be prevented. Both cases underwent a surgical intervention to rectify the abnormality and were followed from 6 months to 1 year, during which there was no recurrence.

  4. Allele frequencies of hemojuvelin gene (HJV I222N and G320V missense mutations in white and African American subjects from the general Alabama population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohannon Sean B

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for coding region mutations of the hemojuvelin gene (HJV in whites is a cause of early age-of-onset iron overload (juvenile hemochromatosis, and of hemochromatosis phenotypes in some young or middle-aged adults. HJV coding region mutations have also been identified recently in African American primary iron overload and control subjects. Primary iron overload unexplained by typical hemochromatosis-associated HFE genotypes is common in white and black adults in Alabama, and HJV I222N and G320V were detected in a white Alabama juvenile hemochromatosis index patient. Thus, we estimated the frequency of the HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V in adult whites and African Americans from Alabama general population convenience samples. Methods We evaluated the genomic DNA of 241 Alabama white and 124 African American adults who reported no history of hemochromatosis or iron overload to detect HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. Analysis for HJV I222N was performed in 240 whites and 124 African Americans. Analysis for HJV G320V was performed in 241 whites and 118 African Americans. Results One of 240 white control subjects was heterozygous for HJV I222N; she was also heterozygous for HFE C282Y, but had normal serum iron measures and bone marrow iron stores. HJV I222N was not detected in 124 African American subjects. HJV G320V was not detected in 241 white or 118 African American subjects. Conclusions HJV I222N and G320V are probably uncommon causes or modifiers of primary iron overload in adult whites and African Americans in Alabama. Double heterozygosity for HJV I222N and HFE C282Y may not promote increased iron absorption.

  5. Haplotype analysis of the HFE gene among populations of Northern Eurasia, in patients with metabolic disorders or stomach cancer, and in long-lived people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, S V; Babenko, V N; Ivanoshchuk, D E; Gubina, M A; Maksimov, V N; Solovjova, I G; Voevoda, M I

    2016-06-17

    Previously, it was shown that the HFE gene (associated with human hereditary hemochromatosis) has several haplotypes of intronic polymorphisms. Some haplotype frequencies are race specific and hence can be used in phylogenetic analysis. We assumed that analysis of Caucasoid patients-living now in Western Siberia and having diseases associated with dietary habits and metabolic rate-will allow us to understand the processes of possible selection during settling of the northern part of Asia. Haplotype analysis of Northern Eurasian native and recently settled ethnic groups was performed on polymorphisms rs1799945, rs1800730, rs1800562, rs2071303, rs1800708, rs1572982, rs2794719, rs807209, and rs2032451 of this gene. The CCA haplotype of the rs2071303, rs1800708, and rs1572982 was found to be associated with HLA-A2 (39 %) in Asian populations. Haplotype analysis for the rs1799945, rs1800730, rs1800562, rs2071303, rs1800708, and rs1572982 was performed on Russian patients with some metabolic disorders or stomach cancer and among long-lived people. Decreased frequencies of the TTA haplotype (T in rs2071303, T in rs1800708, and A in rs1572982) were observed in the groups of patients with diseases associated with overweight (fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or metabolic syndrome + arterial hypertension) as compared with the control sample. We detected significant differences in this haplotype's frequency between the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and Russian adolescents, elderly citizens, and long-lived people (χ(2) P value = 0.003, 0.010, and 0.015, respectively). No significant differences in frequencies of the alleles with mutations in coding regions of the HFE gene (C282Y, H63D, and S65C) were detected between the analyzed patients (with stomach cancer, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus) and the control Caucasoid sample. Monophyletic origin of H63D (rs1799945) was confirmed in Caucasoids and Northern

  6. Gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Kjeldsen, J

    2000-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding occurs in a number of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and may lead to a high transfusion need. The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence and severity of gastrointestinal bleeding in a geographically well defined HHT population....

  7. Hereditary Angioedema - Consequences of a New Treatment Paradigm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    stopped long-term prophylaxis with danazol or tranexamic acid and changed treatment regimen to on-demand treatment with C1 inhibitor concentrate or icatibant. At least 10% of the attacks remained un-treated. More than half of the patients felt that hereditary angioedema had a significant psychological...

  8. On the many faces of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, RJ; Tijmes, NT; Cobben, JM; Bolhuis, PA; vanNesselrooij, BPM; Houtman, WA; deKokNazaruk, MM; BleekerWagemakers, EM

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disorder, associated with mutations in the mitochondrial DNA, which is notorious for its aspecific presentations. Two pedigrees are described with cases that are atypical for LHON with respect to sex, age of onset, interval between

  9. On the many faces of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Tijmes, N. T.; Cobben, J. M.; Bolhuis, P. A.; van Nesselrooij, B. P.; Houtman, W. A.; de Kok-Nazaruk, M. M.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disorder, associated with mutations in the mitochondrial DNA, which is notorious for its aspecific presentations. Two pedigrees are described with cases that are atypical for LHON with respect to sex, age of onset, interval between

  10. RB1 mutations and second primary malignancies after hereditary retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; Marees, Tamara; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Imhof, Saskia M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Ringens, Peter J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Moll, Annette C.

    2012-01-01

    Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have a high risk of second primary malignancies, but it has not been investigated whether specific RB1 germline mutations are associated with greater risk of second primary malignancies in a large cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 199

  11. RB1 mutations and second primary malignancies after hereditary retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; Marees, Tamara; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Imhof, Saskia M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Ringens, Peter J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Moll, Annette C.

    Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have a high risk of second primary malignancies, but it has not been investigated whether specific RB1 germline mutations are associated with greater risk of second primary malignancies in a large cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 199

  12. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, Jan Willem R.; Wong, Kwok H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited optic neuropathy caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). It is also believed that several epigenetic factors have an influence on the development of LHON. Methods: A case series was observed. Results: Three

  13. Visual Rehabilitation of Persons with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudanko, S.-L.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents results of a noncontrolled clinical study of 20 persons with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy who were treated from 1976 to 1990 at the Low Vision Centre of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Handicapped. The importance of early functional visual rehabilitation is emphasized, as is the use of low vision aids to help…

  14. Motor activation in SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, KH; Nielsen, JE; Krabbe, Katja

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of motor cortical functional reorganisation in patients with SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia by exploring cortical motor activation related to movements of clinically affected (lower) and unaffected (upper) limbs. METHODS: T...

  15. Sulindac treatment in hereditary non-pollyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, Fleur E. M.; Hollema, Harry; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; van der Sluis, Tineke; Ek, Wytske Boersma-van; Kleibeuker, Jan H.

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, e.g. sulindac have been extensively studied for chemoprevention in familial adenomatous polyposis, but not in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). We evaluated these effects in HNPCC using surrogate end-points for cancer risk. In a randomised

  16. Study of glycolytic intermediates in hereditary elliptocytosis with thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri Roshan

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycolytic intermediates like ATP, DPG and GSH have been studied in a family with. hereditary elliptocytosis and thalassemia. Results indicate a fall in ATP with a concomitant rise in DPG in the Patient. Findings are discussed in relation to other data.

  17. RECRUITMENT OF PATIENTS WITH HEREDITARY HAEMOCHROMATOSIS AS BLOOD DONORS

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    Marko Cukjati

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hereditary haemochromatosis is the most common inherited disorder in white persons with prevalence of about 1 in 200. Therapeutic phlebotomy is an effective treatment for the disease and prevents its sequele. In addition to their altruism, patients with hereditary haemochromatosis have also medical and monetary incentives for blood donation. Current guidelines do not allow haemochromatosis patients to donate blood. About two thirds of patients are eligible as blood donors and about two thirds of therapeutically drawn blood is suitable for transfusion. Therapeutically drawn blood could increase the blood supply by 1.5 to 30%.Conclusions. The number of states that already accept patients with hereditary haemochromatosis as blood donors is increasing. To avoid monetary incentives they offer free phlebotomies for all patients with hereditary haemochromatosis. There have been no reports about higher incidence of transfusion reactions. In Slovenia the number of therapeutic phlebotomy is increasing. We should evaluate the possibilities for recruitment of haemochromatosis patients as blood donors also in our country. It is necessary to modify regulatory restrictions and to ensure that there is no other incentives than altruism for blood donation.

  18. An ABC of the Warning Signs of Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Ferraroni, Natasha; Olivares, Maria Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency is a genetic disorder that clinically manifests with attacks of angioedema in the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues, mainly in the extremities, abdomen, and upper airway. During attacks, vascular permeability is increased due to increased...

  19. The neuropathology of hereditary congenital facial palsy vs Mobius syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, H.T.F.M.; Zwaag, B. van der; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Padberg, G.W.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the neuropathology of hereditary congenital facial palsy. METHODS: The authors compared brainstem pathology of three members of one family with autosomal dominant congenital facial palsy to that in three age-matched controls. The neuropathologic findings of the familial

  20. The Clinical Utility of Next Generation Sequencing Results in a Community-Based Hereditary Cancer Risk Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, A E; Garby, C A; Pearson, E J; Walker, S A; Panos, L E; Blum, Joanne L

    2017-02-01

    Since the 2013 Supreme Court ruling on BRCA1/BRCA2 patenting, hereditary cancer gene panels now include BRCA1 and BRCA2, making these panels an option for first-tier testing. However, questions remain about the clinical utility and implications of these panels for medical management with inclusion of genes of unknown to moderate penetrance. To better understand how use of these panels affected our practice, we reviewed patients who underwent testing in our clinic from July 1, 2013 through May 23, 2014. Indications for testing included personal and/or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. A total of 136 patients underwent panel testing via a single commercial laboratory; 12 (8.8 %) patients were positive for a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation (four BRCA2 mutations, two TP53 mutations, one CDH1 mutation, two ATM mutations, and one patient each with a CHEK2, NBN, or PALB2 mutation). Of these positive patients, 100 % met the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer genetic testing (2.2014). Mutations in seven of twelve (58 %) patients led to changes in medical management; three of seven (43 %) had a non-BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. Our findings suggest that there is clinical utility of panels that include genes of unknown to moderate penetrance.

  1. Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy with progressive sensorineural deafness (Harboyan syndrome

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    Abramowicz Marc

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Harboyan syndrome is a degenerative corneal disorder defined as congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED accompanied by progressive, postlingual sensorineural hearing loss. To date, 24 cases from 11 families of various origin (Asian Indian, South American Indian, Sephardi Jewish, Brazilian Portuguese, Dutch, Gypsy, Moroccan, Dominican have been reported. More than 50% of the reported cases have been associated with parental consanguinity. The ocular manifestations in Harboyan syndrome include diffuse bilateral corneal edema occurring with severe corneal clouding, blurred vision, visual loss and nystagmus. They are apparent at birth or within the neonatal period and are indistinguishable from those characteristic of the autosomal recessive CHED (CHED2. Hearing deficit in Harboyan is slowly progressive and typically found in patients 10–25 years old. There are no reported cases with prelinglual deafness, however, a significant hearing loss in children as young as 4 years old has been detected by audiometry, suggesting that hearing may be affected earlier, even at birth. Harboyan syndrome is caused by mutations in the SLC4A11 gene located at the CHED2 locus on chromosome 20p13-p12, indicating that CHED2 and Harboyan syndrome are allelic disorders. A total of 62 different SLC4A11 mutations have been reported in 98 families (92 CHED2 and 6 Harboyan. All reported cases have been consistent with autosomal recessive transmission. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, detailed ophthalmological assessment and audiometry. A molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis is feasible. A variety of genetic, metabolic, developmental and acquired diseases presenting with clouding of the cornea should be considered in the differential diagnosis (Peters anomaly, sclerocornea, limbal dermoids, congenital glaucoma. Audiometry must be performed to differentiate Harboyan syndrome from CHED2. Autosomal recessive types of CHED (CHED2 and

  2. Recurrent APC gene mutations in Polish FAP families

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    Pławski Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular diagnostics of genetically conditioned disorders is based on the identification of the mutations in the predisposing genes. Hereditary cancer disorders of the gastrointestinal tracts are caused by mutations of the tumour suppressor genes or the DNA repair genes. Occurrence of recurrent mutation allows improvement of molecular diagnostics. The mutation spectrum in the genes causing hereditary forms of colorectal cancers in the Polish population was previously described. In the present work an estimation of the frequency of the recurrent mutations of the APC gene was performed. Eight types of mutations occurred in 19.4% of our FAP families and these constitute 43% of all Polish diagnosed families.

  3. Complex Landscape of Germline Variants in Brazilian Patients With Hereditary and Early Onset Breast Cancer

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    Giovana T. Torrezan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic variants in known breast cancer (BC predisposing genes explain only about 30% of Hereditary Breast Cancer (HBC cases, whereas the underlying genetic factors for most families remain unknown. Here, we used whole-exome sequencing (WES to identify genetic variants associated to HBC in 17 patients of Brazil with familial BC and negative for causal variants in major BC risk genes (BRCA1/2, TP53, and CHEK2 c.1100delC. First, we searched for rare variants in 27 known HBC genes and identified two patients harboring truncating pathogenic variants in ATM and BARD1. For the remaining 15 negative patients, we found a substantial vast number of rare genetic variants. Thus, for selecting the most promising variants we used functional-based variant prioritization, followed by NGS validation, analysis in a control group, cosegregation analysis in one family and comparison with previous WES studies, shrinking our list to 23 novel BC candidate genes, which were evaluated in an independent cohort of 42 high-risk BC patients. Rare and possibly damaging variants were identified in 12 candidate genes in this cohort, including variants in DNA repair genes (ERCC1 and SXL4 and other cancer-related genes (NOTCH2, ERBB2, MST1R, and RAF1. Overall, this is the first WES study applied for identifying novel genes associated to HBC in Brazilian patients, in which we provide a set of putative BC predisposing genes. We also underpin the value of using WES for assessing the complex landscape of HBC susceptibility, especially in less characterized populations.

  4. Socioeconomic burden of hereditary angioedema: results from the hereditary angioedema burden of illness study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen; Hautamaki, Emily; Sisic, Zlatko; Wait, Suzanne; Boysen, Henrik B; Caballero, Teresa

    2014-07-04

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare but serious and potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The study objective was to characterize direct and indirect resource utilization associated with HAE from the patient perspective in Europe. The study was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE via a cross-sectional survey of HAE patients, including direct and indirect resource utilization during and between attacks for patients and their caregivers over the past 6 months. A regression model examined predictors of medical resource utilization. Overall, 164 patients had an attack in the past 6 months and were included in the analysis. The most significant predictor of medical resource utilization was the severity of the last attack (OR 2.6; p career/educational advancement. HAE poses a considerable burden on patients and their families in terms of direct medical costs and indirect costs related to lost productivity. This burden is substantial at the time of attacks and in between attacks.

  5. An overview of hereditary hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Yildirim A; Yilmaz, Metin

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of hearing loss is important because almost 50% of profound hearing loss are caused by genetic factors and more than 120 independent genes have been identified. In this review, after a brief explanation of some genetic terms (allele, heterozygosis, homozygosis, polymorphism, genotype and phenotype), classification of genetic hearing loss (syndromic versus nonsyndromic, and recessive dominant, X-linked and mitochondrial) was performed. Some of the most common syndromes (Usher, Pendred, Jervell and Lange-Nielsen, Waardenburg, branchio-oto-renal, Stickler, Treacher Collins and Alport syndromes, biotinidase deficiency and Norrie disease) causing genetic hearing loss were also explained briefly. The genes involved in hearing loss and genetic heterogeneity were presented. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. [Two cases of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Chiaki; Saito, Tomoko; Saito, Toshio; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Sakoda, Saburo

    2015-01-01

    We, herein, report two independent cases with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Their common clinical features are slowly progressive proximal dominant muscular atrophy, fasciculations and mild to moderate distal sensory disturbance with areflexia. Nerve conduction study revealed an absence of sensory nerve action potentials, in contrast to almost normal compound muscle action potentials. Gene analysis in both patients elucidated heterozygous mutation (c.854C>T, p.Pro285Leu) in the TFG, which is an identical mutation, already described by Ishiura et al. Okinawa and Shiga are two foci of HMSN-P in Japan. Eventually, one patient is from Okinawa and the other is from a mountain village in Shiga prefecture. When we see a patient who has symptoms suggestive of motor neuron disease with sensory neuropathy, HMSN-P should be considered as a differential diagnosis despite the patient's actual resident place.

  7. [Hereditary colorectal cancer : An update on genetics and entities in terms of differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, T T; Dawson, H; Hartmann, A; Rüschoff, J

    2017-05-01

    The pathologist can contribute to recognizing hereditary causes of colorectal cancer via morphology. By identifying so-called index patients, it is possible to take preventive measures in affected families. The precise definition of the clinical presentation and the histopathological phenotype help to narrow the spectrum of expected genetic alterations. Novelties within Lynch syndrome include the recognition of EPCAM as a fifth gene locus, as well as the newly defined Lynch-like syndrome with evidence of somatic mismatch repair (MMR) mutations. With regard to polyposis-associated syndromes, the spectrum of polyps, whether serrated, hamartomatous or classic adenoma, is of crucial importance. The resulting differential diagnosis includes (attenuated) familial adenomatous polyposis ([a]FAP), MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and juvenile polyposis, each with a specific genetic background.

  8. Next generation sequencing for molecular confirmation of hereditary sudden cardiac death syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Manlio F; Cruz-Robles, David; Ines-Real, Selene; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary sudden cardiac death syndromes comprise a wide range of diseases resulting from alteration in cardiac ion channels. Genes involved in these syndromes represent diverse mutations that cause the altered encoding of the diverse proteins constituting these channels, thus affecting directly the currents of the corresponding ions. In the present article we will briefly review how to arrive to a clinical diagnosis and we will present the results of molecular genetic studies made in Mexican subjects attending the SCD Syndromes Clinic of the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico City. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive dysfunction in hereditary spastic paraplegias and other motor neuron disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Faber

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP is a diverse group of single-gene disorders that share the predominant clinical feature of progressive lower limb spasticity and weakness. More than 70 different genetic subtypes have been described and all modes of inheritance are possible. Intellectual dysfunction in HSP is frequent in recessive forms but rare in dominant families. It may manifest by either mental retardation and/or cognitive decline. The latter may be subtle, restricted to executive dysfunction or may evolve to severe dementia. The cognitive profile is thought to depend largely on the genetic subtype of HSP, although wide phenotypic variability within the same genetic subtype and also within the same family can be found.

  10. FROM FAMILIES SYNDROMES TO GENES… THE FIRST CLINICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATIONS OF HEREDITARY SYNDROMES PREDISPOSING TO CANCER: WHAT WAS THE BEGINNING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charité Ricker, MS, LCGC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessment for hereditary susceptibility to cancer is considered standard of care, as it impacts not only a clinician's understanding of cancer causation but also options for prevention and treatment. The roots of our current knowledge about hereditary cancer syndromes can be traced to early reports of families with striking cancer histories. The purpose of this article is to review the historical timeline of the two most commonly assessed hereditary cancer syndromes, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC and Lynch syndrome (LS. While many individuals identified with these syndromes today come from families similar to those seen in the early historical reports, our understanding of these syndromes, their expression and penetrance, has evolved over the years. In addition, the increased utilization of broad multi-gene panels continues to add to the complexity of defining associated phenotypes. These findings can lead to challenges with translating results to clinical management for patients and families, but also provide an opportunity to continue to gain understanding of the genetic underpinnings of cancer etiology.

  11. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy: an investigation in a rare and large Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Qianqian; Wang, Weili; Li, Dezhong; Liu, Wanhong; He, Xiaohua

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP), mainly associated with the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene, is generally an autosomal-dominant inherited peripheral neuropathy. The present large family including four generations provides an exciting opportunity to gain important insights into HNPP in China. A large 43-member family with ten members suspected to be affected by HNPP was studied. Neurologic examinations, electrophysiological and neuropathological studies and molecular genetic testing were used for these kindred. Clinically, the proband had limb hyposthenia and atrophy, and his mother showed declined tendon reflexes in the right lower limb. Electrophysiologically, sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities were generalized reduced. Sural nerve biopsy for the proband showed focal thickesning of the myelin sheaths. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the PMP22 gene has a higher Ct value than reference gene in all suspected patients. These results indicated that the family is indeed a rare and large pedigree of HNPP caused by the deletion of PMP22 gene. Given that the suspected patient in the fourth generation is absent, this family is still worthy of further follow-up study. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Iron in hereditary retinal degeneration: PIXE microanalysis Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Gouget, B.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.; Yefimova, M.; Courtois, Y.; Jeanny, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Several types of hereditary retinal degeneration with progressive alteration of photoreceptors exist in men and animals. Recent immunohistochemical results have shown strong degradation of transferrin, the protein responsible for iron transport, in retinas of rats with hereditary retinal degeneration. Freeze-dried thin sections of rat retinas from different stages of the disease, and respective coeval control sections, have been analyzed using nuclear microprobe. In this first part of the study, the rat retinas at post-natal stages of 35 and 45 days have been analyzed. The sample preparation and the post-irradiation staining to determine precisely the retinal layers involved are described. Preliminary results of element distributions (K, Ca, Fe) in the rat retina layers are discussed. A very high content of calcium in the choriocapillaris of dystrophic rat retinas was observed. Preliminary results on iron distribution in the rat retina layers are presented

  13. Spinal Exostosis in a Boy with Multiple Hereditary Exostoses

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    Ali Al Kaissi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 13-year-old boy who presented with multiple hereditary exostosis and had development of back pain, associated with neurological deficits, and was found to have exostoses in the spinal canal. Spine radiograph showed a cauliflower-like abnormality of multiple exostoses of the posterior arch (pedicle of the thoracic vertebrae (T3–5. Reformatted CT scanning revealed the simultaneous development of intra- and extraspinal osteochondromatosis of T3–5. The spinal cord was compressed by the intraspinal exostosis. Our patient was surgically treated for intraspinal exostoses and showed cessation of neurological deficits. We report what might be a rare association of spinal cord compression in a patient with multiple hereditary exostoses.

  14. Could Ossification of the Achilles Tendon Have a Hereditary Component?

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    Chawki Cortbaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ossification of the Achilles tendon (OTA is an unusual clinical condition. It is characterized by the presence of an ossified mass within the fibrocartilaginous substance of the Achilles tendon. The etiology of the ossification of the Achilles tendon is unknown. Review of the literature suggests that its etiology is multifactorial. The major contributing factors are trauma and surgery with other minor causes such as systemic diseases, metabolic conditions, and infections. To our knowledge, no previous reports suggest any genetic/hereditary predisposition in OAT. We report 3 siblings who have OAT with no history of any of the aforementioned predisposing factors. Could OAT have a hereditary component as one of its etiologies?

  15. Hereditary arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies: decision-making about genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Clauden; Calamaro, Emily; Vinocur, Jeffrey M

    2018-01-01

    The modern field of clinical genetics has advanced beyond the traditional teachings familiar to most practicing cardiologists. Increased understanding of the roles of genetic testing may improve uptake and appropriateness of use. Clinical genetics has become integral to the management of patients with hereditary arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy diagnoses. Depending on the condition, genetic testing may be useful for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, family screening, and reproductive planning. However, genetic testing is a powerful tool with potential for underuse, overuse, and misuse. In the absence of a substantial body of literature on how these guidelines are applied in clinical practice, we use a case-based approach to highlight key lessons and pitfalls. Importantly, in many scenarios genetic testing has become the standard of care supported by numerous class I recommendations; genetic counselors can improve accessibility to and appropriate use and application of testing. Optimal management of hereditary arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies incorporates genetic testing, applied as per consensus guidelines, with involvement of a multidisciplinary team.

  16. Ethical, social and counselling issues in hereditary cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, J E; Patenaude, A F

    1995-01-01

    Genetic testing for hereditary susceptibility to disease is new. Much has been learned from experience with Huntington's disease and other non-malignant conditions. There are some differences in the case of predisposition testing for cancer: there is often the perception that cancer is preventable and sometimes curable, in contrast to other hereditary conditions. Testing raises many issues new to the medical community and to the public as well. There is great concern that the explosive technology be used responsibly, so that the potential benefits of genetic knowledge are not eclipsed by the risks to autonomy, privacy and justice. Practical concerns about insurability and discrimination may inhibit some at risk individuals from taking advantage of this powerful technology. There has been considerable effort already in the UK, Europe and the USA at the research and social levels to create protection for individuals found to carry genetic susceptibility to disease.

  17. Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: report of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramkusam, Geetha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Shetty, Namratha

    2013-09-01

    Hereditary Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (HHED), an X-linked, recessive, Mendelian character, is seen usually in males and it is inherited through female carriers. It is characterised by congenital dysplasia of one or more ectodermal structures and it is manifested by hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis and hypodontia. It results from abnormal morphogenesis of cutaneous and oral embryonic ectoderm. Here, we are presenting a rare case of HHED in a 19 year female with classic features of this condition.

  18. HEREDITARY INTRAVENTRICULAR CONDUCTION DISORDERS IN THE FAMILY FROM KRASNOYARSK

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    A. A. Chernova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedigree of the family from Krasnoyarsk city with hereditary disorders of intracardiac conduction was studied. The diagnosis of each family member was verified by electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography , bicycle ergometry , ECG Holter monitoring. The family 10-year follow-up showed familial aggregation of intracardiac conduction disorders in grandson, niece, son of the proband niece, ie, in the III-degree relatives. Family history of III-degree relatives with intracardiac conduction disorders and discordant pathology is identified.

  19. Hereditary spastic paraplegias: membrane traffic and the motor pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstone, Craig; O’Kane, Cahir J.; Reid, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary movement is a fundamental way in which animals respond to, and interact with, their environment. In mammals, the main CNS pathway controlling voluntary movement is the corticospinal tract, which encompasses connections between the cerebral motor cortex and the spinal cord. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of genetic disorders that lead to a length-dependent, distal axonopathy of fibres of the corticospinal tract, causing lower limb spasticity and weakness. Recent wo...

  20. Increased Mortality and Comorbidity Associated With Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Nanna; Rosenberg, Thomas; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial genetic disease in which optic neuropathy is considered a key feature. Several other manifestations of LHON have been reported; however, only little is known of their incidence and the life expectancy in LHON patients. Methods...... patients (RR: 4.26, 95% CI: 1.91-9.48; P neuropathy, and alcohol-related disorders. Conclusions: The manifestation of LHON was associated...