WorldWideScience

Sample records for herds researcher production

  1. Evaluation of a welfare indicator protocol for assessing animal welfare in AMS herds: researcher, production advisor and veterinary practitioner opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Jakobsen, Iben Alber; Hindhede, Jens

    2007-01-01

    important welfare indicators. In summary, researchers as well as production advisors and veterinarians supported the suggested measures for inclusion in a welfare assessment system. This has demonstrated that integration of different information is considered decisive for operational welfare assessment...

  2. Production and breeding performance of South African dairy herds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparisons between production and breeding potential of different feeding systems (Concentrates, Mixed and Pastures) in South Africa were made. Data of active cows participating in performance testing as at November 2007 were used. Holstein cows numbered 68280 in 254 herds and Jersey cows 51275 in 248 herds.

  3. Northern Alaska Peninsula Caribou Herd Composition Surveys products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products associated with the Northern Alaska Peninsula Caribou Herd Composition surveys performed on Alaska Peninsula and Becharof National Wildlife Refuges.

  4. Dairy Herd Management Types Assessed from Indicators of Health, Reproduction, Replacement Milk Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Hindhede, Jens; Kristensen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Variables related to health, reproduction, replacement milk production in 111 Danish dairy herds were studied with factor analysis. The objectives were to identify management types and to assess the relevance of those types for herd milk production. Median herd size and total milk production were...... for peak milk production, disease a complex pattern related to herd size and age, cow size live cattle sales. The potential for peak milk production, replacement intensity variability of milk production were strong predictors of herd milk production. Interactions with herd size were important. The derived...... factor scoring coefficients allowed assessment of the management type of a given herd....

  5. Trends in slaughter pig production and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pig herds, 2002-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A R; Pires, S M; Houe, H; Emborg, H-D

    2011-10-01

    Overuse of antimicrobials in food-animal production is thought to be a major risk factor for the development of resistant bacterial populations. Data on non-human antimicrobial usage is essential for planning of intervention strategies to lower resistance levels at the country, region or herd levels. In this study we evaluated Danish national antimicrobial usage data for five antimicrobial classes used in slaughter pigs in different herd sizes and data on the number of slaughter pigs produced per herd, between 2002 and 2008, in Denmark. The objective was to ascertain if there is an association between herd size and amount of antimicrobials consumed. During this period, the overall number of herds with slaughter pigs decreased by 43%, with larger herds becoming more prevalent. The tetracycline treatment incidence (TI) rate increased from 0·28 to 0·70 animal-defined daily dose (ADD)/100 slaughter pig-days at risk while macrolide TI presented a more moderate increase, from 0·40 to 0·44 ADD/100 slaughter pig-days at risk during the study period. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant association between herd size and TI rates for tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides/trimethoprim and cephalosporins, with small herds presenting significantly higher TI than moderate, large and the largest herds. This study highlights the importance of establishing an antimicrobial consumption monitoring programme, integrated with comprehensive food-animal production surveillance. Further research should be performed to address the potential causes of the detected associations between herd sizes and antimicrobial consumption in pigs.

  6. Maximum herd efficiency in meat production I. Optima for slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profit rate for a meat production enterprise can be decomposed into the unit price for meat and herd efficiency. Optimal slaughter mass maximizesherd efficiency which, at its maximum,can be expressed in terms of a product of powers of growth and reproduction efficiencies. Likely regions of optimality for slaughter mass are ...

  7. Herd health and production management in dairy practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, A.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schukken, Y.H.

    1996-01-01

    This text aims to teach students, practitioners and farm advisors how to give management support to the dairy farmer in order to optimize the health, productivity and welfare of his herd. The book covers management practices and farm conditions which have both positive and negative influences on

  8. Regional scientific production and specialization in Europe. The role of HERD

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, M.; Coronado, D.; Ferrándiz, E.; León, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of R&D expenditure in the higher education sector (HERD) on the scientific production across regions in Europe 15. Our research questions relates to the regional production of science and the role of academic R&D expenditures on regional scientific output. The results show that money affects the production of scientific results in regions. On average, we found different impacts and lags of R&D expenditure according to the level of regional development. Our find...

  9. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  10. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n = 2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using an ELISA. Herds were categorised by sero-status into positive, non-negative and negative, where a positive herd contained two or more positive cows, a non-negative herd contained only one positive cow and a negative herd contained no positive cows. Data at animal, parity and herd-level were analysed by multiple regression using general linear models. Positive herds (mean herd size = 129 cows) and non-negative herds (81 cows) were larger than negative herds (72 cows) (P production, somatic cell count score (SCCS) or calving interval. Negative herds tended to have a lower SCCS than positive and nonnegative herds (P = 0.087). This study only examined the effects of paratuberculosis sero-status but did not examine the clinical effects of Johne's disease at the farm or dairy industry levels. PMID:21851733

  11. Intra-herd production level variances for milk yield of Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluated, the effect of heterogeneous variances across herd production levels on genetic evaluation was investigated using lactation milk production records of Zimbabwean Holstein cows. A total of 12420 first lactation milk production records ...

  12. Management information system impact on dairy production for selected herds in Texas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Otten, A.

    2000-01-01

    Yearly production and performance data were obtained for dairy herd improvement members in Texas to determine whether on-farm use of a management information system (MIS) quantitatively impacted performance. Data from 66 dairy operations for the years 1983–1996 were evaluated. Herds enrolled in an

  13. Modelling the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews how the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds is mimicked by livestock herd simulation models. Twelve models simulating the dynamics of dairy, beef, sheep and sow herds were examined. All models basically included options to alter input and output...... of reproductive animals in a manner which could be related to health problems. Direct effects of diseases on growth or milk production were, however, addressed in only a few models and were confined to a few basic relations if modelled. The lack of effects on individual animal production in the models may relate...

  14. Cost of Milk Production in relation to herd strength

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Badukale; D. R. Ambulkar; S.K.Sahatpure and P. M. Kapale

    2008-01-01

    The yearwise data of total herd strength (HS), number of milch animals (MA), number of dry animals (DA), young stock (YS), cost of feed per animal (CF/A), cost of labour or labour charges per animal (LBCH/A), cost of medicine per animal (Med./A) and cost of miscellaneous items per animal (Misc./A) categorized into two groups : Group A and Group B. The observations with herd strength above 200 and below 200 were placed in Group A and Group B, respectively. The years categorized under Group A w...

  15. The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of containing costs through the optimal utilization of feed emphasizes the need to optimize, rather than maximize, the rate of reproduction. It is, however, unknown which lick supplementation regimen, provided to an extensive beef herd on mixed veld, could bring about the most profitable and efficient farming ...

  16. Maximum herd efficiency in meat production II. The influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A general method is developed for the evaluation of herd efficiency in terms of efficiencies for growth and reproduction. Almost the only requisite knowledge for the application of this method is the value of the allometric slope between the cost of cumulate feed intake and body mass for a target population. The evaluation of ...

  17. Simulated production losses in reindeer herds caused by accidental death of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Petersson

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic age-structured model was used to simulate the consequences on herd production if an extra animal from a particular age class and season was lost. Herd size was adjusted to 1000 animals and a sex ratio of .75/.25 via slaughter in late autumn. Three harvest strategies were applied, ranging from extreme calf to adult harvest. Equilibrium herd structure was disturbed with the loss of an extra animal and the consequences in terms of the number of animals slaughtered and kilogram of carcasses produced were followed over a simulation period of 15 years. The loss of a male corresponded largely to 0.70 to 0.90 times its own carcass weight. Loss of a female decreased herd production by 1.2 to 1.7 times the carcass weight of the lost animal. The highest losses were observed for 4-6 year old females. Loss of a calf reduced herd production by 0.3 to 1.6 times the calf's carcass weight, depending on season of loss and harvest strategy. In general, a loss during winter decreased herd production 10 to 20 percent more than a loss during autumn.

  18. Evaluation of Three Commercial Hoof-Care Products Used in Footbaths in Danish Dairy Herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2008-01-01

    was to evaluate 3 commercial hoof-care products in 12 Danish dairy herds (testing each product in 4 herds) using a controlled clinical trial. One-half of the herds were conventional and the other half was organically managed. The hoof-care products represented the 3 main groups of active compounds currently legal......Digital dermatitis is a serious problem in dairy production in many countries. Footbaths have been used extensively for the prevention and cure of digital dermatitis. But there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of hoof-care products used in footbaths. The objective...... new infections). Percentage cured ranged from 13.6 to 100, and percentage new infections ranged from 0 to 35.5. For all hoof-care products, the difference between treatment and control sides was not statistically significant. Overall, there was no effect on percentage cured or percentage new...

  19. The Effect of Improved Reproductive Herd Health on Milk Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of incorporating reproductive herd health programme in the management of 12 urban farms was studied. Over a four year period, calving intervals reduced (from 19.3 to 13.7 months) services per conception (from 3.8 to 1.8) and age at first calving (from 37.7 to 27.8 months). The number of milking cows in the ...

  20. The legal foundation of the production and use of herd-specific vaccines in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Y; Schmerold, I; Hönel, A

    2013-08-12

    In veterinary medicine, herd-specific vaccines are primarily used in farm animals if traditional vaccines are either unavailable or do not perform as expected. As autogenous products, these vaccines are exempt from Directive 2001/82/EC, and therefore the production and use of herd-specific vaccines are regulated differently in each member state of the European Union (EU). This study is an overview of the diverse legal statuses of herd-specific vaccines among European countries. The study was conducted by analyzing legal documents, tailored questionnaires answered by subject-related authorities from sixteen European countries, and related literature. These analyses revealed that tremendous heterogeneity exists with respect to the legal requirements for the production and use of herd-specific vaccines among the countries that were examined. In particular, certain countries have detailed and precise regulations for these vaccines, whereas the legislation regarding these vaccines is vague or even nonexistent in other nations. The implementation of standardized definitions, guidelines for vaccine use in the field, and regulations for vaccine production are essential prerequisites for achieving legal consistency across Europe. These measures would also help countries enact pertinent national legislation with less divergence regarding the production and use of herd-specific vaccines and ensure the existence of comparable safety and quality standards for these vaccines among European countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Effecting of Milk Productions in Select Herds of Slovak Spotted Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Bujko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was analyse factors effecting on the milk production in select breeding herds of the Slovak spotted breed. Data were analysed using the Statistical Analysis System version 9.3.1 and linear model with fixed effects of herd-year-season of calving, genetic group, father, number of lactation and cod of milk production. Average of traits of milk production was 5266.4 kg of milk, 222.19 kg of fat, 177.79 kg of proteins and 251.37 kg of lactose. The linear model to represent coefficient determination R2 = 0.598099 for milk production with all fixed effects. The analysis by the effect was the highest effect of herd-years-season of calving (0.3724 than effect of father (0.3017. Correlation coefficients between milk, fat, protein, lactose in kgs (r=0.90826, r= 0.98260, r= 0.98830, were statistically high significant.

  2. Record-keeping, management decisions and productivity of extensive reindeer herding on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle A. Renecker

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Alaska's reindeer (Rangifer tarandus industry has been faced with the competitive need to increase productivity but cautioned to avoid range degradation as a result of high stocking rates. Consumer demand for lean, healthy, high quality meat has increased throughout the world and has surpassed production. For herders to tap these new domestic and off-shore markets, there will be the need for higher herd numbers and animal productivity, consistent slaughter protocol, and a focused marketing plan. In this paper, we illustrate how record-keeping can benefit reindeer herders in husbandry and management decisions that are necessary to increase animal productivity and, eventually, product quality and profits. These biological parameters were tested in a Lotus® spreadsheet model designed to predict herd growth and economics. Records of three reindeer herds on the Seward Peninsula have shown that calf production for adults has ranged from 35 to 98%. Sensitivity analysis predicted that in some herds, the model was sensitive to small changes in calf survival which could result in insufficient recruitment to maintain long-term harvest. Productivity may be ultimately related to management decisions that cull animals before productivity begins to decline.

  3. Effect of various husbandry conditions on the production parameters of swine herds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dors, A; Czyzewska, E; Pomorska-Mól, M; Kolacz, R; Pejsak, Z

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect production data of Polish swine herds, with special emphasis on the production parameters in farrow to finish pig herds. Another goal was to determine differences in the production performance of swine herds with different sizes, various status with regard to biosecurity, and with different veterinary expenditure. For this purpose, questionnaire surveys were carried out in 96 polish farrow to finish pig herds. The data concerning production parameters (e.g. the number of pigs born per sow per year, litters per sow per year, pre- and post-weaning mortality), farm size (small, medium, large), management (all in-all out by room or building), veterinary expenditure (including medication) and the percentage of pigs under medical treatment, were collected. The data obtained in the present study indicate that in general, the efficiency of swine production in evaluated farms was relatively low. It was also found that in large swine farms the efficiency was better than that in small ones and that the proper biosecurity positively influenced the performance of the swine farms. However, only in 10.4% facilities, the biosecurity rules and methods, including the principle "all-in all-out", were implemented and kept. It seems that inefficient swine production on the majority of Polish farms results from poor basic knowledge on pig production and understanding of fundamental economic rules of swine breeding.

  4. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  5. Establishment of serological herd profiles for zoonoses and production diseases in pigs by "meat juice multi-serology".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meemken, Diana; Tangemann, Anna Helene; Meermeier, Dieter; Gundlach, Susanne; Mischok, Dieter; Greiner, Matthias; Klein, Guenter; Blaha, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The most important pork-borne zoonotic diseases in humans such as Salmonelloses and Yersinioses cause only latent infections in pigs. Thus, the infection of pigs does not result in apparent or palpable alterations in the pig carcasses. This is the major reason, why the traditional meat inspection with adspection, palpation and incision is not able to control the food safety risks of today. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a set of serological tests, which provides a classification of pig herds into "zoonoses risk categories" as demanded by EU law and into "herd health risk categories" by using meat juice as diagnostic specimen for ELISA tests. Serological data that were obtained by testing meat juice samples from various pig herds were analyzed as proof of the "meat juice multi-serology" concept. For that, at least 60 meat juice samples from 49 pig herds each were taken between September 2010 and March 2011 and tested for antibodies against zoonotic pathogens (Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii) and against pathogens causing production diseases (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, influenza A virus subtype H1N1, influenza A virus subtype H3N2 and PRRSV). Apparent and true animal prevalence, herd prevalence values and intra-herd seroprevalence values as well as the predictive values for the herd and the animal prevalence values were calculated for each pathogen and each of the 49 randomly selected herds. The herd seroprevalence values (one seropositive sample per herd determined a "positive herd") for Y. enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., T. gondii, M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV were higher than 80%, respectively, for the influenza A viruses between 60% and 14% and for Trichinella spp. 0%. Although all herds were located in the same area in the Northwest of Germany within a radius of 250 km, the intra-herd seroprevalence values for all tested pathogens, except for Trichinella spp., varied remarkably from herd to herd. In the

  6. Association between Dictyocaulus viviparus status and milk production parameters in Dutch dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dank, M.; Holzhauer, M.; Veldhuis, A.; Frankena, K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between Dictyocaulus viviparus bulk tank milk (BTM) test results and milk production and milk composition parameters in adult Dutch dairy cattle herds. Bulk tank milk samples were collected in August and November 2013, and ELISA tests were

  7. Influence of herd environment on health and fertility and their relationship with milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Calus, M.P.L.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    High levels of milk production in dairy cattle can have negative side effects on health and fertility traits. This paper explores the relationships among milk yield, health, and fertility traits both across and within herd environments on a national scale. A total of 456,574 lactations from 3904

  8. Herd structure of Small-Holder goat production in Otukpo L.G.A of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This proportion declined with increasing parity with only 5.1% in parity 5. A mating ratio of l buck to 3 does was observed. The common criterion for culling was emergency need for money and this represented 40% of the animals leaving the herds. Keywords: structure, goat production, breeding does, breeding bucks, age- ...

  9. Evaluation of the impact of a Herd Health and Production Management programme in organic dairy cattle farms: a process evaluation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J E; Bareille, N; Madouasse, A; de Joybert, M; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bonnet-Beaugrand, F; Fourichon, C

    2017-11-06

    Animal health planning activities are not always providing a satisfactory positive impact on herd health and welfare. Moreover, evaluating the impact of advisory programmes is complex due to multiple interacting elements that influence its outcome. Therefore, measuring solely health outcomes is not sufficient: the whole process of the implementation and use of such programmes should be evaluated. In order to evaluate the impact of an intervention with a Herd Health and Production Management (HHPM) programme a process evaluation framework was designed and used. The intervention involved 20 organic dairy cattle farmers and their advisors, in both France and Sweden. In both countries 20 organic dairy farms were selected as control herds. The evaluation of the HHPM programme was based on: (a) the compliance to the programme; (b) the programme's functions influencing herd health management practices and stimulating dialogue between farmers and advisors; (c) its effectiveness in terms of improving herd health compared with control farms. Complete compliance to the programme was fulfilled by 21 out of 40 farmers-advisors. Results from a questionnaire showed that the programme functioned as intended (e.g. by allowing early identification of herd health problems), stimulated change in farmers' herd health management practices and farmer-advisor dialogue. Even though the majority of the users perceived that the programme contributed to herd health improvements, no significant differences in health outcomes were found when compared with control farms 12 months after the start of the intervention. The programme allowed creating an environment promoting the exchange of information between farmers and advisors, necessary to define pertinent advice in a farm-specific situation. Future research should aim at improving methods for the evaluation of the effect of advisory programmes, by identifying early indicators for effective advice and developing methods to evaluate the quality

  10. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  11. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of productivity traits on the first three lactations in Gyr cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Maria do Socorro Maués

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Records of Gyr cows selected for milk production were obtained from the National Gyr Dairy Cattle Breeding Program (Embrapa/CNPGL and analyzed, in order to estimate genetic parameters for the first three lactations and to verify the effects of some environmental factors on milk production from 1979 to 1994. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML with an animal model and a group of fixed effects that included classes of herd, year, season and age at calving. Milk production means and standard deviations were 2,183 kg, 707 kg; 2,682 kg, 762 kg and 2,638 kg, 851 kg, for first, second, and third lactations, respectively. Heritability estimates were 0.20, 0.12, and 0.19 for first, second, and third lactations, respectively, and repeatability was 0.44. Genetic correlation estimates were: 0.68 between first and second lactations, 0.84 between first and third lactations and 1.0 between second and third lactations. Results confirm other research for specialized dairy breeds and firmly suggest that even in breeds of Indian origin the best time to make selection decisions is during the first lactation.

  12. Comparison of time to PRRSv-stability and production losses between two exposure programs to control PRRSv in sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, D C L; Cano, J P; Torremorell, M; Morrison, R B

    2014-09-01

    To control and eliminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) from breeding herds, some veterinarians adopt a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introduction for several months and exposing the pigs to a replicating PRRSv. This was a prospective quasi-experiment that followed 61 breeding herds acutely infected with PRRSv that adopted one of two exposure programs: modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine or live-resident virus inoculation (LVI). Treatment groups (load-close-expose with MLV or LVI) were compared for: (a) time-to-PRRSv stability (TTS), defined as time in weeks it took to produce PRRSv negative pigs at weaning; (b) the time-to-baseline production (TTBP), defined using statistical process control methods to represent time to recover to the number of pigs weaned per week that herds had prior to PRRSv-detection; and (c) the total production loss in terms of number of pigs weaned per week. TTS and TTBP were compared between treatments using survival analysis. Day 1 of the program was considered to be the day that treatment was administered. Sampling at herds consisted of bleeding 30 due-to-wean piglets on a monthly basis. Serum was tested for PRRSv RNA by RT-PCR. Herds in which PRRSv was not detected over a 90-day period were classified as reaching stability. Multivariate analysis using proportional hazards regression was performed adjusting the effect of treatment on TTBP and TTS to 'severity of PRRSv infection', 'number of whole-herd exposures', 'days from PRRSv-detection to intervention', 'prior PRRSv-infection status' and 'veterinary clinic associated with the herd'. Total loss was compared between groups using multivariate regression analysis adjusted by selected covariates. The median TTS among participating herds was 26.6 weeks (25th to 75th percentile, 21.6-33.0 weeks). The overall TTBP was 16.5 weeks (range 0-29 weeks). The magnitude of production losses following whole-herd exposure

  13. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach...... of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists...... of several steps to evaluate lifetime milk production and individual cow somatic cell counts and to finally predict the average production for each day that the cow is alive. Herd recording data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to train and test a model predicting milk production (including factors...

  14. Associations of herd-level housing, management, and lameness prevalence with productivity and cow behavior in herds with automated milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M T M; Pajor, E A; LeBlanc, S J; DeVries, T J

    2016-11-01

    Lameness is problematic for herds with automated milking systems (AMS) due to negative effects on milking frequency and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate how management, barn design, and the prevalence of lameness relate to productivity and behavior at the herd level in AMS. Details about barn design, stocking density, and management were collected from 41 AMS farms in Canada (Ontario: n=26; Alberta: n=15). We collected milking data for all cows on each farm, plus lying behavior data for 30 cows/farm during a 6-d period. Farms averaged 105±56 lactating cows and 2.2±1.3 AMS units. Forty cows/farm were gait scored (or 30% of cows for herds with >130 cows) using a numerical rating system (NRS; 1=sound to 5=extremely lame). Cows were defined as clinically lame with NRS ≥3 (mean=26.2±13.0%/herd) and severely lame with NRS ≥4 (mean=2.2±3.1%/herd). The prevalence of both clinical and severe lameness were negatively associated with environmental temperature. Clinical lameness tended to be less prevalent with more frequent scraping of manure alleys. The prevalence of severe lameness was positively associated with stocking density and curb height of the lying stalls. Milking frequency/cow per day was negatively related to the ratio of cows to AMS units. Doubling the prevalence of severe lameness (i.e., from 2.5 to 5%) was associated with reductions in milk production of 0.7kg/cow per day and 39kg/AMS per day. Milk/AMS was positively associated with more cows/AMS (+32kg/cow). Fewer cows were fetched to the AMS with more frequent alley scraping. Lying behavior was associated with the frequency of feed push-ups, stall base, and environmental temperature. These results highlight the need for AMS producers to identify and reduce clinical lameness because 26% of cows/herd were clinically lame. Further, the results indicate that more frequently scraped alleys and optimal stocking densities are associated with improved cow mobility, productivity, and

  15. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists of several steps to evaluate lifetime milk production and individual cow somatic cell counts and to finally predict the average production for each day that the cow is alive. Herd recording data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to train and test a model predicting milk production (including factors associated with milk yield, somatic cell count, and the survival of individual cows). All estimated parameters were either herd- or cow-specific. The model prediction deviated, on average, less than 0.5 kg from the future average milk production of dairy cows in multiple herds after adjusting for the effect of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach presented in this paper is that it requires no specific knowledge of disease status or any other information beyond herd recorded milk yields, somatic cell counts, and reproductive status.

  16. Herd monitoring to optimise fertility in the dairy cow: making the most of herd records, metabolic profiling and ultrasonography (research into practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R F; Oultram, J; Dobson, H

    2014-05-01

    Fertility performance is intrinsically linked to the quality of the animal environment, overall management and nutrition. This review describes the use of dairy herd records, metabolic profiles and ultrasonographic findings at veterinary fertility examinations to monitor and manage dairy herd fertility. After calving, a cow has to overcome a series of physiological hurdles before establishing a pregnancy. The selection of timely key performance indicators (KPIs) that monitor specific events in the postpartum and service periods is vital to correctly identify problems and their potential causes that hopefully can be rectified. Cumulative sum charts are the timeliest monitors of efficiency of detection of oestrus, insemination outcome and relationship between postpartum events and fertility, with the point of inflection indicating when a change took place. Other KPIs use data from specific cohorts, adding an inherent delay to when change is indicated. Metabolic profiles and milk constituent data allow monitoring of nutritional adequacy and developments to offer new possibilities of on-farm systems for regular measurements of milk constituents (including progesterone) and energy status. Examination of the reproductive tract can be used to indicate individual and herd fertility status but the currently available detail is under used. Recent advances in ultrasonography can improve the diagnosis of reproductive tract pathophysiology still further but the clinical use of these methods in veterinary practice needs further evaluation. Development of new KPIs to exploit research findings are needed to ensure this knowledge is used to improve on-farm performance.

  17. The Financial Impact of Decreased Milk Production Due to Subclinical Mastitis in German Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin PFÜTZNER

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mastitis has been identified as the most costly disease in dairy industry. The aim of this study was performed to provide adequate information on the financial loss due to subclinical mastitis in German dairy farms. The data were collected from 12 dairy farms (a total of 7,648 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in the Elbe-Elster region, Germany. Their milk composition data were gathered individually once in a month from June 2011 to June 2012. Herde® (Agrosoft GmbH, Germany, a herd management program was used to analyse the data from the economic point of view. The 50,000 somatic cell counts (SCC/mL of a cut-off value was used to calculate the decrease in milk production emerged in subclinical mastitis. Average figures on an individual basis showed a daily decrease in milk production of 2.98 kg, 5.41 kg and 6.41 kg for cows with 50,001-100,000 SCC/mL, 100,001-250,000 SCC/mL and over 250,000 SCC/mL, respectively. All the reductions in milk yield were statistically significant by using mixed effect ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison method. Based on the average milk price in the survey period, a single cow according to the aforementioned SCC classification showed a loss of Euro (€ 294.85, € 536.80 and € 634.40 per lactation in gross milk receipts, respectively. On an average herd level, which was 637 dairy cows in this study, a total decrease of gross milk receipts was calculated to be almost € 241,000 per year. This findings show that the milk production begins to reduce over 50,000 SCC/mL, therefore the generally accepted cut-off value of 100,000 SCC/mL for subclinical mastitis should be re-evaluated.

  18. Postweaning multisystematic wasting syndrome in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical signs and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm Nielsen, Elisabeth; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2008-01-01

    A case-control study of 74 herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and 74 matched control herds was carried out. In the case herds the mortality rates of weaner and finisher pigs were 11·2 and 5·2 per cent respectively, compared with 3·1 and 3·2 per cent in the control herds....... bronchial and inguinal lymph nodes, had a 0·7 probability of a positive PMWS diagnosis by laboratory examinations. However, for illthriven pigs, this probability of having PMWS was equal in the case herds and the control herds.......A case-control study of 74 herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and 74 matched control herds was carried out. In the case herds the mortality rates of weaner and finisher pigs were 11·2 and 5·2 per cent respectively, compared with 3·1 and 3·2 per cent in the control herds....... In most case herds, PMWS developed within the first four weeks after weaning. Wasting, diarrhoea and respiratory signs were observed in 10 per cent of the weaner pigs (7 to 30 kg) in the case herds compared with 7 per cent in the control herds. The average daily gains of the weaner pigs and finisher pigs...

  19. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical symptoms, and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E. Okholm; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2008-01-01

    A case-control study of 74 herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and 74 matched control herds was carried out. In the case herds the mortality rates of weaner and finisher pigs were 11·2 and 5·2 per cent respectively, compared with 3·1 and 3·2 per cent in the control herds....... bronchial and inguinal lymph nodes, had a 0·7 probability of a positive PMWS diagnosis by laboratory examinations. However, for illthriven pigs, this probability of having PMWS was equal in the case herds and the control herds.......A case-control study of 74 herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and 74 matched control herds was carried out. In the case herds the mortality rates of weaner and finisher pigs were 11·2 and 5·2 per cent respectively, compared with 3·1 and 3·2 per cent in the control herds....... In most case herds, PMWS developed within the first four weeks after weaning. Wasting, diarrhoea and respiratory signs were observed in 10 per cent of the weaner pigs (7 to 30 kg) in the case herds compared with 7 per cent in the control herds. The average daily gains of the weaner pigs and finisher pigs...

  20. Effects of different dry period lengths on production and economy in the dairy herd estimated by stochastic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1993-01-01

    A range of preplanned dry period lengths in a dairy herd was evaluated, at different culling strategies and feeding regimes, by means of a dynamic stochastic model simulating the production at herd level. Dry period lengths were studied in the range of 4 to 10 weeks. The culling strategies exhibi...... were found. The conclusions were fairly insensitive to price changes, and to variation in the assumed effect on lactational performance of dry period lengths from 6 to 8 weeks.......A range of preplanned dry period lengths in a dairy herd was evaluated, at different culling strategies and feeding regimes, by means of a dynamic stochastic model simulating the production at herd level. Dry period lengths were studied in the range of 4 to 10 weeks. The culling strategies...... exhibited two different rates of voluntary culling for reproductive failure and milk production, and the feeding regimes consisted of grass silage ad lib. and either 8 or 12 kg of concentrates/day in the first 24 weeks of lactation. The economic result was studied under a herd size and a milk quota...

  1. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  2. Trends in slaughter pig production and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pig herds, 2002-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Houe, H.

    2011-01-01

    levels. In this study we evaluated Danish national antimicrobial usage data for five antimicrobial classes used in slaughter pigs in different herd sizes and data on the number of slaughter pigs produced per herd, between 2002 and 2008, in Denmark. The objective was to ascertain...... if there is an association between herd size and amount of antimicrobials consumed. During this period, the overall number of herds with slaughter pigs decreased by 43%, with larger herds becoming more prevalent. The tetracycline treatment incidence (TI) rate increased from 0·28 to 0·70 animal-defined daily dose (ADD)/100...... slaughter pig-days at risk while macrolide TI presented a more moderate increase, from 0·40 to 0·44 ADD/100 slaughter pig-days at risk during the study period. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant association between herd size and TI rates for tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides...

  3. Herd-level association of serum metabolites in the transition period with disease, milk production, and early lactation reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapinal, N; Leblanc, S J; Carson, M E; Leslie, K E; Godden, S; Capel, M; Santos, J E P; Overton, M W; Duffield, T F

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to identify herd-level indicators expressed as a proportion of sampled animals with increased nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) or β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), or decreased calcium in wk -1 and wk +1 relative to calving that were associated with herd-level incidence of retained placenta, metritis and displaced abomasum, milk production, and probability of pregnancy at the first artificial insemination (AI). Fifty-five Holstein freestall dairy herds in the United States and Canada were visited weekly. Blood was collected from 2,365 cows around parturition, and serum concentrations of NEFA, BHBA, and calcium were determined. Different cow-level metabolite thresholds associated with detrimental health or productivity in previous studies were used to classify animals into high- and low-risk metabolite concentration groups. For wk -1 and wk +1 relative to calving, a herd-level threshold was determined as the proportion of sampled animals in the high-risk metabolite concentration groups with the strongest association with increased incidence of disease, milk loss, or decreased pregnancy at the first AI. The odds of displaced abomasum after calving were higher in herds that had ≥ 25% of the animals with BHBA ≥ 1,400 μmol/L in wk +1 [odds ratio (OR)=2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.0-4.2)] or ≥ 35% of the animals with calcium ≤ 2.1 mmol/L in wk +1 (OR=2.4; CI=1.3-4.3). Herd-level thresholds of ≥15% of the cows with BHBA ≥ 800 μmol/L in wk -1 and ≥ 15% of the cows with calcium ≤2.1mmol/L in wk +1 were associated with milk loss (±SE) of 4.4±1.7 and 3.8 ± 1.4 kg/d per cow, respectively. When only multiparous cows were considered, herds with ≥30% of the multiparous cows with NEFA ≥0.5 mEq/L in wk -1 were associated with a 3.0 ± 1.5 kg/d per cow milk loss. The odds of pregnancy at first AI were lower in herds that had ≥ 5% of the cows with calcium ≤ 2.1 mmol/L in wk -1 (OR=0.7; CI=0.5-1.0), or ≥ 30% of the cows with NEFA

  4. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising...... medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others...... be regarded as a feasible approach to minimising medicine use without the impairment of production and herd health under several organic dairy farming conditions in Europe....

  5. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, K.; Richardson, E.; Mee, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n=2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium

  6. A survey of biological productivity of Prince Edward Island swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Til, L D; Dohoo, I R; Spangler, E; Ogilvie, T H

    1991-01-01

    Sow and feeder pig productivity were measured on a random sample of 32 Prince Edward Island swine farms (each producing over 1000 market hogs per year). Productivity parameters could be arranged in a hierarchy, with the highest level on farrow-finish operations represented by pigs weaned per sow per year. The 17 farrow-finish farms in this study averaged 19.6 (+/- 2.2 SD) pigs weaned per sow per year. Large variation between farms was observed with a range from 16.2 to 24.9 pigs weaned per sow per year. The major opportunities for improving productivity, as compared to reviewed targets, lie in reducing the average weaning age, reducing preweaning mortality, and reducing non-productive sow days per parity. The 14 feeder operations were characterized by 0.58 +/- 0.07 kg average daily gain. Average daily gain was negatively correlated with mortality (r = -0.662, p = 0.010), suggesting that herds that achieved a high rate of gain also had lower mortality. PMID:1884298

  7. Ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Whitten

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described general patterns of population regulation that fit most caribou (Rangifer tarandus herds. Nevertheless, specific factors operating on particular populations vary greatly, and efforts to categorize herds according to the general patterns often lead to confusion. It is difficult for biologists to attempt to describe population dynamics in terms of density relationships for wide-ranging arctic caribou such as the Porcupine Herd. In these herds density varies as a function of dispersal and erratic movement patterns and is not simply the number of caribou divided by a fixed range area. Density is also a poor surrogate for resource availability per individual caribou because climatic factors affect forage and/or access to forage independendy of caribou numbers. Thus classic signs of nutritional stress such as delayed puberty, reduced productivity, and winter starvation can occur when a population is small as well as large and do not necessarily denote food competition brought on by high density, per se. Nutritional stress and exacerbated predation due to adverse weather conditions occasionally cause the Porcupine Herd to decline, and limiting factors such as poor nutrition, predation, harvest, accidents, and disease act in combination to keep herd growth rates low during periods of good weather. Adverse weather setbacks occur frequently, and the herd remains within a fairly restricted range of densities over long time periods. There is no true density dependent regulation and no equilibrium in this system.

  8. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms. PMID:21851722

  9. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boersema JSC

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  10. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersema, Jsc; Noordhuizen, Jptm; Vieira, A; Lievaart, Jj; Baumgartner, W

    2008-09-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  11. Impact of FMD outbreak on milk production and heifers' growth on a dairy herd in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Mohebbi-Fani, Mehdi; Lyons, Nicholas A; Azizi, Nezamaddin

    2017-09-01

    Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Middle Eastern countries including Iran but its impact is poorly characterized. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of FMD outbreak on milk production and heifers' growth in an industrial dairy herd located in Fars province, southern Iran. Data about individual milk production, heifers' growth and total daily milk (sold for manufacturing), its fat and protein content and somatic cell counts were collected from the herd database. Based on the results of the linear mixed models, a significant decline in individual milk production after the outbreak was observed compared with before the outbreak. There was a total reduction of 8.0 and 4.7% in mean daily milk production per cow after the outbreak when compared with before (over a 42days outbreak period) in lactation one (PFMD outbreak on milk production and heifers' growth in study herd. The impact on daily milk production was less than the values reported previously. This difference could be attributed at least partly to differences in livestock genetics and management practices. Lower growth rate of heifers after the outbreak period could potentially extend the age at first calving. It is suggested that farmers are educated on awareness and preparation for infectious disease outbreaks and to practice good management routines that could potentially reduce the economic impact of these diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations between fasciolosis and milk production, and the impact of anthelmintic treatment in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstenberger, Kerstin; Tichy, Alexander; Bauer, Karl; Pless, Peter; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Liver fluke is a ubiquitous parasite that causes extensive production losses in cattle and is a zoonosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in 178 dairy cattle herds in Styria (federal state of Austria) and its influence on production, to detect the risk factors for infection, and to explore effective strategies in management and control. A questionnaire on farm management, prophylaxis, and therapy was developed and applied. Furthermore, production parameters (milk yield, milk protein content, butter fat content, non-return rate 90, calving to conception interval, service period) were recorded for 2014 and 2015, and a commercial ELISA for detection of Fasciola hepatica antibodies was applied in bulk tank milk in March 2014 and March 2015. Analysis of bulk tank milk samples showed a prevalence of 61.3% in 2014 and 45.5% in 2015. No associations could be found between F. hepatica exposure and farm structure or pasture management. Farms with highly positive (optical density ratio (ODR) ≥ 0.6 and lying above the upper interquartile range) antibody levels had a significantly lower annual milk yield of 438 kg per cow per year (p = 0.045), butterfat content of 0.091% (p = 0.004), and milk protein content of 0.046% (p = 0.024). However, fertility parameters were not significantly associated with liver fluke exposure. Anthelmintic treatment led to significantly lower antibody levels in the subsequent year (p = 0.042) and had a significant influence on protein content in milk (p = 0.003). This study highlighted the importance of fasciolosis in Austria and its influence on milk production and the need for veterinary advice regarding prophylactic measures to reduce economic losses.

  13. Feeding, production, and efficiency of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and mixed-breed lactating dairy cows in commercial Danish herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, T; Jensen, C; Østergaard, S; Weisbjerg, M R; Aaes, O; Nielsen, N I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare efficiency measures, milk production, and feed intake for lactating cows in commercial herds using different breeds and production and milking systems. To accomplish this, we used all feed evaluations made by the Danish extension service during the period November 2012 to April 2013 for 779 herds, of which 508 were Holstein-Friesian (HOL); 100 were Jersey (JER); and 171 herds were a mixture of these 2 breeds, other dairy breeds, and crossbreeds (OTH). The annually recorded, herd-average energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was 8,716kg (JER) and 9,606kg (HOL); and average herd size was 197 cows (HOL) and 224 cows (JER). All cows were fed a total mixed or partial mixed ration supplemented with concentrate from feeding stations, housed in loose housing systems with a slatted floor, and milked in either a parlor milking unit or an automatic milking system. Energy efficiency was calculated as net energy efficiency defined as total energy demand as a percentage of energy intake and as residual feed intake defined as energy intake (net energy for lactation; NEL) minus energy requirement. Production efficiency was expressed as kilograms of ECM per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI), kilograms of ECM per 10 MJ of net energy intake (NEL), kilograms of ECM per 100kg of BW, and kilograms of DMI per 100kg of BW. Environmental efficiency was expressed by the nitrogen efficiency calculated as N in milk and meat as a percentage of N in intake, and as enteric emission of methane expressed as kilograms of ECM per megajoule of CH4. Mean milk yield for lactating cows was 30.4kg of ECM in HOL and 3kg less in JER, with OTH herds in between. Mean NEL intake was 122 MJ in JER, increasing to 147 MJ in HOL, whereas ration energy density between breeds did not differ (6.4-6.5 MJ of NEL per kg of DMI). The NEL intake and DMI explained 56 and 47%, respectively, of variation in production (ECM) for HOL herds but only 44 and 27% for JER. Jersey had a

  14. Direct and indirect effects of johne's disease on farm and animal productivity in an irish dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson EKB

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Johne's disease (JD is caused by infection with the organism Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, leading to chronic diarrhoea and ill thrift in adult cattle. JD is considered to adversely affect farm performance and profitability. This retrospective case study was undertaken on a single commercial dairy herd in the south west of Ireland. Animal production records were interrogated to assess the effect of JD on milk yield (total kg per lactation, somatic cell count (the geometric mean over the lactation, reasons for culling, cull price and changes in herd parity structure over time. JD groups were defined using clinical signs and test results. One control animal was matched to each case animal on parity number and year. Specific lactations (clinical, pre-clinical and test-positive only from 1994 to 2004 were compared between JD case and control cows. A significantly lower milk yield (1259.3 kg/lactation was noted from cows with clinical JD in comparison to their matched control group. Clinical animals had an average cull price of €516 less than animals culled without signs of clinical disease. In contrast, little effect was noted for sub-clinical infections. These direct effects of JD infections, in combination with increased culling for infertility and increasing replacement rates, had a negative impact on farm production. Results from this study provide preliminary information regarding the effects of JD status on both herd and animal-level performance in Ireland.

  15. Ongoing Research on Herding Agents for In Situ Burning in Arctic Waters: Studies on Fate and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Gustavson, Kim; Wegeberg, Susse

    surface, and only small concentrations of herders were found in the water column (0.2-22.8 mg/L). The inherent properties of herders in relation to toxicity and bioaccumulation on the high Arctic copepods (Calanus hyperboreus), as well as the biodegradability of herders were studied under arctic......Research on the fate and effects of herding agents used to contain and thicken oil slicks for in situ burning in Arctic waters continues under the auspices of the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers Arctic Oil Spill Response Technology – Joint Industry Program (JIP). In 2014....../2015 laboratory studies were conducted on the fate and effects of herders. The purpose of the studies was to improve the knowledge base used to evaluate the environmental risk of using herders in connection with in situ burning for oil spill response in Arctic seas. Two herding agents were studied (OP 40...

  16. Farmers taking responsibility for herd health development—stable schools in research and advisory activities as a tool for dairy health and welfare planning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, Silvia; Bell, Nick J.; Brinkmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    farms. Farmers and facilitators were convinced of the approach and benefits for dairy herds. Farmers’ attitude and attention towards their herds and their ownership of the process appear to be crucial success factors for herd health and welfare situations. In some European countries, this method has......, farmers take responsibility for health and welfare planning by identifying issues, setting goals, and acting to improve the health situation based on farm-specific data, e.g. milk production. This paper reviews the results from intervention studies that used a modified ‘farmer field school’ approach...

  17. Molecular epidemiology and extended-spectrum β-lactamases production of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from three dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego B. Nóbrega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to isolate Klebsiella pneumoniae from different sources in three dairy cattle herds, to use the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to measure genotypic similarities between isolates within a dairy herd, to verify the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs by the double-disk synergy test (DDST, and to use the PCR to detect the main ESBLs subgroups genes. Three dairy farms were selected based on previous mastitis outbreaks caused by K. pneumoniae. Milk samples were collected from lactating cows and from the bulk tank. Swabs were performed in different locations, including milking parlors, waiting room, soil, animal's hind limbs and rectum. K. pneumoniae was isolated from 27 cases of intramammary infections (IMI and from 41 swabs. For farm A isolates from IMI and bulk tank were considered of the same PGFE subtype. One isolate from a bulk tank, three from IMI cases and four from environmental samples were positive in the DDST test. All eight DDST positive isolates harbored the bla shv gene, one harbored the bla tem gene, and three harbored the bla ctx-m gene, including the bulk tank isolate. Our study confirms that ESBL producing bacteria is present in different locations in dairy farms, and may be responsible for IMI. The detection of ESBLs on dairy herds could be a major concern for both public and animal health.

  18. Estrategic management during the transicion period to optimise productivity and reproductive performance in the dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Risco, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In dairy herds, the interval between calving and pregnancy depend on many factors including preparation of the cow for calving, dietary management before and after calving. Factors such as hypocalcemia and body condition are determinant in the presentation of postpartum pathologies and ovarian activity resumption. Additionally, management of the dairy cattle should include fixed time artificial insemination protocols to increase the number of animals bred close to the voluntary waiting ...

  19. Association of the occurrence of some diseases with reproductive performance and milk production of dairy herds in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Balduíno Scheid Filho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed associations between the occurrence of mastitis, metritis and retained placenta with the reproductive performance and milk production of four Holstein dairy herds of southern Brazil. Calving-to-conception intervals (CCI and daily milk production were compared across herds, number of artificial inseminations and clinical occurrences and occurrence of mastitis, metritis and retained placenta. The CCI of cows with three or more clinical occurrences was longer than for those with no occurrences, but shorter for cows with retained placenta than for those without it. Cows with clinical mastitis up to 60 days post-partum had shorter CCI than those with mastitis after 60 days. Cows with retained placenta also had higher frequency of metritis. The daily milk production was higher for cows with three or more clinical occurrences than for those with one or none and for those without retained placenta than for those with retained placenta. A high number of clinical occurrences was related to prolonged CCI and increased daily milk production.

  20. Estimate of the direct production losses in Canadian dairy herds with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John A.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Keefe, Greg P.; Weersink, Alfons

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the annual losses from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) for an average, MAP-seropositive, Canadian dairy herd. A partial-budget simulation model was developed with 4 components of direct production losses (decreased milk production, premature voluntary culling, mortality, and reproductive losses). Input values were obtained primarily from a national seroprevalence survey of 373 Canadian dairy farms in 8 of 10 provinces. The model took into account the variability and uncertainty of the required input values; consequently, it produced probability distributions of the estimated losses. For an average Canadian dairy herd with 12.7% of 61 cows seropositive for MAP, the mean loss was $2992 (95% C.I., $143 to $9741) annually, or $49 per cow per year. Additional culling, decreased milk production, mortality, and reproductive losses accounted for 46%, 9%, 16%, and 29% of the losses, respectively. Canadian dairy producers should use best management practices to reduce these substantial annual losses. PMID:18624066

  1. Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Ingrid

    2006-07-01

    health in Swedish organic herds appears to be better than in conventional herds of comparable size and production. The major difference in management between the two types of farms is the proportion of concentrates fed. The mechanisms explaining the association between intensity of feeding and udder health in dairy cows require further research.

  2. Research in gilt development to improve lifetime productivity of sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper development and selection of gilts is essential to the productivity and longevity of the sow herd. A gilt must remain in the sow herd for 2 to 3 parities before she produces enough piglets to pay for the cost of her development. Average age at culling in U.S. swine herds is approximately 3....

  3. Nitrogen efficiency of eastern Canadian dairy herds: Effect on production performance and farm profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadul-Pacheco, L; Pellerin, D; Chouinard, P Y; Wattiaux, M A; Duplessis, M; Charbonneau, É

    2017-08-01

    Nitrogen efficiency (milk N/dietary N; NE) can be used as a tool for the nutritional, economic, and environmental management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of herds with varying NE and assess the effect on farm profitability. One hundred dairy herds located in Québec, Canada, comprising on average 42 ± 18 cows in lactation were visited from October 2014 to June 2015. Feed intake was measured over 24 h. Samples of each feedstuff were taken and sent to a commercial laboratory for analysis of chemical composition. Feeding management and feed prices were recorded. Milk yield was recorded and milk samples were collected over 2 consecutive milkings. Fat, protein, and milk urea N were analyzed. Balances of metabolizable protein (MP; MP supply - MP requirements) and rumen degradable protein (RDP; RDP supply - RDP requirement) were calculated. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted and allowed grouping the farms by their NE. Four clusters were identified with an average NE of 22.1 (NE22), 26.9 (NE27), 30.0 (NE30), and 35.8% (NE36). Herds in clusters NE30 and NE36 were fed diets with greater concentrations of starch, net energy for lactation, and nonfiber carbohydrates than those in the other 2 clusters. Moreover, the average proportion of corn silage was lower for herds in cluster NE22 compared with NE30 and NE36 (8.23 vs. 31.8 and 31.3% of total forages, respectively). In addition, crude protein of the diets declined from an average of 16.0 to 14.9% with increasing NE among clusters. Average dry matter intake declined from 26.1 to 22.5 kg/d as NE of clusters increased. Herds in cluster NE22 had lower yields of milk (28.7 vs. 31.8 kg/d), fat (1.15 vs. 1.29 kg/d), and protein (0.94 vs. 1.05 kg/d) than the other clusters. Also, milk urea N was greater for farms in cluster NE22 (13.2 mg/dL) than for farms in the other clusters (11.4 mg/dL). Furthermore, MP and RDP balances decreased from 263.2 to -153.7 g/d and from 594.7 to

  4. Reproductive efficiency and herd demography of Nguni cattle in village-owned and group-owned enterprises under low-input communal production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Obert; Muchenje, Voster; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the herd demography and reproductive efficiency of the Nguni cattle in village-owned and group-owned enterprises under low-input communal production systems. Data on husbandry practices, reason of cattle entry/exist, herd structure, bulling rates, breeding females, age at first calving and calving interval were obtained from 22 village-owned and 19 group-owned enterprises in a cross-sectional survey of an ecologically controlled low-input cattle production system. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests of association were computed on enterprise ownership patterns, husbandry practices and herd demography. An AN(C)OVA was used to determine significant factors affecting herd structure, mortality, age at first calving and calving interval in the enterprises. Village-owned enterprises had higher (p 0.05). Significant differences were observed on the calving interval (p bulling rate was higher in village-owned enterprises, while the proportion of breeding females was higher in group-owned enterprises. Farmers with a college education had Nguni animals with the shortest calving interval. It was concluded that group-owned enterprises had significantly better calving intervals, mortality rates and overall herd structure than village-owned enterprises.

  5. Effects of dry period length on production, cash flows and greenhouse gas emissions of the dairy herd: A dynamic stochastic simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Akke; van Middelaar, Corina E; Mostert, Pim F; van Knegsel, Ariëtte T M; Kemp, Bas; de Boer, Imke J M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows improves metabolic health in early lactation and reduces management transitions for dairy cows. The success of implementation of these strategies depends on their impact on milk yield and farm profitability. Insight in these impacts is valuable for informed decision-making by farmers. The aim of this study was to investigate how shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows affects production and cash flows at the herd level, and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of milk, using a dynamic stochastic simulation model. The effects of dry period length on milk yield and calving interval assumed in this model were derived from actual performance of commercial dairy cows over multiple lactations. The model simulated lactations, and calving and culling events of individual cows for herds of 100 cows. Herds were simulated for 5 years with a dry period of 56 (conventional), 28 or 0 days (n = 50 herds each). Partial cash flows were computed from revenues from sold milk, calves, and culled cows, and costs from feed and rearing youngstock. Greenhouse gas emissions were computed using a life cycle approach. A dry period of 28 days reduced milk production of the herd by 3.0% in years 2 through 5, compared with a dry period of 56 days. A dry period of 0 days reduced milk production by 3.5% in years 3 through 5, after a dip in milk production of 6.9% in year 2. On average, dry periods of 28 and 0 days reduced partial cash flows by €1,249 and €1,632 per herd per year, and increased greenhouse gas emissions by 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Considering the potential for enhancing cow welfare, these negative impacts of shortening or omitting the dry period seem justifiable, and they might even be offset by improved health.

  6. Effects of dry period length on production, cash flows and greenhouse gas emissions of the dairy herd: A dynamic stochastic simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akke Kok

    Full Text Available Shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows improves metabolic health in early lactation and reduces management transitions for dairy cows. The success of implementation of these strategies depends on their impact on milk yield and farm profitability. Insight in these impacts is valuable for informed decision-making by farmers. The aim of this study was to investigate how shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows affects production and cash flows at the herd level, and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of milk, using a dynamic stochastic simulation model. The effects of dry period length on milk yield and calving interval assumed in this model were derived from actual performance of commercial dairy cows over multiple lactations. The model simulated lactations, and calving and culling events of individual cows for herds of 100 cows. Herds were simulated for 5 years with a dry period of 56 (conventional, 28 or 0 days (n = 50 herds each. Partial cash flows were computed from revenues from sold milk, calves, and culled cows, and costs from feed and rearing youngstock. Greenhouse gas emissions were computed using a life cycle approach. A dry period of 28 days reduced milk production of the herd by 3.0% in years 2 through 5, compared with a dry period of 56 days. A dry period of 0 days reduced milk production by 3.5% in years 3 through 5, after a dip in milk production of 6.9% in year 2. On average, dry periods of 28 and 0 days reduced partial cash flows by €1,249 and €1,632 per herd per year, and increased greenhouse gas emissions by 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Considering the potential for enhancing cow welfare, these negative impacts of shortening or omitting the dry period seem justifiable, and they might even be offset by improved health.

  7. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  8. Genomic prediction for dry matter intake of dairy cattle from an international data set consisting of research herds in Europe, North America and Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Pryce, J.E.; Calus, M.P.L.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Lovendahl, P.; Krattenmacher, N.; Miglior, F.; Weigel, K.; Spurlock, D.; MacDonald, K.A.; Hulsegge, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of increasing the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, data from 10 research herds in Europe, North America, and Australasia were combined. The DMI records were available on 10,701 parity 1 to 5 records from 6,953

  9. Interactions between climatic and production factors on returns of female pigs to service during summer in Japanese commercial breeding herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Ryosuke; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2013-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the associations between climatic factors and production factors for returns to service of female pigs during summer and to quantify the associations between these factors and occurrences of returns to service. The factors that were assessed were as follows: maximum temperature (HT), relative humidity, age of gilts at first mating, parity, weaning-to-first-mating interval (WMI), and lactation length. The study analyzed records of 18,307 gilts in 99 herds and 78,135 parity records of 56,322 sows in 103 herds; all the females were first-serviced between June and September, 2007 to 2009. Average daily HT and relative humidity for 15 days post-service of a female were obtained from 21 local weather stations and coordinated with the performance data of the respective local herds. The returns to service were categorized into three groups: regular returns (RRs: 18-24 days), irregular returns (IRs: 25-38 days), and late returns to service (LRs: 39 days or later). Two-level mixed-effects models were applied to the data by using a herd at level 2 and an individual record at level 1. In mated gilts, the occurrences (%) of RRs, IRs, and LRs were 4.8%, 1.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. In mated sows, the respective occurrences were 3.3%, 1.8%, and 4.2%. Mean values (ranges) of HT and relative humidity were 28.4 °C (13.6 °C-39.8 °C) and 73.4% (35.0%-98.0%), respectively. In gilts, as HT increased from 25 °C to 30 °C, the occurrence of RR increased from 3.7% to 4.4% (P < 0.05). However, there was no association between the occurrence of RR and either relative humidity (P = 0.17) or age at first mating (P = 0.23). In addition, there were no associations between the occurrences of either gilt IR or LR and HT (P ≥ 0.05), relative humidity (P ≥ 0.46), or age at first mating (P ≥ 0.32). In sows, greater occurrences of RRs, IRs, and LRs were associated with higher HT, lower parity, and a WMI of 7 days or longer (P < 0.05), but they

  10. Development of a Simherd web application for herd health advisors - experiences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    . This aim was fulfilled at the end of 2009 by a beta version of a SimHerd web application tested by veterinary practitioners in real herd health advisory situation and approved as the core product for starting up in early 2010 a commercial spin-off company owned by NOVI Innovation and Aarhus University......SimHerd is a computer model of a dairy herd. In more than a decade the model has been applied and further developed within the research in herd management and animal health economics in dairy herds. Analyses with the SimHerd model have been included in 2 doctoral theses, 9 PhD theses, 4 MSc theses...... and a total of 28 papers in scientific journals. Minor attempts for introducing the model as a herd health advisory tool has been carried out over the years. However, the model has not yet been used broadly as a herd health advisory tool, which mainly has been explained by the complexity of the model...

  11. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleen Joachim L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  12. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Joachim L; Atkinson, Owen; Noordhuizen, Jos Ptm

    2011-07-20

    The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  13. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. Copyright © 2016

  14. The marketing of herd health and production management services on Dutch dairy farms: perceptions of dairy farmers and their veterinary surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire-based survey on veterinary herd health and production management services was conducted on 194 specialist dairy veterinarians and 466 dairy farmers. The farmers were randomly selected from greater than 6,000 farmer clients of the surveyed veterinarians. This paper reports these survey findings and the findings of an earlier survey conducted among the veterinarians. The survey included questions on the attributes of the service itself, the practitioners delivering the service, reasons for participation and the expected future of herd health and production management services. Reasons farmers participated in herd health and production management programmes included; access to routine screening of their herd; increasing profits; and receiving regular veterinary advice or solutions to remedy existing problems. Advantages of participation named included: good management support; higher profits; structural solutions to problems; and being better informed. Differences between farming styles were observed, pointing to the different needs and goals of farming styles. Farmers cited high costs and the time investment required as major disadvantages. The proportion of farmers citing these reasons was lower than expected by the veterinarians. In the future, preventive healthcare will be the main reason of farmers to participate. Farmers who are not using the service can potentially be encouraged to engage the services after gaining increased insight into the herd health and management service structure, the planning of activities, the cost-benefit of the service, veterinary surgeons being more co-operative with other farm advisors and veterinarians being more willing to pay attention to quality issues on the dairy farm. PMID:21851703

  15. Natural swine health : a guide to keeping your herd healthy with herbs and other natural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Kleijer-Ligtenberg, G.; Asseldonk, van T.

    2010-01-01

    This booklet is intended to guide pig farmers through the ever increasing supply of herbs and other natural products that can be purchased nowadays. Herbs and other natural products can support healthy animals in stressful situations or enhance treatment with conventional medication. The greatest

  16. Herding the Academic Cats: The Challenges of "Managing" Academic Research in the Contemporary UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This article explores some aspects of and challenges faced by those academics and administrators who undertake the leadership and management of research activity in contemporary UK universities. This analysis is set in the context of almost three decades of reforms to the UK's higher education systems in general and to research funding and audit…

  17. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  18. A survey of biological productivity of Prince Edward Island swine herds.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Til, L D; Dohoo, I R; Spangler, E; Ogilvie, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    Sow and feeder pig productivity were measured on a random sample of 32 Prince Edward Island swine farms (each producing over 1000 market hogs per year). Productivity parameters could be arranged in a hierarchy, with the highest level on farrow-finish operations represented by pigs weaned per sow per year. The 17 farrow-finish farms in this study averaged 19.6 (+/- 2.2 SD) pigs weaned per sow per year. Large variation between farms was observed with a range from 16.2 to 24.9 pigs weaned per so...

  19. Landscape, herd management and within-herd seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in beef cattle herds from Champagne-Ardenne, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilot-Fromont, E; Aubert, D; Belkilani, S; Hermitte, P; Gibout, O; Geers, R; Villena, I

    2009-04-06

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common parasitic zoonosis worldwide. Its prevalence and impact on human health are highly variable geographically. Humans may be infected by ingesting oocysts from the environment, or bradyzoits contained in meat products from various domestic species, thus data on the dynamics of toxoplasmosis in domestic herds is needed. However, few information is available on the factors that determine the level of infection of cattle herds. In this study, we aimed to estimate within-herd seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in bovine herds and analyze its variability in relation with environmental characteristics and herd management. We tested the presence of anti Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 1329 cattle from 24 beef herds in the Champagne-Ardenne region, using the Modified Agglutination Test. Information on herds was collected using a questionnaire. After describing the relationships between explanatory variables, we built a multivariate model using logistic Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) and estimated parameters with a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) procedure. The crude seroprevalence at threshold 1:24 equalled 7.8%, which is low, however positive individuals were found in 21 out of 24 herds. The final multivariate model showed that within-herd seroprevalence was highest in herds that were both small and isolated. The presence of cats modified the age-prevalence relationship: maximal seroprevalence was observed in oldest cows in farms without cats, and in youngest individuals in farms with cats. Finally, using a natural water point on pastures was associated to a high within-herd seroprevalence (Odds-Ratio: 1.93). Cows are often exposed to toxoplasmosis, however landscape characteristics (water point, isolation) and herd management (herd size, cats) may affect seroprevalence. Our results may help to find ways of reducing T. gondii prevalence in cattle.

  20. Evaluation of milk production performance of dairy buffaloes raised in various herds of the Philippine Carabao Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Cruz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk production performance of dairy buffaloes from 9 herds was evaluated. There were a total of 1,858 305D milk production records containing 13,219 milk test records from 1997 to 2006 available for evaluation. Records were analyzed with general linear model to determine the effect of season, parity and age at calving on standard 305D milk yield. Parity, season of calving and age at calving affected milk yield significantly. Average 305D milk production increased significantly from 864 kg in 1997 to 1244 kg in 2006. Genetic evaluation of milk production traits was also done using the same data set. The model for analysis is a multi-trait full animal model. Only the first three lactations are included in the analysis. The first lactation is divided into three stages namely, 100D, 200D, 300D each being considered as three separate traits. The resulting values from the three traits are combined into one to get the first lactation estimated breeding values (EBV. The genetic correlations between traits were all positive ranging from 0.78 to 0.94 between 100D and 303D of the lactation and between the 2nd and third lactation respectively. Estimates of heritabilities used in the analysis were 0.36, 0.39, 0.30, 0.32, and 0.33, for 100D, 200D, 300D, 2nd lactation and 3rd lactation respectively. The average EBVs of cows were plotted against birth year. The trend was positive with 4 kg and 8.4 kg increase per birth year for the 1st and both the 2nd and 3rd lactation respectively. This positive trend is consistent and may be responsible for the increase in milk production performance of cows. Apparently, selection of replacement animals based on milk production performance of dams and use of imported semen from proven bulls was effective before EBV information on sires and dams are available in the Philippines. The use of EBVs in selection would increase the rate of genetic improvement in dairy buffalo population in the Philippines.

  1. Carbon footprint and land requirement for dairy herd rations: impacts of feed production practices and regional climate variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, M; Cederberg, C; Swensson, C

    2014-08-01

    Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual

  2. Relationships between functional herd life and conformation traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Functional herd life in dairy cattle is of economic importance because longer herd life is associated ... placement and udder support in US Jersey cows. ... in the national evaluation for milk production traits for the Jersey breed were used.

  3. Relative contribution of decreased productivity and survival to recent changes in the demographic trend of the Rivière George Caribou Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crête

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rivière George caribou herd (RGCH was numerically low during the middle part of the century but apparently erupted in the sixties and the seventies. Puberty was early and pregnancy rate was high among RGCH females from 1973 until the mid-eighties when fecundity decreased significantly, in particular among sub-adults; productivity remained low in 1992. Autumn calf:female ratios reflected this trend in pregnancy, exceeding 50 calves: 100 cows between 1973 and 1983, but dropping thereafter progressively to a low of 24 in 1992. In 1993, this ratio rebounded back to 42. Annual adult survival rate of radio-collared females was high (0.95 at the beginning of the monitoring in 1984, but exhibited a variable but declining trend until 1992. Simulations were conducted to estimate the demographic trend of the RGCH between 1984 and 1992, using annual survival rates of radio-collared animals and annual autumn calffemale ratios to estimate calf production. Age structure played a minor role in estimating the finite rate of increase (Lamda. According to the simulations, the RGCH increased in size until 1987, and showed a slight decrease thereafter. The herd should have decreased by 12-15% between 1988 and 1993, according to the simulations. Productivity first caused a decline in Lamda, but in recent years decreased survival contributed slightly more than productivity to the reduction in Lamda. Estimation of the herd size by means of aerial censuses in 1976, 1984, 1988 and 1993 suggested a similar pattern in demographic trend, differences being statistically meaningless. We speculated on the future of the RGCH, that could have erupted after many decades of unfavourable weather. The herd will exhibit a rapid descent to low numbers if wolves show a numerical response to current caribou abundance, or if lichen availability on the winter range decreases due to competition with the adjacent and increasing Rivière aux Feuilles herd; otherwise it will exhibit

  4. Research Productivity and Academics' Conceptions of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Angela; Boud, David; Namgung, Sang Un; Lucas, Lisa; Crawford, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks the question: do people with different levels of research productivity and identification as a researcher think of research differently? It discusses a study that differentiated levels of research productivity among English and Australian academics working in research-intensive environments in three broad discipline areas: science,…

  5. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivemeyer, S.; Smolders, E.A.A.; Brinkmann, J.; Gratzer, E.; Hansen, B.; Henriksen, B.I.F.; Huber, J.; Leeb, C.; March, S.; Mejdell, C.; Nicholas, P.; Roderick, S.; Stöger, E.; Vaarst, M.; Whistance, L.K.; Winckler, C.; Walkenhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising

  6. Use of profit equations to determine relative economic value of dairy cattle herd life and production from field data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Profit equations or functions that reflect the realized profitability of cows have been used in the literature to determine the relative importance of different variables such as milk yield and herd life. In all profit equations, the opportunity cost of postponed replacement, which reflects the

  7. Transmission of different variants of PCV2 and viral dynamics in a research facility with pigs mingled from PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Kitt; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) has been identified in most swine-producing countries worldwide. The disease has resulted in significant health challenges and economic damage to the swine industry. The aim of this study was to determine horizontal transmission of porcine...... the aisle and pens in other compartments). By DNA sequence analysis, eight variants of genotype PCV-2b were identified in the research facility. From the spread of these PCV2-variants it was concluded that PCV2 primarily infects through close contact and nose-to-nose contact. PCV2 genome sequences were...

  8. E-herding : patterns of online mass-behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, D.J.; Hoeve, M.; Ortt, J.R.; Pals, N.

    2012-01-01

    Herding is convergent social behavior driven by inter-personal interaction, without centralized coordination. Herding in the online setting, which we call e-herding, is important for marketing scholars and practitioners because of its potential impact on product adoption and brand image and because

  9. INFORMATION ASYMMETRY AND HERDING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Tri Komalasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.

  10. Subacute rumen acidosis in lactating cows: an investigation in intensive Italian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgante, M; Stelletta, C; Berzaghi, P; Gianesella, M; Andrighetto, I

    2007-06-01

    Subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) represents one of the most important metabolic disorders in intensive dairy farms that affects rumen fermentations, animal welfare, productivity and farm profitability. The aim of the present study was to study the occurrence of SARA in intensive Italian dairy herds and to determine the relationship between diet composition, ruminal pH and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration. Ten commercial dairy herds were investigated; twelve cows in each herd were selected randomly among animal without clinical signs of disease, with good body condition and between 5 and 60 day-in-milk (DIM), to perform rumenocentesis and obtain rumen fluid. Ruminal pH was determined immediately after sampling and concentration of SCFA in ruminal fluid was determined on samples after storage. An other objective of this research was to study in detail the effects of rumenocentesis on animal health: this study could confirm the extreme validity of this technique as ruminal sampling. Results were subject to anova and correlation analysis using SIGMA STAT 2.03. The results indicated the presence of SARA in three herds (more than 33% cows with rumen pH rumen pH rumen pH condition in two herds. In particular, dairy herds show on average SCFA concentration of 150, 145, 123 mmol/l for low pH, critical pH and normal pH herds respectively. There were not significant differences among diet composition even if herds with SARA showed a light discordance between initially chemistry composition and residual feed. In the affected herds it was not possible to understand the exact causes of SARA. Animal management seems to be one of the most important factors in developing SARA including total mixed ration preparation.

  11. Associations between health and productivity in cow-calf beef herds and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus, antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus, or antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Kennedy, Richard I

    2008-07-01

    To measure associations between health and productivity in cow-calf beef herds and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), antibodies against BVDV, or antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus in calves. 1,782 calves from 61 beef herds. Calf serum samples were analyzed at weaning for antibodies against type 1 and type 2 BVDV and IBR virus. Skin biopsy specimens from 5,704 weaned calves were tested immunohistochemically to identify persistently infected (PI) calves. Herd production records and individual calf treatment and weaning weight records were collected. There was no association between the proportion of calves with antibodies against BVDV or IBR virus and herd prevalence of abortion, stillbirth, calf death, or nonpregnancy. Calf death risk was higher in herds in which a PI calf was detected, and PI calves were more likely to be treated and typically weighed substantially less than herdmates at weaning. Calves with high antibody titers suggesting exposure to BVDV typically weighed less than calves that had no evidence of exposure. BVDV infection, as indicated by the presence of PI calves and serologic evidence of infection in weaned calves, appeared to have the most substantial effect on productivity because of higher calf death risk and treatment risk and lower calf weaning weight.

  12. Technical note: High-performing swine herds improved their reproductive performance differently from ordinary herds for five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Y

    2007-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine changes in herd productivity and the performance of female pigs over time in commercial swine herds. Annual measurement data from 1999 to 2003 were obtained from the record files of 113 herds in Japan. Two groups were formed according to the 25th percentile of pigs weaned/mated females per year (PWMFY) in 2003; the 2 groups were high-performing herds (those constituting the top 25%) and the remaining ordinary herds. The effects of group based on PWMFY in 2003, year, and the group x year interaction on repeated measures between 1999 and 2003 were analyzed by using mixed-effects models. A regression analysis was also used to compare key measurements in productivity between the 2 groups, with years as a continuous variable. Variance components were obtained to determine herd repeatability of PWMFY for the 2 herd groups. The average female inventory increased from 290 +/- 31 to 355 +/- 42 females for these 5 yr. The PWMFY also changed from 20.9 +/- 0.21 to 21.2 +/- 0.30 pigs. An interaction between year and group was detected (P pigs each year, whereas the ordinary herds did not increase. The number of pigs weaned per sow increased by 0.07 +/- 0.02 pigs each year in high-performing herds and increased by 0.03 +/- 0.01 pigs each year in ordinary herds. In high-performing herds, for each year, the percentage of sows mated by 7 d after weaning increased by 0.92 +/- 0.25%, the percentage of reserviced females decreased by 0.63 +/- 0.26%, and culling rate increased by 1.53 +/- 0.50%. Repeatability of PWMFY for high-performing herds and ordinary herds was 28.8 and 54.0%, respectively. This study shows that productivity in high-performing herds was improved compared with that of ordinary herds.

  13. Plant Products Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango peels as carbon source · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AL Ezugwu, SOO Eze, FC Chilaka, CU Anyanwu ...

  14. Imputation of genotypes from low density (50,000 markers) to high density (700,000 markers) of cows from research herds in Europe, North America, and Australasia using 2 reference populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryce, J E; Johnston, J; Hayes, B J

    2014-01-01

    Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), and 3 from North America (Canada and the United States). Heifers from the Australian and New Zealand research herds were already genotyped at high density (approximately 700,000 SNP). The remaining genotypes were imputed from around 50,000 SNP to 700,000 using 2...... detection in genome-wide association studies and the accuracy of genomic selection may increase when the low-density genotypes are imputed to higher density. Genotype data were available from 10 research herds: 5 from Europe [Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom (UK)], 2 from...

  15. Animal Production Research Advances: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where this is not possible, authors should submit two copies of original article not yet published anywhere and accompanied with a 3.5” diskette containing the article labeled appropriately in MS Word version to: Editor–in–Chief, Animal Production Research Advances Tropical Animal Health and Production Research Lab

  16. Analyst Forecasts and Herding Behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Trueman, Brett

    1994-01-01

    The use of analyst forecasts as proxies for investors' earnings expectations is commonplace in empirical research. An implicit assumption behind their use is that they reflect analysts' private information in an unbiased manner. As demonstrated here, this assumption is not necessarily valid. There is shown to be a tendency for analysts to release forecasts closer to prior earnings expectations than is appropriate, given their information. Further, analysts exhibit herding behavior, whereby th...

  17. SIMULATION MODEL OF THE PRODUCTIVITY OF A HERD OF GOATS GRAZING UNDER DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF HANDLING IN THE SOUTHWESTERN REGION OF TAMAULIPAS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Villanueva-Castillo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the major current challenges in the livestock industry is meeting the demand for livestock products of a growing world population. Bio-economic models integrate animal biology and rural enterprise management, which allows for the study of complex animal production systems. This paper aims at simulating the productive performance of a herd grazing under different management conditions. To do so, a simple simulation model of a goat herd (MSSRC, rangeland forage growth, and the dynamics of animal population in the semi-arid region of Southwestern Tamaulipas under three rainfall scenarios (300, 500, and 700 mm. of average annual precipitation was built. The objective was to evaluate the sustainability of extensive grazing under different animal loads. Nine different scenarios were evaluated, corresponding to the different combinations of the three rainfall scenarios and three levels of initial loads (Hi and nannies maximum load (HMAX. Evaluated variables are: kids sales (C; total number of nannies (female goats, HT; sales of replacement nannies (VREE; sales of scrap goats (CDS; rangeland condition (CA; voluntary consumption (CV; mortality rate (M; abortion rate (A;  and average annual profits (UPA. Simulation was performed on a 1,000 hectares plot, and three 10-year periods were used as time framework. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed statistically significant (P < 0.05 differences between scenarios for all studied variables. Biomass primary net production under the 300, 500, and 700 mm of rainfall was found to be 1,132.2 ± 362.9, 2,244.2 ± 517.0, and 3,113.3 ± 598.7 kg DM ha-1 per year, and the average annual production of kids was 36 ± 17, 90 ± 31, and 132 ±37, respectively. The low loads scenarios showed a stable behavior, with a constant rate of kids production over the three simulation periods (0-30 years, which resulted in a higher average annual profit, and a more sustainable profile than those with heavier

  18. Influence of ivermectin and clorsulon treatment on productivity of a cow-calf herd on the southern Oregon coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, L G; Zimmerman, G L; Hoberg, E P; Bishop, J K; Pettitt, R J

    1992-02-01

    The reproductive performance of beef cows and the weight gain of their calves was evaluated after oral administration of clorsulon or clorsulon in combination with the subcutaneous administration of ivermectin. One hundred and fifty pregnant cows harboring infections of Fasciola hepatica were assigned to one of three treatment groups: Group 1 comprising 50 unmedicated controls; Group 2, 50 cows treated with clorsulon orally at 7 mg kg-1; Group 3, 50 cows treated with clorsulon orally at 7 mg kg-1 and ivermectin subcutaneously at 200 micrograms kg-1. Weights and body condition scores of the cows were measured and fecal and blood samples were taken at trial initiation and days 158 and 270. Pregnancy status was also determined at day 270. Weights and body condition scores were measured for the calves at days 158 and 270. Adjusted 205 day weaning weight of the calves was calculated and analyzed for differences between treatment groups. Four sets of tracer calves were used periodically throughout the trial to monitor the helminth challenge to the herd. Both gastro-intestinal nematodes and liver flukes were transmitted to the tracer calves during the entire trial. Even in the face of continual helminth challenge, beef cows treated with combined clorsulon/ivermectin conceived approximately 2 weeks earlier than their untreated counterparts and their calves had better body condition scores and weights than untreated calves.

  19. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  20. Contextual herd factors associated with cow culling risk in Québec dairy herds: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Denis; Delgado, Hector; Cue, Roger; Sewalem, Asheber; Wade, Kevin; Lacroix, René; Lefebvre, Daniel; Arsenault, Julie; Bouchard, Émile; Dubuc, Jocelyn

    2017-09-01

    Several health disorders, such as milk fever, displaced abomasum, and mastitis, as well as impaired reproductive performance, are known risk factors for the removal of affected cows from a dairy herd. While cow-level risk factors are well documented in the literature, herd-level associations have been less frequently investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cow- and herd-level determinants on variations in culling risk in Québec dairy herds: whether herd influences a cow's culling risk. For this, we assessed the influence of herd membership on cow culling risk according to displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained placenta. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on data from dairy herds in the Province of Québec, Canada, by extracting health information events from the dairy herd health management software used by most Québec dairy producers and their veterinarians. Data were extracted for all lactations starting between January 1st and December 31st, 2010. Using multilevel logistic regression, we analysed a total of 10,529 cows from 201 herds that met the inclusion criteria. Milk fever and displaced abomasum were demonstrated to increase the cow culling risk. A minor general herd effect was found for the culling risk (i.e. an intra-class correlation of 1.0% and median odds ratio [MOR] of 1.20). The proportion of first lactation cows was responsible for this significant, but weak herd effect on individual cow culling risk, after taking into account the cow-level factors. On the other hand, the herd's average milk production was a protective factor. The planning and management of forthcoming replacement animals has to be taken into consideration when assessing cow culling risks and herd culling rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural dairy cow health : a guide to keeping your herd healthy with herbs and other natural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Kleijer-Ligtenberg, G.; Asseldonk, van T.; Hansman, H.

    2011-01-01

    This booklet is intended to guide dairy farmers through the ever increasing supply of herbs and other natural products on offer. Herbs and other natural products can support healthy animals in stressful situations or enhance treatment with conventional medication. The greatest added value of the use

  2. Mitigating Herding in Hierarchical Crowdsourcing Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril; Chen, Yiqiang; Fauvel, Simon; Lesser, Victor R; Yang, Qiang

    2016-12-05

    Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN. By considering the workers' current reputation, workload, eagerness to work, and trust relationships, RTS-P provides a systematic approach to mitigate herding by helping workers make joint decisions on task sub-delegation, task acceptance, and effort pricing in a distributed manner. It is an individual-level decision support approach which results in the emergence of productive and robust collective patterns in HCNs. High resolution simulations demonstrate that RTS-P mitigates herding more effectively than state-of-the-art approaches.

  3. Patterns of Herding and their Occurrence in an Online Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, David J.; Hoeve, Maarten C.; Ortt, J. Roland; Pals, Nico; van der Vecht, Bob

    When groups of consumers share information or express their opinions about products and services, their attitudes or behavior sometime align without centralized coordination, a phenomenon known as herding. Building on pattern-based explanations of herding from the cognitive science literature, we

  4. The selenium status of dairy herds in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichtel, Jeffrey J; Keefe, Gregory P; Van Leeuwen, John A; Spangler, Elizabeth; McNiven, Mary A; Ogilvie, Timothy H

    2004-02-01

    Bulk tank milk selenium (Se) concentration was compared with mean serum Se concentration in 15 herds and was found to be an accurate reflection of the herd Se status. The Se status of 109 Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy herds was monitored for 1 year using bulk tank milk Se concentration. Fifty-nine percent of the herds surveyed were, at some point, found to be marginal or deficient in Se, putting them at risk of disease and suboptimal production. The periods of greatest risk of deficiency were fall and winter, at which time 5% and 4%, respectively, of herds sampled fell in the range considered truly deficient in Se. Herds in which Se supplementation was provided in the form of a commercial dairy concentrate were over 4 times more likely to be Se-adequate than herds not using this method, and adjusted average daily milk yield was 7.6% greater in herds determined to be Se-adequate when compared with Se-marginal herds. We conclude that many dairy producers in PEI are providing insufficient supplementary Se in the ration to meet the recommended Se intake for lactating cows.

  5. Estimating the number of undetected multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 infected pig herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Wingstrand, Anne; Hald, Tine

    2004-01-01

    undetected in the surveillance system and Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the actual number of pig herds infected with MRDT1 104. We estimated that 52 (90% CI [28, 178]) finisher herds were infected with MRDT104 compared to 23 (44%) detected. Among sow herds with production of weaners or growers, we...... with MRDT104 from 1 August 2001 till 31 July 2002 (90% CI [63, 228]). In comparison, 33 (32%) infected herds were detected in this period. The predicted proportion of undetected herds varied considerably with herd type. We infer that the proportion of detected MRDT104 infected herds depended...

  6. Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2016-01-01

    Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection. We then conducted an extensive review of the literature to assess the validity of the model results and identify current gaps in research. The model suggests that herd protection accounts for a substantial portion of the total protection provided by WASH interventions. However, both the literature and the model suggest that sanitation interventions in particular are the most likely to provide herd protection, since they reduce environmental contamination. Many studies fail to account for these indirect effects and thus underestimate the total impact an intervention may have. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Just as it does in immunization policy, understanding the role of herd protection from WASH interventions can help inform coverage targets and strategies that indirectly protect those that are unable to be reached by WASH campaigns. Toward this end, studies are needed to confirm the differential role that herd protection plays across the WASH interventions suggested by our transmission model. PMID:27601516

  7. Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-11-02

    Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection. We then conducted an extensive review of the literature to assess the validity of the model results and identify current gaps in research. The model suggests that herd protection accounts for a substantial portion of the total protection provided by WASH interventions. However, both the literature and the model suggest that sanitation interventions in particular are the most likely to provide herd protection, since they reduce environmental contamination. Many studies fail to account for these indirect effects and thus underestimate the total impact an intervention may have. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Just as it does in immunization policy, understanding the role of herd protection from WASH interventions can help inform coverage targets and strategies that indirectly protect those that are unable to be reached by WASH campaigns. Toward this end, studies are needed to confirm the differential role that herd protection plays across the WASH interventions suggested by our transmission model. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  9. Nutritional Products from Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Six scientists from Martin Marietta who did research for NASA on algae as food supply, oxygen source and a recycling agent for long duration space travel founded Martek Biosciences Corporation. Martek's main product is Formulaid for infants, an algae-based, vegetable-like oil containing two essential polyunsaturated fatty acids known as DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and ARA (arachidonic acid). The acids are found in human milk but not in most infant formulas, and they are believed to be associated with mental and visual development. Formulaid is on the market in two European countries and licensed to the Mead Johnson Division of Bristol-Myers Squibb, American Home Products and others.

  10. Online Anti-Brand Herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langley, David J.; Tan, Chee-Wee; Worm, Daniël

    the Netherlands, we develop an analytical model to investigate drivers of herd formation, growth, and dissolution. Finally, combining environmental turbulence literature with our empirical findings, we derive a novel typology of online anti-brand herd behaviors, and put forward six propositions to guide theory......The online environment offers a fertile breeding ground for anti-brand herds of disgruntled consumers. Firms are often caught off guard by the unpredictability of such herds and, as a consequence, are forced into a reactive, defensive stance. We conduct a social media analysis that aims to shed...... light on the formation, growth, and dissolution of online anti-brand herds. First we expand on the concept of environmental turbulence to advance core properties unique to online herd behavior. Next, based on evidence gathered from 40 online anti-brand herd episodes targeting two prominent firms from...

  11. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly PT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC, which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production.

  12. Herd composition and slaughtering strategy in reindeer husbandry – revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Holand

    2007-04-01

    goals and different dedication to the breeding work is challenging. As the female part of the herd has been in focus in this research I will evaluate the importance of the male segment for offspring performance and herd productivity based on a 10 years study in the experimental research herd in Kaamanen, Finland. The results confirm basically the findings from Riast/Hylling and Ruvhten Sitje; 10% of 1.5years old males in good shape are sufficient to secure normal pregnancy rate, a synchronous rut and early parturition and hence a decent production output. I will review the "state of the art" and the biological challenges and limitations in applying such a "modern" production strategy. Today herd composition and slaughtering strategies vary and are modifications of the modern strategy developed adjusted according to natural condition, social settings and the production objectives. However, in many areas the variable grazing pressure makes the implementation of the model difficult. New products call for new adaptations. This is seen locally where products related to eco-tourism and so called ecological services (for example keeping up the semi-natural grazing induced vegetation types and serving as prey for the predators. This will call for new compositions of the herd and new slaughtering strategies. Accordingly herd composition has to be put in a historical context.Flokkstruktur og slaktestrategi i reindrifta - et historisk perspektivAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: I denne oversiktsartikkelen vil jeg gjennomgå bakgrunnen for den drastiske omleggingen av flokkstruktur og slaktestrategi som har funnet sted i reindrifta i Fennoskandia de siste tiårene. Tradisjonelt var flokkstrukturen sterkt påvirket av behovet for trekkdyr, og slakteuttaket var i stor grad basert på voksne bukker, spesielt kastrater. Akkumulasjon av dyr var ansett som den beste forsikringen for fortsatt drift og ga status og makt. Dette førte til relativt store svingninger i tamreintallet. Et h

  13. An outbreak of winter dysentery caused by bovine coronavirus in a high-production dairy cattle herd from a tropical country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Takiuchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is a known cause of winter dysentery (WD in adult cattle. The morbidity of the disease is high, that results in a significant decrease in milk production and consequently, economic losses. In the present study, we report on a classical outbreak of WD that affected a high-production Holstein dairy herd raised in a tropical country. The lactating batch included 154 cows, and 138 (90% presented diarrhea in a short (nine days period of time. Three (2% cows died. The other batches of animals did not become ill. The evolution of the disease in the herd, including the clinical signs and epidemiological features, strongly suggested a WD case. Semi-nested PCR and RFLP confirmed that BCoV was the cause of the infection. Samples tested negative for all other enteric pathogens. This case report highlights the importance of BCoV in WD even in tropical countries such as Brazil.O coronavirus bovino (BCoV pode causar a diarreia de inverno (WD - Winter Dysentery ao infectar bovinos adultos, particularmente em regiões de clima temperado ou frio. A morbidade da doença é alta, resultando em queda na produção de leite e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas. No presente estudo, é descrito um surto clássico de WD acometendo um rebanho de bovinos leiteiros da raça Holandesa PB, de alta produção, proveniente do estado do Paraná. O lote afetado era composto por 154 vacas em lactação, sendo que 138 (90% apresentaram diarreia em um curto (nove dias período de tempo e 3 (2% vacas morreram em consequência da diarreia, desidratação e desequilíbrio eletrolítico. As outras categorias de animais do rebanho (bezerras, novilhas e vacas secas não apresentaram sinal clínico. A evolução da doença clínica, assim como a epidemiologia da infecção sugeriu um quadro clássico de WD. O diagnóstico foi realizado por meio da identificação do BCoV, pela técnica de semi-nested PCR e confirmação por RFLP, em amostra fecal de uma vaca

  14. Dynamic changes in antibody levels as an early warning of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Bødker, Rene; Nielsen, L. R.

    2013-01-01

    tank milk measurements of antibodies directed against Salmonella Dublin at 3-mo intervals. In this study, an “alarm herd” concept, based on the dynamic progression of these repeated measurements, was formulated such that it contains predictive power for Salmonella Dublin herd classification change from......Salmonella Dublin is a bacterium that causes disease and production losses in cattle herds. In Denmark, a surveillance and control program was initiated in 2002 to monitor and reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin. In dairy herds, the surveillance includes herd classification based on bulk...... status was a positive predictor for Salmonella Dublin status change in dairy herds, in that alarm herds had a higher risk of changing status in the following quarter compared with nonalarm herds. This was despite the fact that both alarm and nonalarm herds had antibody levels that did not indicate...

  15. Increase in milk yield of commercial dairy herds fed a microbial and enzyme supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C

    1998-05-01

    A microbial and enzyme supplement fed at 21.2 g/d per cow to 46 Virginia dairy herds increased the milk yield of 31 herds (17 significantly) and decreased the milk yield of 15 herds (7 significantly). Effects of season were important but consistent with overall results. Herds began receiving the supplement, which contained dried fermentation products of Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and yeast culture, midway between the first and second monthly Dairy Herd Improvement tests and continued on the supplement through the 3rd mo. Entry of herds was staggered over 8 mo to reduce the influence of season. The trial involved 3417 cows with 5 test mo between 60 and 365 d in milk. Milk yield during mo 3 averaged 0.64 kg/d per cow more (+0.73 kg/d for first lactation cows and +0.56 kg/d for later lactation cows) than the mean milk yield during mo 1 and 5. Herds completing the study before summer responded similarly to all other herds, which included herds that were fed the product during summer and those that finished the study during summer. Fat and protein yields and protein percentage differed little with or without the supplement. Fat percentage decreased (0.10%). Twenty-one herds that were fed a yeast product prior to and during the study responded similarly to the 17 herds that were not fed a yeast product.

  16. Ketosis in Dairy Herds: Presentation and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Noro, Mirela; Strieder Barboza, Clarissa

    2012-01-01

    Economic losses in dairy herds due to metabolic disorders are associated with inadequate management during the transition period, leading to health problems that decrease milk production, efficiency and animal welfare. Failures in metabolic adaptation mechanisms during the transition period and early lactation are directly associated with high rates of lipid mobilization, resulting in metabolic diseases such as ketosis. Ketosis is a metabolic disease affecting high-production dairy cows and i...

  17. Cow and herd variation in milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M; Hanigan, M D; Tucker, H A; Jones, B L; Garbade, S K; McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C; Knowlton, K F; James, R E

    2012-12-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is correlated with N balance, N intake, and dietary N content, and thus is a good indicator of proper feeding management with respect to protein. It is commonly used to monitor feeding programs to achieve environmental goals; however, genetic diversity also exists among cows. It was hypothesized that phenotypic diversity among cows could bias feed management decisions when monitoring tools do not consider genetic diversity associated with MUN. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of cow and herd variation on MUN. Data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial were subjected to multivariate regression analyses using a mixed model. Analyses of the research trial data showed that MUN concentrations could be predicted equally well from diet composition, milk yield, and milk components regardless of whether dry matter intake was included in the regression model. This indicated that cow and herd variation could be accurately estimated from field trial data when feed intake was not known. Milk urea N was correlated with dietary protein and neutral detergent fiber content, milk yield, milk protein content, and days in milk for both data sets. Cow was a highly significant determinant of MUN regardless of the data set used, and herd trended to significance for the field trial data. When all other variables were held constant, a percentage unit change in dietary protein concentration resulted in a 1.1mg/dL change in MUN. Least squares means estimates of MUN concentrations across herds ranged from a low of 13.6 mg/dL to a high of 17.3 mg/dL. If the observed MUN for the high herd were caused solely by high crude protein feeding, then the herd would have to reduce dietary protein to a concentration of 12.8% of dry matter to achieve a MUN concentration of 12 mg/dL, likely resulting in lost milk production. If the observed phenotypic variation is due to genetic differences among cows, genetic choices could result in

  18. Prevalence of VTEC O157 in dairy and veal herds and risk factors for veal herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, I.M.G.A.; Graat, E.A.M.; Swart, W.A.J.M.; Weber, M.F.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Heuvelink, A.E.; Weering, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the herd prevalence of veal and dairy herds and to identify risk factors for VTEC O157 positive veal herds. The study was based on monitoring data from November 1996 through July 2005 of 1051 dairy herds and 930 veal herds. The herd level prevalence (95% CI)

  19. Eficiência Reprodutiva e Produtiva em Rebanhos Leiteiros Comerciais Monitorados por Sistema Informatizado Reproductive and Productive Efficiency in Commercial Dairy Herds Monitored by Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma de Fátima Grossi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido com os objetivos de analisar o desempenho produtivo e algumas medidas de eficiência reprodutiva de 1877 vacas provenientes de quatro grupos genéticos Holandês ¾ Zebu e estimar os parâmetros genéticos pertinentes. Os animais pertenciam a três rebanhos comerciais que foram monitorados pelo Sistema Computacional de Informação DAISY (The Dairy Information System, durante período de 1989 a 1998. Para consistência dos dados, formação dos arquivos e análises preliminares foram usados os procedimentos disponíveis no SAS (Statistical Analysis System, enquanto os componentes de (covariância foram estimados pelo método de máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivada (MTDFREML, sob um modelo animal. Os efeitos de grupo genético e ano do parto foram significativos sobre a idade da vaca ao primeiro parto (IPC, intervalo parto - primeiro serviço (PP1S, duração da lactação(DL, produção total de leite (PT e produção de leite por dia de intervalo de parto (PLIEP. As estimativas de herdabilidade (h² para as características reprodutivas ficaram próximas de zero, evidenciando grande dependência do manejo oferecido aos rebanhos, enquanto o valor de 0,28 para a h² da PT mostrou variância genética aditiva média. A correlação genética entre PT e DL de 0,81 pode ser considerada de alta magnitude.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the productive and reproductive efficiencies and also the genetics parameters for traits considered, using data from 1877 crossbreed cows (Holstein x Zebu from four genetics groups. The cows belonged to three commercial dairy herds monitored from 1989 to 1998 by the Dairy Information System (DAISY. The data were processed using the procedure available in SAS (Statistical Analysis System, while genetic parameters on productive and reproductive traits were estimated by the multiple trait derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method (MTDFREML. Effects of genetic

  20. High female mortality resulting in herd collapse in free-ranging domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sámi population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October-December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007-2012 revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively. A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community.

  1. A screening sampling plan to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate

  2. Using the economic surplus model to measure potential returns to international livestock research : the case of trypanosomosis vaccine research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristjanson, P.; Rowlands, J.; Swallow, B.

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses issues surrounding measurement of the potential productivity gains from new livestock technologies and the returns to international livestock research. The approach, applicable to many livestock production constraints and technologies, integrates a herd simulation model to

  3. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  4. Herd prevalence of Salmonella enterica infections in Danish slaughter pigs determined by microbiological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Bager, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    As a part of a nationwide programme to survey and control salmonella in pig herds, a microbiological survey of 1363 pig herds was performed in Denmark. A total of 13 468 slaughter pigs were examined at slaughter by culture of 5 g of caecal contents. Overall, 30 different serotypes of Salmonella...... the most frequent (49.1%). Salmonella enterica was found in 302 herds (22.2%), S. Typhimurium was found in 61.1% of these. 279 (23.1%) large herds (producing more than 2600 slaughter pigs per year) were found to be salmonella positive compared with 23 (14.7 %) small herds (annual production of 500 to 550...... slaughter pigs). Practical constraints in the study design did not allow for a firm conclusion on the interplay among herd size, geographical location and occurrence of salmonella. In 284 of 302 infected herds (94.0%) only one serotype was detected, Infections with two different serovars were seen in 18...

  5. Herd dynamics of smallholder dairy in the Kenya highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bebe, B.O.

    2003-01-01

    Smallholder dairy farmers in the Kenya highlands generally intensify their farming systems by integrating dairy with crop production and shifting from free-grazing to semi-zero- or zero-grazing. They consequently change the breed composition, size and structure of their herds with resultant change in herd demographic rates. The intensification of smallholder dairying has underpinned changes in the farming systems to sustain more intensive land use and support more people per unit area of land...

  6. Like herding cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Smith, P

    1997-12-01

    In an effort to be a good manager, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that knowledge workers require a unique approach from their manager. Because nurses are independent and capable individuals that prosper in an environment that recognizes them as knowledge workers, nurse managers often find that traditional management techniques are not sufficient. Trying to manage all of the nurses on a unit as a single group is much like trying to herd cats. It might be less frustrating for the nurse manager to lead gently rather than manage with a firm hand. Warren Bennis suggests that this approach may provide a valuable key to successfully managing in a world of constant change.

  7. HERDING BEHAVIOR UNDER MARKETS CONDITION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON THE EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatemri Ouarda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents four main contributions to the literature of behavior herding. Firstly, it extends the behavioral researches of herding of the investors on a developed market and mainly on a European market as a whole. Secondly, we are interested in examination of herding behavior at the level of sectors by using data at the levels of companies. Thirdly, this document estimates the implications of herding behavior in terms of returns, volatility and volume of transaction. Fourthly, the herding behavior is revealed as well during the period of the recent global financial crisis in 2007-2008 and of Asian crisis. Our results reveal a strong evidence of herding behavior sharply contributed to a bearish situation characterized by a strong volatility and a trading volume. The repercussion of herding during the period of the recent financial crisis is clearly revealed for the sectors of the finance and the technology.

  8. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Cecilia; Emanuelson, Ulf; Ohlson, Anna; Alenius, Stefan; Fall, Nils

    2015-01-13

    Infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BoCV) are endemic to the cattle populations in most countries, causing respiratory and/or enteric disease. It has been demonstrated that herds can remain free from these infections for several years also in high prevalence areas. Organically managed (OM) dairy herds have been shown to have lower seroprevalence of both viruses compared to conventionally managed (CM) herds. The objective of this study was to challenge the hypothesis of a lower occurrence of BRSV and BoCV in OM compared to CM dairy herds. In November 2011, May 2012 and May 2013 milk samples from four homebred primiparous cows were collected in 75 to 65 OM and 69 to 62 CM herds. The antibody status regarding BRSV and BoCV was analysed with commercial indirect ELISAs. Herds were classified as positive if at least one individual sample was positive. The prevalence of positive herds ranged from 73.4% to 82.3% for BRSV and from 76.8% to 85.3% for BoCV among OM and CM herds, over the three sampling occasions. There was no statistically significant difference between OM and CM herds at any sampling occasion. The incidence risk of newly infected herds did not differ statistically between OM and CM herds at any sampling occasion, neither for BRSV nor for BoCV. The incidence of herds turning sero-negative between samplings corresponded to the incidence of newly infected. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were also sampled in the herds and analysed. Several herds were negative on individual samples but positive in BTM. Herd-level data on production, health and reproduction were retrieved from VÄXA Sweden and the study herds were representative of the source population. There was no difference in prevalence of or incidence risk for BRSV or BoCV between Swedish OM and CM herds. Because the incidence of herds becoming seropositive was balanced by herds becoming seronegative it should be possible to lower the prevalence of these two

  9. Random within-herd variation in financial performance and time to financial steady-state following management changes in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    The manager of a dairy herd and the affiliated consultants constantly need to judge whether financial performance of the production system is satisfactory and whether financial performance relates to real (systematic) effects of changes in management. This is no easy task because the dairy herd...... is a very complex system. Thus, it is difficult to obtain empirical data that allows a valid estimation of the random (within-herd) variation in financial performance corrected for management changes. Thus, simulation seems to be the only option. This study suggests that much caution must be recommended...... when claming effect of changes in herd management because the link between management changes (cause) and effect (measured as improvement of gross margin per cow year) is extensively blurred by a large within-herd variation in available real life accounting data and differences between herds in time...

  10. Modelled female sale options demonstrate improved profitability in northern beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethe, G E; Holmes, W E

    2008-12-01

    To examine the impact of improving the average value of cows sold, the risk of decreasing the number weaned, and total sales on the profitability of northern Australian cattle breeding properties. Gather, model and interpret breeder herd performances and production parameters on properties from six beef-producing regions in northern Australia. Production parameters, prices, costs and herd structure were entered into a herd simulation model for six northern Australian breeding properties that spay females to enhance their marketing options. After the data were validated by management, alternative management strategies were modelled using current market prices and most likely herd outcomes. The model predicted a close relationship between the average sale value of cows, the total herd sales and the gross margin/adult equivalent. Keeping breeders out of the herd to fatten generally improves their sale value, and this can be cost-effective, despite the lower number of progeny produced and the subsequent reduction in total herd sales. Furthermore, if the price of culled cows exceeds the price of culled heifers, provided there are sufficient replacement pregnant heifers available to maintain the breeder herd nucleus, substantial gains in profitability can be obtained by decreasing the age at which cows are culled from the herd. Generalised recommendations on improving reproductive performance are not necessarily the most cost-effective strategy to improve breeder herd profitability. Judicious use of simulation models is essential to help develop the best turnoff strategies for females and to improve station profitability.

  11. Associations between body condition, rumen fill, diarrhoea and lameness and ruminal acidosis in Australian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, E; Costa, N D; Fulkerson, W J; Lean, I J

    2013-11-01

    be categorised Normal than SO. The findings indicate that differences in rumen metabolism identified for herd categories ACID, SO and Normal were associated with differences in disease risk and physiology. The study also identified an association between pasture feeding and higher faecal scores. This study suggests that there is a challenge for farmers seeking to increase milk production of cows on pasture to maintain the health of cattle.

  12. Chlamydiosis in a beef herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, W J; Schutte, A P; Pienaar, J G; Henton, M M

    1975-06-01

    Chlamydial infection in a large beef herd is illustrated and discussed. The pre-natal and post-natal losses that occurred during 1972 are highlighted. Total pre-natal losses for the nine calving herds comprising 2,915 animals varied between 3,7% and 12,4%. Between 1,2% and 11,4% of the calves born alive in the nine herds died before weaning with 70% of the losses occurring within the first three weeks of life. Chlamydial organisms were demonstrated in pre-natal and post-natal losses from all nine herds. Clinical manifestations and lesions involving the intestinal, respiratory, nervous, skeletal, reticulo-endothelial and urinary systems were observed in chlamydia-infected calves. Invariably at autopsy in chlamydia positive cases there was some degree of a fibrinous inflammatory process present. Serological evidence showed that chlamydial organisms had been present on both farms prior to the 1972 investigations.

  13. Reducing Use of Antimicrobials - Experiences from an Intervention Study in Organic Dairy Herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Vaarst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    on production and herd health were evaluated from two years before to three years after the start of the Stable Schools. For comparison, data was collected from the remaining 35 herds delivering to the same dairy company, 118 organic dairy herds delivering to other dairies and 115 conventional herds. On average......With the aim of phasing out the use of antimicrobials 23 Danish organic dairy producers from the same organic dairy company participated in Stable School farmer groups from February 2004 to March 2005 in order to go through a common learning and development process towards their common goal. Data......, the project herds were smaller with lower production and had half the incidence rate of mastitis treatment than the organic herds from other dairies before the start of the project. The incidence rate of mastitis treatments was reduced considerably from 20 treatments per 100 cow years to 10 treatments per 100...

  14. A diagnostic and prognostic tool for epidemiologic and economic analyses of dairy herd health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1995-01-01

    A computer program framework was established to enable a dairy herd production consultant to perform whole-herd analysis. The diagnostic process was an extensive data analysis 1) to derive key parameters related to production, reproduction, and health and 2) to produce input to a prognostic proce...

  15. Animal Production Research Advances: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal production research advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal ...

  16. Cow- and herd-level risk factors for on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M Q; Reneau, J K; Chester-Jones, H; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe on-farm mortality and to investigate cow- and herd-level risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds using lactation survival analysis. We analyzed a total of approximately 5.9 million DHIA lactation records from 10 Midwest US states from January 2006 to December 2010. The cow-level independent variables used in the models were first test-day milk yield, milk fat percent, milk protein percent, fat-to-protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen, somatic cell score, previous dry period, previous calving interval, stillbirth, calf sex, twinning, calving difficulty, season of calving, parity, and breed. The herd-level variables included herd size, calving interval, somatic cell score, 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield, and herd stillbirth percentage. Descriptive analysis showed that overall cow-level mortality rate was 6.4 per 100 cow-years and it increased from 5.9 in 2006 to 6.8 in 2010. Mortality was the primary reason of leaving the herd (19.4% of total culls) followed by reproduction (14.6%), injuries and other (14.0%), low production (12.3%), and mastitis (10.5%). Risk factor analysis showed that increased hazard for mortality was associated with higher fat-to-protein ratio (>1.6 vs. 1 to 1.6), higher milk fat percent, lower milk protein percent, cows with male calves, cows carrying multiple calves, higher milk urea nitrogen, increasing parity, longer previous calving interval, higher first test-day somatic cell score, increased calving difficulty score, and breed (Holstein vs. others). Decreased hazard for mortality was associated with higher first test-day milk yield, higher milk protein, and shorter dry period. For herd-level factors, increased hazard for mortality was associated with increased herd size, increased percentage of stillbirths, higher somatic cell score, and increased herd calving interval. Cows in herds with higher milk yield had lower mortality hazard. Results of the study

  17. Research Productivity of Sports Medicine Fellowship Faculty

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Frank, Rachel M.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research productivity is considered an important factor in academic advancement in sports medicine. No study to date has evaluated academic productivity and correlates of academic rank for sports medicine fellowship faculty. Purpose: To describe the academic productivity of American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) fellowship program faculty and to determine the association between academic productivity, fellowship characteristics, and academic rank. Study Design: D...

  18. How to evaluate and quantify the influence of coincidence on fertility and herd health parameters? A practical overview of frequently used and abused statistical techniques in research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, J; Maes, D; Van Soom, A; de Kruif, A

    2009-09-01

    In this article, frequently encountered statistical questions and methods used both in research and in daily practice are described and explained. First, the concepts of variability and uncertainty are explained and illustrated. From this, it is explained how variation can be quantified and how the limits of what can be expected as a result of normal variation are determined both for continuous and binary data. Based on the basic concepts of probability theory, an introduction to risk assessment was given. Finally it is explained how to test whether individual observations lie outside the normal range or the test whether populations are different from each other. All these are carried out avoiding theory and formulas as much as possible and illustrated with real examples from reproduction and herd health.

  19. Research and development for ethylbenzene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Mingwei; Sun, Hongmin; Shen, Zhenhao; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Weimin [SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology (China); Huan, Mingyao

    2013-11-01

    Ethylbenzene (EB) is important raw material for the production of styrene. Now, EB is mainly produced by the alkylation of benzene with ethylene catalyzed by zeolite in vapour phase or liquid phase. Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology (SRIPT) began to research the catalysts for the production of ethylbenezene in 1993. With near 20 years work, three series of catalysts for the alkylation of benzene with pure ethylene, dilute ethylene and ethanol are in commerical in China. This paper mainly introduced the research and development of SRIPT for the EB production. (orig.)

  20. Marketing research of organic agricultural products' customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of customers' marketing research is to acquire information about the way domestic customers behave towards organic agricultural products. This research focuses the overview of conditions and factors influencing customer behavior in nutrition processes in the EM and in Yugoslavia. The acquired information about changes and directions directly affect the possibilities of getting involved into supply processes as well as the 'transmission' of some directions in customer behavior. Anticipations based, on marketing research deal with changes on customers' level, in consumption, products and other competitors. The results of a part of problems concerning customer behavior in nutrition processes follow below, with an emphasis on organic agricultural products.

  1. Transitions in Sustainable Product Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    , this research area has expanded considerably; from a bunch of opportunistic eco-pathfinders trying to make products better recyclable into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number......By the early 1990s, sustainable product innovation (or ecodesign, or Design for environment) had gained sufficient critical mass in academic research to be identified as a distinct research area. In the past 15 years, stimulated by a growing environmental concern and awareness in the media...... of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, which together provide a historic account of how academic research into sustainable product innovation had matured. In conclusion, a number of possible future transitions or extensions of the research area are discussed....

  2. Impact of research investment on scientific productivity of junior researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhyar, Forough; Bianco, Daniela; Dao, Dyda; Ghert, Michelle; Andruszkiewicz, Nicole; Sussman, Jonathan; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S

    2016-12-01

    There is a demand for providing evidence on the effectiveness of research investments on the promotion of novice researchers' scientific productivity and production of research with new initiatives and innovations. We used a mixed method approach to evaluate the funding effect of the New Investigator Fund (NIF) by comparing scientific productivity between award recipients and non-recipients. We reviewed NIF grant applications submitted from 2004 to 2013. Scientific productivity was assessed by confirming the publication of the NIF-submitted application. Online databases were searched, independently and in duplicate, to locate the publications. Applicants' perceptions and experiences were collected through a short survey and categorized into specified themes. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Of 296 applicants, 163 (55 %) were awarded. Gender, affiliation, and field of expertise did not affect funding decisions. More physicians with graduate education (32.0 %) and applicants with a doctorate degree (21.5 %) were awarded than applicants without postgraduate education (9.8 %). Basic science research (28.8 %), randomized controlled trials (24.5 %), and feasibility/pilot trials (13.3 %) were awarded more than observational designs (p   research investments as small as seed funding are effective for scientific productivity and professional growth of novice investigators and production of research with new initiatives and innovations. Further efforts are recommended to enhance the support of small grant funding programs.

  3. Predictors of radiation oncology resident research productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutovich, Jordan M; Den, Robert B; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Dicker, Adam P; Lawrence, Yaacov R

    2013-03-01

    Academic research is an essential part of residency training, yet resident productivity in research seems to be highly variable. The aim of this study was to determine the factors, both individual and institutional, that contribute to research output among radiation oncology residents. Newly practicing radiation oncologists and current senior residents were identified and invited via e-mail to complete a web-based survey. The survey addressed demographic factors, previous academic accomplishments, and residency program structure. The end point, research productivity, was defined as the number of first-author papers produced or research grants awarded on the basis of work initiated during residency. Ninety-seven of the 232 senior residents and recently graduated radiation oncologists surveyed responded (a 42% response rate). The median number of publications produced on the basis of work during residency was 3 (range, 0-7). Twenty-one respondents indicated that they had received 1 or more grants. Forty-four respondents completed research, while 53 completed ≥6 months of research. Univariate analysis revealed that a scientific college major and the amount of designated research time were positively correlated (P research at an international meeting before residency, participation in the Holman Research Pathway, female gender, publications before residency, and the amount of designated research time were positively correlated (P research grant. On multivariate regression analysis, the amount of designated research time was the sole determinant of first-author papers (P research grants awarded (P research time during residency training is the sole independent predictor of research productivity as measured by publications. Participation in the Holman Pathway is the sole detected item shown to be an independent predictor of achieving a peer-reviewed grant. Residency program structure has a major impact on the productivity of residents. Copyright © 2013 American

  4. Influence of reproduction traits and pre-weaning growth rate on herd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproduction and calf survival rates were the most important production traits that affected herd efficiency. Management practices should be adapted to maximize the reproduction rate of the females, including the young heifers, to maximise herd efficiency. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 36(2) 2006: 89-98 ...

  5. Somatic Cell Count in Milk of Goats Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Program in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of breed, parity, stage of lactation (month), herd size, and regions/states on somatic cell count (SCC) and production of milk from dairy goats enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program in the United States in 2007 were investigated to monitor the current status of SCC and to ...

  6. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom La

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134, with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have

  7. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used...... control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds....

  8. Investor mood, herding and the Ramadan effect

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriilidis, Konstantinos; Kallinterakis, Vasileios; Tsalavoutas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In view of evidence linking herding and social mood, we examine whether the positive mood documented during Ramadan translates into higher herding compared to non-Ramadan days. Drawing on a sample of seven majority Muslim countries, we report significant herding during Ramadan in most of our sample markets. Additionally, we show that herding appears significantly stronger within rather than outside Ramadan for most tests whereby its significance is manifested on both Ramadan- and non-Ramadan-...

  9. Protein Production Associate | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives. The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR). The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and genetics. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Protein Expression Laboratory (PEL) provides support to the NCI Center for Cancer Research (CCR) by producing high quality protein reagents for a variety of research and development purposes. The PEL creates expression constructs, expresses the encoded recombinant proteins in multiple expression systems, and purifies the recombinant proteins for use in downstream applications. The Protein Production Associate will: Carry out experiments, under the review of a scientist, in the areas of prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein production. Carry out E. coli expression work. Carry out insect cell and mammalian cell culture. Perform microscale protein purification scouting. Perform large-scale purification using FPLC technology. Carry out QC on proteins to ensure high quality reagent production.. Provide timely updates of project progress to supervisor and other staff in both informal and formal reports. Maintain detailed records of all laboratory processes and procedures for quality assurance purposes.

  10. Faculty Research Productivity in Six Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab…

  11. Research Productivity: Some Paths Less Travelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Conventional approaches for fostering research productivity, such as recruitment and incentives, do relatively little to develop latent capacities in researchers. Six promising unorthodox approaches are the promotion of regular writing, tools for creativity, good luck, happiness, good health and crowd wisdom. These options challenge conventional…

  12. TRC research products: Components for service robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, W. Stuart

    1994-01-01

    Transitions Research Corporation has developed a variety of technologies to accomplish its central mission: the creation of commercially viable robots for the service industry. Collectively, these technologies comprise the TRC 'robot tool kit.' The company started by developing a robot base that serves as a foundation for mobile robot research and development, both within TRC and at customer sites around the world. A diverse collection of sensing techniques evolved more recently, many of which have been made available to the international mobile robot research community as commercial products. These 'tool-kit' research products are described in this paper. The largest component of TRC's commercial operation is a product called HelpMate for material transport and delivery in health care institutions.

  13. Co-ordinated Interdisciplinary Efforts on Research in Animal Production and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS, the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL, the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL. CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision

  14. Research Productivity of Sports Medicine Fellowship Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Saltzman, Bryan M; Chalmers, Peter N; Frank, Rachel M; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R

    2016-12-01

    Research productivity is considered an important factor in academic advancement in sports medicine. No study to date has evaluated academic productivity and correlates of academic rank for sports medicine fellowship faculty. To describe the academic productivity of American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) fellowship program faculty and to determine the association between academic productivity, fellowship characteristics, and academic rank. Descriptive epidemiology study. Characteristics of orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs were obtained from the AOSSM and program websites. Metrics of academic productivity (Hirsch index [h index], I-10 index, publications, citations, and number of publications in several journals) were obtained from Scopus. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine whether academic productivity differs with fellowship attributes and academic rank. A total of 90 AOSSM sports medicine fellowship programs with 610 associated faculty members were identified. Faculty were predominantly male (94%), at academic medical centers (74%), members of AOSSM (71%), and sports medicine-fellowship trained (84%). Faculty had a median of 18 (range, 0-684) publications overall, including a median of 3 (range, 0-161) publications since 2012. All measures of academic productivity were significantly higher among faculty employed at academic medical centers compared with those not employed at academic centers (P Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy per faculty member (P sports medicine fellowship faculty. Research productivity was higher among faculty employed at academic centers in the Northeast and Midwest regions and at programs with a larger number of fellows.

  15. Herd dynamics of smallholder dairy in the Kenya highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bebe, B.O.

    2003-01-01

    Smallholder dairy farmers in the Kenya highlands generally intensify their farming systems by integrating dairy with crop production and shifting from free-grazing to semi-zero- or zero-grazing. They consequently change the breed composition, size and structure of their herds with resultant change

  16. Rapeseed research and production in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Qiong; Hua, Wei; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xuekun; Liu, Lijiang; Shi, Jiaqin; Zhao, Yongguo; Qin, Lu; Chen, Chang; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and...

  17. An investigation into heterogeneity of variance for milk and fat yields of Holstein cows in Brazilian herd environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Claudio Napolis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of variance in Brazilian herd environments was studied using first-lactation 305-day mature equivalent (ME milk and fat records of Holstein cows. Herds were divided into two categories, according to low or high herd-year phenotypic standard deviation for ME milk (HYSD. There were 330 sires with daughter records in both HYSD categories. Components of (covariance, heritability, and genetic correlations for milk and fat yields were estimated using a sire model from bivariate analyses with a restricted maximum likelihood (REML derivative-free algorithm. Sire and residual variances for milk yield in low HYSD herds were 79 and 57% of those obtained in high HYSD herd. For fat yield they were 67 and 60%, respectively. Heritabilities for milk and fat yields in low HYSD herds were larger (0.30 and 0.22 than in high HYSD herds (0.23 and 0.20. Genetic correlation between expression in low and high HYSD herds was 0.997 for milk yield and 0.985 for fat yield. Expected correlated response in low HYSD herds based on sires selected on half-sister information from high HYSD was 0.89 kg/kg for milk and 0.80 kg/kg for fat yield. Genetic evaluations in Brazil need to account for heterogeneity of variances to increase the accuracy of evaluations and the selection efficiency for milk and fat yields of Holstein cows. Selection response will be lower in low variance herds than in high variance herds because of reduced differences in daughter response and among breeding values of sires in low HYSD herds. Genetic investments in sire selection to improve production are more likely to be successful in high HYSD herds than in low HYSD Brazilian herds.

  18. Herd- and sow-related risk factors for lameness in organic and conventional sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine

    2014-01-01

    factors associated with sow lameness in Danish outdoor organic sow herds by analysing the association between risk factors at both sow and herd level using clinical records of lameness. A total of 1850 sows from nine organic herds were included in the study. Second, the study examined differences...... in the prevalence of sow lameness between outdoor organic and indoor conventional herds. An additional aim here was to identify risk factors associated with clinical records of sow lameness in Danish sow herds by analysing the association between risk factors with lameness at sow and herd level. One thousand...... and fifty four gestation sows from 44 indoor conventional and nine organic sow herds were included in this study. The nine organic herds were visited twice: once in summer/autumn 2011, and once in winter/spring 2012. In winter/spring 2011, a total of 44 indoor conventional herds were visited. Risk factors...

  19. [Emissions from dairy industry and the influence of herd management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Brade, Wilfried; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus; Dämmgen, Jürgen; Meyer, Ulrich

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this paper is to identify specific emission-reduction opportunities in dairy herds arising from aspects of useful herd management with the potential to reduce emissions, which are within the scope of veterinary activities. In future, it might be one of a veterinarian's advisory capacities to deal with the aspect of climate and environmental protection in animal husbandry. The models involved are similar to those of the national agricultural emission inventory. They allow quantifying the impacts of improved animal health, extended productive lifespan and grazing of an entire dairy herd (cows, calves, heifers and bulls) on emissions from the herd itself, in addition to those originating from the entire production chain, including provision of primary energy, water, feed production and processing. Ammonia emissions are the main focus. The reductions achieved here are not huge, though noticeable. They do not create extra costs. As can be shown, improved animal health and welfare are also environmentally beneficial. The reduction of greenhouse gas and air pollutant (eutrophying and acidifying gases and particles) emissions is an acknowledged political goal. If Germany wants to achieve the emission ceilings it has agreed to, agriculture will have to contribute. Planning will have to precede action if agriculture is itself to keep control of the processes.

  20. Research Productivity of Sports Medicine Fellowship Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Frank, Rachel M.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research productivity is considered an important factor in academic advancement in sports medicine. No study to date has evaluated academic productivity and correlates of academic rank for sports medicine fellowship faculty. Purpose: To describe the academic productivity of American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) fellowship program faculty and to determine the association between academic productivity, fellowship characteristics, and academic rank. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Characteristics of orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs were obtained from the AOSSM and program websites. Metrics of academic productivity (Hirsch index [h index], I-10 index, publications, citations, and number of publications in several journals) were obtained from Scopus. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine whether academic productivity differs with fellowship attributes and academic rank. Results: A total of 90 AOSSM sports medicine fellowship programs with 610 associated faculty members were identified. Faculty were predominantly male (94%), at academic medical centers (74%), members of AOSSM (71%), and sports medicine–fellowship trained (84%). Faculty had a median of 18 (range, 0-684) publications overall, including a median of 3 (range, 0-161) publications since 2012. All measures of academic productivity were significantly higher among faculty employed at academic medical centers compared with those not employed at academic centers (P academic rank were higher cumulative h index (1.22; P academic rank. Fellowships with a larger number of fellows had more publications and citations per faculty member, higher faculty cumulative h index, and more publications in the American Journal of Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy per faculty member (P academic rank among AOSSM sports medicine fellowship faculty. Research productivity was higher among faculty employed at academic centers in the Northeast and Midwest

  1. Optimizing the herd calving pattern with linear programming and dynamic probabilistic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalvingh, A W; Dijkhuizen, A A; Van Arendonk, J A

    1994-06-01

    Until recently, little attention has been paid to the influence of seasonal variation in performance and prices on the optimal calving pattern of a herd. A method was developed to determine the herd calving pattern that is farm-specific and optimal with use of linear programming. The required technical and economic parameters are calculated with a dynamic probabilistic simulation model of the dairy herd. The approach was illustrated with a situation in which the objective was to maximize the gross margin of the herd and the annual milk production of the herd was restricted, resulting in an optimal calving pattern: all heifers calved during August. When, in addition, only home-reared replacement heifers were allowed to enter the herd, heifer calvings took place from July to October. The gross margin was reduced by only Dfl. .13/100 kg of milk ($1 US = 1.80 Dfl.) as a result of the additional constraint. The sensitivity of the optimal calving pattern of herd was determined for lower reproductive performance and when seasonal price variation was ignored. The method described herein is a flexible tool for determining the optimal calving pattern of herd, taking into account farm-specific inputs and constraints.

  2. Swine herds achieve high performance by culling low lifetime efficiency sows in early parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Ariko; McTaggart, Iain; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2011-11-01

    Sow lifetime performance and by-parity performance were analyzed using a 3 by 3 factorial design, comprising 3 herd productivity groups and 3 sow efficiency groups. Data was obtained from 101 Japanese herds, totaling 173,526 parity records of 34,929 sows, for the years 2001 to 2006. Sows were categorized into 3 groups based on the lower and upper 25th percentiles of the annualized lifetime pigs born alive: low lifetime efficiency sows (LE sows), intermediate lifetime efficiency sows or high lifetime efficiency sows. Herds were grouped on the basis of the upper and lower 25th percentiles of pigs weaned per mated female per year, averaged over 6 years: high-, intermediate- or low-performing herds. Mixed-effects models were used for comparisons. LE sows in high-performing herds had 57.8 fewer lifetime nonproductive days and 0.5 earlier parity at removal than those in low-performing herds (Ppigs born alive of LE sows continuously decreased from parity 1 to 5, whereas those of high lifetime efficiency sows gradually increased from parity 1 to 4 before decreasing up to parity ≥ 6 (Psows have a performance pattern of decreasing number of pigs born alive across parity. The present study also indicates that high-performing herds culled potential LE sows earlier than the other herds.

  3. Effect of different dry period lengths on milk production and somatic cell count in subsequent lactation on commercial Dutch dairy herds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Shortening the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance in early lactation. It is well known that both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactations. In most of these studies milk production data were

  4. Production, consumption and research on solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Lascurain-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Serrano-Lopez, Antonio Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    together account for 51% of the total in the EU-27; the pattern of topics researched in the two countries is very similar; and their international collaboration is more intense than the world average and higher than in countries such as the USA, China or Japan. Collaboration between them is likewise......An analysis of scientific publications on solar energy was conducted to determine whether public interest in the subject is mirrored by more intense research in the area. To this end, the research published by Spain and Germany, the two EU countries with the highest installed photovoltaic capacity......, was analyzed based on Web of Science data. The results show that: solar output has risen substantially; solar research has a greater impact (measured in terms of citations) than publications on other renewables such as wind power; scientific production on solar energy is high in Germany and Spain, which...

  5. Producer estimates of prevalence and perceived importance of lameness in dairy herds with tiestalls, freestalls, and automated milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, J H Higginson; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Gibbons, J; Orsel, K; Pajor, E; Barkema, H W; Solano, L; Pellerin, D; Haley, D; Vasseur, E

    2017-10-04

    Lameness is one of the most important welfare and productivity concerns in the dairy industry. Our objectives were to obtain producers' estimates of its prevalence and their perceptions of lameness, and to investigate how producers monitor lameness in tiestall (TS), freestall with milking parlor (FS), and automated milking system (AMS) herds. Forty focal cows per farm in 237 Canadian dairy herds were scored for lameness by trained researchers. On the same day, the producers completed a questionnaire. Mean herd-level prevalence of lameness estimated by producers was 9.0% (±0.9%; ±SE), whereas the researchers observed a mean prevalence of 22.2% (±0.9%). Correlation between producer- and researcher-estimated lameness prevalence was low (r = 0.19) and mean researcher prevalence was 1.6, 1.8, and 4.1 times higher in AMS, FS, and TS farms, respectively. A total of 48% of producers thought lameness was a moderate or major problem in their herds (TS = 34%; AMS =53%; FS = 59%). One third of producers considered lameness the highest ranked health problem they were trying to control, whereas two-thirds of producers (TS = 43%; AMS = 63%; FS = 71%) stated that they had made management changes to deal with lameness in the past 2 yr. Almost all producers (98%) stated they routinely check cows to identify new cases of lameness; however, 40% of producers did not keep records of lameness (AMS = 24%; FS = 23%; TS = 60%). A majority (69%) of producers treated lame cows themselves immediately after detection, whereas 13% relied on hoof-trimmer or veterinarians to plan treatment. Producers are aware of lameness as an issue in dairy herds and almost all monitor lameness as part of their daily routine. However, producers underestimate lameness prevalence, which highlights that lameness detection continues to be difficult in in all housing systems, especially in TS herds. Training to improve detection, record keeping, identification of farm-specific risk factors, and treatment planning

  6. Collaboration networks and research productivity at IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Carlos Anisio; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, E-mail: monteiro@ipen.br, E-mail: barroso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we investigate the IPEN's scientific collaboration network. Based on publications registered in IPEN's technical and scientific database was extracted a set of authors that developed technical and scientific work on the 2001 to 2010 period, using coauthorship to define the relationship between authors. From the data collected, we used degree centrality indicator in conjunction with two approaches to assess the relationship between collaboration and productivity: normal count, where for each publication that the author appears is added one for the author’s productivity indicator, and fractional count which is added a fractional value according to the total number of publication's authors. We concluded that collaboration for the development of a technical and scientific work has a positive correlation with the researchers productivity, that is, the greater the collaboration greater the productivity. We presented, also, a statistical summary to reveal the total number of publications and the number of IPEN's authors by publication, the average number of IPEN's authors per publication and the average number of publications by IPEN's author, the number of IPEN's authors that not published with no other author of the IPEN and, finally, the number of active and inactive (ex. retirees) researchers of the IPEN, as well as, the number of authors who do not have employment contract with the IPEN. (author)

  7. Suboptimal herd performance amplifies the spread of infectious disease in the cattle industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carolyn Gates

    Full Text Available Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity.

  8. Herd-level risk factors for subclinical Salmonella infection in European finishing-pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Stege, H.

    2004-01-01

    . Pigs produced in batches in herds with hygienic-lock facilities had >3-times lower odds for testing seropositive compared to pigs in herds where only one or neither factor was present. In herds where the caretaker(s) washed hands consistently before tending to the animals, pigs had 1.5-times lower odds...

  9. Managerial and environmental determinants of clinical mastitis in Danish dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.

  10. Measuring Individual Research Productivity: A Review and Development of the Integrated Research Productivity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Martin, Helena M.; Bryan, Nicole A.; Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate methods of measuring individual research productivity for counseling psychologists. Using the 60 members of the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" editorial board, the authors computed a comparison of 6 popular indices of productivity, revealing considerable levels of positive skewness,…

  11. Eradication of Salmonella Yoruba in an integrated pig herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerberg, J; Ekwall, S J; Nilsson, I; Stampe, M; Engvall, A; Wallgren, P

    2001-01-01

    An integrated SPF herd with 320 sows was found infected with Salmonella Yoruba during an annual control among sows, aiming to verify freedom from Salmonella infections. It is believed that the infection was introduced to the herd by purchase of feed. The herd performed an age segregated rearing system. Sows and piglets were reared at a central farm, while growers (25-100 kg body weight) were reared at sub-estates. The growers were free from the infection, and as a consequence a specially designed eradication program was designed. Farrowing and weaning were defined as periods of risk for sows and piglets, respectively. Consequently sows were isolated and individually tested for presence of Salmonella one week before and one week after farrowing. The offspring were tested one week post weaning. To verify freedom from disease among piglets they were also tested another time before transfer to the uninfected sub-estates. Piglets with undefined status regarding Salmonella were denoted animals at risk and not transferred to the sub-estates. Instead they were transferred to a third estate, rented to house pigs at risk. The program was successful. It allowed full production during performance, and the herd was declared free from S. Yoruba seven and a half months after the initial diagnosis.

  12. Management interventions in dairy herds: exploring within herd uncertainty using an integrated Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Martin J; Medley, Graham F; Bradley, Andrew J; Browne, William J

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the efficacy of an intervention for disease control on an individual farm is essential to make good decisions on preventive healthcare, but the uncertainty in outcome associated with undertaking a specific control strategy has rarely been considered in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this research was to explore the uncertainty in change in disease incidence and financial benefit that could occur on different farms, when two effective farm management interventions are undertaken. Bovine mastitis was used as an example disease and the research was conducted using data from an intervention study as prior information within an integrated Bayesian simulation model. Predictions were made of the reduction in clinical mastitis within 30 days of calving on 52 farms, attributable to the application of two herd interventions previously reported as effective; rotation of dry cow pasture and differential dry cow therapy. Results indicated that there were important degrees of uncertainty in the predicted reduction in clinical mastitis for individual farms when either intervention was undertaken; the magnitude of the 95% credible intervals for reduced clinical mastitis incidence were substantial and of clinical relevance. The large uncertainty associated with the predicted reduction in clinical mastitis attributable to the interventions resulted in important variability in possible financial outcomes for each farm. The uncertainty in outcome associated with farm control measures illustrates the difficulty facing a veterinary clinician when making an on-farm decision and highlights the importance of iterative herd health procedures (continual evaluation, reassessment and adjusted interventions) to optimise health in an individual herd. INRA, EDP Sciences, 2009

  13. Biogas production experimental research using algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The current study is on the the use of macro-algae as feedstock for biogas production. Three types of macro-algae, Cladophora glomerata (CG), Chara fragilis (CF), and Spirogyra neglecta (SN), were chosen for this research. The experimental studies on biogas production were carried out with these algae in a batch bioreactor. In the bioreactor was maintained 35 ± 1°C temperature. The results showed that the most appropriate macro-algae for biogas production are Spirogyra neglecta (SN) and Cladophora glomerata (CG). The average amount of biogas obtained from the processing of SN - 0.23 m(3)/m(3)d, CG - 0.20 m(3)/m(3)d, and CF - 0.12 m(3)/m(3)d. Considering the concentration of methane obtained during the processing of SN and CG, which after eight days and until the end of the experiment exceeded 60%, it can be claimed that biogas produced using these algae is valuable. When processing CF, the concentration of methane reached the level of 50% only by the final day of the experiment, which indicates that this alga is less suitable for biogas production.

  14. The Heritage of Herding and Southern Homicide: Examining the Ecological Foundations of the Code of Honor Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Robert D.; Zevenbergen, Matthew P.; Messner, Steven F.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine the ecological foundations of the thesis of a "code of honor" as an explanation for southern homicide. Specifically, they consider the effects of indicators of ethnic groups that migrated from herding economies (the Scotch-Irish), cattle and pig herding, and the relative importance of agricultural production across…

  15. A stochastic model for simulation of the economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infection in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Houe, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic, stochastic model simulating the technical and economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections for a dairy cattle herd for use on a personal computer was developed. The production and state changes of the herd were simulated by state changes of the individual cows...

  16. Multivariate dynamic linear models for estimating the effect of experimental interventions in an evolutionary operations setup in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stygar, Anna Helena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Kristensen, Troels

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary operations is a method to exploit the association of often small changes in process variables, planned during systematic experimentation and occurring during the normal production flow, to production characteristics to find a way to alter the production process to be more efficient...... from a herd, and an intervention effect on a given day. The model was constructed to handle any number of cows, experimental interventions, different data sources, or presence of control groups. In this study, data from 2 commercial Danish herds were used. In herd 1, data on 98,046 and 12,133 milkings......,471) were used. In herd 1, the manager wanted to explore the possibility of reducing the amount of concentrate provided to the cows in an AMS. In herd 2, the manager wanted to know if the milk yield could be increased by elevating the energy level provided to the cows in a total mixed ration. The experiment...

  17. Vegetable soybean: seed composition and production research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable soybean (edamame [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is a low input, high nutritional value, short crop cycle and soil-enriching profitable crop. It offers quick economic return and provides health benefits to the consumers. The market demand for edamame has begun to flourish and expand dramatically in recent decades due to increased awareness of nutritional properties, and the change in life styles towards healthier food. This article highlighted the importance of edamame as a nutraceutical and functional food-grade produce, summarised the research advances in seed composition and their roles, cultivar selection and crop establishment, planting date and fertilisation, weed management and harvesting. Current production problem of extensive labor at harvest and future research challenges in improving crop establishment, developing cultivars competitive to weed and resistant to pest insects/diseases, assessing biological activities of edamame elemental and phytochemical properties on cancer cell inhibition, and developing organic production system were also proposed with aims of enhancing farm profitability and expanding opportunities for extensive use of edamame.

  18. The project as product of scientific research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Losasso

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The topic of project as product of research for the Area of Architecture can be considered therefore central for tradition, for the recognized value on social, economic and environmental effects of the works of architecture and, finally, for the declared accreditation from scientific bodies and evaluation structures of Athenaeums. As it is not reasonable to imagine an automatic correspondence between project and its research value, such value is clearly verifiable when for it are underlined specific qualifications in base to genetic peculiarity, to particular operational developments, to exemplary modes of production, to evident cultural, social, economic and environmen- tal effects. Within the various components of the design introduced recently by the CUN (National University Council, the reference of technological design to the problem solving field, in which it is possible to organize decision-making abilities and manage information for the project success, refers to the knowledge fields and to the activities that interact with the know-how, with the method and with the simultaneity of theoretical and prac- tical knowledge.

  19. Inferring relationships between clinical mastitis, productivity and fertility: a recursive model application including genetics, farm associated herd management, and cow-specific antibiotic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Pia; Brügemann, Kerstin; Yin, Tong; V Borstel, U König; Wu, Xiao-Lin; König, Sven

    2013-10-01

    A dataset of test-day records, fertility traits, and one health trait including 1275 Brown Swiss cows kept in 46 small-scale organic farms was used to infer relationships among these traits based on recursive Gaussian-threshold models. Test-day records included milk yield (MY), protein percentage (PROT-%), fat percentage (FAT-%), somatic cell score (SCS), the ratio of FAT-% to PROT-% (FPR), lactose percentage (LAC-%), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Female fertility traits were defined as the interval from calving to first insemination (CTFS) and success of a first insemination (SFI), and the health trait was clinical mastitis (CM). First, a tri-trait model was used which postulated the recursive effect of a test-day observation in the early period of lactation on liability to CM (LCM), and further the recursive effect of LCM on the following test-day observation. For CM and female fertility traits, a bi-trait recursive Gaussian-threshold model was employed to estimate the effects from CM to CTFS and from CM on SFI. The recursive effects from CTFS and SFI onto CM were not relevant, because CM was recorded prior to the measurements for CTFS and SFI. Results show that the posterior heritability for LCM was 0.05, and for all other traits, heritability estimates were in reasonable ranges, each with a small posterior SD. Lowest heritability estimates were obtained for female reproduction traits, i.e. h(2)=0.02 for SFI, and h(2)≈0 for CTFS. Posterior estimates of genetic correlations between LCM and production traits (MY and MUN), and between LCM and somatic cell score (SCS), were large and positive (0.56-0.68). Results confirm the genetic antagonism between MY and LCM, and the suitability of SCS as an indicator trait for CM. Structural equation coefficients describe the impact of one trait on a second trait on the phenotypic pathway. Higher values for FAT-% and FPR were associated with a higher LCM. The rate of change in FAT-% and in FPR in the ongoing lactation with

  20. Effects of herd management practices on somatic cell counts in an arid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between average lactation somatic cell counts (SCC and herd management practices in an arid climate. A total of 38,530 average lactation SCC records for 10,216 Holstein cows gathered on 25 dairy farms from January 2009 to October 2012 in Isfahan (Iran were analyzed. Average lactation SCC (cells × 1,000 was 250.79 ranging from 90.31 to 483.23 cells/mL across investigated farms. Herd-level management factors associated with average lactation SCC were determined separately using mixed linear models in the MIXED procedure with average lactation somatic cell score (SCS included as the dependent variable. Some of the management practices associated with low average lactation SCS included sawdust combined with sand bedding, using automatic cup removers, disinfection of the teats by dipping into disinfectant, using washable towels for teat cleaning, free-stall barns, wet disposable tissue for udder washing, wearing gloves during milking and the use of humidifiers and shade. Lower-production herds and larger-size herds had lower average lactation somatic cell counts. Most herd management practices associated with average lactation SCC in dairy herds in the arid region of Isfahan are in agreement with most previous studies. However, different results are found for use of humidifier, bedding materials and herd size.

  1. Diagnostic herd sensitivity using environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Seyfarth, Anne Mette

    . In our example, the prevalence of infected pigs in each herd was estimated from the pooled samples of nasal swabs. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of animal prevalence on the probability to detect MRSA in the dust and air samples at herd level. The results show a significant increase...... of the within herd prevalence, and performed almost perfectly at a prevalence of 25% infected pigs (sensitivity=99%). In general, the dependence of within herd prevalence should be considered in designing surveillance programs based on environmental samples.......Due to logistic and economic benefits, the animal industry has an increased interest in using environmental samples to classify herds free of infections. For a valid interpretation of results obtained from environmental samples, the performance of the diagnostic method using these samples must...

  2. Rapeseed research and production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the largest oilseed crop in China and accounts for about 20% of world production. For the last 10 years, the production, planting area, and yield of rapeseed have been stable, with improvement of seed quality and especially seed oil content. China is among the leading countries in rapeseed genomic research internationally, having jointly with other countries accomplished the whole genome sequencing of rapeseed and its two parental species, Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Progress on functional genomics including the identification of QTL governing important agronomic traits such as yield, seed oil content, fertility regulation, disease and insect resistance, abiotic stress, nutrition use efficiency, and pod shattering resistance has been achieved. As a consequence, molecular markers have been developed and used in breeding programs. During 2005–2014, 215 rapeseed varieties were registered nationally, including 210 winter- and 5 spring-type varieties. Mechanization across the whole process of rapeseed production was investigated and operating instructions for all relevant techniques were published. Modern techniques for rapeseed field management such as high-density planting, controlled-release fertilizer, and biocontrol of disease and pests combined with precision tools such as drones have been developed and are being adopted in China. With the application of advanced breeding and production technologies, in the near future, the oil yield and quality of rapeseed varieties will be greatly increased, and more varieties with desirable traits, especially early maturation, high yield, high resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and suitability for mechanized harvesting will be developed. Application of modern technologies on the mechanized management of rapeseed will greatly increase grower profit.

  3. Change in lameness risk estimates in piglets due to the modelling of herd-level variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, M.K.; Christensen, J.

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study (Christensen, 1996. Prev. Vet. Med. 26, 107-118), an effect parameter changed from positive to negative depending on the model used. The study considered lameness in suckling piglets and the dataset included 7632 litters from 35 herds from the Health and Production Surveillance...... farrowing but before lameness or weaning occurred. This is, therefore, an example where not only the variances but also the effect parameters changed when we accounted for herd-level variation....

  4. 9 CFR 104.4 - Products for research and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.4 Products for research and evaluation. (a) An application for a U.S. Veterinary Biological Product Permit to import a biological product for research and evaluation shall be accompanied by...

  5. A European longitudinal study in Salmonella seronegative- and seropositive-classified finishing pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Fo Wong, D M A; Dahl, J; Wingstrand, A; van der Wolf, P J; von Altrock, A; Thorberg, B M

    2004-10-01

    Surveillance and control are important aspects of food safety assurance strategies at the pre-harvest level of pork production. Prior to implementation of a Salmonella surveillance and control programme, it is important to have knowledge on the dynamics and epidemiology of Salmonella infections in pig herds. For this purpose, 17 finishing pig herds initially classified as seropositive and 15 as seronegative, were followed for a 2-year period through serological and bacteriological sampling. The study included 10 herds from Denmark, 13 from The Netherlands, 4 from Germany and 5 from Sweden and was performed between October 1996 and May 1999. The Salmonella status of finishing pig herds was determined by an initial blood sampling of approximately 50 finishing pigs close to market weight per herd. The development of the Salmonella status of the selected herds was assessed at seven subsequent sampling rounds of 25 blood samples from finishing pigs, 25 blood samples from grower pigs and 10 pen faecal samples each, approximately 3 months apart. The odds for testing finishers seropositive, given that growers were found seropositive previously were 10 times higher than if growers were seronegative (OR 10.0, 95% CI 3.2-32.8). When Salmonella was isolated from pen faecal samples, the herd was more likely to be classified seropositive in the same sampling round, compared to no Salmonella being detected (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.1-14.6). The stability of an initially allocated Salmonella status was found to vary noticeably with time, apparently irrespective of a seropositive or seronegative classification at onset of the study. Given the measured dynamics in the occurrence of Salmonella in pig herds, regular testing is necessary to enable producers, advisors and authorities to react to sudden increases in the Salmonella prevalence in single herds or at a national level.

  6. A Multi-level hierarchic Markov process with Bayesian updating for herd optimization and simulation in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeter, R.M.; Kristensen, A.R.; Dijkstra, J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Herd optimization models that determine economically optimal insemination and replacement decisions are valuable research tools to study various aspects of farming systems. The aim of this study was to develop a herd optimization and simulation model for dairy cattle. The model determines

  7. NITROSO RUBBER RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPOLYMERIZATION, VISCOSITY, VULCANIZATION, ANHYDRIDES, SUCCINATES, ANILINES , AROMATIC COMPOUNDS, NITRATES, BENZOIC ACIDS, NITRITES, NITROBENZENES ...FLUORINE COMPOUNDS, *HALOCARBON PLASTICS, *SYNTHETIC RUBBER, SYNTHESIS (CHEMISTRY), PRODUCTION, PRODUCTION, ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS, ACETATES

  8. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  9. Herd specific risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, Heiko; Woeste, Henrike; Doehring, Stefanie; Fahrion, Anna S; Doherr, Marcus G; Beilage, Elisabeth grosse

    2013-04-12

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia mainly occurring in fattening pigs. It is assumed that horizontal transmission of the pathogen during nursery and growing phase starts with few suckling pigs vertically infected by the sow. The aim of the present study was the exploration of the herd prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs followed by an investigation of various herd specific factors for their potential of influencing the occurrence of this pathogen at the age of weaning. In this cross-sectional study, 125 breeding herds were examined by taking nasal swabs from 20 suckling pigs in each herd. In total, 3.9% (98/2500) of all nasal swabs were tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR. Piglets tested positive originated from 46 different herds resulting in an overall herd prevalence of 36.8% (46/125) for M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs at the age of weaning. While the herds were epidemiologically characterized, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae was significantly increased, when the number of purchased gilts per year was more than 120 (OR: 5.8), and when the number of farrowing pens per compartment was higher than 16 (OR: 3.3). In herds with a planned and segregated production, where groups of sows entered previously emptied farrowing units, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae in piglets was higher in herds with two or four weeks between batches than in herds with one or three weeks between batches (OR: 2.7). In this cross-sectional study, several risk factors could be identified enhancing the probability of breeding herds to raise suckling pigs already infected with M. hyopneumoniae at the time of weaning. Interestingly, some factors (farrowing rhythm, gilt acclimatisation issues) were overlapping with those also influencing the seroprevalences among sows or the transmission of the pathogen between older age groups. Taking the multifactorial character of enzootic pneumonia

  10. The cost of a case of subclinical ketosis in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohary, Khaled; Overton, Michael W; Von Massow, Michael; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Lissemore, Kerry D; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a model to estimate the cost of a case of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in Canadian dairy herds. Costs were derived from the default inputs, and included increased clinical disease incidence attributable to SCK, $76; longer time to pregnancy, $57; culling and death in early lactation attributable to SCK, $26; milk production loss, $44. Given these figures, the cost of 1 case of SCK was estimated to be $203. Sensitivity analysis showed that the estimated cost of a case of SCK was most sensitive to the herd-level incidence of SCK and the cost of 1 day open. In conclusion, SCK negatively impacts dairy herds and losses are dependent on the herd-level incidence and factors included in the calculation.

  11. A European longitudinal study in Salmonella seronegative and seropositive-classified finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Wingstrand, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Surveillance and control are important aspects of food safety assurance strategies at the pre-harvest level of pork production. Prior to implementation of a Salmonella surveillance and control programme, it is important to have knowledge on the dynamics and epidemiology of Salmonella infections...... and was performed between October 1996 and May 1999. The Salmonella status of finishing pig herds was determined by an initial blood sampling of approximately 50 finishing pigs close to market weight per herd. The development of the Salmonella status of the selected herds was assessed at seven subsequent sampling.......0, 95 % CI 3.2-32.8). When Salmonella was isolated from pen faecal samples, the herd was more likely to be classified seropositive in the same sampling round, compared to no Salmonella being detected (OR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.1-14.6). The stability of an initially allocated Salmonella status was found to vary...

  12. Extensive sequence divergence among bovine respiratory syncytial viruses isolated during recurrent outbreaks in closed herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleotides coding for the extracellular part of the G glycoprotein and the full SH protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were sequenced from viruses isolated from numerous outbreaks of BRSV infection. The isolates included viruses isolated from the same herd (closed dairy farms......, however, the most likely explanation was that BRSV was (re)introduced into the herd prior to each new outbreak These findings are highly relevant for the understanding of the transmission patterns of BRSV among calves and human respiratory syncytial virus among humans....... and veal calf production units) in different years and from all confirmed outbreaks in Denmark within a short period. The results showed that identical viruses were isolated within a herd during outbreaks and that viruses from recurrent infections varied by up to 11% in sequence even in closed herds...

  13. Environmental and animal factors associated with gestation length in Holstein cows and heifers in two herds in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, R; Rezac, P; Havlicek, Z

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of the month of conception, month of calving, sex of the calf, and twins on gestation length (GL) in Holstein cows and heifers in two dairy herds with different milk yields. The study was performed in northeast Czech Republic over a 6-year period on two commercial dairy herds with a mean annual milk production of 11,060 kg per cow in the higher milk-producing herd and 8854 kg per cow in the lower milk-producing herd. Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer in the higher milk-producing herd than that in the lower milk-producing herd throughout the year (P Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer than that in heifers through the whole year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that conceived in the first months of the year was longer than in those that conceived in the last months of the year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that calved in late fall and throughout winter was longer than in those that calved in spring and summer in both herds (P Gestation length in females carrying male calves was longer than in those carrying female calves (P Gestation length in cows (P < 0.0001) and heifers (P < 0.05) carrying singles was longer than in those carrying twins in both herds. In conclusion, results indicate that GL in Holstein cattle is associated with the month of conception, month of calving, herd, parity, sex of the calf, and twins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aquisiton and management of reindeer herd data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Clarke

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining and maintaining accurate records of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus herd data has become a necessary tool for efficient herd management. A computerized record keeping and reporting system was developed due to the speed which which animals were seen at the seasonal handlings. Custom software was written using the dBASE III + data management package to handle the special needs of herd record keeping. The software was then compiled using the Clipper compiler. The resulting program and data were implemented in ramdisk on a Toshiba 3100 microcomputer. Data structures were carefully chosen to provide for recording of tag identification, sex, age, body weight, abnormalities, disease testing, and treatments for each deer. Additionally, fields were provided to maintain records of ongoing biologic experiments. A report generation program was written to provide a current herd status report to the herders.

  15. Comparison of the antimicrobial consumption in weaning pigs in Danish sow herds with different vaccine purchase patterns during 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temtem, Carolina; Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern about development of antimicrobial resistance due to use of antimicrobials (AMs) in livestock production. Identifying efficient alternatives, including vaccination, is a priority. The objective of this study was to compare the herd-level amount of AMs prescribed...... for weaner pigs, between Danish sow herds using varying combinations of vaccines against Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LAW). It was hypothesised that herds purchasing vaccines, use these to prevent disease, and hence reduce their AM consumption......, compared to herds purchasing fewer or no vaccines against these pathogens. Data summarised over year 2013 were obtained from the Danish Central Husbandry Register and the Danish VetStat database, in which prescriptions of medication are recorded. All one-site indoor pig herds with >50 sows and >200 weaners...

  16. On the surveillance for animal diseases in small herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Small herds may present a problem in surveillance for infectious animal diseases because typical levels of a within-herd design prevalence are not directly applicable. We suggest a definition of small herds as those smaller than 2/(within-herd design prevalence) on the basis that such herds would...... conservative (lower) estimates of the confidence for a given sample size and should therefore be preferred....

  17. Trypanosoma brucei Infection in a herd of sedentary cattle in Danja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypanosoma brucei Infection in a herd of sedentary cattle in Danja Local Government Area, Katsina State, Northern Nigeria– A possible resurgence of Tsetse flies ... resulted in advocacy for pastoralists to settle down into productive cattle production compared to the nomadic behavior which does not enhance productivity.

  18. A note on effectiveness of dry cow therapy in New Zealand dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, J W; Barker, R M; Twomey, A; Duirs, G

    1982-04-01

    Two dry-cow therapy products were evaluated in seven factory-supply dairy herds in the Waikato area. A product containing neomycin sulphate and the benzathine salt of penicillin (Neopen D.C. White; Smith-Biolab) was used in five herds, and one containing benzathine cloxacillin (Orbenin, Beecham) was used in two herds. Non-treated control cows were included in each herd. Both products were effective in eliminating intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Efficacy of dry-cow therapy against S. aureus was 83.8% and 85.2% respectively. Spontaneous cure rate among controls was 30.8% for S. aureus during the dry period. Spontaneous cure rate for Str. uberis was 50%, while dry-cow therapy eliminated 100% and 77.8%, respectively, for the two products. Dry-cow therapy with either product eliminated more than 90% of Str. agalactiae infections while spontaneous cure rate was only 28.6%. These results further support the effectiveness of dry-cow therapy in reducing the level of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds by shortening the duration of intramammary infections.

  19. Women Academics and Research Productivity: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiston, Sarah Jane; Jung, Jisun

    2015-01-01

    In the prestige economy of higher education, research productivity is highly prized. Previous research indicates, however, a gender gap with respect to research output. This gap is often explained by reference to familial status and responsibilities. In this article, we examine the research productivity gender gap from an international perspective…

  20. Research productivity of academics in a physiotherapy department ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research productivity of academics in a physiotherapy department: a case study. ... Method: An archival research design was used to document the research ... and consensus was reached on the information to be included in the study.

  1. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skog Lars

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  2. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Skog, Lars; Frössling, Jenny; Wahlström, Helene

    2011-10-05

    The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  3. Temporal trends in reproductive performance in Irish dairy herds and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee John F

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring breeding season. However, the top quartile of herds achieved a first-service conception rate of 59%, illustrating the wide variation between herds. These phenotypic trends were attributed to both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Recent Irish dairy herd fertility performance falls short of the targets set for seasonal compact calving.

  4. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...... and eggs. In some cases, the potential of organic farming is associated with the adoption of organic principles into existing systems with the aim of improving sustainability, and achieving environmentally friendly production, food security and good food quality. In the US, government support for organic...

  5. Resistance to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with high somatic cell counts in organic and conventional dairy herds in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaarst Mette

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quarter milk samples from cows with high risk of intramammary infection were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA and penicillin resistant SA (SAr in conventional and organic dairy herds and herds converting to organic farming in a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Methods 20 conventional herds, 18 organic herds that converted before 1995, and 19 herds converting to organic farming in 1999 or 2000 were included in the study. Herds converting to organic farming were sampled three times one year apart; the other herds were sampled once. Risk of infection was estimated based on somatic cell count, milk production, breed, age and lactation stage. Results The high-risk cows represented about 49 % of the cows in the herds. The overall prevalence of SA and SAr among these cows was 29% (95% confidence interval: 24%–34% and 4% (95% confidence interval: 2%–5% respectively. The prevalence of penicillin resistance among SA infected cows was 12% (95% confidence interval: 6%–19% when calculated from the first herd visits. No statistically significant differences were observed in the prevalence of SAr or the proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin between herd groups. Conclusion The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin was low compared to studies in other countries except Norway and Sweden. Based on the low prevalence of penicillin resistance of SA, penicillin should still be the first choice of antimicrobial agent for treatment of bovine intramammary infection in Denmark.

  6. USDA/ARS Organic Production Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    For much of its history, USDA/ARS had little to do with research on organic agriculture, however research in organic systems has made considerable gains at the agency over the past decade. In the 1980's and 1990's, as the organic food industry was taking off, ARS researchers who wanted to serve orga...

  7. Determinants of Research Productivity in Spanish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A.; Legazpe, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to widen the empirical evidence about the determinants of Spanish academics' publication productivity across fields of study. We use the Spanish Survey on Human Resources in Science and Technology addressed to Spanish resident PhDs employed in Spanish universities as academics. Productivity is measured as the total number of…

  8. A demonstration project of interdisciplinary dairy herd extension advising funded by industry and users. 2. Impact on herd performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R R; Cassel, E K; Varner, M A; Douglass, L W; Vough, L R; Manspeaker, J E; Stewart, L E; Wysong, J W; Eickelberger, R C

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this 24-herd, demonstration project of extension advising were to measure the impact of integrated problem solving on measures of DHI performance for 2 yr during and 2 yr after the project. During project advising, increases in rolling herd average milk and fat yields and 3.5% FCM were similar for project and state herds. When rolling herd average for milk yield for state herds was adjusted for two USDA milk reduction programs, milk yield of project herds was estimated to have increased 434 lb more per cow than that of DHI state herds. Compared with state DHI trends, project producers significantly improved in percentage of low SCC, days open, and age at first calving. Two years postproject, DHI milk yield declined for project and state herds, probably because of drought. Demonstration herds did not outperform state DHI herd average in milk yield or in other efficiency parameters during the 2-yr postproject. The extension advising in the demonstration project had the most positive impact on management of low ranking herds. Only low ranking herds had an advantage in rate of improvement, compared with high ranking herds, in rolling herd average for milk yield during and after the project and in SCC and days open during the project. Gains by managers of herds ranking low and in the middle in DHI parameters were generally lost or declining postproject.

  9. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Population decline in the Delta caribou herd with reference to other Alaskan herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg et al.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After growing continuously for nearly 15 years, the Delta caribou herd began to decline in 1989. Most other Interior Alaskan herds also began declining. In the Delta herd, and in other herds, the declines were caused primarily by high summer mortality of calves and increased natural mortality of adult females. Other minor causes included increased winter mortality of calves, and reduced parturition rates of 3-year-old and older females. The decline in the Delta herd also coincided with increased wolf (Canis lupus numbers, winters with deeper than normal snow, and warm summers. Mean body weight of annual samples of 10-month-old female calves was consistently low during the decline. Except in some of the smallest Interior Alaskan herds, we conclude that evidence for population regulation in Alaskan caribou is weak, and that herds are likely to fluctuate within a wide range of densities due to complex interactions of predation and weather. Unless wolf numbers are influenced by man, the size of a caribou herd in a given year is likely to be largely a function of its size during the previous population low and the number of years of favorable weather in the interim.

  11. Herd-level diagnosis for Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Dublin infection in bovine dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, J.; Barkema, H.W.; Schans, van de J.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Verhoeff, J.

    2002-01-01

    Herd-level sensitivities of bacteriological and serological methods were compared in 79 bovine dairy herds, recently infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin. All farms experienced clinical signs of salmonellosis for the first time and had no history of vaccination against

  12. North American long-term soil productivity research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Marilyn A. Buford; Robert F. Powers; Jerry F. Ragus; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Felix Ponder; Douglas M. Stone

    1997-01-01

    The National Long-term Soil Productivity research program was chartered to address National Forest Management Act concerns over possible losses n soil productivity on national forest lands. The program supports validation of soil quality monitoring standards and process-level productivity research. Summarized results are supplied to forests as collected. National...

  13. Techniques in Experimental Mechanics Applicable to Forest Products Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie H. Groom; Audrey G. Zink

    1994-01-01

    The title of this publication-Techniques in Experimental Mechanics Applicable to Forest Products Research-is the theme of this plenary session from the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Forest Products Society (FPS). Although this session focused on experimental techniques that can be of assistance to researchers in the field of forest products, it is hoped that the...

  14. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  15. Research Productivity of Accounting Faculty: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Nixon, Mary R.; Gupta, Ashok; Hoshower, Leon

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 367 accounting faculty members from AACSB accredited Colleges of Business to examine (1) their research productivity and (2) the intrinsic and extrinsic motivators to conduct research. Wide differences in research productivity were observed in the faculty associated with doctoral vs. non-doctoral granting programs. There were…

  16. An Analysis of Female Research Productivity in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the research output of female staff and the factors that affect their research productivity in the Nigerian university system. The study was carried out with a view to promoting strategies that will enhance productivity and increase the research output of female staff in Nigerian universities. The study adopted a survey…

  17. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS, NEOSPOROSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS AMONG CATTLE HERDS IN OYO STATE, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayinmode, Adekunle; Akinseye, Victor; Schares, Gereon; Cadmus, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Several zoonotic diseases are known to constitute great impediment to livestock management and production worldwide, especially in developing countries where control measures are largely non-existent. This study sets out to investigate the occurrence of toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis among cattle herds in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey to screen for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum and Brucella abortus was conducted among 174 cattle in 17 herds. Sera obtained from the cattle were screened for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for Brucella abortus antibodies using Rose Bengal test and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Overall, herd level prevalence of 52.9%, 23.5% and 23.5% as well as individual prevalence of 7.5%, 3.4% and 3.4% was obtained for toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis, respectively. Antibodies to T. gondii , N. caninum and B. abortus were detected in 2 of the 17 herds, T. gondii and N. caninum in 4 herds, and T. gondii and B. abortus in 4 herds. Statistically significant association was only found between seropositivity to T. gondii antibodies and sex (pneosporosis and brucellosis are prevalent among cattle herds screened in the study area. Considering the potential impact of these diseases on livestock management and production, extensive surveillance is necessary for development and implementation of effective control and prevention strategies.

  18. Early State Research on Antifungal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melyssa Negri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by fungi have increased greatly in recent years, mainly due to the rising number of immunocompromised patients. However, the available antifungal therapeutic arsenal is limited, and the development of new drugs has been slow. Therefore, the search for alternative drugs with low resistance rates and fewer side effects remains a major challenge. Plants produce a variety of medicinal components that can inhibit pathogen growth. Studies of plant species have been conducted to evaluate the characteristics of natural drug products, including their sustainability, affordability, and antimicrobial activity. A considerable number of studies of medicinal plants and alternative compounds, such as secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, essential oils and extracts, have been performed. Thus, this review discusses the history of the antifungal arsenal, surveys natural products with potential antifungal activity, discusses strategies to develop derivatives of natural products, and presents perspectives on the development of novel antifungal drug candidates.

  19. Research on Productive Performance and Quality of Milk Obtained from Simmnetal Cows Grown in Agricultural Conditions of Rupea, Brasov County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Claudiu Jurco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focussed on the Romanian spotted breed-Simmental type was aimed to evaluating the productive potential and some reproductive indices in the period 2013-2015 in Sona farm from Brasov county. The main indicators taken into consideration to analyze the whole herd were the following: milk yield, milk quality, age of first calving, mammary repose and calving interval. Analyzing milk production, this was increasing from 5439 kg in 2013 to 7400 kg in 2015, with an average for the entire period of 6324.33 kg with 4.23% fat and 3.42% protein. Also the fat and protein content have increased over this period, from 4.13 % for fat and 3.25 % for protein in 2013, to 4.34 % and 3.56 respectively in 2015. Analyzing the main indicators of reproduction for a period of three years it was found that calving interval is on average of 401 days and mammary repose is around of 54 days. It is clearly observed that during this period the production is increasing, this shows that cows from the Sona farm records genetic progress regarding qualitative and quantitative milk production. The research has done much to show the productive potential and popularity of the Romanian spotted breed-Simmental type in Transylvania region.

  20. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examination.......50. There was no difference between the prevalence in sheep and goat herds. Records for well over half of the herds could be combined with data from the Danish Central Husbandry Register. No association between occurrence of ED and herd size was found. Cattle were registered as contemporarily present on 135 out of 521 herds...

  1. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P ≤ 0.05), lower calf mortality (P ≤ 0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P ≤ 0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P ≤ 0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P ≤ 0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P ≤ 0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors.

  2. Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-05-25

    The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present

  3. Impact of fellowship training on research productivity in academic otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Svider, Peter F; Mauro, Kevin M; Setzen, Michael; Baredes, Soly

    2012-12-01

    Assessment of scholarly productivity as measured by research output is a key component of decisions regarding appointment and advancement in academic otolaryngology. An increasing number of graduating residents are pursuing postresidency fellowships, and evaluation of research productivity among these subspecialists is important in determining their role in academic otolaryngology departments. The h-index is a reliable indicator of research productivity, as it takes into account both quantity and relevance of research contributions. Our objective was to evaluate and compare trends in research productivity among the various otolaryngology subspecialties. Analysis of research productivity trends among otolaryngology subspecialties using the h-index. Faculty members from 92 academic otolaryngology departments were organized by subspecialty and academic rank, and their research productivity, as measured by the h-index, was calculated using the Scopus database. Fellowship-trained otolaryngologists in academic programs had higher h-indices than non-fellowship-trained otolaryngologists. Head and neck surgeons and otologists had significantly higher research productivity than their peers in other otolaryngology subspecialties. Analysis of the subspecialties of chairpersons indicated that 62% were either head and neck surgeons or otologists. Fellowship-trained otolaryngologists had higher h-indices, and faculty members trained in the subspecialties with the highest research productivity were disproportionately represented in positions of leadership within academic otolaryngology, probably reflecting the importance of research contributions in the academic advancement process, although other factors, such as educational contributions and clinical performance, may also be important factors. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Electrocatalysis research for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR undertakes research in the Electrocatalysis of fuel cells and for hydrogen production. The Hydrogen South Africa (HySA) strategy supports research on electrocatalysts due to their importance to the national beneficiation strategy. The work...

  5. Abortion studies in Iranian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk...... factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation...... factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion...

  6. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Secretary, may establish or provide for the establishment of production research, marketing research and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research and market research and...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 7 CFR 917.39 - Production research, market research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... establish or provide for the establishment of production research, marketing research, and development... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research, market research and development...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. Prevalence and herd-level risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Pereira Veloso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of supporting the strategic planning of the National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis, different Brazilian states have been conducting cross-sectional studies, coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply and with scientific support from the University of São Paulo and the University of Brasilia. In Santa Catarina, the State Animal Health Agency (CIDASC conducted a study on bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence and assessment of risk factors in 2012. The state was divided into five regions and, in each region, independent sampling was performed in two steps: (i cattle herds with reproductive activity were randomly selected; and (ii in each herd, a sample of females aged 24 months or older underwent the intradermal comparative tuberculin test. A questionnaire was used to collect data on production characteristics and management practices that could be associated with the tuberculosis infection. Herd prevalence of bovine TB was 0.50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.074–0.93% while the prevalence of TB in adult females was 0.06% (95% CI: 0–0.12%. No significant difference in the prevalence of infected herds and of positive females was observed among the five regions. The logistic regression model revealed that herds with 19 or more females showed an odds ratio (OR of 7.68 (95% CI: 1.22–48.39 compared to smaller herds, while dairy herds presented an OR of 10.43 (95% CI: 2.00–54.25 relative to beef or dual-purpose herds. The results suggest that dairy herds, in which animals are kept in partial or total confinement, and larger herds, which tend to acquire animals more often, are at a higher risk of bovine TB. Given the low prevalence and the type of higher-risk properties, a bovine TB surveillance system should be targeted at the state’s dairy basins, particularly the western region that accounts for the major industries and more intensive dairy farms.

  9. Spelling the Domain of Sustainable Product Innovation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    Bringing scientific disciplines together is increasingly seen as a factor that can strengthen a particular scientific research approach. This has in particular been noted for the field of sustainable product innovation, which builds on disciplines such as Environmental Systems Analysis, Product...... Development, Product Design, Engineering, Economics and Business Administration, Consumer research and Operations management. With so many scientific fields forming the backbone of sustainable product innovation research, it is no surprise that relevant research furthering sustainable product innovation...... is done within various scientific domains. This observation fuels discussions on the need to define what is to be regarded as part of the sustainable product innovation (SPI) research domain, and what is not. In order to answer this question it is necessary to focus not only on topics, but also...

  10. Plant Products Research Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  11. Animal Production Research Advances: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  12. Visual monitoring of reproduction in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Iver; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to produce visual information from reproduction records are described and exemplified. The Event Display shows all reproductive events, over a year, for all cows in a herd, by symbols placed in an array with columns representing calendar weeks and rows representing...... individual cows. The Reproduction Monitor consists of graphs of insemination and pregnancy rates evaluated weekly with a Bayesian technique. These visual monitoring tools are well suited to explore temporal variation in reproductive performance, they provide a quick overview of herd performance......, and they provide information about individual animals....

  13. Forest productivity: an integrated research and development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Thomas R. Crow; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the North Central Research Station initiated the Forest Productivity Integrated Research Program (North Central Research Station 2001). This program combines the efforts of scientists from across the Station's 13 research work units to examine the current condition of the forests in the North Central Region and their prospects for producing wood and fiber...

  14. Management plan for the Chisana caribou herd 2010-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chisana caribou herd (CCH) is a small international herd occurring in Yukon and Alaska on the Klutlan Plateau and near the headwaters of the White River. During...

  15. Optimizing replacement decisions for Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T; Allore, H G

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine how "an optimal herd" would be structured with respect to its calving pattern, average herdlife and calving interval, and to evaluate how sensitive the optimal solution was to changes in input prices, which reflected the situation in Finland in 1998. The study used Finnish input values in an optimization model developed for dairy cow insemination and replacement decisions. The objective of the optimization model was to maximize the expected net present value from present and replacement cows over a given decision horizon. In the optimal solution, the average net revenues per cow were highest in December and lowest in July, due to seasonal milk pricing. Based on the expected net present value of a replacement heifer over the decision horizon, calving in September was optimal. In the optimal solution, an average calving interval was 363 days and average herdlife after first calving was 48.2 months (i.e., approximately 4 complete lactations). However, there was a marked seasonal variation in the length of a calving interval (it being longest in spring and early summer) that can be explained by the goal of having more cows calving in the fall. This, in turn, was due to seasonal milk pricing and higher production in the fall. In the optimal solution, total replacement percentage was 26, with the highest frequency of voluntary culling occurring at the end of the year. Seasonal patterns in calving and replacement frequencies by calendar month and variation in calving interval length or herdlife did not change meaningfully (prices. When the price of a replacement heifer decreased, average herdlife was shorter and replacement percentage increased. When the price increased, the effect was the opposite.

  16. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus antibodies among the industrial dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebkhan Garoussi, M; Haghparast, A; Hajenejad, M R

    2009-04-01

    Mashhad is a major dairy production in Iran. The subject of this study was to survey the seroprevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infection using an indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in industrial dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran. Totally, 141 serum samples were tested. None of the herds had been vaccinated against BVDV. Commercial indirect ELISA kit was used. The herds divided to 3 sizes as cow population. They were included: small, medium and large herds. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Ninety-seven (68.79%) cows were ELISA seropositive. However, the true BVDV seroprevalence was 72.25%. All of the herds were antibody positive against BVDV. The prevalence ranged from 66 to 100% within the herds. There were no significant differences between the presence of antibodies to BVDV and the herd size (P > 0.05). The prevalence in animals lower than 2 years old differed significantly with cows higher than 2 years old (P Mashhad-Iran, which is responsible for the presence antibody.

  17. Research Productivity in Counseling Psychology: An Update. Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Jenkins, Steve M.; Thomas, Adrian; Lindley, Lori D.; Schwartz, Jonathan P.; Loveland, James M.

    2005-01-01

    This article is an update and review of institutional research productivity in counseling psychology. Institutional research productivity is assessed by totaling credits for articles published from 1993 to 2002 in the following journals: "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "The Counseling Psychologist," "Journal of Consulting and Clinical…

  18. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  19. Marketing research: Pathway to optimal market oriented products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the role of marketing research as pathway to developing optimal market oriented products. The objectives of this paper among others are to (i) Establish whether the use of marketing research has effect on new product adoption process by consumers (ii) Find out if there is any relationship between the ...

  20. Assessing Research Productivity: Evaluating Journal Publication across Academic Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwein, Leon B; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Medical faculty publications over a three-year period were used to analyze relative research productivity of one medical school's basic and clinical science departments. Journal citation ratings, number of authors, and faculty member's byline position were used as criteria. Departments varied greatly in research productivity, correlated with…

  1. Peat production. Review of research projects; Turvetuotanto. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The development target in the research area of peat production is to improve the competitiveness of peat by reducing production costs by 20 % (by FIM 5 - 6/MWh) from the level of the year 1992 and to reduce environmental impacts. The most important research objects by which the target in peat production technology will be achieved are drawing and preparation technology, drying technology, mechanical technology, method technology, integration of wood harvesting and peat production, and the application of the results of the OPTIMITURVE Research Programme in practice. (orig.)

  2. Actinide Foil Production for MPACT Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Denis

    2012-10-30

    Sensitive fast-neutron detectors are required for use in lead slowing down spectrometry (LSDS), an active interrogation technique for used nuclear fuel assay for Materials Protection, Accounting, and Controls Technologies (MPACT). During the past several years UNLV sponsored a research project at RPI to investigate LSDS; began development of fission chamber detectors for use in LSDS experiments in collaboration with INL, LANL, and Oregon State U.; and participated in a LSDS experiment at LANL. In the LSDS technique, research has demonstrated that these fission chamber detectors must be sensitive to fission energy neutrons but insensitive to thermal-energy neutrons. Because most systems are highly sensitive to large thermal neutron populations due to the well-known large thermal cross section of 235U, even a miniscule amount of this isotope in a fission chamber will overwhelm the small population of higher-energy neutrons. Thus, fast-fission chamber detectors must be fabricated with highly depleted uranium (DU) or ultra-pure thorium (Th), which is about half as efficient as DU. Previous research conducted at RPI demonstrated that the required purity of DU for assay of used nuclear fuel using LSDS is less than 4 ppm 235U, material that until recently was not available in the U.S. In 2009 the PI purchased 3 grams of ultra-depleted uranium (uDU, 99.99998% 238U with just 0.2 ± 0.1 ppm 235U) from VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. We received the material in the form of U3O8 powder in August of 2009, and verified its purity and depletion in a FY10 MPACT collaboration project. In addition, chemical processing for use in FC R&D was initiated, fission chamber detectors and a scanning alpha-particle spectrometer were developed, and foils were used in a preliminary LSDS experiment at a LANL/LANSCE in Sept. of 2010. The as-received U3O8 powder must be chemically processed to convert it to another chemical form while maintaining its purity, which then must be used to electro-deposit U

  3. Scientific Productivity, Research Funding, Race and Ethnicity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J S; Wang, F; Deng, Y; Ou, F R; Bennett, J R; Liu, Y; Wang, G

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study by Ginther et al., the probability of receiving a U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) RO1 award was related to the applicant's race/ethnicity. The results indicate black/African-American applicants were 10% less likely than white peers to receive an award, after controlling for background and qualifications. It has generated a widespread debate regarding the unfairness of the NIH grant review process and its correction. In this paper, the work by Ginther et al. was augmented by pairing analysis, axiomatically-individualized productivity and normalized funding success measurement. Although there are racial differences in R01 grant success rates, normalized figures of merit for funding success explain the discrepancy. The suggested "leverage points for policy intervention" are in question and require deeper and more thorough investigations. Further adjustments in policies to remove racial disparity should be made more systematically for equal opportunity, rather than being limited to the ...

  4. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Eight cycles in a coordinated set of projects for Solar Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen production (STCH) were self-evaluated for the DOE-EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program at a Working Group Meeting on October 8 and 9, 2008. This document reports the initial selection process for development investment in STCH projects, the evaluation process meant to reduce the number of projects as a means to focus resources on development of a few most-likely-to-succeed efforts, the obstacles encountered in project inventory reduction and the outcomes of the evaluation process. Summary technical status of the projects under evaluation is reported and recommendations identified to improve future project planning and selection activities.

  5. Dialogues between audience research and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of the audience testing of television drama from The Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR) by the in-house DR Media Research Department from the mid-1990s until 2016. The article investigates how the methods for testing have changed from more traditional...... focus groups and surveys to include biometric methods (e.g. skin conductance) to measure audience arousal. While audience testing is often primarily viewed as a quality measurement tool for executives, the article argues that testing can also be a dialogue-based tool offering creative practitioners...

  6. Modelling the dynamics and economics of health in individual dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Collaboration with practicing veterinarians was established in a research project and has resulted in several epidemiologic tools to assist them in their work. Simultaneously, the research group obtained continuous access to valid and precise data and obtained first-hand knowledge about real......-life problems for the dairy farmer and the practicing veterinarian. The veterinarian was able to supply detailed information concerning managerial routines applied on the farm. Epidemiologic analyses of the collected data produced input for herd-specific modelling of herd dynamic and economic effects...

  7. Determining the Ratio of Animal Species in the Herd of Pre-Class Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegantsev Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methodology of research of domestic animals herd composition in ancient societies, based on the materials of Late Bronze and Early Iron Age sites located in the Western part of forest-steppe and steppe of Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan. The theoretical portion of the article demonstrates that percentage composition of the ancient herd can be restored only by taking into account the early maturation of the domestic ungulates forming its component part. The values of their early maturation depend on the distribution of animals by age. The formulas, derived through herd models developed, make it possible to determine the required distribution, based on the number of animal units of different ages in osteological collections. They are not affected by the type of herd reproduction. The application of the derived formulas in order to determine the early maturation of large and small cattle, and horses in the settlements of certain cultures in forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones, has confirmed the adequacy of the model in explaining the archaeological data. It has also been shown that economic specialization of successive Late Bronze and Early Iron Age cultures in the region was determined mainly by the horse. The study of different methods of determining ancient herd composition has made it possible to come to the following conclusion. The method of transition from identifiable bones in the excavation to the number of animal units corresponding to them, and then, by determining early maturation of different species, to their ratio in the ancient herd, has an absolute priority as compared to the method of transition from the identifiable bones directly to herd composition.

  8. Relationships between functional herd life and conformation traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    contemporary group, age at classification (fitted as linear and quadratic), and days in milk (fitted as linear and quadratic). The fixed effects for functional herd life were herd-year, registry status x herd size change x season of calving (rhs), age at calving (fitted as linear and quadratic), protein within rhs, protein and fat yield.

  9. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion...

  10. Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    finishing pig herds. A total of 79 herds was randomly selected and visited during 1998. From each herd, 20 faecal samples were collected from individual pigs weighing 30-50kg. Furthermore, 10 pooled pen samples were collected and examined for S. enterica. In total, 1580 faecal samples and 790 pen samples...

  11. Some herding, record keeping and treatment methods used in Alaskan reindeer herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dieterich

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20000 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus in Alaska are gathered once or twice yearly to facilitate identification, serologic sampling, treatment and antler removal. Various air and land craft are used to bring the animals into a corral system from which they can be herded into a padded, pneumatically operated, squeeze apparatus. Ear tags are applied or read if already in place and ears are notched. A portable, computerized rapid data retrieval system is used to record reproductive success, vaccination and treatment status and other miscellaneous information. Ivermectin is being administered in the early winter months to treat reindeer in many herds for warbles, nasal bots and internal parasites. A killed, homologous Brucella suis type 4 vaccine is being used in two large (3500 herds. Efforts are being made to incorporate other innovative methods to improve herding and corralling methods.

  12. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  13. Herding, Social Preferences and (Non-) Conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Corazzini; Ben Greiner

    2005-01-01

    We study the role of social preferences and conformity in explaining herding behavior in anonymous risky environments. In an experiment similar to information cascade settings, but with no private information, we find no evidence for conformity. On the contrary, we observe a significant amount of non-conforming behavior, which cannot be attributed to errors.

  14. The diversity of BVDV subgenotypes in a vaccinated dairy cattle herd in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otonel, Rodrigo A A; Alfieri, Alice F; Dezen, Stelamaris; Lunardi, Michele; Headley, Selwyn A; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of cattle that occurs worldwide with substantial economic impact on beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to describe the diversity of BVDV subgenotypes in persistently infected (PI) animals identified in a highly productive, regularly vaccinated, dairy cattle herd presenting with reproductive failure. Serum samples were collected from all animals within the herd (n = 692) and used to detect the presence of BVDV RNA. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, 29 cows were identified as transiently infected, three animals (two cows and one calf) as persistently infected, and one calf as putative BVDV PI animal. The sequences of 5'UTR and/or N(pro) gene of BVDV used in phylogenetic analyses revealed that the three PI animals were infected by three different BVDV subgenotypes (BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-1d). These results demonstrated that in an open dairy cattle herd, regular vaccination against BVDV by itself is not able to prevent viral circulation in the herd. Furthermore, depending on the frequency of the acquisition of heifers and/or cows for replacement, several BVDV subgenotypes may co-exist simultaneously in the same herd.

  15. VAO Tools Enhance CANDELS Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Gretchen; Donley, J.; Rodney, S.; LAZIO, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Busko, I.; Hanisch, R. J.; VAO Team; CANDELS Team

    2013-01-01

    The formation of galaxies and their co-evolution with black holes through cosmic time are prominent areas in current extragalactic astronomy. New methods in science research are building upon collaborations between scientists and archive data centers which span large volumes of multi-wavelength and heterogeneous data. A successful example of this form of teamwork is demonstrated by the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) collaboration. The CANDELS project archive data provider services are registered and discoverable in the VAO through an innovative web based Data Discovery Tool, providing a drill down capability and cross-referencing with other co-spatially located astronomical catalogs, images and spectra. The CANDELS team is working together with the VAO to define new methods for analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions of galaxies containing active galactic nuclei, and helping to evolve advanced catalog matching methods for exploring images of variable depths, wavelengths and resolution. Through the publication of VOEvents, the CANDELS project is publishing data streams for newly discovered supernovae that are bright enough to be followed from the ground.

  16. AUTOMATION RESEARCHES IN FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a natural polymeric material which has a heterogenic nature. The natural growth process and environmental influence can lead to features in wood that are undesirable for certain applications and are known as defects. Defects in wood affect the visual appearance and structural properties of wood. The type of defect is based on whether growth, environmental conditions, handling or processing causes it. The definition and acceptability of defect types can vary between industries. Wood materials such as log, lumber and parquet are usually subject to a classification before selling and these materials are sold based on their quality grades. The ability to detect internal defects both in the log and lumber can save mills time and processing costs. In this study, information on the automation research conducted for detection the defects in wood materials were given. As a result, it is indicated that there are numerous scanning methods able to detect wood features, but no one method is adequate for all defect types

  17. Dynamics of serum antibodies to and load of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 in pigs in three finishing herds, affected or not by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Anne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite that PMWS commonly affects pigs aged eight to sixteen weeks; most studies of PMWS have been conducted during the period before transfer to finishing herds. This study focused on PCV2 load and antibody dynamics in finishing herds with different PMWS status. Methods Sequentially collected blood samples from 40 pigs in each of two Swedish (A and B and one Norwegian (C finishing herds were analysed for serum PCV2-load and -antibodies and saliva cortisol. The two Swedish herds differed in PMWS status, despite receiving animals from the same sow pool (multi-site production. However, the PMWS-deemed herd (A had previously also received pigs from the spot market. ResultsThe initial serum PCV2 load was similar in the two Swedish herds. In herd A, it peaked after two weeks in the finishing herd and a high number of the pigs had serum PCV2 levels above 107 per ml. The antibody titres increased continually with exception for the pigs that developed PMWS, that had initially low and then declining antibody levels. Pigs in the healthy herd B also expressed high titres of antibodies to PCV2 on arrival but remained at that level throughout the study whereas the viral load steadily decreased. No PCV2 antibodies and only low amounts of PCV2 DNA were detected in serum collected during the first five weeks in the PMWS-free herd C. Thereafter a peak in serum PCV2 load accompanied by an antibody response was recorded. PCV2 from the two Swedish herds grouped into genotype PCV2b whereas the Norwegian isolate grouped into PCV2a. Cortisol levels were lower in herd C than in herds A and B. Conclusions The most obvious difference between the Swedish finishing herds and the Norwegian herd was the time of infection with PCV2 in relation to the time of allocation, as well as the genotype of PCV2. Clinical PMWS was preceded by low levels of serum antibodies and a high load of PCV2 but did not develop in all such animals. It is notable that herd A

  18. Dynamics of serum antibodies to and load of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pigs in three finishing herds, affected or not by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Inger M; Fossum, Caroline; Lium, Bjørn; Blomqvist, Gunilla; Merlot, Elodie; Jørgensen, Anne; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Rimstad, Espen; Jonassen, Christine M; Wallgren, Per

    2010-03-19

    Despite that PMWS commonly affects pigs aged eight to sixteen weeks; most studies of PMWS have been conducted during the period before transfer to finishing herds. This study focused on PCV2 load and antibody dynamics in finishing herds with different PMWS status. Sequentially collected blood samples from 40 pigs in each of two Swedish (A and B) and one Norwegian (C) finishing herds were analysed for serum PCV2-load and -antibodies and saliva cortisol. The two Swedish herds differed in PMWS status, despite receiving animals from the same sow pool (multi-site production). However, the PMWS-deemed herd (A) had previously also received pigs from the spot market. The initial serum PCV2 load was similar in the two Swedish herds. In herd A, it peaked after two weeks in the finishing herd and a high number of the pigs had serum PCV2 levels above 107 per ml. The antibody titres increased continually with exception for the pigs that developed PMWS, that had initially low and then declining antibody levels. Pigs in the healthy herd B also expressed high titres of antibodies to PCV2 on arrival but remained at that level throughout the study whereas the viral load steadily decreased. No PCV2 antibodies and only low amounts of PCV2 DNA were detected in serum collected during the first five weeks in the PMWS-free herd C. Thereafter a peak in serum PCV2 load accompanied by an antibody response was recorded. PCV2 from the two Swedish herds grouped into genotype PCV2b whereas the Norwegian isolate grouped into PCV2a. Cortisol levels were lower in herd C than in herds A and B. The most obvious difference between the Swedish finishing herds and the Norwegian herd was the time of infection with PCV2 in relation to the time of allocation, as well as the genotype of PCV2. Clinical PMWS was preceded by low levels of serum antibodies and a high load of PCV2 but did not develop in all such animals. It is notable that herd A became affected by PMWS after errors in management routine

  19. Associations between milking practices, somatic cell counts and milk postharvest losses in smallholder dairy and pastoral camel herds in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier B. Kashongwe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On-farm hygienic practices are important in assuring quality and safety of milk for consumers and for reducing losses at production and at post-harvest. This study investigated the relationship between milking practices, mastitis as well as milk somatic cell counts (SCC and the effects of high SCC on milk production and post-harvest losses (PHL in smallholder dairy (n = 64 and pastoral camel (n = 15 herds in Kenya. The collected data included milking practices, mastitis test on udder quarters (n = 1236 and collection of milk samples for laboratory analyses: SCC, detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species. Production losses were computed as a proportion of cows and herds with SCC (>200,000 cells/mL and PHL as quantity of milk exceeding 4 × 105 cells/mL. Practices associated with production herds included hands, udder washing and drying, and milk let down stimulation with calves suckling or manually (p < 0.001. Udder drying was only applied in peri-urban herds (100%. Herd level prevalence of mastitis was lower in smallholder than in pastoral herds (60.7% vs 93.3%. Mastitis positive samples had higher prevalence of S.aureus than of Streptococcus species in both smallholder (57.9% vs 23.7% and pastoral (41.6% vs 36.5% herds. Moreover, SCC was significantly affected by presence of mastitis and S.aureus (p < 0.001. Milk PHL from high SCC was higher in smallholder rural herds (27% compared to peri-urban (7% and in pastoral peri-urban (81% compared to rangelands (76%. Milking practices may have contributed to maintain mastitis pathogens in herds. This has led to substantial pre and postharvest milk losses in smallholder and pastoral herds. Therefore teat dipping, dry cow period and herd level mastitis treatment may complement current practices for lower SCC and milk PHL.

  20. Demographic and academic factors affecting research productivity at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though all academics have research interest, all are not producing research output which is accredited by the Department of Education (DOE). We analyzed the demographic and academic factors that affect DOE recognized research productivity of academics at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) between 2004 and ...

  1. The Commercialisation of University Research and Economic Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between university research (in this case science research) and national economic productivity, particularly in the context of the emerging knowledge economy. It addresses the question of whether university research output should be treated as a public good or a private good, in economic terms, and analyses…

  2. Market research companies and new product development tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, Edwin J.; Frambach, Ruud T.

    1998-01-01

    This research investigates (1) the share of new product development (NPD) research services in market research (MR) companies' turnover, (2) MR companies' awareness and use of NPD tools and the modifications made to these NPD tools, and (3) MR company managers' perceptions of the influence of client

  3. Market research companies and new product development tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; Frambach, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This research investigates (1) the share of new product development (NPD) research services in market research (MR) companies’ turnover, (2) MR companies’ awareness and use of NPD tools and the modifications made to these NPD tools, and (3) MR company managers’ perceptions of the influence of client

  4. Research productivity in the era of internet revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2009-01-01

    In distributed research teams, internet is used for coordination, exchange of resources and sharing work, with the underlying assumption that internet use increases research productivity. The purpose of the article is to investigate this assumption in the context of two distributed research teams,

  5. Expanding the dairy herd in pasture-based systems: the role for sexed semen use on virgin heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I A; Shalloo, L; Butler, S T

    2013-02-01

    A model was developed to examine the effects of sexed semen use on replacement heifer numbers and rate of herd expansion in a seasonal dairy production system. Three separate herds were established according to the type of semen used on virgin heifers: conventional frozen-thawed (Conv), sexed fresh (SFre), or sexed frozen-thawed (SFro). In the model, sexed semen was used for the first and second inseminations in heifers only. Pregnancy rates achieved with sexed fresh and sexed frozen-thawed semen were assumed to be 94% and 75% of those achieved with conventional frozen-thawed semen, respectively. Initial herd size was 100 cows, which was maintained for the first 2 yr of the 15-yr simulation, after which all available replacement heifers were retained to facilitate herd expansion. Two different scenarios of land availability (S1 and S2) were examined for each of the 3 herds using different semen types: land available allowed expansion to a maximum herd size of 150 cows (S1) or 300 cows (S2). Once maximum herd size was reached, sexed semen use was discontinued and all excess heifer calves were sold at 1 mo of age. All capital expenditure associated with expansion was financed with a 15-yr loan. Each of the different options was evaluated in terms of annual farm profit, annual cash flow, and total discounted net profit. The analysis was completed at a milk price of € 0.27/L, and sensitivity around milk price was carried out at € 0.22/L and € 0.32/L. The use of SFre generated more replacement heifers and thus faster herd expansion compared with SFro and Conv semen. Maximum herd size was reached in yr 5, 6, and 7 under S1, and in yr 10, 12, and 14 under S2 for SFre, SFro, and Conv herds, respectively. Total discounted net profit under S1 for the SFre herd was € 19,929 greater than that of the SFro herd and € 41,852 greater than that of the Conv herd. Under S2, discounted net profit for the SFre herd was € 138,587 greater than that of the SFro herd and

  6. Considerations for higher efficiency and productivity in research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Diego A; Moore, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    There are several factors that are known to affect research productivity; some of them imply the need for large financial investments and others are related to work styles. There are some articles that provide suggestions for early career scientists (PhD students and postdocs) but few publications are oriented to professors about scientific leadership. As academic mentoring might be useful at all levels of experience, in this note we suggest several key considerations for higher efficiency and productivity in academic and research activities. More research is needed into the main work style features that differentiate highly productive scientists and research groups, as some of them could be innate and others could be transferable. As funding agencies, universities and research centers invest large amounts of money in order to have a better scientific productivity, a deeper understanding of these factors will be of high academic and societal impact.

  7. Associations between the proportion of Salmonella seropositive slaughter pigs and the presence of herd level risk factors for introduction and transmission of Salmonella in 34 Danish organic, outdoor (non-organic) and indoor finishing-pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, D.M.; Bonde, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the association between herd level risk factors for introduction and transmission of Salmonella in farms with three different production systems: organic, outdoor (non-organic) and indoor finishing-pig farms, and the presence of seropositive animals in the herds. Potential ri...... herd risk factors for transmission and survival of Salmonella and seropositive animals in the herds were found.......This paper evaluates the association between herd level risk factors for introduction and transmission of Salmonella in farms with three different production systems: organic, outdoor (non-organic) and indoor finishing-pig farms, and the presence of seropositive animals in the herds. Potential risk...... factors for Salmonella in the three pig production systems were identified through a literature review, and management information as well as serological data were collected in 34 pig farms: 11 organic farms, 12 outdoor farms, and 11 indoor farms. There were no general differences in the proportion...

  8. House Price Forecasts, Forecaster Herding, and the Recent Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Ruelke

    2013-01-01

    We used the Wall Street Journal survey data for the period 2006–2012 to analyze whether forecasts of house prices and housing starts provide evidence of (anti-)herding of forecasters. Forecasts are consistent with herding (anti-herding) of forecasters if forecasts are biased towards (away from......) the consensus forecast. We found that anti-herding is prevalent among forecasters of house prices. We also report that, following the recent crisis, the prevalence of forecaster anti-herding seems to have changed over time....

  9. Cow-level and herd-level risk factors for subclinical endometritis in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S H; Nydam, D V; Galvão, K N; Crosier, B M; Gilbert, R O

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain prevalence estimates for subclinical endometritis (SCE), determine cow- and herd-level risk factors, and evaluate the reproductive consequences of SCE. A cross-sectional study was used to determine prevalence and risk factors with cows followed in a prospective study to determine reproductive outcomes. Lactating Holstein cows were sampled between 40 and 60 d in milk using low-volume uterine lavage, and cytology was evaluated to determine SCE status. In total, 779 cows from 38 herds were used in the analysis. The cow-level prevalence of SCE was 25.9%. Within-herd level prevalence ranged from 4.8 to 52.6% (median 26.3%, interquartile range 15.6 to 33.3%). Cow-level risk factors identified were ketosis [odds ratio (OR) 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82-8.07], acute metritis (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.05-3.30], and the interaction between milk production and parity. Primiparous cows that produced more milk had increased odds of having SCE, whereas multiparous cows that produced more milk had decreased odds of having SCE. Herd-level risk factors identified were housing early postpartum cows on bedded packs (herd-level SCE=36.1%), which increased herd prevalence of SCE by 16.7% (SE 5.58) compared with early postpartum cows housed in freestalls (herd-level SCE=19.4%), and straw bedding in the calving pen, which decreased herd prevalence of SCE by 10.7% (SE 3.59) compared with herds that used other bedding material. In this study, primiparous cows with and without SCE had similar reproductive performance; however, multiparous cows with SCE had median days open 44 d longer (159 d; 95% CI 126-186 d) compared with unaffected multiparous cows (115 d; 95% CI 106-132 d). Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dairy Herd Mastitis Program in Argentina: Farm Clusters and Effects on Bulk Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vissio1*, SA Dieser2, CG Raspanti2, JA Giraudo1, CI Bogni2, LM Odierno2 and AJ Larriestra1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted to characterize dairy farm clusters according to mastitis control program practiced among small and medium dairy producer from Argentina, and also to evaluate the effect of such farm cluster patterns on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC. Two samples of 51 (cross-sectional and 38 (longitudinal herds were selected to identify farm clusters and study the influence of management on monthly BMSCC, respectively. The cross-sectional sample involved the milking routine and facilities assessment of each herd visited. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to find the most discriminating farm attributes in the cross sectional sample. Afterward, the herd cluster typologies were identified in the longitudinal sample. Herd monthly BMSCC average was evaluated during 12 months fitting a linear mixed model. Two clusters were identified, the farms in the Cluster I applied a comprehensive mastitis program in opposite to Cluster II. Post-dipping, dry cow therapy and milking machine test were routinely applied in Cluster I. In the longitudinal study, 14 out of 38 dairy herds were labeled as Cluster I and the rest were assigned to Cluster II. Significant difference in BMSCC was found between cluster I and II (60,000 cells/mL. The present study showed the relevance and potential impact of promoting mastitis control practices among small and medium sized dairy producers in Argentina.

  11. Development of An Impact Paradigm for Institutional Research Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria G. Marcial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study described and evaluated the impact on productivity and accountability of tertiary education institutions’ research program profile presented in terms of policy/agenda, organizational structure, resources, and activities. Program impact, issues, and policy implications based on existing institutional research environments were derived. Finally, an impact model for institutional research productivity was evolved. Qualitative single-case research design was used. Triangulation with a criteria-referenced survey analysis and round-table discussion was sources of data. The unit of analysis was the institution. Single and cross-case analysis were used to analyze and interpret field notes consisting of descriptive profiles and graphic displays of the organizational structures, research budget, and faculty composition of the institutions and research programs. Findings show outcomes of research such as policy/agenda, organizational structure, staffing pattern/incentive scheme, and activities are impact indicators of research process management. Eight alterable productivity-processes outcomes defined to significantly influence impact are clear, focused and specific goals; staffing pattern/ incentive scheme; administrative arrangements; research council as monitoring mechanism; generation; dissemination; verification, and information. The evolved analogue model can measure the impact of the research process enhancing research management. An action plan considers the productivity-processes outcomes in support of a vision towards collaborative networks.

  12. A genetic study of loser cows in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Kargo, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent years' increase in herd size, the awareness of a group of cows with a generally lowered health and production level, the “loser cows,” has arisen in Denmark. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between the loser cow score, 305d protein yield and realized...... productive life (RPL) and inbreeding depression for the loser cow score. Estimation of genetic correlations and inbreeding depression was performed on 2644 first-lactation cows and 4914 multiple-lactation cows, respectively. We found no significant genetic correlation between the loser cow score...... and the inbreeding level or between the loser cow score and protein yield. However, the loser cow score was favorably correlated with RPL (−0.53). This implies that the prevalence of loser cows is neither a result of inbreeding depression nor an undesirable side effect of selecting for increased production....

  13. Economic impact of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd assessed by stochastic simulation using different methods to model yield losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagnestam-Nielsen, Christel; Østergaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    reflects the fact that in different stages of lactation, CM gives rise to different yield-loss patterns or postulates just one type of yield-loss pattern irrespective of when, during lactation, CM occurs. A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of CM in a herd...... with 150 cows (9000 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow-year). Four herd types, defined by production level and reproductive performance, were modelled to investigate possible interactions between herd type and response to a reduction in the risk of CM. Technical and economic results, given the initial...... incidence of CM (25.6 per 100 cow-years), were studied together with the consequences of reducing the initial risk of CM by 50% and 90% throughout lactation and the consequences of reducing the initial risk by 50% and 90% before peak yield. A conventional way of modelling yield losses - i.e. one employing...

  14. Exploring relationships between Dairy Herd Improvement monitors of performance and the Transition Cow Index in Wisconsin dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, K K; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B

    2016-09-01

    Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables. Finally, cluster analysis was used to segregate herds based on similarity of relevant variables. The DHI data were obtained from 2,131 Wisconsin dairy herds with test-day mean ≥30 cows, which were tested ≥10 times throughout the 2014 calendar year. The original list of 940 DHI variables was reduced through expert-driven selection and regression analysis to 23 variables. The K-means cluster analysis produced 5 distinct clusters. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the 23 variables per cluster grouping. Using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis, 4 parameters were isolated as most relevant to TCI; these were energy-corrected milk, 3 measures of intramammary infection (dry cow cure rate, linear somatic cell count score in primiparous cows, and new infection rate), peak ratio, and days in milk at peak milk production. These variables together with cow and newborn calf survival measures form a group of metrics that can be used to assist in the evaluation of overall transition period performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Research Note Testing for a decline in secondary productivity under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Testing for a decline in secondary productivity under desertification in subtropical thicket, South Africa, using Angora goats: lessons for experimental design. TA Milne, GIH Kerley ...

  16. Disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (Crossbred) males in organized herd

    OpenAIRE

    Achun Panmei; A. K. Gupta; P. R. Shivahre; M. Bhakat; K. Mahesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to analyze the disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (KF) males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Materials and Methods: Records on 1740 KF crossbred bulls born during the period 1997-2012 were collected with an objective to ascertain the effect of genetic and non-genetic (Period of birth and season of birth) factors on the disposal pattern of KF males. The percent of animals disposed from the herd due to mortality and culling was...

  17. Economic figures in herd health programmes as motivation factors for farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Østergaard, Søren; Ettema, Jehan Frans

    2016-01-01

    between veterinarians, farmers, advisers and researchers. Based on herd specific key-figures for management, the report presents the short- and long-term economic effects of changes in 15 management areas. Simulations are performed by the dairy herd simulation model “SimHerd”. The aim is to assist...... the veterinarian in identifying the economically most favorable and feasible management improvements and thereby provide more relevant and prioritised advice to the farmer. In the developing process, a prototype of the advisory tool was tested by 15 veterinarians on 55 farms. After the test period, a selection...

  18. Parámetros Genéticos para Algunas Características Productivas y Reproductivas en un Hato Holstein del Oriente Antioqueño, Colombia Genetic Parameters for Some Productive and Reproductive Traits in a Dairy Herd in Eastern Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerinne Quiroz Osorio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La edad y el peso al primer parto y otros caracteres productivos y reproductivos son importantes porque determinan el desempeño futuro de las vacas lecheras, su análisis permite definir metas relacionadas con el inicio de la vida productiva de las mismas, influyendo directamente en el costo del periodo de crecimiento y desarrollo. En esta investigación se estimaron las heredabilidades (h2 y algunas correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas para edad y peso al primer servicio, edad y peso al servicio fértil, producción en primera y segunda lactancia y algunas otras características relacionadas con el desempeño general de las vacas durante su vida. Fueron analizadas 928 lactancias de 184 vacas de la raza Holstein nacidas entre 1985 y 2006 en un hato lechero del departamento de Antioquia. Los componentes de varianza fueron estimados mediante análisis univariados con la metodología de máxima verosimilitud restricta libre de derivadas y las correlaciones se estimaron directamente con la información fenotípica y los valores genéticos estimados. Se utilizó el programa SAS 9,0 para la edición de los datos y los análisis estadísticos y el software MTDFREML para el análisis genético. No se encontró efecto significativo (P>0,05 de la edad y peso al primer servicio con producción de leche en primera y segunda lactancia, ni con caracteres reproductivos, la edad y el peso al primer servicio fértil tuvieron efecto altamente significativo (PThe age and weight at first calving and other productive and reproductive traits are decisive because are important for the future performance of dairy cows, their analysis allows to define some goals related to the start of productive life of those, influencing direct economic cost of the period of growth and development. In this research, were estimated the heritability (h2 and some genetic and phenotypic correlations of age and weight at first service, age and weight at fertile service, milk yield at

  19. Effect of length of productive life on genetic trend of milk production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of length of productive life on genetic trend of milk production and profitability: A simulation study. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Increasing mean LPL of herd from 35 to 65 months over 20 years resulted in decreased herd genetic merit of milk from 2025 to 1751 kg and mean of herd genetic trend per year was ...

  20. Ground-breaking virtual research in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Jespersen, Kristina Risom; Buck, Nuka

    2008-01-01

    MAPP also focuses on virtual reality. In the research project RIPS - the Role of Information Processing in NPD Strategy - a simulation of a product development process was used as a data collection instrument.......MAPP also focuses on virtual reality. In the research project RIPS - the Role of Information Processing in NPD Strategy - a simulation of a product development process was used as a data collection instrument....

  1. Faculty Research Productivity in Hong Kong across Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the research productivity of Hong Kong academics. Specifically, it explores the individual and institutional factors that contribute to their productivity while also comparing determinants across academic disciplines. We have conducted OLS regression analysis using the international survey data from "The Changing Academics…

  2. Epidemiological Characterization of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Goat Herds in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Delgado Duno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caseous lymphadenitis (CL is a chronic infectious disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; it affects small ruminants and generates economic loss due to a reduction in weight, reproductive performance, milk and wool production forfeiture, and depreciation of skins. Given the socio-economic importance of goat production in the Falcón state (Venezuela, this research aimed to epidemiologically characterize the disease in herds in the Paraguaná peninsula. The research is descriptive. Field work lasted six weeks, during which superficial lymph nodes were inspected, and 71 samples of purulent discharge were obtained from animals suspected to suffer from CL, according to their clinical manifestations. Back in the laboratory, specimens were bacteriologically analyzed; C. pseudotuberculosis isolates were compared with the reference strain ATCC 19410. The only risk factor detected for CL (p < 0.05 was the origin of goats by production units; those with the highest prevalence were located in the municipality of Falcón. Injuries in subscapular lymph nodes were the most frequent (p < 0.05 among the diagnosed animals. Penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and novobiocin-resistant strains were identified. These results are important to raise awareness among producers, given that this activity is of vital importance for the region and in many cases ignorance on the subject was evidenced.

  3. Profile and scientific production of CNPq researchers in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo de; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Oliveira, Maria Christina Lopes; Martelli, Daniella Reis; Lima, Leonardo Santos; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Lopes, Thais Junqueira; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões; Martelli, Hercílio

    2011-09-01

    Systematic assessments of the scientific production can optimize resource allocation and increase research productivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile and scientific production of researchers in the field of Cardiology who have fellowship in Medicine provided by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico. The curriculum Lattes of 33 researchers with active fellowships from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, tutoring of undergraduate, masters and PhD students, and scientific production and its impact. : There was predominance of males (72.7%) and of fellowship level 2 (56.4%). Three states of the Federation were responsible for 94% of the researchers: SP (28; 71.8%), RS (4; 10.3%), e RJ (3; 9.1%). Four institutions are responsible for about 82% of researchers: USP (13; 39.4%), UNESP (5; 15.2%), UFRGS (4; 12.1%) e UNIFESP (3; 9.1%). During all academic careers, the researchers published 2.958 journal articles, with a mean of 89 articles per researcher. Of total, 55% and 75% were indexed at Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The researchers received a total of 19648 citations at the database Web of Science, with a median of 330 citations per researcher (IQ = 198-706). The average number of citations per article was 13.5 citations (SD = 11.6). Our study has shown that researchers in the field of cardiology have a relevant scientific production. The knowledge of the profile of researchers in the field of Cardiology will probably enable effective strategies to qualitatively improve the scientific output of Brazilian researchers.

  4. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  5. Gender disparities in research productivity among 9952 academic physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Svider, Peter F; Cherla, Deepa V; Diaz, Lucia; Kovalerchik, Olga; Mauro, Kevin M; Baredes, Soly; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S

    2013-08-01

    The number of women in medicine has increased considerably over the past 3 decades, and they now comprise approximately half of medical school matriculants. We examine whether gender disparities in research productivity are present throughout various specialties and compare these findings to those previously described among otolaryngologists. Bibliometric analysis. Research productivity, measured by the h-index, was calculated for 9,952 academic physicians representing 34 medical specialties. Additionally, trends in how rate of research productivity changed throughout different career stages were compared. Women were underrepresented at the level of professor and in positions of departmental leadership relative to their representation among assistant and associate professors. Male faculty had statistically higher research productivity both overall (H = 10.3 ± 0.14 vs. 5.6 ± 0.14) and at all academic ranks. For the overall sample, men and women appeared to have equivalent rates of research productivity. In internal medicine, men had higher early-career productivity, while female faculty had productivity equaling and even surpassing that of their male colleagues beyond 20 to 25 years. Men and women had equivalent productivity in surgical specialties throughout their careers, and similar rates in pediatrics until 25 to 30 years. Female academic physicians have decreased research productivity relative to men, which may be one factor contributing to their underrepresentation at the level of professor and departmental leader relative to their proportions in junior academic ranks. Potential explanations may include fewer woman physicians in the age groups during which higher academic ranks are attained, greater family responsibilities, and greater involvement in clinical service and educational contributions. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Runne-Beana: Dog Herds Ethnographer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrdene Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Saami society in Lapland (now often called Saapmi, particularly the seasonally-nomadic reindeer-breeding sector, is predicated upon mobility and autonomy of its actors. Runne-Beana, a talented reindeer-herding dog, exhibited both mobility and autonomy when allocating to himself a peripatetic ethnographer, on the first day of five years of doctoral dissertation fieldwork in arctic Norway in 1972. That family’s and the wider community’s reactions to Runne-Beana’s behavior, and mine, highlight the tensions when mobility and autonomy compound with ideologies of ownership and control. At the same time, his companionship profoundly shaped all field relationships, engendering an understanding of dog culture as it is manifest in the herder/herding dog/reindeer triad and in the interpenetration of assumptions concerning child/dog enculturation.

  7. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traf- fic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of complex resource allocation can be modeled as minority games in which the number of resources is limited and agents tend to choose the less used resource based on available information. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control strategies to suppress and elim- inate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method. That the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to mi...

  8. The use of a cluster analysis in across herd genetic evaluation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further research is needed to identify and prioritize variables that can describe the genetics, management and climate of each herd more accurately. Keywords: Bonsmara cattle, Genotype by environment interaction, weaning weight. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 38 (1) 2008: pp. 51-57 ...

  9. Research Productivity and Its Policy Implications in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimbo, Maria Ana T.; Sulabo, Evangeline C.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to the Commission on Higher Education's development plan of enhancing research culture among higher education institutions, this study was conducted to analyze the research productivity of selected higher education institutions. It covered five state universities in the Philippines where a total of 377 randomly selected faculty members…

  10. The Impact of Collaborative Research on Scientific Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Benoit; Gingras, Yves

    1999-01-01

    The extent to which collaborative research, conducted in partnerships between universities and the business sector, influences the nature of scientific production and the level of international scientific collaboration is examined. The more specific question of whether collaborative research reduces the number of scientific publications in general…

  11. Economic returns to Holstein and Jersey herds under multiple component pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K W; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J

    2005-06-01

    This study analyzed component data from herds participating in the Mideast Federal Milk Marketing Order from 2000 through 2002, and its implications for herd profitability. A monthly simulation model was developed to evaluate the economic returns for a representative Holstein and Jersey herd in Pennsylvania under multiple component pricing. Component levels were highly seasonal and variable from farm to farm. A third of the herds during the course of a year realized a 1- to 3-mo temporary reduction in milk fat or protein greater than one standard deviation. Consistently producing milk fat and protein one standard deviation below the mean reduced the Class III value by $0.82/cwt (100 pounds), or 7.09%. The simulation model indicated that a herd of 100 Holstein cows generated $31,221 more income over feed costs (IOFC) a year than a herd of 100 Jersey cows. Although Jersey milk had greater gross value than Holstein milk due to higher component levels, total volume of milk and components produced by Holsteins offset this difference. Simulation results confirm that increasing milk fat and protein percentages by one standard deviation increased IOFC 7.7% for Holsteins and 9.2% for Jerseys relative to the baseline IOFC, with similar losses for component reductions. Increasing milk yield by one standard deviation increased IOFC by 19.6% for Holsteins and 23.9% for Jerseys relative to the baseline IOFC, again with similar losses for reductions in milk production. In all of the scenarios analyzed, the most important factor affecting IOFC was total amount of milk fat and protein produced, not the component percentage levels.

  12. Assessing animal welfare in sow herds using data on meat inspection, medication and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knage-Rasmussen, K M; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T; Houe, H

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the development of a cost-effective alternative to expensive on-farm animal-based welfare assessment systems. The objective of the study was to design an animal welfare index based on central database information (DBWI), and to validate it against an animal welfare index based on-farm animal-based measurements (AWI). Data on 63 Danish sow herds with herd-sizes of 80 to 2500 sows and an average herd size of 501 were collected from three central databases containing: Meat inspection data collected at animal level in the abattoir, mortality data at herd level from the rendering plants of DAKA, and medicine records at both herd and animal group level (sow with piglets, weaners or finishers) from the central database Vetstat. Selected measurements taken from these central databases were used to construct the DBWI. The relative welfare impacts of both individual database measurements and the databases overall were assigned in consultation with a panel consisting of 12 experts. The experts were drawn from production advisory activities, animal science and in one case an animal welfare organization. The expert panel weighted each measurement on a scale from 1 (not-important) to 5 (very important). The experts also gave opinions on the relative weightings of measurements for each of the three databases by stating a relative weight of each database in the DBWI. On the basis of this, the aggregated DBWI was normalized. The aggregation of AWI was based on weighted summary of herd prevalence's of 20 clinical and behavioural measurements originating from a 1 day data collection. AWI did not show linear dependency of DBWI. This suggests that DBWI is not suited to replace an animal welfare index using on-farm animal-based measurements.

  13. Clinical mastitis in Macedonian dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajčev M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the determination of the occurrence and prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk on three dairy farms. A one year study on a total of 1031 black-white breed cows with a total of 1267 lactations was performed. Each dairy farm implemented a different technology of rearing and was of different herd size (farm A - tie-stalls, 162 cows; farm B - loose-housing system with open shed and deep bedding, 357 dairy cows; and farm C - loosehousing system with enclosed shed, 512 cows. Clinical mastitis in cows was detected by clinical examination of the udder and determination of abnormalities in the milk. To distinguish two consecutive cases of clinical mastitis within the same lactation a time period of nine days was used. Annual prevalence rate of clinical mastitis for the entire population of cows was 34.13% on cow level, and 30.07% on lactation level. There was a high prevalence rate of clinical mastitis in primiparous cows, 21.43%, 40.77% and 12.55%, on farms A, B and C, respectively. Lactation incident risk for cows on farm A was 25.00%, farm B 95.58% and farm C 21.49%. The prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk tended to increase with increasing parity. The annual lactation risk for the entire population of cows was 45.86%. All indicators for the determination of the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy farms, which were observed during the research, showed the greatest values on farm B. Most of the cows manifested one (68.24% or two (18.63% cases of clinical mastitis during lactation. There was a long period in lactation until the appearance of the first case of clinical mastitis (112.21 ± 92.04 days. Generally, clinical mastitis was registered during the whole period of the survey, with some fluctuations between different seasons. The method of GLM (General Linear Model, univariate procedure, was used to analyze associations between the incidence of clinical mastitis and

  14. Research incentive program for clinical surgical faculty associated with increases in research productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroen, Anneke T; Thielen, Monika J; Turrentine, Florence E; Kron, Irving L; Slingluff, Craig L

    2012-11-01

    To develop a research productivity scoring program within an academic department of surgery that would help realign incentives to encourage and reward research. Although research is highly valued in the academic mission, financial incentives are generally aligned to reward clinical productivity. A formula assigning points for publications and extramural grants was created and used to award a research incentive payment proportional to the research productivity score, beginning July 2007. Publication points reflect journal impact factor, author role, and manuscript type. Grant points reflect total funding and percentage of effort. Publication data were gathered from Web of Science/PubMed/Medline and grants data from the departmental grants office. An annual award is presented to the person with the greatest improvement. The research productivity score data after July 2007 were compared with control data for the 2 preceding years. A 33-question survey to 28 clinical faculty was conducted after the first year to measure satisfaction and solicit constructive feedback. The mean annual point scores increased from the preresearch productivity score to the postresearch productivity score academic years (2180 vs 3389, respectively, P = .08), with a significant change in the grant component score (272 vs 801, P = .03). Since research productivity score implementation, the operative case volumes increased 4.3% from 2006 to 2011. With a response rate of 89%, the survey indicated that 76% of the faculty wished to devote more time to research and 52% believed 1 or more research-related behaviors would change because of the research productivity score program. An objective, transparent research incentive program, through both monetary incentives and recognition, can stimulate productivity and was well-received by faculty. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The economic scientific research, a production neo-factor

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ciucur

    2007-01-01

    The scientific research represents a modern production neo-factor that implies two groups of coordinates: preparation and scientific research. The scientific research represents a complex of elements that confer a new orientation of high performance and is materialized in resources and new availabilities brought in active shape by the contribution of the creators and by the attraction in a specific way in the economic circuit. It is the creator of new ideas, lifting the performance and unders...

  16. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP are recovering from population declines, the Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd (NAP appears to be nearing the end of a protracted decline, and the Mulchatna Herd (MCH appears to now be declining after 20 years of rapid growth. The remaining naturally occurring herd (Kilbuck has virtually disappeared. Nutrition had a significant effect on the size of 4-month-old and 10-month-old calves in the NAP and the Nushagak Peninsula Herd (NPCH and probably also on population growth in at least 4 (SAP, NAP, NPCH, and MCH of the six caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Predation does not appear to be sufficient to keep caribou herds in southwestern Alaska from expanding, probably because rabies is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and is periodically transferred to wolves (Canis lupus and other canids. However, we found evidence that pneumonia and hoof rot may result in significant mortality of caribou in southwestern Alaska, whereas there is no evidence that disease is important in the dynamics of Interior herds. Cooperative conservation programs, such as the Kilbuck Caribou Management Plan, can be successful in restraining traditional harvest and promoting growth in caribou herds. In southwestern Alaska we also found evidence that small caribou herds can be swamped and assimilated by large herds, and fidelity to traditional calving areas can be lost.

  17. A bulk tank milk survey of Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in dairy herds in Prince Edward Island and their relationship with herd management factors and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Javier; Dohoo, Ian

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship of the levels of antibodies to Ostertagia ostertagi in bulk-tank milk samples from Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy farms to milk production and to herd-management practices potentially related to gastrointestinal nematode infections. The milk samples were obtained from 289 to 322 dairy farms during 2000; production and management data were available from 197 and 200 farms, respectively. Cow exposure to pasture and whole-herd anthelmintic treatment were the only herd management variables significantly associated with antibody levels in the fall of 2000. An increase in antibody levels from the observed 25th percentile to the 75th percentile (interquartile range) was associated with a drop in milk production of 1.2 kg/cow/day. The results of this study indicate that the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for O. ostertagi antibody is a potentially useful technique to measure parasite exposure in adult dairy cows and that parasite burdens in lactating cattle in PEI have an important impact on milk production.

  18. Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis intramammary infections in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, B M; Gillespie, B E; Lewis, M J; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    1999-09-01

    From 1987 to 1991, almost 36,000 quarter samples of mammary secretion representing 1790 lactations of 510 dairy cows from a research herd were collected for bacteriological examination. The percentage of cows infected with Streptococcus uberis ranged from 12 to 16% of cows/year. S. uberis was isolated from 14.2% of lactations over the 5-year period. The prevalence of S. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) was significantly higher in cows with > or = 4 lactations than in cows with 3 or fewer lactations. Regardless of lactation number, the prevalence of S. uberis was highest before parturition, during early lactation and near drying off. The prevalence of S. uberis infected quarters ranged from 1.3 to 2.3% of quarters/year; the prevalence rate for the 5-year period was 2% of quarters. The quarter prevalence of S. uberis was lowest in cows with or = 6 lactations. The percentage of quarters infected with S. uberis varied significantly by year. The majority (95%) of S. uberis IMI were subclinical. The ratio of subclinical IMI to clinical IMI was lowest during early lactation, and increased with days in milk, and with lactation age except for cows in their 5th and 6th lactations. Results of this epidemiological investigation suggest that opportunities exist where suitable control measures could be applied to reduce the impact of S. uberis infections in the dairy herd.

  19. High herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Western Canadian dairy farms, based on environmental sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Haupstein, D; Pickel, C; Orsel, K

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic progressive enteritis in ruminants. The pathogen is present in most countries with modern dairy production, causing substantial economic losses for the industry. The objectives of this study were to estimate dairy herd prevalence of MAP in the Western Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to determine whether herd size and housing system (tie-stall versus freestall or loose housing) affected the risk of a herd testing positive for MAP. Six environmental samples were collected on 360 Alberta farms (60% of registered producers) and on 166 Saskatchewan dairy farms (99%). In total, 47% of the sampled farms in Alberta and 53% of the sampled farms in Saskatchewan had at least one environmental sample that was MAP culture positive and were, therefore, defined as infected. Sensitivity of environmental sampling was estimated using 3 subsequent annual tests performed on 82 farms. Because laboratory protocols were continuously improved throughout the project, the sensitivity increased over time. Therefore, a mean of the sensitivity estimates weighted on sampling year was constructed; this resulted in sensitivities of 68 and 69% for Alberta and Saskatchewan, respectively. Implementing those estimates in an approximate Bayesian computation model resulted in a true herd prevalence of 68% (95% probability interval: 60-80%) for Alberta and 76% (95% probability interval: 70-85%) for Saskatchewan. Herds with >200 cows had 3.54 times higher odds of being environmental sample positive and had more positive samples than herds with <50 cows (neither province nor housing system affected those results). In conclusion, the majority of Alberta and Saskatchewan dairy farms were infected with MAP and larger herds were more often MAP positive than smaller herds. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of whole genome sequencing typing results and epidemiological contact information from outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin in Swedish cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle C. C. Ågren

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole genome sequencing (WGS is becoming a routine tool for infectious disease outbreak investigations. The Swedish situation provides an excellent opportunity to test the usefulness of WGS for investigation of outbreaks with Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin as epidemiological investigations are always performed when Salmonella is detected in livestock production, and index isolates from all detected herds are stored and therefore available for analysis. This study was performed to evaluate WGS as a tool in forward and backward tracings from herds infected with S. Dublin. Material and methods: In this study, 28 isolates from 26 cattle herds were analysed and the WGS results were compared with results from the epidemiological investigations, for example, information on contacts between herds. The isolates originated from herds in three different outbreaks separated geographically and to some extent also in time, and from the only region in Sweden where S. Dublin is endemic (Öland. Results: The WGS results of isolates from the three non-endemic regions were reliably separated from each other and from the endemic isolates. Within the outbreaks, herds with known epidemiological contacts generally showed smaller differences between isolates as compared to when there were no known epidemiological contacts. Conclusion: The results indicate that WGS can provide valuable supplemental information in S. Dublin outbreak investigations. The resolution of the WGS was sufficient to distinguish isolates from the different outbreaks and provided additional information to the investigations within an outbreak.

  1. Durham versus Durban: Quantifying productivity in astrophysics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hilton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying and rewarding research productivity is a contentious issue. In South Africa, there are at least two systems in wide use: peer assessment (as used by the National Research Foundation in providing researchers with individual ratings and a simple publication count (used by the Department of Higher Education and Training to incentivise research output. At the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN, the latter is used to grade the research performance of staff; however, this metric penalises those academics who work in large teams, as is increasingly common in astronomy. To test for correspondence between this metric and perceived research quality, I conducted a case study of the Extragalactic and Cosmology Group at Durham University in the UK, which is one of the leading astrophysics research groups in the world. I found that 44-74% of the permanent academic staff within this research group would not meet the research productivity target applied at UKZN in 2014. Given the disparity between this result and the esteem in which the research of the Durham group is held, I suggest that alternative methods of recognising and rewarding research output by funding agencies and universities should be explored, with an emphasis on quality rather than quantity.

  2. Profile and scientific production of Brazilian researchers in oral pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanilde Pereira Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the profile and scientific production of researchers in oral pathology who received grants in the area of Dentistry from the Brazilian National Research and Development Council. MATERIAL AND METHOD : The standardized online curriculum vitae (Curriculum Lattes of 34 researchers in oral pathology who received grants in the years 2008-2010 were analyzed. The variables were: gender, affiliation, time from completion of the PhD program, scientific production, and supervision of undergraduate students and Master's and PhD programs. RESULT: The States of São Paulo (52.94% and Minas Gerais (26.47% were responsible for 79.41% of the researchers. Regarding affiliation, three institutions accounted for approximately 44.11% of the researchers: UNICAMP (17.64%; USP (14.70%; and UFMG (11.76%. The researchers published a total of 906 full-text articles, with a median of 26.64 articles per researcher in the triennium and 8.88 articles per year. It was found that of 906 articles published, 366 (40.39% were published in strata A (qualis-CAPES. Oral pathology researchers supervised 437 scientific initiation and post-graduate students. Of these, 138 (31.57% were scientific initiation, 169 (38.67% were Master and 130 (29.74% were PhD students. CONCLUSION: An important scientific production of oral pathology researchers in the 2008-2010 triennium was observed. By knowing the profile of researchers in oral pathology, more effective strategies for encouraging scientific production and demanding resources to finance research projects can be defined.

  3. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

  4. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 915.45... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research, marketing research and development. 915.45 Section 915.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...

  5. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  6. Product Development and Commercialization of Diagnostic or Life Science Products for Scientists and Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Meghan M

    2017-01-01

    Commercializing a diagnostic or life science product often encompasses different goals than that of research and grant funding. There are several necessary steps, and a strategy needs to be well defined in order to be successful. Product development requires input from and between various groups within a company and, for academia, outside entities. The product development stakeholder groups/entities are research, marketing, development, regulatory, manufacturing, clinical, safety/efficacy, and quality. After initial research and development, much of the work in product development can be outsourced or jointly created using public-private partnerships. This chapter serves as an overview of the product development process and provides a guide to best define a product strategy.

  7. The contribution of previous lameness events and body condition score to the occurrence of lameness in dairy herds: A study of 2 herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Green, L E; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Huxley, J N

    2017-11-22

    It has been demonstrated that low body condition and previous occurrence of lameness increase the risk of future lameness in dairy cows. To date the population attributable fraction (PAF), which provides an estimate of the contribution that a risk factor makes toward the total number of disease events in a population, has not been explored for lameness using longitudinal data with repeated measures. Estimation of PAF helps to identify control measures that could lead to the largest improvements on-farm. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal data to evaluate the proportion of lameness that could be avoided in 2 separate herds (2 populations) through (1) reduced recurrence of previous lameness events, (2) and moving body condition score (BCS) into more optimal ranges. Data were obtained from 2 UK dairy herds: herd A, a 200-cow herd with 8 yr of data from a total of 724 cows where lameness events were based on weekly locomotion scores (LS; 1 to 5 scale), and herd B, a 600-cow herd with data recorded over 44 mo from a total of 1,040 cows where treatment of clinical cases was used to identify lameness events. The PAF for categories of BCS were estimated using a closed equation appropriate for multiple exposure categories. Simulation models were used to explore theoretical scenarios to reflect changes in BCS and recurrence of previous lameness events in each herd. For herd A, 21.5% of the total risk periods (cow-weeks) contained a lameness event (LS 3, 4, or 5), 96% of which were repeat events and 19% were recorded with BCS events were based on 2 consecutive weeks of LS 4 or 5, 4% of risk periods were recorded as lame, of which 89.5% were repeat events. For herd B, 16.3% of the total risk periods (consecutive 30 d) contained a lameness event (72.6% were repeat events) and 20% were recorded with BCS ≤2 (0 to 120 d previously). The median PAF for all previous lameness was between 79 and 83% in the 2 herds. Between 9 and 21% of lameness events could be attributed

  8. Estimates of global production in cardiovascular diseases research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarakis, Evangelos S; Vergidis, Paschalis I; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Paraschakis, Konstantinos; Papastamataki, Paraskevi A; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-04-28

    To evaluate the contribution of different world regions in cardiovascular research production. The world was divided into 9 regions based on a combination of geographic, economic and scientific criteria. Using the Medline database, we retrieved articles from 77 journals included in the "Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems" category of the "Journal Citation Reports" database for the period 1995-2002. We then, estimated the total number of publications, their mean impact factor, the product of these two parameters, the research productivity per billion of US dollars spent on research and development, and the research productivity per number of scientists-years in research and development for different world regions. Data on the country of origin for the authors was available for 86,711 out of 87,939 retrieved articles (98.6%). The majority of articles published between 1995-2002 were originated from Western Europe (39.4%) and the USA (37.1%). The USA, Oceania and Canada had the highest mean impact factor of published articles and Eastern Europe had the lowest. The research productivity per unit of expenditure for research and development was found to be significantly higher for Canada compared to the USA and Western Europe while the rate of increase in the number of published articles was higher in Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia. The research contribution of Africa in the number of published articles was notably very low (0.3%). The data suggest a promising trend: developing world regions, with the important exception of Africa, achieved a higher rate of increase in the number of published articles in the studied period.

  9. Action Research in User-Centered Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva

    2004-01-01

    and responsibilities both inside and outside the company. This paper reports experiences from using action research to introduce new user-centred work practices in two commercial product development projects. The interventions varied. In the first project it was found rewarding to engage customers and users...... and reifying insights in design representations and using these to both support collaboration, and create continuity in the project. The paper ends with a discussion of scientific rigor in action research and what the new work practices imply for the development team.......Technological development and increased international competition have imposed a significant burden on the product development function of many companies. The growing complexity of products demands a larger product development team with people having various competencies. Simultaneously...

  10. Research productivity in select psychology journals, 1986-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kevin T; Buboltz, Walter C; Calvert, Barbara; Hoffmann, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Examination of research productivity has a long history in psychology. Journals across psychology have periodically published research-productivity studies. An analysis of institutional research productivity was conducted for 17 journals published by the American Psychological Association for the years 1986-2008. This analysis implemented two methodologies: one a replication and extension of G. S. Howard, D. A. Cole, and S. E. Maxwell's (1987) method, the other a new method designed to give credit to psychology departments rather than only overall institutions. A system of proportional credit assured all articles with multiple institutions received credit. Results show that for the 23-year period, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign was ranked 1st, followed by the University of California, Los Angeles, and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Overall, results showed both consistency and change across all journals examined. The authors explore the implications of these findings in the context of the current academic environment.

  11. ESTRATEGIC MANAGEMENT DURING THE TRANSICION PERIOD TO OPTIMISE PRODUCTIVITY AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE DAIRY HERD MANEJO ESTRATÉGICO DURANTE EL PERIODO DE TRANSICIÓN PARA OPTIMIZAR LA PRODUCCIÓN Y EL COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO GANADO LECHERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risco Carlos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In dairy herds, the interval between calving and pregnancy depend on many factors including preparation of the cow for calving, dietary management before and after calving. Factors such as hypocalcemia and body condition are determinant in the presentation of postpartum pathologies and ovarian activity resumption. Additionally, management of the dairy cattle should include fixed time artificial insemination protocols to increase the number of animals bred close to the voluntary waiting period and pregnancy rates. The following review will address topics related with cattle body condition and puerperal hypocalcemia that affect negatively postpartum reproductive performance and also will, address management alternatives to improve pregnancy rates y to reduce days open.Los días abiertos en el hato lechero dependen de muchos factores, dentro de los cuales se debe considerar, la preparación de la vaca preparto incluyendo el manejo dietario pre y postparto. Factores como la hipocalcemia y la condición corporal son determinantes en la presentación de patologías puerperales y en el inicio de la ciclicidad. Adicional a este manejo, se debe considerar la utilización de protocolos de inseminación a tiempo fijo que incrementa el número de animales servidos cerca del tiempo voluntario de espera y genera un incremento en las tasas de preñez. La presente revisión discutirá temas relacionados con la condición corporal y la presentación de hipocalcemia puerperal que afectan la fertilidad posparto de la vaca, así como alternativas para mejorar las tasa de preñez y reducir los días abiertos.

  12. Research and development productivity map: visualization of industry status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, H; Masuda, S; Kimura, H

    2014-04-01

    Decline in research and development (R&D) productivity and changes in the business environment have led to pharmaceutical company management to strive to improve R&D productivity. This decline is widely considered to be a major cause of industry consolidation and has received increased scholarly attention. This study aims to construct an R&D productivity map to visualize the industry's R&D productivity and to identify similarity in corporate actions with a view to investigate whether there is a relationship between deterioration in R&D productivity and industry consolidation. Research and development productivity is decomposed into two subprocesses to measure productivity: R&D efficiency and R&D effectiveness, and scores were calculated using a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA). The map is then constructed by projecting outputs. To identify any relationship between DEA scores and merger and acquisition transactions, a multiple regression model is employed. Data on 21 global pharmaceutical companies, statistical results indicated that companies with lower R&D efficiency scores were more likely to engage in consolidation. Three US companies that were least successful in terms of R&D effectiveness, as measured by our indicators, were either acquired or changed their business model. The R&D productivity map is a useful means for visualizing productivity among companies. By grouping companies into four groups, behavioural commonalities can be observed. The R&D productivity map should be useful for monitor the industry's productivity and help to improve it. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Valkenburg, Patrick; Sellers, Richard A.; Squibb, Ronald C.; Woolington, James D.; Aderman, Andrew R.; Dale, Bruce W.

    2003-01-01

    The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year) fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH) and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP) are recovering from population declines, the N...

  14. Harvest estimates of the Western Arctic caribou herd, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Sutherland

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A generalized least squares regression model was developed to estimate local harvest of the Western Arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd. This model provides herd and community level harvest based on community size, proximity of the herd to the village. The model utilizes community harvest survey information from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Subsistence Division and cooperation from the nonprofit organizations Maniliq and Kawerak. The model will assist in an annual selection of communities to survey. The predicted local resident harvest of the Western Arctic caribou herd is 14 700 with 95% lower and upper confidence limits of 10 100 and 19 700 respectively.

  15. International Conference on Production Research (ICPR) Americas Region

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Nubia

    2012-01-01

    The book presents several highly selected cases in emerging countries where the production-logistics systems have been optimized or improved with the support of mathematical models. The book contains a selection of papers from the 5th International Conference on Production Research (ICPR) Americas 2010 held on July 21-23 in Bogotá, Colombia. The main topic of the conference was “Technologies in Logistics and Manufacturing for Small and Medium Enterprises” which is perfectly aligned with the realities of emerging countries. The book presents methodologies and case studies related to a wide variety of production/logistics systems such as diary production, auto parts, steel and iron production, and financial services. It is focused but not limited to Small/Medium Enterprises.

  16. Trends in nursing ethics research: Mapping the literature production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažun Vošner, Helena; Železnik, Danica; Kokol, Peter; Vošner, Janez; Završnik, Jernej

    2017-12-01

    There have been a number of debates in the field of nursing ethics. Researchers have focused on various aspects of nursing ethics, such as professional ethics, professional, nursing and ethical values. Within this research, a variety of literature reviews have been conducted, but to the best of our knowledge, bibliometric mapping has not yet been used. This article aims to analyse the production of literature within nursing ethics research. In order to examine publishing patterns, we focused on publishing dynamics, prolific research entities and the most-cited articles. We additionally visualised the content of the literature using a novel mixed-method approach, combining bibliometric analysis and mapping with thematic analysis. Ethical considerations: In our study, ethical review was not required. A total of 1416 information sources were found in the Scopus database. Overall, literature production has increased; however, in recent years, the quantity of published material has begun to decrease. The most prolific countries are the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada, and the most prolific source titles are Nursing Ethics, Journal of Advanced Nursing and Nursing Times. Lately, research in the field of nursing ethics has been focused more on life care (providing for the basic needs of older residents), moral distress and community nursing. The dynamics of research literature production showed an exponential rise in the number of published information sources - a rise which started in the period between 1974 and 1998. Since that period, the trend has stabilised, which might indicate that nursing ethics research is starting a transition to a mature phase. The innovative use of bibliometric analysis and mapping, together with thematic analysis, is a useful tool for analysis of research production in the field of nursing ethics. The results presented can be an excellent starting point for literature reviews and more exhaustive data, information and knowledge

  17. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Wray

    Full Text Available Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space, and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space, numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock

  18. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Christopher M; Bishop, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the market

  19. Herd characteristics and cow-level factors associated with Prototheca mastitis on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, L; Godkin, A; Roesler, U; Polleichtner, A; Slavic, D; Leslie, K E; Kelton, D F

    2012-10-01

    Prototheca spp. are algae that cause incurable acute or chronic mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of this case-control study was the identification of cow- and herd-level risk factors for this unusual mastitis pathogen. Aseptically collected composite milk samples from 2,428 milking cows in 23 case and 23 control herds were collected between January and May 2011. A questionnaire was administered to the producers, and cow-level production and demographic data were gathered. In 58 of 64 isolates, Prototheca spp. and Prototheca zopfii genotypes were differentiated using PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. All isolates were identified as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2. The mean within-herd prevalence for Prototheca spp. was 5.1% (range 0.0-12.5%). Case herds had a significantly lower herd-level prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and a higher prevalence of yeasts than did control herds. The final logistic regression model for herd-level risk factors included use of intramammary injections of a non-intramammary drug [odds ratio (OR) = 136.8], the number of different injectable antibiotic products being used (OR = 2.82), the use of any dry cow teat sealant (external OR = 80.0; internal OR = 34.2), and having treated 3 or more displaced abomasums in the last 12 mo OR = 44.7). The final logistic regression model for cow-level risk factors included second or greater lactation (OR = 4.40) and the logarithm of the lactation-average somatic cell count (OR = 2.99). Unsanitary or repeated intramammary infusions, antibiotic treatment, and off-label use of injectable drugs in the udder might promote Prototheca udder infection. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibody dynamics in BRSV-infected Danish dairy herds as determined by isotype-specific immunoglobulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, Lars Erik; Philipsen, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Using specific ELISAs, antibody levels of four different isotypes to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were determined in calves, following experimental BRSV infection. Most calves experienced an increase in the specific IgM and IgG1 titres about 6-10 days after infection with BRSV. The Ig......M titre was transient showing positive titres for only 5-10 days, while specific IgG1 was present for a longer time. IgA was detected concomitantly with IgM but at a lower level. Production of IgG2 anti-BRSV antibodies was detected from 3 weeks after infection. In two closed herds, repeated blood......, another herd with acute BRSV was followed by weekly blood samples in six calves; in both herds IgM and IgG1 was detected shortly after the appearance of clinical signs. Serum samples from 50 Danish dairy herds (453 samples) were tested for immunoglobulins of the isotypes IgG1, IgG2 and IgM. The presence...

  1. ORGANIC VS CONVENTIONAL HERD EFFECTS ON THE WEIGHTS AND DAILY GAINS IN MURCIANO-GRANADINA KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pleguezuelos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work is testing the meat production ability of the Murciano-Granadina dairy kids maintained under organic and conventional management conditions. The weights of 89 kids of both sexes were recorded weekly from birth to slaughtering at the age reaching 7 Kg., according local commercial customs. 573 weights records were obtained in the three herds involved in the experience. These data were submitted to a statistical descriptive analysis enclosing central and dispersive descriptive statistics. We can stand out mean values around 5.5 Kg. for conventional farms, while the organic representative showed a mean slightly lower value, near 5 kg, the standard deviation was stable for all the herds around 1.8 and 2 kg, what demonstrates a high variability. The ANOVA developed under the GLM model demonstrates significant effect of the herd, sex and its interaction. The Duncan Pos Hoc test of means homogeneity showed the effect of the organic herd as responsible of the significant differences. Also a sexual dimorphism was detected in this analysis. The main conclusion of this work is the necessity of a differential commercialization of the organic kids to get an over value supported in their quality; in the present conditions the subproduction of organic kids in dairy organic farms is not competitive.

  2. Frequency of benzimidazole resistance inHaemonchus contortus populations isolated from buffalo, goat and sheep herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Luiz Nunes

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing problem that threatens livestock production worldwide. Understanding of the genetic basis of benzimidazole resistance recently allowed the development of promising molecular diagnostic tools. In this study, isolates of Haemonchus contortus obtained from goats, sheep and buffaloes raised in Brazil were screened for presence of the polymorphism Phe200Tyr in the β-tubulin 1 gene, which confers resistance to benzimidazole. The allelic frequency of the mutation conferring resistance ranged from 7% to 43%, and indicated that resistance to benzimidazole could be found in nematodes isolated from all the ruminant species surveyed. Although significant variation in the frequency of the F200Y mutation was observed between different herds or host species, no significant variation could be found in populations isolated from animals within the same herd. These findings suggest that screening of samples from a few animals has the potential to provide information about the benzimidazole resistance status of the entire herd, which would enable a considerable reduction in the costs of diagnosis for the producer. Molecular diagnosis has practical advantages, since it can guide the choice of anthelmintic drug that will be used, before its application in the herd, thus reducing the economic losses driven by anthelmintic resistance.

  3. Using routinely recorded herd data to predict and benchmark herd and cow health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health using producer-recorded data is feasible. Estimates of heritability are low, indicating that genetic progress will be slow. Improvement of health traits may also be possible with the incorporation of environmental and managerial aspects into herd health pro...

  4. Clinical course of digital dermatitis lesions in an endemically infected herd without preventive herd strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhauer, M.; Bartels, C.J.M.; Dopfer, D.; Schaik, van G.

    2008-01-01

    Lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in four separately housed groups in a herd with endemic digital dermatitis (E)D) were monitored weekly for 4 weeks in December 2004 for the presence of and transition between five stages (MO-M4) of DD. Cows were also monitored for the presence of heel horn

  5. Research Productivity by Career Stage among Korean Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun

    2014-01-01

    This study explores Korean academics' changes in research productivity by career stage. Career stage in this study is defined as a specific cohort based on one's length of job experience, with those in the same stage sharing similar interests, values, needs, and tasks; it is categorized into fledglings, maturing academics, established academics,…

  6. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Research Productivity and Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Akers, Kathryn S.; Lybarger, Melanie A.; Zakrajsek, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Research productivity and collaborations are essential aspects of advancing academia. Publishing is a critical mechanism in higher education to allow faculty members to share new information in all disciplinary fields. Due to its importance, scholarly work is often heavily considered for promotion, tenure, compensation, and other merit decisions.…

  7. Research Productivity and Social Capital in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaran, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the role of social capital in raising research productivity in academic institutions. Social capital as a strategic resource embedded in social relationships can be utilised towards decreasing pressures from external environmental conditions, such as the global financial crisis. A survey was sent to academic staff in five…

  8. Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large South African university. 175 influences as given, certain theory predicts that individual intrinsic differences can be associated with differences in individual job performance. Positive affectivity, or affect, can contribute to job satisfaction, as a result of the fit.

  9. Maximizing Research Productivity and Recognition: Strategies for Junior Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Pfirman, S.; Culligan, P.; Laird, J.

    2007-12-01

    The post-doc and the first six years of the academic lifecycle are crucial: the performance and decisions a scientist makes during this time often set the stage for the rest of his or her career. We frame our presentation around the criteria that reviewers typically use to assess candidates: reputation, impact, and productivity. Publication productivity is one of the most critical aspects of a researcher's success and the number of publications is often the first item that evaluators look for when reviewing files of job applicants and tenure candidates. Citations are typically used as a measure of impact, but they reflect a complicated set of factors besides quality, for example, visibility, size of citing community, and integration in social and professional networks. Letters of recommendation carry significant weight in evaluations for promotion because they are the only external measure that synthesizes all three parameters: reputation, impact and productivity. We have developed strategies for developing a research plan, getting the most out of scientific meetings, identifying potential letter writers, and integrating research into teaching. In this presentation we combine insights from the literature with our own experiences, to outline these strategies for increasing research productivity, recognition, and impact.

  10. Mentoring in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Mentees' Research Productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschallik, Julia; Pull, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Mentoring programs are increasingly widespread in academia. Still, comparatively little is known about their effects. With the help of a self-collected dataset of 368 researchers in two different fields and accounting for self-selection via matching techniques, we find mentees in formal mentoring programs to be more productive than comparable…

  11. Otolaryngology Residency Program Research Resources and Scholarly Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villwock, Jennifer A; Hamill, Chelsea S; Nicholas, Brian D; Ryan, Jesse T

    2017-06-01

    Objective To delineate research resources available to otolaryngology residents and their impact on scholarly productivity. Study Design Survey of current otolaryngology program directors. Setting Otolaryngology residency programs. Subjects and Methods An anonymous web-based survey was sent to 98 allopathic otolaryngology training program directors. Fisher exact tests and nonparametric correlations were used to determine statistically significant differences among various strata of programs. Results Thirty-nine percent (n = 38) of queried programs responded. Fourteen (37%) programs had 11 to 15 full-time, academic faculty associated with the residency program. Twenty (53%) programs have a dedicated research coordinator. Basic science lab space and financial resources for statistical work were present at 22 programs (58%). Funding is uniformly provided for presentation of research at conferences; a minority of programs (13%) only funded podium presentations. Twenty-four (63%) have resident research requirements beyond the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate of preparing a "manuscript suitable for publication" prior to graduation. Twenty-five (67%) programs have residents with 2 to 3 active research projects at any given time. None of the investigated resources were significantly associated with increased scholarly output. There was no uniformity to research curricula. Conclusions Otolaryngology residency programs value research, evidenced by financial support provided and requirements beyond the ACGME minimum. Additional resources were not statistically related to an increase in resident research productivity, although they may contribute positively to the overall research experience during training. Potential future areas to examine include research curricula best practices, how to develop meaningful mentorship and resource allocation that inspires continued research interest, and intellectual stimulation.

  12. [2011 ranking in production and research productivity in Spanish public universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Bermúdez, M Paz; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Quevedo-Blasco, Raúl; Castro, Ángel; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro

    2012-11-01

    The assessment and improvement of the quality of scientific research in the universities is one of the main goals of the European Space for Higher Education. Within this goal, increased interest in national and international rankings has been shown. The objective of this research is to update the scientific research productivity ranking of Spanish public universities and it is based on data corresponding to 2011. The methodology of this research is similar to those of past research, including not only the assessment of productivity, but the total production of each university. Seven indicators were assessed: articles in JCR-indexed journals, scientific research periods, I+D projects, doctoral dissertations, FPU scholarships, doctoral programs towards Excellence Mention, and patents. Results show a notable difference between universities with a higher production (University of Barcelona, Complutense University of Madrid, and University of Granada) and those that are the most productive (Pompeu Fabra, Pablo de Olavide, and Rovira i Virgili). The results obtained are analyzed in the discussion with special focus on the evolution of research in Spanish public universities in the past four years. Some challenges for the future are also discussed.

  13. Evolution of the research collaboration network in a productive department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David

    2012-02-01

    Understanding collaboration networks can facilitate the research growth of new or developing departments. The purpose of this study was to use social network analysis to understand how the research collaboration network evolved within a productive department. Over a 13-year period, a departmental faculty completed an annual survey describing their research collaborations. Data were analyzed using social network analysis. Network measures focused on connectedness, distance, groupings and heterogeneity of distribution, while measures for the research director and external collaboration focused on centrality and roles within the network. Longitudinal patterns of network collaboration were assessed using Simulation Investigation for Empirical Network Analysis software (University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands). Based upon the number of active research projects, research development can be divided into three phases. The initial development phase was characterized by increasing centralization and collaboration focused within a single subject area. During the maintenance phase, measures went through cycles, possibly because of changes in faculty composition. While the research director was not a 'key player' within the network during the first several years, external collaboration played a central role during all phases. Longitudinal analysis found that forming ties was more likely when the opportunity for network closure existed and when those around you are principal investigators (PIs). Initial development of research relied heavily upon a centralized network involving external collaboration; a central position of the research director during research development was not important. Changes in collaboration depended upon faculty gender and tenure track as well as transitivity and the 'popularity of PIs'. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Increasing Research Productivity in Undergraduate Research Experiences: Exploring Predictors of Collaborative Faculty-Student Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Danielle X.; Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.

    2017-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to understanding faculty-student productivity via undergraduate research from the faculty member's perspective. This study examines predictors of faculty-student publications resulting from mentored undergraduate research, including measures of faculty-student collaboration, faculty commitment to undergraduate…

  15. The economic scientific research, a production neo-factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciucur

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research represents a modern production neo-factor that implies two groups of coordinates: preparation and scientific research. The scientific research represents a complex of elements that confer a new orientation of high performance and is materialized in resources and new availabilities brought in active shape by the contribution of the creators and by the attraction in a specific way in the economic circuit. It is the creator of new ideas, lifting the performance and understanding to the highest international standards of competitive economic efficiency. In the present, the role of the scientific research stands before some new challenges generated by the stage of society. It.s propose a unitary, coherent scientific research and educational system, created in corresponding proportions, based on the type, level and utility of the system, by the state, the economic-social environment and the citizen himself.

  16. Research Regarding the Nutritional Value of the Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food products have in composition the necessary substances for human body but also anti-nutritional substances fulfilling an energetic, plastic, catalytic and sensorial role. The researches conducted enable a new vision on the nutritional value of food products starting from the general methodology for studying the goods, meaning from the report, necessity-use value-quality. The nutritional value represents the major criteria in assessing the quality of food products being regarded as the degree of satisfaction of a consumption necessity, representing all the properties and characteristics, that offer the possibility of satisfy the explicit and implicit needs of the food products consumers. A rational optimal nutrition must respect four essential laws (quantity, quality, balance and appropriateness.

  17. Culling reasons in organic and conventional dairy herds and genotype by environment interaction for longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlman, T; Berglund, B; Rydhmer, L; Strandberg, E

    2011-03-01

    Dairy cow longevity combines all functional traits and is thought to be especially important in organic production, which is an established, increasing part of Swedish dairy production, representing approximately 6% of the market. The aim of this study was to compare dynamics in culling reasons between organic and conventional production and to analyze genotype by environment interactions for longevity. The data contained information from all organic herds with information available from official recording (n=402) and from approximately half of the conventional herds (n=5,335). Records from Swedish Holsteins (n=155,379) and Swedish Red cows (n=160,794) that had their first calf between January 1998 and September 2003 were included. The opportunity period for longevity was at least 6 yr. Six longevity traits were defined: length of productive life; survival through first, second, and third lactations; fertility-determined survival; and udder health-determined survival. Twenty codes were used to describe the cause of culling, and these were divided into 8 groups: udder health, low fertility, low production, leg problems, metabolic diseases, other diseases, other specified causes, and unspecified cause. The main reason for culling cows in organic herds was poor udder health, whereas for cows in conventional herds it was low fertility. Furthermore, the shift in main culling reason from fertility, which was most common in first lactation regardless of production system, to udder health occurred at a lower age in organic production. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for the longevity traits expressed in organic and conventional herds were estimated from a bivariate animal model. The genetic correlations were close to unity (>0.88), except for fertility-determined survival in the Swedish Red breed (0.80). Heritabilities were low to moderate, and no clear pattern was identified for production system or breed. In general, the results indicate that farmers' culling

  18. Profession based research through Action research. Framing knowledge production in an interdisciplinary perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Bladt, Mette; Husted, Mia

    to work on tendencies to privilege some types of knowledge above others when it comes to knowledge production and research processes. The participatory worldview mandates action researchers to consider participants as a collaborative resource and agents of cyclical transformation who bring to the table......., & Aagard Nielsen, K. (2006). A framework for the book. In K. Aagaard Nielsen & L. Svensson (Eds.), Action research and interactive research (pp. 13–45). Maastricht: Shaker Publishing. Park, P., M. Brydon-Miller, B. Hall & T. Jackson (Eds.) (1993), Voices of change: Participatory research in the United...

  19. Prevalence and seasonality of bulk milk antibodies against Dictyocaulus viviparus and Ostertagia ostertagi in Irish pasture-based dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhoff, Yris; Forbes, Andrew; Good, Barbara; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Strube, Christina; Sayers, Ríona

    2015-04-15

    Infections with Dictyocaulus viviparus and Ostertagia ostertagi nematode parasites are of importance to bovine health and production in temperate areas across the world. Losses due to these parasites in dairy herds can be considerable due to decreased milk productivity and fertility. However, information on current epidemiological patterns in Irish dairy herds is limited. Bulk milk samples were collected from a total of 319 dairy farms across the Republic of Ireland. The D. viviparus samples were tested with an ELISA based on recombinant major sperm protein, while the O. ostertagi samples were tested with an ELISA based on crude saline extract, whole worm O. ostertagi antigen. Management data were collected from the farms using a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to find significant associations between the presence of antibodies against D. viviparus and O. ostertagi and management factors. The overall prevalence of D. viviparus infection was 62.8%, while over 98% of herds had antibodies to O. ostertagi at the specified cut-off. Both D. viviparus and O. ostertagi antibodies were highest in November, which could be explained by the accumulated uptake of larvae through the grazing season. In herds of farmers that dosed their in-calf heifers with anthelmintics were significantly more likely to be positive for antibodies against D. viviparus infection. This study highlights that both D. viviparus and O. ostertagi infections are widespread in dairy herds in Ireland throughout the grazing season. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  1. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic...... losses. This was more influential in the poorer management scenarios due to increased number of infected cows. The results can be used to inform dairy farmers of the benefits of preventing introduction and controlling spread of S. Dublin. Furthermore, they can be used in cost-benefit analyses of control...... heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based...

  2. Management characteristics, lameness, and body injuries of dairy cattle housed in high-performance dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N B; Hess, J P; Foy, M R; Bennett, T B; Brotzman, R L

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark the prevalence of lameness, hock and knee injuries, and neck and back injuries among high-performance, freestall-housed dairy herds in Wisconsin. A random selection of 66 herds with 200 or more cows was derived from herds that clustered with high performance in year 2011 Dairy Herd Improvement records for milk production, udder health, reproduction, and other health parameters. Herds were surveyed to collect information about management, facilities, and well-being. Well-being measures were obtained through direct observation of the high-producing mature cow group, surveying 9,690 cows in total. Total herd size averaged (mean ± standard deviation) 851±717 cows, ranging 203 to 2,966 cows, with an energy-corrected milk production of 40.1±4.4kg/cow per day. Prevalence of clinical lameness (5-point scale, locomotion score ≥3) and severe lameness (locomotion score ≥4) averaged 13.2±7.3 and 2.5±2.7%, respectively. The prevalence of all hock and knee injuries, including hair loss, swelling, and ulceration, was similar at 50.3±28.3 and 53.0±24.0%, respectively. Severe (swelling and ulceration) hock and knee injury prevalence were 12.2±15.3 and 6.2±5.5%, respectively. The prevalence of all neck injuries (including hair loss, swelling and ulceration) was 8.6±16.3%; whereas the prevalence of swollen or abraded necks was low, averaging 2.0±4.1%. Back injuries (proportion of cows with missing or abraded spinous processes, hooks, or pins) followed a similar trend with a low mean prevalence of 3.6±3.4%. Overall, physical well-being characteristics of this selection of high-producing, freestall-housed dairy herds provide evidence that lameness and injury are not inevitable consequences of the confinement housing of large numbers of dairy cattle. In particular, lameness prevalence rivals that of lower-production grazing systems. However, hock and other injury risk remains a concern that can be addressed through a choice in

  3. Joint management in action - George River caribou herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chesley Andersen

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about a major caribou herd that may be in trouble and the belief of the Labrador Inuit Association (LIA that the biggest current threat to the health of the herd may be the management policies of governments.

  4. Relationships between functional herd life and conformation traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... The genetic relationship between conformation traits and functional herd life of the South African Jersey population was investigated. ... It is therefore recommended that current national genetic evaluation for functional herd life in the South African Jersey breed should include

  5. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 – 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Findings Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18%) articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9%) articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. Conclusions The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine. PMID:23375070

  6. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sawalha, Ansam F; Abu-Taha, Adham; Hussein, Ayman; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2013-02-02

    Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18%) articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9%) articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine.

  7. Genomic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with high within-herd prevalence of intramammary infections in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, P; Pozzi, F; Raschetti, M; Bignoli, G; Capra, E; Graber, H U; Vezzoli, F; Piccinini, R; Bertasi, B; Biffani, S; Castiglioni, B; Luini, M

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causes of mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on previous research, Staph. aureus genotypes with different pathogenic and contagious properties can cause intramammary infection (IMI) and coexist in the same herd. Our study aimed to compare Staph. aureus strains from herds that differed in IMI prevalence using different molecular approaches such as ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiplex PCR. For this purpose, 31 dairy herds with Staph. aureus IMI were selected, and 16 of these were chosen for a comparison study: the 8 high-prevalence (HP) herds had Staph. aureus IMI prevalence >28% and the 8 low-prevalence (LP) herds had an IMI prevalence Staph. aureus from mammary quarters of all positive cows were genotyped with RS-PCR, a technique based on amplification of a portion of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and a subset of 54 strains was also analyzed by multiplex PCR, ribotyping, PFGE, MLST, and spa typing. The RS-PCR analysis revealed 12 different profiles. Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 5 out of 8 HP herds showed a profile identical to the genotype B (GTB), described in previous studies as being strongly associated with high within-herd prevalence of Staph. aureus mastitis and the presence of the genes coding for enterotoxins sea, sed, and sej, a long x-region of spa gene, and 3 lukE fragments. Moreover, all strains isolated in the HP herds possessed genes coding for staphylococcal enterotoxins. In LP herds, a limited number of strains of 6 genotypes, different from those isolated in HP herds, were identified and GTB was not found. Within these genotypes, 4 strains were positive for the mecA gene. Preliminary results and comparison with other genotyping methods confirmed that genotyping by RS-PCR is an accurate, rapid, and inexpensive tool for future field studies on Staph. aureus mastitis strains and

  8. Identifying risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, S; Rabiee, A R; Gunn, A; House, J K

    2016-09-01

    Lameness is a significant welfare concern for dairy farmers and a major contributing economic loss to the dairy industry. Information is limited on environmental and managerial risk factors associated with lameness in Australian dairy herds. The objective of this study was to explore and quantify the environmental and management risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 pasture-based dairy herds between 2011 and 2014, where all lactating cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-4) during a single visit. Environmental and management variables, such as length of main track and animal handling practices, were recorded during the visit. The prevalence of lameness was measured for each farm and associated risk factors were analyzed using a Generalized Linear Model, where farm was the unit of analysis. Estimated average prevalence of lameness was 18.9% (range 5 to 44.5%). The prevalence of lameness was associated with the amount of rainfall during the 30 d before the farm assessment, smoothness of concrete surface and available space per cow in the holding yard, and length of feed-pad available per cow. Inappropriate handling of cows on the track (e.g., causing sideways pushing among cows) was also a contributing risk factor to high prevalence of lameness in these dairy herds. The findings of this study suggest that by managing several environmental and farming practices, producers can reduce the prevalence of lameness, leading to improved productivity of their herds. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEATHER APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of experimental research in design activity. The designer, as a researcher and a project manager, proposes to establish a relationship between functional-aesthetic-constructive-technological-economic,based on the aesthetic possibilities of the materials used for the experiments. With the aim to identify areas for the application of leather waste resulted from the production process, the paper presents experiments conducted with this material in combination with wood, by using different techniques that lead to different aesthetic effects. Identifying the areas to use and creating products from leather and/or wood waste, is based on the properties of these materials. Leather, the subject of these experiments, has the advantage that it can be used on both sides. Tactile differences of the two sides of this material has both aesthetical and functional advantages, which makes it suitable for applications on products that meet the requirements of "design for all". With differentiated tactile characteristics, in combination with other materials, for these experiments wood, easily "read touch" products can be generated to help people with certain disabilities. Thus, experiments presented in this paper allows the establishment of aesthetic schemes applicable to products that are friendly both with the environment (based on the reuse of wood and leather waste and with the users (can be used as applications, accessories and concepts of products for people with certain disabilities. The designer’s choices or decisions can be based on the results of this experiment. The experiment enables the designer to develop creative, innovative and environmentally friendly products.

  10. Diagnostic studies of abortion in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...

  11. Why herd size matters - mitigating the effects of livestock crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the effect of pastoral risk management strategies provides insights into a system of subsistence that have persevered in marginal areas for hundreds to thousands of years and may shed light into the future of around 200 million households in the face of climate change. This study investigated the efficiency of herd accumulation as a buffer strategy by analysing changes in livestock holdings during an environmental crisis in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway. We found a positive relationship between: (1) pre- and post-collapse herd size; and (2) pre-collapse herd size and the number of animals lost during the collapse, indicating that herd accumulation is an effective but costly strategy. Policies that fail to incorporate the risk-beneficial aspect of herd accumulation will have a limited effect and may indeed fail entirely. In the context of climate change, official policies that incorporate pastoral risk management strategies may be the only solution for ensuring their continued existence.

  12. Modeling salmonella Dublin into the dairy herd simulation model Simherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella Dublin in the dairy herd and effects of the infection and relevant control measures are currently being modeled into the dairy herd simulation model called Simherd. The aim is to compare the effects of different control strategies against Salmonella Dublin on both within...... of the simulations will therefore be used for decision support in the national surveillance and eradication program against Salmonella Dublin. Basic structures of the model are programmed and will be presented at the workshop. The model is in a phase of face-validation by a group of Salmonella......-herd- prevalence and economy by simulations. The project Dublin on both within-herd- prevalence and economy by simulations. The project is a part of a larger national project "Salmonella 2007 - 2011" with the main objective to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in Danish Dairy herds. Results...

  13. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  14. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene promoter in Brazilian beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Corrêa, S C; Campelo, J E G; Barbosa, E M; Gonçalves, E C; Silva Filho, E

    2016-12-02

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of beef cattle; however, the quality of its herds needs to be improved. The use of molecular markers as auxiliary tools in selecting animals for reproduction with high pattern for beef production would significantly improve the quality of the final beef product in Brazil. The leptin gene has been demonstrated to be an excellent candidate gene for bovine breeding. The objective of this study was to sequence and compare the leptin gene promoter of Brazil's important cattle breeds in order to identify polymorphisms in it. Blood samples of the Nellore, Guzerat, Tabapuã, and Senepol breeds were collected for genomic DNA extraction. The genomic DNA was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a 1575-bp fragment, which in turn was sequenced, aligned, and compared between animals of different breeds. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphic sites, including transitions and transversions, were detected at positions -1457, -1452, -1446, -1397, -1392, -1361, -1238, -963,-901, -578, -516, -483, -478, -470, -432, -430, -292, -282, -272, -211, -202, -170, and -147. Additionally, two insertion sites at positions -680 and -416 and two deletion sites at positions -1255 and -1059 were detected. As the promoter region of the leptin gene has been demonstrated to vary among breeds, these variations must be tested for their use as potential molecular markers for artificial selection of animals for enhanced beef production in different systems of bovine production in Brazil.

  15. Dynamic probabilistic simulation of dairy herd management practices 2. Comparison of strategies in order to change a herd's calving pattern.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalvingh, A.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Renkema, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A dynamic probabilistic simulation model is further extended and used for a comparison of different strategies in order to change the calving pattern of a herd. The Markov chain approach is used to simulate herd dynamics. Strategies to change the calving pattern focusing on the farm's intake of

  16. Mortality pattern of Murrah buffalo males in an organised herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Raj Shivahre

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to analyze mortality pattern in Murrah buffalo males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Materials and Methods: Records of 1029 Murrah buffalo males born during the period 1997-2012, at NDRI, Karnal, were analyzed to study mortality pattern in different age groups. The percent of animal disposed from the herd due to different reasons was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. Results: The overall percent mortality in 0-1m, 1-2m, 2-3m, 3-6m, 6-18m, 18m-3 yr and >3 year age groups were 17.49, 5.99, 3.34, 5.42, 6.35, 2.59 and 3.93, respectively. The main cause of mortality in 0-1, 1-2, 2-3 and 6-18 m of age groups was respiratory problems (6.61%, 1.79%, 1.06% and 1.97% respectively. Main causes of mortality in age group 3-6 months were general debility (1.57% followed by respiratory and digestive problems (1.22%, miscellaneous (0.87%, liver and urinary problems (0.17%. Mortality could not reveal any consistent trend across different seasons and period of birth. General debility (1.29% followed by toxemia, liver problems and miscellaneous reasons were main causes of mortality in age group 18 m – 3 yr of age. In males above three years of age, general debility (2.81% followed by respiratory problems (1.12% were the main causes of mortality. Conclusion: Intensive health care and management is required for young male buffalo calves especially in hot humid months of rainy season and cold inclement weather conditions in winter months to minimize mortality due to respiratory and digestive problems.

  17. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2013-07-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  18. Research of beekeeping products using as radioprotectors for plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. О. Oginova

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted on a winter wheat, which was cultivated in a 30-km area in the year ofChernobylaccident, allowed to ascertain that complex use of sodium humate and beekeeping products is ineffective for diminishing the negative irradiation influence on the early growth processes of plants. Only the simultaneous use of humic preparations and anodic extraction of propolis has permanent positive effect.

  19. Brand Personality: Production Routes and National Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Bueno Cardoso Scussel; Gisela Demo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework about brand personality, drawing a scenario of studies on the construct through a review that covers synthesis of the state of the art and a bibliometric study, produced in brazilian journals in business administration and psychology, from 2001 to 2015, in order to highlight the production in the new millennium. It is a qualitative research through systematic and bibliometric review, in which 64 national journals were analyzed, resulting in eight art...

  20. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  1. Worldwide research productivity on tramadol: a bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Shraim, Naser Y.; Zyoud, Sa?ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pain management and safe use of analgesics is an important medical issue. Tramadol is an old analgesic with controversial properties. Evaluation of worldwide scientific output on tramadol has not been explored. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to give a bibliometric overview of global research productivity on tramadol. Methods SciVerse Scopus was used to retrieve and quantitatively and qualitatively analyze worldwide publications on tramadol. Results A total of 2059 ...

  2. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

    1979-01-01

    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  3. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Skog Lars; Lewerin Susanna; Frössling Jenny; Wahlström Helene

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, catt...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in Norwegian herds after introduction of selective dry cow therapy and teat dipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, Anne Cathrine; Osterås, Olav; Sølverød, Liv

    2007-02-01

    The objective was to promote a reduction in the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae after 2 years of selective dry cow therapies and teat dipping/external teat sealant implementation. Three different dry cow treatments, one long-acting and two short-acting penicillin-based products were tested at herd level together with a negative control teat dipping group, an iodine teat dipping group and DryFlextrade mark, an external teat sealant. The regimes were independently randomly allocated to 178 dairy herds. Yearly bacteriological quarter milk samples were collected from all cows at the beginning of the trial, after 1 year and 2 years. At herd level, a total of 15% of the herds showed no Staphylococcus aureus isolates after 2 years, compared with 5% at the beginning. The distribution of Streptococcus dysgalactiae infected herds remained the same after 2 years. At cow level, there were no significant differences in the reduction of Staph. aureus between the different dry cow therapies and teat dipping regimes. But there was a significant reduction of Str. dysgalactiae in the iodine teat dipping group compared with Dryflextrade mark and the negative control group. The proportional rate of Staph. aureus positive quarters was reduced from 65.9% to 54.9% after 2 years. As for Str. dysgalactiae, an increase was observed from 14.2% to 15.2%.

  5. Estudo dos efeitos genéticos e de meio ambiente sobre a produção de leite e gordura da raça holandês no estado do Rio Grande do Sul Genetics and environmental effects upon production traits of holstein herds in the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Soares Matos

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar alguns fatores de ambiente capazes de alterar o desempenho produtivo da raça Holandês e estimar parâmetros genéticos foram analisados os registros de produção, fornecidos pela Associação de Criadores de Gado Holandês do Rio Grande do Sul, de 4085 lactações, de 2295 vacas, filhas de 172 touros, distribuídas em 42 rebanhos em quatro diferentes regiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de 1988 a 1994. As médias, desvios-padrão e coeficientes de variação de produção de leite (PL e produção de gordura (PG foram, respectivamente, 5672±1513kg, 27% e 188±57kg, 30%. Os fatores ambientais foram analisados incluindo no modelo, como variáveis independentes, os efeitos de região, rebanho dentro da região, ordem de lactação e ano de parição e como variáveis dependentes, as produções de leite e gordura ajustadas para 305 dias. A análise de variância efetuada pelo método dos quadrados mínimos, revelou a significância de todas as variáveis independentes incluídas no modelo sobre as características de produção estudadas. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados utilizando-se o programa MTDFREML de BOLDMAN et al. (1995, através do método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML. Adotando-se um modelo animal multivariado o efeito aleatório de animal e os efeitos fixos de região, rebanho, ano-época de parição e ordem de lactação. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade estimados para PL e PG em 305 dias de lactação foram 0,19 e 0,17, respectivamente. A correlação gentica entre PL e PG foi estimada em 0,95.In order to evaluate the impact of environmental and genetics effects upon production traits, information used in this study was obtained from 4085 lactations of Holstein cows, daughters of 172 sires, out of 42 herds, from 1988-1994, whose farms were located in four different geographical regions, in the southern, Brazil. The environmental effects were analysed by the Least

  6. Contribution of health researches in national knowledge production: A scientometrics study on 15-year research products of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers, practitioners, and policymakers call for updated valid evidence to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of health problems. To respond to these needs, health researches provide the vast multidisciplinary scientific fields. We quantify the national trends of health research outputs and its contribution in total science products. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus database with the most coverage in health and biomedicine discipline as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, for all total and health-related publications, from 2000 to 2014. These scientometrics analyses covered the trends of main index of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers. We also provided information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the fields of health researches. Results: In Iran, over a 15-year period, 237,056 scientific papers have been published, of which 81,867 (34.53% were assigned to health-related fields. Pearson's Chi-square test showed significant time trends between published papers and their citations. Tehran University of Medical Sciences was responsible for 21.87% of knowledge productions share. The second and the third ranks with 11.15% and 7.28% belonged to Azad University and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, respectively. In total fields, Iran had the most collaborative papers with the USA (4.17%, the UK (2.41%, and Canada (0.02%. In health-related papers, similar patterns of collaboration followed by 4.75%, 2.77%, and 1.93% of papers. Conclusions: Despite the ascending trends in health research outputs, more efforts required for the promotion of collaborative outputs that cause synergy of resources and the use of practical results. These analyses also could be useful for better planning and management of planning and conducting studies in these fields.

  7. THE SUMMARY REPORT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATIONS ON BREEDING AND SEED PRODUCTION IN THE ALLJRUSSIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF VEGETABLE BREEDING AND SEED PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. F. Pivovarov; O. N. Pishnaya; L. K. Gurkina

    2013-01-01

    The main directions and new achievements of the research investigations on vegetable breeding and seed production carried on the All'Russian Research Institute of vegetable breedingand seed production are shown.

  8. Association of a Biweekly Research Workgroup With Enhanced Resident Research Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackmann, Melissa; Reynolds, R Kevin; Uppal, Shitanshu; McLean, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Almost all residency programs require a resident research project, yet teaching and mentoring of the required skills are often lacking. We established an every-other-week gynecologic oncology research workgroup at our institution for obstetrics and gynecology faculty, fellows, and residents with the goal of increasing resident research education, involvement, and productivity. An informal, discussion-style format was adopted as a forum for brainstorming research ideas, formulating study protocols, and collaborating on institutional review board submissions. Additional aims included editorial feedback on abstracts and manuscripts as well as oral presentation preparation. The academic productivity of trainees mentored by the gynecologic oncology division was queried for 27 months before and 27 months after workgroup initiation, specifically assessing resident involvement in institutional review board submission, abstract presentation, and manuscript preparation. Institution of our workgroup was associated with a dramatic increase in resident research output, including manuscript preparation and presentations at national meetings. We describe our experience because it may benefit other residency programs wishing to improve both resident research education and productivity.

  9. CAUSES OF DISPOSAL OF MURRAH BUFFALO FROM AN ORGANISED HERD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taraphder

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprised of 602 disposal records of adult Murrah buffaloes , spread over a period of 16 years from 1985 to 2000 at NDRI, Karnal, Haryana. Analysed data showed that the reproductive problems (38.62, low milk production (24.01 and udder problems (22.76 were the three major reasons of culling in adult Murrah buffaloes . The culling of cows due to involuntary reason (reproductive problems, udder problems and locomotive disorders accounted for nearly 63.68 percent of total culling in Murrah buffaloes in the NDRI herd. The data revealed that maximum mortality occurred due to digestive problems accounting for 30.89 percent followed by cardio-vascular problems (26.02 percent, respiratory problems (21.14 percent, parasitic problems (8.13 percent and uro-genital problems (5.69 percent. The results showed that there is a scope for further improvement in production and reproductive efficiency through better monitoring of reproduction and udder health status of the buffaloes. The high involuntary culling rate not only makes the dairy enterprises economically less profitable but also reduces the genetic improvement by lowering the selection differential for milk production.

  10. Financial aspects of veterinary herd health management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifende, V I; Derks, M; Hooijer, G A; Hogeveen, H

    2014-09-06

    Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programmes have been shown to be economically effective in the past. However, no current information is available on costs and benefits of these programmes. This study compared economics and farm performance between participants and non-participants in VHHM programmes in 1013 dairy farms with over 40 cows. Milk Production Registration (MPR) data and a questionnaire concerning VHHM were used. Based on the level of participation in VHHM (as indicated in the questionnaire), costs of the programmes were calculated using a normative model. The economic value of the production effects was similarly calculated using normative modelling based on MPR data. Participants in VHHM had a better performance with regard to production, but not with regard to reproduction. Over 90 per cent of the VHHM participants were visited at least once every six weeks and most participants discussed at least three topics. In most farms, the veterinarian did the pregnancy checks as part of the VHHM programmes. There was a benefit to cost ratio of about five per cow per year for VHHM participants, and a mean difference in net returns of €30 per cow per year after adjusting for the cost of the programme. This portrays that participation in a VHHM programme is cost-efficient. There is, however, much unexplained variation in the net returns, possibly due to diverse approaches by veterinarians towards VHHM or by other factors not included in this analysis, like nutritional quality or management abilities of the farmer. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  12. Management, milk production level and economic performance : an explorative study on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rougoor, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the relation between dairy herd management, milk production per cow, and gross margin per 100 kg of milk. The study was carried out as an explorative and empirical study. The thesis is composed of five parts.

    First,

  13. On the Relationship between Research Productivity and Teaching Effectiveness at Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Cheng, Xuezhu; Zhao, Ke

    2007-01-01

    As an empirical study based on undergraduate ratings of 2364 teachers lecturing in different courses during four semesters in Beijing Normal University, this paper studies the relationship between teaching effectiveness and research productivity. The results show that both of them are positively correlated, that is to say, teaching effectiveness…

  14. Optimal utilization of modern reproductive technologies to maximize the gross margin of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, A-M; Peippo, J

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a linear programming model was developed to maximize the gross margin of milk production by determining the optimal use of different reproductive technologies in a dairy herd. The model has the potential to vary the use of conventional artificial insemination, insemination with X-sorted sperm, and the use of unselected or sex-selected embryo recovery and transfer. Data from Finnish dairy herd recording systems were used to parameterize the model. This paper presents the results of 6 scenarios for a herd size of 60 dairy cows. In the basic scenario, the optimum economic combination for Finnish conditions was to inseminate 10 heifers and 22 cows with unsorted semen, 8 heifers with X-sorted sperm, and to use 20 cows as embryo donors which was the upper constraint for this technique. The embryo donors were inseminated with conventional semen for both embryo production and their subsequent pregnancy. Without restriction on embryo recovery, the optimum combination was to use all heifers as donors of sex-selected embryos and all cows as donors of unselected embryos. It was more profitable to produce female embryos with X-sorted sperm than by sorting embryos. Embryo recipients were not economically justified in any scenario. In practice, the optimal strategy is herd-specific depending on the input costs, output values and the technical success of each reproductive technology in that herd. This single-year linear programming model adequately differentiates between breeding technologies within a herd, but further research is needed to develop dynamic models to consider genetic improvement and herd expansion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunrat Chaveerach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made, simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs. The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas, such as foods, traditional medicine, fragrances and seasonings. Then those data will be associated with scientific researches, namely plant collection and identification, phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, pharmacological study/review for their functions, and finally safety and efficiency tests in human. For safety testing, in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed. When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses, then, the potential medicinal natural products will be produced. Based on these procedures, the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties. Thus, the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

  16. Recovery of Salmonella enterica from seropositive finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; van der Wolf, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    the proportion of culture positive- and seropositive samples in a herd at cut-off OD% > 10 and of 0.58 at cut-off OD% > 40. Serology is a measure of historical exposure, which may or may not correlate closely to the microbiological burden at the time of sampling. Due to the low sensitivity of culture methods...... (87.5%) had a within-herd seroprevalence larger than 50% at sample cut-off OD% > 10. In our study, there was an increasing probability of recovering Salmonella with increasing within-herd seroprevalence. However, this was only a moderate correlation. A correlation coefficient of 0.62 was found between...

  17. Infection dynamics of Lawsonia intracellularis in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    Little information is known about the natural course and within-herd prevalence of porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis. The objective of the study was to investigate the within-herd dynamics of naturally acquired L. intracellularis infection in pigs from weaning...... to slaughter. The study was designed as a longitudinal survey where 100 pigs from five herds were randomly selected at weaning (approximately 4 weeks of age). Every second week until slaughter (10-12 times, i.e. 20-24 weeks) the pigs were weighed and faecal as well as blood samples were collected. Faecal...

  18. Stochastic models to simulate paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Weber, M.F.; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic simulation models are widely accepted as a means of assessing the impact of changes in daily management and the control of different diseases, such as paratuberculosis, in dairy herds. This paper summarises and discusses the assumptions of four stochastic simulation models and their use...... in the design of certification, surveillance, and control strategies for paratuberculosis in cattle herds. A detailed comparison is made between the Dutch JohneSSim and the Danish PTB-Simherd, using the same context of a set of control strategies in a typical Dutch/Danish herd. The conclusion is that while...

  19. From university research to commercial product (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathuis, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Ovizio Imaging Systems, a quantitative microscopic imaging spin-off of the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, was founded in the beginning of 2010 by Philip Mathuis, Serge Jooris, Prof. Frank Dubois and Dr. Catherine Yourassowky. The company has launched a range of specialized microscopy instruments for quantitative imaging mainly focused on the bioprocessing and diagnostics fields within the life sciences market. During my talk I will present the story of how an idea, emerged from the research labs of the University made it to a manufactured and sold product. The talk will look at many aspects of entrepreneurship and setting up a company, finding the funding for the project, attracting people, industrialization and product design and commercialization. It will also be focused on choices one has to make during the start-up phase and methodologies that can be applied in many different settings.

  20. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for Value-Added Products (VAPs) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun; (2) progress on existing VAPs; (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved; (4) other work that leads to a VAP; (5) top requested VAPs from the ARM Data Archive; and (6) a summary of VAP and data releases to production and evaluation. New information is highlighted in blue text. New information about processed data by the developer is highlighted in red text. The upcoming milestones and dates are highlighted in green.

  1. Impact of fellowship training on research productivity in academic ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Fang, Christina H; Lopez, Santiago A; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Langer, Paul D; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether scholarly impact of academic ophthalmologists, as measured using the h-index, is affected by fellowship training status and to further characterize differences in productivity among the various subspecialties and by departmental rank. A descriptive and correlational design was used. In total, 1440 academic ophthalmologists from 99 ophthalmology training programs were analyzed. The h-index data were obtained from the Scopus database. Faculty members were classified by academic rank and grouped into 10 categories based on fellowship training: anterior segment, corneal and external disease, glaucoma, uveitis and ocular immunology, vitreoretinal disease, ophthalmic plastic surgery, pediatric ophthalmology, neuro-ophthalmology, ophthalmic pathology, and "other." A one-way analysis of variance or Student t test using Microsoft Excel and "R" statistical software were used for comparison of continuous variables, with significance set at p academic ophthalmology residency training programs in the United States whose information is stored in the American Medical Association's Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. Fellowship-trained ophthalmologists had significantly higher research productivity, as measured using the h-index, than non-fellowship-trained ophthalmologists in this study (p Academic ophthalmologists trained in vitreoretinal disease or ophthalmic pathology had the highest scholarly productivity compared with those in other ophthalmology subspecialties (p academic rank from Assistant Professor to Professor (p Academic ophthalmologists with fellowship training have significantly higher scholarly output than non-fellowship-trained ophthalmologists do, as measured using the h-index. Research productivity increases with departmental academic rank from Assistant Professor to Professor. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancing Environmental Communication and Products Through Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses two ongoing interdisciplinary case studies that are using qualitative research to design and enhance environmental communication and science products for outreach and decision making purposes. Both cases demonstrate the viability and practical value of qualitative social science methodology, specifically focus group interviews, to better understand the viewpoints of target audiences, improve deliverables, and support project goals. The first case is a NOAA-funded project to conduct process-based modeling to project impact from climate change in general and sea level rise in particular to the natural and built environment. The project spans the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts with concentration on the three National Estuarine Research Reserves. As part of the broader project, four annual focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of coastal resource managers to capture their perspectives and suggestions to better meet their informational and operational needs. The second case is a Florida Sea Grant-funded project that is developing, implementing, and testing a cohesive outreach campaign to promote voluntary careful and responsible recreational boating to help protect sensitive marine life and habitats (especially seagrasses and oyster reefs) in the Mosquito Lagoon. Six focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of the target audience of boaters to gain insights, feedback, and ideas on the direction of the campaign and design of the messages and products. The campaign materials created include a branded website, Facebook page, mobile app, information packets, brochures, pledge forms, and promotional items. A comparison of these two case studies will be provided and will explain how the qualitative findings were/are being implemented to tailor and refine the respective communication strategies and techniques including the emerging outreach products. The resulting outcomes are messages and tools that are

  3. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  4. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B; Fischer, Jonathan P; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A

    2015-11-01

    Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education.

  5. Natural products research in South Africa: 1890–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried E. Drewes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Having spent some 50 years as an organic chemist with an interest in medicinal plant chemistry in South Africa it was relevant now to ask three questions, (1 when were natural products first utilised, (2 who were the people involved, and (3 what is the status quo? Based on older literature published in the South African Journal of Chemistry, information gleaned from attendance at innumerable chemistry conferences, and relevant literature in university archives, a great deal of information was gathered to answer the first two questions. For example, that the first veterinarian to treat cattle diseases caused by poisonous plants in the Eastern Cape was Dr Jotella Soga in the 1890s. Contributions from other prominent scientists such as Marais, Rindl, Rimington and Warren followed. From about 1940 to the 1990s, researchers concentrated mainly on the isolation of new compounds from local plants for which some indigenous knowledge was recorded. Foreign chemists also arrived and did a fair amount of ‘exploitation’ of natural products. Thus, the anti-cancer compound combretastatin was first isolated from the indigenous tree Combretum caffrum. Plant chemistry in South Africa has blossomed in the last decade, with many students from previously disadvantaged backgrounds, but with a keen interest in muti or medicinal chemistry, entering the field. Recent findings have rekindled the belief that a major development in natural products would at last emerge from Africa.

  6. Population dynamics of the Kaminuriak caribou herd, 1968 - 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kaminuraik caribou herd apparently declined from about 120 000 animals in 1950 to 63 000 in 1968. Beginning in 1968 documentation of herd trend was based on the estimate of the number of breeding (pregnant and post-partum females on the calving ground during the birth peak. It appeared as if we understood the basic population processes responsible for the decline when we correctly predicted a drop from 14 800 breeding females in 1977 to 13 000 in 1980. However a three-fold increase, to 41 000 breeding females in 1982, and continued growth thereafter, was unanticipated. Most of that increase must have resulted from an immigration of cows to the herd's traditional calving ground around Kaminuriak Lake, although increased birth rates, and increased survival rates also contributed to herd growth. Immigrant cows probably came from the northeastern mainland of the NWT

  7. Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular,

  8. [Sullys Hill National Game Preserve bison herd raw data, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raw data from Texas A&M University on the Sullys Hill National Game Preserve federal bison herd. Data includes nuclear introgression markers and nuclear...

  9. The state of knowledge of the Porcupine caribou herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper provides an assessment of the state of knowledge of the Porcupine Caribou Herd and its habitat, drawing on analogy with other studies where necessary. The...

  10. Jackson bison herd long term management plan and environmental assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Free-ranging bison (Bison bison) were reintroduced to Jackson Hole from the Jackson Hole Wildlife Park in Grand Teton National Park in 1969. By March 1996, the herd...

  11. The Hardangervidda wild reindeer herd: a problematic management history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag K. Bjerketvedt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The unique and internationally important wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus herd on the Hardangervidda plateau of southern Norway  has shown frequent and extreme fluctuations in harvest numbers for the past 60 years, despite considerable effort to stabilize the herd size at a winter carrying capacity of  9000 – 12 000 animals . In the absence of large mammalian predators, herd size is managed through hunting.  Here we attempt to unravel the causes of the management problems related to this population by examining the relative roles of historical, biological and management-related processes. From 1900 - 1950 the population remained mainly low due to a combination of generous harvest quotas, poaching and competition from domestic reindeer.  From 1950 - 2012 three extreme harvest peaks of between 4500 - 9500 animals occurred, followed by three equally extreme troughs including two shorter periods of total protection.  This extreme harvest fluctuation contrasts with the estimated annual harvest of 2300 - 3000 needed to stabilize the winter herd between 9000 - 12 000 animals.  We conclude that this population has been difficult to manage mainly because of 1 a management based on frequently unreliable population data on herd size (especially before 2001, 2 lack of  in depth analyses and evaluation of both recruitment and sex and age composition and 3 a low and highly variable harvest success (harvest/quota due mainly to poor hunter mobility, a disadvantage when reindeer must be harvested from large flocks that constantly move upwind, seeking refuge on small areas with few hunters.  More reliable population data to create better harvest models plus increased hunter mobility are necessary to attain a more sustainable herd size, implying an improvement of the current herd survey methodology available to local reindeer boards.  Finally, a critical and independent evaluation of the scientific methodology employed to study and manage this herd is

  12. Prevalence and herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Pessôa Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Its control has a direct impact on public health and livestock production. This study estimated the prevalence of infected herds and adult bovines and evaluated risk factors associated with the presence of tuberculosis within herds in the state of Paraná. The state was divided in seven livestock regions and independent sampling was performed. A total of 1,419 farms were sampled and 16,045 animals were tested using the intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin diagnostic test. The apparent and estimated prevalence rates in farms and adult bovine animals were 2.15% (95% CI: 1.31-3.00 and 0.42% (95% CI: 0.04-0.81, respectively. It was not possible to state with 95% confidence that the disease prevalence in any region was significantly different from that in other regions. There were no positive animals in the western region, and the prevalence of positive herds and animals in the other regions ranged from 1.03% to 3.89% and 0.17% to 1.08%, respectively. The logistic regression model identified larger herd size (OR = 2.4 and mechanical cmilking (OR = 5.18 as risk factors associated with the presence of bovine tuberculosis. The combination of low prevalence with risk factors associated to larger herds and more intensive dairy farming, renders the state of Paraná a good candidate for the implementation of industry-based free-herd accreditation schemes and makes a case for planning risk-based surveillance targeted at major dairy basins.

  13. Success and failure of reindeer herding in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal husbandry is a recent innovation in Greenland, specifically reindeer husbandry is less than 50 years old. Reindeer husbandry was first established in mid-west Greenland and later in southern Greenland. The Greenland hunter tradition and culture is, however, still dominant in many communities. During the 1980s and 1990s, the incompatibility of these two traditions resulted in the failure of reindeer husbandry in mid-west Greenland. There were neither herding nor seasonal herd movements. Animals remained year round on the winter range, which was destroyed as lichens were trampled every summer. Without seasonal herd movements both sustainable range use and control of the herd were lost. Today, there are just two semi-domestic reindeer herds left, and both are in southern Greenland. One herd is commercially successful, and the other is under development. In mid-west Greenland, semi-domestic reindeer husbandry officially ended in 1998, and a hunt was initiated to remove the remaining population. Possibly, by the year 2000 any animals left in this region will be considered wild caribou.

  14. The pattern of endemic parvovirus infection in four pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointon, A M; Surman, P G; McCloud, P I; Whyte, P B

    1983-06-01

    Serological surveys were conducted on the gilts and adult sows in 4 herds endemically infected with porcine parvovirus. The study assessed the influence of the type of management of breeders on the spread of virus infection and the influence of endemic parvovirus infection on reproductive parameters of the herd. The practice of holding gilts and sows in groups did not reliably promote infection or maintain a 100% level of active immunity amongst adult sows in 2 of 3 group husbandry herds. In the 4 herds, the prevalence of adult sows (greater than 12 months) with active immune haemagglutination inhibition titres (greater than or equal to 256) ranged between 44% and 100%, while between 0% and 100% of gilts (6 to 12 months of age) had active immune titres. Fully susceptible gilts older than 9 months of age held in groups, failed to become infected by 12 months of age on farms endemically infected with PPV. In 2 herds a continued low infection rate of gilts resulted in increasing the potential of breeding animals becoming susceptible to parvovirus infection as infected sows were replaced by noninfected gilts. In both herds, epidemics of parvovirus infection followed, which were characterised by an increase in reproductive failure. Parvovirus infection during the first 70 days of pregnancy reduced the average number of piglets born alive per litter by 1.6 piglets (p less than 0.05). This was due to the combined effect of more piglets being born dead per litter and an overall reduction in litter size.

  15. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  16. Evaluation of bovine coronavirus antibody levels, virus shedding, and respiratory disease incidence throughout the beef cattle production cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective- Determine how levels of serum antibody to bovine coronavirus (BCV) are related to virus shedding patterns and respiratory disease incidence in beef calves at various production stages. Animals- 890 crossbred beef calves from four separately managed herds at the U.S. Meat Animal Research C...

  17. How Natural Product Research has Contributed to Oral Care Product Development? A Critical View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high number of studies on the biological effects of natural products (NP) and molecules isolated therefrom, only a small part of them reach the clinical phase and become commercially available. In this perspective we make an analysis on how plant research has impacted oral health care over the last 15 years. Sixteen major clinical trial registry databases across the globe were searched for completed randomized clinical trials of herbal/natural product interventions (RCTHI) in theperiod 2000-2015. There was a considerable increase in the number of RCTHI, which points out an interest of academia and industry in the development of novel NP-based therapeutics. There is a trendfor greater heterogeneity of targeted dental conditions, mostly oral mucositis, periodontitis and dental caries. Topical application rather than systemic use predominated in the dental scope as mouthwashes, toothpastes, oral patches and gels have been the most commonly tested pharmaceutical forms. Today, despite the high number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies testing NP and/or NP-isolated molecules, only 11% (n = 9) of them are phase IV clinical trials assessing commercially available herbal products. This may be a result of poorly designed, superficial basic research that does not provide evidence to support the clinical testing of NP and derived molecules. As of now, plant research is promising although still accounts for a modest participation in the oral health care industry due to limited investment and incomplete or inconsistent information from preclinical and clinical testing.

  18. Emotions in consumer research : An application to novel food products

    OpenAIRE

    Laros, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades the general public has been confronted with a continuous stream of radically new food products as well as technologies that can be used to improve food production and food products. It is rather difficult, however, to convince consumers to accept these new products. For instance, the majority of consumers reject genetically modified food products completely. When consumers are interested or even concerned about the production of food products, their emotions with respe...

  19. Prevalence and consequences of chromosomal abnormalities in Canadian commercial swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Anh T; Revay, Tamas; Villagomez, Daniel A F; Macedo, Mariana P; Sullivan, Alison; Maignel, Laurence; Wyss, Stefanie; Sullivan, Brian; King, W Allan

    2016-09-12

    Structural chromosome abnormalities are well known as factors that reduce fertility rate in domestic pigs. According to large-scale national cytogenetic screening programs that are implemented in France, it is estimated that new chromosome abnormalities occur at a rate of 0.5 % in fertility-unproven boars. This work aimed at estimating the prevalence and consequences of chromosome abnormalities in commercial swine operations in Canada. We found pig carriers at a frequency of 1.64 % (12 out of 732 boars). Carrier pigs consistently showed lower fertility values. The total number of piglets born for litters from carrier boars was between 4 and 46 % lower than the herd average. Similarly, carrier boars produced litters with a total number of piglets born alive that was between 6 and 28 % lower than the herd average. A total of 12 new structural chromosome abnormalities were identified. Reproductive performance is significantly reduced in sires with chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of such abnormal sires appears relatively high in populations without routine cytogenetic screening such as observed for Canada in this study. Systematic cytogenetic screening of potential breeding boars would minimise the risk of carriers of chromosome aberrations entering artificial insemination centres. This would avoid the large negative effects on productivity for the commercial sow herds and reduce the risk of transmitting abnormalities to future generations in nucleus farms.

  20. Effects of feeding practices on milk yield and composition in peri-urban and rural smallholder dairy cow and pastoral camel herds in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashongwe, O B; Bebe, B O; Matofari, J W; Huelsebusch, C G

    2017-06-01

    Associations between feeding practices, milk yield, and composition were assessed in smallholder rural and peri-urban dairy cow (n = 97) and pastoral camel (n = 15) herds. A cross-sectional survey supplemented by follow-up collection of feed and milk samples for laboratory analyses was conducted. Data was analyzed using descriptive, correlation, and analysis of variance statistics. Feeding practices in rural smallholder dairy cows' herds were pastured based (87.7%) with napier grass (89.4%) and concentrates (93.9%) as forage and concentrate supplements. In smallholder peri-urban dairy cows' herds, it was napier grass based (68.4%) with concentrates (100%), oat forages (42.9%), and crop residues (28.6%). Pastoral camel herds were shrub browsing (53%), rangeland pasture grazing (20%), or Euphorbia tirucalli feeding (27%). Smallholder rural farmers offered more feeds (16.1 vs 15.3 kg/day) than peri-urban farmers, hence net energy for lactation (1.4 vs 1.3 Mcal/kg), crude protein (CP) (10 vs 12%), and milk yields (12 vs 9 kg/herd/day) was higher. Milk fat was higher in smallholder peri-urban (4.3%) than that of rural (3.9%). In pastoral camels, E. tirucalli feeding had higher daily milk yield/herd, fat, and CP (63 kg, 4.5 and 3.6%) than shrub browsing (35 kg, 4.2 and 3.0%) and grazing (23 kg yield, 2.6 and 2.7%). Five feeding practices out of 14 in smallholder dairy cattle herds resulted in more than 10 kg milk/cow/day because of low forage-to-concentrate ratio (2.5), inclusion of legume crop residue, or processing forages. They present opportunities for improved production in smallholder herds. In pastoral camel, E. tirucalli feeding showed the highest potential.

  1. Using animal performance data to evidence the under-reporting of case herds during an epizootic: application to an outbreak of bluetongue in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Nusinovici

    Full Text Available Following the emergence of the Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 in France in 2006, a surveillance system (both passive and active was implemented to detect and follow precociously the progression of the epizootic wave. This system did not allow a precise estimation of the extent of the epizootic. Infection by BTV-8 is associated with a decrease of fertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a decrease in fertility can be used to evidence the under-reporting of cases during an epizootic and to quantify to what extent non-reported cases contribute to the total burden of the epizootic. The cow fertility in herds in the outbreak area (reported or not was monitored around the date of clinical signs. A geostatistical interpolation method was used to estimate a date of clinical signs for non-reported herds. This interpolation was based on the spatiotemporal dynamic of confirmed case herds reported in 2007. Decreases in fertility were evidenced for both types of herds around the date of clinical signs. In non-reported herds, the decrease fertility was large (60% of the effect in reported herds, suggesting that some of these herds have been infected by the virus during 2007. Production losses in non-reported infected herds could thus contribute to an important part of the total burden of the epizootic. Overall, results indicate that performance data can be used to evidence the under-reporting during an epizootic. This approach could be generalized to pathogens that affect cattle's performance, including zoonotic agents such as Coxiella burnetii or Rift Valley fever virus.

  2. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  3. Diagnoses and Treatments in Health-Classified Fattening Herds Rearing Pigs All In – All Out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloniemi H

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes diseases encountered, medications used and veterinary involvement in all in – all out finishing herds belonging to one pork production system. The finishing herds had a particular management and housing regime. The pigs originated from health classified farrowing units. Information on 207442 pigs was collected from 595 log books. Altogether 91% of the pigs received no treatments. Four percent of the batches of pigs were given antimicrobial mass medications. The local veterinarian visited the herds on average 2.6 times during the finishing period and made the diagnoses in more than half of the cases. At least one pig was affected with arthritis or tail biting in more than half of the batches, whereas locomotory diseases were recorded in one third of the batches. All other diagnoses were encountered in 1%-13% of the batches. Only a few pigs were treated individually in the affected groups. Antimicrobial drugs were given to 8% and other medicines to 0.7% of the pigs. The diagnosis was missing at least for one pig in 29% of the batches and the information about the medicine use in 8% of the treatments was missing. The study shows that it is possible to rear finishing pigs with only a small proportion of the animals needing treatments. The need of mass medications was low, because infectious diseases affecting the whole herd were uncommon. The recommendations for antimicrobial use given by the authorities had been followed quite well. The farmers and the veterinarians should be educated in order to realise the importance of proper record keeping.

  4. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  5. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    of a mobile juice harvester is not economically viable due to low sugar recovery. The addition of front-end stalk processing/pressing equipment into existing ethanol facilities was found to be economically viable when combined with the plants' use of residuals as a natural gas fuel replacement. Because of high loss of fermentable carbohydrates during ensilage, storage of sweet sorghum in bunkers was not found to be economically viable. The fourth section looks at double cropping winter triticale with late-planted summer corn and compares these scenarios to traditional single cropped corn. Double cropping systems show particular promise for co-production of grain and biomass feedstocks and potentially can allow for greater utilization of grain crop residues. However, additional costs and risks associated with producing two crops instead of one could make biomass-double crops less attractive for producers despite productivity advantages. Detailed evaluation and comparisons show double cropped triticale-corn to be at a significant economic disadvantage relative to single crop corn. The cost benefits associated with using less equipment combined with availability of risk mitigating crop insurance and government subsidies will likely limit farmer interest and clearly indicate that traditional single-crop corn will provide greater financial returns to management. To evaluate the various sweet sorghum, single crop corn and double cropped triticale-corn production scenarios, a detailed but generic model was developed. The primary goal of this generic approach was to develop a modeling foundation that can be rapidly adapted, by an experienced user, to describe new and existing biomass and crop production scenarios that may be of interest to researchers. The foundation model allows input of management practices, crop production characteristics and utilizes standardized machinery performance and cost information, including farm-owned machinery and implements, and machinery and

  6. Brand Personality: Production Routes and National Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bueno Cardoso Scussel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a conceptual framework about brand personality, drawing a scenario of studies on the construct through a review that covers synthesis of the state of the art and a bibliometric study, produced in brazilian journals in business administration and psychology, from 2001 to 2015, in order to highlight the production in the new millennium. It is a qualitative research through systematic and bibliometric review, in which 64 national journals were analyzed, resulting in eight articles on brand personality, categorized according to demographic, institutional and methodological criteria. As a main conclusion, there is the incipient in nationwide surveys, the need for theoretical and empirical development of the construct, measure validation and relational studies. The aim is thus to contribute to the theoretical development in studies of brands and present reflections and guidelines, building a useful starting point for conducting further investigations.

  7. A bibliometric analysis of scientific production in mesothelioma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Casilli, Cristina; Ceppi, Marcello; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Ivaldi, Giovanni Paolo; Paganuzzi, Michela; Bonassi, Stefano

    2010-11-01

    This study aims at comparing scientific production in malignant mesothelioma (MM) among countries and evaluating publication trends and impact factor (IF). The PubMed database was searched with a strategy combining keywords listed in the Medical Subject Headings and free-text search. Publications numbers and IF were evaluated both as absolute values and after standardization by population and gross domestic product (GDP). 5240 citations were retrieved from the biennium 1951-1952 (n = 22) to 2005-2006 (n = 535). The 177% increase of MM publications from 1987 to 2006 exceeded by large the corresponding value of total cancer literature (123.5%). In these two decades, 2559 articles with IF were published: 46.4% came from the European Union (EU) (the UK, Italy and France ranking at the top), and 36.2% from the US. The highest mean IF was reported for the US (3.346), followed by Australia (3.318), and EU (2.415, with the UK, Belgium and the Netherlands first). Finland, Sweden and Australia had the best ratio between IF (sum) and resident population or GDP. The number of publications correlated with GDP (p = 0.001) and national MM mortality rates (p = 0.002). An association was found between a country commitment to MM research and the burden of disease (p = 0.04). Asbestos, survival, prognosis, occupational exposure, differential diagnosis, and immunohistochemistry were the most commonly used keywords. This report represents the first effort to explore the geographical and temporal distribution of MM research and its determinants. This is an essential step in understanding science priorities and developing disease control policies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Methods for Genetic Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance In Animal Herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy

    -time PCR (qPCR) assays that supply an easy and rapid method for quantifying antibiotic resistance levels in animal herds. The pig production is accountable for a large portion of the antibiotics used for food producing animals in Denmark. Therefore, the antibiotic resistance genes included in this study...... from the Danish pig production. Fecal samples from wildlife and Massai cattle in Tanzania were screened for the presence of the 14 antibiotic resistance genes using the qPCR assays. The wildlife and cattle samples were collected in the Ngorongoro Conservational Area (NCA) (wildlife and cattle...

  9. Bovine mastitis: prevalence, risk factors and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy herds at Hawassa milk shed, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Rahmeto; Hatiya, Hagere; Abera, Mesele; Megersa, Bekele; Asmare, Kassahun

    2016-12-03

    Mastitis is a disease of major economic importance in dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries like Ethiopia, where milk and milk products are scarce. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of mastitis, identify the cow-and herd-level potential risk factors and isolate Staphylococcus aureus, one of etiological agents for contagious mastitis, from cows positive for mastitis. A total of 529 lactating cows selected randomly from 95 herds were screened by California mastitis test (CMT) for sub-clinical mastitis. Also 172 milk samples collected from CMT positive cows were cultured for isolation of S. aureus. Based on CMT result and clinical examination, the prevalence of mastitis at herd-level was 74.7% (95% CI: 64.5, 82.8). The corresponding cow-level prevalence was 62.6% (95% CI: 58.3, 66.7), of which 59.2 and 3.4% were sub-clinical and clinical mastitis cases, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from 51.2% of the milk samples cultured and 73.2% of the herds affected with mastitis. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the herd-level factors significantly associated (p mastitis were herd size, bedding material, and milking mastitic cows last, while at cow-level, breed, parity, stage of lactation, udder and leg hygiene, and teat end shape were noted to have a significant effect on mastitis occurrence. The very high prevalence of mastitis, more importantly the sub-clinical one, in the herds examined revealed the huge potential economic loss the sector suffers. Perhaps this was attributed to lack of implementation of the routine mastitis prevention and control practices by all of the herd owners. The findings of this study warrants the need for strategic approach including dairy extension that focus on enhancing dairy farmers' awareness and practice of hygienic milking, regular screening for sub-clinical mastitis, dry cow therapy and culling of chronically infected cows.

  10. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Perry

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods: We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a workstudy graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results: The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion: An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education.

  11. Critical Research for Cost-Effective Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liwei [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Deng, Xunming [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Abken, Anka [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Cao, Xinmin [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Du, Wenhui [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Vijh, Aarohi [Xunlight Corporation, Toledo, OH (United States); Ingler, William [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Chen, Changyong [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Fan, Qihua [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Collins, Robert [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Compaan, Alvin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Yan, Yanfa [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Giolando, Dean [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-10-29

    The objective of this project is to develop critical technologies required for cost-effective production of hydrogen from sunlight and water using a-Si triple junction solar cell based photo-electrodes. In this project, Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE) and its collaborating organizations utilize triple junction a-Si thin film solar cells as the core element to fabricate photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. Triple junction a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe solar cell is an ideal material for making cost-effective PEC system which uses sun light to split water and generate hydrogen. It has the following key features: 1) It has an open circuit voltage (Voc ) of ~ 2.3V and has an operating voltage around 1.6V. This is ideal for water splitting. There is no need to add a bias voltage or to inter-connect more than one solar cell. 2) It is made by depositing a-Si/a-SiGe/aSi-Ge thin films on a conducting stainless steel substrate which can serve as an electrode. When we immerse the triple junction solar cells in an electrolyte and illuminate it under sunlight, the voltage is large enough to split the water, generating oxygen at the Si solar cell side (for SS/n-i-p/sunlight structure) and hydrogen at the back, which is stainless steel side. There is no need to use a counter electrode or to make any wire connection. 3) It is being produced in large rolls of 3ft wide and up to 5000 ft long stainless steel web in a 25MW roll-to-roll production machine. Therefore it can be produced at a very low cost. After several years of research with many different kinds of material, we have developed promising transparent, conducting and corrosion resistant (TCCR) coating material; we carried out extensive research on oxygen and hydrogen generation catalysts, developed methods to make PEC electrode from production-grade a-Si solar cells; we have designed and tested various PEC module cases and carried out extensive outdoor testing; we were able to obtain a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH

  12. Soft Robotics Commercialization: Jamming Grippers from Research to Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nadia; Fakhouri, Sami; Culley, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent work in the growing field of soft robotics has demonstrated a number of very promising technologies. However, to make a significant impact in real-world applications, these new technologies must first transition out of the laboratory through successful commercialization. Commercialization is perhaps the most critical future milestone facing the field of soft robotics today, and this process will reveal whether the apparent impact we now perceive has been appropriately estimated. Since 2012, Empire Robotics has been one of the first companies to attempt to reach this milestone through our efforts to commercialize jamming-based robotic gripper technology in a product called VERSABALL®. However, in spring 2016 we are closing our doors, having not been able to develop a sustainable business around this technology. This article presents some of the key takeaways from the technical side of the commercialization process and lessons learned that may be valuable to others. We hope that sharing this information will provide a frame of reference for technology commercialization that can help others motivate research directions and maximize research impact. PMID:28078197

  13. Soft Robotics Commercialization: Jamming Grippers from Research to Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, John; Cheng, Nadia; Fakhouri, Sami; Culley, Bill

    2016-12-01

    Recent work in the growing field of soft robotics has demonstrated a number of very promising technologies. However, to make a significant impact in real-world applications, these new technologies must first transition out of the laboratory through successful commercialization. Commercialization is perhaps the most critical future milestone facing the field of soft robotics today, and this process will reveal whether the apparent impact we now perceive has been appropriately estimated. Since 2012, Empire Robotics has been one of the first companies to attempt to reach this milestone through our efforts to commercialize jamming-based robotic gripper technology in a product called VERSABALL®. However, in spring 2016 we are closing our doors, having not been able to develop a sustainable business around this technology. This article presents some of the key takeaways from the technical side of the commercialization process and lessons learned that may be valuable to others. We hope that sharing this information will provide a frame of reference for technology commercialization that can help others motivate research directions and maximize research impact.

  14. Environmental Factors Associated with Success Rates of Australian Stock Herding Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Elizabeth R.; Early, Jonathan B.; Wade, Claire M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace. PMID:25136828

  15. Environmental factors associated with success rates of Australian stock herding dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Elizabeth R; Early, Jonathan B; Wade, Claire M; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace.

  16. Environmental factors associated with success rates of Australian stock herding dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Arnott

    Full Text Available This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace.

  17. An Investigation of Research Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Research Productivity among Faculty Members at an Emerging Research University in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupathy, Rubini; Siwatu, Kamau Oginga

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to add to the existing knowledge base on research self-efficacy beliefs of faculty members and their influence on research productivity, and to inform higher education administrators about the relationship between research self-efficacy beliefs and research productivity. A theoretical framework of social cognitive…

  18. Organic dairy farmers put more emphasis on production traits than conventional farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagboom, M; Kargo, M; Edwards, D; Sørensen, A C; Thomasen, J R; Hjortø, L

    2016-12-01

    The overall aim of this research was to characterize the preferences of Danish dairy farmers for improvements in breeding goal traits. The specific aims were (1) to investigate the presence of heterogeneity in farmers' preferences by means of cluster analysis, and (2) to associate these clusters with herd characteristics and production systems (organic or conventional). We established a web-based survey to characterize the preferences of farmers for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings. We also collected a considerable number of herd characteristics. Overall, 106 organic farmers and 290 conventional farmers answered the survey, all with Holstein cows. The most preferred trait improvement was cow fertility, and the least preferred was calving difficulty. By means of cluster analysis, we identified 4 distinct clusters of farmers and named them according to the trait improvements that were most preferred: Health and Fertility, Production and Udder Health, Survival, and Fertility and Production. Some herd characteristics differed between clusters; for example, farmers in the Survival cluster had twice the percentage of dead cows in their herds compared with the other clusters, and farmers that gave the highest ranking to cow and heifer fertility had the lowest conception rate in their herds. This finding suggests that farmers prefer to improve traits that are more problematic in their herd. The proportion of organic and conventional farmers also differed between clusters; we found a higher proportion of organic farmers in the production-based clusters. When we analyzed organic and conventional data separately, we found that organic farmers ranked production traits higher than conventional farmers. The herds of organic farmers had lower milk yields and lower disease incidences, which might explain the high ranking of milk production and the low ranking of disease traits. This study shows that heterogeneity exists in farmers' preferences for

  19. Surgical trainee research collaboratives in the UK: an observational study of research activity and publication productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, Aimun A B; Phan, Pho N H; Hutchinson, Peter J; Kolias, Angelos G

    2016-02-04

    To analyse the research activity and publication output of surgical trainee research collaboratives in the UK. Surgical trainee research collaboratives in the UK. A total of 24 collaboratives were included in this study from 33 identified organisations. We excluded one group that focused purely on systematic review of the literature and eight groups for which we could not identify suitable data sources (website or trainee committee contact). Primary data-points were identified for each collaborative including surgical subspeciality, numbers and types of projects. For published articles, secondary outcomes including study population size, journal impact factor, number of citations and evidence level were collected. A total of 24 collaboratives met our inclusion criteria with a portfolio of 80 projects. The project types included audit (46%), randomised clinical trial (16%), surveys (16%), cohort studies (10%), systematic reviews (2.5%) and other or unidentifiable (9.5%). A total of 35 publications were identified of which just over half (54%) were original research articles. The median size of studied population was 540 patients with a range from 108 to 3138. The published works provided a varied compilation of evidence levels ranging from 1b (individual RCT) to 5 (expert opinion) with a median level of 2b (individual cohort study). The West Midlands Research Collaborative had the highest number of publications (13), citations (130) and h-index (5). The experience of UK-based trainee research collaboratives provides useful insights for trainees and policymakers in global healthcare systems on the value and feasibility of trainee-driven high quality surgical research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Research strategies for increasing productivity of intensively managed forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.D. Vance; D.A. Maguire; R.S. Zalesny

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management practices increase productivity of forest plantations by reducing site, stand, and biological limitations to dry matter production and by maximizing the allocation of production to harvestable tree components. The resulting increase allows greater fiber production from a smaller land base and provides market incentives to keep these lands under...

  1. Emotions in consumer research : An application to novel food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades the general public has been confronted with a continuous stream of radically new food products as well as technologies that can be used to improve food production and food products. It is rather difficult, however, to convince consumers to accept these new products. For

  2. A Comparison of Research Productivity Across Plastic Surgery Fellowship Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Karan; Swanson, Edward W; Susarla, Srinivas; Chang, Sarah; Stevens, W Grant; Singh, Devinder P

    2016-06-01

    Objective measures of research productivity depend on how frequently a publication is cited. Metrics such as the Hirsch index (h-index; total number of publications h that have at least h citations) allow for an objective measurement of the scientific impact of an author's publications. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the h-index among aesthetic plastic surgery fellowship directors to that of fellowship directors in craniofacial surgery and microsurgery. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all fellowship directors in aesthetic surgery, craniofacial surgery, and microsurgery in the United States and Canada. The gathered data were categorized as bibliometric (h-index, i10-index, total number of publications, total number of citations, maximum citations for a single work, and number of self-citations) and demographic (gender, training background). Descriptive statistics were computed. The sample was composed of 30 aesthetic surgeons (93% male), 33 craniofacial surgeons (97% male), and 32 microsurgeons (94% male). The mean h-index was 13.7 for aesthetics, 16.9 for craniofacial, and 12.4 for microsurgery. There were no significant differences for any of the bibliometric measures between the three subspecialties, despite the fact that academic rank and years in practice were significantly different. As measured by the h-index, there is a high level of academic productivity among fellowship directors, regardless of subspecialty area. Unlike other plastic surgery subspecialties however, the h-index of aesthetic plastic surgeons is not correlated to academic rank, revealing a discrepancy between perceptions of aesthetic plastic surgery and its actual academic impact. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Financial implications of installing air filtration systems to prevent PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Davies, Peter R; Polson, Dale D; Dee, Scott A; Lazarus, William F

    2013-09-01

    Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7 km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Limitations and potentials of dual-purpose cow herds in Central Coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Nicholson, Charles F; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Feed chemical and kinetic composition and animal performance information was used to evaluate productivity limitations and potentials of dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0) was systematically applied to specific groups of cows in structured simulations to establish probable input-output relationships for typical management, and to estimate probable outcomes from alternative management based on forage-based dietary improvements. Key herd vulnerabilities were pinpointed: chronic energy deficits among dry cows of all ages in late gestation and impeded growth for immature cows. Regardless of the forage season of calving, most cows, if not all, incur energy deficits in the final trimester of gestation; thus reducing the pool of tissue energy and constraining milking performance. Under typical management, cows are smaller and underweight for their age, which limits feed intake capacity, milk production and the probability of early postpartum return to ovarian cyclicity. The substitution of good-quality harvested forage for grazing increased predicted yields by about one-third over typical scenarios for underweight cows. When diets from first parturition properly supported growth and tissue repletion, milk production in second and third lactations was predicted to improve about 60%. Judiciously supplemented diets based on good quality grass and legume forages from first calving were predicted to further increase productivity by about 80% across a three-lactation cow lifetime. These dual-purpose herd owners have large incentives to increase sales income by implementing nutritional strategies like those considered in this study.

  5. Research productivity of members of IADR Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group: relationship to professional and personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Heima, Masahiro; Tomar, Scott; Kunzel, Carol

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the research productivity of the members of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group and examines personal and professional factors related to greater productivity. The findings from previous studies suggested there might be gender discrimination in opportunities for women faculty. Members on the active membership list for this IADR group were surveyed by email. Most were dentists, and three-quarters had external funding for their research. The primary outcome measure was the number of self-reported published articles in PubMed in the preceding twenty-four months. The mean number of these publications was 4.9 (SD=5.1). Gender and time in research were the best predictors of research productivity of this population. There was no difference in time for research between the men and women in this study. Controlling for gender, the best single predictor of research productivity remained percent time spent in research. Overall, the members of the IADR group spent almost three times as much time in research and were more than twice as productive as faculty members as a whole as described in earlier studies. In view of the current emphasis in many countries on addressing the social and behavioral determinants of oral health disparities, the productivity of this area of dental research is very important. Trends toward clinically oriented, non-research-intensive dental schools in the United States and reductions in time and funding available to conduct research should be of concern.

  6. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection II. Location of study herds relative to the oil and gas industry in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    During the late part of 2000 and early months of 2001, project veterinarians recruited 205 beef herds to participate in a study of the effects of emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry on cattle reproduction and health. Researchers developed herd-selection criteria to optimize the range of exposure to facilities, including oil and gas wells, battery sites, and gas-gathering and gas-processing facilities across the major cattle-producing areas of Western Canada. Herds were initially selected on the basis of a ranking system of exposure potential on the basis of herd-owner reports of the locations of their operations in relation to oil and gas industry facilities. At the end of the study, researchers summarized data obtained from provincial regulatory agencies on facility location and reported flaring and venting volumes for each herd and compared these data to the original rankings of herd-exposure potential. Through this selection process, the researchers were successful in obtaining statistically significant differences in exposure to various types of oil and gas facility types and reported emissions among herds recruited for the study.

  7. Herd-level interpretation of test results for epidemiologic studies of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette; Gardner, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values......), the factors affecting these estimates, and available software for calculations. We present new aspects and considerations concerning the effect of precision and bias in estimation of individual-test performance on herd-test performance and suggest methods (pooled testing, targeted sampling of subpopulations...... with higher prevalence, and use of combinations of tests) to improve herd-level sensitivity when the expected within-herd prevalence is low....

  8. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on natural products for pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Baerson, Scott R; Dayan, Franck E; Rimando, Agnes M; Scheffler, Brian E; Tellez, Mario R; Wedge, David E; Schrader, Kevin K; Akey, David H; Arthur, Frank H; De Lucca, Anthony J; Gibson, Donna M; Harrison, Howard F; Peterson, Joseph K; Gealy, David R; Tworkoski, Thomas; Wilson, Charles L; Morris, J Brad

    2003-01-01

    Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phytochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Capsicum frutescens L), benzaldehyde, chitosan and 2-deoxy-D-glucose are being studied as natural fungicides. Resin glycosides for pathogen resistance in sweet potato and residues of semi-tropical leguminous plants for nematode control are also under investigation. Bioassay-guided isolation of compounds with potential use as herbicides or herbicide leads is underway at several locations. New natural phytotoxin molecular target sites (asparagine synthetase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase) have been discovered. Weed control in sweet potato and rice by allelopathy is under investigation. Molecular approaches to enhance allelopathy in sorghum are also being undertaken. The genes for polyketide synthases involved in production of pesticidal polyketide compounds in fungi are found to provide clues for pesticide discovery. Gene expression profiles in response to fungicides and herbicides are being generated as tools to understand more fully the mode of action and to rapidly determine the molecular target site of new, natural fungicides and herbicides.

  9. Usability Guidelines for Product Recommenders Based on Example Critiquing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Pearl; Faltings, Boi; Chen, Li; Zhang, Jiyong; Viappiani, Paolo

    Over the past decade, our group has developed a suite of decision tools based on example critiquing to help users find their preferred products in e-commerce environments. In this chapter, we survey important usability research work relative to example critiquing and summarize the major results by deriving a set of usability guidelines. Our survey is focused on three key interaction activities between the user and the system: the initial preference elicitation process, the preference revision process, and the presentation of the systems recommendation results. To provide a basis for the derivation of the guidelines, we developed a multi-objective framework of three interacting criteria: accuracy, confidence, and effort (ACE). We use this framework to analyze our past work and provide a specific context for each guideline: when the system should maximize its ability to increase users' decision accuracy, when to increase user confidence, and when to minimize the interaction effort for the users. Due to the general nature of this multi-criteria model, the set of guidelines that we propose can be used to ease the usability engineering process of other recommender systems, especially those used in e-commerce environments. The ACE framework presented here is also the first in the field to evaluate the performance of preference-based recommenders from a user-centric point of view.

  10. Ceramic Product Forming Technologies Research Based on 3D Printing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Mingchun; Yang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes two ceramic-forming technologies based on 3-D printing. One technology forms the product with 3-D printing indirectly, while the other technology forms the product directly with 3-D printing...

  11. RESEARCH OF LIMY AND CARBONATE SYSTEM OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of рН and temperature on activity of suspension of lime and carbonate in sugar production is investigated. Possibility of decrease in a consumption of reagents on purification of production sugar solutions is established.

  12. The research of virtual production in wood industry:

    OpenAIRE

    Grladinović, Tomislav; Jelačić, Denis; Kropivšek, Jože; Motik, Darko; Oblak, Leon; Poršinsky, Tomislav

    2007-01-01

    Coordinating product flows between the partners of a supply chain is a difficult task because of random variations in demand and supply processes and the antagonistic nature of the individual economic objectives of the partners. This study concentrates on the management of inter-organizational product flows in supply chains. Two approaches are analyzed with the aim of improving performances of production/inventory systems controlled by base stock type product flow control policies. In the fir...

  13. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  14. Technical indicators of financial performance in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer...... or the consultant, and they were derived from expected cause-effect relations between technical performance and financial performance at the herd level. The study included the indicators shape of lactation curve, reproduction efficiency, heifer management, variation between cows in lactation curve persistency...... cow was analyzed as the measure of financial performance. The potential effects of the selected indicators on the gross margin were estimated by means of an ANOVA. The final model allowed estimation of the financial value of specific changes within the key performance indicators. This study indicated...

  15. Maple Syrup Urine Disease in a Central Indiana Hereford Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Robarge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD and further cases were identified in herd mates of a small Hereford herd in Indiana based on history, clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and biochemical and genetic testing. This aminoacidopathy has been diagnosed in polled Shorthorn, polled Hereford, and Hereford cattle in Australia, Uruguay, Argentina, and Canada and is the result of a mutation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The Indiana index calf case was confirmed by showing the classic accumulation of ketoacids in liver that results from a defect in the E1-alpha subunit (248 C/T haplotype in the mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The presence of the mutation was confirmed in the index case, the dam, and four related herd mates that represent the first confirmed cases of bovine MSUD mutation in United States cattle.

  16. Modeling growth of mandibles in the Western Arctic caribou herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay M. Ver Hoef

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared growth curves for ramus length and diastema length from two autumn collections of mandibles of male Western Arctic Herd caribou in Alaska. We were primarily interested in determining if growth curves of caribou mandibles differed between caribou born during 1959-1967, after the herd had been high for several years and was probably declining in size, and those born during 1976-1988, when the herd was increasing in size. To compare these growth curves, we used a nonlinear model and used maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests. We found that growth rates were similar between periods, but intercepts and variances of growth curves differed. From this we infer that calves were smaller in autumn during the 1960s and that significant compensatory growth did not occur later in life.

  17. Maximum herd efficiency in meat production I. Optima for slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taylor et ai. (1985) developed formulae from the growth and feed efficien- cy equations of Parks (1982), which enabled them to evaluate different breeding strategies in relation to optimal slaughter masses for beef cattle. A similar approach to that of Taylor et at. (1985) can be followed by using the allometric autoregres-.

  18. The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-08-23

    1984) indicated that it is by and large believed that reproduction rates in sheep and cattle reflect the level of management to which animals are exposed. The prime component of this management is believed to be the operating ...

  19. Customized products and cloud service information system development research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Chien-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a cloud service customized product information system to enable businesses to provide customized product marketing on the Internet to meet consumer demand for customized products. The cloud service of the information system development strategic framework proposed in this study contains three elements: (1 e-commerce services, (2 promotion type modules, and (3 cloud services customized promotional products. In this study, a mining cloud information system to detect customer behavior is proposed. The association rules from relational database design are utilized to mine consumer behavior to generate cross-selling proposals for customer products and marketing for a retailing mall in Taiwan. The study is composed of several parts, as follows. A market segment and application of association rules in data exploration techniques (Association Rule Mining and sequence-like exploration (Sequential Pattern Mining, efficient analysis of customers, consumer behavior, identification of candidates for promotional products, and using cloud service delivery and evaluation of targets to evaluate candidates for promotional products for production. However, in addition to cloud service customized promotional products, the quantity of promotional products sales varies for different customers. We strive to achieve increased customer loyalty and profits through the use of active cloud service customized promotional products.

  20. Herd and cow characteristics affecting the odds of veterinary treatment for disease – a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vågsholm Ivar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that a number of different factors affect whether an animal receives treatment or not when diseased. The aim of this paper was to evaluate if herd or individual animal characteristics influence whether cattle receives veterinary treatment for disease, and thereby also introduce misclassification in the disease recording system. Methods The data consisted mainly of disease events reported by farmers during 2004. We modelled odds of receiving veterinary treatment when diseased, using two-level logistic regression models for cows and young animals (calves and heifers, respectively. Model parameters were estimated using three procedures, because these procedures have been shown, under some conditions, to produce biased estimates for multi-level models with binary outcomes. Results Cows located in herds mainly consisting of Swedish Holstein cows had higher odds for veterinary treatment than cows in herds mainly consisting of Swedish Red cows. Cows with a disease event early in lactation had higher odds for treatment than when the event occurred later in lactation. There were also higher odds for veterinary treatment of events for cows in January and April than in July and October. The odds for veterinary treatment of events in young animals were higher if the farmer appeared to be good at keeping records. Having a disease event at the same date as another animal increased the odds for veterinary treatment for all events in young animals, and for lameness, metabolic, udder and other disorders, but not for peripartum disorders, in cows. There were also differences in the odds for veterinary treatment between disease complexes, both for cows and young animals. The random effect of herd was significant in both models and accounted for 40–44% of the variation in the cow model and 30–46% in the young animal model. Conclusion We conclude that cow and herd characteristics influence the odds for veterinary

  1. Sow-level risk factors for stillbirth of piglets in organic sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    In Danish organic pig production, one-third of total born piglets die before weaning, and stillbirth has previously crudely been estimated to account for 27% of the total preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate season, litter size, parity and body condition of the sow...... as risk factors for stillbirth in nine commercial Danish organic pig herds. The study was conducted over a 1-year period, and the data included registrations on 5170 farrowings with 82 906 total born piglets. The average number of total born piglets per litter was 16.0, and the number of stillborn piglets...

  2. 76 FR 63659 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Program... Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Southwest Research Institute... area of P3's planned activity is to develop a fundamental understanding of the factors that lead to low...

  3. Factors Associated with Research Productivity among Oral Healthcare Educators in an Asian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Bernardo E., Jr.; Clerigo, Maria Eloisa C.

    2013-01-01

    Research writing confidence and organizational support toward research activities are two essential factors that may affect research productivity among higher educational institutions. This study investigated the possible relationships of these two factors to research productivity among faculty members of the College of Dentistry at Lyceum of the…

  4. Models to Estimate Lactation Curves of Milk Yield and Somatic Cell Count in Dairy Cows at the Herd Level for the Use in Simulations and Predictive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2016-01-01

    of dairy herds. Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second, and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for somatic cell count. Fitting....... The correlation between lactations for milk yield and somatic cell count was 0.2–0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the somatic cell count, and the total somatic cell count was less correlated with the milk production...... than somatic cells per milliliter. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total somatic cell count and the milk yield. The variation of lactation and somatic cell count curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model...

  5. Stochastic models to simulate paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.S.; Weber, M.F.; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic simulation models are widely accepted as a means of assessing the impact of changes in daily management and the control of different diseases, such as paratuberculosis, in dairy herds. This paper summarises and discusses the assumptions of four stochastic simulation models and their use...... the models are somewhat different in their underlying principles and do put slightly different values on the different strategies, their overall findings are similar. Therefore, simulation models may be useful in planning paratuberculosis strategies in dairy herds, although as with all models caution...

  6. Warming Climate and Changing Societies - a Challenge or an Opportunity for Reindeer Herding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käyhkö, J.; Horstkotte, T.; Kivinen, S.; Vehmas, J.; Oksanen, L.; Forbes, B. C.; Johansen, B.; Jepsen, J. U.; Markkola, A.; Pulliainen, J.; Olofsson, J.; Oksanen, T.; Utsi, T. A.; Korpimäki, E.; Menard, C.; Ericson, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic region will warm more rapidly than the global mean, influencing dramatically the northern ecosystems. Simultaneously, our societies transform towards urbanized, highly educated, service-based culture, where a decreasing population will gain its livelihood from primary production. We study various ecosystem interactions in a changing climate and integrate these with reindeer husbandry and the indigenous Sámi culture dependent on it1. Potential climate impacts include the transformation of arctic-alpine tundra to dense scrubland with conceivable consequences to reindeer husbandry, but also global warming due to decreasing albedo. The social-ecological system (SES) of reindeer husbandry includes administrative and ecological processes that do not always correspond (Figure 1). Consequently, management priorities and administration may conflict with local social and ecological processes, bringing about risks of environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity and defeat of traditional livelihoods. We hypothesize the plausibility to support the indigenous reindeer herding livelihood against rapid external changes by utilizing the migratory reindeer grazing system of the Sámi as a management tool for sustaining the high-albedo tundra and mitigating global warming. Our first-of-a-kind satellite-based high resolution vegetation map covering Northern Fennoscandia allows detailed management plans. Our ecological research demonstrates the important role of herbivory on arctic vegetation communities. Interactive workshops with reindeer herders offer indigenous knowledge of state and changes of the ecosystems, and reflect the threats and expectations of the herders. We are currently building models of the complex social-ecological system of Northern Fennoscandia and will report the first findings of the exercise. 1 www.ncoetundra.utu.fi Figure 1. The scales of administrative and ecological processes do not always coincide. This may bring about challenges in managing

  7. Case studies of market research for three transportation communication products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report completes a two-part project in support of the Volpe Center program, Public Acceptance and Markets for Various IVHS Services. The first report, A Primer on Marketing Research, provides an overview of the research approaches an...

  8. Factors affecting the fertility of high producing dairy herds in northeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Nogareda, C; López-Béjar, M

    2007-02-01

    Infertility has been often correlated to a rising milk yield in high producing dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, using logistic regression procedures, the effects of several management indicators on the fertility of four dairy herds in northeastern Spain. Data derived from 10,965 artificial insemination (AI). The factors examined were: herd, milking frequency (three versus two milkings per day), lactation number, previous twinning and disorders such as placenta retention and pyometra, milk production at AI, the inseminating bull, season (warm versus cool period) and year effects, AI technician and repeat breeding syndrome (cows undergoing four or more AI). Our findings indicated no effects on fertility of the herd, year of AI, previous twining, placenta retention and pyometra and milk production at AI. Based on the odds ratios, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in cows milked three times per day (by a factor of 0.62); for each one unit increase in lactation number (by a factor of 0.92); for inseminations performed during the warm period (by a factor of 0.67); in repeat breeder cows (by a factor of 0.73); and when 3 of the 45 inseminating bulls included in the study were used (by factors of 0.35, 0.43 and 0.44, respectively). Of the 13 AI technicians participating in the study, 3 were related to a fertility rate improved by odds ratios of 1.86, 1.84 and 1.30, respectively, whereas 2 technicians gave rise to fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.64 and 0.49, respectively. Under our study conditions, management practices were able to compensate for the effects of previous twining and reproductive disorders such as placenta retention and pyometra. However, fertility was significantly affected by the factors milking frequency, AI technician, inseminating bull, repeat breeding syndrome, lactation number and AI season.

  9. Revisiting Size Effects in Higher Education Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Giovanni; Cicero, Tindaro; D'Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The potential occurrence of variable returns to size in research activity is a factor to be considered in choices about the size of research organizations and also in the planning of national research assessment exercises, so as to avoid favoring those organizations that would benefit from such occurrence. The aim of the current work is to improve…

  10. Predicting Individual Research Productivity: More than a Question of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Jack K.; Brotheridge, Celeste M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite professors' education and socialization and the significant rewards they receive for research activities and output, the 80/20 rule seems to apply; that is, there exists a system of stars who produce a disproportionate volume of research such that most research tends to be undertaken by a small percentage of the academy (Erkut, 2002).…

  11. Improving product development practice: An action-research based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    In studies of new product development it has often been concluded that to a large extent new product suc-cess is tunder the influence of companies and long lists of direct norma-tive guide-lines have been formulated. Nevertheless descriptive studi that deve-lopment practice is still far from...

  12. Special Forest Products: A Southern Strategy for Research & Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod Sallee; Wayne Owen; Karen Kenna; Gary Kauffman; Marla Emery; Tony Johnson; Phil Araman; Dan Stratton; Greg Reams; Ray Sheffield; Vic Rudis; Susan Loeb; David White; Jim Chamberlain

    2004-01-01

    Increasing levels of collection of special forest products (SFPs) have tirggered concerns about the long-term social, ecological, and economic sustainability of the resources from which these products orginate. At this time, there is too little information to assess the current situation and to make informed decisions about managing the forest resources for these...

  13. Enhancing Junior Faculty Research Productivity through Multiinstitution Collaboration: Participants' Impressions of the School Psychology Research Collaboration Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, S. Craig; Wheeler, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    In addition to teaching and service responsibilities, junior faculty members are required to be productive researchers. Despite the demand on junior faculty to produce published research, studies suggest that they often do not receive adequate assistance with their research endeavors. Mentoring is an effective form of support for junior faculty…

  14. ESTRATEGIC MANAGEMENT DURING THE TRANSICION PERIOD TO OPTIMISE PRODUCTIVITY AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE DAIRY HERD
    MANEJO ESTRATÉGICO DURANTE EL PERIODO DE TRANSICIÓN PARA OPTIMIZAR LA PRODUCCIÓN Y EL COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO GANADO LECHERO

    OpenAIRE

    Risco Carlos

    2009-01-01

    In dairy herds, the interval between calving and pregnancy depend on many factors including preparation of the cow for calving, dietary management before and after calving. Factors such as hypocalcemia and body condition are determinant in the presentation of postpartum pathologies and ovarian activity resumption. Additionally, management of the dairy cattle should include fixed time artificial insemination protocols to increase the number of animals bred close to the voluntary waiting period...

  15. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Forecasting the Brazilian real and the Mexican peso: Asymmetric loss, forecast rationality, and forecaster herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Fritsche, Ulrich; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Using forecasts of exchange rates of the Brazilian real and the Mexican peso against the US dollar, we analyze the symmetry of the loss function of exchange-rate forecasters and the rationality of their forecasts. Symmetry of the loss function can be rejected for some forecasters but not all. Even...... when allowing for asymmetric loss functions, the predictions of some forecasters do not fit the traditional definition of rational forecasts. We interpret our results in terms of recent research on forecaster (anti-)herding....

  17. Associations of Neospora caninum seropositivity with gestation number and pregnancy outcome in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anette Møllegaard; Bjorkman, C.; Kjeldsen, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    , Seroprevalence in 15 herds with previous abortions assigned to neosporosis ranged from I% to 58%, with a mean frequency of 22%. In eight out of 16 herds without a history of N. caninum related abortions, no seroreactors were found. In the remaining eight herds, the seroprevalence ranged from 6% to 59...

  18. 78 FR 79659 - Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... INFORMATION: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids (members of... No. 00-108-10] Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed... Standards for the chronic wasting disease (CWD) herd certification program. The CWD herd certification...

  19. Herd characteristics influence farmers’ preferences for trait improvements in Danish Red and Danish Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David

    2016-01-01

    of a cluster analysis, three distinct clusters of farmers were identified per breed. Comparisons of herd characteristics between clusters suggest that farmers choose to improve traits that are problematic in their herds. This study shows that heterogeneity exists in farmers’ preferences for trait improvements...... and that herd characteristics influence these preferences in DR and DJ....

  20. Research and application of knowledge resources network for product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Li, Wen-qiang; Li, Yan; Na, Hui-zhen; Shi, Qian

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users' enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  1. Research and Application of Knowledge Resources Network for Product Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users’ enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  2. Time Management, Passion, and Collaboration: A Qualitative Study of Highly Research Productive Counseling Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.

    2013-01-01

    The present study interviewed 17 of the most research-productive counseling psychologists within APA-accredited counseling psychology programs. Using Consensual Qualitative Research, seven domains emerged from the interviews: root of productivity, personality characteristics, productivity strategies, work environment, nonwork life, impact, and…

  3. Status of anesthesiology resident research education in the United States: structured education programs increase resident research productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shireen; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; McCarthy, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The enhancement of resident research education has been proposed to increase the number of academic anesthesiologists with the skills and knowledge to conduct meaningful research. Program directors (PDs) of the U.S. anesthesiology residency programs were surveyed to evaluate the status of research education during residency training and to test the hypothesis that structured programs result in greater resident research productivity based on resident publications. Survey responses were solicited from 131 anesthesiology residency PDs. Seventy-four percent of PDs responded to the survey. Questions evaluated department demographic information, the extent of faculty research activity, research resources and research funding in the department, the characteristics of resident research education and resident research productivity, departmental support for resident research, and perceived barriers to resident research education. Thirty-two percent of programs had a structured resident research education program. Structured programs were more likely to be curriculum based, require resident participation in a research project, and provide specific training in presentation and writing skills. Productivity expectations were similar between structured and nonstructured programs. Forty percent of structured programs had > 20% of trainees with a publication in the last 2 years compared with 14% of departments with unstructured programs (difference, 26%; 99% confidence interval [CI], 8%-51%; P = 0.01). The percentage of programs that had research rotations for ≥2 months was not different between the structured and the nonstructured programs. A research rotation of >2 months did not increase the percentage of residents who had published an article within the last 2 months compared with a research rotation of research in structured compared with unstructured research education. In programs with research, 15% reported >20% of residents with a publication in the last 2 years compared

  4. Assessment of inbreeding depression for functional herd life in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inbreeding depression on functional herd life in the South African Jersey population based on individual level and rate of inbreeding. A pedigree file of the South African Jersey breed (n = 912 638) was obtained from the Integrated Registration and Genetic ...

  5. Synchronization of ovulation in beef herds: improved conception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to exclude those cows that were in the latter third of their cycles at the onset of treatment, the herds were first presynchronized by four 48-hourly injections of 50 mg of progesterone in propylene glycol and after an interval of eight days, treatment was resumed by giving them 6 more such 48-hourly injections.

  6. 9 CFR 77.37 - Interstate movement from monitored herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ensure that tuberculosis infection at a prevalence level of 2 percent or more will be detected with a... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.37 Interstate movement from monitored herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... found negative for tuberculosis at an approved slaughtering establishment or necropsied at an approved...

  7. Genetic diversity in selected stud and commercial herds of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assignment methods (based on STRUCTURE software) revealed a real structure consisting of four genetic populations (K = 4). Estimates of genetic diversity did not support the hypothesis of significant loss of genetic diversity in any individual Afrikaner herd. Heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.456 - 0.737 within ...

  8. Predation rate by wolves on the Porcupine caribou herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Hayes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Large migratory catibou {Rangifer tarandus herds in the Arctic tend to be cyclic, and population trends are mainly driven by changes in forage or weather events, not by predation. We estimated daily kill rate by wolves on adult caribou in winter, then constructed a time and space dependent model to estimate annual wolf (Canis lupus predation rate (P annual on adult Porcupine caribou. Our model adjusts predation seasonally depending on caribou distribution: Pannual = SIGMAdaily* W *Ap(2*Dp. In our model we assumed that wolves killed adult caribou at a constant rate (Kdaily, 0.08 caribou wolf1 day1 based on our studies and elsewhere; that wolf density (W doubled to 6 wolves 1000 km2-1 on all seasonal ranges; and that the average area occupied by the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH in eight seasonal life cycle periods (Dp was two times gteater than the area described by the outer boundaries of telemetry data (Ap /1000 km2. Results from our model projected that wolves kill about 7600 adult caribou each year, regardless of herd size. The model estimated that wolves removed 5.8 to 7.4% of adult caribou as the herd declined in the 1990s. Our predation rate model supports the hypothesis of Bergerud that spacing away by caribou is an effective anti-predatory strategy that greatly reduces wolf predation on adult caribou in the spring and summer.

  9. Heritabilities of reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Heritabilities of reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd using multitrait analysis. R.R. van der Westhuizen. 1 ... animal, particularly in dairy cattle (Rege & Famula, 1993). However, in beef operations, ... These include lower birth weights, reduced incidence of dystocia, higher weaning and yearling weights and higher ...

  10. Genetic parameter estimates for functional herd life for the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameter estimates for functional herd life for the South African Jersey breed using a multiple trait linear model (Short Communication) ... The secondary objective was to compare estimates of genetic parameters from the linear sire and animal models. Data and pedigree records on purebred Jersey cows that ...

  11. Herding, Information Cascades and Volatility Spillovers in Futures Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); K. Radalj (Kim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEconomists and financial analysts have begun to recognise the importance of the actions of other agents in the decision-making process. Herding is the deliberate mimicking of the decisions of other agents. Examples of mimicry range from the choice of restaurant, fashion and financial

  12. Impact if hyperprolific line of litter size in multiplication herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Tvrdoň

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hyperprolific line is considered to be maximally effective in pursuit of progress in sow’s reproduction. Hyperprolific line efficiency is commonly evaluated in regard of breeding herd progress. We decided to study how effective it is with respect to increasing of litter size in multiplication herd. Our study is specific by using the data from practice, concretely it is based on the information about the ancestor of sows in multiplication herd. The ancestors could be the member either hyperprolific line or normal line. The information about performances of sows breed in multiplication herd was known. The mixed linear models in SAS for Windows 9.1.2. were conducted to statistical analysis. Our results indicated that no significant effect on litter size was achieved by selection criteria used in the hyperprolific line creation. In studied population no differences between TNB, NBA or NW were found on the 1st as well as on the 1st–5th litters. As we have mentioned above, the study is specific by using the data from practice. Therefore the studied population size is limited. It is necessary to take into consideration when the results are applied. Nevertheless, the results shown that other studies with larger population should be done to reevaluate the selection criteria.

  13. [The PRRSV-serumneutralization test detects gaps in herd immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Jens; Alex, Michaela; Janowetz, Britta; Müller, Silvia; Schuh, Christina; Niemeyer, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) appears in two genotypes (EU and US), for both genotypes attenuated live-vaccines are available. A cross-sectional study in 38 Bavarian sow herds was performed to assess the level of neutralizing antibodies. Per herd 38 blood samples were collected (10 weaned piglets, 10 gilts and 6 sows of 1./2., 3J4. and 5/6. parity, respectively). Sera were tested by ELISA, serumneutralization test (SNT) against EU- and US-vaccine virus, and pooled sera were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Herds were classified by the last vaccination of sows as "Vacc EU" "Vacc US"and "nv (non-vaccinated) and by detection of PRRSV-US and vaccination of piglets were not included as variables. Sows of group (2) Vacc EU/EU- showed the highest EU-SNT-titers irrespective of parity. Groups (5) Vacc US/EU+ and (1) Vacc EU/EU+ followed in descending order. Significantly lower SNT-titers in (1) Vacc EU/EU+ were especially observed in sows of 1/2. Parity (Kruskal-Wallis, p immunity at least against vaccine virus; it indicates gaps in herd immunity.

  14. Control of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at herd level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerve, Eystein; Lium, Bjørn; Nielsen, Bent

    1998-01-01

    , attempts to reduce the prevalence at the top levels of the breeding pyramids may be beneficial for the industry as a whole. The meat industry may use serological tests as a tool to lower the prevalence in the pig population by limiting the contact between seropositive and seronegative herds. However...

  15. Trypanosoma brucei INFECTION IN A HERD OF SEDENTARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stella

    Savannah, visited the Veterinary Teaching. Hospital of the Ahmadu Bello University,. Zaria (V.T.H-A.B.U-Zaria) and presented a case of emaciation, repeated abortions, pica, and alopecia of the tips of the tails despite supposedly good appetite in a herd of 120 heads of cattle. Furthermore, a report of “swollen” liver in cattle.

  16. Prevalence of Coxielle Burnetii anbitodies in Danish Dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jens F.; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil; Rattenborg, Erik

    2010-01-01

    During recent years in Denmark higher rates of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii have been detected in animals and humans than previously reported. A study based on bulk tank milk samples from 100 randomly selected dairy herds was performed to estimate the prevalence and geographical distribution...

  17. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 42 were to assess and to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations between CI, CD and AFC in a multibreed beef cattle herd using multitrait analysis, and to evaluate a ...

  18. Anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Nagy, Dusty W.; Schultz, Loren G.; Schaeffer, Josh W.

    2012-01-01

    A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America. PMID:23729829

  19. MERS coronavirus in dromedary camel herd, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, Maged G; Chu, Daniel K W; Poon, Leo L M; Perera, Ranawaka A P M; Alhammadi, Mohammad A; Ng, Hoi-Yee; Siu, Lewis Y; Guan, Yi; Alnaeem, Abdelmohsen; Peiris, Malik

    2014-07-01

    A prospective study of a dromedary camel herd during the 2013-14 calving season showed Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection of calves and adults. Virus was isolated from the nose and feces but more frequently from the nose. Preexisting neutralizing antibody did not appear to protect against infection.

  20. Management practices on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R; Wolff, L J; Michels, L; Schroth, S; Kelton, D F; Heins, B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare husbandry practices on organic and conventional dairy farms of similar sizes in Minnesota. Organic (ORG, n=35), same-sized conventional (SC, n=15, conventional (MC, n=13, ≥200 cows) dairy herds were visited in 2012, and farmers were interviewed once about their farm, herd demographics, and herd management practices concerning nutrition, housing, and reproductive programs. Organic farms had been established as long as conventional farms, and ORG producers had most commonly selected ORG farming because of a negative perception of pesticides for human health. The distribution of cattle breeds and ages differed across farm types. Organic farms had more crossbred cows and a greater number of older cows than conventional farms, who had mainly Holstein cattle. Organic farms did not dock tails, were more likely to use breeding bulls, and were less likely to conduct pregnancy diagnoses in cattle. All conventional farmers fed corn, corn silage, and hay, but no forage or feed supplement was fed by all ORG farms with the exception of pasture. Kelp was supplemented on most ORG farms but on none of the conventional farms. In summary, although there were differences across farm types regarding the use of pasture, feeds, and feed additives, breed and age distribution, reproductive management, and the use of tail docking, observations in other management areas showed large overlap across herd types. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin H Ranglack

    Full Text Available Wild American plains bison (Bison bison populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range.

  2. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Dobson, Lauren K; du Toit, Johan T; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range.

  3. Assessment of inbreeding depression for functional herd life in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Assessment of inbreeding depression for functional herd life in the South. African Jersey ... was included as a discrete variable with the following classes of inbreeding: 0 < F ≤ 3.125, 3.125 < F ≤ 6.25,. 6.25 < F ... Inbreeding will occur in any population of finite size unless specific measures are taken to avoid the mating of ...

  4. THE HERDING BEHAVIOR ON SMALL CAPITAL MARKETS: EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Pece

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of financial markets is influenced by the speculative bubbles and by the occurance of financial crisis. The speculative bubbles are formed on the markets when take place an unsustainable growth in the price of a financial asset, which leads to a high level of instability and to the rise of financial crashes. One of the cause of speculative bubbles is the herding behavior of investors characterized by trading in the same direction on the market, the same stocks, in the same period of time, or when they ignore the private information and trades similar with other investors, which may lead to incorrect trading decision. The aim of this paper is to test the existence of herding behavior on the Romanian stock market and the impact of the subprime financial crisis on the behavior of investors. We have analyzed the Romanian stock market on sector level by using firm level data. The statistical methodology used in this paper was proposed by Chang et al. (2000 and uses the cross sectional absolute deviation of returns (CSAD as a measure of return dispersion.The results indicate the existence of herding behavior of investors in various sectors, both for upper and lower markets. We also conclude that during the subprime crisis, is no evidence of herding, due to the fact that the impact of the crisis was transmitted globally.

  5. Global product development: an attempt at harmonising the research effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Simplay, Steve

    More companies are increasingly globalising activities throughout the product development process, from R&D to manufacturing. This presents companies with both technical and organisational challenges. These are addressed in different theoretical areas, in particular within Engineering Design & De...

  6. Farm business and operator variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count from dairy herds in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Karen L; Lambert, Dayton M; Schexnayder, Susan; Krawczel, Peter; Fly, Mark; Garkovich, Lorraine; Oliver, Steve

    2017-11-01

    Mastitis is a worldwide problem in dairy cows and results in reduced milk production, the culling of cows, and other economic losses. Bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) over 200,000 cells/mL often indicates underlying subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. Several preventative measures that can be implemented to help improve the incidence of mastitis exist, but surveys find these practices not fully adopted by producers. The goal of this research was to analyze the farm and operator characteristics associated with BTSCC in dairy herds by analyzing a survey of dairy producers in the southeastern United States. We examined this region because it has experienced a decline in the number of dairy farms, dairy cows, and milk production over the past 2 decades. The southeast region is also associated with higher BTSCC levels than the national average. Dairy farms in Georgia, Mississippi, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia were surveyed. Producers were asked questions about the BTSCC at which they take action to address BTSCC, the information sources they use to learn about and manage BTSCC, farm structure and management characteristics, and attitudinal variables associated with profitability, managerial control, and planning horizon. Least squares regression was used to determine how these factors were associated with BTSCC levels across the 7-state region. Concern over mastitis, financial consequences of mastitis, and increased previous-year BTSCC were associated with higher current BTSCC levels. Obtaining information about mastitis from veterinarians and extension personnel, taking action against mastitis at a BTSCC less than 300,000 cells/mL, and perceived ability to control processes and mastitis incidence were associated with reduced BTSCC. We found average BTSCC was lower in North Carolina and Virginia. These results suggest that proactive producers (i.e., those that perceive they can control BTSCC and seek information from reliable

  7. Low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds highlight differences between serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Frössling, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Legislated Salmonella control in Sweden has been in place since the 1960s. The purpose of this study was to investigate presence of Salmonella antibodies in dairy cattle herds and to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control can be improved. Bulk milk samples from all Swedish dairy herds (n=4 683) were analysed with two different ELISAs; one detecting antibodies against Salmonella Dublin (Dublin ELISA), and one detecting antibodies against several of the serotypes causing bovine salmonellosis including S. Dublin (Bovine ELISA). Information about herds, i.e. geographical location, local animal density, number of test positive herds within 5km, animal trade and herd size, was based on register data. The results confirm a very low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds throughout the country with the exception of an island in the southeast. The test positive herds split into two groups; 41 herds (1%) positive in the Dublin ELISA, and 101 herds (2%) positive in the Bovine ELISA but negative in the Dublin ELISA. Geographical location of positive herds, and comparison of the results of the screening with serotypes previously isolated from some of the herds, indicated that the first group represents herds presently or previously infected with S. Dublin while the second group represents herds presently or previously infected with other serotypes. Differences in serological status between herds in different regions, of different size, with different animal purchase patterns et cetera, were tested using logistic regression. Presence of positive herds within 5km was significantly associated to testing positive. For herds testing positive in the Dublin ELISA, significant associations were also seen with herd size. Purchase of animals during the last year was not significantly associated with the outcome in the final models. We conclude that for future surveillance, the Bovine ELISA can be used to help in identifying infected herds, and the Dublin

  8. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Suk Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals.

  9. Promoting medical student research productivity: the student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Benjamin K; Cai, Fei; Tandon, Vickram J; George, Paul; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-06-02

    One-third of medical students complete medical school without significant exposure to research. This gap in their medical education is significant: research not only exposes medical students to scientific methodology and academic writing, but also encourages them to multi-task, communicate, and critically analyze the scientific literature - valuable skills that will serve them well in their future medical careers. We report herein the proceedings from a student-led symposium that aimed to promote student involvement in research at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University by providing practical information on how to successfully complete a research project.

  10. The adolescent research participant: strategies for productive and ethical interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Rita; Giarelli, Ellen; Bernhardt, Barbara A

    2009-12-01

    Nurse researchers who seek to study the experiences of adolescents have limited resources to assist them with the process. Although some elements of interviewing are standard practice, special approaches are needed for the adolescent participating in research. Interviews are especially challenging. The purpose of this article is to present strategies to assist researchers as they engage this cohort in research. These strategies include evaluating the adolescent's developmental level, designing developmentally appropriate questions, and refining interviewing techniques to optimize the experience for the participants. Strategies presented are useful to clinicians who wish to establish a therapeutic rapport with young patients.

  11. Dairy products on metabolic health: current research and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Marine S; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2014-03-01

    Dairy products have been thought to have a beneficial role in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS constitutes a cluster of risk factors for an increased mortality, including obesity, impaired glucose homeostasis, hypertension and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Individuals with MetS are also often in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state. The objective of this review is to examine recent meta-analyses and clinical studies on the association between dairy products consumption and these MetS risk factors. Findings from studies demonstrate that weight loss related to dairy product intake is due to the combination of an energy-restricted diet with consumption of dairy products. Further, a limited number of studies have shown beneficial effects of dairy consumption on plasma lipids, blood pressure, glucose homeostasis or inflammatory and oxidative stress profiles. Overall, this review article suggests that adults should consume at least 2-3 servings of dairy products per day within a well-balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle for metabolic health. Yet, higher dairy product consumption may have additional beneficial effects, but more well-designed intervention studies are needed to ascertain these effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Science dynamics and research production indicators, indexes, statistical laws and mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with methods to evaluate scientific productivity. In the book statistical methods, deterministic and stochastic models and numerous indexes are discussed that will help the reader to understand the nonlinear science dynamics and to be able to develop or construct systems for appropriate evaluation of research productivity and management of research groups and organizations. The dynamics of science structures and systems is complex, and the evaluation of research productivity requires a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and measures. The book has three parts. The first part is devoted to mathematical models describing the importance of science for economic growth and systems for the evaluation of research organizations of different size. The second part contains descriptions and discussions of numerous indexes for the evaluation of the productivity of researchers and groups of researchers of different size (up to the comparison of research productivities of research communiti...

  13. 77 FR 17095 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cellco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cellco... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Cellco Partnership d/b... activity is the research and development of technology and intellectual property relating to enhanced...

  14. 75 FR 35089 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et sect. (``the Act... Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; Scientific Applications & Research Associates, Inc., Cypress, CA; Shalimar...

  15. Propagandizing Social Studies Education through Media Production: An Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out with 44 students attending the Social Studies Education Department of Faculty of Education at Abant Izzet Baysal University, who chose the elective Media Literacy Course. In the study, that was planned as an action research, the assistant professor of the course acted as "researcher" and the students (teacher…

  16. Four contexts of action research : Crossing boundaries for productive interplay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, Gerrit Jan; Vermaak, Hans

    This paper explores how action research takes place within and between four contexts: adding practical value, improving institutions, developing professions, and contributing to theory. We argue that action research is more than those activities conducted within these contexts: it is a process of

  17. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological products imported for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A biological...

  18. Biogeochemical research priorities for sustainable biofuel and bioenergy feedstock production in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hero T. Gollany; Brian D. Titus; D. Andrew Scott; Heidi Asbjornsen; Sigrid C. Resh; Rodney A. Chimner; Donald J. Kaczmarek; Luiz F.C. Leite; Ana C.C. Ferreira; Kenton A. Rod; Jorge Hilbert; Marcelo V. Galdos; Michelle E. Cisz

    2015-01-01

    Rapid expansion in biomass production for biofuels and bioenergy in the Americas is increasing demand on the ecosystem resources required to sustain soil and site productivity. We review the current state of knowledge and highlight gaps in research on biogeochemical processes and ecosystem sustainability related to biomass production. Biomass production systems...

  19. Priorities and Directions for Future Productivity Research: The Need for Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bart van Ark

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies three priorities for future productivity research: intangible assets, a better understanding of the impact of innovation on productivity, and a bridging of the gap between firm-level measures of productivity and industry-level and aggregate measures. It also makes the case for greater emphasis on historical measurement of productivity performance in the tradition of Angus Maddison.

  20. Fiberboard and hardboard research at the Forest Products Laboratory : a 50-year summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary C. Myers; J. Dobbin McNatt

    1985-01-01

    Many changes have occurred in the fiber-based panel products industries during the past 50 years. During this timespan the Forest Products Laboratory has conducted a considerable amount of research on processing and product evaluation of fiber-based panel product materials. Unfortunately about 26 percent of this information was never published. completed during this...