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Sample records for herd health management

  1. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  2. Financial aspects of veterinary herd health management programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifende, V.I.; Derks, M.; Hooijer, G.A.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programmes are meant to support herd health and farmers’ income (Brand and Guard 1996). They were introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s (Sol and Renkema 1984) and at present many veterinarians provide them to farmers. VHHM comprises a basic structure of

  3. Herd health and production management in dairy practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, A.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schukken, Y.H.

    1996-01-01

    This text aims to teach students, practitioners and farm advisors how to give management support to the dairy farmer in order to optimize the health, productivity and welfare of his herd. The book covers management practices and farm conditions which have both positive and negative influences on

  4. Veterinary dairy herd health management in Europe: constraints and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas da Silva, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Vagneur, M; Bexiga, R; Gelfert, C C; Baumgartner, W

    2006-03-01

    The nature of veterinary work in dairy health management in Europe has changed over the past years and will change even more dramatically in the near future. The consumers and the media show increasing concern about animal welfare, safety of products of animal origin and traceability of animal products. Farmers in Europe have to produce under strict, often expensive and laborious regulations, while still commercially competing with farmers outside the EU and not subject to the same rules. Veterinarians should adapt their knowledge and skills to the new challenges and developments of the dairy sector. Dairy farmers nowadays ask for support in areas that go beyond clinical activities: environmental protection, welfare, nutrition, grassland management, economics and business management. Bovine practitioners should be able to advise in many different areas and subjects--that is the challenge to our profession. Veterinary education with regards to cattle health management should start with individual animal clinical work, which constitutes the basis of herd health advisory programmes. The bovine practitioner should then look beyond that and regard the herd as the unit. Each diseased cow or group of cows should be detected early enough to avoid financial losses or such losses should be prevented altogether by detecting and managing risk factors contributing to disease occurrence. Herd health and production management programmes represent the first level to optimise dairy farm performance. Expansions to that should further be considered, comprising both animal health and welfare issues, as well as food safety and public health issues. The latter could be addressed by quality risk management programmes following the HACCP-principles. Cattle veterinarians should follow recent developments and invest in new skills and knowledge in order to maintain their usefulness to the modern dairy farmer. Finally we are convinced that the cattle practitioner should evolve into this

  5. Dairy Herd Management Types Assessed from Indicators of Health, Reproduction, Replacement Milk Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Hindhede, Jens; Kristensen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Variables related to health, reproduction, replacement milk production in 111 Danish dairy herds were studied with factor analysis. The objectives were to identify management types and to assess the relevance of those types for herd milk production. Median herd size and total milk production were...... 59 cows and 7100 kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively. Based on cow data, 22 herd variables were defined. A factor analysis identified 10 first-order factors and 5 second-order factors. The latter factors were valid indicators of replacement intensity, variability of milk production, potential...... for peak milk production, disease a complex pattern related to herd size and age, cow size live cattle sales. The potential for peak milk production, replacement intensity variability of milk production were strong predictors of herd milk production. Interactions with herd size were important. The derived...

  6. Financial aspects of veterinary herd health management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifende, V I; Derks, M; Hooijer, G A; Hogeveen, H

    2014-09-06

    Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programmes have been shown to be economically effective in the past. However, no current information is available on costs and benefits of these programmes. This study compared economics and farm performance between participants and non-participants in VHHM programmes in 1013 dairy farms with over 40 cows. Milk Production Registration (MPR) data and a questionnaire concerning VHHM were used. Based on the level of participation in VHHM (as indicated in the questionnaire), costs of the programmes were calculated using a normative model. The economic value of the production effects was similarly calculated using normative modelling based on MPR data. Participants in VHHM had a better performance with regard to production, but not with regard to reproduction. Over 90 per cent of the VHHM participants were visited at least once every six weeks and most participants discussed at least three topics. In most farms, the veterinarian did the pregnancy checks as part of the VHHM programmes. There was a benefit to cost ratio of about five per cow per year for VHHM participants, and a mean difference in net returns of €30 per cow per year after adjusting for the cost of the programme. This portrays that participation in a VHHM programme is cost-efficient. There is, however, much unexplained variation in the net returns, possibly due to diverse approaches by veterinarians towards VHHM or by other factors not included in this analysis, like nutritional quality or management abilities of the farmer. British Veterinary Association.

  7. [Survey among livestock practices on herd health management and an Internet-based animal health portal in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tavel, L; Buri, S; Witschi, U; Kirchhofer, M

    2009-12-01

    The importance of herd health management in Switzerland, its implementation by veterinarians as well as their willingness to collaborate within an Internet portal have been assessed by a questionnaire. The portal is meant to serve the genetic evaluation, the veterinary herd health management and the obligation to record treatments; it should be at disposal for all users in form of a central database. For the survey, questionnaires were sent to 784 veterinarians (mixed and livestock practices) in Switzerland. Amongst them, 217 (27.7 %) questionnaires could be evaluated. 125 veterinarians already offer a herd health management service and 147 veterinarians are inclined to collaborate in a central registration of animal health data. In this context, they are interested in an efficient veterinary herd health management program, which will allow direct exchange of data with farmers via an Internet portal. However, they fear a lack of interest of their customers and express some concern regarding data protection. The portal providers must therefore consider the needs of all potential users in order to succeed in this project. At this condition, the veterinarians are prepared to spread herd health management amongst the breeders by means of the animal health portal.

  8. Veterinary herd health management-Experience among farmers and farm managers in Swedish dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, C; Alvåsen, K; Eldh, A C; Frössling, J; Lomander, H

    2018-07-01

    A preventive herd health approach will most likely reduce incidences of clinical and subclinical disease. Swedish veterinary organizations offer specific veterinary herd health management (HHM) programs, but these services are not used to a large extent. The aim of this study was to investigate dairy farmers' experience of HHM and the conditions for collaboration with veterinarians in HHM. Six focus group discussions were conducted in March 2015 in West Sweden. In total, 33 dairy farmers participated. The recordings were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis, and the transcripts were reviewed to identify potential factors indicating barriers for farmers to engage a veterinarian in HHM. The participants reported HHM to be important, but they had difficulty defining the actions included in the concept. They described a wide range of their work duties as preventive. The farmers' list of potential contributions by the veterinarians in HHM was strikingly short compared to the considerable number of preventive measures they performed themselves. Four main obstacles for farmers and farm managers to engage a veterinarian in HHM on their farm were identified in the analysis: "costs", "veterinary knowledge, skills, and organization", "farmer attitudes", and "veterinarian-farmer relationships". Costs were proposed as the main reason against engaging a veterinarian in HHM and included a high veterinary bill, low cost-benefit of veterinary services, and high costs to implement advice. Poor veterinary competence in HHM and poor knowledge about effective measures, practical farming, and farm economics were other important obstacles. Veterinarians were perceived to insufficiently describe their services and their benefits, and several participants felt they had never been offered veterinary HHM. Although veterinary HHM may be initiated by the farmer, the participants expected the veterinarian to have special responsibility for the initiation. A firm trust between farmer

  9. Invited review: effect of udder health management practices on herd somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, S; Fréchette, A; Barkema, H W; Mussell, A; Scholl, D T

    2011-02-01

    A systematic review of the scientific literature on relationships between management practices used on dairy farms and herd somatic cell count (SCC) was undertaken to distinguish those management practices that have been consistently shown to be associated with herd SCC from those lacking evidence of association. Relevant literature was identified using a combination of database searches (PubMed, Medline, CAB, Agricola, and Web of Science) and iterative screening of references. To be included in the review, a manuscript had to be published after 1979 in French, English, or Dutch; study design had to be other than case report or case series; herds studied had to be composed of ≥ 40 milking cows producing on average ≥ 7,000kg of milk in 305 d; interventions studied had to be management practices applied at the herd level and used as udder health control strategies; and SCC had to be measured using electronic cell counting methods. The 36 manuscripts selected were mainly observational cross-sectional studies; 8 manuscripts dealt exclusively with automatic milking systems and 4 with management of calves and heifers and its effect on SCC in early lactation heifers. Most practices having consistent associations with SCC were related to milking procedures: wearing gloves during milking, using automatic take-offs, using postmilking teat dipping, milking problem cows last, yearly inspection of the milking system, and use of a technique to keep cows standing following milking; all were consistently associated with lower herd SCC. Other practices associated with lower SCC were the use of a freestall system, sand bedding, cleaning the calving pen after each calving, surveillance of dry-cow udders for mastitis, use of blanket dry-cow therapy, parenteral selenium supplementation, udder hair management, and frequent use of the California Mastitis Test. Regarding SCC of heifers, most of the consistent associations reported were related to interventions made during the

  10. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boersema JSC

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  11. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersema, Jsc; Noordhuizen, Jptm; Vieira, A; Lievaart, Jj; Baumgartner, W

    2008-09-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  12. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms. PMID:21851722

  13. Associations among descriptors of herd management and phenotypic and genetic levels of health and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calus, M.P.L.; Windig, J.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the association of descriptors of herd environment with phenotypic levels and breeding values of fertility and health traits. Analyses were performed for 82,080 first-lactation heifers and 173,787 multiparous cows. Fourteen environmental parameters were

  14. Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Nechanitzky, K; Sturmlechner, F; Drillich, M

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain information about animal health challenges for dairy farmers of small- and medium-sized herds and about the fields in which consultancy services should be improved. The hyperlink to an internet-based survey was sent to 9,021 farmers in Austria. The survey included questions about the participants and their farms, about who is consulting with the farmers with regard to animal health, feeding, sire selection, construction of barns and animal husbandry, about animal health issues farmers find most challenging, and about their demands for improved consultancy services. The questionnaire was completed anonymously. Analyses were stratified by milk yield (categorized) and whether farmers worked full-time or part-time. The overall response rate was 11.3% (n=1,018). The majority of farms kept less than 20 cows (54.0%) or 20 to 50 cows (40.1%). With regard to animal health, the veterinarian was the most important consultant for the majority of farmers (84.6%). On issues related to feeding, sire selection, and stable construction, the veterinarian was seen as a less important consultant than specialists in these fields (20.4, 11.6, and 7.9% suggested the veterinarian as an important consultant in these areas). The survey indicated that reproductive disorders, udder disease, poor conception rate, lameness, and calf diarrhea represent the most important challenges to farmers. Of these, concerns about calf diarrhea were affected by milk yield of the herds and management. More high- than low-yielding farms (11.7 vs. 6.4%) and more full-time than part-time managed herds (9.6 vs.4.3%) regarded calf diarrhea as an important problem. Farmers would welcome improved consultancy with regard to fertility, feeding, and sire selection. The results indicated which animal health issues farmers find particularly challenging and displayed which areas farmers require improved consultancy services. Veterinarians and organizations offering consultancy

  15. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  16. Efficiency of dairy farms participating and not participating in veterinary herd health management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Marjolein; Hogeveen, Henk; Kooistra, Sake R; van Werven, Tine; Tauer, Loren W

    2014-12-01

    This paper compares farm efficiencies between dairies who were participating in a veterinary herd health management (VHHM) program with dairies not participating in such a program, to determine whether participation has an association with farm efficiency. In 2011, 572 dairy farmers received a questionnaire concerning the participation and execution of a VHHM program on their farms. Data from the questionnaire were combined with farm accountancy data from 2008 through 2012 from farms that used calendar year accounting periods, and were analyzed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Two separate models were specified: model 1 was the basic stochastic frontier model (output: total revenue; input: feed costs, land costs, cattle costs, non-operational costs), without explanatory variables embedded into the efficiency component of the error term. Model 2 was an expansion of model 1 which included explanatory variables (number of FTE; total kg milk delivered; price of concentrate; milk per hectare; cows per FTE; nutritional yield per hectare) inserted into the efficiency component of the joint error term. Both models were estimated with the financial parameters expressed per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow. Land costs, cattle costs, feed costs and non-operational costs were statistically significant and positive in all models (P<0.01). Frequency distributions of the efficiency scores for the VHHM dairies and the non-VHHM dairies were plotted in a kernel density plot, and differences were tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test. VHHM dairies had higher total revenue per cow, but not per 100 kg milk. For all SFA models, the difference in distribution was not statistically different between VHHM dairies and non-VHHM dairies (P values 0.94, 0.35, 0.95 and 0.89 for the basic and complete model per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow respectively). Therefore we conclude that with our data farm participation in VHHM is not related

  17. Selenium status in cattle herds in Wallonia (Belgium: overview and health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Monitoring was performed in order to determine the Selenium (Se status of cattle herds in different agricultural areas in Wallonia (Belgium. Materials and Methods: The study included 114 heifers and 184 cows (82 dairy and 102 beef cows from 66 cattle farms situated in Wallonia. The Se status was assessed by measuring the glutathion peroxydase in red cells and converting it to the equivalent Se blood content. Results: The average blood concentrations of Se were very low. The Ardennes region was an area where the lowest Se status was recorded. The highest levels of Se in dairy cows and beef cows were recorded respectively in the limoneuse region and Famenne areas. The Se content in beef herds was lower compared with that of dairy herds (35 vs. 56 μg/L, p<0.01. Conclusion: On average over all the regions, 87% of animals were classified as deficient and only 13% of the animals were classified as adequate. The heifers from both dairy and beef herds in Wallonia exhibited a deficiency in Se classified as moderate to severe. The beef herds showed larger deficiencies compared with the dairy herds. Selenium deficiency can be prevented by ensuring adequate supplementation of deficient animals in Se deficient regions. An increased consumption of vitamin-mineral supplements, the use of Se-enriched fertilizers and ingredients containing high levels of Se can help to reduce or correct deficiencies recorded in cattle herds in Wallonia.

  18. The perception of veterinary herd health management by Dutch dairy farmers and its current status in the Netherlands: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Marjolein; van de Ven, Lindsay M A; van Werven, Tine; Kremer, Wim D J; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-05-01

    The importance of veterinary herd health management (VHHM) is increasing in both dairy farming and veterinary practice. Little is known, however, about how VHHM is perceived by farmers in terms of structure, content and satisfaction. In 2007 a questionnaire, containing questions about these three items was therefore sent to 800 Dutch dairy farmers. Farmers received two questionnaires, one for participants in VHHM and one for non-participants, allowing them to choose the appropriate one. Results were summarized and statistically analyzed. Farmers who were participating in VHHM had better farm performance. They were satisfied with the way VHHM was executed on their farm. However, there were some pressure points. Goal setting and evaluation was still not a regular part of VHHM, even though it is said to be effective in literature. Time spent on VHHM not visible to the farmer was often not charged or not clearly specified on the bill. The differences in opinions between participants and non-participants of VHHM indicated a lack of communication and/or product differentiation. Satisfaction with the way VHHM was executed on the farm had no significant influence on 305-day production. There was, however, some influence on calving interval and bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Graph-based impact analysis as a framework for incorporating practitioner knowledge in dairy herd health management.

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    Krieger, M; Schwabenbauer, E-M; Hoischen-Taubner, S; Emanuelson, U; Sundrum, A

    2018-03-01

    Production diseases in dairy cows are multifactorial, which means they emerge from complex interactions between many different farm variables. Variables with a large impact on production diseases can be identified for groups of farms using statistical models, but these methods cannot be used to identify highly influential variables in individual farms. This, however, is necessary for herd health planning, because farm conditions and associated health problems vary largely between farms. The aim of this study was to rank variables according to their anticipated effect on production diseases on the farm level by applying a graph-based impact analysis on 192 European organic dairy farms. Direct impacts between 13 pre-defined variables were estimated for each farm during a round-table discussion attended by practitioners, that is farmer, veterinarian and herd advisor. Indirect impacts were elaborated through graph analysis taking into account impact strengths. Across farms, factors supposedly exerting the most influence on production diseases were 'feeding', 'hygiene' and 'treatment' (direct impacts), as well as 'knowledge and skills' and 'herd health monitoring' (indirect impacts). Factors strongly influenced by production diseases were 'milk performance', 'financial resources' and 'labour capacity' (directly and indirectly). Ranking of variables on the farm level revealed considerable differences between farms in terms of their most influential and most influenced farm factors. Consequently, very different strategies may be required to reduce production diseases in these farms. The method is based on perceptions and estimations and thus prone to errors. From our point of view, however, this weakness is clearly outweighed by the ability to assess and to analyse farm-specific relationships and thus to complement general knowledge with contextual knowledge. Therefore, we conclude that graph-based impact analysis represents a promising decision support tool for herd

  20. Management, operational, animal health, and economic characteristics of large dairy herds in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evink, T L; Endres, M I

    2017-11-01

    Recent trends in dairy farm structure in the United States have included a decreasing number of farms, although farm size has increased, especially the share of milk production from very large herds (>2,500 cows). The objectives of this observational study were to describe common management practices; to characterize labor and operational structure; to measure some aspects of animal health, including lameness, hock lesions, mortality, and mastitis incidence; and to summarize cost of production on farms with more than 2,500 cows in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States. The study included 15 dairy farms in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and South Dakota. Farms were visited twice, once each year, and on-farm herd records were collected for those 2 yr. On-farm herd records were used to investigate mortality, culling, pregnancy rate, and clinical mastitis incidence. At least 1 high-producing pen of mature cows and 1 pen of fresh cows were scored for locomotion. Likewise, at least 1 pen of high-producing mature cows was scored for cleanliness and hock lesions. Median herd size was 3,975 cows (range = 2,606-13,266). Milk sold per employee was 1,120,745 kg and the number of cows per employee was 105. Eighty percent of the farms had Holstein cows, 13% had Jersey, and 7% had Jersey-Holstein crosses. All farms used artificial insemination as the sole form of breeding and 100% of the farms used hormonal synchronization or timed artificial insemination programs in their reproductive protocols; 21-d pregnancy rate was 21.7%. Median lameness prevalence was 18.3% and median severe lameness prevalence was 5.1%. Median hock lesion prevalence was 17.4% and median severe hock lesion prevalence was 1.9%; mortality rate was 7.4%. Clinical mastitis incidence was 62.5 cases per 100 cow-years. Feed costs accounted for approximately 53% of the total cost of producing milk, followed by labor at 11%, interest and depreciation expenses at 10%, and replacement costs at 9.5%. Herds in

  1. Culling from the herd's perspective-Exploring herd-level management factors and culling rates in Québec dairy herds.

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    Haine, Denis; Delgado, Hector; Cue, Roger; Sewalem, Asheber; Wade, Kevin; Lacroix, René; Lefebvre, Daniel; Arsenault, Julie; Bouchard, Émile; Dubuc, Jocelyn

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between cows' health, reproductive performance or disorders and their longevity is well demonstrated in the literature. However these associations at the cow level might not hold true at the herd level, and herd-level variables can modify cow-level outcomes independently of the cows' characteristics. The interaction between cow-level and herd-level variables is a relevant issue for understanding the culling of dairy cows. However it requires the appropriate group-level variables to assess any contextual effect. Based on 10 years of health and production data, the objectives of this paper are:(a) to quantify the culling rates of dairy herds in Québec; (b) to determine the profiles of the herds based on herd-level factors, such as demographics, reproduction, production and health indicators, and whether these profiles can be related to herd culling rates for use as potential contextual variables in multilevel modelling of culling risk. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on data from dairy herds in Québec, Canada, by extracting health information events from the dairy herd health management software used by most Québec producers and their veterinarians. Data were extracted for all lactations taking place between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2010. A total of 432,733 lactations from 156,409 cows out of 763 herds were available for analysis. Thirty cow-level variables were aggregated for each herd and years of follow-up, and their relationship was investigated by Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). The overall annual culling rate was 32%, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of [31.6%,32.5%]. The dairy sale rate by 60 days in milk (DIM) was 3.2% [2.8%,3.6%]. The annual culling rate within 60 DIM was 8.2% [7.9%,8.4%]. The explained variance for each axis from the MFA was very low: 14.8% for the first axis and 13.1% for the second. From the MFA results, we conclude there is no relationship between the groups of herd-level indicators

  2. Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden

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    Hansson Ingrid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic farming as well as conventional. Preliminary studies of organic dairy herds have indicated better udder health in such herds, as compared to conventional herds. The aim of this paper was to further study mastitis and management related factors in certified organic dairy herds. Methods An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional and incidence of disorders. Results The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis. The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage. Conclusion Udder

  3. [Emissions from dairy industry and the influence of herd management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Brade, Wilfried; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus; Dämmgen, Jürgen; Meyer, Ulrich

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this paper is to identify specific emission-reduction opportunities in dairy herds arising from aspects of useful herd management with the potential to reduce emissions, which are within the scope of veterinary activities. In future, it might be one of a veterinarian's advisory capacities to deal with the aspect of climate and environmental protection in animal husbandry. The models involved are similar to those of the national agricultural emission inventory. They allow quantifying the impacts of improved animal health, extended productive lifespan and grazing of an entire dairy herd (cows, calves, heifers and bulls) on emissions from the herd itself, in addition to those originating from the entire production chain, including provision of primary energy, water, feed production and processing. Ammonia emissions are the main focus. The reductions achieved here are not huge, though noticeable. They do not create extra costs. As can be shown, improved animal health and welfare are also environmentally beneficial. The reduction of greenhouse gas and air pollutant (eutrophying and acidifying gases and particles) emissions is an acknowledged political goal. If Germany wants to achieve the emission ceilings it has agreed to, agriculture will have to contribute. Planning will have to precede action if agriculture is itself to keep control of the processes.

  4. Biosecurity and animal disease management in organic and conventional Swedish dairy herds: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelson, Ulf; Sjöström, Karin; Fall, Nils

    2018-04-12

    Good animal health is a notion that is germane to organic dairy production, and it is expected that such herds would pay significant attention on the health of their animals. However, it is not known if the applied animal disease management is actually more adequate in organic dairy cattle herds than in conventional dairy herds. A questionnaire study on biosecurity and animal disease management activities was therefore conducted among Swedish farmers with organic and conventional dairy cattle herds. A total of 192 useable questionnaires were returned; response rates of 30.3 and 20.2% for organic and conventional farmers, respectively. Herd characteristics of the two herd types were very similar, except that pipeline/tie-stall systems were less common in organic farms and that organic farmers had a higher education level than their conventional counterparts. Also, very few systematic differences in general or specific disease management activities were observed between the two types of farms. The main exceptions being how milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was used, views on policy actions in relation to antibiotic use, and attitudes towards calling for veterinary support. Using milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was more common in conventional herds, although it was mainly given to bull calves. Farmers of organic herds were more positive to policy actions to reduce the use and need for antibiotics, and they reported waiting longer before contacting a veterinarian for calves with diarrhoea and cows with subclinical mastitis. The stated biosecurity and animal disease management was relatively equal in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds. Our results thus indicate that animal health is as important in conventionally managed dairy herds in Sweden as in organically managed herds.

  5. The management of bovine reproduction in elite herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, I Martin; Wathes, D Claire; Dobson, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    The management of bovine reproduction is the cornerstone of health provision in elite herds. Aims and objectives for reproductive performance should be herd specific and data to monitor progress should not only be frequently collected, but also analysed and reported. Strategic monitoring of animals should include a vaginal examination for evidence of uterine disease, as well as transrectal ultrasonography of the genital tract. There has been considerable advancement in our ability to intervene in the reproduction of cattle during the last 50 years. However, it is salutary to note that during this time fertility has consistently declined, despite increasing veterinary intervention. Most elite herds use artificial insemination and success depends on accurate detection of oestrus expression, but this appears to be less overt than 25 years ago. In addition, half the cattle have abnormal oestrous cycles after parturition and conception rates are decreasing by 1% per year. Risk factors for abnormal oestrous cycles include puerperal problems, negative energy balance, which can be evaluated by body condition scoring, and uterine disease. Bacterial contamination of the uterus is ubiquitous after parturition in cattle and disease disrupts ovarian follicle growth and function. Reproduction is also disrupted by stress associated with clinical disease, pain or a sub-optimal environment. The challenge for veterinarians providing reproduction control programmes to elite herds is to transfer our knowledge of the problems underlying subfertility to the farm, in order to provide effective solutions.

  6. Investigation of productivity in a south Indian Malabari goat herd shows opportunities for planned animal health management to improve food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, N D; Ivil, S A J; Abraham, J; Abubaker, S P S; Hopker, A M; Mazeri, S; Otter, I A; Otter, N

    2017-03-18

    Here the authors report the objective veterinary clinical measurement of productivity in a representative south Indian Malabari goat herd. The authors show failure to meet pragmatic production targets that are commensurate with the animals' genetic potential or adequate to meet the demands of global food security. The authors suggest that this situation may have arisen as a consequence of animal husbandry constraints and protein undernutrition and imply the involvement of nematode parasitism. Benzimidazole resistance was detected in Haemonchus species, showing the need for better understanding of the principles of sustainable helminth parasite control within the southern Indian context. This study highlights the need to understand the true costs of goat production in seasonally resource-poor environments, while also considering its impact on the overall ecosystem in which the animals are placed. They conclude that pragmatic opportunities for improvements in goat production efficiency lie in the development of problem-focused planned animal health and nutrition management. British Veterinary Association.

  7. A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s) of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erling; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2008-12-18

    Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1) identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2) submitting those data to a quantitative analysis thereby characterizing perspective(s) of value added by health management programs among farmers; and 3) to characterize perceptions of farmers' goals among veterinarians. The subject was initially explored by means of literature, interviews and discussions with farmers, herd health management consultants and researchers to provide an understanding (a concourse) of the research entity. The concourse was then broken down into 46 statements. Sixteen Danish dairy farmers and 18 veterinarians associated with one large nationwide veterinary practice were asked to rank the 46 statements that defined the concourse. Next, a principal component analysis was applied to identify correlated statements and thus families of perspectives between respondents. Q-methodology was utilized to represent each of the statements by one row and each respondent by one column in the matrix. A subset of the farmers participated in a series of semi-structured interviews to face validate the concourse and to discuss subjects like animal welfare, veterinarians' competences as experienced by the farmers and time constraints in the farmers' everyday life. Farmers' views could be described by four families of perspectives: Teamwork, Animal welfare, Knowledge dissemination, and Production. Veterinarians believed that farmers' primary focus was on production and profit, however, farmers' valued teamwork and animal welfare more. The veterinarians in this study appear to focus too much on financial performance and increased production when compared to most of the participating farmers

  8. A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Erling

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1 identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2 submitting those data to a quantitative analysis thereby characterizing perspective(s of value added by health management programs among farmers; and 3 to characterize perceptions of farmers' goals among veterinarians. Methods The subject was initially explored by means of literature, interviews and discussions with farmers, herd health management consultants and researchers to provide an understanding (a concourse of the research entity. The concourse was then broken down into 46 statements. Sixteen Danish dairy farmers and 18 veterinarians associated with one large nationwide veterinary practice were asked to rank the 46 statements that defined the concourse. Next, a principal component analysis was applied to identify correlated statements and thus families of perspectives between respondents. Q-methodology was utilized to represent each of the statements by one row and each respondent by one column in the matrix. A subset of the farmers participated in a series of semi-structured interviews to face validate the concourse and to discuss subjects like animal welfare, veterinarians' competences as experienced by the farmers and time constraints in the farmers' everyday life. Results Farmers' views could be described by four families of perspectives: Teamwork, Animal welfare, Knowledge dissemination, and Production. Veterinarians believed that farmers' primary focus was on production and profit, however, farmers' valued teamwork and animal welfare more. Conclusion The veterinarians in this study appear to focus too much on financial performance and increased

  9. Dairy operation management practices and herd milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinger, W C; Heinrichs, A J

    1996-03-01

    A national US survey collected data on herd milk production and management of Holstein herds. Step-wise selection identified management practices that were related to herd milk production using only operations that calculated herd milk production as well as using data from all operations. Results were similar. Milk production was highest in the West. Operations with 25% registered cattle had higher production than operations with no registered cattle. Dairy operations that reported a mean BW > 545 kg at first calving had higher mean milk production than operations with a mean BW or = 27 mo at first calving. In addition, use of the following management practices was associated with higher rolling herd average milk production: calves born in individual areas in buildings, calves hand-fed first colostrum, starter grain fed to preweaned calves, ionophores fed to heifers from birth to first calving, DHIA record-keeping system used, computerized records, and no new cattle introduced in the previous 12 mo.

  10. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,conventional herds (MC, ≥200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin conditions, most organic

  11. Use of herd management programmes to improve the reproductive performance of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Heuer, C; Morton, J; Brownlie, T

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of herd health and production management programmes in many dairy industries around the world, but evidence for the efficacy of such programmes is limited. In response to a perceived decline in fertility of dairy cows, a herd reproductive management programme (InCalf) was introduced in New Zealand in 2007. This programme uses a management cycle approach that includes an assessment of the current herd status, identification of areas for improvement, development of a plan, implementation of this plan and finally a review process. The programme uses facilitators who work with farmers either in a one-to-one manner or in a formalised group setting that involves a series of meetings over a 12-month period (the farmer action group). The hypothesis that involvement in a reproductive management programme would improve herd reproductive performance was tested using a herd-level controlled randomised study (the National Herd Fertility Study) involving herds in four geographic regions of New Zealand over 2 years. Within each region, herds were ranked on the basis of the 6-week in-calf rate (i.e. the proportion of the herd pregnant in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal breeding programme) in the year preceding commencement of the study and then randomly assigned to be involved in a farmer action group or left as untreated controls. The key outcome variable of the study was the 6-week in-calf rate. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken at 12 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding programme, which allowed determination of conception dates and hence calculation of the 6-week in-calf rate. Additional measurements including heifer live weight and body condition score (pre-calving and pre-mating) were undertaken to test whether treatment resulted in measurable changes in some of the key determinants of herd reproductive performance. Involvement in the farmer action group of InCalf resulted in a 2 percentage point increase in the 6-week in-calf rate

  12. Problems in maintenance of herd health associated with acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostuch, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of sour gas plant emissions on dairy herds are described. A veterinarian establishing a practice in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, found that dairy herds in that area suffered from a disproportionately higher occurrence of health problems than Minnesota herds with similar types of management. These problems are postulated to result from acid-forming emissions from two large sour gas plants in the area (the Ram River and Gulf Strachan plants). Health problems found in dairy cattle in the Rocky Mountain House area were: unthriftiness, increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, reproductive problems, and 'downer' animals (cows unable to stand up unassisted). Problems related to the reproductive organs were the most apparent. Clinical observations of problems in dairy herds are described. Since the levels of emissions from the plants have decreased, incidence of problems in dairy herds has also decreased. 1 ref., 2 figs

  13. Initial insights on the performances and management of dairy cattle herds combining two breeds with contrasting features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, M A; Thénard, V; Mihout, S

    2016-05-01

    Finding ways of increasing animal production with low external inputs and without compromising reproductive performances is a key issue of livestock systems sustainability. One way is to take advantage of the diversity and interactions among components within livestock systems. Among studies that investigate the influence of differences in animals' individual abilities in a herd, few focus on combinations of cow breeds with contrasting features in dairy cattle herds. This study aimed to analyse the performances and management of such multi-breed dairy cattle herds. These herds were composed of two types of dairy breeds: 'specialist' (Holstein) and 'generalist' (e.g. Montbeliarde, Simmental, etc.). Based on recorded milk data in southern French region, we performed (i) to compare the performances of dairy herds according to breed-type composition: multi-breed, single specialist breed or single generalist breed and (ii) to test the difference of milk performances of specialist and generalist breed cows (n = 10 682) per multi-breed dairy herd within a sample of 22 farms. The sampled farmers were also interviewed to characterise herd management through multivariate analysis. Multi-breed dairy herds had a better trade-off among milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, herd reproduction and concentrate-conversion efficiency than single-breed herds. Conversely, they did not offer advantages in terms of milk prices and udder health. Compared to specialist dairy herds, they produce less milk with the same concentrate-conversion efficiency but have better reproductive performances. Compared to generalist dairy herds, they produce more milk with better concentrate-conversion efficiency but have worse reproductive performances. Within herds, specialist and generalist breed cows significantly differed in milk performances, showing their complementarity. The former produced more milk for a longer lactation length while the latter produced milk with higher protein and fat

  14. Co-management of the Porcupine Caribou Herd

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Peter; Doug Urquhart

    1996-01-01

    The success of a co-management organization rests with the user communities. Over the years members of the Porcupine Caribou Management Board have observed that it is the knowledge and concerns held by the people in the communities which are affected by caribou management policies, that provide the greatest inspiration to the Board. In return, the Board must never lose sight of its primary objective which is to manage and conserve the Porcupine Caribou Herd by incorporating native participati...

  15. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  16. Short communication: Microbiological quality of raw cow milk and its association with herd management practices in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, X Y; Zhao, S G; Zheng, N; Li, S L; Zhang, Y D; Liu, H M; McKillip, J; Wang, J Q

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of raw milk with bacterial pathogens is potentially hazardous to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total bacteria count (TBC) and presence of pathogens in raw milk in Northern China along with the associated herd management practices. A total of 160 raw milk samples were collected from 80 dairy herds in Northern China. All raw milk samples were analyzed for TBC and pathogens by culturing. The results showed that the number of raw milk samples with TBC milk samples were Staphylococcus aureus positive, 72 (45.00%) were Escherichia coli positive, 2 (1.25%) were Salmonella positive, 2 (1.25%) were Listeria monocytogenes positive, and 3 (1.88%) were Campylobacter positive. The prevalence of S. aureus was influenced by season, herd size, milking frequency, disinfection frequency, and use of a Dairy Herd Improvement program. The TBC was influenced by season and milk frequency. The correlation between TBC and prevalence of S. aureus or E. coli is significant. The effect size statistical analysis showed that season and herd (but not Dairy Herd Improvement, herd size, milking frequency, disinfection frequency, and area) were the most important factors affecting TBC in raw milk. In conclusion, the presence of bacteria in raw milk was associated with season and herd management practices, and further comprehensive study will be powerful for effectively characterizing various factors affecting milk microbial quality in bulk tanks in China. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Co-management of the Porcupine Caribou Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Peter

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of a co-management organization rests with the user communities. Over the years members of the Porcupine Caribou Management Board have observed that it is the knowledge and concerns held by the people in the communities which are affected by caribou management policies, that provide the greatest inspiration to the Board. In return, the Board must never lose sight of its primary objective which is to manage and conserve the Porcupine Caribou Herd by incorporating native participation at every level of decision-making.

  18. Challenging the myth of the irrational dairy farmer; understanding decision-making related to herd health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, E; Jakobsen, E B

    2011-01-01

    Veterinarians working with dairy cows are suggested to refocus their efforts from being task-oriented providers of single-cow therapy and develop themselves into advice-oriented herd health management advisors. The practising cattle veterinarian's ability to translate knowledge into on-farm application requires a profound understanding of the dairy farm as an integrated system. Consequently, educating and motivating farmers are key issues. To achieve such insight the veterinarian needs to work with several scientific disciplines, especially epidemiology and (behavioural) economics. This trans-disciplinary approach offers new methodological possibilities and challenges to students of dairy herd health management. Advisors working with dairy herd health management may sometimes experience that farmers do not follow their advice. Potentially, this could lead to the interpretation that such farmers are behaving irrationally. However, farmers who are confronted with advice suggesting a change of behaviour are placed in a state of cognitive dissonance. To solve such dissonance they may either comply with the advice or reduce the dissonance by convincing themselves that the suggested change in management is impossible to implement. Consequently, herd health management advisors must understand the fundamental and instrumental relationships between individual farmers' values, behaviour and perception of risk, to stimulate and qualify the farmer's decision-making in a way that will increase the farmer's satisfaction and subjective well-being. Traditionally, studies on herd health economics have focussed on financial methods to measure the value of technical outcomes from suggested changes in management, following the basic assumption that farmers strive to maximise profit. Farmers, however, may be motivated by very different activities, e.g. animal health and welfare or other farmers' recognition, making it impossible to provide 'one-size-fts-all' consultancy because the

  19. Modelling the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews how the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds is mimicked by livestock herd simulation models. Twelve models simulating the dynamics of dairy, beef, sheep and sow herds were examined. All models basically included options to alter input and output...

  20. Testing new dairy cattle for disease can boost herd health, cut costs

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Dale A; Adaska, J M; Higginbotham, G E; Castillo, Alejandro R Dr.; Collar, Carol; Sischo, William M

    2009-01-01

    Dairy producers seldom test or examine incoming cattle, although these important biosecurity practices are recommended. This pilot project examined risk management decisions that producers make when faced with test-positive animals in purchased groups of dairy cattle, in order to provide information on disease risks and conditions that could affect animal health and performance. New arrivals to seven herds at dairy farms in four California counties were examined and tested for a range of cond...

  1. Relationship between stepping and kicking behavior and milking management in dairy cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Cerqueira, Joaquim; Araújo, José P P; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    We studied the relationship between behavior during milking with milking parlor management, measuring the occurrence of steps and kicks, and cow-related factors. We also investigated the link between stepping and kicking during milking and udder health. A total of 2,903 direct observations...... of milking behavior were collected in 44 dairy herds in the north of Portugal. The results showed great variability in the occurrence of stepping and kicking among herds during milking. Mixed linear and logistic regression models for factors associated with stepping and kicking were developed. Cows in tandem...... of the visit also showed a trend toward higher kicking frequency. The results suggest that animal welfare measures, like kicking and stepping, are suitable for epidemiologic studies. Significant interactions were observed when animals were affected by challenging health and welfare situations....

  2. Novel approaches to assess the quality of fertility data stored in dairy herd management software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, K; Waegeman, W; Opsomer, G; Van Ranst, B; De Koster, J; Van Eetvelde, M; Hostens, M

    2017-05-01

    Scientific journals and popular press magazines are littered with articles in which the authors use data from dairy herd management software. Almost none of such papers include data cleaning and data quality assessment in their study design despite this being a very critical step during data mining. This paper presents 2 novel data cleaning methods that permit identification of animals with good and bad data quality. The first method is a deterministic or rule-based data cleaning method. Reproduction and mutation or life-changing events such as birth and death were converted to a symbolic (alphabetical letter) representation and split into triplets (3-letter code). The triplets were manually labeled as physiologically correct, suspicious, or impossible. The deterministic data cleaning method was applied to assess the quality of data stored in dairy herd management from 26 farms enrolled in the herd health management program from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Ghent University, Belgium. In total, 150,443 triplets were created, 65.4% were labeled as correct, 17.4% as suspicious, and 17.2% as impossible. The second method, a probabilistic method, uses a machine learning algorithm (random forests) to predict the correctness of fertility and mutation events in an early stage of data cleaning. The prediction accuracy of the random forests algorithm was compared with a classical linear statistical method (penalized logistic regression), outperforming the latter substantially, with a superior receiver operating characteristic curve and a higher accuracy (89 vs. 72%). From those results, we conclude that the triplet method can be used to assess the quality of reproduction data stored in dairy herd management software and that a machine learning technique such as random forests is capable of predicting the correctness of fertility data. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Fortymile caribou herd: novel proposed management and relevant biology, 1992-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney D. Boertje

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, international Fortymile Planning Team wrote a novel Fortymile caribou herd {Rangifer tarandus granti Management Plan in 1995 (Boertje & Gardner, 1996: 56-77. The primary goal of this plan is to begin restoring the Fortymile herd to its former range; >70% of the herd's former range was abandoned as herd size declined. Specific objectives call for increasing the Fortymile herd by at least 5-10% annually from 1998-2002. We describe demographics of the herd, factors limiting the herd, and condition of the herd and range during 1992-1997. These data were useful in proposing management actions for the herd and should be instrumental in future evaluations of the plan's actions. The following points summarize herd biology relevant to management proposed by the Fortymile Planning Team: 1. Herd numbers remained relatively stable during 1990-1995 (about 22 000-23 000 caribou. On 21 June 1996 we counted about 900 additional caribou in the herd, probably a result of increased pregnancy rates in 1996. On 26 June 1997 we counted about 2500 additional caribou in the herd, probably a result of recruitment of the abundant 1996 calves and excellent early survival of the 1997 calves. The Team deemed that implementing management actions during a period of natural growth would be opportune. 2. Wolf (Canis lupus and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos predation were the most important sources of mortality, despite over a decade of the most liberal regulations in the state for harvesting of wolves and grizzly bears. Wolves were the most important predator. Wolves killed between 2000 and 3000 caribou calves annually during this study and between 1000 and 2300 older caribou; 1200-1900 calves were killed from May through September. No significant differences in annual wolf predation rates on calves or adults were observed between 1994 and early winter 1997. Reducing wolf predation was judged by the Team to be the most manageable way to help hasten or stimulate

  4. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  5. Blood Selenium Associated with Health and Fertility in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommisrud E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of blood selenium (Se concentrations in Norwegian Red heifers and dry period cows was conducted to reveal possible association to management, feeding, health and fertility. Selenium contents were determined in 254 herd blood samples consisting of pooled samples from individual non-lactating animals from herds in 5 counties. The Se concentrations showed a normal distribution with mean 0.09 μg Se/g blood, with a standard deviation (SD of 0.05, and ranged from 0.02 to 0.23 μg/g, with 50 % of the samples being between 0.06 and 0.11 μg/g. The herds with Se concentrations below 0.06 μg/g were smaller (21.4 ± 8.7 cow-years than those with Se levels above 0.11 μg/g (27.5 ± 14.1 cow-years (P pre partum and decreased incidence of mastitis, ovarian cysts and anoestrus/silent oestrus post partum.

  6. Random within-herd variation in financial performance and time to financial steady-state following management changes in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    The manager of a dairy herd and the affiliated consultants constantly need to judge whether financial performance of the production system is satisfactory and whether financial performance relates to real (systematic) effects of changes in management. This is no easy task because the dairy herd...... is a very complex system. Thus, it is difficult to obtain empirical data that allows a valid estimation of the random (within-herd) variation in financial performance corrected for management changes. Thus, simulation seems to be the only option. This study suggests that much caution must be recommended...

  7. Disease Recording Systems and Herd Health Schemes for Production Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease recording of cattle is compulsory in Sweden and Norway. Sweden and Denmark also have mandatory disease recording for swine, whereas Finland and Norway only have compulsory recording of infectious diseases. Both compulsory and voluntary systems are databased, the first ones developed in the 1970's. Disease recording at pig slaughtering is somewhat older. The veterinary practitioner, and often also the farmer, can report treated cases as well as fertility disturbances to the systems. Disease recording at slaughter is carried out by veterinarians and inspection officers. The databases are handled by the veterinary authorities or the agricultural organisations in each country. Costs are defrayed by the authorities and/or the agricultural industry. The farmers receive periodic reports. Data are stored for three to ten years, often longer. Affiliation to animal health schemes for cattle or swine is voluntary. In Sweden and Denmark (cattle they are run within the scope of government regulations. Affiliation to animal health programmes may also be demanded by organisations within the agricultural industry. These organisations are also responsible for the administration of the programmes. Costs to take part in herd health schemes are covered by the farmers themselves. In certain cases, grants are received from agricultural organisations, authorities, or the European Union. Recording of diseases and the format of animal health schemes in the Nordic countries are described here in order to illustrate the possibilities to compare data between countries.

  8. Effects of herd management practices on somatic cell counts in an arid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between average lactation somatic cell counts (SCC and herd management practices in an arid climate. A total of 38,530 average lactation SCC records for 10,216 Holstein cows gathered on 25 dairy farms from January 2009 to October 2012 in Isfahan (Iran were analyzed. Average lactation SCC (cells × 1,000 was 250.79 ranging from 90.31 to 483.23 cells/mL across investigated farms. Herd-level management factors associated with average lactation SCC were determined separately using mixed linear models in the MIXED procedure with average lactation somatic cell score (SCS included as the dependent variable. Some of the management practices associated with low average lactation SCS included sawdust combined with sand bedding, using automatic cup removers, disinfection of the teats by dipping into disinfectant, using washable towels for teat cleaning, free-stall barns, wet disposable tissue for udder washing, wearing gloves during milking and the use of humidifiers and shade. Lower-production herds and larger-size herds had lower average lactation somatic cell counts. Most herd management practices associated with average lactation SCC in dairy herds in the arid region of Isfahan are in agreement with most previous studies. However, different results are found for use of humidifier, bedding materials and herd size.

  9. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproductive management of dairy herds in New Zealand: attitudes, priorities and constraints perceived by farmers managing seasonal-calving, pasture-based herds in four regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, T S; Weir, A M; Tarbotton, I; Morton, J M; Heuer, C; McDougall, S

    2011-01-01

    To examine attitudes, priorities, and constraints pertaining to herd reproductive management perceived by farmers managing seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy herds in four regions of New Zealand, and to explore how these varied with demographic and biophysical factors. Key decision makers (KDM) on 133 dairy herds in four dairy regions (Waikato, Taranaki, and north and south Canterbury) were interviewed between May and July 2009. They were asked to provide demographic and biophysical data about the farm, and to rate their attitude in relation to their own personality traits, management issues and priorities, and likely constraints affecting reproductive performance in their herds. Associations between demographic factors and attitudes, priorities and constraints were analysed using univariable and multivariable proportional-odds regression models. Farms in the regions studied in the South Island were larger, had larger herds and more staff than farms in the regions studied in the North Island. The farms in the South Island were more likely to be owned by a corporation, managed by younger people or people who had more education, and the herds were more likely to be fed a higher percentage of supplementary feed. The majority of KDM rated the current genetics, milksolids performance and reproductive performance of their herds as high or very high, and >70% believed that the reproductive performance had remained the same or improved over the preceding 3 years. Despite this, improving reproductive performance was the most highly rated priority for the next 3 years. The constraints considered most likely to have affected reproductive performance in the last 2 years were anoestrous cows, protracted calving periods, and low body condition scores; those considered least likely were artificial breeding and heat detection. Of the variables examined related to attitudes, priorities and likely constraints, there were significant differences between region for 10/40, and with

  11. SYNCHRONIZATION PROGRAMS FOR REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY HERDS PROGRAMAS DE SINCRONIZACIÓN DE CELOS PARA EL MANEJO REPRODUCTIVO DE GANADERÍAS DE LECHE

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Jose

    2009-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence reproduction of the dairy cow such as management, physiologic factors, nutrition, genetics, and diseases Reproductive efficiency. Reproductive performance is therefore a major concern in dairy herds to success, and it has to be subject of continuous and accurate evaluation in reproductive herd health programs, in order to detect problems and implement adequate solutions. Controlled breeding programs have allowed dairy producers to optimize service rat...

  12. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    .0%. Stillbirths and mortality from 7 days to weaning decreased non-linearly with herd size. Factors related to calving season, herd size, interventions at calving, colostrum management and castration impacted herd-level morbidity and mortality. However, effect size was generally small and causation cannot be determined with a cross-sectional study design. This study identifies several common health management practices associated with calfhood morbidity and mortality that should be further investigated to establish evidence-based management strategies to improve the health and survival of beef calves.

  13. Ecological role of hunting in population dynamics and its implications for co-management of the Porcupine caribou herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Hanley

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available At a present population size of 160 000 animals, the Porcupine caribou herd has been subjected to an annual harvest rate of 2% for the past couple of decades. We modeled potential sensitivity of herd population dynamics to hunting and used that relation as a basis for a herd monitoring system. Maximum number of adult cows that could be harvested without causing a subsequent decline in herd size was calculated as a function of total number of adult cows in the herd and recruitment of calves to yearling age-class. Maximum cow harvest, therefore, is a threshold above which hunting has destabilizing effects on herd dynamics. Actual harvest in relation to theoretical maximum harvest provides a basis for prediction of herd sensitivity to hunting. Maximum harvest is a linear function of recruitment. Herd dynamics are especially sensitive to low recruitment, however, when combined with low herd size. The two relations involving recruitment and herd size provide the basis for predicting herd dynamics and sensitivity to hunting. Herd size is best estimated by aerial census, while an index of recruitment can be predicted by monitoring autumn body condition of adult females. Body condition can be estimated on the basis of a few simple metrics measured by hunters in the field. The hunters' data on body composition, combined with aerial census data on herd size, provide a useful tool for managers and co-management boards to devise policies and regulations to manage the herd. The population model and monitoring system can operate on the Internet and be accessible to all users in villages within the range of the Porcupine caribou herd.

  14. Herd characteristics and management practices associated with bulk tank milk quality of dairy herds in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinhas, Cristina Simões; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; de Macedo, Susana Nori; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2018-04-30

    This study identified the association of management practices and herd characteristics with milk quality of bulk tanks in southeastern, Brazil. Milk samples were collected weekly during 8 weeks from 63 dairy herds. Bulk tanks were evaluated for total bacteria (TBC), preliminary incubation (PIC), pasteurization (PC), coliform (CC), and somatic cell counts (SCC). Associations found were type of milking system utilized in the farm with TBC, PIC, and SCC; the use of gloves for milking with TBC and PIC; sanitation of milking equipment prior to milking with PC and CC; strip cup testing of cows with PC; teat washing prior to milking with SCC; pre-milking teat disinfection with TBC and CC; post-dipping with TBC and SCC; and the alkaline-acid washing procedure of milking equipment with PIC and PC. The regression analysis explained the variation of bulk tank PC (- 0.47 log cfu/mL) due to the adoption of strip cup test (P = 0.036) and, by 0.366 log cfu/mL due to alkaline and acid washing of milking equipment (P = 0.036). Herringbone milking systems adopted on farms represented a change of - 0.11 log cfu/mL on the log SCC (P = 0.048). Findings may provide a guideline to prioritize efforts aimed at improving milk quality at the farm level in Brazil.

  15. How could herd mobility be used to manage resources and livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We consider these scenarios as starting points for discussions on future management options that pastoralists in Namaqualand may wish to consider as the managers of rangeland commons. Keywords: grazing management, herd mobility, Namaqualand, semi-arid. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2013, ...

  16. The effect of herd formation among healthcare investors on health sector growth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulin, Zhou; Antwi, Henry Asante; Wang, Wenxin; Yiranbon, Ethel; Marfo, Emmanuel Opoku; Acheampong, Patrick

    2016-07-19

    China has become the world's second largest healthcare market based on a recent report by the World Health Organization. Eventhough China achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011, representing the largest expansion of insurance coverage in human history achieved; health inequality remains endemic in China. Lessons from the effect of market crisis on health equity in Europe and other places has reignited interest in exploring the potential healthcare market aberrations that can trigger distributive injustice in healthcare resource allocation among China's provinces. Recently, many healthcare investors in China have become more concerned about capital preservation, and are responding by abandoning long term investments strategies in healthcare. This investment withdrawal en mass is perceived to be influenced by herding tendencies and can trigger or consolidate endemic health inequality. Our study simultaneously employs four testing models (two state spaced models and two return dispersion models) to establish the existence of procyclical (herding) behavior among the stocks and its health equity implications. These are applied to a large set of data to compare and contrast results of herd formation among investors in fourteen healthcare sectors in China. The study reveals that apart from the cross sectional standard deviation (CSSD) model, the remaining two models and our augmented state space model yields significant evidence of herding in all subsectors of the healthcare market. We also find that the herding effect is more prominent during down movements of the market. Herding behavior may lead to contemporaneous loss of investor confidence and capital withdrawal and thereby deprive the healthcare sector of the much needed capital for expansion. Thus there may be obvious delay in efforts to bridge the gap in access to healthcare facilities, medical support services, medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, diagnostic substances, medical

  17. Effects of herd management practices on somatic cell counts in an arid climate

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi; Farahnaz Rayatdoost-Baghal

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between average lactation somatic cell counts (SCC) and herd management practices in an arid climate. A total of 38,530 average lactation SCC records for 10,216 Holstein cows gathered on 25 dairy farms from January 2009 to October 2012 in Isfahan (Iran) were analyzed. Average lactation SCC (cells × 1,000) was 250.79 ranging from 90.31 to 483.23 cells/mL across investigated farms. Herd-level management factors associated with average lac...

  18. Assessing, and understanding, European organic dairy farmers' intentions to improve herd health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P J; Sok, J; Tranter, R B; Blanco-Penedo, I; Fall, N; Fourichon, C; Hogeveen, H; Krieger, M C; Sundrum, A

    2016-10-01

    Many believe the health status of organic dairy herds in Europe should be improved to meet consumers' and legislators' expectations to improve animal welfare. This paper reports on a study in four countries that examined dairy farmers' intentions towards improving the health status of their organic herds through the use of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. It was found that farmers across the countries were positive about taking additional preventative measures to improve the health status of their herds. They believed this would not only improve herd physical performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but also achieve greater cost effectiveness and improved job satisfaction for them. Most study farmers would implement a tailored package of improvement measures designed by the study team with higher uptake most likely being by younger farmers, those who make greater use of veterinarians and professional advisory services, and those supplying specialist milk-marketing chains. Furthermore, farmers will be most likely to take-up additional health promotion if compatible with their everyday activities and if they have strong business performance goals aimed at maximising the physical performance of the herd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Anna C; Vertenten, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, major management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds. A total of 131 dairies were enrolled in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom during 2011 to 2012. A milk-based test for ketones (Keto-Test; Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan; distributed by Elanco Animal Health, Antwerp, Belgium) was used for screening cows between d 7 and 21 after calving and ketosis was defined as a Keto-Test ≥100µmol/L. Study cows were observed for clinical disease up to 35d postcalving. Multivariate analysis (generalized estimating equation logistic regression) was performed to determine country, farm, management, feed, and cow factors associated with ketosis and to determine associations between ketosis and fresh cow diseases. Thirty-nine percent of the cows were classified as having ketosis. The herd average of ketosis was 43% in Germany, 53% in France, 31% in Italy, 46% in the Netherlands, and 31% in the United Kingdom. Of the 131 farms, 112 (85%) had 25% or more of their fresh cows resulting as positive for ketosis. Clinical ketosis was not reported in most farms and the highest level of clinical ketosis reported was 23%. The risks of ketosis were significantly lower in Italy and the United Kingdom compared with France, the Netherlands, and Germany. Larger herd size was associated with a decreased risk of ketosis. The farms that fed partially mixed rations had 1.5 times higher odds of ketosis than those that fed total mixed rations. Cows that calved in April to June had the highest odds of ketosis, with about twice as high odds compared with cows that calved in July to September. The cows that calved in January to March tended to have 1.5 times higher risk of ketosis compared with cows that calved in July to September. The odds of ketosis in parity 2 and parity 3 to 7 was significantly higher (1.5 and 2.8 times higher

  20. Assessing, and understanding, European organic dairy farmers’ intentions to improve herd health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, P.J.; Sok, J.; Tranter, R.B.; Blanco-Penedo, I.; Fall, N.; Fourichon, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Krieger, M.C.; Sundrum, A.

    2016-01-01

    Many believe the health status of organic dairy herds in Europe should be improved to meet consumers’ and legislators’ expectations to improve animal welfare. This paper reports on a study in four countries that examined dairy farmers’ intentions towards improving the health status of their

  1. Genetic correlations between milk production and health and fertility dependent on herd environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Calus, M.P.L.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    High milk production in dairy cattle can have negative side effects on health and fertility traits. This paper explores the genetic relationship of milk yield with health and fertility depending on herd environment. A total of 71,720 lactations from heifers calving in 1997 to 1999 in the Netherlands

  2. Environmental Assessment for Wild Horse Gathering Inside and Outside Wild Horse Herd Management Areas

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed you will find the Environmental Assessment (EA) which describes the impacts of gathering wild horses in the Rock Springs Field Office area. Gathering wild horses would take place in the Great Divide Basin, White Mountain, Little Colorado, and Salt Wells Creek Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (HMA) and in an area known as the North Baxter/Jack Morrow area (outside the HMAs).

  3. Management practices from questionnaire surveys in herds with very low somatic cell score through a national mastitis program in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, J; Chassagne, M; Bazin, S; Boichard, D

    2004-11-01

    French dairy herds (n = 534) were enrolled in the National 'Zero Mastitis Objective' Program to highlight management practices characterizing very low somatic cell score (SCS) herds. The herds studied were stratified into 2 groups. The first group (LOW) included herds within the first 5 percentiles and the second group (MED) herds within the 50 to 55 percentiles of herds on the basis of mean SCS for the 36 mo preceding the program. Potential explanatory variables, collected through questionnaire surveys, were analyzed using multistep logistic regression models. Twenty-six variables were significant factors in the final models, in which 18 were considered as primary factors for very low SCS. The probability for a herd belonging to the LOW group was associated with: (1) regular use of teat spraying; (2) herdsman precise in his techniques; (3) less than 1 person-year used at activities other than dairy herd; (4) teat dipping after mammary infusion at dry off; (5) heifers kept in a calving pen around parturition; (6) cows locked in feed-line lockups after milking; (7) dry cows with prepartum Ca restriction; (8) heifers on a nondamp pasture; (9) cows culled when at least one damaged teat; (10) heifers at pasture not drinking water from a river; and (11) disinfecting teat ends with alcohol before intramammary infusion at dry off. The probability for a herd belonging to the MED group was associated with: (1) milking cows housed in a straw yard; (2) checking heifers for mastitis only beginning at 2-wk prepartum; (3) no mastitis treatment when at least one clot was observed in milk at successive milkings; (4) distance of herdsman's house to cowshed >300 m; (5) only dirty teats washed before milking; (6) free access of cows from pasture to cowshed during bad weather; and (7) more than 18% of spring calvings. The variables associated with very low SCS should be applied as part of a thorough mastitis-control program adapted to each herd.

  4. Trends in udder health and emerging mastitogenic pathogens in South African dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Petzer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management skills, parity, milk yield, milking frequency and other parameters, the size of this database helps to give a fair indication of general udder health in South Africa. Cytology and routine bacteriology were performed on 379 000 milk samples of lactating cows and bacteriology on 11 946 samples from non-lactating cows. According to the results obtained, mastitis did not decrease in South Africa over the test period. The prevalence of mastitis and teat canal infection was lowest in 2002. Mastitis and teat canal infection increased from 2002 to 2006 from 8.1 % and 24.1 % to 15.4 and 30.0 % respectively. The percentage of mastitogenic pathogens isolated from cows over these years also varied. Previously unknown or almost eradicated mastitogenic pathogens such as αβ haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus which is thought to be of human origin, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus canis were responsible for numerous mastitis outbreaks seen in the test samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria in milk samples from both lactating and dry cows, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Although Staphylococcus aureus remained the principal mastitogenic pathogen in South Africa, owing to its chronic nature and resultant economic losses, most cases of mastitis were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This finding increases the importance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (formerly described as a

  5. Effects of global warming on the biology and management of the Porcupine caribou herd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou herd is a large migratory herd of Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that moves from winter ranges in taiga to calving and summering grounds north of the treeline in Alaska and the Northwest Territories. The migratory habits of the herd are described with reference to the major factors that govern the migration: spring snowmelt, summer insects, and winter snowfall. The effects of climate change (assuming a scenario involving a 2-4 week earlier period of snowmelt, a 2-4 degree C increase in summer temperature, and a 30-50% increase in winter snowfall) on caribou energetics are examined. Early snowmelt could have a potential benefit to caribou in early spring but could be detrimental by mid-June when energy and nutrient requirements are highest. Mosquito activity would increase, leading to a decrease in feeding time and an increased importance of insect relief areas in the mountains. Higher snowfall would also decrease feeding time and a tendency for the caribou to move to areas of low snow (Richardson Mountains and Ogilvie/Hart basins). An energetics model is applied to assess climate change effects on the weight change of productive adult female caribou. A 40% decline in parturition rate is predicted from the best-case to the worst-case (bad winter and high insect harassment). The impact of climate change on current wildlife management decisions is discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Mastitis on an Experimental Farm with Two Herds, One Managed Organically, the other Conventionally

    OpenAIRE

    Thatcher, A; Petrovski, K; Holmes, C; Dowson, K; Kelly, T; McLeod, K

    2008-01-01

    Mastitis in two herds managed as a comparison between organic and conventional dairy farming systems was monitored for 4 years utilising regular bacterial culture of milk samples, individual and bulk somatic cell counts and observation by farm staff. The objective was to develop strategies for the control of mastitis in organic cows without the use of antibiotics. The herds showed differences in clinical mastitis incidence, subclinical mastitis prevalence and bulk milk somatic cell count. Des...

  7. Potential Utilization of Automatic Cows Weighing for Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Condition of Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight of cows affects a large number of factors. Regular weighing and data processing can detect differences that may indicate disorders requiring nursing interventions, e.g. nutritional deficiencies, incorrect fetal development and health problems. The current weighing systems operate as stationary - the animal is fixed, identified and weighed. However, the procedure is time consuming and operation, and that is way this system is used minimally. That implies the need of complete automation of all activities associated with the weighing, which enables introduction of pass – through weight. The aim of this thesis was to develop a methodology for evaluating health and nutritional status of the herd based on data from an automated system for weighing a live weight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtain weight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already drying off, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes were established after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifested only ketosis in the weight curve with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. Additionally, the completion of growth during the first 2 periodes of lactations and weight gain due to advanced pregnancy were confirmed. The maximum daily weight difference recorded in healthy animals was 7 %, equivalent to 40 - 45 kg. The results of the study will be applied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding, monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  8. The association between farmers’ participation in herd health programmes and their behaviour concerning treatment of mild clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Ann-Kristina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Denmark, it has recently become mandatory for all dairy farmers with more than 100 cows to sign up for a herd health programme. Three herd health programmes are available. These differ in a number of aspects, including the frequency of veterinary visits and the farmer’s access to prescription drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy farmers’ behavioural intentions, i.e. to call a veterinarian or start medical treatment on the day that they detect a cow with mild clinical mastitis (MCM, are different depending on the type of herd health programme. Methods A questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was conducted. TPB proposes that a person’s behavioural intention is strongly correlated with his or her actual behaviour. Three behavioural factors determine the behavioural intention: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Each of these factors is decided by a set of beliefs, each of which in turn is weighted by an evaluation: 1 the expected outcomes of performing the behaviour, 2 what a person believes that others think of the behaviour, and 3 the person’s perceived power to influence the behaviour. A set of statements about the treatment of MCM based on interviews with 38 dairy farmers were identified initially. The statements were rephrased as questions and the resulting questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly selected Danish dairy farmers who use the two most restrictive herd health programmes, either Core or Module1, and to all 669 farmers with the least restrictive herd health programme, Module2. The association between intention and the herd health programme was modelled using logistic regression. Results The farmers with the Module2 herd health programme had a significantly higher behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, when compared to farmers with a more restrictive herd health programme (OR = 2.1, p Conclusion Danish dairy

  9. Serological assessment of the establishment of herd immunity against measles in a health district in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlina, Y; Marlindawati, M A; Shamsuddin, K

    2016-12-08

    Malaysia still faces challenges optimizing resources to effectively eliminate measles through high immunization and herd immunity, with sporadic outbreaks of measles as evidence. The objective of this study is to determine the age-specific positive measles antibodies seroprevalence used for assessing the establishment of herd immunity against measles in different age groups. This is useful for identifying vulnerable age groups requiring supplementary immunization. A seroprevalence study was conducted among respondents aged 6-9 years, 15-24 years and 45-54 years attending government health clinics in Seremban between September 2014 and January 2015. A total of 1541 measles IgG antibody status were determined using ELISA technique (NovaTec Immundiagnostica GMBH) and assessment of establishment of herd immunity was based on indicators developed by Plans. Data on socio-demographic background as well as medical and medication history were also gathered. Seropositive rate for all respondents were 87% (95% CI 85-89), while the rest had either indeterminate [6% (95% CI 5-7)] or negative titre [7% (95% CI 6-8)]. None of the factors analyzed except for age were significant predictors of positive measles antibodies. Seropositive rate differed by age with the highest rate seen in adults (94%; CI 92-96), followed by children (90%; 95% CI 87-94) and adolescents, and young adults (74%; 95% CI 70-78). Based on Plans' indicators, herd immunity was established in adults and children, but not in adolescents and young adults. To tackle the most susceptible group in the present study, it is advisable to give booster vaccination to secondary school students and freshmen who enter colleges and universities in Malaysia.

  10. Contextual herd factors associated with cow culling risk in Québec dairy herds: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Denis; Delgado, Hector; Cue, Roger; Sewalem, Asheber; Wade, Kevin; Lacroix, René; Lefebvre, Daniel; Arsenault, Julie; Bouchard, Émile; Dubuc, Jocelyn

    2017-09-01

    Several health disorders, such as milk fever, displaced abomasum, and mastitis, as well as impaired reproductive performance, are known risk factors for the removal of affected cows from a dairy herd. While cow-level risk factors are well documented in the literature, herd-level associations have been less frequently investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cow- and herd-level determinants on variations in culling risk in Québec dairy herds: whether herd influences a cow's culling risk. For this, we assessed the influence of herd membership on cow culling risk according to displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained placenta. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on data from dairy herds in the Province of Québec, Canada, by extracting health information events from the dairy herd health management software used by most Québec dairy producers and their veterinarians. Data were extracted for all lactations starting between January 1st and December 31st, 2010. Using multilevel logistic regression, we analysed a total of 10,529 cows from 201 herds that met the inclusion criteria. Milk fever and displaced abomasum were demonstrated to increase the cow culling risk. A minor general herd effect was found for the culling risk (i.e. an intra-class correlation of 1.0% and median odds ratio [MOR] of 1.20). The proportion of first lactation cows was responsible for this significant, but weak herd effect on individual cow culling risk, after taking into account the cow-level factors. On the other hand, the herd's average milk production was a protective factor. The planning and management of forthcoming replacement animals has to be taken into consideration when assessing cow culling risks and herd culling rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A structured approach to control of Salmonella Dublin in 10 Danish dairy herds based on risk scoring and test-and-manage procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    routes of infection; 4) interpretation of repeated testing of individual animals to detect high-risk animals for special hygienic management or culling; and 5) diagnostic testing of different age groups and bulk tank milk to evaluate progress of control over time. Serology, true prevalence estimates...... stock and adult cattle in 10 case herds that were followed for more than three years. The five steps in the structured approach were: 1) risk scoring to determine transmission routes within the herd and into the herd; 2) determining a plan of action; 3) performing management changes to close important...... and changes in herd classification in the Danish surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin were used to assess the progress in the herds during and after the control period. Effective control of Salmonella Dublin was achieved in all participating herds through management that focused on closing infection...

  12. Animal Production Performance and Herd Management in Suckling Farms on Réunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Choisis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In Réunion, because of the insularity and the small size of farms, improving cattle farm productivity involves increas­ing technical management aspects. To analyze relationships between herd management practices and animal perform­ances, a survey was conducted in ten suckling farms, located in the Highlands, from 1999 to 2002. Three sets of 4, 8 and 3 variables, respectively, were thus extracted from the moni­toring database: animal performances (calving interval, fertil­ity rate, body weight at standard age, live meat production, farmers’ practices (grazing time per hectare and paddock, time interval between two passages, paddock size, stocking rate, feed complementation of weaned animals and lactating cows, culling rate, and environment (rainfall, herbage production, body condition score of cows. An analysis of co-inertia was carried out on the first two tables to analyze relationships between animal production performances and practices. A significant correlation was observed between the two tables. The results of the co-inertia analysis were interpreted for each farm. Beyond specific constraints, they revealed proximities between farms and herd management based on various strat­egies, which were relevant with the observed performances. A STATICO analysis was performed to assess relationships between performance parameters and environment parameters for the four studied years. It revealed that there was a stable costructure between the environment and performance tables. This suggests that practices had a highly structuring effect on animal production and that some system adjustments miti­gated the climate effects.

  13. Different management methods on prevalence of lameness in 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudaj R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lameness in dairy cattle is the third most expensive outbreak after mastitis and reproductive disorders. 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary were observed for two years to estimate the impact of different trimming methods and managements for the controll of the incidence of lameness. Professional trimming was found to be more effective on farms with no nutritional disorders and where refurnishment works were carried out. The greatest decrease in the prevalence of lameness was observed on farms which provided professional trimming, effective footbathing, improved walking and resting surfaces and which treated severely lame cows between regular trimmings. The greatest increase in occurrence of lameness was reported on farms with on-farm trimmers and where building projects were carried out and nutritional disorders found.

  14. Ecology, mobility and labour: dynamic pastoral herd management in an uncertain world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, B

    2016-11-01

    In this review, the author discusses how pastoralism, and its many constituent components, is increasingly being recognised as in tune with the changing political and ecological nature of rangelands. He describes ways in which the literature reflects this changing attitude, outlines how rangelands respond to changes in climate and explores the evolving use of livestock resources. In addition, he describes the growing recognition of factors other than livestock density that affect rangeland vegetation (i.e. density-independent relationships). The author explains how terms such as 'carrying capacity', 'overgrazing' and 'desertification' are often taken out of their social and political context when describing rangeland pastoralism. Next, he describes the growing recognition by the development community of the importance of the mobility model, particularly in relation to changing ecologies and politics. Finally, he outlines how labour, a central focus of pastoral herd management, is a fluid component of pastoral systems in response to changing political and ecological circumstances.

  15. Farmers taking responsibility for herd health development—stable schools in research and advisory activities as a tool for dairy health and welfare planning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, Silvia; Bell, Nick J.; Brinkmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining a high herd health and welfare status is an important aim in organic livestock farming. The varying farming systems across and within countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and that can be integrated into local practice. In stable schools...... for animal health and welfare planning, providing an overview of ongoing activities and their implementation into advisory situations in selected European countries. Studies on stable schools as an intervention tool showed improvements regarding the specific project aim on the majority of the participating...... farms. Farmers and facilitators were convinced of the approach and benefits for dairy herds. Farmers’ attitude and attention towards their herds and their ownership of the process appear to be crucial success factors for herd health and welfare situations. In some European countries, this method has...

  16. Management practices associated with the bulk tank milk prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. in dairy herds in Northwestern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, L; Thompson, G; Machado, M; Carvalheira, J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of some management practices on the prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. in Northwestern Portuguese dairy farms from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples. Additionally, the within-herd prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. was also determined, but only in BTM positive herds. From May 2007 to November 2008, 492 BTM samples from 164 dairies randomly chosen in a population of 1234 dairy farms were analyzed. Five herds (3.0%) had positive mycoplasmal culture results, from which 4 out of 164 (2.4%) were Mycoplasma bovis, with simultaneous presence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium or Mycoplasma canadense in two of those samples. In one out of 164 (0.6%) herds Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was also found. In BTM positive Mycoplasma spp. herds, the apparent intra-herd prevalence was low and varied between 2.5% and 4.5%. Multiple locus variable-number of tandem-repeat analysis was conducted in order to compare the genetic relationship between the isolates. Mycoplasma spp. was found to be present in cows with subclinical mastitis with or without California Mastitis Test positive results, hence all cows should be tested when the agent is isolated from bulk tank rather than selecting suspected cows. A multivariable logistic regression using the Firth's penalized maximum likelihood estimation was performed showing that increasing number of lactating cows (OR=1.05; Pagent in mastitis control protocols in national dairies and in sanitary controls of transitioned animals between European countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of a proactive herd management system in a dairy farm of northern italy: technical and economic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Leonardi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive and economic data were recorded before and one year after the installation of Herd Navigator™ in a dairy farm with AMS (Automatic Milking System located in a mountain area of Northern Italy. Number of days open reduced from 166 to 103 days, number of days between the first and second insemination decreased from 45 to 28 days, and days for identifying an abortion were 80 % less, from 31 to 6 days. The preliminary results highlight the usefulness of the proactive herd management system installed for the reproduction management. A basic economic model is proposed to evaluate the potential economic benefits coming from the introduction of this technology. The model considers the benefits deriving from the reduction of reproduction problems and, consequently, of days open. Considering the effects related to the above mentioned aspects in a case study involving 60 dairy cows, a return on investment over 5 years has been calculated.

  18. Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Beef herd health and productivity and exposure to the petroleum industry in west-central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, C. L.

    1999-07-01

    Health and productivity of cow-calf herds surrounding a new sour gas processing plant have been monitored from the fall of 1991 through to the calfing season in 1997. No significant change in the risk of non-pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, calf mortality, median calfing date or crude weaning date have been found. There was measurable improvement in average age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide and the complex mixture of compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants did not appear to have affected productivity parameters across the cow-calf production cycles examined, although there have been five examples of positive association between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Increased risk of non-pregnancy was occasionally observed to be associated with one or more of sour flaring battery facilities, all battery flaring sites, active gas wells, and larger field facilities, however, these associations were not consistent among years . Risk of abortions did not increase with proximity of facilities or flaring. Examples of positive correlation were observed between volume of sour gas flared from battery sites and increased risk of stillbirth, sour gas and increased calf mortality, and exposure to oil well or all well sites and increased productivity.

  20. Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Hindhede, Jens; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Records of claw trimmings were analyzed in seven organic and six conventional Danish herds (a total of 974 cows). The housing systems represented were tie stall systems, loose housing system with slatted floor (one organic herd), and deep litter systems (deep straw bedding). Occurrence of sole...... stage from 61 to 120 d post partum in cows of other dual purpose breeds was positively associated with the presence of sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows. The time of year for claw trimming was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in first parity cows, with the period from December...

  1. Assessment of Structural Traits and Management Related to Dairy Herds in the Peri-urban Area of Bobo Dioulasso (South West of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattoni

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To define mean herd size, structural traits, animal sourcing and use, management and aspects related to the milk production, 118 dairy herds, involved in a FAO dairy development project were studied. The mean herd size after allocation to clusters: Small (≤38 heads, Medium (>38, ≤61 heads and Large (>61 heads was 52.8±25.8, ranging from 7 to 134 heads of cattle. The following genotypes: Cross bred (CR 58.8%, Zebu (ZB 23.2% and Taurine cattle (TA 18.0% which were not uniformly distributed neither across nor within herds were identified. Sex ratio was two thirds of females (70.6%, one third of males (28.1% and a low proportion (1.3% of castrated males. No mature TA males compared to 53.3% of the male ZB and 31.4% of the male CR, were indicated as potential sires. Investments in purchase of animals were higher in Small than in Medium and Large herds; of all purchased sires 53.8% were found in Small herds vs. 28.2% and 18.0% in Medium and Large. Herd property was equally distributed between single (56.8% and multi property (43.2%. There was more manpower available per 100 cows in Small, being almost double and triple than in Medium and Large herds. Although milk extracted, was similar in all clusters averaging 2.4±0.5 litres/day/cow, milk off take rate, due to higher proportion of lactating cows, appeared higher in Small herds.

  2. Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis at calving in dairy herds with suboptimal udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Å; Nyman, A-K; Aspán, A; Börjesson, S; Unnerstad, H Ericsson; Waller, K Persson

    2016-03-01

    Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis are common causes of bovine mastitis. To study these pathogens in early lactation, a 12-mo longitudinal, observational study was carried out in 13 herds with suboptimal udder health. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of these pathogens and to identify if presence of the 3 pathogens, and of genotypes within the pathogens, differed with respect to herd, season, and parity. Quarter milk samples, collected at calving and 4 d in milk (DIM), were cultured for the 3 pathogens. Genotyping of staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates was performed using spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, respectively. For each of the 3 pathogens, cows with an udder infection at calving or 4 DIM were allocated to 1 of 4 infection types: cleared (pathogen present only at calving), persistent (pathogen present in the same quarter at calving and 4 DIM), new (pathogen present only at 4 DIM), or cleared/new (pathogen present in 1 quarter at calving and in another quarter at 4 DIM). Associations between season or parity and overall occurrence of pathogens or infection types were determined using univariable mixed-effect logistic-regression models and the Fisher's exact test, respectively. The most commonly occurring pathogen was Staph. aureus, followed by Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. Persistent infections were the most common infection type among Staph. aureus-infected cows, whereas cleared infections were the most common among Strep. dysgalactiae- and Strep. uberis-positive cows. The proportion of cows with persistent Staph. aureus infections and the proportion of cows having a Strep. uberis infection at calving or 4 DIM were higher in the multiparous cows than in primiparous cows. Infections with Strep. dysgalactiae were less common during the early housing season than during the late housing or pasture seasons, whereas persistent Strep. uberis

  3. Risk factors for displaced abomasum or ketosis in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengärde, L; Hultgren, J; Tråvén, M; Holtenius, K; Emanuelson, U

    2012-03-01

    Risk factors associated with high or low long-term incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis were studied in 60 Swedish dairy herds, using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Forty high-incidence herds were included as cases and 20 low-incidence herds as controls. Incidence rates were calculated based on veterinary records of clinical diagnoses. During the 3-year period preceding the herd classification, herds with a high incidence had a disease incidence of DA or clinical ketosis above the 3rd quartile in a national database for disease recordings. Control herds had no cows with DA or clinical ketosis. All herds were visited during the housing period and herdsmen were interviewed about management routines, housing, feeding, milk yield, and herd health. Target groups were heifers in late gestation, dry cows, and cows in early lactation. Univariable logistic regression was used to screen for factors associated with being a high-incidence herd. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using stepwise regression. A higher maximum daily milk yield in multiparous cows and a large herd size (p=0.054 and p=0.066, respectively) tended to be associated with being a high-incidence herd. Not cleaning the heifer feeding platform daily increased the odds of having a high-incidence herd twelvefold (pketosis in Swedish dairy herds. These results confirm the importance of housing, management and feeding in the prevention of metabolic disorders in dairy cows around parturition and in early lactation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Management and characteristics of recycled manure solids used for bedding in Midwest freestall dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Janni, K A

    2012-04-01

    Interest in using recycled manure solids (RMS) as a bedding material for dairy cows has grown in the US Midwest. Cost of common bedding materials has increased in recent years and availability has decreased. Information regarding the composition of RMS and its use as a bedding material for dairy cows in the Midwest is very limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize RMS as a bedding material, observe bedding management practices, document methods of obtaining RMS, and describe housing facilities. We visited 38 Midwest dairy operations bedding freestalls with RMS to collect data. Methods of obtaining RMS for bedding included separation of anaerobic digested manure, separation of raw manure, and separation of raw manure followed by mechanical drum-composting for 18 to 24 h. Average bedding moisture of unused RMS was 72.4% with a pH of 9.16. Unused samples contained (on a dry basis) 1.4% N, 44.9% C, 32.7C:N ratio, 0.44% P, 0.70% K, 76.5% neutral detergent fiber, 9.4% ash, 4.4% nonfiber carbohydrates, and 1.1% fat. Moisture was lowest for drum-composted solids before and after use as freestall bedding. After use in the stalls, digested solids had lower neutral detergent fiber content (70.5%) than drum-composted (75.0%) and separated raw (73.1%) solids. Total N content was greater in digested solids (2.0%) than in separated raw (1.7%) solids. Total bacterial populations in unused bedding were greatest in separated raw manure solids but were similar between digested and drum-composted manure solids. Drum-composted manure solids had no coliform bacteria before use as freestall bedding. After use as bedding, digested manure solids had lower total bacteria counts compared with drum-composted and separated raw manure solids, which had similar counts. Used bedding samples of digested solids contained fewer environmental streptococci than drum-composted and separated raw solids and had reduced Bacillus counts compared with separated raw solids. Coliform counts

  5. SYNCHRONIZATION PROGRAMS FOR REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY HERDS PROGRAMAS DE SINCRONIZACIÓN DE CELOS PARA EL MANEJO REPRODUCTIVO DE GANADERÍAS DE LECHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Jose

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that can influence reproduction of the dairy cow such as management, physiologic factors, nutrition, genetics, and diseases Reproductive efficiency. Reproductive performance is therefore a major concern in dairy herds to success, and it has to be subject of continuous and accurate evaluation in reproductive herd health programs, in order to detect problems and implement adequate solutions. Controlled breeding programs have allowed dairy producers to optimize service rate with little impact on conception and pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows.Existen muchos factores que pueden influenciar la reproduccion en ganaderías de leche, tales como el manejo, factores fisiológicos, la nutrición, genéticos, y la presentación de enfermedades, entre otros. Por esta razon la eficiencia reproductiva es de gran importancia en las ganaderías para ser exitosas y debe ser continua y adecuadamente evaluada en los programas reproductivos de salud de hato, con el fin de detectar los problemas y establecer las soluciones adecuadas. Los programas de reproduccion controlados, han permitido a los productores optimizar las tasas de servicios con un muy pequeño impacto en las tasas de concepción y perdida gestacional en ganaderías de leche.

  6. Development of a Simherd web application for herd health advisors - experiences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    and the lack of user friendliness. This was challenged in the project supported by the Danish Law of Innovation during 2007 to 2009, where the specific aim was to develop a user friendly web application of the SimHerd model in collaboration between StrateKo, Danish Cattle Federation and Aarhus University...

  7. A STUDY OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN TWO HERDS, ONE MANAGED ORGANICALLY, THE OTHER CONVENTIONALLY, AND THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Thatcher, A.; Petrovski, K.; Shadbolt, N.; Martin, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis in two herds managed as a comparison between organic and conventional dairy farming systems was monitored for 9 years utilising regular bacterial culture of milk samples, individual and bulk somatic cell counts and observation by farm staff. The most important isolates in pure cultures were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Bacillus spp. Positive cultures were generally not associated with subclinical mastitis. The objective was to dev...

  8. Ecological role of hunting in population dynamics and its implications for co-management of the Porcupine caribou herd

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Thomas A.; Russell, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    At a present population size of 160 000 animals, the Porcupine caribou herd has been subjected to an annual harvest rate of 2% for the past couple of decades. We modeled potential sensitivity of herd population dynamics to hunting and used that relation as a basis for a herd monitoring system. Maximum number of adult cows that could be harvested without causing a subsequent decline in herd size was calculated as a function of total number of adult cows in the herd and recruitment of calves to...

  9. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious......Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic...... with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd...

  10. Factors associated with the growing-finishing performances of swine herds: an exploratory study on serological and herd level indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fablet, C; Rose, N; Grasland, B; Robert, N; Lewandowski, E; Gosselin, M

    2018-01-01

    Growing and finishing performances of pigs strongly influence farm efficiency and profitability. The performances of the pigs rely on the herd health status and also on several non-infectious factors. Many recommendations for the improvement of the technical performances of a herd are based on the results of studies assessing the effect of one or a limited number of infections or environmental factors. Few studies investigated jointly the influence of both type of factors on swine herd performances. This work aimed at identifying infectious and non-infectious factors associated with the growing and finishing performances of 41 French swine herds. Two groups of herds were identified using a clustering analysis: a cluster of 24 herds with the highest technical performance values (mean average daily gain = 781.1 g/day +/- 26.3; mean feed conversion ratio = 2.5 kg/kg +/- 0.1; mean mortality rate = 4.1% +/- 0.9; and mean carcass slaughter weight = 121.2 kg +/- 5.2) and a cluster of 17 herds with the lowest performance values (mean average daily gain =715.8 g/day +/- 26.5; mean feed conversion ratio = 2.6 kg/kg +/- 0.1; mean mortality rate = 6.8% +/- 2.0; and mean carcass slaughter weight = 117.7 kg +/- 3.6). Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify factors associated with the level of technical performance. Infection with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the porcine circovirus type 2 were infectious factors associated with the cluster having the lowest performance values. This cluster also featured farrow-to-finish type herds, a short interval between successive batches of pigs (≤3 weeks) and mixing of pigs from different batches in the growing or/and finishing steps. Inconsistency between nursery and fattening building management was another factor associated with the low-performance cluster. The odds of a herd showing low growing-finishing performance was significantly

  11. A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production diseases of the transition cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, F J; O'Grady, L; Rice, D A; Doherty, M L

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a practical, on-farm approach for the monitoring and prevention of production disease in dairy cattle. This integrated approach, should be used in an interdisciplinary way by farmers, veterinarians, nutrition advisors and other relevant professionals for the improvement of animal health and welfare and producer profitability. The key areas that form the basis for this approach are body condition score management, negative energy balance, hypocalcaemia, rumen health and trace element status. Monitoring criteria are described for each of these key areas, which when considered collectively, will facilitate the assessment of dairy cow health with regard to clinical and subclinical disease. The criteria, which are informed by published scientific literature, are based on farm management and environmental factors, clinical data, milk production records, dietary analysis, and assessment of blood and liver concentrations of various metabolites or trace elements. The aim is to review the efficacy of production disease control measures currently in place, and if necessary to modify them or formulate new ones.

  12. Determinants of antimicrobial treatment for udder health in Danish dairy cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gussmann, Maya Katrin; Græsbøll, Kaare; Toft, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Societal pressure to limit the use of antibiotics in livestock production systems, including dairy cattle systems, is consistently increasing. To motivate farmers to reduce antibiotic usage, it is important to understand the factors that determine whether a cow will be treated with antibiotics...... or not. If farmers' usual practices regarding antibiotic treatments are taken into account, they may be motivated to adopt control measures that can facilitate prudent use of antibiotics and are at the same time cost-effective. In this study, we analyzed database recordings of milk yield and somatic cell...... count from the routine milk recording scheme, clinical registrations of mastitis and PCR results, and cow factors such as days in milk and parity in relation to antibiotic treatments for 518 dairy herds in Denmark. Farm-wise logistic regressions were used to predict antimicrobial treatment based...

  13. Effect of vaccination against sub-clinical Porcine Circovirus type 2 infection in a high-health finishing pig herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, the clinical manifestation of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections has mostly changed from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and high mortality to sub-clinical infections manifested only through impaired production parameters. However, co-infection with other...... respiratory pathogens often results in a larger effect on production, sometimes with clinical signs. Little is known about the impact of a moderate level PCV2 infection without co-infections, particularly in terms of feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial consumption. The purpose of the study was to evaluate...... the effect of vaccination against PCV2 in a sub-clinically infected, high-health finishing herd in terms of viral load in serum, feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial treatments. The study was conducted as a randomised clinical field trial with a parallel group design. Vaccination against PCV2...

  14. Pension funds' herding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, D.; Chen, D.; Minderhoud, P.; Schudel, W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses unique and detailed transaction data to analyse herding behavior among pension funds. We distinguish between weak, semi strong and strong herding behaviour. Weak herding occurs if pension funds have similar rebalancing strategies. Semi strong herding arises when pension funds react

  15. White-tailed deer age ratios as herd management and predator impact measures in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fleegle, Jeannine T.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2011-01-01

    A review of the Pennsylvania Game Commission's (PGC) deer management program and public concern about predator impacts on deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations compelled the PGC to investigate the role of age ratios in developing management recommendations. Age ratios, such as proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest, may provide an index to population productivity and predator impacts. We estimated proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest from hunter-killed deer, population trends using the Pennsylvania (USA) sex–age–kill model, and reproduction from road-killed females. Using these estimates and a simulation model, we concluded that no single age-ratio value would serve as a reliable measure of population status. Wildlife Management Unit-specific trends in proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest and population trends provided the most relevant management information. We also provide an example decision chart to guide management actions in response to declining age ratios in the harvest. Although predator management activities and juvenile survival studies are often desired by the public, our decision-chart example indicated a number of deer management options exist before investing resources in predator management activities and juvenile survival studies.

  16. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleen Joachim L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  17. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Joachim L; Atkinson, Owen; Noordhuizen, Jos Ptm

    2011-07-20

    The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  18. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stengärde Lena

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations. Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap to nine weeks postpartum (pp. Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds.

  19. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni

    2008-01-01

    Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

  20. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the

  1. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the community of Ccarhuancho in the Central Andes of Peru. For more than two centuries, they have been constructing small-scale irrigation canals to maintain and expand the local wetlands, called bofedales. Th...

  2. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice

  3. Health care engineering management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, W B

    1980-01-01

    Today, health care engineering management is merely a concept of dreamers, with most engineering decisions in health care being made by nonengineers. It is the purpose of this paper to present a rationale for an integrated hospital engineering group, and to acquaint the clinical engineer with some of the salient features of management concepts. Included are general management concepts, organization, personnel management, and hospital engineering systems.

  4. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum abortion in Ontario Holstein dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J C; Duffield, T F; Kelton, D; Lissemore, K; Hietala, S K; Leslie, K E; McEwen, B; Peregrine, A S

    2005-02-28

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to identify risk factors for Neospora caninum-related abortions in Ontario Holstein dairy herds. A total of 88 herds, consisting of 5080 cattle, and utilizing Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) services, were divided into three groups. Case (n = 30) and first control (n = 31) herds were selected from 1998 and 1999 fetal abortion submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, that were histopathologically positive or negative, respectively, for N. caninum. A second control group (n = 27) was selected from multiple sources of herds sampled within the previous 4 years that had a low seroprevalence (recorded information on housing, animal species present, manure management, reproduction, biosecurity practices, wildlife observations, peri-parturient cow management, herd disease history and nutrition. Production and other herd parameters were obtained from DHI records. Logistic regression indicated that the following parameters were positively associated with a N. caninum abortion in a herd: the N. caninum herd seroprevalence (OR = 1.1), the total number of dogs on a farm (OR = 2.8), the frequency that dogs were observed defecating in mangers (OR = 2.8), the number of horses on a farm (OR = 3.1), the observed annual rate of retained fetal membranes (OR = 1.2) and the observed annual rate of cows returning to estrus after pregnancy confirmation (OR = 1.2). Factors negatively associated were the frequency of stray cats and wild canids observed on a farm (OR = 0.4 and OR = 0.7, respectively) and the housing of heifers on loafing packs (a housing pen divided into feed manger, scrape alley and bedded pack areas, OR = 0.1).

  5. Optimal management of replacement heifers in a beef herd: a model for simultaneous optimization of rearing and breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, A H; Kristensen, A R; Makulska, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to provide farmers an efficient tool for supporting optimal decisions in the beef heifer rearing process. The complexity of beef heifer management prompted the development of a model including decisions on the feeding level during prepuberty (age optimal rearing strategy was found by maximizing the total discounted net revenues from the predicted future productivity of the Polish Limousine heifers defined as the cumulative BW of calves born from a cow calved until the age of 5 yr, standardized on the 210th day of age. According to the modeled optimal policy, heifers fed during the whole rearing period at the ADG of 810 g/d and generally weaned after the maximum suckling period of 9 mo should already be bred at the age of 13.2 mo and BW constituting 55.6% of the average mature BW. Based on the optimal strategy, 52% of all heifers conceived from May to July and calved from February to April. This optimal rearing pattern resulted in an average net return of EUR 311.6 per pregnant heifer. It was found that the economic efficiency of beef operations can be improved by applying different herd management practices to those currently used in Poland. Breeding at 55.6% of the average mature BW, after a shorter and less expensive rearing period, resulted in an increase in the average net return per heifer by almost 18% compared to the conventional system, in which heifers were bred after attaining 65% of the mature BW. Extension of the rearing period by 2.5 mo (breeding at the age 15.7 mo), due to a prepubertal growth rate lowered by 200 g, reduced the average net return per heifer by 6.2% compared to the results obtained under the basic model assumptions. In the future, the model may also be extended to investigate additional aspects of the beef heifer development, such as the environmental impacts of various heifer management decisions.

  6. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tråvén Madeleine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV and bovine corona virus (BCV affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001 bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01 of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great

  7. Genotype-specific risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, B; Bodmer, M; van den Borne, B H P; Reist, M; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; Boss, R; Wohlfender, F

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a frequent problem in Swiss dairy herds. One of the main pathogens causing significant economic loss is Staphylococcus aureus. Various Staph. aureus genotypes with different biological properties have been described. Genotype B (GTB) of Staph. aureus was identified as the most contagious and one of the most prevalent strains in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count (YCHSCC). One hundred dairy herds with a mean YCHSCC between 200,000 and 300,000cells/mL in 2010 were recruited and each farm was visited once during milking. A standardized protocol investigating demography, mastitis management, cow husbandry, milking system, and milking routine was completed during the visit. A bulk tank milk (BTM) sample was analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of Staph. aureus GTB to classify the herds into 2 groups: Staph. aureus GTB-positive and Staph. aureus GTB-negative. Moreover, quarter milk samples were aseptically collected for bacteriological culture from cows with a somatic cell count ≥150,000cells/mL on the last test-day before the visit. The culture results allowed us to allocate the Staph. aureus GTB-negative farms to Staph. aureus non-GTB and Staph. aureus-free groups. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were built to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB. The prevalence of Staph. aureus GTB herds was 16% (n=16), whereas that of Staph. aureus non-GTB herds was 38% (n=38). Herds that sent lactating cows to seasonal communal pastures had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (odds ratio: 10.2, 95% CI: 1.9-56.6), compared with herds without communal pasturing. Herds that purchased heifers had significantly higher odds of being infected with

  8. The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd lameness dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel B; Nordlund, Kenneth V

    2009-03-01

    Free stall housing increases the exposure of dairy cows' claws to concrete walk-ways and to manure between periods of rest, and generally shows the highest rate of lameness compared with other dairy management systems. However, there is great variation within a system, and the rate of new cases of lameness can be reduced to very low levels provided time spent resting per day is maximized through good stall design, access to stalls through stocking density control and comfortable transition cow facilities, limiting the time spent milking, provision of adequate heat abatement, and good leg hygiene. Sand bedded stalls are useful as they also permit lame cows to maintain adequate daily rest. Rubberized alley flooring surfaces benefit the cow by reducing claw wear and trauma compared to concrete, making them ideal for parlor holding areas and long transfer lanes and walk ways. However, caution is required when using rubber floors in pens with uncomfortable stalls due to apparent adverse effects on cow time budgets, which may in turn have a detrimental effect on lameness.

  9. HERD HEALTH DEFINITION AND STRATEGIES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF VETERINARY PREVENTIVE MEDICINE PROGRAMS SALUD DE HATO DEFINICIÓN Y ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE PROGRAMAS DE MEDICINA VETERINARIA PREVENTIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano Varon, Jorge Luis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of a herd health program for food animals is the maintenance of animal health and production at the most efficient level that provides competitive economic returns to the farmer. Some equally important secondary objectives include providing animal welfare, ensuring the product’s quality, minimization of pollution of the environment by animal wastes, the prevention of zoonoses, and the avoidance of contaminants and residues in animal products. Targets of performance need to be considered when establishing a production medicine management program. In a herd health program, the actual levels of efficiency are compared to the objectives previously set; the difference corresponds to sub optimal production problems. Using an oriented problem-solving approach to adequately identify health issues that may negatively impact the production system, it is possible to implement the necessary corrective actions to health problems. The reasons for failure are then identified, recommendations for improvement are made and performance is monitored to assess the effectiveness of the action taken. Veterinary epidemiology has become a very important quantitative tool to assess and follow herd health programs. The objectives of the present paper are to discuss some of the basic principles of herd health, and to present a practical approach to use epidemiological tools for herd health problem investigations.El objetivo principal de un programa de Salud de hato en animales de producción es el mantenimiento de la salud animal y la producción en el nivel más eficiente que ofrezca rentabilidad económica competitiva al productor. Algunos objetivos secundarios igualmente importante, incluyen proporcionar bienestar animal, garantizar la calidad de los productos producidos, minimizar el impacto medio ambiental generado por los residuos de origen animal, la prevención de las enfermedades zoonóticas y disminución de la presentación de

  10. Health care operations management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, M.W.; Hans, Elias W.; Kolisch, R.

    2012-01-01

    Health care operations management has become a major topic for health care service providers and society. Operations research already has and further will make considerable contributions for the effective and efficient delivery of health care services. This special issue collects seven carefully

  11. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  12. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  13. Integrated Health Management Definitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee's Integrated Health Management panel was started about 6 years ago to help foster...

  14. The porcupine caribou herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Brad; Douglas, David C.; Walsh, Noreen E.; Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Russell, Donald E.; White, Robert G.; Cameron, Raymond D.; Whitten, Kenneth R.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Documentation of the natural range of variation in ecological, life history, and physiological characteristics of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the Porcupine caribou herd is a necessary base for detecting or predicting any potential effects of industrial development on the performance (e.g., distribution, demography, weight-gain of individuals) of the herd. To demonstrate an effect of development, post-development performance must differ from pre-development performance while accounting for any natural environmental trends.We had 2 working hypotheses for our investigations: 1) performance of the Porcupine caribou herd was associated with environmental patterns and habitat quality, and 2) access to important habitats was a key influence on demography.We sought to document the range of natural variation in habitat conditions, herd size, demography (defined here as survival and reproduction), sources and magnitude of mortality, distribution, habitat use, and weight gain and loss, and to develop an understanding of the interactions among these characteristics of the herd.In addition, we investigated ways that we could use this background information, combined with auxiliary information from the adjacent Central Arctic caribou herd, to predict the direction and magnitude of any potential effects of industrial oil development in the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on Porcupine caribou herd calf survival on the herd's calving grounds during June.

  15. Vaccination, herd behavior, and herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matan J; Brezis, Mayer; Block, Colin; Diederich, Adele; Chinitz, David

    2013-11-01

    During the 2009 outbreak of novel influenza AH1N1, insufficient data were available to adequately inform decision makers about benefits and risks of vaccination and disease. We hypothesized that individuals would opt to mimic their peers, having no better decision anchor. We used Game Theory, decision analysis, and transmission models to simulate the impact of subjective risks and preference estimates on vaccination behavior. We asked 95 students to provide estimates of risk and health state valuations with regard to AH1N1 infection, complications, and expectations of vaccine benefits and risks. These estimates were included in a sequential chain of models: a dynamic epidemic model, a decision tree, and a population-level model. Additionally, participants' intentions to vaccinate or not at varying vaccination rates were documented. The model showed that at low vaccination rates, vaccination dominated. When vaccination rates increased above 78%, nonvaccination was the dominant strategy. We found that vaccination intentions did not correspond to the shift in strategy dominance and segregated to 3 types of intentions: regardless of what others do 29/95 (31%) intended to vaccinate while 27/95 (28%) did not; among 39 of 95 (41%) intention was positively associated with putative vaccination rates. Some people conform to the majority's choice, either shifting epidemic dynamics toward herd immunity or, conversely, limiting societal goals. Policy leaders should use models carefully, noting their limitations and theoretical assumptions. Behavior drivers were not explicitly explored in this study, and the discrepant results beg further investigation. Models including real subjective perceptions with empiric or subjective probabilities can provide insight into deviations from expected rational behavior and suggest interventions in order to provide better population outcomes.

  16. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  17. Using the software to registers of health problems and management in health care herds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Frejlach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The registers of the use of veterinary medicines are obliged breeder and veterinarians by Decree 344/2008 Coll. law 378/2007 Coll. In the Czech Republic there are still farms where the registers of used medicaments and performed veterinary care done by hand in notebooks or in paper form. As a result of the multiple data overwriting thus leads to introducing additional errors and the process information processing is considerably extended. Software for healthcare registers of animals using the same technology as the system of registration of animals Skotsoft. The introduction of the new system would facilitate the whole zootechnical registers and accelerate the entire data processing. In the event, that a customer used the registers of animals and healthcare registers, there is mutually exchanged information between systems. It is not necessary, for example, to enter basic information about the animal (identification number, date of birth, gender, etc. into each system separately. The advantage of both systems is the same graphical interface and control.

  18. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others...... acidosis and imbalanced energy supply, respectively. Calving interval was used as an indicator for fertility. Milk recording data and treatment data were retrospectively collected for a one year period before and after the first farm visit. Focus areas of animal health and welfare plans were either...

  19. Mastitis prevention and control practices and mastitis treatment strategies associated with the consumption of (critically important) antimicrobials on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of

  20. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP are recovering from population declines, the Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd (NAP appears to be nearing the end of a protracted decline, and the Mulchatna Herd (MCH appears to now be declining after 20 years of rapid growth. The remaining naturally occurring herd (Kilbuck has virtually disappeared. Nutrition had a significant effect on the size of 4-month-old and 10-month-old calves in the NAP and the Nushagak Peninsula Herd (NPCH and probably also on population growth in at least 4 (SAP, NAP, NPCH, and MCH of the six caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Predation does not appear to be sufficient to keep caribou herds in southwestern Alaska from expanding, probably because rabies is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and is periodically transferred to wolves (Canis lupus and other canids. However, we found evidence that pneumonia and hoof rot may result in significant mortality of caribou in southwestern Alaska, whereas there is no evidence that disease is important in the dynamics of Interior herds. Cooperative conservation programs, such as the Kilbuck Caribou Management Plan, can be successful in restraining traditional harvest and promoting growth in caribou herds. In southwestern Alaska we also found evidence that small caribou herds can be swamped and assimilated by large herds, and fidelity to traditional calving areas can be lost.

  1. Health physics information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauss, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The records that men have kept over the centuries have made the civilizations of man possible. Recorded history shows that our progress is closely correlated to man's ability to communicate recorded facts to others, and to effectively use knowledge gained by others. During the past few decades our ability to store and use information, and to reach larger audiences has grown dramatically. The advent of computers is discussed and their evolution to the state-of-the-art is described. Data bases, batch and on-line processing, centralized and distributed processing as well as other computer jargon are generally explained and examples are given as they apply specifically to health physics programs. It is proposed that systems designed to manage information cannot be adapted to health physics problems without extensive involvement of the HP who must use the computerized program. Specific problems which arise during the development of a computerized health physics program are explained

  2. Associations of breed and feeding management with milk production curves at herd level using a random regression test-day model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Ferguson, J.D.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Licitra, G.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies identified large between-herd variation in estimated lactation curve parameters from test-day milk yield and milk composition records collected in Ragusa province, Italy. The objective of this study was to identify sources of variation able to explain these between-herd differences

  3. CorePig - Prävention ausgewählter Erkrankungen und Parasiten in biologischen Schweinebetrieben durch ein HACCP basiertes Management- und Überwachungssystem

    OpenAIRE

    Dippel, Sabine; Leeb, Christine; Hagmüller, Werner; Winckler, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective of the project CorePig is to promote animal health and welfare in organic pig herds in Europe. The variation in pig health between organic herds is likely to be caused by different management routines in the herds. To improve animal welfare it is therefore important to investigate the correlation between management and parasite/disease occurrence, and based on this, to develop a disease management tool applicable on farm. This will be achieved by carrying out the followi...

  4. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  5. Survey of ketolactia, determining the main predisposing management factors and consequences in Hungarian dairy herds by using a cow-side milk test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, Gerhard; Csorba, Csaba; Könyves, László

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the survey were to determine the prevalence of ketosis in dairy herds by measuring the concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in milk by Keto-Test (Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Nagoya, Japan); risk factors and the relationship with postpartum diseases were investigated. 1667 early lactating (days in milk 0–75) cows were tested in 52 dairy herds in 2013 and 2014 years. In total, 29.3 per cent of samples were positive (BHBAMILK ≥100 µmol/l), including 3.7 per cent high positives (BHBAMILK ≥500 µmol/l). The prevalence was similar in herds with less than or more than 9000 kg milk yield (0.34 and 0.38, respectively, P=0.4); however, it was higher in the herds with more than 1000 cows than in smaller herds (ketosis (P<0.001). The results confirm the high prevalence of ketolactia in Hungarian dairy herds and its links to herd-related and cow-related risk factors and diseases occurring commonly in fresh cows. PMID:29868171

  6. Health infrastructural challenges to health management information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aims to assess health management information systems at the ... workers' ability to practice and use the health data generated at their Primary Health ... Only 2 (5.7%) of the health centres surveyed were capable of operating the ... The government at all levels should ensure collective effort and political will to ...

  7. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  8. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  9. Stress Managment and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Dadkhah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion approach is utilized to address the prevention, management and early intervention for stress management and also to promote positive mental and psychological health. Stress affects everyone and must be managed effectively to reduce its chronic and deleterious effects this study consists of two sections: in first section the principals of health promotion in different human existence levels, prevention of disease related to stress, the effect of stress on human well-being, and stress management were discussed. In second section the role of rehabilitation specialists (Medical technologist, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, and social workers in stress management were counted.

  10. Online Anti-Brand Herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langley, David J.; Tan, Chee-Wee; Worm, Daniël

    The online environment offers a fertile breeding ground for anti-brand herds of disgruntled consumers. Firms are often caught off guard by the unpredictability of such herds and, as a consequence, are forced into a reactive, defensive stance. We conduct a social media analysis that aims to shed...... light on the formation, growth, and dissolution of online anti-brand herds. First we expand on the concept of environmental turbulence to advance core properties unique to online herd behavior. Next, based on evidence gathered from 40 online anti-brand herd episodes targeting two prominent firms from...... the Netherlands, we develop an analytical model to investigate drivers of herd formation, growth, and dissolution. Finally, combining environmental turbulence literature with our empirical findings, we derive a novel typology of online anti-brand herd behaviors, and put forward six propositions to guide theory...

  11. An economic analysis of alternative fertility control and associated management techniques for three BLM wild horse herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary cost projections were computed for several alternative strategies that could be used by BLM to manage three wild horse populations. The alternatives included existing gather and selective removal methods, combined with potential contraceptive applications of varying duration and other potentially useful management techniques. Costs were projected for a 20-year economic life using the Jenkins wild horse population model and cost estimates from BLM that reflect state-by-state per horse removal, adoption, long-term holding, and contraceptive application expenses. Important findings include: Application of currently available 2-year contraceptives appears capable of reducing variable operating costs for wild horse populations by about 21% on average.

  12. Quantifying the effects of sow-herd management information systems on farmers' decision making using experimental economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, J.; Sonnemans, J.H.; Huirne, R.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Cox, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot experiment was conducted to yield insight into whether laboratory experiments can be used as an alternative to surveys for determining the profitability of management information systems (MIS) in sow farming. In total, eighty-six sow farmers, including fifty-one farmers from an earlier

  13. Direct and indirect effects of wastewater use and herd environment on the occurrence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Zhang, Liqin; Abid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Xinru, Han

    2017-03-01

    The use of wastewater for rearing domestic animals is a common phenomenon in most of the developing countries like Pakistan that face a serious shortage of freshwater resources. However, most of the literature has only focused on the indirect effects of wastewater use on animal health or productivity, and literature on the direct effects of wastewater use is rare. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of wastewater usage on the prevalence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan. The study is based on a household-level survey of 360 domestic water buffalo herds collected from 12 districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. We tested the prevalence of the animal's diseases, animal's health, and wastewater-use preference with various econometric tools, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and logistic regressions. The findings of the study show that the majority of the farmers use wastewater for buffalo bathing due to the shortage of freshwater resources. Results explore the prevalence of diseases such as clinical mastitis, tick infestation, and foot and mouth disease at the farm level significantly associated with buffalo bathing in the wastewater. Moreover, bathing in wastewater pre- and post-milking also plays a role in the occurrence of diseases. Particularly, if the buffalo's access to wastewater for bathing is within 60 min after milking, the probability of the animals being exposed to mastitis is higher. Furthermore, on investigation, a number of factors are found, such as the distance to the water source, power shortage, groundwater availability, and the education of farmers that influence farmers' behavior of letting their animals take a bath in wastewater. Moreover, the use of different preventive measures improves the animal's health.

  14. Operations management in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M D

    1995-01-01

    Health care operations encompass the totality of those health care functions that allow those who practice health care delivery to do so. As the health care industry undergoes dramatic reform, so will the jobs of those who manage health care delivery systems. Although health care operations managers play one of the most vital and substantial roles in the new delivery system, the criteria for their success (or failure) are being defined now. Yet, the new and vital role of the operations manager has been stunted in its development, which is primarily because of old and outdated antipathy between hospital administrators and physicians. This article defines the skills and characteristics of today's health care operations managers.

  15. Patterns of stillbirth and dystocia in Ontario cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W; Alves, D M

    1992-01-01

    The association between a number of individual animal and herd level factors and calving problems in beef cows and heifers were examined. Data were from the 1987 calving season for a subset of 123 herds which maintained individual-animal records, from a sample of 180 randomly selected Ontario cow-calf herds. The median herd dystocia rate was 5.8% and 24.4% of herds had no dystocias. The median herd stillbirth rate was 2.8%, and 33.3% of herds had no stillbirths. Dystocias and stillbirths were much more common in heifers than in cows. Separate statistical models of dystocia and stillbirth for cows and heifers were created. Dystocia in cows was associated with calf sex, previous calving assistance and large breed type and birth weight. Variations in 1987 cow herd dystocia rates were associated with calving season, location and density, and the herd dystocia rate in 1986. Dystocia in heifers was associated with large breed type and calf birth weight. Herd-level management practices associated with increased heifer dystocia rates included breeding heifers to calve earlier than cows and rearing heifers together with the cow herd. Stillbirths for both cows and heifers were associated with calving assistance, particularly hard assistance. Herd-level management and other factors were unassociated with stillbirths. PMID:1586893

  16. Improving the time efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare in a population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    Animal-based welfare assessment is time consuming and expensive. A promising strategy for improving the efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare is to first estimate levels of welfare in herds based on data that are more easily obtained. Our aims were to evaluate the potential of herd housing and management data for estimating the level of welfare in dairy herds, and to estimate the associated reduction in the number of farm visits required for identification of herds with poorer welfare in a population. Seven trained observers collected data on 6 animal-based welfare indicators in a selected sample of 181 loose-housed Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 22 to 211 cows). Severely lame cows, cows with lesions or swellings, cows with a dirty hindquarter, and very lean cows were counted, and avoidance distance was assessed for a sample of cows. Occurrence of displacements (social behavior) was recorded in the whole barn during 120 min of observation. For the same herds, data regarding cattle housing and management were collected on farms, and data relating to demography, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from national databases. A herd was classified as having poorer welfare when it belonged to the 25% worst-scoring herds. We used variables of herd housing and management data as potential predictors for individual animal-based welfare indicators in logistic regressions at the herd level. Prediction was less accurate for the avoidance distance index [area under the curve (AUC)=0.69], and moderately accurate for prevalence of severely lame cows (AUC=0.83), prevalence of cows with lesions or swellings (AUC=0.81), prevalence of cows with a dirty hindquarter (AUC=0.74), prevalence of very lean cows (AUC=0.83), and frequency of displacements (AUC=0.72). We compared the number of farm visits required for identifying herds with poorer welfare in a population for a risk-based screening with predictions based on herd housing

  17. 2nd Nordic NJF Seminar on Reindeer Husbandry Research "Reindeer herding and land use management - Nordic perspectives"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Soppela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd NJF Seminar on Reindeer Husbandry Research was held at the Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland from 19 to 21 October 2014. The seminar was organised under the framework of Reindeer Husbandry Research Section of NJF (Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists, established in 2012. Over 100 Nordic and international delegates including researchers, managers, educators, students and reindeer herders participated in the seminar.

  18. Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 1: The potential medicinal value of pasture herbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the period April - October 2011 Sibilla Laldi (MSc-student WUR) carried out the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’, a project of the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pastures herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms.

  19. Breakeven costs for embryo transfer in a commercial dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, T A; Troyer, B W

    1987-11-01

    Differences in Estimated Breeding Values expressed in dollars were compared by simulation of two, 100-cow, closed herds. One herd practiced normal intensity of female selection. The other herd generated various herd replacements by embryo transfer by varying 1) selection rate of embryo transfer dams and 2) numbers of daughters per dam from which embryos were transferred, while varying the merit of mates of embryo transfer dams. Estimated Breeding Value dollars were compounded each generation and regressed to remove age adjustments and added feed and health costs. Beginning values in both herds included a standard deviation of 55 Cow Index dollars, herd average of -23 Cow Index dollars, and a 120 Predicted Difference dollars for mates of dams not embryo transferred. Average merit of all sires used increased $12 per year. Herd calving rate (.70), proportion females (.5), calf loss (.15), and heifer survival rate (.83) were used. Breakeven cost per embryo transfer cow entering the milking herd was computed by Net Present Value analysis using a 10% discount rate over 10 and 20 yr. Breakeven cost or the maximum expense that would allow a 10% return on the expenditure ranged from $135 to $510 per surviving cow, $24 to $125 per transfer, $47 to $178 per pregnancy, and $81 to $357 per female calf born. As the number of replacements resulting from embryo transfer increased, breakeven cost per embryo transfer cow decreased due to diminishing return.

  20. Reproductive performance in a select sample of dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, James D; Skidmore, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Sixteen herds were selected from a pool of 64 herds nominated by consultants for participation in a national survey to demonstrate excellence in reproductive performance. For inclusion in the survey, herds had to have comprehensive records in a farm computer database or participate in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association record system and have superior reproductive performance as judged by the herd advisor. Herd managers were asked to fill out a questionnaire to describe their reproductive management practices and provide herd records for data analysis. Reproductive analysis was based on individual cow records for active and cull dairy cows that calved during the calendar year 2010. Breeding records by cow were used to calculate indices for insemination rate (IR), conception rate (CR), pregnancy rate (PR), and culling. Herds ranged in size from 262 to 6,126 lactating and dry cows, with a mean of 1,654 [standard deviation (SD) 1,494] cows. Mean days to first insemination (DFS) was 71.2d (SD 4.7d), and IR for first insemination was 86.9%. Mean days between inseminations were 33.4d (SD 3.1d), and 15.4% of insemination intervals were greater than 48 d (range: 7.2 to 21.5%). First-service conception rate was 44.4% (SD 4.8%) across all herds and ranged from 37.5 to 51.8%. Mean PR was 32.0% (SD 3.9%) with a range of 26.5 to 39.4%. Lactation cull rate was 32.2% (SD 12.4%) with a range from 13.6 to 58.1%. Compared with mean data and SD for herds in the Raleigh Dairy Herd Improvement Association system, mean indices for these herds ranked them in the 99 th percentile for IR (using heat detection rate as comparison), 99 th percentile for PR, the bottom 18.6 percentile for DFS, and around the 50th percentile for CR. This suggests that excellent herd reproductive performance was associated with reproductive management that resulted in high insemination rates combined with average CR. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. The effect of grazing on cow mortality in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2011-01-01

    The effect of summer grazing in large Danish dairy herds and certain management characteristics of grazing were studied for their impact on dairy cow mortality. Mortality data (from the Danish Cattle Database) from 391 Danish dairy herds (>100 cows) were combined with information from...... a questionnaire survey of grazing procedures on these herds in 2008. In all, 131 of the herds were identified as summer grazing and 260 as zero-grazing herds. The mortality was affected by an interaction of summer grazing and milking system. The risk of a cow dying was reduced to 46% in a grazing compared...... and pasture was associated with increased cow mortality....

  2. Health Applications for Corporate Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigner, Guido; Doarn, Charles R; Schütte, Michael; Matusiewicz, David; Thielscher, Christian

    2017-05-01

    Many corporate organizations around the world are looking at new ways to improve the health and well-being of their employees. Many have begun to use m-health approaches and unique applications (apps) to provide assistance. In Germany, both m-health and occupational health management (OHM) are growing quickly. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combination-apps usage in OHM-is growing as well. We studied the usage of health apps in large corporations for health management of employed individuals. To understand the environment in Germany, a two-part study was conducted. First, an extensive literature search was done and second, interviews were conducted with 12 of the 20 biggest companies' health management representatives. Using key search terms, 5,445 peer-reviewed journal articles traced with German databases and on PubMed were reviewed. Interestingly and somewhat surprising to the authors, none of them covered our specific topic. Interviews were conducted with 60% of the companies indicated. Only 3 out of 12 companies use apps. Four companies are piloting apps. With one exception, apps cover well-known areas such as food coaching, physical motion, smoking cessation, stress prevention, and other health-related subjects. One app used sensors in work clothing to prevent unhealthy motion. With a few exceptions, there has been no evaluation of the utility and utilization of apps. Current app usage in corporate health management in Germany is surprisingly low. Apps need to be better evaluated. Main obstacles-which could be resolved in the future-are legal restrictions (especially on data security), the lack of company-owned smart phones, misfit of apps and corporate health strategy, a lack of app evaluation, and high app prices.

  3. Public health financial management competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Costich, Julia F

    2009-01-01

    The absence of appropriate financial management competencies has impeded progress in advancing the field of public health finance. It also inhibits the ability to professionalize this sector of the workforce. Financial managers should play a critical role by providing information relevant to decision making. The lack of fundamental financial management knowledge and skills is a barrier to fulfilling this role. A national expert committee was convened to examine this issue. The committee reviewed standards related to financial and business management practices within public health and closely related areas. Alignments were made with national standards such as those established for government chief financial officers. On the basis of this analysis, a comprehensive set of public health financial management competencies was identified and examined further by a review panel. At a minimum, the competencies can be used to define job descriptions, assess job performance, identify critical gaps in financial analysis, create career paths, and design educational programs.

  4. Regional Eradication of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae From Pig Herds and Documentation of Freedom of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuovinen V

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to 1 screen all sow herds in a region for M. hyopneumoniae, 2 to effectuate an eradication programme in all those herds which were shown to be infected with M. hyopneumoniae, and 3 to follow the success of the screening and the eradication programmes. The ultimate goal was to eradicate M. hyopneumoniae from all member herds of a cooperative slaughterhouse (153 farrowing herds + 85 farrowing-to-finishing herds + 150 specialised finishing herds before year 2000. During 1998 and 1999, a total of 5067 colostral whey and 755 serum samples (mean, 25 samples/herd were collected from sow herds and analysed for antibodies to M. hyopneumoniae by ELISA. Antibodies were detected in 208 (3.6% samples. Two farrowing herds (1.3% and 20 farrowing-to-finishing herds (23.5% were shown to be infected with M. hyopneumoniae. A programme to eradicate the infection from these herds was undertaken. During March 2000, a survey was made to prove the success of the screening and the eradication programmes. In total, 509 serum samples were collected randomly from slaughtered finishing pigs. Antibodies to M. hyopneumoniae were not detected in 506 of the samples, whereas 3 samples were considered suspicious or positive. Accordingly, 3 herds were shown to be infected. One of the herds was previously falsely classified as non-infected. Two of the herds were finishing herds practising continuous flow system (CF. Unlike finishing herds which practice all-in/all-out management routines on herd level, CF herds do not get rid of transmissible diseases spontaneously between batches, for which reason a screening was made in the rest of the CF herds (total n = 7. Consequently, 2 more infected herds were detected. In addition to the results of the survey, a decreasing prevalence of lung lesions at slaughter (from 5.2% to 0.1% and lack of clinical breakdowns indicated that all member herds were finally free from M. hyopneumoniae in the end of year 2000.

  5. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  6. Herding Complex Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ruf, Sebastian F.

    2018-04-12

    The problem of controlling complex networks is of interest to disciplines ranging from biology to swarm robotics. However, controllability can be too strict a condition, failing to capture a range of desirable behaviors. Herdability, which describes the ability to drive a system to a specific set in the state space, was recently introduced as an alternative network control notion. This paper considers the application of herdability to the study of complex networks. The herdability of a class of networked systems is investigated and two problems related to ensuring system herdability are explored. The first is the input addition problem, which investigates which nodes in a network should receive inputs to ensure that the system is herdable. The second is a related problem of selecting the best single node from which to herd the network, in the case that a single node is guaranteed to make the system is herdable. In order to select the best herding node, a novel control energy based herdability centrality measure is introduced.

  7. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  8. Effects of free-range and confined housing on joint health in a herd of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Heldmer, Eva; Österberg, Julia; Ekman, Stina

    2014-09-11

    Free-range housing, in which pigs have access to both indoor and outdoor areas, is mandatory in organic pig production in Europe, but little is known about the effects of this housing on joint health in pigs. A high level of joint condemnations at slaughter has been reported in organic free-range pigs in Sweden, compared with pigs raised in conventional confined housing. We hypothesised that biomechanical forces imposed on the joints of pigs that range freely promote the development of osteochondrosis and lead to joint condemnation. We compared the prevalence of osteochondrosis and other joint lesions (e.g. arthritis, traumatic) in the elbow and hock joints of 91 crossbred Hampshire (Yorkshire × Landrace) fattening pigs that were housed in a free-range indoor/outdoor system with that in 45 pigs housed in confined indoor pens. A larger proportion of free-range than confined pigs had osteochondrosis in the elbow joints (69 vs. 50%, p free-range pigs showed moderate or severe lesions (33 vs. 16%, p free-range pigs also showed a higher prevalence of osteochondrosis in the hock joints (83 vs. 62%, p free-range pigs had condemned joints, all of which showed severe osteochondrosis, while no joints of confined pigs were condemned. In this experiment the prevalence of osteochondrosis in the elbow and the hock was higher, and lesions were more severe, in free-range than in confined pigs, suggesting that free-range housing increases the risk of acquiring osteochondrosis. Increased biomechanical stress to vulnerable joint structures may be the mechanism behind this effect, however more studies are needed to verify these results. This study suggests that modification of housing, and breeding for joints that are more adapted to free-range movement may be needed in free-range pig production. Severe osteochondrosis is a cause of joint condemnation, but the condemnation rate at slaughter underestimates the actual frequency of joint lesions and hence is a poor assessment of joint

  9. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  10. Managed consumerism in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C

    2005-01-01

    The future of market-oriented health policy and practice lies in "managed consumerism," a blend of the patient-centric focus of consumer-driven health care and the provider-centric focus of managed competition. The optimal locus of incentives will vary among health services according to the nature of the illness, the clinical technology, and the extent of discretion in utilization. A competitive market will manifest a variety of comprehensive and limited benefit designs, broad and narrow contractual networks, and single-and multispecialty provider organizations.

  11. Gamification and geospatial health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, David

    2014-06-01

    Sensor and Measurement technologies are rapidly developing for many consumer applications which have the potential to make a major impact on business and society. One of the most important areas for building a sustainable future is in health management. This opportunity arises because of the growing popularity of lifestyle monitoring devices such as the Jawbone UP bracelet, Nike Fuelband and Samsung Galaxy GEAR. These devices measure physical activity and calorie consumption and, when visualised on mobile and portable devices, enable users to take more responsibility for their personal health. This presentation looks at how the process of gamification can be applied to develop important geospatial health management applications that could not only improve the health of nations but also significantly address some of the issues in global health such as the ageing society and obesity.

  12. Gamification and geospatial health management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wortley, David

    2014-01-01

    Sensor and Measurement technologies are rapidly developing for many consumer applications which have the potential to make a major impact on business and society. One of the most important areas for building a sustainable future is in health management. This opportunity arises because of the growing popularity of lifestyle monitoring devices such as the Jawbone UP bracelet, Nike Fuelband and Samsung Galaxy GEAR. These devices measure physical activity and calorie consumption and, when visualised on mobile and portable devices, enable users to take more responsibility for their personal health. This presentation looks at how the process of gamification can be applied to develop important geospatial health management applications that could not only improve the health of nations but also significantly address some of the issues in global health such as the ageing society and obesity

  13. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhuizen, Jptm; Cannas da Silva, J

    2009-04-01

    Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health.

  14. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noordhuizen JPTM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health.

  15. Modelled female sale options demonstrate improved profitability in northern beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethe, G E; Holmes, W E

    2008-12-01

    To examine the impact of improving the average value of cows sold, the risk of decreasing the number weaned, and total sales on the profitability of northern Australian cattle breeding properties. Gather, model and interpret breeder herd performances and production parameters on properties from six beef-producing regions in northern Australia. Production parameters, prices, costs and herd structure were entered into a herd simulation model for six northern Australian breeding properties that spay females to enhance their marketing options. After the data were validated by management, alternative management strategies were modelled using current market prices and most likely herd outcomes. The model predicted a close relationship between the average sale value of cows, the total herd sales and the gross margin/adult equivalent. Keeping breeders out of the herd to fatten generally improves their sale value, and this can be cost-effective, despite the lower number of progeny produced and the subsequent reduction in total herd sales. Furthermore, if the price of culled cows exceeds the price of culled heifers, provided there are sufficient replacement pregnant heifers available to maintain the breeder herd nucleus, substantial gains in profitability can be obtained by decreasing the age at which cows are culled from the herd. Generalised recommendations on improving reproductive performance are not necessarily the most cost-effective strategy to improve breeder herd profitability. Judicious use of simulation models is essential to help develop the best turnoff strategies for females and to improve station profitability.

  16. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare......Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows’ zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47...

  17. Reengineering health care materials management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, L R

    1998-01-01

    Health care executives across the country, faced with intense competition, are being forced to consider drastic cost cutting measures as a matter of survival. The entire health care industry is under siege from boards of directors, management and others who encourage health care systems to take actions ranging from strategic acquisitions and mergers to simple "downsizing" or "rightsizing," to improve their perceived competitive positions in terms of costs, revenues and market share. In some cases, management is poorly prepared to work within this new competitive paradigm and turns to consultants who promise that following their methodologies can result in competitive advantage. One favored methodology is reengineering. Frequently, cost cutting attention is focused on the materials management budget because it is relatively large and is viewed as being comprised mostly of controllable expenses. Also, materials management is seldom considered a core competency for the health care system and the organization performing these activities does not occupy a strongly defensible position. This paper focuses on the application of a reengineering methodology to healthcare materials management.

  18. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study

  19. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study

  20. Air pollution - health and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, W; Runca, E; Suess, M J [eds.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of a joint workshop of the World Health Organization and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis are presented. The workshop was to review the interaction between man's industrial and urban activities and the environment, and the relationship between ambient air quality and human health, and to examine the effectiveness of proper management on the control and abatement of air pollution. The discussion topics included atmospheric processes and respective modelling, air pollution impact on human health, effects of air pollutants on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, air pollution episode cycles and management of control. A selected list of 11ASA and WHO/EURO publications related to air pollution is included. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers in this book.

  1. X-33/RLV System Health Management/Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyos, William; Wangu, Srimal

    1998-01-01

    To reduce operations costs, Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVS) must include highly reliable robust subsystems which are designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure, and which incorporate expedited decision-making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) RLV system used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM incorporates Vehicle Health Management (VHM), ground processing associated with the vehicle fleet (GVHM), and Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The primary objective of SHM is to provide an automated and paperless health decision, maintenance, and logistics system. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the design, development, and integration of the SHM system for RLV and for X-33 (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). Many critical technologies are necessary to make SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable, and cost effective. This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for the RLV SHM, and it will discuss applications of advanced technologies to future RLVs. In addition, this paper will describe a Virtual Design Environment (VDE) which is being developed for RLV. This VDE will allow for system design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently evaluate system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions from older technologies to newer ones. The RLV SHM design methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.

  2. Aerial population estimates of wild horses (Equus caballus) in the adobe town and salt wells creek herd management areas using an integrated simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  3. Cross-infection between cats and cows: Origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Tikofsky, L L; Zadoks, R N

    2005-01-01

    Group G streptococci in animals usually belong to the species Streptococcus canis and are most commonly found in dogs and cats. Occasionally, Strep. canis is detected in milk from dairy cows. An outbreak of Strep. canis mastitis in a dairy herd is described. Based on results from bacterial culture and ribotyping, a cat with chronic sinusitis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Subsequent cow-to-cow transmission of Strep. canis was facilitated by poor udder health management, including...

  4. Cow- and herd-level risk factors for on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M Q; Reneau, J K; Chester-Jones, H; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-07-01

    indicated that first test-day records, especially those indicative of negative energy balance in cows, could be helpful to identify animals at high risk for mortality. Higher milk yield per cow did not have a negative association with mortality. In addition, the association between herd-level factors and mortality indicated that management quality could be an important factor in lowering on-farm mortality, thereby improving cow welfare. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  6. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Orvik, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutio...

  7. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  8. INFORMATION ASYMMETRY AND HERDING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Tri Komalasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.

  9. Why herd size matters - mitigating the effects of livestock crashes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Warg Næss

    Full Text Available Analysing the effect of pastoral risk management strategies provides insights into a system of subsistence that have persevered in marginal areas for hundreds to thousands of years and may shed light into the future of around 200 million households in the face of climate change. This study investigated the efficiency of herd accumulation as a buffer strategy by analysing changes in livestock holdings during an environmental crisis in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway. We found a positive relationship between: (1 pre- and post-collapse herd size; and (2 pre-collapse herd size and the number of animals lost during the collapse, indicating that herd accumulation is an effective but costly strategy. Policies that fail to incorporate the risk-beneficial aspect of herd accumulation will have a limited effect and may indeed fail entirely. In the context of climate change, official policies that incorporate pastoral risk management strategies may be the only solution for ensuring their continued existence.

  10. Health and radiation protection management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhn, A.; Vargas, M.; Lorenzetti, J.; Lança, L.

    2017-01-01

    Quality management and continuous improvement systems are becoming part of daily health services, including radiodiagnostic services, which are designed to meet the needs of users, operating in an environment where the differential is due to the competence and quality of the services provided. The objective of this study is to show the scope of the management of health services, especially radiodiagnosis and radiological protection. Method: Exploratory and descriptive study, based on a review of the literature on the subject. Results: Radiodiagnosis has demonstrated the need for efficient management, especially because ionizing radiation is present in this environment and it is imperative that the professionals working in this area are aware of the need to perform adequate radiological protection for themselves and for users. Conclusion: Universal access to information has changed the attitude of the user and the user has become more demanding in his choices, wanting to understand, express, interact and choose the best quality service in view of the various options available in the market

  11. Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Psychological Health and Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Karla S; Meade, Michelle A; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employment and psychological health and health management as described by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who were employed at least once following injury. Methods: A qualitative approach used 6 focus groups at 2 sites with 44 participants who were at least 10 years post SCI. All had been employed at some point since injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were delineated based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. Group sessions followed a semi-structured interview format with questions about personal, environmental, and policy related factors influencing employment following SCI. All group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded into conceptual categories to identify topics, themes, and patterns. Inferences were drawn about their meaning. NVivo 10 software using the constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Narratives discussed the relationship between employment and psychological and emotional health and health management. Four themes were identified: (1) adjustment and dealing with emotional reactions, (2) gaining self-confidence, (3) preventing burnout, and (4) attitudes and perspectives. Most themes reflected issues that varied based on severity of injury as well as stage of employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successful in working following injury must determine how to perform the behaviors necessary to manage their health and prevent emotional or physical complications. The emotional consequences of SCI must be recognized and addressed and specific behaviors enacted in order to optimize employment outcomes.

  12. Health management of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Naoki; Igari, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    People in Japan have expressed great anxiety about possible radiation and radioactivity after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO), due to the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. A large number of workers were engaged in response and recovery operations, and they were possibly exposed to high doses of radiation as compared to the general population. In the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, high doses of radiation to 134 plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which proved fatal for 28 of them. In the Fukushima accident, six workers were exposed to more than 250 mSv of radiation during the initial response phase, but no one showed ARS. It is necessary to continue registration of radiation doses for all workers who were exposed to radiation to facilitate suitable healthcare management in the future. In addition to radiation exposure, a group of workers were also exposed to other health hazards. Frequent occurrence of heat disorders has been a concern for the workers wearing protective clothing with poor ventilation. A comprehensive program to prevent heat illness was implemented by TEPCO under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. It is important to provide effective systems not only for prevention of radiation exposure but also for general management of other health risks including heat disorders and infection. (author)

  13. Age-structured dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model of Salmonella Dublin infection within dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    for the individual animals in each of the six age groups in the herd. The hygiene level was highly influential on the probability that the infection spread within the herd, duration of infection and epidemic size. The herd susceptibility level was also influential, but not likely to provide sufficient prevention...... of the six age-groups; 2) S. Dublin incidence and number of animals in each infection state; and 3) S. Dublin related morbidity and mortality in the acutely infected animals. The effects of introducing one infectious heifer on the risk of spread of S. Dublin within the herd and on the duration of infection...... and control of infection on its own. Herd size did not affect the probability of infection spread upon exposure, but the larger the herd the more important were management and housing practices that improve hygiene and reduce susceptibility to shorten durations of infection in the herd and to increase...

  14. Control of mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partridge Tom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to infection with M. bovis, but a different RFLP profile was detected in 2002. In the latter outbreak, infection was particularly prevalent in two groups of young deer. M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm. Control was achieved by test and removal in association with herd management changes. In Herd B, infection was first detected in 1995, and subsequently eradicated using test and removal alone. In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk. Control rather than eradication of infection may more realistic in the short-to medium-term.

  15. Herd Immunity to Ebolaviruses Is Not a Realistic Target for Current Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G. Masterson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent West African Ebola virus pandemic, which affected >28,000 individuals increased interest in anti-Ebolavirus vaccination programs. Here, we systematically analyzed the requirements for a prophylactic vaccination program based on the basic reproductive number (R0, i.e., the number of secondary cases that result from an individual infection. Published R0 values were determined by systematic literature research and ranged from 0.37 to 20. R0s ≥ 4 realistically reflected the critical early outbreak phases and superspreading events. Based on the R0, the herd immunity threshold (Ic was calculated using the equation Ic = 1 − (1/R0. The critical vaccination coverage (Vc needed to provide herd immunity was determined by including the vaccine effectiveness (E using the equation Vc = Ic/E. At an R0 of 4, the Ic is 75% and at an E of 90%, more than 80% of a population need to be vaccinated to establish herd immunity. Such vaccination rates are currently unrealistic because of resistance against vaccinations, financial/logistical challenges, and a lack of vaccines that provide long-term protection against all human-pathogenic Ebolaviruses. Hence, outbreak management will for the foreseeable future depend on surveillance and case isolation. Clinical vaccine candidates are only available for Ebola viruses. Their use will need to be focused on health-care workers, potentially in combination with ring vaccination approaches.

  16. Managing Health Information System | Campbell | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective planning, management monitoring and evaluation of health services, health resources and indeed the health system requires a wealth of health information, with its simultaneous effective and efficient management. It is an instrument used to help policy-making, decision making and day to day actions in the ...

  17. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom La

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134, with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have

  18. Investor mood, herding and the Ramadan effect

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriilidis, Konstantinos; Kallinterakis, Vasileios; Tsalavoutas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In view of evidence linking herding and social mood, we examine whether the positive mood documented during Ramadan translates into higher herding compared to non-Ramadan days. Drawing on a sample of seven majority Muslim countries, we report significant herding during Ramadan in most of our sample markets. Additionally, we show that herding appears significantly stronger within rather than outside Ramadan for most tests whereby its significance is manifested on both Ramadan- and non-Ramadan-...

  19. Ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R. Whitten

    1996-01-01

    Researchers have described general patterns of population regulation that fit most caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds. Nevertheless, specific factors operating on particular populations vary greatly, and efforts to categorize herds according to the general patterns often lead to confusion. It is difficult for biologists to attempt to describe population dynamics in terms of density relationships for wide-ranging arctic caribou such as the Porcupine Herd. In these herds density varies as a func...

  20. Stochastic models to simulate paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Weber, M.F.; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic simulation models are widely accepted as a means of assessing the impact of changes in daily management and the control of different diseases, such as paratuberculosis, in dairy herds. This paper summarises and discusses the assumptions of four stochastic simulation models and their use...... the models are somewhat different in their underlying principles and do put slightly different values on the different strategies, their overall findings are similar. Therefore, simulation models may be useful in planning paratuberculosis strategies in dairy herds, although as with all models caution...

  1. Technical indicators of financial performance in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer...... or the consultant, and they were derived from expected cause-effect relations between technical performance and financial performance at the herd level. The study included the indicators shape of lactation curve, reproduction efficiency, heifer management, variation between cows in lactation curve persistency...... cow was analyzed as the measure of financial performance. The potential effects of the selected indicators on the gross margin were estimated by means of an ANOVA. The final model allowed estimation of the financial value of specific changes within the key performance indicators. This study indicated...

  2. Population characteristics of a central Appalachian white tailed deer herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Reliable estimates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population parameters are needed for effective population management. We used radiotelemetrv to compare survival and cause-specific mortality rates between male and female white-tailed deer and present reproductive data for a high-density deer herd in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during...

  3. Effects of dry period length on production, cash flows and greenhouse gas emissions of the dairy herd: A dynamic stochastic simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akke Kok

    Full Text Available Shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows improves metabolic health in early lactation and reduces management transitions for dairy cows. The success of implementation of these strategies depends on their impact on milk yield and farm profitability. Insight in these impacts is valuable for informed decision-making by farmers. The aim of this study was to investigate how shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows affects production and cash flows at the herd level, and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of milk, using a dynamic stochastic simulation model. The effects of dry period length on milk yield and calving interval assumed in this model were derived from actual performance of commercial dairy cows over multiple lactations. The model simulated lactations, and calving and culling events of individual cows for herds of 100 cows. Herds were simulated for 5 years with a dry period of 56 (conventional, 28 or 0 days (n = 50 herds each. Partial cash flows were computed from revenues from sold milk, calves, and culled cows, and costs from feed and rearing youngstock. Greenhouse gas emissions were computed using a life cycle approach. A dry period of 28 days reduced milk production of the herd by 3.0% in years 2 through 5, compared with a dry period of 56 days. A dry period of 0 days reduced milk production by 3.5% in years 3 through 5, after a dip in milk production of 6.9% in year 2. On average, dry periods of 28 and 0 days reduced partial cash flows by €1,249 and €1,632 per herd per year, and increased greenhouse gas emissions by 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Considering the potential for enhancing cow welfare, these negative impacts of shortening or omitting the dry period seem justifiable, and they might even be offset by improved health.

  4. Sustainable improvement of animal health care by systematic quality risk management according to the HACCP concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhuizen, J P; Welpelo, H J

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the principles of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept as applied to animal health management strategy. Characteristics of the concept were analysed and compared with those of current animal health care strategies for disease risk identification and herd health management, insurance, and certification. HACCP is a hybrid strategy of quality control at both production process and product level. Animal health is considered a particular quality feature. We show that process control (expressed in terms of controlling both general and specific disease risk factors) and product control (expressed in terms of testing animals or animal products for specific disease agents) could form the basis for improving animal health. We conclude that HACCP provides ample opportunity for preventive health action and risk management at a relatively low cost in terms of labour, finance and documentation expenditure, at both the farm and sector level. Epidemiological field studies are currently needed to identify critical control points and to design HACCP procedures for livestock producers. In the long run, HACCP based animal health care can be further developed into a quality control systems approach to cover all aspects that are related, either directly or indirectly, to animal health.

  5. Characteristics of effective health care managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherryl W

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of traditional and contemporary management theories. Concerns, characteristics, and skills of effective managers are also presented. Further, a self-assessment (survey) of 7 highly effective health care managers in a South Georgia community was conducted to determine their ratings on 6 management indices. The assessment or Scale of Transformational Leadership uses a Likert-type scale to allow for the evaluation of managers. The scale contains 6 management elements for assessment: attention, meaning, trust, self, vision, and feeling. Individual ratings and group summary skills rating are presented. Findings revealed the order of managerial importance of the elements as follows (from highest to lowest): Management of Trust, Management of Attention, Management of Self, Management of Feeling, Management of Meaning, and Management of Risk. As a second tier, the final ratings are corroborated by health care management interns.

  6. Strategic management of health care information systems: nurse managers' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammintakanen, Johanna; Kivinen, Tuula; Saranto, Kaija; Kinnunen, Juha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe nurse managers' perceptions of the strategic management of information systems in health care. Lack of strategic thinking is a typical feature in health care and this may also concern information systems. The data for this study was collected by eight focus group interviews including altogether 48 nurse managers from primary and specialised health care. Five main categories described the strategic management of information systems in health care; IT as an emphasis of strategy; lack of strategic management of information systems; the importance of management; problems in privacy protection; and costs of IT. Although IT was emphasised in the strategies of many health care organisations, a typical feature was a lack of strategic management of information systems. This was seen both as an underutilisation of IT opportunities in health care organisations and as increased workload from nurse managers' perspective. Furthermore, the nurse managers reported that implementation of IT strengthened their managerial roles but also required stronger management. In conclusion, strategic management of information systems needs to be strengthened in health care and nurse managers should be more involved in this process.

  7. Occupational health management: an audit tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelmerdine, L; Williams, N

    2003-03-01

    Organizations must manage occupational health risks in the workplace and the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) has published guidance on successful health and safety management. This paper describes a method of using the published guidance to audit the management of occupational health and safety, first at an organizational level and, secondly, to audit an occupational health service provider's role in the management of health risks. The paper outlines the legal framework in the UK for health risk management and describes the development and use of a tool for qualitative auditing of the efficiency, effectiveness and reliability of occupational health service provision within an organization. The audit tool is presented as a question set and the paper concludes with discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of using this tool, and recommendations on its use.

  8. Assessment of implementation of the health management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Despite Malawi's introduction of a health management information system (HMIS) in 1999, the country's health sector still lacks accurate, reliable, complete, consistent and timely health data to inform effective planning and resource management. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted wherein ...

  9. Traditional ecological knowledge underlying herding decisions of pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamou, C; de Boer, I J M; Ripoll-Bosch, R; Oosting, S J

    2018-04-01

    Pastoralists have traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), which is important for their livelihoods and for policies and interventions. Pastoralism is under pressure, however, which may result in a decline of pastoral lifestyle and its related TEK. We, therefore, addressed the following objectives (i) to inventorise and assess how pastoralists characterise and value soils and forages in their environment, (ii) to analyse how soil, forage and livestock (i.e. cattle) characteristics relate to herding decisions and (iii) to determine whether TEK underlying herding decisions differs across generations. Data were collected through focus groups and individual interviews with 72 pastoralists, belonging to three generations and to three agro-ecological zones. Using a three-point scale (high, medium, low), four grasses and three tree forages were assessed in terms of nutritional quality for milk, meat, health and strength. Using their own visual criteria, pastoralists identified five different soils, which they selected for herding at different times of the year. Pastoralists stated that Pokuri was the best soil because of its low moisture content, whereas Karaal was the worst because forage hardly grows on it. They stated that perennials, such as Andropogon gayanus and Loxoderra ledermannii, were of high nutritional quality, whereas annuals such as Andropogon pseudapricus and Hyparrhenia involucrata were of low nutritional quality. Afzelia africana was perceived of high quality for milk production, whereas Khaya senegalensis had the highest quality for meat, health and strength. Pastoralists first used soil, then forage and finally livestock characteristics in their herding decisions. Pastoralists' TEK was not associated with their generations, but with their agro-ecological zones. This study suggests that pastoralists had common and detailed TEK about soils, forages and livestock characteristics, underlying their herding decisions. To conclude, pastoralists use a holistic

  10. QUALITY IN HEALTH SERVICES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The service sector plays an increasingly large modern market economies. By being unable to provide customers a tangible product in the hands of service providers makes the situation more difficult. Their success depends on customer satisfaction, which expect a certain benefit for the money paid, on quality, on mutual trust and many other attributes. What is very interesting is that they may differ from client to client, and there is no guarantee satisfaction to all customers, even if the service provided is the same. This shows the complex nature of services and efforts on service providers would have to be made permanent in order to attract more customers. This paper addresses the issues of continuous quality improvement of health services as an important part of the services sector. Until recently, these services in Romania although under strict control of the state, had a large number of patients who are given very little attention, which is why quality improvement acestoraa was compulsory. Opening and changing economic environment, increasing customer demands, forced hospitals that serve as a nodal point between these services and their applicants to adopt modern management methods and techniques to become competitive and to give patients the quality service expected. Modern society has always sought to provide the means to ensure good health closer to the needs of modern man. These have become more complex and more expensive and naturally requires financial resources increasingly mari.Este why, every time, all the failures alleging lack of money and resources in general. Is it true? Sometimes yes, often, no! The truth is that human and material resources are not used in an optimal way. The answer lies mainly in quality management. We will see what should be done in this regard.

  11. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orvik, Arne

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing...... as the disintegration of such values. Possible implications for public health management and leadership include four different forms. The application of the conceptual model can potentially draw attention to value conflicts and help to clarify contradictory, institutional logics. It can also potentially support health...... workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutional theory. It includes five dimensions and defines organizational health in terms of how an organization...

  12. Managerial and environmental determinants of clinical mastitis in Danish dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.

  13. Future preparation of occupational health nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzi, C C; Wilson, D L; Ebert, R

    1991-03-01

    This article presents the results of a national survey of job activities of corporate level occupational health nurse managers. The survey was designed to identify the relative amount of time spent and importance attributed to specific areas of their current job. In general this sample tended to have more management experience and educational preparation than previously cited studies: over 50% had completed a graduate degree. The scores for importance and time spent were highly correlated. That is, occupational health corporate nurse managers seemed to allocate their time to job responsibilities they considered most important. Management activities related to policy, practice standards, quality assurance, staff development, and systems for client care delivery appear to represent the core responsibilities of occupational health nursing management. Curriculum recommendations for management positions in occupational health include: health policy, program planning, and evaluation; business strategy; applications of management information systems; quality assurance; and marketing.

  14. Project management in health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * the concept of project management and its role in modern management * the generic project lifecycle process * processes used in developing a plan for the management of resources - time, cost, physical resources and people * the concept of managing risk in projects * communication processes and practices that are important to the management of projects.

  15. Impacts of dairy diagnostic teams on herd performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinand, D; Conlin, B J

    2003-05-01

    This study evaluated impacts of educational diagnostic teams of consultants used to transfer technology to dairy farms. Herd management performance changes were measured by comparing Dairy Herd Improvement data from 38 project farms to data from herds that were geographical contemporaries. The value of focused goals for effecting change was also assessed. Interviews provided producers' perception of project outcomes and insight on organization and conduct of dairy diagnostic teams. Changes observed in project herds were small compared with controls with tendencies for increased herd size and improved milk production per cow. Focused goals had greater impacts on increasing herd size, milk per cow, first lactation peak milk, reducing age at first calving, and percentages of cows with subclinical mastitis. Time, money, facility limitations, labor, and alternative priorities were the most cited constraints to implementing changes. Satisfaction scores of producers were significantly related to the degree that team recommendations were followed. Improved attitudes, quality of life, and financial well-being were benefits listed by a majority of producers from participation in the project. If similar projects were to be offered, 83% said they would participate again, and 69% indicated they would pay at least some of the costs. Project farms served as demonstration farms for 1930 other producers in their respective locales, resulting in a multiplier effect of original advice given by consultant teams. Suggestions by farmer participants for improvements in dairy diagnostic teams included needs for at least some unbiased team members, more frequent meetings, more follow-up on recommendations, and consistency of recommendations with family goals.

  16. A DISTRIBUTED PROGNOSTIC HEALTH MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current...

  17. Management practices for health physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Th essence of management is obtaining results through the efforts of other people. The efforts obtained, or performance, are enhanced by those who practice management with certain understandings of the work, role and behavior of management, who have the will to manage, and who have requisite skill and aptitude. Discussion of managerial work, role, and behavior comprises the major part of the following paper. The paper concludes with the suggestion that ineffective management is not the result of lack of knowledge about managing, rather ineffective management is more often the result of a lack of will to manage

  18. Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis C.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the characteristics and advantages of autonomy and artificial intelligence in systems health monitoring. The presentation lists technologies relevant to Intelligent System Health Management (ISHM), and some potential applications.

  19. Managing Agricultural Biodiversity for Nutrition, Health, Livelihoods ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Agricultural Biodiversity for Nutrition, Health, Livelihoods and ... on local ecosystems and human resources can provide sustainable solutions to ... and health among the rural and urban poor through increased dietary diversity.

  20. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  1. Population Health Management for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kevin; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The older adult population is expanding, living longer, with multiple chronic conditions. Understanding and managing their needs over time is an integral part of defining successful aging. Population health is used to describe the measurement and health outcomes of a population. Objectives: To define population health as applied to older adults, summarize lessons learned from current research, and identify potential interventions designed to promote successful aging and improved health for this population. Method: Online search engines were utilized to identify research on population health and health interventions for older adults. Results: Population health management (PHM) is one strategy to promote the health and well-being of target populations. Interventions promoting health across a continuum tend to be disease, risk, or health behavior specific rather than encompassing a global concept of health. Conclusion: Many existing interventions for older adults are simply research based with limited generalizability; as such, further work in this area is warranted. PMID:28680938

  2. Medical Waste Management in Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Rezapour, Ramin; Saadati, Mohammad; Seifi, Samira; Amini, Behnam; Varmazyar, Farahnaz

    2018-02-01

    Non-standard management of medical waste leads to irreparable side effects. This issue is of double importance in health care centers in a city which are the most extensive system for providing Primary Health Care (PHC) across Iran cities. This study investigated the medical waste management standards observation in Tabriz community health care centers, northwestern Iran. In this triangulated cross-sectional study (qualitative-quantitative), data collecting tool was a valid checklist of waste management process developed based on Iranian medical waste management standards. The data were collected in 2015 through process observation and interviews with the health center's staff. The average rate of waste management standards observance in Tabriz community health centers, Tabriz, Iran was 29.8%. This case was 22.8% in dimension of management and training, 27.3% in separating and collecting, 31.2% in transport and temporary storage, and 42.9% in sterilization and disposal. Lack of principal separation of wastes, inappropriate collecting and disposal cycle of waste and disregarding safety tips (fertilizer device performance monitoring, microbial cultures and so on) were among the observed defects in health care centers supported by quantitative data. Medical waste management was not in a desirable situation in Tabriz community health centers. The expansion of community health centers in different regions and non-observance of standards could predispose to incidence the risks resulted from medical wastes. So it is necessary to adopt appropriate policies to promote waste management situation.

  3. Software for Intelligent System Health Management (ISHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis C.

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation is a briefing in four areas: overview of health management paradigms; overview of the ARC-Houston Software Engineering Technology Workshop held on April 20-22, 2004; identified technologies relevant to technical themes of intelligent system health management; and the author's thoughts on these topics.

  4. Growth rate, health and welfare in a dairy herd with natural suckling until 6–8 weeks of age: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdell Cecilie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over a period of two years, growth rate and health were measured for dairy calves allowed to suckle their mothers up to 6–8 weeks of age. Thirty-one calves were weighted weekly, and the mean daily growth rate was 1.2 ± 0.03 kg from birth up to 13 weeks of age. Illness in calves and young stock was not observed. In the cows, the mean incidences of ketosis, displaced abomasum, puerperal paresis, mastitis, teat injury and retained placenta were 0, 0, 8, 22, 1 and 1%, respectively, during a 6-year period. The mean daily gain of 56 growing bulls was 1.4 kg when slaughtered at 15 months of age, which is higher than the mean daily gain of 0.95 kg in the population. Probiotics, hormones and vaccines were not used, and antibiotics were only used for treating illness. The present study indicates many advantages and few problems when dairy calves are penned together with the cows and allowed natural feeding up to 6–8 weeks of age. This production system was easy to manage, preferred by the farmer, and may satisfy the public concern regarding the practice of immediate separation of cow and calf in commercial milk production.

  5. Medication therapy disease management: Geisinger's approach to population health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laney K; Greskovic, Gerard; Grassi, Dante M; Graham, Jove; Sun, Haiyan; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Murray, Michael F; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Nathanson, Douglas C; Wright, Eric A; Evans, Michael A

    2017-09-15

    Pharmacists' involvement in a population health initiative focused on chronic disease management is described. Geisinger Health System has cultivated a culture of innovation in population health management, as highlighted by its ambulatory care pharmacy program, the Medication Therapy Disease Management (MTDM) program. Initiated in 1996, the MTDM program leverages pharmacists' pharmacotherapy expertise to optimize care and improve outcomes. MTDM program pharmacists are trained and credentialed to manage over 16 conditions, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Over a 15-year period, Geisinger Health Plan (GHP)-insured patients with AF whose warfarin therapy was managed by the MTDM program had, on average, 18% fewer emergency department (ED) visits and 18% fewer hospitalizations per year than GHP enrollees with AF who did not receive MTDM services, with 23% lower annual total care costs. Over a 2-year period, GHP-insured patients with MS whose pharmacotherapy was managed by pharmacists averaged 28% fewer annual ED visits than non-pharmacist-managed patients; however, the mean annual total care cost was 21% higher among MTDM clinic patients. The Geisinger MTDM program has evolved over 20 years from a single pharmacist-run anticoagulation clinic into a large program focused on managing the health of an ever-growing population. Initial challenges in integrating pharmacists into the Geisinger patient care framework as clinical experts were overcome by demonstrating the MTDM program's positive impact on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding and managing organizational change: implications for public health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jon M

    2010-01-01

    Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers. Managing the change process within public health organizations is important because appropriately and systematically managing change is linked to improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process poses formidable challenges for managers. Managers themselves face increased pressure to respond to environmental influences and provide the necessary leadership to their organizations in the change process. In fact, managing organizational change has become a key competency for healthcare managers. This article addresses the important topic of organizational change in public health organizations. It provides a conceptual foundation for understanding organizational change and its relationship to healthcare organizational performance, and then discusses the types and nature of change, using some examples and evidence from those organizations that have successfully managed change. A framework for guiding public health managers in the change management process is provided. The article concludes with suggested management competencies to establish a change-oriented organization with the culture and capacity for change.

  7. Diagnostic herd sensitivity using environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Seyfarth, Anne Mette

    either at farm or slaughter. Three sample matrices were collected; dust samples (5 environmental swabs), nasal swabs (10 pools with 5 animals per pool) and air samples (1 filter). Based on the assumption that MRSA occurred in all 48 herds the overall herd sensitivity was 58% for nasal swabs, 33% for dust....... In our example, the prevalence of infected pigs in each herd was estimated from the pooled samples of nasal swabs. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of animal prevalence on the probability to detect MRSA in the dust and air samples at herd level. The results show a significant increase...

  8. A guide to performance management for the Health Information Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Sandra G

    This paper provides a summary of human resource management practices that have been identified as being associated with better outcomes in performance management. In general, essential practices include transformational leadership and a coherent program of goal setting, performance monitoring and feedback. Some Health Information Managers may feel they require training assistance to develop the necessary skills in the establishment of meaningful work performance goals for staff and the provision of useful and timely feedback. This paper provides useful information to assist Health Information Managers enhance the performance of their staff.

  9. ESTRATEGIC MANAGEMENT DURING THE TRANSICION PERIOD TO OPTIMISE PRODUCTIVITY AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE DAIRY HERD MANEJO ESTRATÉGICO DURANTE EL PERIODO DE TRANSICIÓN PARA OPTIMIZAR LA PRODUCCIÓN Y EL COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO GANADO LECHERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risco Carlos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In dairy herds, the interval between calving and pregnancy depend on many factors including preparation of the cow for calving, dietary management before and after calving. Factors such as hypocalcemia and body condition are determinant in the presentation of postpartum pathologies and ovarian activity resumption. Additionally, management of the dairy cattle should include fixed time artificial insemination protocols to increase the number of animals bred close to the voluntary waiting period and pregnancy rates. The following review will address topics related with cattle body condition and puerperal hypocalcemia that affect negatively postpartum reproductive performance and also will, address management alternatives to improve pregnancy rates y to reduce days open.Los días abiertos en el hato lechero dependen de muchos factores, dentro de los cuales se debe considerar, la preparación de la vaca preparto incluyendo el manejo dietario pre y postparto. Factores como la hipocalcemia y la condición corporal son determinantes en la presentación de patologías puerperales y en el inicio de la ciclicidad. Adicional a este manejo, se debe considerar la utilización de protocolos de inseminación a tiempo fijo que incrementa el número de animales servidos cerca del tiempo voluntario de espera y genera un incremento en las tasas de preñez. La presente revisión discutirá temas relacionados con la condición corporal y la presentación de hipocalcemia puerperal que afectan la fertilidad posparto de la vaca, así como alternativas para mejorar las tasa de preñez y reducir los días abiertos.

  10. Participatory management in today's health care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    As the health care revolution progresses, so must the management styles of today's leaders. The authors must ask ourselves if we are managing tomorrow's work force or the work force of the past. Participatory management may better meet the needs of today's work force. This paper identifies the reasons participatory management is a more effective management style, the methods used to implement a participatory management program, its benefits (such as higher productivity and more efficient, effective implementation and acceptance of change), and the difficulties experienced

  11. Assessment of time management attitudes among health managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarp, Nilgun; Yarpuzlu, Aysegul Akbay; Mostame, Fariba

    2005-01-01

    These days, working people are finding it difficult to manage their time, get more done at work, and find some balance in their work and personal lives. Successful time management is often suggested to be a product of organizing skills, however, what works for one person may not work for others. Context current competence assessment formats for physicians, health professionals, and managers during their training years reliably test core knowledge and basic skills. However, they may underemphasize some important domains of professional medical practice. Thus, in addition to assessments of basic skills, new formats that assess clinical reasoning, expert judgment, management of ambiguity, professionalism, time management, learning strategies, and teamwork to promise a multidimensional assessment while maintaining adequate reliability and validity in classic health education and health care institutional settings are needed to be worked on. It should be kept in mind that institutional support, reflection, and mentoring must accompany the development of assessment programs. This study was designed to describe the main factors that consume time, effective hours of work, time management opportunities, and attitudes and behaviors of health professionals and managers on time management concept through assessment by the assessment tool Time Management Inquiry Form (TMIQ-F). The study was conducted at the State Hospital, Social Security Hospital, and University Hospital at Kirikkale, Turkey between October 1999 and January 2000, including 143 subjects defined as medical managers and medical specialists. According to the results, a manager should give priority to the concept of planning, which may be counted among the efficient time management techniques, and educate him/herself on time management.

  12. Evaluation of two dairy herd reproductive performance indicators that are adjusted for voluntary waiting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löf Emma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall reproductive performance of dairy herds is monitored by various indicators. Most of them do not consider all eligible animals and do not consider different management strategies at farm level. This problem can be alleviated by measuring the proportion of pregnant cows by specific intervals after their calving date or after a fixed time period, such as the voluntary waiting period. The aim of this study was to evaluate two reproductive performance indicators that consider the voluntary waiting period at the herd. The two indicators were: percentage of pregnant cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (PV30 and percentage of inseminated cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (IV30. We wanted to assess how PV30 and IV30 perform in a simulation of herds with different reproductive management and physiology and to compare them to indicators of reproductive performance that do not consider the herd voluntary waiting period. Methods To evaluate the reproductive indicators we used the SimHerd-program, a stochastic simulation model, and 18 scenarios were simulated. The scenarios were designed by altering the reproductive management efficiency and the status of reproductive physiology of the herd. Logistic regression models, together with receiver operating characteristics (ROC, were used to examine how well the reproductive performance indicators could discriminate between herds of different levels of reproductive management efficiency or reproductive physiology. Results The logistic regression models with the ROC analysis showed that IV30 was the indicator that best discriminated between different levels of management efficiency followed by PV30, calving interval, 200-days not-in calf-rate (NotIC200, in calf rate at100-days (IC100 and a fertility index. For reproductive physiology the ROC analysis showed that the fertility index was the indicator that best discriminated

  13. Concept Development for Software Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecks, Jung; Storm, Walter; Hollingsworth, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) under NASA contract NNL06AA08B, delivery order NNL07AB06T. The Concept Development for Software Health Management (CDSHM) program was a NASA funded effort sponsored by the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project, one of the four pillars of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. The CD-SHM program focused on defining a structured approach to software health management (SHM) through the development of a comprehensive failure taxonomy that is used to characterize the fundamental failure modes of safety-critical software.

  14. [The role of management in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntert, Bernhard J

    2007-01-01

    The situation in the health care sector is affected by a shortage of public funds on the one hand and, on the other hand, by rapid developments in medicine and nursing with an enormous expansion of both diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. This and the aging population are generating a steadily increasing demand for health care services. The result is an increased cost consciousness in society calling for more professional management in health care organizations. However, the traditional administration of health care organizations, which is closely aligned with health professionals and production processes, was not able to cope with these dynamics or did so only unsatisfactorily. An improved management would surely lead to an optimization of health care delivery processes and a more effective use of resources. The question, however, is whether the effectiveness of the total system can be improved and whether patients' and society's needs can actually be met by classical management approaches.

  15. Participative management in health care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muller

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The need and demand for the highest-quality management of all health care delivery activities requires a participative management approach. The purpose with this article is to explore the process of participative management, to generate and describe a model for such management, focusing mainly on the process of participative management, and to formulate guidelines for operationalisation of the procedure. An exploratory, descriptive and theory-generating research design is pursued. After a brief literature review, inductive reasoning is mainly employed to identify and define central concepts, followed by the formulation of a few applicable statements and guidelines. Participative management is viewed as a process of that constitutes the elements of dynamic interactive decision-making and problem-solving, shared governance, empowerment, organisational transformation, and dynamic communication within the health care organisation. The scientific method of assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation is utilised throughout the process of participative management.

  16. Herding: a new phenomenon affecting medical decision-making in multiple sclerosis care? Lessons learned from DIScUTIR MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Maurino, Jorge; Sempere, Angel P; Ruff, Christian C; Tobler, Philippe N

    2017-01-01

    Herding is a phenomenon by which individuals follow the behavior of others rather than deciding independently on the basis of their own private information. A herding-like phenomenon can occur in multiple sclerosis (MS) when a neurologist follows a therapeutic recommendation by a colleague even though it is not supported by best practice clinical guidelines. Limited information is currently available on the role of herding in medical care. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence (and its associated factors) of herding in the management of MS. We conducted a study among neurologists with expertise in MS care throughout Spain. Participants answered questions regarding the management of 20 case scenarios commonly encountered in clinical practice and completed 3 surveys and 4 experimental paradigms based on behavioral economics. The herding experiment consisted of a case scenario of a 40-year-old woman who has been stable for 3 years on subcutaneous interferon and developed a self-limited neurological event. There were no new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions. Her neurological examination and disability scores were unchanged. She was advised by an MS neurologist to switch from interferon to fingolimod against best practice guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate factors associated with herding. Out of 161 neurologists who were invited to participate, 96 completed the study (response rate: 60%). Herding was present in 75 (78.1%), having a similar prevalence in MS experts and general neurologists (68.8% vs 82.8%; P =0.12). In multivariate analyses, the number of MS patients seen per week was positively associated with herding (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.14). Conversely, physician's age, gender, years of practice, setting of practice, or risk preferences were not associated with herding. Herding was a common phenomenon affecting nearly 8 out of 10 neurologists caring for MS patients. Herding may

  17. Herd-level risk factors for subclinical Salmonella infection in European finishing-pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Stege, H.

    2004-01-01

    Our objective was to find herd factors associated with pigs testing seropositive for Salmonella. Data were collected from 359 finishing-pig herds in Germany, Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Sweden, between 1996 and 1998. Pigs fed non-pelleted feed (dry or wet) had 2- and 2.5-times lower odds...... recruiting from more than three supplier herds had three-times higher odds to test seropositive than pigs in herds which breed their own replacement stock or recruit from a maximum of three supplier herds....

  18. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil

    2013-01-01

    .2), artificial insemination by other people than artificial insemination technicians (OR = 7.7), routine herd health contract with the veterinarian (OR = 4.3) and hygiene precautions taken by veterinarians (OR = 5). In addition, herd size, hired labour, trading of cattle between farms, quarantine and use...

  19. Leadership and management in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2011-05-01

    Mental health nurses are agents of change, and their leadership, management role and characteristics exist at many levels in health care. Previous research presents a picture of mental health nurses as subordinate and passive recipients of the leader's influence and regard leadership and management as distinct from the nurses' practical work. The aim was to provide a synthesis of the studies conducted and to discuss the relationship between nursing leadership and nursing management in the context of mental health nursing. A literature search was conducted using EBSCO-host, Academic Search Premier, Science Direct, CINAHL and PubMed for the period January 1995-July 2010. Leadership and management in the context of mental health nursing are human activities that imply entering into mutual relationships. Mental health nurses' leadership, management and transformational leadership are positively related in terms of effectiveness and nurses' skills. It is important to consider mental health nurses' management as a form of leadership similar to or as a natural consequence of transformational leadership (TL) and that ethical concerns must be constantly prioritized throughout every level of the organization. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Application of microsatellite markers for breeding and genetic conservation of herds of Pantaneiro sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno do Amaral Crispim

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the statistical parameters indicated that populations of Pantaneiro sheep require special attention on herd management, and it's further necessary to implement breeder exchange programs in order to preserve the genetic variability of these populations. Furthermore, the maintenance of those populations in their typical habitats is rather required to allow different responses from the herds to the interactions between genotype and environment.

  1. Forecasting metal prices: Do forecasters herd?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierdzioch, C.; Rulke, J. C.; Stadtmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze more than 20,000 forecasts of nine metal prices at four different forecast horizons. We document that forecasts are heterogeneous and report that anti-herding appears to be a source of this heterogeneity. Forecaster anti-herding reflects strategic interactions among forecasters...

  2. Biosecurity in 121 Danish sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Houe, H.

    2003-01-01

    Herds are under constant risk of introducing new pathogens from different sources. In this article we describe biosecurity practices in Danish sow herds. Between December 1, 1999 and February 29, 2000, 121 sow units were interviewed regarding biosecurity on the site. The questionnaire contained 6...

  3. Health Services management. Health Service use of ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This circular consolidates and updates advice on the statutory and management responsibilities of Health Authorities in relation to the use of ionising radiations (including radioactive substances) on premises controlled by them and/or by persons employed by them (author)

  4. Integrated Structural Health Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to advance the state of the art in composite health management through refinement of an existing technology developed...

  5. The Case for Software Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Software Health Management (SWHM) is a new field that is concerned with the development of tools and technologies to enable automated detection, diagnosis,...

  6. Battery Health Management System for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In summary, this paper lays out a novel battery health management technique for application onboard an electric UAV. This technique is also applicable to other...

  7. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by...

  8. Managing terminology assets in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kelly; Schneider, Sue; Scichilone, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR)systems rely on standard terminologies and classification systems that require both Information Technology (IT) and Information Management (IM) skills. Convergence of perspectives is necessary for effective terminology asset management including evaluation for use, maintenance and intersection with software applications. Multiple terminologies are necessary for patient care communication and data capture within EHRs and other information management tasks. Terminology asset management encompasses workflow and operational context as well as IT specifications and software application run time requirements. This paper identifies the tasks, skills and collaboration of IM and IT approaches for terminology asset management.

  9. Collective work: a challenge for health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Magda Duarte Dos Anjos; Pires, Denise; Schwartz, Yves

    2009-08-01

    Based on ergology and work process theorization, the study aims to contribute to reflections on health collective work, emphasizing its specificity and difficulties in building and managing groups of workers. It deals with work as a human activity that dialectically comprises the application of a prescribed protocol and a unique and historical perspective. Health work involves a relationship among individuals who act in the drama of using themselves and manage their own work; it is influenced by the history of health professions and macro-political determinations. In conclusion, this health work complexity needs to be considered in the process of management of professional teams/groups of workers, in a way that actions can interact and enable the implementation of a new health care project in the perspective of comprehensiveness.

  10. Crisis management teams in health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, Deon V

    2012-01-01

    Crisis management teams (CMT) are necessary to ensure adequate and appropriate crisis management planning and response to unforeseen, adverse events. This study investigated the existence of CMTs, the membership of CMTs, and the degree of training received by CMTs in Australian health and allied health organisations. This cross-sectional study draws on data provided by executive decision makers in a broad selection of health and allied health organisations. Crisis management teams were found in 44.2 per cent of the health-related organisations surveyed, which is ten per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. Membership of these CMTs was not ideal and did not conform to standard CMT membership profiles. Similarly, the extent of crisis management training in health-related organisations is 20 per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. If organisations do not become pro-active in their crisis management practices, the onus is on government to improve the situation through regulation and the provision of more physical, monetary and skill resources to ensure that the health services of Australia are sufficiently prepared to respond to adverse events.

  11. Integrated System Health Management Development Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jorge; Smith, Harvey; Morris, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This software toolkit is designed to model complex systems for the implementation of embedded Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capability, which focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, and predict future anomalies), and to provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation.

  12. Management of mutual health organizations in Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features.

  13. Managing complaints in health and social care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Bonney, Kathy

    2010-04-01

    An important aspect of allowing patients to take control of their health care is the introduction of new procedures for dealing with complaints. This article examines the concepts that underpin the new Department of Health regulations on complaints management and what they will mean for health and social care professionals. It also explains why these regulations focus on restorative justice rather than blame when adverse events occur.

  14. Simulation modeling for the health care manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the use of simulation software to solve administrative problems faced by health care managers. Spreadsheet add-ins, process simulation software, and discrete event simulation software are available at a range of costs and complexity. All use the Monte Carlo method to realistically integrate probability distributions into models of the health care environment. Problems typically addressed by health care simulation modeling are facility planning, resource allocation, staffing, patient flow and wait time, routing and transportation, supply chain management, and process improvement.

  15. Fluorosis in a dairy herd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, W G

    1972-04-29

    Investigation of a high incidence of hip arthritis in a herd of Ayrshires resulted in the discovery of abnormal levels of fluorine in samples of bone. Suspicion of fluorosis was not aroused earlier as the area is not contaminated by industrial fall-out. In addition, many affected animals had no lesions in their teeth; this was because their dentition was complete before ingesting fluorine from a mineral supplement. Only cows receiving toxic levels of fluorine during their first lactation showed lesions, and these were confined to the fourth pair of incisors. Two metabolic profile tests were caried out to establish that the input-output balance in the main metabolites was normal. Analysis of various constituents of the diet revealed significant levels of fluorine in the mineral supplement only. Arthritis was the most prominent feature. This led to debility, with loss of milk and carcase value. Confirmation of fluorosis was obtained by analysis of bone and urine.

  16. Quality management in Irish health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, K; Harrington, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from a quantitative research study of quality management in the Irish health-care sector. The study findings suggest that quality management is what hospitals require to become more cost-effective and efficient. The research also shows that the culture of health-care institutions must change to one where employees experience pride in their work and where all are involved and committed to continuous quality improvement. It is recommended that a shift is required from the traditional management structures to a more participative approach. Furthermore, all managers whether from a clinical or an administration background must understand one another's role in the organisation. Finally, for quality to succeed in the health-care sector, strong committed leadership is required to overcome tensions in quality implementation.

  17. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  18. Participative management in health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, M

    1995-03-01

    The need and demand for the highest-quality management of all health care delivery activities requires a participative management approach. The purpose with this article is to explore the process of participative management, to generate and describe a model for such management, focusing mainly on the process of participative management, and to formulate guidelines for operationalization of the procedure. An exploratory, descriptive and theory-generating research design is pursued. After a brief literature review, inductive reasoning is mainly employed to identify and define central concepts, followed by the formulation of a few applicable statements and guidelines. Participative management is viewed as a process of that constitutes the elements of dynamic interactive decision-making and problem-solving, shared governance, empowerment, organisational transformation, and dynamic communication within the health care organisation. The scientific method of assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation is utilised throughout the process of participative management. A continuum of interactive decision-making and problem-solving is described, the different role-players involved, as well as the levels of interactive decision-making and problem-solving. The most appropriate decision-making strategy should be employed in pro-active and reactive decision-making. Applicable principles and assumptions in each element of participative management is described. It is recommended that this proposed model for participative management be refined by means of a literature control, interactive dialogue with experts and a model case description or participative management, to ensure the trustworthiness of this research.

  19. Ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Whitten

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described general patterns of population regulation that fit most caribou (Rangifer tarandus herds. Nevertheless, specific factors operating on particular populations vary greatly, and efforts to categorize herds according to the general patterns often lead to confusion. It is difficult for biologists to attempt to describe population dynamics in terms of density relationships for wide-ranging arctic caribou such as the Porcupine Herd. In these herds density varies as a function of dispersal and erratic movement patterns and is not simply the number of caribou divided by a fixed range area. Density is also a poor surrogate for resource availability per individual caribou because climatic factors affect forage and/or access to forage independendy of caribou numbers. Thus classic signs of nutritional stress such as delayed puberty, reduced productivity, and winter starvation can occur when a population is small as well as large and do not necessarily denote food competition brought on by high density, per se. Nutritional stress and exacerbated predation due to adverse weather conditions occasionally cause the Porcupine Herd to decline, and limiting factors such as poor nutrition, predation, harvest, accidents, and disease act in combination to keep herd growth rates low during periods of good weather. Adverse weather setbacks occur frequently, and the herd remains within a fairly restricted range of densities over long time periods. There is no true density dependent regulation and no equilibrium in this system.

  20. Inferring relationships between clinical mastitis, productivity and fertility: a recursive model application including genetics, farm associated herd management, and cow-specific antibiotic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Pia; Brügemann, Kerstin; Yin, Tong; V Borstel, U König; Wu, Xiao-Lin; König, Sven

    2013-10-01

    A dataset of test-day records, fertility traits, and one health trait including 1275 Brown Swiss cows kept in 46 small-scale organic farms was used to infer relationships among these traits based on recursive Gaussian-threshold models. Test-day records included milk yield (MY), protein percentage (PROT-%), fat percentage (FAT-%), somatic cell score (SCS), the ratio of FAT-% to PROT-% (FPR), lactose percentage (LAC-%), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Female fertility traits were defined as the interval from calving to first insemination (CTFS) and success of a first insemination (SFI), and the health trait was clinical mastitis (CM). First, a tri-trait model was used which postulated the recursive effect of a test-day observation in the early period of lactation on liability to CM (LCM), and further the recursive effect of LCM on the following test-day observation. For CM and female fertility traits, a bi-trait recursive Gaussian-threshold model was employed to estimate the effects from CM to CTFS and from CM on SFI. The recursive effects from CTFS and SFI onto CM were not relevant, because CM was recorded prior to the measurements for CTFS and SFI. Results show that the posterior heritability for LCM was 0.05, and for all other traits, heritability estimates were in reasonable ranges, each with a small posterior SD. Lowest heritability estimates were obtained for female reproduction traits, i.e. h(2)=0.02 for SFI, and h(2)≈0 for CTFS. Posterior estimates of genetic correlations between LCM and production traits (MY and MUN), and between LCM and somatic cell score (SCS), were large and positive (0.56-0.68). Results confirm the genetic antagonism between MY and LCM, and the suitability of SCS as an indicator trait for CM. Structural equation coefficients describe the impact of one trait on a second trait on the phenotypic pathway. Higher values for FAT-% and FPR were associated with a higher LCM. The rate of change in FAT-% and in FPR in the ongoing lactation with

  1. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 1: Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekhuis-Gibbon Lies

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP systems are a risk based preventive approach developed to increase levels of food safety assurance. This is part 1 of a pilot study on the development, implementation and evaluation of a HACCP-based approach for the control of good udder health in dairy cows. The paper describes the use of a novel approach based on a deconstruction of the infectious process in mastitis to identify Critical Control Points (CCPs and develop a HACCP-based system to prevent and control mastitis in dairy herds. The approach involved the creation of an Infectious Process Flow Diagram, which was then cross-referenced to two production process flow diagrams of the milking process and cow management cycle. The HACCP plan developed, may be suitable for customisation and implementation on dairy farms. This is a logical, systematic approach to the development of a mastitis control programme that could be used as a template for the development of control programmes for other infectious diseases in the dairy herd.

  2. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 1: Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuis-Gibbon, Lies; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Doherty, Michael L

    2011-03-31

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) systems are a risk based preventive approach developed to increase levels of food safety assurance. This is part 1 of a pilot study on the development, implementation and evaluation of a HACCP-based approach for the control of good udder health in dairy cows. The paper describes the use of a novel approach based on a deconstruction of the infectious process in mastitis to identify Critical Control Points (CCPs) and develop a HACCP-based system to prevent and control mastitis in dairy herds. The approach involved the creation of an Infectious Process Flow Diagram, which was then cross-referenced to two production process flow diagrams of the milking process and cow management cycle. The HACCP plan developed, may be suitable for customisation and implementation on dairy farms. This is a logical, systematic approach to the development of a mastitis control programme that could be used as a template for the development of control programmes for other infectious diseases in the dairy herd.

  3. Knowledge Management in Health Technology SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusko, Juhamatti; Kuusisto-Niemi, Sirpa; Saranto, Kaija

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine knowledge management's (KM) role in small and medium-sized (SMEs) health technology enterprises, which employ fewer than 250 employees. In this study, KM is understood as the ability to achieve competitive advantage by utilizing management knowledge and making it profitable. The health technology enterprises use modern technology to resolve health-related issues. The research data was acquired from Finnish health technology SMEs. The questionnaire was sent to 140 enterprises, generating 25 responses, or a 17.9% response rate. According to the results, health technology enterprises have not adopted KM concepts, nor do they have the necessary resources to do so. SMEs' KM use is informal: information is transferred informally through human interaction, rather than through information systems. In the SMEs, KM is not perceived as important, although it is seen as associated with the enterprise's financial performance through the potential in making the knowledge profitable.

  4. Women as managers in the health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne Kane Berman

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite their numerical superiority women do not occupy positions o f power and authority in the health services generally. This is perceived as being due to a variety of factors which prevent women from realising their ful l potential as managers. In other parts of the world, as well as in South Africa, middle class white males have dominated health services, since medicine became a form al science, usurping the traditional role of women healers. Some research indicates that women are inclined to practice “feminine " management styles. It is suggested that the femine I masculine dichotomy is artificial and that qualities which ensure effective management should not be regarded as genderlinked. Leaders in the health services should strive for interdisciplinary, mixed-gender education and training at all levels. Identification and development of management potential in women health-care professionals, role-modelling and sponsor-mentor relationships should be encouraged to allow women to acquire the full range of management skills and to achieve positions of power and authority in the health services.

  5. Reproductive handle of the herd of cattle of double purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Hernandez, A.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the environmental factors is analyzed, in the reproductive efficiency of herd cattle of double purpose. The reproductive behavior begins with the gestation of the heifers. Under the conditions of the Colombian tropic these they reach the weight required for the reproduction to an age but late that in the temperate areas. Once the first childbirth, the cow takes place it enters in exhaustion that makes that this animal is the but difficult to reproduce after the childbirth, that which demands special cares of handling and feeding. The interval among the childbirth to evaluate the reproductive efficiency. Environmental factors that influence significantly. The use of the practice simple of handling, health, selection and feeding produces significant increments in the fertility of the herd of cattle of double purpose. One practices of effective handling in the improvement of the reproductive behavior of the cows of double purpose it is the restricted nursing

  6. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met......, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark....

  7. Applying e-health to case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J M

    2000-01-01

    The healthcare industry is only beginning to understand e-health. E-health can be defined as the use of technology to directly improve healthcare delivery-affording patients the opportunity to participate in their own healthcare management, provider, and institution. The market is changing rapidly, and innovations, partnerships, and mergers are taking place daily. For healthcare institutions, setting a long-term, yet adaptable e-health strategy is of vital importance for the continued success of the organization. For clinicians, an understanding of and familiarity with technologies can significantly improve workflow, organization, and patient interaction. For the patient, technology can be leveraged as a means to take initiative and responsibility for his/her own health. This article defines e-health and explains the implications and benefits of e-health to nurses and their patients. The article also identifies unique opportunities e-health/e-commerce can provide case managers in promoting patient connectivity, care management, and economy in cost of care.

  8. An XML-based framework for personalized health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hiye-Ja; Park, Seung-Hun; Jeong, Byeong-Soo

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for personalized health management. In this framework, XML technology is used for representing and managing the health information and knowledge. Major components of the framework are Health Management Prescription (HMP) Expert System and Health Information Repository. The HMP Expert System generates a HMP efficiently by using XML-based templates. Health Information Repository provides integrated health information and knowledge for personalized health management by using XML and relational database together.

  9. Participatory Livestock Farmer Training for improvement of animal health in rural and peri-urban smallholder dairy herds in Jinja, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Byarugaba, D.K.; Nakavuma, J.

    2007-01-01

    in smallholder dairy farms in the Jinja district of Uganda. Two peri-urban groups and one rural group met for common learning and training two hours per fortnight during a 12-month period, facilitated by two local extension agents together with one or two scientists from Makerere University. Farmers rotated each...... knowledge and experience from training in systematic clinical examination of animals, evaluation of the farm environments, and identification of improvements. Much of the acquired new knowledge was about basic dairy cow management and husbandry practices. In addition, they gave examples of how they were now...... time between farms owned by group participants, which demanded mutual trust, openness and respect. From their own assessment the farmers felt they had improved their milk production and reduced mastitis incidence on their farms. In an evaluation workshop, they articulated how they had built up common...

  10. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used...... stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective...... control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds....

  11. Managing diversity in the health care workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, R; Dowd, S; Newman Giger, J

    1999-03-01

    Cultural diversity is increasing in the United States as increasing numbers of minorities enter the United States from abroad, and cultural diversity is especially prevalent in the health care workplace. In fact, the health care professions are particularly interested in the presence of minorities among caregivers because this often enhances the cultural competence of care delivery. Nevertheless, subtle discrimination can still be found, and managers must be alert that such behavior is not tolerated. Use of the Giger-Davidhizar Cultural Assessment Model can provide managers with information needed to respond to diversity among staff appropriately.

  12. THE HERD BEHAVIOR AND THE FINANCIAL INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN IONESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the international financial situation of the last 50 years, and considering the complexity and severity of the financial crises, it is important to study the episodes of financial instability, and especially to understand both operating mechanisms and propagation mechanisms. One endogenous mechanism of financial instability is the herd behavior, which may increase the volatility and the amplitude of any sub-part of the financial system. This paper aims to analyze this phenomenon, considering the behavior of the financial market participants, the role of information in the making decisions process, banking responsibility regarding the herd behavior. The paper also illustrates two examples of herd behavior (run bank and the "too many to fail" problem, and presents three herding measures, in an attempt to achieve a quantitative analysis of the phenomenon, besides the qualitative analysis exposed above.

  13. Health Status of Beef Cows and their Calves in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Slavík

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the health status and the most common health problems occurring in beef cattle in the Czech Republic. Thirty five beef herds of different breeds were monitored from 1 January to 31 December 2006. The health status of 4872 animals (2601 cows and 2271 of their calves was analyzed. Herds of up to 50 cows and those over 50 cows were evaluated both separately and together. Farm management data were collected by means of a questionnaire completed by the farmers. Both geographic and herd characteristics were evaluated, as well as the course of calving, mortality and morbidity in calves, and disease occurrence in cows. Calving was unassisted in about 80% of the cows, and the conception rate was approximately 90%. More difficult courses of calving were reported from the small herds than from the large ones (p p p p p < 0.001.

  14. Mapping Health Needs to Support Health System Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecki, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Piotr; Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna; Szromek, Adam R.; Syrkiewicz-Świtała, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    In Poland, following the example of other EU countries, the first maps of health needs prepared by the Ministry of Health were presented in 2016. The maps constitute a foundation for rational decision-making in the management of health care resources, being potentially useful for all actors in health system. This refers in particular to the institutions responsible for distribution of funds and contracting health service, but also for decision-makers, who determine the scope of funds to be utilized in the health system, or the structure of benefits provided to patients. Service providers are also addressees of the maps, to give them a basis for planning future activities. The article presents a structured assessment of the current state of affairs, based on recent experience and sets out likely directions for the development of health needs in mapping in Poland in the future. We discuss the criticism addressed toward maps by representatives of various groups acting in health care. It includes the lack of recognition of some of the key health needs, or wrong emphases, where much more attention is paid to the recognition of current resources in the health system, instead of making prognoses regarding the future developments of health needs. Nonetheless, we find that this instrument is potentially of high usability, in case of elimination of the existing weaknesses. PMID:29662876

  15. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  16. Rotavirus vaccination and herd immunity: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seybolt LM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lorna M Seybolt, Rodolfo E BéguéDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Until recently, rotavirus was the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and young children with over 100 million cases and 400,000 deaths every year worldwide. Yet, its epidemiology is changing rapidly with the introduction of two rotavirus vaccines in the mid 2000s. Both vaccines were shown to be highly efficacious in prelicensure studies to reduce severe rotavirus disease; the efficacy being more pronounced in high- and middle-income countries than in low-income countries. Herd immunity – the indirect protection of unimmunized individuals as a result of others being immunized – was not expected to be a benefit of rotavirus vaccination programs since the vaccines were thought to reduce severe disease but not to decrease virus transmission significantly. Postlicensure studies, however, have suggested that this assumption may need reassessment. Studies in a variety of settings have shown evidence of greater than expected declines in rotavirus disease. While these studies were not designed specifically to detect herd immunity – and few failed to detect this phenomenon – the consistency of the evidence is compelling. These studies are reviewed and described here. While further work is needed, clarifying the presence of herd immunity is not just an academic exercise but an important issue for rotavirus control, especially in lower income countries where the incidence of the disease is highest and the direct protection of the vaccines is lower.Keywords: rotavirus, vaccine, herd immunity, efficacy

  17. Benchmarking and performance management in health care

    OpenAIRE

    Buttigieg, Sandra; ; EHMA Annual Conference : Public Health Care : Who Pays, Who Provides?

    2012-01-01

    Current economic conditions challenge health care providers globally. Healthcare organizations need to deliver optimal financial, operational, and clinical performance to sustain quality of service delivery. Benchmarking is one of the most potent and under-utilized management tools available and an analytic tool to understand organizational performance. Additionally, it is required for financial survival and organizational excellence.

  18. Health care management modelling: a process perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, J.M.H.

    1998-01-01

    Modelling-based health care management ought to become just as popular as evidence based medicine. Making managerial decisions based on evidence by modelling efforts is certainly a step forward. Examples can be given of many successful applications in different areas of decision making: disease

  19. An Investigation into the Etiological Agents of Swine Dysentery in Australian Pig Herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom La

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status. This study investigated whether cases of SD in Australia may be caused by the newly described species; how isolates of B. hyodysenteriae recovered from healthy herds compared to isolates from herds with disease; and how contemporary isolates compare to those recovered in previous decades, including in their plasmid gene content and antimicrobial resistance profiles. In total 1103 fecal and colon samples from pigs in 97 Australian herds were collected and tested. Of the agents of SD only B. hyodysenteriae was found, being present in 34 (35.1% of the herds, including in 14 of 24 (58% herds that had been considered to be free of SD. Multilocus sequence typing applied to 96 isolates from 30 herds and to 53 Australian isolates dating from the 1980s through the early 2000s showed that they were diverse, distinct from those reported in other countries, and that the 2014/16 isolates generally were different from those from earlier decades. These findings provided evidence for ongoing evolution of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Australia. In seven of the 20 herds where multiple isolates were available, two to four different sequence types (STs were identified. Isolates with the same STs also were found in some herds with epidemiological links. Analysis of a block of six plasmid virulence-associated genes showed a lack of consistency between their presence or absence and their origin from herds currently with or without disease; however

  20. A four year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1 in adult cattle in 107 unvaccinated herds in south west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez-Villaescusa Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1 is an important pathogen of cattle that presents with a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR. A seroepidemiological study of BHV-1 antibodies was conducted in England from 2002 – 2004: 29,782 blood samples were taken from 15,736 cattle from 114 herds which were visited on up to three occasions. Antibody concentration was measured using a commercial ELISA. Farm management information was collected using an interview questionnaire, and herd size and cattle movements were obtained from the cattle tuberculosis testing database and the British Cattle Movement Service. Hierarchical statistical models were used to investigate associations between cattle and herd variables and the continuous outcome percentage positive (PP values from the ELISA test in unvaccinated herds. Results There were 7 vaccinated herds, all with at least one seropositive bovine. In unvaccinated herds 83.2% had at least one BHV-1 seropositive bovine, and the mean cattle and herd BHV-1 seroprevalence were 42.5% and 43.1% respectively. There were positive associations between PP value, age, herd size, presence of dairy cattle. Adult cattle in herds with grower cattle had lower PP values than those in herds without grower cattle. Purchased cattle had significantly lower PP values than homebred cattle, whereas cattle in herds that were totally restocked after the foot-and-mouth epidemic in 2001 had significantly higher PP values than those in continuously stocked herds. Samples taken in spring and summer had significantly lower PP values than those taken in winter, whereas those taken in autumn had significantly higher PP values than those taken in winter. The risks estimated from a logistic regression model with a binary outcome (seropositive yes/no were similar. Conclusion The prevalence of BHV-1 seropositivity in cattle and herds has increased since

  1. Radioactive waste management of health services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Miaw, Sophia Teh Whei

    2001-01-01

    In health care establishment, radioactive waste is generated from the use of radioactive materials in medical applications such as diagnosis, therapy and research. Disused sealed sources are also considered as waste. To get the license to operate from Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, the installation has to present a Radiation Protection Plan, in which the Waste Management Programme should be included. The Waste Management Programme should contain detailed description on methodologies and information on technical and administrative control of generated waste. This paper presents the basic guidelines for the implementation of a safe waste management by health care establishments, taking into account the regulations from CNEN and recommendations from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. (author)

  2. Creating and managing a paperless health information management department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Zelda B

    2002-08-01

    Over the last 10 to 15 years, the health care industry has experienced dramatic changes in health care delivery, consumer needs, and demands. The medical record, a recapitulation of the care patients receive, continues to be one of the most vital components of the health care delivery system. It serves as a crucial administrative, clinical, financial, and research tool. Health information managers, striving to meet ever-changing requirements, have turned to electronic record processing to meet these changes. The following article describes one hospital's journey from a cumbersome paper environment to an electronic environment that not only resulted in improved customer service but also provided employees with renewed job satisfaction and increased skill levels.

  3. Case manager satisfaction in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Russell K; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Gall, Gail B; Harrow, Brooke; Woodford, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of case managers' satisfaction with their work, services, and service network and to identify connections to service performance and service costs. A decentralized public health program that exemplifies the trend toward more diverse clients and networked services. A mixed method design with 34 case managers. As hypothesized, the case managers' experiences with clients and the service network, and their service effectiveness, were associated with their satisfaction with their jobs and the services they provide. Satisfaction was also positively associated with more timely service delivery. These associations were explained in part by case managers' education and training. Case managers can achieve high levels of job and service satisfaction in outreach programs serving a diverse client population in a decentralized service network. Case managers' job and service satisfaction improves with reduced service problems and service delays and when case managers can devise work-arounds for persistent service problems. Using advanced practice nurses (APN) and providing more on-the-job training may increase case manager satisfaction with their jobs and the services they provide. Special efforts may be needed to prevent a decline in job satisfaction with years of experience.

  4. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  5. Managing interoperability and complexity in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamrane, M-M; Tao, C; Sarkar, I N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed substantial progress in the use of clinical informatics systems to support clinicians during episodes of care, manage specialised domain knowledge, perform complex clinical data analysis and improve the management of health organisations' resources. However, the vision of fully integrated health information eco-systems, which provide relevant information and useful knowledge at the point-of-care, remains elusive. This journal Focus Theme reviews some of the enduring challenges of interoperability and complexity in clinical informatics systems. Furthermore, a range of approaches are proposed in order to address, harness and resolve some of the many remaining issues towards a greater integration of health information systems and extraction of useful or new knowledge from heterogeneous electronic data repositories.

  6. Software Health Management with Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole; Schumann, JOhann

    2011-01-01

    Most modern aircraft as well as other complex machinery is equipped with diagnostics systems for its major subsystems. During operation, sensors provide important information about the subsystem (e.g., the engine) and that information is used to detect and diagnose faults. Most of these systems focus on the monitoring of a mechanical, hydraulic, or electromechanical subsystem of the vehicle or machinery. Only recently, health management systems that monitor software have been developed. In this paper, we will discuss our approach of using Bayesian networks for Software Health Management (SWHM). We will discuss SWHM requirements, which make advanced reasoning capabilities for the detection and diagnosis important. Then we will present our approach to using Bayesian networks for the construction of health models that dynamically monitor a software system and is capable of detecting and diagnosing faults.

  7. Milk quality assurance for paratuberculosis: simulation of within-herd infection dynamics and economicsof within-herd infection dynamics and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.; Nielen, M.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    bulk milk quality assurance programme for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in dairy herds was simulated with a stochastic simulation model (JohneSSim). The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and economic effects of preventive management measures and various test

  8. Population decline in the Delta caribou herd with reference to other Alaskan herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg et al.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After growing continuously for nearly 15 years, the Delta caribou herd began to decline in 1989. Most other Interior Alaskan herds also began declining. In the Delta herd, and in other herds, the declines were caused primarily by high summer mortality of calves and increased natural mortality of adult females. Other minor causes included increased winter mortality of calves, and reduced parturition rates of 3-year-old and older females. The decline in the Delta herd also coincided with increased wolf (Canis lupus numbers, winters with deeper than normal snow, and warm summers. Mean body weight of annual samples of 10-month-old female calves was consistently low during the decline. Except in some of the smallest Interior Alaskan herds, we conclude that evidence for population regulation in Alaskan caribou is weak, and that herds are likely to fluctuate within a wide range of densities due to complex interactions of predation and weather. Unless wolf numbers are influenced by man, the size of a caribou herd in a given year is likely to be largely a function of its size during the previous population low and the number of years of favorable weather in the interim.

  9. Neospora caninum in beef herds in New South Wales, Australia. 2: analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, B J; Heuer, C; Kirkland, P D

    2017-04-01

    To determine the influence of farm-level and animal-level factors on the seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and associations between seropositivity and reproductive outcomes. A questionnaire for a cross-sectional survey was posted to the 63 properties with a herd size ≥50 beef breeding cows that had participated in a previous seroprevalence study. Correspondence analysis, which does not appear to have been used previously in any Australian studies of livestock diseases, was used in conjunction with logistic regression to analyse the data. Geographic factors that increased the risk of seropositivity included higher rainfall North Coast location. Herd management factors that increased the risk of seropositivity included the use of Bos indicus genetics, cross-breeding and running several breeds in the one herd. Using fox control measures was found to be protective against infection with N. caninum. The risk of abortion was 12-fold greater in individual animals that were seropositive for N. caninum. Within a herd, the calving rate was 10.4% lower in herds with one or more N. caninum-positive animals (P = 0.03), but the difference in abortion rate was not significant between seropositive and seronegative herds (0.3% higher, P > 0.3). This study confirmed previous observations of increased risks for N. caninum seropositivity with being located in the coastal subtropics, some styles of herd management and canid exposure. In addition, it suggested that cross-breeding and proximity to an urban area may increase the risk, and that having pet dogs may reduce the risk of seropositivity. © 2017 State of New South Wales.

  10. Conflict management styles in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed.

  11. Innovation in health service management: Adoption of project management offices to support major health care transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Aubry, Monique; Cyr, Guylaine; Richer, Marie-Claire; Fortin-Verreault, Jean-François; Fortin, Claude; Marchionni, Caroline

    2017-11-01

    To explore the characteristics that influence project management offices acceptance and adoption in healthcare sector. The creation of project management offices has been suggested as a promising avenue to promote successful organisational change and facilitate evidence-based practice. However, little is known about the characteristics that promote their initial adoption and acceptance in health care sector. This knowledge is important in the context where many organisations are considering implementing project management offices with nurse managers as leaders. A descriptive multiple case study design was used. The unit of analysis was the project management offices. The study was conducted in three university-affiliated teaching hospitals in 2013-14 (Canada). Individual interviews (n = 34) were conducted with senior managers. Results reveal that project management offices dedicated to project and change management constitute an innovation and an added value that addresses tangible needs in the field. Project management offices are an innovation highly compatible with health care managers and their approach has parallels to the process of clinical problem solving and reasoning well-known to adopters. This knowledge is important in a context where many nurses hold various roles in project management offices, such as Director, project manager, clinical expert and knowledge broker. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. New public management in Iran's health complex: a management framework for primary health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; HaghGoshayie, Elaheh; Doshmangir, Leila; Yousefi, Mahmood

    2018-05-01

    New public management (NPM) was developed as a management reform to improve the efficiency and effectiveness in public organizations, especially in health sector. Using the features of private sector management, the managers of health organizations may try to implement the elements of NPM with the hope to improve the performance of their systems.AimsOur aim in the present study was to identify the elements and infrastructures suitable for implementing NPM in the Iranian health complex. In this qualitative study with conventional content analysis approach, we tried to explore the NPM elements and infrastructures in Iranian public health sector. A series of semi-structured interviews (n=48) were conducted in 2016 with a managers in public and private health complex. Three focus group discussions with nine faculty members were also conducted. A data collection form was used to collect the demographic characteristics and perspectives of the participants.FindingsFrom the perspective of managers, managerialism, decentralization, using market mechanism, performance management, customer orientation and performance budgeting were the main elements of NPM in the Iranian context. The most important infrastructures for implementing this reform were as follows: education and training, information technology, the proper use of human resources, decision support systems, top management commitment, organizational culture, flexibility of rules, rehabilitating of the aging infrastructures, and expanding the coverage of services. The NPM was generally identified to be an effective replacement for the traditional administration method. These reforms may be helpful in strengthening the public health complex and the management capacity, as well. NPM also seems to be useful in interacting the public health sector with the private sector in terms of personnel and resources, performance, reward structure, and methods of doing business.

  13. Smart Information Management in Health Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muteba A, Eustache

    2017-01-01

    The smart information management system (SIMS) is concerned with the organization of anonymous patient records in a big data and their extraction in order to provide needful real-time intelligence. The purpose of the present study is to highlight the design and the implementation of the smart information management system. We emphasis, in one hand, the organization of a big data in flat file in simulation of nosql database, and in the other hand, the extraction of information based on lookup table and cache mechanism. The SIMS in the health big data aims the identification of new therapies and approaches to delivering care.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli, pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups 0138, 0139, 0141 and 0149) and Salmonella enterica in Danish...... were collected and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or culture. L. intracellularis was found in 74 herds (93.7%), B. hyodysenteriae in two herds (2.5%), S. intermedia in 10 herds (12.7%), B. innocens in 27 herds (34.2%), B. pilosicoli in 15 herds (19.0%), pathogenic E. call in 19 herds (24...

  15. Mitigating Herding in Hierarchical Crowdsourcing Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril; Chen, Yiqiang; Fauvel, Simon; Lesser, Victor R; Yang, Qiang

    2016-12-05

    Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN. By considering the workers' current reputation, workload, eagerness to work, and trust relationships, RTS-P provides a systematic approach to mitigate herding by helping workers make joint decisions on task sub-delegation, task acceptance, and effort pricing in a distributed manner. It is an individual-level decision support approach which results in the emergence of productive and robust collective patterns in HCNs. High resolution simulations demonstrate that RTS-P mitigates herding more effectively than state-of-the-art approaches.

  16. Health and Stress Management and Mental-health Disability Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Haines, Victor Y; Harvey, Steve; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie; Durand, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the associations between health and stress management (HSM) practices and mental-health disability claims. Data from the Salveo study was collected during 2009-2012 within 60 workplaces nested in 37 companies located in Canada (Quebec) and insured by a large insurance company. In each company, 1 h interviews were conducted with human resources managers in order to obtain data on 63 HSM practices. Companies and workplaces were sorted into the low-claims and high-claims groups according to the median rate of the population of the insurer's corporate clients. Logistic regression adjusted for design effect and multidimensional scaling was used to analyse the data. After controlling for company size and economic sector, task design, demands control, gratifications, physical activity and work-family balance were associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. Further analyses revealed three company profiles that were qualified as laissez-faire, integrated and partially integrated approaches to HSM. Of the three, the integrated profile was associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. The results of this study provide evidence-based guidance for a better control of mental-health disability claims. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Herd-specific random regression carcass profiles for beef cattle after adjustment for animal genetic merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englishby, Tanya M; Moore, Kirsty L; Berry, Donagh P; Coffey, Mike P; Banos, Georgios

    2017-07-01

    Abattoir data are an important source of information for the genetic evaluation of carcass traits, but also for on-farm management purposes. The present study aimed to quantify the contribution of herd environment to beef carcass characteristics (weight, conformation score and fat score) with particular emphasis on generating finishing herd-specific profiles for these traits across different ages at slaughter. Abattoir records from 46,115 heifers and 78,790 steers aged between 360 and 900days, and from 22,971 young bulls aged between 360 and 720days, were analysed. Finishing herd-year and animal genetic (co)variance components for each trait were estimated using random regression models. Across slaughter age and gender, the ratio of finishing herd-year to total phenotypic variance ranged from 0.31 to 0.72 for carcass weight, 0.21 to 0.57 for carcass conformation and 0.11 to 0.44 for carcass fat score. These parameters indicate that the finishing herd environment is an important contributor to carcass trait variability and amenable to improvement with management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-05-25

    The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present

  19. FAILSAFE Health Management for Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Gregory A.; Wagner, David A.; Wen, Hui Ying; Barry, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The FAILSAFE project is developing concepts and prototype implementations for software health management in mission- critical, real-time embedded systems. The project unites features of the industry-standard ARINC 653 Avionics Application Software Standard Interface and JPL s Mission Data System (MDS) technology (see figure). The ARINC 653 standard establishes requirements for the services provided by partitioned, real-time operating systems. The MDS technology provides a state analysis method, canonical architecture, and software framework that facilitates the design and implementation of software-intensive complex systems. The MDS technology has been used to provide the health management function for an ARINC 653 application implementation. In particular, the focus is on showing how this combination enables reasoning about, and recovering from, application software problems.

  20. A longitudinal study investigating the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus genotype B in seasonally communal dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelk, V; Graber, H U; van den Borne, B H P; Sartori, C; Steiner, A; Bodmer, M; Haerdi-Landerer, M C

    2014-07-01

    GTB-positive swabs from seasonally employed personnel were identified at the end of the season. The results indicate that Staph. aureus GTB can easily spread in communal operations when cows from different herds of origin are mixed during the summer season. Effective management measures need to be designed to prevent the spread of Staph. aureus GTB in seasonally communal herds. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Making Technology Ready: Integrated Systems Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.

  2. Culling from the actors' perspectives-Decision-making criteria for culling in Québec dairy herds enrolled in a veterinary preventive medicine program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Denis; Cue, Roger; Sewalem, Asheber; Wade, Kevin; Lacroix, René; Lefebvre, Daniel; Rushton, Jonathan; Arsenault, Julie; Bouchard, Émile; Dubuc, Jocelyn

    2017-12-01

    The series of events leading to the decision to cull a cow is complex, involving both individual-level and herd-level factors. While the decision is guided by financial returns, it is also influenced by social and psychological factors. Research studies on the motivational and behavioural aspects of farmers' decision utility are sparse, and nonexistent regarding culling expectations and its decision process. Our goal was to identify shared criteria on culling decisions held by dairy producers and farm advisers, with the help of the Q-methodology. Forty-one dairy producers and 42 advisers (17 veterinarians, 13 feed mill advisers, and 12 dairy herd improvement (DHI) advisers) undertook a Q-sort with 40 statements that represented a range of views about cow and herd health, production performance, management issues, and material factors that might impact their culling decision-making process. The sorts were analysed by-person using factor analysis and oblimin rotation. A single view on culling could be identified among dairy producers that can be extended to dairy farm advisers, who showed two variations of the same well-structured, uni-dimensional decision-making process. Udder health, milk production performance, and milk quota management were the key criteria for the culling decision. Farm management parameters (debts, amortization, employees, milking parlour capacity, herd size) did not play any role in the decision process. Three key differences were, however, identified between producers and the two types of advisers. One group of advisers followed the recommendations from mathematical models, where pregnancy is a major determinant of a cow's value. They assessed the cow in a more abstract way than did the other participants, still taking into account udder health and milk production, but adding economic considerations, like the availability of financial incentives and an evaluation of the post-partum health of the cow. Dairy producers were also more concerned

  3. Herding: a new phenomenon affecting medical decision-making in multiple sclerosis care? Lessons learned from DIScUTIR MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saposnik G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gustavo Saposnik,1–3 Jorge Maurino,4 Angel P Sempere,5 Christian C Ruff,2 Philippe N Tobler2 1Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Laboratory for Social and Neural Systems Research, Department of Economics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Neuroscience Area, Medical Department, Roche Farma, Madrid, 5Department of Neurology, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain Purpose: Herding is a phenomenon by which individuals follow the behavior of others rather than deciding independently on the basis of their own private information. A herding-like phenomenon can occur in multiple sclerosis (MS when a neurologist follows a therapeutic recommendation by a colleague even though it is not supported by best practice clinical guidelines. Limited information is currently available on the role of herding in medical care. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence (and its associated factors of herding in the management of MS.Methods: We conducted a study among neurologists with expertise in MS care throughout Spain. Participants answered questions regarding the management of 20 case scenarios commonly encountered in clinical practice and completed 3 surveys and 4 experimental paradigms based on behavioral economics. The herding experiment consisted of a case scenario of a 40-year-old woman who has been stable for 3 years on subcutaneous interferon and developed a self-limited neurological event. There were no new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI lesions. Her neurological examination and disability scores were unchanged. She was advised by an MS neurologist to switch from interferon to fingolimod against best practice guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate factors associated with herding

  4. Cross-infection between cats and cows: origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikofsky, L L; Zadoks, R N

    2005-08-01

    Group G streptococci in animals usually belong to the species Streptococcus canis and are most commonly found in dogs and cats. Occasionally, Strep. canis is detected in milk from dairy cows. An outbreak of Strep. canis mastitis in a dairy herd is described. Based on results from bacterial culture and ribotyping, a cat with chronic sinusitis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Subsequent cow-to-cow transmission of Strep. canis was facilitated by poor udder health management, including use of a common udder cloth and failure to use postmilking teat disinfection. Infected cows had macroscopically normal udders and milk, but significantly higher somatic cell counts than Strep. canis-negative herd mates. The outbreak was controlled through antibiotic treatment of lactating cows, early dry-off with dry cow therapy, culling of infected animals, and implementation of standard mastitis prevention measures. Cure was significantly more likely in dry-treated cows (87.5%) and cows treated during lactation (67%) than in untreated cows (9%). Whereas mastitis due to group G streptococci or Strep. canis in dairy cows is usually limited to sporadic cases of environmental (canine or feline) origin, this case study shows that crossing of the host species barrier by Strep. canis may result in an outbreak of mastitis if management conditions are conducive to contagious transmission. In such a situation, measures that are successful in control of Strep. agalactiae can also be used to control Strep. canis mastitis.

  5. Management continuity in local health networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylaine Breton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients increasingly receive care from multiple providers in a variety of settings. They expect management continuity that crosses boundaries and bridges gaps in the healthcare system. To our knowledge, little research has been done to assess coordination across organizational and professional boundaries from the patients' perspective. Our objective was to assess whether greater local health network integration is associated with management continuity as perceived by patients. Method: We used the data from a research project on the development and validation of a generic and comprehensive continuity measurement instrument that can be applied to a variety of patient conditions and settings. We used the results of a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009 with 256 patients in two local health networks in Quebec, Canada. We compared four aspects of management continuity between two contrasting network types (highly integrated vs. poorly integrated. Results: The scores obtained in the highly integrated network are better than those of the poorly integrated network on all dimensions of management continuity (coordinator role, role clarity and coordination between clinics, and information gaps between providers except for experience of care plan. Conclusion: Some aspects of care coordination among professionals and organizations are noticed by patients and may be valid indicators to assess care coordination.

  6. Abortion studies in Iranian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk...... factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation...... factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion...

  7. Crisis Management in the Health Sector: Qualities and characteristics of health crisis managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manwlidou Zacharoula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly evolving nature of today’s health systems and the need to adapt to modern demands,require that these systems are staffed with skilled health crisis managers. Based on that scenario, crisis managerswith good knowledge and training, adequate experience, as well as virtues of excellent organizational skills,operational planning, mental power and social sensitivity, can play a key role in dealing successfully with crisesin the health sector.

  8. The DD Check App for prevention and control of digital dermatitis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marlène; Bennett, Tom; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-09-15

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disease in the cattle industry causing outbreaks of lameness. The clinical course of disease can be classified using 5 clinical stages. M-stages represent not only different disease severities but also unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. Monitoring the proportions of cows per M-stage is needed to better understand and address DD and factors influencing risks of DD in a herd. Changes in the proportion of cows per M-stage over time or between groups may be attributed to differences in management, environment, or treatment and can have impact on the future claw health of the herd. Yet trends in claw health regarding DD are not intuitively noticed without statistical analysis of detailed records. Our specific aim was to develop a mobile application (app) for persons with less statistical training, experience or supporting programs that would standardize M-stage records, automate data analysis including trends of M-stages over time, the calculation of predictions and assignments of Cow Types (i.e., Cow Types I-III are assigned to cows without active lesions, single and repeated cases of active DD lesions, respectively). The predictions were the stationary distributions of transitions between DD states (i.e., M-stages or signs of chronicity) in a class-structured multi-state Markov chain population model commonly used to model endemic diseases. We hypothesized that the app can be used at different levels of record detail to discover significant trends in the prevalence of M-stages that help to make informed decisions to prevent and control DD on-farm. Four data sets were used to test the flexibility and value of the DD Check App. The app allows easy recording of M-stages in different environments and is flexible in terms of the users' goals and the level of detail used. Results show that this tool discovers trends in M-stage proportions, predicts potential outbreaks of DD, and makes comparisons among

  9. Quality dimensions in health evaluation: manager's conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares; Vasconcelos, Suziana Martins de

    2010-04-01

    To understand manager's perceptions and experiences in regards to qualitative evaluations in basic health care. A qualitative study, based on the critical interpretive approach, was performed in 2006, in the city of Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. The sample consisted of the group responsible for planning basic health care at the state level. In order to obtain the empirical data, the focus group technique was utilized. Two central themes emerged concerning the perceptions about quality and the dimensions of quality employed in health evaluations, which were revealed in distinct ways. The concepts of quality evaluation and qualitative evaluation did not appear clearly understood, confusing qualitative evaluation with formal quality evaluations. Likewise, the inherent multidimensionality of quality was not recognized. Despite the criticism expressed by the participants regarding the improper quantification of certain dimensions, the necessary technical skills and understanding were not observed for the approach to include the distinct dimensions of quality in the evaluation process. The conceptions of managers responsible for the planning of basic health care at the state level revealed an important disassociation from the premises of qualitative evaluation, especially those evaluations oriented by the fourth generation approach. Therefore, the model adopted by these actors for the evaluation of program and service quality did not consider their multidimensionality.

  10. Visual monitoring of reproduction in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Iver; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to produce visual information from reproduction records are described and exemplified. The Event Display shows all reproductive events, over a year, for all cows in a herd, by symbols placed in an array with columns representing calendar weeks and rows representing...... individual cows. The Reproduction Monitor consists of graphs of insemination and pregnancy rates evaluated weekly with a Bayesian technique. These visual monitoring tools are well suited to explore temporal variation in reproductive performance, they provide a quick overview of herd performance...

  11. [Milk yield and environmental factors: Multiple regression analysis of the association between milk yield and udder health, fertility data and replacement rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölsche, C; Staufenbiel, R

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between milk yield and both fertility and general animal health in dairy herds is discussed from opposing viewpoints. The hypothesis (1) that raising the herd milk yield would decrease fertility results, the number of milk cells as an indicator for udder health and the replacement rate as a global indicator for animal health as well as increasing the occurrence of specific diseases as a herd problem was compared to the opposing hypotheses that there is no relationship (2) or that there is a differentiated and changing relationship (3). A total of 743 herd examinations, considered independent, were performed in 489 herds between 1995 and 2010. The milk yield, fertility rate, milk cell count, replacement rate, categorized herd problems and management information were recorded. The relationship between the milk yield and both the fertility data and animal health was evaluated using simple and multiple regression analyses. The period between calving and the first service displayed no significant relationship to the herd milk yield. Simple regression analysis showed that the period between calving and gestation, the calving interval and the insemination number were significantly positively associated with the herd milk yield. This positive correlation was lost in multiple regression analysis. The milk cell count and replacement rate using both the simple and multiple regression analyses displayed a significant negative relationship to the milk yield. The alternative hypothesis (3) was confirmed. A higher milk yield has no negative influence on the milk cell count and the replacement rate in terms of the udder and general health. When parameterizing the fertility, the herd milk yield should be considered. Extending the resting time may increase the milk yield while preventing a decline in the insemination index.

  12. Familiarity with modern health management trends by West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Familiarity with modern health management trends by West African Surgeons. ... of the West African College of Surgeons, which was held in Calabar, Nigeria, from ... We recommend for a well-focussed short time duration health management ...

  13. Development and validation of health service management competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhanming; Howard, Peter F; Leggat, Sandra; Bartram, Timothy

    2018-04-09

    Purpose The importance of managerial competencies in monitoring and improving the performance of organisational leaders and managers is well accepted. Different processes have been used to identify and develop competency frameworks or models for healthcare managers around the world to meet different contextual needs. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a validated process in management competency identification and development applied in Australia - a process leading to a management competency framework with associated behavioural items that can be used to measure core management competencies of health service managers. Design/methodology/approach The management competency framework development study incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methods, implemented in four stages, including job description analysis, focus group discussions and online surveys. Findings The study confirmed that the four-stage process could identify management competencies and the framework developed is considered reliable and valid for developing a management competency assessment tool that can measure management competence amongst managers in health organisations. In addition, supervisors of health service managers could use the framework to distinguish perceived superior and average performers among managers in health organisations. Practical implications Developing the core competencies of health service managers is important for management performance improvement and talent management. The six core management competencies identified can be used to guide the design professional development activities for health service managers. Originality/value The validated management competency identification and development process can be applied in other countries and different industrial contexts to identify core management competency requirements.

  14. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  15. On the surveillance for animal diseases in small herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Small herds may present a problem in surveillance for infectious animal diseases because typical levels of a within-herd design prevalence are not directly applicable. We suggest a definition of small herds as those smaller than 2/(within-herd design prevalence) on the basis that such herds would...... be expected to have less than two (i.e. only one) infected animals. Consequently, the probability of detecting small herds cannot be improved by choosing a larger sample size within the herd. We derive necessary sample sizes of herds and the probability ("confidence") of detecting disease within a stratum...... conservative (lower) estimates of the confidence for a given sample size and should therefore be preferred....

  16. Herd Clustering: A synergistic data clustering approach using collective intelligence

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue; Chan, Takming

    2014-01-01

    , this principle is used to develop a new clustering algorithm. Inspired by herd behavior, the clustering method is a synergistic approach using collective intelligence called Herd Clustering (HC). The novel part is laid in its first stage where data instances

  17. [Community health in primary health care teams: a management objective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot Adell, Carme; Pasarin Rua, Maribel; Canela Soler, Jaume; Sala Alvarez, Clara; Escosa Farga, Alex

    2016-12-01

    To describe the process of development of community health in a territory where the Primary Health Care board decided to include it in its roadmap as a strategic line. Evaluative research using qualitative techniques, including SWOT analysis on community health. Two-steps study. Primary care teams (PCT) of the Catalan Health Institute in Barcelona city. The 24 PCT belonging to the Muntanya-Dreta Primary Care Service in Barcelona city, with 904 professionals serving 557,430 inhabitants. Application of qualitative methodology using SWOT analysis in two steps (two-step study). Step 1: Setting up a core group consisting of local PCT professionals; collecting the community projects across the territory; SWOT analysis. Step 2: From the needs identified in the previous phase, a plan was developed, including a set of training activities in community health: basic, advanced, and a workshop to exchange experiences from the PCTs. A total of 80 team professionals received specific training in the 4 workshops held, one of them an advanced level. Two workshops were held to exchange experiences with 165 representatives from the local teams, and 22 PCTs presenting their practices. In 2013, 6 out of 24 PCTs have had a community diagnosis performed. Community health has achieved a good level of development in some areas, but this is not the general situation in the health care system. Its progression depends on the management support they have, the local community dynamics, and the scope of the Primary Health Care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated environment, safety, and health management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Description that is presented in this document describes the approach and management systems used to address integrated safety management within the Richland Environmental Restoration Project

  19. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  20. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Drew

    Full Text Available Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  1. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep. PMID:28282407

  2. ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.

  3. Health and poverty: health management by the woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Maria de la Luz

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal this follow-up study was to relate the mother's marital satisfaction to family health status in a low SES. The random sample was made up of 30 families with children under 7 years old: 15 considered as sick (Group A and 15 as healthy (Group B. Both group had similar demographic characteristics (age of father and mother, persons per family group and age of children and SES. Results showed that mothers were those mainly in charge of their family groups. Mothers of Group A were significantly less understanding and more dissatisfied than those of Group B ( p < .05 and p < .01. Mothers of Group A had significantly more arguments with their partners than those of Group B (p < .006. Health care was learned less from the child's own mother in group A than in B (p < .05. Health was considered by mothers of Group A as something that "must be taken care of" more than by those of Group B (p < .01. The behaviours of mothers in choosing one of the health systems was similar in both groups. Dissatisfied mothers were associated more with sick family members during the 6 month follow-up. It is suggested that the satisfaction of the mother is a factor that needs further investigation because health is managed by mothers is the large majority of families.

  4. Health and poverty: health management by the woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de la Luz Alvarez

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal this follow-up study was to relate the mother's marital satisfaction to family health status in a low SES. The random sample was made up of 30 families with children under 7 years old: 15 considered as sick (Group A and 15 as healthy (Group B. Both group had similar demographic characteristics (age of father and mother, persons per family group and age of children and SES. Results showed that mothers were those mainly in charge of their family groups. Mothers of Group A were significantly less understanding and more dissatisfied than those of Group B ( p < .05 and p < .01. Mothers of Group A had significantly more arguments with their partners than those of Group B (p < .006. Health care was learned less from the child's own mother in group A than in B (p < .05. Health was considered by mothers of Group A as something that "must be taken care of" more than by those of Group B (p < .01. The behaviours of mothers in choosing one of the health systems was similar in both groups. Dissatisfied mothers were associated more with sick family members during the 6 month follow-up. It is suggested that the satisfaction of the mother is a factor that needs further investigation because health is managed by mothers is the large majority of families.

  5. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  6. Dairy Herd Mastitis Program in Argentina: Farm Clusters and Effects on Bulk Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vissio1*, SA Dieser2, CG Raspanti2, JA Giraudo1, CI Bogni2, LM Odierno2 and AJ Larriestra1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted to characterize dairy farm clusters according to mastitis control program practiced among small and medium dairy producer from Argentina, and also to evaluate the effect of such farm cluster patterns on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC. Two samples of 51 (cross-sectional and 38 (longitudinal herds were selected to identify farm clusters and study the influence of management on monthly BMSCC, respectively. The cross-sectional sample involved the milking routine and facilities assessment of each herd visited. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to find the most discriminating farm attributes in the cross sectional sample. Afterward, the herd cluster typologies were identified in the longitudinal sample. Herd monthly BMSCC average was evaluated during 12 months fitting a linear mixed model. Two clusters were identified, the farms in the Cluster I applied a comprehensive mastitis program in opposite to Cluster II. Post-dipping, dry cow therapy and milking machine test were routinely applied in Cluster I. In the longitudinal study, 14 out of 38 dairy herds were labeled as Cluster I and the rest were assigned to Cluster II. Significant difference in BMSCC was found between cluster I and II (60,000 cells/mL. The present study showed the relevance and potential impact of promoting mastitis control practices among small and medium sized dairy producers in Argentina.

  7. E-herding : patterns of online mass-behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, D.J.; Hoeve, M.; Ortt, J.R.; Pals, N.

    2012-01-01

    Herding is convergent social behavior driven by inter-personal interaction, without centralized coordination. Herding in the online setting, which we call e-herding, is important for marketing scholars and practitioners because of its potential impact on product adoption and brand image and because

  8. Forecasting Housing Approvals in Australia: Do Forecasters Herd?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke

    2012-01-01

    Price trends in housing markets may reflect herding of market participants. A natural question is whether such herding, to the extent that it occurred, reflects herding in forecasts of professional forecasters. Using more than 6,000 forecasts of housing approvals for Australia, we did not find...

  9. 9 CFR 77.36 - Interstate movement from qualified herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... date of movement. If a group of captive cervids from a qualified herd is being moved interstate... unclassified herd. (4) Captive cervids being moved interstate for the purpose of exhibition only may be moved... being moved directly from a classified herd, the captive cervid must be isolated from all other animals...

  10. A Cow- and Herd-specific Bio-Economic Model of Intramammary Infections in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Gussmann, Maya Katrin; Græsbøll, Kaare

    Introduction. Mastitis, or intramammary infection (IMI), is one of the most significant diseases in dairy herds worldwide. It is caused by environmental and contagious bacteria. Simulation models have proven useful for evaluating the effect of different control strategies. However, previous...... published models are not cow-specific and therefore not so detailed in the simulation of host-pathogen interactions. If a simulation model is to be used by dairy farmers as a decision-making tool, it needs to be cow-specific because daily management decisions are made on cow level. Furthermore, as IMI......, contagious or mixed), the model should be able to reflect this diversity. Our objective was thus to create a pathogen-, cow- and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model that could simulate multiple pathogens and strains at the same time within a dairy herd. This model should be able to simulate realistic...

  11. 78 FR 79659 - Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...'' syndrome in 1967, the disease is typified by chronic weight loss leading to death. Species currently known... programs must follow the program requirements for animal identification, testing, herd management, and... adequate to prevent ingress or egress of cervids; the regulations do not specify what type of fencing is...

  12. Assessment of the probability of introducing Mycobacterium tuberculosis into Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent to Danish cattle farmers. The gained inputs were fed into three stochastic scenario trees to assess the PIntro for the current and alternative test-and-manage strategies, such as testing of imported animals and/or testing immigrant...

  13. Herd- and sow-related risk factors for lameness in organic and conventional sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine

    2014-01-01

    included in the study were clinical parameters and factors related to the production system. Sows were examined visually by one of four trained observers. The organic sows were assigned scores for lameness, body condition, hoof length, bursitis, abscesses and leg wounds, while the conventional sows were...... assigned scores for lameness, body condition and bursitis. A multivariable analysis was carried out by logistic regression with the herd and observer as random effects. The average herd lameness prevalence in gestation and lactation sows in organic herds was 11% in summer/autumn and 4.6% in winter....../spring. ‘Wounds, bursitis and abscess’ on legs (OR=4.7, P3 (OR=1.79, P=0.008) were associated with increased risk of lameness in Danish organic sow herds. Season (winter/spring v. summer/autumn) lowered the risk of lameness (OR=0.37, P

  14. Some herding, record keeping and treatment methods used in Alaskan reindeer herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dieterich

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20000 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus in Alaska are gathered once or twice yearly to facilitate identification, serologic sampling, treatment and antler removal. Various air and land craft are used to bring the animals into a corral system from which they can be herded into a padded, pneumatically operated, squeeze apparatus. Ear tags are applied or read if already in place and ears are notched. A portable, computerized rapid data retrieval system is used to record reproductive success, vaccination and treatment status and other miscellaneous information. Ivermectin is being administered in the early winter months to treat reindeer in many herds for warbles, nasal bots and internal parasites. A killed, homologous Brucella suis type 4 vaccine is being used in two large (3500 herds. Efforts are being made to incorporate other innovative methods to improve herding and corralling methods.

  15. Health risk assessment for program managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jump, R.A.; Williamson, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a sensitivity analysis into the independent variables that determine the levels of health risks posed by buried plutonium and americium at a typical contaminated site in an arid region. Environmental Restoration Program Managers often must make decisions concerning cleanup levels, remediation alternatives, schedules, cost estimates, etc. based upon extraordinarily safe assumptions about risk assessment calculation inputs. This study reveals to the Program Manager which variables are major drivers to the calculated levels of risk posed by transuranic radionuclides and which ones have second order effects or less. The findings of this study should indicate which inputs should be the focus of attention during negotiations with regulators and of further empirical investigation

  16. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  17. The RF spectrum: managing community health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation I would like to share with you the way in which the Australian Communications Authority (ACA) goes about 'managing' community issues relating to the RF spectrum. In particular, I would like to refer to community issues associated with concerns about health. I will refer only briefly to the siting of mobile phone base stations as that will be covered elsewhere. Before getting into the community issues, I would like to provide some context about the ACA and the arrangements it has for regulating radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR). Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  18. Managing change in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, N

    1977-08-01

    The forces for change seem more potent today than ever before; increased technological advancement and rapid "societal upheavals" create a more critical need for change and a more significant need for skills to manage and channel change toward meaningful ends. The area of health care delivery is probably one of the fields most impinged upon and most affected by these turbulent times. Organizational development is presented herein as an approach to assist people in health care organizations with the problems of adaptation and change. A specific change strategy, action research, is discussed and a concrete case example is presented to illustrate the ways in which the action research model can be applied. Advantages and pitfalls are discussed in the concluding section.

  19. Investigation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre

    2005-01-01

    This report is to present the work that was performed during the summer in the Advance Computing Application office. The NFFP (NASA Faculty Fellow Program) had ten summer faculty members working on IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. The objective of this project was two-fold: 1) to become familiar with IVHM concepts and key demonstrated IVHM technologies; and 2) to integrate the research that has been performed by IVHM faculty members into the MASTLAB (Marshall Avionic Software Test Lab). IVHM is a NASA-wide effort to coordinate, integrate and apply advanced software, sensors and design technologies to increase the level of intelligence, autonomy, and health state of future vehicles. IVHM is an important concept because it is consistent with the current plan for NASA to go to the moon, mars, and beyond. In order for NASA to become more involved in deep exploration, avionic systems will need to be highly adaptable and autonomous.

  20. Factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA CC398 in herds of fattening pigs in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alt Katja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs in different regions of Germany, and to determine factors associated with the occurrence of this pathogen. For this purpose pooled dust samples were collected, and a questionnaire covered information regarding herd characteristics and management practices. Samples were pre-enriched in high-salt medium followed by selective enrichment containing cefoxitin/aztreonam, and culturing. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by multiplex-PCR targeting nuc-, mecA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Isolates were spa- and SCCmec-, and in selected cases, multilocus sequence-typed. Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution. Statistical analysis was carried out using backward stepwise logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with the MRSA test result as the outcome and herd characteristics as categorical covariates. Results Overall, 152 of 290 (52% fattening pig farms tested positive for MRSA. The prevalence in the east, north- and south-west of Germany ranged from 39 to 59%. t011 (66% and t034 (23% were the most commonly identified spa-types, and 85% of isolates carried SCCmec Type V. Identified spa-types were all associated with clonal complex CC398. Susceptibility testing revealed that all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. High resistance rates were also found for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (40%, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (32%. In addition, 83% of strains displayed multidrug resistant (> 3 substance classes phenotypes. Logistic regression revealed herd size (large farms OR: 5.4; CI: 2.7-11.2; p Conclusions MRSA CC398 is widely distributed among herds of fattening pigs in Germany. Farm management plays a crucial role in the dissemination of MRSA with herd size, and production type representing potential major indicators.

  1. Factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA CC398 in herds of fattening pigs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Katja; Fetsch, Alexandra; Schroeter, Andreas; Guerra, Beatriz; Hammerl, Jens A; Hertwig, Stefan; Senkov, Natalja; Geinets, Anna; Mueller-Graf, Christine; Braeunig, Juliane; Kaesbohrer, Annemarie; Appel, Bernd; Hensel, Andreas; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois

    2011-11-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs in different regions of Germany, and to determine factors associated with the occurrence of this pathogen. For this purpose pooled dust samples were collected, and a questionnaire covered information regarding herd characteristics and management practices. Samples were pre-enriched in high-salt medium followed by selective enrichment containing cefoxitin/aztreonam, and culturing. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by multiplex-PCR targeting nuc-, mecA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Isolates were spa- and SCCmec-, and in selected cases, multilocus sequence-typed. Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution. Statistical analysis was carried out using backward stepwise logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with the MRSA test result as the outcome and herd characteristics as categorical covariates. Overall, 152 of 290 (52%) fattening pig farms tested positive for MRSA. The prevalence in the east, north- and south-west of Germany ranged from 39 to 59%.t011 (66%) and t034 (23%) were the most commonly identified spa-types, and 85% of isolates carried SCCmec Type V. Identified spa-types were all associated with clonal complex CC398. Susceptibility testing revealed that all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. High resistance rates were also found for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (40%), and quinupristin/dalfopristin (32%). In addition, 83% of strains displayed multidrug resistant (> 3 substance classes) phenotypes.Logistic regression revealed herd size (large farms OR: 5.4; CI: 2.7-11.2; p pig operations. MRSA CC398 is widely distributed among herds of fattening pigs in Germany. Farm management plays a crucial role in the dissemination of MRSA with herd size, and production type representing potential major indicators.

  2. Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Mohd Khairul Hakimin; Manisah Saedon

    2011-01-01

    Safe work environment has always been one of the major concerns at workplace. For this, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 has been promulgated for all workplaces to ensure the Safety, Health and Welfare of its employees and any person at workplaces. Malaysian Nuclear Agency therefore has started the initiative to review and improve the current Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) by going for OHSAS 18001:2007 and MS 1722 standards certification. This would also help in our preparation to bid as the TSO (Technical Support Organization) for the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) when it is established. With a developed and well maintained OSHMS, it helps to create a safe working condition and thus enhancing the productivity, quality and good morale. Ultimately, this will lead to a greater organization profit. However, successful OSHMS requires full commitment and support from all level of the organization to work hand in hand in implementing the safety and health policy. Therefore it is essential for all to acknowledge the progress of the implementation and be part of it. (author)

  3. Cow and herd variation in milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M; Hanigan, M D; Tucker, H A; Jones, B L; Garbade, S K; McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C; Knowlton, K F; James, R E

    2012-12-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is correlated with N balance, N intake, and dietary N content, and thus is a good indicator of proper feeding management with respect to protein. It is commonly used to monitor feeding programs to achieve environmental goals; however, genetic diversity also exists among cows. It was hypothesized that phenotypic diversity among cows could bias feed management decisions when monitoring tools do not consider genetic diversity associated with MUN. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of cow and herd variation on MUN. Data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial were subjected to multivariate regression analyses using a mixed model. Analyses of the research trial data showed that MUN concentrations could be predicted equally well from diet composition, milk yield, and milk components regardless of whether dry matter intake was included in the regression model. This indicated that cow and herd variation could be accurately estimated from field trial data when feed intake was not known. Milk urea N was correlated with dietary protein and neutral detergent fiber content, milk yield, milk protein content, and days in milk for both data sets. Cow was a highly significant determinant of MUN regardless of the data set used, and herd trended to significance for the field trial data. When all other variables were held constant, a percentage unit change in dietary protein concentration resulted in a 1.1mg/dL change in MUN. Least squares means estimates of MUN concentrations across herds ranged from a low of 13.6 mg/dL to a high of 17.3 mg/dL. If the observed MUN for the high herd were caused solely by high crude protein feeding, then the herd would have to reduce dietary protein to a concentration of 12.8% of dry matter to achieve a MUN concentration of 12 mg/dL, likely resulting in lost milk production. If the observed phenotypic variation is due to genetic differences among cows, genetic choices could result in

  4. House Price Forecasts, Forecaster Herding, and the Recent Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pierdzioch

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We used the Wall Street Journal survey data for the period 2006–2012 to analyze whether forecasts of house prices and housing starts provide evidence of (anti-herding of forecasters. Forecasts are consistent with herding (anti-herding of forecasters if forecasts are biased towards (away from the consensus forecast. We found that anti-herding is prevalent among forecasters of house prices. We also report that, following the recent crisis, the prevalence of forecaster anti-herding seems to have changed over time.

  5. House Price Forecasts, Forecaster Herding, and the Recent Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Ruelke

    2013-01-01

    We used the Wall Street Journal survey data for the period 2006–2012 to analyze whether forecasts of house prices and housing starts provide evidence of (anti-)herding of forecasters. Forecasts are consistent with herding (anti-herding) of forecasters if forecasts are biased towards (away from) t......) the consensus forecast. We found that anti-herding is prevalent among forecasters of house prices. We also report that, following the recent crisis, the prevalence of forecaster anti-herding seems to have changed over time....

  6. Factors that influence producer decisions to implement management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Thomas G

    2014-12-01

    Cow-calf enterprises in the USA are widely divergent in size, locale, resource availability, management skill, and market focus. Furthermore, variation exists in dependence on the cow-calf enterprise as a primary source of income, perception about the utility of a particular management practice or technology, and assessment of cost: benefit resulting from implementation impact decisions. Enterprises with larger cow inventories, greater dependence on income from the cattle enterprise, and that retain ownership further into the supply chain beyond the cow-calf operation are more likely to institute management protocols such as vaccination programs, defined calving seasons, and reproductive technologies. Successful cow-calf managers place the highest priority on herd nutrition, pasture and range management, herd health, financial management marketing, production management, and genetics. Management practices are more likely to be adopted when they align with a manager's perception of the utility, labor availability, favorable cost: benefit outcomes and profit motivation.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and E. coli from Pennsylvania dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is an increasing public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and E. coli isolates from Pennsylvania dairy herds. Manure composite samples were collected from 76 farms: on each farm one sample...

  8. Change in lameness risk estimates in piglets due to the modelling of herd-level variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, M.K.; Christensen, J.

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study (Christensen, 1996. Prev. Vet. Med. 26, 107-118), an effect parameter changed from positive to negative depending on the model used. The study considered lameness in suckling piglets and the dataset included 7632 litters from 35 herds from the Health and Production Surveillanc...

  9. 9 CFR 55.23 - Responsibilities of States and enrolled herd owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... all CWD-positive, CWD-suspect, and CWD-exposed animals. (2) Has the authority, based on State law or... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities of States and enrolled herd owners. 55.23 Section 55.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  10. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by providing a reliable estimate of future system states. This estimate is a key for planning and decision making in an operational setting. While technology solutions have made considerable advances, the tie-in into the systems engineering process is lagging behind, which delays fielding of PHM-enabled systems. The derivation of specifications from high level requirements for algorithm performance to ensure quality predictions is not well developed. From an engineering perspective some key parameters driving the requirements for prognostics performance include: (1) maximum allowable Probability of Failure (PoF) of the prognostic system to bound the risk of losing an asset, (2) tolerable limits on proactive maintenance to minimize missed opportunity of asset usage, (3) lead time to specify the amount of advanced warning needed for actionable decisions, and (4) required confidence to specify when prognosis is sufficiently good to be used. This paper takes a systems engineering view towards the requirements specification process and presents a method for the flowdown process. A case study based on an electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (e-UAV) scenario demonstrates how top level requirements for performance, cost, and safety flow down to the health management level and specify quantitative requirements for prognostic algorithm performance.

  11. Environment, Safety, Health and Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The mission of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) is the production of high qaulity uranium metal for use by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in Defense Programs. In order to accomplish this mission and to maintain the FMPC as a viable facility in the DOE production complex, the facility must be brought into full compliance with all federal and state regulations and industry standards for environmental protection and worker safety. Where past practices have resulted in environmental insult, a comprehensive program of remediation must be implemented. The purpose of this combined Environment, Safety, Health and Waste Management Plan is to provide a road map for achieving needed improvements. The plan is structured to provide a comprehensive projection from the current fiscal year (FY) through FY 1994 of the programs, projects and funding required to achieve compliance. To do this, the plan is subdivided into chapters which discuss the applicable regulations;project schedules and funding requirements;details of the various programs for environment, safety, health and waste management;details of the ongoing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA);the quality assurance program and the environmental monitoring program. 14 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs

  12. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-04-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  13. Managing health and safety risks: Implications for tailoring health and safety management system practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, D R; Haas, E J

    2016-01-01

    As national and international health and safety management system (HSMS) standards are voluntarily accepted or regulated into practice, organizations are making an effort to modify and integrate strategic elements of a connected management system into their daily risk management practices. In high-risk industries such as mining, that effort takes on added importance. The mining industry has long recognized the importance of a more integrated approach to recognizing and responding to site-specific risks, encouraging the adoption of a risk-based management framework. Recently, the U.S. National Mining Association led the development of an industry-specific HSMS built on the strategic frameworks of ANSI: Z10, OHSAS 18001, The American Chemistry Council's Responsible Care, and ILO-OSH 2001. All of these standards provide strategic guidance and focus on how to incorporate a plan-do-check-act cycle into the identification, management and evaluation of worksite risks. This paper details an exploratory study into whether practices associated with executing a risk-based management framework are visible through the actions of an organization's site-level management of health and safety risks. The results of this study show ways that site-level leaders manage day-to-day risk at their operations that can be characterized according to practices associated with a risk-based management framework. Having tangible operational examples of day-to-day risk management can serve as a starting point for evaluating field-level risk assessment efforts and their alignment to overall company efforts at effective risk mitigation through a HSMS or other processes.

  14. Health plans' disease management programs: extending across the medical and behavioral health spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Morley, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Although the disease management industry has expanded rapidly, there is little nationally representative data regarding medical and behavioral health disease management programs at the health plan level. National estimates from a survey of private health plans indicate that 90% of health plan products offered disease management for general medical conditions such as diabetes but only 37% had depression programs. The frequency of specific depression disease management activities varied widely. Program adoption was significantly related to product type and behavioral health contracting. In health plans, disease management has penetrated more slowly into behavioral health and depression program characteristics are highly variable.

  15. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles

  16. Enabling medication management through health information technology (Health IT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbon, K Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Handler, Steve M; Dolovich, Lisa R; Holbrook, Anne M; O'Reilly, Daria; Tamblyn, Robyn; J Hemens, Brian; Basu, Runki; Troyan, Sue; Roshanov, Pavel S; Archer, Norman P; Raina, Parminder

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the report was to review the evidence on the impact of health information technology (IT) on all phases of the medication management process (prescribing and ordering, order communication, dispensing, administration and monitoring as well as education and reconciliation), to identify the gaps in the literature and to make recommendations for future research. We searched peer-reviewed electronic databases, grey literature, and performed hand searches. Databases searched included MEDLINE®, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Compendex, Inspec (which includes IEEE Xplore), Library and Information Science Abstracts, E-Prints in Library and Information Science, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and Business Source Complete. Grey literature searching involved Internet searching, reviewing relevant Web sites, and searching electronic databases of grey literatures. AHRQ also provided all references in their e-Prescribing, bar coding, and CPOE knowledge libraries. Paired reviewers looked at citations to identify studies on a range of health IT used to assist in the medication management process (MMIT) during multiple levels of screening (titles and abstracts, full text and final review for assignment of questions and data abstrction). Randomized controlled trials and cohort, case-control, and case series studies were independently assessed for quality. All data were abstracted by one reviewer and examined by one of two different reviewers with content and methods expertise. 40,582 articles were retrieved. After duplicates were removed, 32,785 articles were screened at the title and abstract phase. 4,578 full text articles were assessed and 789 articles were included in the final report. Of these, 361 met only content criteria and were listed without further abstraction. The final report included data from 428 articles across the seven key

  17. Service Line Management: A New Paradigm in Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Rezapour Nasrabad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Health care organizations are required to implement modern management practices and approaches due to the importance of improving quality and increasing efficiency of health care services. Service line management of healthcare services is one of the new approaches that managers of health sectors are interested in. The “service line” approach will organize the management of inpatient and outpatient in clinical services focusing on patient diagnostic clusters. Services specific in each patient diagnostic cluster will be offered by a multidisciplinary team including nurses, physicians, and so no. Accordingly, the present study aims to evaluate the features, process and benefits of service line management approach in the provision of health services. In this descriptive study, internal and external scientific database have been reviewed and the necessary data have been extracted from the latest research projects and related scientific documents. The results showed that the new management approach is based on a paradigm shift from traditional health care system management to healthcare service line management with a focus on managers’ competencies. Four specific manager’s competencies in this new management model are: conceptual, collaborative, interpersonal, and leadership competencies. Theses competencies should be developed in health system managers so as to lead to organizational excellency and improvement of health service quality. The health sector managers should strengthen these four key competencies and act on them. Then they will become effective leaders and managers in the health system.

  18. Could information about herd immunity help us achieve herd immunity? Evidence from a population representative survey experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Sveinung; Bærøe, Kristine; Cappelen, Cornelius; Carlsen, Benedicte

    2018-05-01

    Immunisation causes dramatic reductions in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases; however, resistance to vaccination is nonetheless widespread. An understudied issue - explored here - is whether appeals to collective as opposed to individual benefits of vaccination encourage people to vaccinate. Knowledge of this is important not least with respect to the design of public health campaigns, which often lack information about the collective benefits of vaccination. Using a between-subjects experimental survey design, we test whether information about the effects of herd immunity influences people's decision to vaccinate. A representative sample of Norwegians was confronted with a hypothetical scenario in which a new and infectious disease is on its way to Norway. The sample was split in three - a control group and two treatment groups. The one treatment group was provided information about collective benefits of vaccination; the other was provided information about the individual benefits of vaccination. Both treatments positively affect people's decision to vaccinate; however, informing about the collective benefits has an even stronger effect than informing about the individual benefits. Our results suggest that people's decision about whether to vaccinate and thus contribute to herd immunity is influenced by concern for others. Thus, stressing the collective benefits of vaccination could increase the effectiveness of health campaigns.

  19. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examination.......50. There was no difference between the prevalence in sheep and goat herds. Records for well over half of the herds could be combined with data from the Danish Central Husbandry Register. No association between occurrence of ED and herd size was found. Cattle were registered as contemporarily present on 135 out of 521 herds...... which was shown to be strongly associated to ED. The estimated herd prevalences of ED among farms with and without contemporary cattle were 0.24 and 0.042, respectively....

  20. Claw and limb disorders in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldaas, Terje; Nafstad, Ola; Fredriksen, Bente; Ringdal, Grethe; Sogstad, Ase M

    2007-09-24

    The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of claw and limb disorders in Norwegian beef-cow herds. Twenty-six herds with >or=15 cow-years were selected by computerized systematic assignment from the three most beef cattle-dense regions of Norway. The study population consisted of 12 herds with 28 heifers and 334 cows. The animals were trimmed and examined once by claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2003. The seven claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, feeding and management routines, age and breed, culling and carcass characteristics were also recorded. Lameness was recorded in 1.1% of the animals, and only in hind claws. Pericarpal swellings were recorded in one animal and peritarsal lesions in none. In total, claw and limb disorders including lameness were recorded in 29.6% of the animals, 4.1% with front and 28.2% with hind limb disorders, respectively. Most lesions were mild. Laminitis-related claw lesions were recorded in 18.0% of the animals and infectious lesions in 16.6%. The average claw length was 84 mm in front claws and 89 mm in hind claw. Both laminitis-related and infectious claw lesions were more prevalent with increasing age. Carcasses from animals with claw and limb disorders were on average 34 kg heavier than carcasses from animals without such disorders (p = 0.02). Our results also indicate association between some management factors and claw lesions. The study shows that the prevalence of lameness was low in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds compared to beef-cattle herds in other countries and also that there were less claw and limb disorders in these herds compared to foreign dairy-cattle herds. The prevalence of lameness and white-line fissures was approximately the same as in Norwegian dairy herds whereas less dermatitis, heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and the white line and sole ulcers were recorded.

  1. Claw and limb disorders in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringdal Grethe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of claw and limb disorders in Norwegian beef-cow herds. Methods Twenty-six herds with ≥15 cow-years were selected by computerized systematic assignment from the three most beef cattle-dense regions of Norway. The study population consisted of 12 herds with 28 heifers and 334 cows. The animals were trimmed and examined once by claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2003. The seven claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, feeding and management routines, age and breed, culling and carcass characteristics were also recorded. Results Lameness was recorded in 1.1% of the animals, and only in hind claws. Pericarpal swellings were recorded in one animal and peritarsal lesions in none. In total, claw and limb disorders including lameness were recorded in 29.6% of the animals, 4.1% with front and 28.2% with hind limb disorders, respectively. Most lesions were mild. Laminitis-related claw lesions were recorded in 18.0% of the animals and infectious lesions in 16.6%. The average claw length was 84 mm in front claws and 89 mm in hind claw. Both laminitis-related and infectious claw lesions were more prevalent with increasing age. Carcasses from animals with claw and limb disorders were on average 34 kg heavier than carcasses from animals without such disorders (p = 0.02. Our results also indicate association between some management factors and claw lesions. Conclusion The study shows that the prevalence of lameness was low in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds compared to beef-cattle herds in other countries and also that there were less claw and limb disorders in these herds compared to foreign dairy-cattle herds. The prevalence of lameness and white-line fissures was approximately the same as in Norwegian dairy herds whereas less dermatitis, heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and the white line and sole ulcers were

  2. Clinical mastitis in Macedonian dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajčev M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the determination of the occurrence and prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk on three dairy farms. A one year study on a total of 1031 black-white breed cows with a total of 1267 lactations was performed. Each dairy farm implemented a different technology of rearing and was of different herd size (farm A - tie-stalls, 162 cows; farm B - loose-housing system with open shed and deep bedding, 357 dairy cows; and farm C - loosehousing system with enclosed shed, 512 cows. Clinical mastitis in cows was detected by clinical examination of the udder and determination of abnormalities in the milk. To distinguish two consecutive cases of clinical mastitis within the same lactation a time period of nine days was used. Annual prevalence rate of clinical mastitis for the entire population of cows was 34.13% on cow level, and 30.07% on lactation level. There was a high prevalence rate of clinical mastitis in primiparous cows, 21.43%, 40.77% and 12.55%, on farms A, B and C, respectively. Lactation incident risk for cows on farm A was 25.00%, farm B 95.58% and farm C 21.49%. The prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk tended to increase with increasing parity. The annual lactation risk for the entire population of cows was 45.86%. All indicators for the determination of the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy farms, which were observed during the research, showed the greatest values on farm B. Most of the cows manifested one (68.24% or two (18.63% cases of clinical mastitis during lactation. There was a long period in lactation until the appearance of the first case of clinical mastitis (112.21 ± 92.04 days. Generally, clinical mastitis was registered during the whole period of the survey, with some fluctuations between different seasons. The method of GLM (General Linear Model, univariate procedure, was used to analyze associations between the incidence of clinical mastitis and

  3. Information support for health information management in regional Sri Lanka: health managers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Kaduruwane Indika; Chan, Taizan; Yaralagadda, Prasad

    Good management, supported by accurate, timely and reliable health information, is vital for increasing the effectiveness of Health Information Systems (HIS). When it comes to managing the under-resourced health systems of developing countries, information-based decision making is particularly important. This paper reports findings of a self-report survey that investigated perceptions of local health managers (HMs) of their own regional HIS in Sri Lanka. Data were collected through a validated, pre-tested postal questionnaire, and distributed among a selected group of HMs to elicit their perceptions of the current HIS in relation to information generation, acquisition and use, required reforms to the information system and application of information and communication technology (ICT). Results based on descriptive statistics indicated that the regional HIS was poorly organised and in need of reform; that management support for the system was unsatisfactory in terms of relevance, accuracy, timeliness and accessibility; that political pressure and community and donor requests took precedence over vital health information when management decisions were made; and use of ICT was unsatisfactory. HIS strengths included user-friendly paper formats, a centralised planning system and an efficient disease notification system; weaknesses were lack of comprehensiveness, inaccuracy, and lack of a feedback system. Responses of participants indicated that HIS would be improved by adopting an internationally accepted framework and introducing ICT applications. Perceived barriers to such improvements were high initial cost of educating staff to improve computer literacy, introduction of ICTs, and HIS restructure. We concluded that the regional HIS of Central Province, Sri Lanka had failed to provide much-needed information support to HMs. These findings are consistent with similar research in other developing countries and reinforce the need for further research to verify causes of

  4. Prospective Health: Duke's Approach to Improving Employee Health and Managing Health Care Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, H. Clint, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    If developing a healthy workforce is critical to reining in the skyrocketing cost of health care, then why have so many attempts at preventive health or disease management fallen short? How can employers connect with employees to engage them in changing unhealthy habits or lifestyles? Duke University has launched an innovative new approach called…

  5. Environmental health research in Japan - management of environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masahisa [Lake Biwa Research Institute (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Briefly discussed the topics on emerging environmental health risks, their assessment and management, with special emphasis on groundwater management , environmental contamination, source protection, new drinking water and ambient water quality standards; and sophistication in instrumentation in environmental quality measurements, hazards and risk assessment and control, technology development in environmental health risk management.

  6. Environmental health research in Japan - management of environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masahisa Nakamura

    1996-01-01

    Briefly discussed the topics on emerging environmental health risks, their assessment and management, with special emphasis on groundwater management , environmental contamination, source protection, new drinking water and ambient water quality standards; and sophistication in instrumentation in environmental quality measurements, hazards and risk assessment and control, technology development in environmental health risk management

  7. Information technology acceptance in health information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdekhoda, M; Ahmadi, M; Dehnad, A; Hosseini, A F

    2014-01-01

    User acceptance of information technology has been a significant area of research for more than two decades in the field of information technology. This study assessed the acceptance of information technology in the context of Health Information Management (HIM) by utilizing Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which was modified and applied to assess user acceptance of health information technology as well as viability of TAM as a research construct in the context of HIM. This was a descriptive- analytical study in which a sample of 187 personnel from a population of 363 personnel, working in medical records departments of hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, was selected. Users' perception of applying information technology was studied by a researcher-developed questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software (version16) using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results suggest that TAM is a useful construct to assess user acceptance of information technology in the context of HIM. The findings also evidenced the perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PE) were positively associated with favorable users' attitudes towards HIM. PU was relatively more associated (r= 0.22, p = 0.05) than PEOU (r = 0.014, p = 0.05) with favorable user attitudes towards HIM. Users' perception of usefulness and ease of use are important determinants providing the incentive for users to accept information technologies when the application of a successful HIM system is attempted. The findings of the present study suggest that user acceptance is a key element and should subsequently be the major concern of health organizations and health policy makers.

  8. Effective public health management: The Nigerian experience | Abe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public health management in Nigeria is the process of mobilizing and deploying resources for the provision of effective public health services. To ensure an effective public health, population based strategies would need to be put in place and this would require proper management to yield desired results. This paper ...

  9. Coordinated Management of Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balser, Jeffrey R; Stead, William W

    2017-01-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) are the nation's primary resource for healthcare discovery, innovation, and training. US healthcare revenue growth has declined sharply since 2009, and is forecast to remain well below historic levels for the foreseeable future. As the cost of education and research at nearly all AHCs is heavily subsidized through large transfers from clinical care margins, our institutions face a mounting crisis. Choices centering on how to increase the cost-effectiveness of the AHC enterprise require unprecedented levels of alignment to preserve an environment that nurtures creativity. Management processes require governance models that clarify decision rights while harnessing the talents and the intellectual capital of a large, diverse enterprise to nimbly address unfamiliar organizational challenges. This paper describes key leadership tactics aimed at propelling AHCs along this journey - one that requires from all leaders a commitment to resilience, optimism, and willingness to embrace change.

  10. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Walker, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    Systems capabilities on ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) and autonomy have traditionally been addressed separately. This means that ISHM functions, such as anomaly detection, diagnostics, prognostics, and comprehensive system awareness have not been considered traditionally in the context of autonomy functions such as planning, scheduling, and mission execution. One key reason is that although they address systems capabilities, both ISHM and autonomy have traditionally individually been approached as independent strategies and models for analysis. Additionally, to some degree, a unified paradigm for ISHM and autonomy has been difficult to implement due to limitations of hardware and software. This paper explores a unified treatment of ISHM and autonomy in the context of distributed hierarchical autonomous operations.

  11. Prognostics and health management of photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jay; Riley, Daniel

    2018-04-10

    The various technologies presented herein relate to providing prognosis and health management (PHM) of a photovoltaic (PV) system. A PV PHM system can eliminate long-standing issues associated with detecting performance reduction in PV systems. The PV PHM system can utilize an ANN model with meteorological and power input data to facilitate alert generation in the event of a performance reduction without the need for information about the PV PHM system components and design. Comparisons between system data and the PHM model can provide scheduling of maintenance on an as-needed basis. The PHM can also provide an approach for monitoring system/component degradation over the lifetime of the PV system.

  12. Rocket Testing and Integrated System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John

    2005-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) describes a set of system capabilities that in aggregate perform: determination of condition for each system element, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes for anomalies, and prognostics for future anomalies and system behavior. The ISHM should also provide operators with situational awareness of the system by integrating contextual and timely data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) as needed. ISHM capabilities can be implemented using a variety of technologies and tools. This chapter provides an overview of ISHM contributing technologies and describes in further detail a novel implementation architecture along with associated taxonomy, ontology, and standards. The operational ISHM testbed is based on a subsystem of a rocket engine test stand. Such test stands contain many elements that are common to manufacturing systems, and thereby serve to illustrate the potential benefits and methodologies of the ISHM approach for intelligent manufacturing.

  13. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  14. Runne-Beana: Dog Herds Ethnographer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrdene Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Saami society in Lapland (now often called Saapmi, particularly the seasonally-nomadic reindeer-breeding sector, is predicated upon mobility and autonomy of its actors. Runne-Beana, a talented reindeer-herding dog, exhibited both mobility and autonomy when allocating to himself a peripatetic ethnographer, on the first day of five years of doctoral dissertation fieldwork in arctic Norway in 1972. That family’s and the wider community’s reactions to Runne-Beana’s behavior, and mine, highlight the tensions when mobility and autonomy compound with ideologies of ownership and control. At the same time, his companionship profoundly shaped all field relationships, engendering an understanding of dog culture as it is manifest in the herder/herding dog/reindeer triad and in the interpenetration of assumptions concerning child/dog enculturation.

  15. Dynamic production monitoring in pig herds II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bono, Claudia; Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm applied on a dataset containing data from 15 herds, each of them including insemination and farrowing observations over a period ranging from 150 to 800 weeks. The model included a set of parameters describing the parity-specific farrowing rate and the re......-insemination effect. It also provided reliable forecasting on weekly basis. Statistical control tools were used to give warnings in case of impaired farrowing rate. For each herd, farrowing rate profile, analysis of model components over time and detection of alarms were computed. The model provided a good overview...... of the development of the parity specific farrowing rate over time and the control charts were able to detect impaired results. Suggestions for future improvements include addition of parity-specific control charts, calibration of the charts for use in practice and inclusion of a sow effect in the farrowing model....

  16. Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckun, Serdar

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

  17. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in French cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsot, Maud; Béral, Marina; Scoizec, Axelle; Mathevon, Yoann; Durand, Benoit; Courcoul, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    Although officially free of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), France has been experiencing a slight increase in the incidence and geographical spread of the infection. Eradication of bTB requires determining the infection risk factors. Although several studies identifying bTB risk factors have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Spain, no information is currently available regarding bTB risk factors in French cattle. The objective of this work was thus to study the factors associated with the risk of bTB in cattle herds in three French administrative divisions (départements of Ardennes, Côte d'Or and Dordogne). A case-control study was conducted to compare herds having experienced a bTB outbreak between 2012 and early 2014 with randomly selected control herds of the three study départements. A questionnaire of farming practices, inter-herd contacts (e.g. at pasture or via vehicles or materials), and the presence of other domestic species was carried out in the selected herds. Data on other variables of interest included animal movements between farms and potential contacts between cattle and wildlife (e.g. badger and wild boar abundances) were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression and multimodel inference methods were used to assess risk factors related to bTB. A total of 216 herds (72 cases and 144 controls) were analyzed. The two main risk factors were the presence of a recent neighboring outbreak, being defined as a neighboring herd at pasture reported as infected in the past two years (odds ratio (OR)=3.6; population attributable fraction (PAF)=30.7%) and the presence of a farm building for cattle housing or for feed storage located at more than 300-m from inhabited areas (OR=2.3; PAF=27.6%). Another risk factor was related to sharing water points at pasture with a recent neighboring outbreak. Results illustrated the multifactorial nature of bTB dynamics. The risk factors related to recently infected neighboring herds could be attributable to

  18. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (phepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Workplace Health Education Performed by Occupational Health Managers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Ha Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: “Analysis and planning” skill is priority training area for healthcare professionals and occupational health managers who managed nonmanufacturing industry. It is necessary to develop a training curriculum for occupational health managers that include improving analysis of worksites and plans for a health education program.

  20. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  1. Health education and caregivers' management of Malaria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health education and caregivers' management of Malaria among under fives in Ede North L.G.A., Osun State of Nigeria. ... about the dose and regimen of chloroquine drug and (e) had a better attitude towards the management of malaria.

  2. Integrated Management System Incorporating Quality Management and Management of Environment, Health and Occupational Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, B.; Nenkova, B.; Tomov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk Engineering Ltd is a Bulgarian private company founded in 1990 to provide engineering and consulting services applicable to each and every field of the energy sector. Since its establishment Risk Engineering Ltd develops, implement and apply a System for quality assurance, certified for the first time by BVQI (now Bureau Veritas Certification) in 1999 for conformity with the standard ISO 9001:1994. Later on, in connection with the revision of the standards of ISO 9000 series and introduction of the standard ISO 9001:2000 a Quality Management System in conformity with the standard ISO 9001:2000 was developed, introduced and certified. At present, Risk Engineering Ltd has got developed, documented, introduced and certified by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance (LRQA) Quality Management System in compliance with ISO 9001:2008 on the process approach basis. On this basis and including the requirements of the ISO 14001:2004 (regarding the environment) and OHSAS 18001:2007 (regarding the health and occupational safety), Risk Engineering Ltd has developed and introduced Integrated Management System aim at achieving and demonstrating good results regarding protection of the environment, health and occupational safety. The processes under control by the Integrated Management System and applicable at the company are divided in two general types: A) Management processes: Strategic management and Management of the human resources. B) Processes describing the main activities: design/development process; project management; management of industrial projects and technical infrastructure project; construction, installation, repair and operation of power industry facilities; commercial activities and marketing; investigation of energy efficiency of industrial systems and certification of buildings regarding energy efficiency; consulting activity in the field of industry and energy as well as consultant in accordance with the Law of the Spatial Planning; management of the

  3. Prognostic Health Management for Avionics System Power Supplies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orsagh, Rolf; Brown, Douglas; Roemer, Michael; Dabney, Thomas; Hess, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to switching mode power supply health management that implements techniques from engineering disciplines including statistical reliability modeling, damage...

  4. On Management Matters: Why We Must Improve Public Health Management Through Action: Comment on "Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willacy, Erika; Bratton, Shelly

    2015-09-30

    Public health management is a pillar of public health practice. Only through effective management can research, theory, and scientific innovation be translated into successful public health action. With this in mind, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an innovative program called Improving Public Health Management for Action (IMPACT) which aims to address this critical need by building an effective cadre of public health managers to work alongside scientists to prepare for and respond to disease threats and to effectively implement public health programs. IMPACT is a 2-year, experiential learning program that provides fellows with the management tools and opportunities to apply their new knowledge in the field, all while continuing to serve the Ministry of Health (MoH). IMPACT will launch in 2016 in 2 countries with the intent of expanding to additional countries in future years resulting in a well-trained cadre of public health managers around the world. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  5. Factors affecting medical waste management in lowlevel health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... evaluation of medical waste management systems was conducted in the low-level health ... In Ilala, 70% of the health facilities burn wastes in poorly designed incinerators, open pit ...

  6. Sensor Area Network for Integrated Systems Health Management, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The term Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a...

  7. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

  8. Multifractality and herding behavior in the Japanese stock market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present evidence of multifractality and herding behavior for a large set of Japanese stocks traded in the Tokyo Stock Exchange. We find evidence that herding behavior occurs in periods of extreme market movements. Therefore, based on the intuition behind the tests to detect herding phenomenon developed, for instance, in Christie and Huang [Christie W, Huang R. Following the pied pier: do individual returns herd around the market? Financ Analysts J 1995;51:31-7] and Chang et al. [Chang EC, Cheng JW, Khorana A. Examination of herd behavior in equity markets: an international perspective. J Bank Finance 2000;24:1651-99], we suggest that herding behavior may be one of the causes of multifractality.

  9. Organizational Structure and Management in Romanian Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Boldureanu Daniel; Boldureanu Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The health system in Romania in a continuous transformation from a centralized system (type Semashko) exists before 1989 year to one based on social health insurance (type Bismark). This paper examines the management and the organizational structure of the health system in Romania, and the relations between them in the context of the Health Reform Law.

  10. Implementing a routine health management information system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan has recently acquired statehood. Planning and management of the health care system, based on evidence, requires a constant flow of information from health services. The Division of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of the Ministry of Health developed the framework for the health sector of the country in 2008.

  11. The role of records management professionals in the national health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of information communication technologies (ICTs) in the health sector has brought about electronic health (eHealth) which uses computing, networking and communications technologies to improve health delivery. However, the inclusion of records management and archival concerns during system design ...

  12. Consumer choice of social health insurance in managed competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change health insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to

  13. Financial Management: Implementation of the Data Quality Management Control Program for the Military Health System (D-2002-141)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    DoD health care managers should read this report. Military health care data is used for a variety of critical purposes, including managing patient care, determining the optimal health care system, and for financial management...

  14. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical symptoms, and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E. Okholm; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2008-01-01

    were 36 g and 52 g less in the case herds than in the control herds. By examining three weaner pigs from each herd the PMWS diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in 78 per cent of the case herds, but at least one PMWS-positive weaner pig was found in 19 of the control herds...

  15. Postweaning multisystematic wasting syndrome in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical signs and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm Nielsen, Elisabeth; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2008-01-01

    were 36 g and 52 g less in the case herds than in the control herds. By examining three weaner pigs from each herd the PMWS diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in 78 per cent of the case herds, but at least one PMWS-positive weaner pig was found in 19 of the control herds...

  16. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  17. Veterinary dairy herd fertility service provision in seasonal and non-seasonal dairy industries - a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee JF

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The decline in dairy herd fertility internationally has highlighted the limited impact of traditional veterinary approaches to bovine fertility management. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted at buiatrics conferences attended by veterinary practitioners on veterinary dairy herd fertility services (HFS in countries with a seasonal (Ireland, 47 respondents and non-seasonal breeding model (The Netherlands, 44 respondents and Portugal, 31 respondents. Of the 122 respondents, 73 (60% provided a HFS and 49 (40% did not. The majority (76% of all practitioners who responded stated that bovine fertility had declined in their practice clients' herds with inadequate cow management, inadequate nutrition and increased milk yield as the most important putative causes. The type of clients who adopted a herd fertility service were deemed more educated than average (70% of respondents, and/or had fertility problems (58% and/or large herds (53%. The main components of this service were routine postpartum examinations (95% of respondents, fertility records analysis (75% and ultrasound pregnancy examinations (69%. The number of planned visits per annum varied between an average of four in Ireland, where breeding is seasonal, and 23 in Portugal, where breeding is year-round. The benefits to both the practitioner and their clients from running a HFS were cited as better fertility, financial rewards and job satisfaction. For practitioners who did not run a HFS the main reasons given were no client demand (55% and lack of fertility records (33%. Better economic evidence to convince clients of the cost-benefit of such a service was seen as a major constraint to adoption of this service by 67% of practitioners.

  18. Managing risk: clinical decision-making in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Debra; Barkway, Patricia; Curren, David; Oster, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is a major component of contemporary mental health practice. Risk assessment in health care exists within contemporary perspectives of management and risk aversive practices in health care. This has led to much discussion about the best approach to assessing possible risks posed by people with mental health problems. In addition, researchers and commentators have expressed concern that clinical practice is being dominated by managerial models of risk management at the expense of meeting the patient's health and social care needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the risk assessment practices of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Findings indicate that mental health professionals draw on both managerial and therapeutic approaches to risk management, integrating these approaches into their clinical practice. Rather than being dominated by managerial concerns regarding risk, the participants demonstrate professional autonomy and concern for the needs of their clients.

  19. Relationships between milk mid-IR predicted gastro-enteric methane production and the technical and financial performance of commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhez, P; Wyzen, B; Dalcq, A-C; Colinet, F G; Reding, E; Vanlierde, A; Dehareng, F; Gengler, N; Soyeurt, H

    2017-12-22

    Considering economic and environmental issues is important in ensuring the sustainability of dairy farms. The objective of this study was to investigate univariate relationships between lactating dairy cow gastro-enteric methane (CH4) production predicted from milk mid-IR (MIR) spectra and technico-economic variables by the use of large scale and on-farm data. A total of 525 697 individual CH4 predictions from milk MIR spectra (MIR-CH4 (g/day)) of milk samples collected on 206 farms during the Walloon milk recording scheme were used to create a MIR-CH4 prediction for each herd and year (HYMIR-CH4). These predictions were merged with dairy herd accounting data. This allowed a simultaneous study of HYMIR-CH4 and 42 technical and economic variables for 1024 herd and year records from 2007 to 2014. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess significant relationships (P<0.05). Low HYMIR-CH4 was significantly associated with, amongst others, lower fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) yield (r=0.18), lower milk fat and protein content (r=0.38 and 0.33, respectively), lower quantity of milk produced from forages (r=0.12) and suboptimal reproduction and health performance (e.g. longer calving interval (r=-0.21) and higher culling rate (r=-0.15)). Concerning economic results, low HYMIR-CH4 was significantly associated with lower gross margin per cow (r=0.19) and per litre FPCM (r=0.09). To conclude, this study suggested that low lactating dairy cow gastro-enteric CH4 production tended to be associated with more extensive or suboptimal management practices, which could lead to lower profitability. The observed low correlations suggest complex interactions between variables due to the use of on-farm data with large variability in technical and management practices.

  20. Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-11-02

    Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection. We then conducted an extensive review of the literature to assess the validity of the model results and identify current gaps in research. The model suggests that herd protection accounts for a substantial portion of the total protection provided by WASH interventions. However, both the literature and the model suggest that sanitation interventions in particular are the most likely to provide herd protection, since they reduce environmental contamination. Many studies fail to account for these indirect effects and thus underestimate the total impact an intervention may have. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Just as it does in immunization policy, understanding the role of herd protection from WASH interventions can help inform coverage targets and strategies that indirectly protect those that are unable to be reached by WASH campaigns. Toward this end, studies are needed to confirm the differential role that herd protection plays across the WASH interventions suggested by our transmission model. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Aligning smoke management with ecological and public health goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Leland W. Tarnay; Malcolm P. North

    2017-01-01

    Past and current forest management affects wildland fire smoke impacts on downwind human populations. However, mismatches between the scale of benefits and risks make it difficult to proactively manage wildland fires to promote both ecological and public health. Building on recent literature and advances in modeling smoke and health effects, we outline a framework to...

  2. Comparison of treatment records and inventory of empty drug containers to quantify antimicrobial usage in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, Diego B; De Buck, Jeroen; Naqvi, S Ali; Liu, Gang; Naushad, Sohail; Saini, Vineet; Barkema, Herman W

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of antimicrobial use (AMU) is vital for interpreting the origin of changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The objectives of the present study were to estimate the association between AMU determined using on-farm treatment records (TR) and inventory of empty drug containers (INV). Herds were selected to represent Canadian dairy farms. Producers were asked to record animal health events and treatments on a standard General Health Event form. For inventory data, 40-L receptacles were placed at various locations considered convenient to deposit all empty drug containers. Antimicrobial defined-daily dosages (ADD) were calculated for 51 Canadian herds using the 2 methods. Estimation of AMU was 31,840 ADD using the INV and 14,487 ADD using the TR, indicating that for every TR entry, 2.20 times more treatments were observed using the INV. Mastitis, reproductive conditions, and dry cow therapy were the most frequent reasons for antimicrobial therapy when assessing TR. For all antimicrobials evaluated, mean ADD was higher using the INV versus TR. Regardless, a strong positive correlation (0.80) was observed between the 2 methods, indicating that herds with increased number of ADD recorded using the INV also had increased number of ADD recorded using TR. Furthermore, a positive association was observed for the 6 most commonly used antimicrobials. In comparison to methods used in surveillance programs on AMU in livestock that assume a constant use in all herds (i.e., sales data), INV provided a herd-level specific quantity of AMU positively correlated with AMU recorded at the animal level in general. The INV was easy to implement and provided a measure of total AMU in the herd. Availability of such information would be valuable for interpreting changes in AMR at the herd level and enabling evaluation of interventions for decreasing AMR. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling the economic impact of three lameness causing diseases using herd and cow level evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Jehan; Østergaard, Søren; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-06-01

    Diseases to the cow's hoof, interdigital skin and legs are highly prevalent and of large economic impact in modern dairy farming. In order to support farmer's decisions on preventing and treating lameness and its underlying causes, decision support models can be used to predict the economic profitability of such actions. An existing approach of modelling lameness as one health disorder in a dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model has been improved in two ways. First of all, three underlying diseases causing lameness were modelled: digital dermatitis, interdigital hyperplasia and claw horn diseases. Secondly, the existing simulation model was set-up in way that it uses hyper-distributions describing diseases risk of the three lameness causing diseases. By combining information on herd level risk factors with prevalence of lameness or prevalence of underlying diseases among cows, marginal posterior probability distributions for disease prevalence in the specific herd are created in a Bayesian network. Random draws from these distributions are used by the simulation model to describe disease risk. Hereby field data on prevalence is used systematically and uncertainty around herd specific risk is represented. Besides the fact that estimated profitability of halving disease risk depended on the hyper-distributions used, the estimates differed for herds with different levels of diseases risk and reproductive efficiency. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; G. Fadel, J.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM...... yield during the first 305 d of lactation, as well as ECM yield per day during early and late lactation. The analyses were based on a total of 1,379 completed lactations from cows calving between January 2007 and May 2013 in 4 Danish commercial dairy herds managed for extended lactation for several...... years. Herd-average CInt length ranged from 414 to 521 d. The herds had Holstein, Jersey, or crosses between Holstein, Jersey, and Red Danish cows with average milk yields ranging from 7,644 to 11,286 kg of ECM per cow per year. A significant effect of the CInt was noted on all 5 measurements of milk...

  5. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Christopher M; Bishop, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the market

  6. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Wray

    Full Text Available Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space, and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space, numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock

  7. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the

  8. Managing health care organizations in an age of rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S; al-Alaiwat, S

    1998-03-01

    Health care managers find their work increasingly difficult, due in part to rapid environmental change that plagues organizational life. Management practices and attitudes that may have been appropriate in previous eras are ineffective today. A study was conducted among managers in the Ministry of Health, State of Bahrain, seeking information about current trends in the macro or external environment that affect the Ministry of Health, as well as internal environmental pressures that may be similar or different. This article provides a clear picture of the context in which managers perform their work and offers recommendations for coping with change in dynamic, complex organizations.

  9. Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Cooperative: can local knowledge inform caribou management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don E. Russell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE While quantitative analyses have traditionally been used to measure overall caribou herd health, qualitative observational data can also provide timely information that reflects what people on the land are observing. The Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op (ABEKC monitors ecological change in the range of the Porcupine Caribou Herd (PCH. The community-based monitoring component of the Co-op’s mandate involves the gathering of local knowledge through interviews with local experts in a number of communities.We analyzed the responses to interviews collected during 2000–2007 related to caribou availability, harvest success, meeting needs and caribou health during fall and spring. Interviews revealed 1 caribou greater availability during the survey period, 2 an increasing trend in the proportion of harvesters that met their needs 3 no trend in animals harvested or proportion of successful hunters and 4 improving overall caribou health throughout the period.There was no population estimate for the herd between 2001 and 2010. In 2001, 123,000 caribou were estimated in the herd. Based on an estimated 178,000 in 1989, a declining trend of ~ 3% annually occurred at least until 2001. In the interim agencies and boards feared the herd continued to decline and worked towards and finalized a Harvest Management Plan for the herd. In contrast, from the Co-op interviews all indications suggested improving herd conditions throughout most of the decade. A successful survey in 2010 determined the herd had grown to 169,000 animals. We conclude that the community-based interviews provided a valid, unique information source to better understand caribou ecology and express community perceptions of overall herd status and could provide a valuable contribution to management decision making.  We recommend that ABEKC results become standard input into Porcupine Caribou harvest management decisions and serve as a

  10. Health information technology: transforming chronic disease management and care transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaline; Brammer, Craig; McKethan, Aaron; Buntin, Melinda B

    2012-06-01

    Adoption of health information technology (HIT) is a key effort in improving care delivery, reducing costs of health care, and improving the quality of health care. Evidence from electronic health record (EHR) use suggests that HIT will play a significant role in transforming primary care practices and chronic disease management. This article shows that EHRs and HIT can be used effectively to manage chronic diseases, that HIT can facilitate communication and reduce efforts related to transitions in care, and that HIT can improve patient safety by increasing the information available to providers and patients, improving disease management and safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT IN GHANA HEALTH SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    john frimpong manso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ghana Public Health Sector runs a three-tier system of managing health commodities. Suppliers, the Central Medical Store, The Regional Medical Store, Service Delivery Points and the transportation system form the supply chain.  Ghana Health Service logistics system is centralized and the health care delivery system is decentralized. Logistics management in the health system is crucial. This is because there are instances where medicines and health commodities are not available at the Central Medical Stores and the Regional Medical Stores. Consequently, there is no commodity security at the service delivery points. Upon this backdrop the study seeks to assess the logistics management system in order to bring efficiency in the system. The study adopts a multi-case study approach to assess the practices of logistics management, the causes of inadequacy of logistics and the strengths and weaknesses in Ghana Health Service logistics system.  Two categories of participants that is, the key players of health logistics management and end-users were involved in the study.  Four variables; finance for procurement of health commodities, evenly distribution of health commodities, effective supervision and constant monitoring and evaluation were found crucial in effective and efficient logistics management. Moreover, it was found that poor procurement planning and budgeting, lack of financial resources for procurement, poor quantification and forecasting, delay in procurement process and order processing, and delay in receiving insurance claims are some of the causes of inadequacy of logistics in the health systems. It is recommended that Ghana Health Service logistics or supply system must receive constant monitoring and evaluation. Further, Ghana Health Service must ensure that there is effective top-down supervision in the system to bring up efficiency. Again, Ghana Health Service and Ministry of Health must ensure enough funds are secured from the

  12. Herd-level association between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in bovine mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Scholl, D T; DeVries, T J; Barkema, H W

    2012-04-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance is needed to manage antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. In this study, data were collected on antimicrobial use and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (n=562), isolated from intramammary infections and (sub)clinical mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Dairy producers were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles, and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify antimicrobial use. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate system (TREK Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH), containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level risk factors of penicillin, ampicillin, pirlimycin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine resistance in Staph. aureus isolates. Intramammary administration of the penicillin-novobiocin combination for dry cow therapy was associated with penicillin and ampicillin resistance [odds ratio (OR): 2.17 and 3.10, respectively]. Systemic administration of penicillin was associated with penicillin resistance (OR: 1.63). Intramammary administration of pirlimycin for lactating cow mastitis treatment was associated with pirlimycin resistance as well (OR: 2.07). Average herd parity was associated with ampicillin and tetracycline resistance (OR: 3.88 and 0.02, respectively). Average herd size was also associated with tetracycline resistance (OR: 1.02). Dairy herds in the Maritime region had higher odds of penicillin and lower odds of ampicillin resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 2.18 and 0.19, respectively). Alberta dairy herds had lower odds of ampicillin and sulfadimethoxine resistance than dairy herds in Québec (OR: 0.04 and 0.08, respectively

  13. Loss of reserves of Cu in liver when Cu supplements are withdrawn from dairy herds in the Waikato region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittmann, A R; Grace, N D; Knowles, S O

    2012-03-01

    To monitor the consequences of withdrawing mineral Cu supplements from two dairy herds with initially high concentrations of Cu in liver. Two herds were selected from dairy farms in the Waikato region of New Zealand that participated in an earlier survey of Cu supplementation practices and Cu status of dairy cows. The herds were fed pasture, grass and maize silage, plus palm kernel expeller (PKE) containing 25-30 mg Cu/kg dry matter (DM) fed at 2-4 kg/cow/day. No mineral Cu supplements were supplied from January 2009. Pasture samples were collected for mineral analysis in September 2008 and April 2009. Concentration of Cu in liver biopsies from the same 9-10 cows per herd was measured on three occasions between April 2009 and May 2010. Pastures on both farms contained 10 mg Cu/kg DM, 0.1-0.5 mg Mo/kg DM and 3.5-4.0 g S/kg DM. The initial herd mean concentrations of Cu in liver were 1,500 (SD 590) and 1,250 (SD 640) μmol Cu/kg fresh tissue. In the absence of mineral Cu supplements, those mean concentrations decreased over 12 months to 705 (SD 370) and 1,120 (SD 560) μmol Cu/kg fresh tissue, respectively. For cows in the first herd, the rate of depletion of liver Cu reserves was influenced by initial concentration of Cu, such that high concentration led to faster loss according to first-order kinetics. Mineral Cu supplementation was not necessary over 12 months for two dairy herds with mean concentrations of Cu in liver >1,250 μmol Cu/kg fresh tissue, grazing pastures containing 10 mg Cu/kg DM and concentrations of Mo <1 mg/kg DM. The quantity and particularly the duration of feeding PKE appeared to be a factor in whether or not the herd lost substantial reserves of Cu in liver during the year. However, the Cu status of both herds in this study was more than adequate to support late pregnancy and mating. CLINICAL REVELANCE: Copper status of the herd should be monitored and on-farm management of Cu nutrition should take into account all sources contributing to

  14. Occupational health and safety management in micro and small enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety management (OHSM) in micro and small enterprises may look like an odd ex-pression. Most owner-managers do not think of OHSM as something to give priority. They are occupied with management of the core business which in many cases constitute a simple fight for survival...

  15. NETWORKS OF HEALTH CARE: A CHALLENGE TO SUS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Dubow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a critical reflection, based on national law, scholarly, scientific, on the current development of Networks of Health Care, as a strategy for strengthening the Single Health System (SUS. Are weighted inefficiency of traditional ways of organizing care and management, the challenge of Network Health Care for comprehensive care and management mechanisms used in this process. The work provides subsidies for the care practices and health management are reflected, pointing strategies that result in disruptions of paradigms through a refocusing of attention in existing models. For networks of health care can be consolidated, is fundamental to political sensitivity of health managers with a commitment to build a new model of care, through the struggle to consolidate the SUS and the realization of the principles of universality, comprehensiveness and equity.

  16. Applications of Health Management Using Android and RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Long Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Health management has become increasingly important in personal health care in modern life. The system we have designed provides a method to help facilitate health management through an associated smart phone with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID, which is a new type of application. This system consists of medical knowledge and health management. In the application of medical knowledge, we use the human model as well as the operation of RFID to obtain medical knowledge concerning human organs. The two main functions of the health management system are medication reminders and drug identification. The feature of medication reminders allows users to set the time for taking medication so that patients do not miss taking their medication. The feature of drug identification allows the operators to identify the drugs and can let the users know who needs to take drugs. In addition, we have designed a web page that allows users to understand their health status.

  17. Digital health technology and diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Avivit; Akirov, Amit; Raz, Itamar

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes care is largely dependent on patient self-management and empowerment, given that patients with diabetes must make numerous daily decisions as to what to eat, when to exercise, and determine their insulin dose and timing if required. In addition, patients and providers are generating vast amounts of data from many sources, including electronic medical records, insulin pumps, sensors, glucometers, and other wearables, as well as evolving genomic, proteomic, metabolomics, and microbiomic data. Multiple digital tools and apps have been developed to assist patients to choose wisely, and to enhance their compliance by using motivational tools and incorporating incentives from social media and gaming techniques. Healthcare teams (HCTs) and health administrators benefit from digital developments that sift through the enormous amounts of patient-generated data. Data are acquired, integrated, analyzed, and presented in a self-explanatory manner, highlighting important trends and items that require attention. The use of decision support systems may propose data-driven actions that, for the most, require final approval by the patient or physician before execution and, once implemented, may improve patient outcomes. The digital diabetes clinic aims to incorporate all digital patient data and provide individually tailored virtual or face-to-face visits to those persons who need them most. Digital diabetes care has demonstrated only modest HbA1c reduction in multiple studies and borderline cost-effectiveness, although patient satisfaction appears to be increased. Better understanding of the barriers to digital diabetes care and identification of unmet needs may yield improved utilization of this evolving technology in a safe, effective, and cost-saving manner. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. A natural resource: what happens when oil interests conflict with the needs of a northern caribou herd and the people who depend on it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, R. J.

    1999-09-30

    Although the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) established a wildlife refuge to protect the calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou, striking oil in Prudhoe Bay led to the construction of a pipeline, which even in decline delivers one million barrels of oil a day to the Port of Valdez. Given the money generated by the oil industry, it is not surprising that most Alaska legislators favour extraction of the nature reserve's petroleum resources. So far, legislation by the President, supported by a group of senators, managed to keep the drilling rigs out of the nursery of the Porcupine caribou. In Canada, too, aboriginal leaders and environmentalist groups have worked hard to ensure that the federal government continues to oppose the leasing of the coastal plain to developers. Development would negatively affect the Porcupine caribou herd, the traditional way of life of aboriginal communities, and the ecological integrity of Ivvavik National Park. Although the fate of the calving ground will ultimately be decided in Washington, the health of the Porcupine caribou herd is a true cross-border issue. So far, the two governments have managed to stave off development and to assert that such a relatively pristine and intact biosphere should remain intact. However, the pressure by the oil industry giants is relentless, and requires constant vigilance.

  19. A natural resource: what happens when oil interests conflict with the needs of a northern caribou herd and the people who depend on it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) established a wildlife refuge to protect the calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou, striking oil in Prudhoe Bay led to the construction of a pipeline, which even in decline delivers one million barrels of oil a day to the Port of Valdez. Given the money generated by the oil industry, it is not surprising that most Alaska legislators favour extraction of the nature reserve's petroleum resources. So far, legislation by the President, supported by a group of senators, managed to keep the drilling rigs out of the nursery of the Porcupine caribou. In Canada, too, aboriginal leaders and environmentalist groups have worked hard to ensure that the federal government continues to oppose the leasing of the coastal plain to developers. Development would negatively affect the Porcupine caribou herd, the traditional way of life of aboriginal communities, and the ecological integrity of Ivvavik National Park. Although the fate of the calving ground will ultimately be decided in Washington, the health of the Porcupine caribou herd is a true cross-border issue. So far, the two governments have managed to stave off development and to assert that such a relatively pristine and intact biosphere should remain intact. However, the pressure by the oil industry giants is relentless, and requires constant vigilance

  20. Health care units and human resources management trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Adriana Maria; Ciampone, Maria Helena Trench; Santelle, Odete

    2013-02-01

    To identify factors producing new trends in basic health care unit management and changes in management models. This was a prospective study with ten health care unit managers and ten specialists in the field of Health in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The Delphi methodology was adopted. There were four stages of data collection, three quantitative and the fourth qualitative. The first three rounds dealt with changing trends in management models, manager profiles and required competencies, and the Mann-Whitney test was used in the analysis. The fourth round took the form of a panel of those involved, using thematic analysis. The main factors which are driving change in basic health care units were identified, as were changes in management models. There was consensus that this process is influenced by the difficulties in managing teams and by politics. The managers were found to be up-to-date with trends in the wider context, with the arrival of social health organizations, but they are not yet anticipating these within the institutions. Not only the content, but the professional development aspect of training courses in this area should be reviewed. Selection and recruitment, training and assessment of these professionals should be guided by these competencies aligned to the health service mission, vision, values and management models.

  1. Health promotion in Swedish schools: school managers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina

    2017-04-01

    Schools are recognized worldwide as settings for health promotion, and leadership has a bearing on schools' ability to be health promoting. School managers have a great influence on what is prioritized in school, which in turn affects students' school performance and health. There is lack of research into school managers' views on health promotion, and what they consider to be central to health promotion. The aim was therefore to examine school managers' views about what health promotion in schools include. An explorative design, qualitative content analysis, was performed. In-depth interviews were conducted with all 13 school managers of a middle-sized municipality in central Sweden. The analysis had both manifest and latent content and three categories: 'Organization and Collaboration', 'Optimize the arena' and 'Strengthen the individual', and 10 subcategories emerged. The theme, 'Opportunities for learning and a good life', describes the latent content of these categories. Taking into account the views of school managers are important because these views help form a more complete picture of how school managers work with health promotion and what is needed to enhance health promotion to improve students' opportunities for learning and a good life. The Ottawa Charter for Health promotion is thereby transformed into practice. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Lungworm Infections in German dairy cattle herds--seroprevalence and GIS-supported risk factor analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Schunn

    Full Text Available In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910 BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R(2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures.

  3. Lungworm Infections in German Dairy Cattle Herds — Seroprevalence and GIS-Supported Risk Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunn, Anne-Marie; Conraths, Franz J.; Staubach, Christoph; Fröhlich, Andreas; Forbes, Andrew; Strube, Christina

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910) BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model) and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors) or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures. PMID:24040243

  4. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  5. Consumer choice of social health insurance in managed competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change heaith insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to

  6. Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma: Guidelines for Health Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk

    2005-01-01

    These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…

  7. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems.

  8. Herding agent field application system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, Ian; Belore, Randy [SL Ross Environmental Research (Canada)], email: ian@slross.com

    2011-07-01

    Chemical herding agents can be applied to deal with an oil slick. This study investigates the key system components of application systems for herding agents and shows how application systems can also be developed for operational herder usage in drift ice. These two application systems are respectively required for small boat and a helicopter operations. The factors, including the selection of flow rates, pressures and atomizing nozzle types, which give the appropriate herder droplet size distributions for small boat and aerial application systems were investigated in the initial stage of the study. In a later stage, on commercializing herders for in situ burning, further research is expected to deal with the many problems not tackled in the initial stage, such as the mounting of the nozzles, pumps and reservoirs on various aerial platforms and the provision of heating and insulation for cold-weather use. The paper presented the experiments and simulations that have been conducted as well as the basic design parameters for field application systems.

  9. Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strate...

  10. The Relationship between Lameness, Fertility and Aflatoxin in a Dairy Cattle Herd

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSOY, Serhat; ALTUNATMAZ, Kemal

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the relationship between aflatoxins taken with feed, laminitis, lameness and impaired fertility. Lesions were identified in the claw and hock region, causing lameness in 45 cattle in an establishment of 300 Holstein dairy cattle. Of these lame cattle, 27 had cystic ovaries and 10 had cystic ovaries together with clinical metritis. The increase in lameness and fertility problems occurring in this herd, living under the same management and feeding conditi...

  11. Relationships between functional herd life and conformation traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic relationship between conformation traits and functional herd life of the South African Jersey population was investigated. Data on conformation traits (n = 46 238) and functional herd life (n = 90 530) on registered South African Jersey cows calving between 1989 and 2008 were obtained from the Integrated ...

  12. Maximum herd efficiency in meat production I. Optima for slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profit rate for a meat production enterprise can be decomposedinto the unit price for meat and herd ... supply and demand, whereas breeding improvement is gen- ... Herd efficiency is total live mass for slaughter divided by costs .... tenance and above-maintenance components by Dickerson, and ..... Growth and productivity.

  13. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accredited herd. If a group of captive cervids from an accredited herd is being moved interstate together to... cervids is being moved together, the entire group must be isolated from all other livestock during the... from isolation; or (3) If the captive cervid to be added is not being moved directly from a classified...

  14. Stochastic models to simulate paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.S.; Weber, M.F.; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2011-01-01

    in the design of certification, surveillance, and control strategies for paratuberculosis in cattle herds. A detailed comparison is made between the Dutch JohneSSim and the Danish PTB-Simherd, using the same context of a set of control strategies in a typical Dutch/Danish herd. The conclusion is that while...

  15. Patterns of herding and their occurrence in an online setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, D.J.; Hoeve, M.C.; Ortt, J.R.; Pals, N.; Vecht, B. van der

    2014-01-01

    When groups of consumers share information or express their opinions about products and services, their attitudes or behavior sometime align without centralized coordination, a phenomenon known as herding. Building on pattern-based explanations of herding from the cognitive science literature, we

  16. Genetic value of herd life adjusted for milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, F R; Gibson, J P

    1992-05-01

    Cow herd life adjusted for lactational milk production was investigated as a genetic trait in the breeding objective. Under a simple model, the relative economic weight of milk to adjusted herd life on a per genetic standard deviation basis was equal to CVY/dCVL where CVY and CVL are the genetic coefficients of variation of milk production and adjusted herd life, respectively, and d is the depreciation per year per cow divided by the total fixed costs per year per cow. The relative economic value of milk to adjusted herd life at the prices and parameters for North America was about 3.2. An increase of 100-kg milk was equivalent to 2.2 mo of adjusted herd life. Three to 7% lower economic gain is expected when only improved milk production is sought compared with a breeding objective that included both production and adjusted herd life for relative value changed +/- 20%. A favorable economic gain to cost ratio probably exists for herd life used as a genetic trait to supplement milk in the breeding objective. Cow survival records are inexpensive, and herd life evaluations from such records may not extend the generation interval when such an evaluation is used in bull sire selection.

  17. Control of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at herd level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerve, Eystein; Lium, Bjørn; Nielsen, Bent

    1998-01-01

    of slaughter pigs (OR = 0.44) also lowered the herd prevalence. The most expressed risk factor was using an own farm vehicle for transport of slaughter pigs to abattoirs (OR = 12.92). Separation between clean and unclean section in herds (OR = 2.67), daily observations of a cat with kittens on the farm (OR = 2...

  18. Patterns of Herding and their Occurrence in an Online Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, David J.; Hoeve, Maarten C.; Ortt, J. Roland; Pals, Nico; van der Vecht, Bob

    When groups of consumers share information or express their opinions about products and services, their attitudes or behavior sometime align without centralized coordination, a phenomenon known as herding. Building on pattern-based explanations of herding from the cognitive science literature, we

  19. Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth H. Bradley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a renewed focus in the field of global health on strengthening health systems, inadequate attention has been directed to a key ingredient of high-performing health systems: management. We aimed to develop the argument that management – defined here as the process of achieving predetermined objectives through human, financial, and technical resources – is a cross-cutting function necessary for success in all World Health Organization (WHO building blocks of health systems strengthening. Management within health systems is particularly critical in low-income settings where the efficient use of scarce resources is paramount to attaining health goals. More generally, investments in management capacity may be viewed as a key leverage point in grand strategy, as strong management enables the achievement of large ends with limited means. We also sought to delineate a set of core competencies and identify key roles to be targeted for management capacity building efforts. Several effective examples of management interventions have been described in the research literature. Together, the existing evidence underscores the importance of country ownership of management capacity building efforts, which often challenge the status quo and thus need country leadership to sustain despite inevitable friction. The literature also recognizes that management capacity efforts, as a key ingredient of effective systems change, take time to embed, as new protocols and ways of working become habitual and integrated as standard operating procedures. Despite these challenges, the field of health management as part of global health system strengthening efforts holds promise as a fundamental leverage point for achieving health system performance goals with existing human, technical, and financial resources. The evidence base consistently supports the role of management in performance improvement but would benefit from additional research with improved

  20. Care management actions in the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Costa Fernandes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify, from nurses’ speeches, the actions that enable care management in the Family Health Strategy.Methods: descriptive study with a qualitative approach conducted with 32 nurses of primary care. It was used a semistructuredinterview as the data collection technique. The methodological process of the collective subject discourse wasused to organize the data Results: from the nurses’ speeches one identified the categories: complementary relationshipbetween care and management; meeting with community health agents, a care management strategy in nurses’ work;health education activities such as a care management action and a health information system as an essential tool forcare Conclusion: it was possible to observe that nurses understood the importance of coordination and complementaritybetween the activities of the working process of care and management.

  1. Health coaching in diabetes: empowering patients to self-manage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Rieger, Francis P

    2013-02-01

    To effectively manage diabetes mellitus, patients must adhere to treatment recommendations and healthy lifestyle behaviors, but research shows many patients do not do this. Education is effective when combined with self-management support but peer-support programs do not lead to lasting changes. Health coaching, or professional support, can be highly effective if it focuses on developing self-efficacy and skills such as goal-setting, problem-solving and managing cognitive and emotional barriers. This overview discusses the benefits of patient self-management for chronic conditions such as diabetes, core competencies for health coaching, theoretical bases and principles of health coaching interventions, delivery methods and the evidence that health coaching works for diabetes self-management. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dairy herd mastitis and reproduction: using simulation to aid interpretation of results from discrete time survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher D; Bradley, Andrew J; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) is a simulation-based technique for evaluating the relative importance of different inputs to a complex process model. It is commonly employed in decision analysis and for evaluation of the potential impact of uncertainty in research findings on clinical practice, but has a wide variety of other possible applications. In this example, it was used to evaluate the association between herd-level udder health and reproductive performance in dairy herds. Although several recent studies have found relatively large associations between mastitis and fertility at the level of individual inseminations or lactations, the current study demonstrated that herd-level intramammary infection status is highly unlikely to have a clinically significant impact on the overall reproductive performance of a dairy herd under typical conditions. For example, a large increase in incidence rate of clinical mastitis (from 92 to 131 cases per 100 cows per year) would be expected to increase a herd's modified FERTEX score (a cost-based measure of overall reproductive performance) by just £4.50(1) per cow per year. The herd's background level of submission rate (proportion of eligible cows served every 21 days) and pregnancy risk (proportion of inseminations leading to a pregnancy) correlated strongly with overall reproductive performance and explained a large proportion of the between-herd variation in performance. PSA proved to be a highly useful technique to aid understanding of results from a complex statistical model, and has great potential for a wide variety of applications within the field of veterinary science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and validation of a dynamic discrete event stochastic simulation model of mastitis control in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allore, H G; Schruben, L W; Erb, H N; Oltenacu, P A

    1998-03-01

    A dynamic stochastic simulation model for discrete events, SIMMAST, was developed to simulate the effect of mastitis on the composition of the bulk tank milk of dairy herds. Intramammary infections caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus spp. other than Strep. agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci were modeled as were the milk, fat, and protein test day solutions for individual cows, which accounted for the fixed effects of days in milk, age at calving, season of calving, somatic cell count (SCC), and random effects of test day, cow yield differences from herdmates, and autocorrelated errors. Probabilities for the transitions among various states of udder health (uninfected or subclinically or clinically infected) were calculated to account for exposure, heifer infection, spontaneous recovery, lactation cure, infection or cure during the dry period, month of lactation, parity, within-herd yields, and the number of quarters with clinical intramammary infection in the previous and current lactations. The stochastic simulation model was constructed using estimates from the literature and also using data from 164 herds enrolled with Quality Milk Promotion Services that each had bulk tank SCC between 500,000 and 750,000/ml. Model parameters and outputs were validated against a separate data file of 69 herds from the Northeast Dairy Herd Improvement Association, each with a bulk tank SCC that was > or = 500,000/ml. Sensitivity analysis was performed on all input parameters for control herds. Using the validated stochastic simulation model, the control herds had a stable time average bulk tank SCC between 500,000 and 750,000/ml.

  4. Effects of Integrated Health Management Intervention on Overweight and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiting Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight or obese adults aged 20~55 years and living in Beijing more than one year were randomly divided into different management groups. A one-year integrated health management intervention was applied in the health management groups. The physical indicators and metabolic indicators changed after one-year intervention on the overweight and obese adults. The annual reduction of the physical indicators was significant in all groups (p<0.05 except the weight loss in the placebo + general management group. The health management and the dietary supplement have statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001 effects on the annual reduction of these indicators and interactive effect between them was found on some of these indicators such as bodyweight, body mass index (BMI, body fat ratio (BFR, and hipline (p<0.05. The dietary supplement + health management group had the best annual reduction effects for the indicators among the groups. Integrated health management interventions including both dietary supplements intervention and health management could improve metabolic indicators in overweight and obese adults together with the physical indicators, suggesting the intermediated role of metabolic indictors in controlling obesity.

  5. The interplay of management accounting research and NPM health initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmmose, Margit

    This paper investigates the development of management accounting research in the context of New Public Management (NPM) initiatives in health care. Drawing on concepts from diffusion theory and earlier literature reviews, the paper examines the interplay between management accounting research...... and health care reforms in relation to country of origin, development, theoretical approach, research method and topic. The study thus establishes a different focus; namely the interrelationship between the development of management accounting research and practical socio-political NPM innovations. The study...... shows that management accounting techniques are increasingly adopted in governmental health reforms and diffused across nations, themes and initiatives through time with the result that wider social practices become more and more integrated in management accounting research themes...

  6. Public health response to striking solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murti, Michelle; Ayre, Reg; Shapiro, Howard; de Burger, Ron

    2011-10-01

    In 2009, the City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, experienced a six-week labor disruption involving 24,000 city workers that included solid waste and public health employees. In an attempt to control illegal dumping and to manage garbage storage across the city during this period, 24 temporary garbage storage sites were established by the city (mostly in local parks) for residents to dispose of their household waste. No other municipality in North America has attempted to operate this many temporary sites for this long a period. Management and nonunion staff from Healthy Environments in Toronto Public Health performed daily inspections, responded to community questions, issued public health orders, and worked closely with Solid Waste Management and the Ministry of the Environment to actively manage the public health concerns associated with these sites. This intensive oversight mitigated public health risks to the community and facilitated an effective, safe solution to the temporary garbage storage problem.

  7. Modeling salmonella Dublin into the dairy herd simulation model Simherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella Dublin in the dairy herd and effects of the infection and relevant control measures are currently being modeled into the dairy herd simulation model called Simherd. The aim is to compare the effects of different control strategies against Salmonella Dublin on both within...... of the simulations will therefore be used for decision support in the national surveillance and eradication program against Salmonella Dublin. Basic structures of the model are programmed and will be presented at the workshop. The model is in a phase of face-validation by a group of Salmonella......-herd- prevalence and economy by simulations. The project Dublin on both within-herd- prevalence and economy by simulations. The project is a part of a larger national project "Salmonella 2007 - 2011" with the main objective to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in Danish Dairy herds. Results...

  8. Diagnostic studies of abortion in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...

  9. A review on bovine besnoitiosis: a disease with economic impact in herd health management, caused by Besnoitia besnoiti (Franco and Borges, ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Helder; Leitão, Alexandre; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis is caused by the largely unexplored apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. In cows, infection during pregnancy often results in abortion, and chronically infected bulls become infertile. Similar to other apicomplexans B. besnoiti has acquired a largely intracellular lifestyle, but its complete life cycle is still unknown, modes of transmission have not been entirely resolved and the definitive host has not been identified. Outbreaks of bovine besnoitiosis in cattle were described in the 1990s in Portugal and Spain, and later several cases were also detected in France. More cases have been reported recently in hitherto unaffected countries, including Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Hungary and Croatia. To date, there is still no effective pharmaceutical compound available for the treatment of besnoitiosis in cattle, and progress in the identification of novel targets for intervention through pharmacological or immunological means is hampered by the lack of molecular data on the genomic and transcriptomic level. In addition, the lack of an appropriate small animal laboratory model, and wide gaps in our knowledge on the host-parasite interplay during the life cycle of this parasite, renders vaccine and drug development a cost- and labour-intensive undertaking.

  10. Power Management for A Distributed Wireless Health Management Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed wireless architectures for prognostics is an important enabling step in prognostic research in order to achieve feasible real-time system health...

  11. Health care waste management practice in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, R; Pradhan, B

    2010-10-01

    Health-care waste is a by-product of health care. Its poor management exposes health-care workers, waste handlers and the community to infections, toxic effects and injuries including damage of the environment. It also creates opportunities for the collection of disposable medical equipment, its re-sale and potential re-use without sterilization, which causes an important burden of disease worldwide. The purpose of this study was to find out health care waste management practice in hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Narayani Sub-Regional Hospital, Birgunj from May to October 2006 using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Study population was four different departments of the hospital (Medical/Paediatric, Surgical/Ortho, Gynae/Obstetric and Emergency), Medical Superintendent, In-charges of four different departments and all sweepers. Data was collected using interview, group discussion, observation and measurement by weight and volume. Total health-care waste generated was 128.4 kg per day while 0.8 kg per patient per day. The composition of health care waste was found to be 96.8 kg (75.4%) general waste, 24.1 kg (8.8%) hazardous waste and 7.5 kg (5.8%) sharps per day by weight. Health staffs and sweepers were not practicing the waste segregation. Occupational health and safety was not given due attention. Majority of the sweepers were unaware of waste management and need of safety measures to protect their own health. Health care waste management practice in the hospital was unsatisfactory because of the lack of waste management plan and carelessness of patients, visitors and staffs. Therefore the hospital should develop the waste management plan and strictly follow the National Health Care Waste Management Guideline.

  12. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health Technologies for the Improvement of Chronic Disease Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitovic, M; Brener, S

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of ongoing efforts to improve the Ontario health care system, a mega-analysis examining the optimization of chronic disease management in the community was conducted by Evidence Development and Standards, Health Quality Ontario (previously known as the Medical Advisory Secretariat [MAS]). Objective The purpose of this report was to identify health technologies previously evaluated by MAS that may be leveraged in efforts to optimize chronic disease management in the community. Data Sources The Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series and field evaluations conducted by MAS and its partners between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Review Methods Technologies related to at least 1 of 7 disease areas of interest (type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic wounds) or that may greatly impact health services utilization were reviewed. Only technologies with a moderate to high quality of evidence and associated with a clinically or statistically significant improvement in disease management were included. Technologies related to other topics in the mega-analysis on chronic disease management were excluded. Evidence-based analyses were reviewed, and outcomes of interest were extracted. Outcomes of interest included hospital utilization, mortality, health-related quality of life, disease-specific measures, and economic analysis measures. Results Eleven analyses were included and summarized. Technologies fell into 3 categories: those with evidence for the cure of chronic disease, those with evidence for the prevention of chronic disease, and those with evidence for the management of chronic disease. Conclusions The impact on patient outcomes and hospitalization rates of new health technologies in chronic disease management is often overlooked. This analysis demonstrates that health technologies can reduce the burden of illness; improve patient

  14. Health Phones: A Potential Game Changer in Health Information Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geena Mary Skaria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Health education has to be one of the most effective ways to reduce morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We need to deliver vital messages and information to people at the lower quarter of the society to use changing behaviour and practices which can save and protect their lives. It is in this context, use of mobile phones in delivering vital health information is of significance. This article reviews few projects which successfully use mobile phones for health information delivery.

  15. The Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Physical Health and Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Reed, Karla S; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Background : Research has shown that employment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is related to health and functioning, with physical health and functioning after SCI frequently identified as a primary barrier to employment. Objective: To examine the relationship between employment and behaviors associated with the management of physical health and functioning as described by individuals with SCI who have been employed post injury. Methods: A qualitative approach using 6 focus groups at 2 sites included 44 participants with SCI who had worked at some time post injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were created based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. A semi-structured interview format asked questions about personal, environmental, and policy-related factors influencing employment after SCI. Groups were recorded, transcribed, and entered into NVivo before coding by 2 reviewers. Results: Within the area of behaviors and management of physical health and functioning, 4 overlapping themes were identified: (1) relearning your own body and what it can do; (2) general health and wellness behaviors; (3) communication, education, and advocacy; and (4) secondary conditions and aging. Specific themes articulate the many types of behaviors individuals must master and their impact on return to work as well as on finding, maintaining, and deciding to leave employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successfully employed after injury must learn how to perform necessary behaviors to manage health and function in a work environment. The decision to leave employment often appears to be associated with secondary complications and other conditions that occur as persons with SCI age.

  16. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China.

  17. Spread and control of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel

    for spread of LA-MRSA within a pig herd that can be used for simulating LA-MRSA within herd dynamics following different introductions. The code for the model is publicly available, and the herd part of the model can potentially be re-used together with epidemic models for other pathogens. 3) Simulation...... increasing trend. Given the high prevalence of LA-MRSA positive farms, total eradication of LA-MRSA in the Danish pig population does not seem feasible, and thus a strong need for exploring options to control the spread of LA-MRSA in Danish pig herds exists. At present it is still not known how LA......-MRSA managed to spread so quickly in the Danish pig population and a lot still needs to be understood regarding which factors that determine whether a farm becomes LA-MRSA positive or not. In the first part of this thesis two studies were conducted with the aim of identifying herd-level risk factors for: 1...

  18. The influence of selected litter and herd factors on treatments for lameness in suckling piglets from 35 Danish herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.

    1996-01-01

    was: high-risk litters are (1) large litters, (2) litters with previous diseases or deaths, (3) litters where the nursing sow had been treated, or (4) litters from high-parity sows. Litters from large conventional herds or from herds with a high stocking density were expected to have a high risk...

  19. American Health Information Management Association. Position statement. Issue: managing health information in facility mergers and acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Healthcare facility mergers and acquisitions are becoming more common as the industry consolidates. Many critical issues must be considered in mergers and acquisitions, including the management of patient health information. In addition to operational issues, licensure, regulatory, and accreditation requirements must be addressed. To ensure availability of health information to all legitimate users, patient records should be consolidated or linked in the master patient index. A record retention policy should be developed and implemented to meet user needs and assure compliance with legal, regulatory, and accreditation requirements. If health information from closed facilities will be stored for a period of time, its integrity and confidentiality must be preserved, and it must be readily accessible for patient care. The compatibility and functionality of existing information systems should be assessed, and a plan should be formulated for integration of the systems to the extent possible. Such integration may be essential for the organization to successfully meet the demands of integrated delivery systems. Existing databases should be maintained in an accessible form to meet anticipated future needs.

  20. Patient privacy, consent, and identity management in health information exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Hosek, Susan D

    2013-01-01

    As a step toward improving its health information technology (IT) interoperability, the Military Health System is seeking to develop a research roadmap to better coordinate health IT research efforts, address IT capability gaps, and reduce programmatic risk for its enterprise projects. This report identifies gaps in research, policy, and practice involving patient privacy, consent, and identity management that need to be addressed to improve the quality and efficiency of care through health information exchange.

  1. The strategic planning of health management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the roles and functions of strategic planning of information systems in health services. It selects four specialised methodologies of strategic planning for analysis with respect to their applicability in the health field. It then examines the utilisation of information planning in case studies of three health organisations (two State departments of health and community services and one acute care institution). Issues arising from the analysis concern the planning process, the use to which plans are put, and implications for management.

  2. Dairy farmers with larger herd sizes adopt more precision dairy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, J I; Eastwood, C R; Garcia, S C; Lyons, N A

    2018-06-01

    An increase in the average herd size on Australian dairy farms has also increased the labor and animal management pressure on farmers, thus potentially encouraging the adoption of precision technologies for enhanced management control. A survey was undertaken in 2015 in Australia to identify the relationship between herd size, current precision technology adoption, and perception of the future of precision technologies. Additionally, differences between farmers and service providers in relation to perception of future precision technology adoption were also investigated. Responses from 199 dairy farmers, and 102 service providers, were collected between May and August 2015 via an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire. Of the 199 dairy farmer responses, 10.4% corresponded to farms that had fewer than 150 cows, 37.7% had 151 to 300 cows, 35.5% had 301 to 500 cows; 6.0% had 501 to 700 cows, and 10.4% had more than 701 cows. The results showed that farmers with more than 500 cows adopted between 2 and 5 times more specific precision technologies, such as automatic cup removers, automatic milk plant wash systems, electronic cow identification systems and herd management software, when compared with smaller farms. Only minor differences were detected in perception of the future of precision technologies between either herd size or farmers and service providers. In particular, service providers expected a higher adoption of automatic milking and walk over weighing systems than farmers. Currently, the adoption of precision technology has mostly been of the type that reduces labor needs; however, respondents indicated that by 2025 adoption of data capturing technology for monitoring farm system parameters would be increased. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of health technologies: An international view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, E.; Banta, D.

    1999-01-01

    Health technology includes not only equipment, pharmaceuticals, and medical devices but also surgical and medical procedures Most countries regulate drugs and devices by law, by payment, or by placement of services-a new, multidisciplinary research called health technology assessment assists policy

  4. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  5. Financial coping strategies of mental health consumers: managing social benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Mary Ager

    2014-05-01

    Mental health consumers depend on social benefits in the forms of supplemental security income and social security disability insurance for their livelihood. Although these programs pay meager benefits, little research has been undertaken into how this population makes ends meet. Using a qualitative approach, this study asks what are the financial coping strategies of mental health consumers? Seven approaches were identified: subsidies, cost-effective shopping, budgeting, prioritizing, technology, debt management, and saving money. Results illustrate the resourcefulness of mental health consumers in managing meager social benefits and highlight the need to strengthen community mental health efforts with financial capabilities education.

  6. 12904 ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ZERO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor hygiene of the enclosures and washing the udders instead of teats only may predispose animals to ... management including provision of good quality nutritious feed, clean water, ... antibiotics for prevention and treatment of diseases [7].

  7. Conflicts between reindeer herding and an expanding caribou herd in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg L. Finstad

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The reindeer industry has existed in Alaska since 1892. This industry has largely been concentrated on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska because suitable habitat has been available and caribou have been absent here for over 100 years. Until recently, reindeer meat and velvet antler production consistently generated millions of dollars in revenue critical to the economies of rural Alaskan communities. From 1976 to 1996 the Western Arctic Caribou Herd (WACH increased from about 75 000 to 463 000 animals. Concurrently, seasonal range use of the WACH shifted westward onto traditional reindeer ranges of the Seward Peninsula. Reindeer herders lost 75-100% of their herds through commingling and out¬migration with wild caribou. This loss of over 12 000 reindeer represents a potential economic value of 13 million dollars. Sustainable meat and velvet antler production and the economies of western Alaskan are likely to be affected by these changes.

  8. Solving a Health Information Management Problem. An international success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The management of health care delivery requires the availability of effective 'information management' tools based on e-technologies [eHealth]. In developed economies many of these 'tools' are readily available whereas in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) there is limited access to eHealth technologies and this has been defined as the "digital divide". This paper provides a short introduction to the fundamental understanding of what is meant by information management in health care and how it applies to all social economies. The core of the paper describes the successful implementation of appropriate information management tools in a resource poor environment to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other disease states, in sub-Saharan Africa and how the system has evolved to become the largest open source eHealth project in the world and become the health information infrastructure for several national eHealth economies. The system is known as Open MRS [www.openmrs.org). The continuing successful evolution of the OpenMRS project has permitted its key implementers to define core factors that are the foundations for successful eHealth projects.

  9. Health and safety management practices in small and medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and safety management practices in small and medium enterprises in the ... on national economies, the construction industry receives additional attention in ... and training were considered key factors of H&S for SMCEs at project level.

  10. Electronic Prognostics for Vehicle Health Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All electronic systems are prone to wear-out and eventual failure and this has direct implications for Vehicle Health Management for NASA with its long space...

  11. Architecture for Integrated System Health Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Managing the health of vehicle, crew, and habitat systems is a primary function of flight controllers today. We propose to develop an architecture for automating...

  12. Sensor Area Network for Integrated Systems Health Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The term Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition of every element in a complex System...

  13. Management system of organizational and economic changes in health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Vasilyevna Krivenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the definitions of the concept organizational and economic changes in institution problems of changes in public health service, the purpose and issues of the management system of organizational and economic changes in the field are considered. The combined strategy of development and innovative changes in management is offered. The need of resource-saving technologies implementation is shown. Expediency of use of marketing tools in a management system of organizational and economic changes is considered the mechanism of improvement of planning and pricing in public health service is offered. The author’s model of management of organizational and economic changes in health services supporting achievement of medical, social, economic efficiency in Yekaterinburg's trauma care is presented. Strategy of traumatism prevention is determined on the basis of interdepartmental approach and territorial segmentation of health care market

  14. Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in Arusha City, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... findings, majority (84.6%) of the cow's enclosures were of poor hygiene.

  15. 201 the importance of health management of grasscutters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-02

    Sep 2, 2010 ... Health problems posed a great danger to management of grass-cutter farms. This has led ... to natural food items, minerals and preferred habitats. Actually, in the .... CONCLUSION. These results indicates that good hygiene,.

  16. Human resources for public health supply chain management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    country. Objective: The objective of this needs assessment was to identify the need for ... not to eliminate, the effect of the prevailing inadequate ... Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH),to develop the ... manage outsourcing of these activities, and.

  17. Managing health risks on small dairy farms in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-20

    Jun 20, 2016 ... ... in Kenya found that eating vegetables contaminated with animal manure or human waste was more ... Research improves secure access to nutritious food ... Integrated pest management yields economic and health benefits.

  18. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Systems Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systems health management (SHM) is an impor- tant set of technologies aimed at increasing system safety and reliability by detecting, isolating, and identifying...

  19. Use of Diabetes Data Management Software Reports by Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Diabetes Data Management Software Reports by Health Care Providers, Patients With Diabetes, and Caregivers Improves Accuracy and Efficiency of Data Analysis and Interpretation Compared With Traditional Logbook Data: First Results of the Accu-Chek C.

  20. Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health programmes in Kenya. ... These were hardly implemented in the projects, according to the data gathered. ... Conclusion: Land and income were big issues according to the responses.

  1. Implications of the development of managed health care in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care or the public heatth care sector, and that it may potentially promote ... The MHC approach controls costs through measures such as .... (managers, computer systems, accountants). If it does not, .... Health EconomICS 1994: 3: 351-357.

  2. Health management in past disasters in Iran: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei

    2014-06-01

    Background: Disaster management is relied on prediction of problems and providing necessary preparations in right time and place. In this study researchers intended to explore passed experiences of health disaster management. Method: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis methods. Participants were selected purposefully and data were collected through interviews, observation, and other documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18interviews, field notes and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis reactive management was emerged as main theme. It was included some categories such as ‘exposure shock’, ‘non deliberative relief’, ‘lack of comprehensive health disaster plan’, ‘lack of preparedness’, and ‘poor coordination in health service delivery’ and contextual factors. Discussion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals' and non-professionals' emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services, and aggravates the damages.

  3. All-Fiber-Optic Ultrasonic Health Management System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Health management of composite airframe components is essential for safety and reliability of future aircrafts. It reduces the risk of catastrophic failures and...

  4. Corporate social responsibility and the future health care manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K

    2010-01-01

    The decisions and actions of health care managers are oftentimes heavily scrutinized by the public. Given the current economic climate, managers may feel intense pressure to produce higher results with fewer resources. This could inadvertently test their moral fortitude and their social consciousness. A study was conducted to determine what corporate social responsibility orientation and viewpoint future health care managers may hold. The results of the study indicate that future health care managers may hold patient care in high regard as opposed to profit maximization. However, the results of the study also show that future managers within the industry may continue to need rules, laws, regulations, and legal sanctions to guide their actions and behavior.

  5. Knowledge management in health: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Elyrose Sousa Brito; Nagliate, Patricia; Furlan, Claudia Elisangela Bis; Rocha, Kerson; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge has been used as a resource for intelligent and effective action planning in organizations. Interest in research on knowledge management processes has intensified in different areas. A systematic literature review was accomplished, based on the question: what are the contributions of Brazilian and international journal publications on knowledge management in health? The sample totaled 32 items that complied with the inclusion criteria. The results showed that 78% of journals that published on the theme are international, 77% of researchers work in higher education and 65% have a Ph.D. The texts gave rise to five thematic categories, mainly: development of knowledge management systems in health (37.5%), discussion of knowledge management application in health (28.1%) and nurses' function in knowledge management (18.7%).

  6. Toward a Conceptual Knowledge Management Framework in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Francis

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual organizing scheme for managing knowledge within the health setting. First, a brief review of the notions of knowledge and knowledge management is provided. This is followed by a detailed depiction of our proposed knowledge management framework, which focuses on the concepts of production, use, and refinement of three specific knowledge sources-policy, evidence, and experience. These concepts are operationalized through a set of knowledge management methods and tools tailored for the health setting. We include two case studies around knowledge translation on parent-child relations and virtual networks in community health research to illustrate how this knowledge management framework can be operationalized within specific contexts and the issues involved. We conclude with the lessons learned and implications. PMID:18066388

  7. Dual-Use Aspects of System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, P. R.; Jambor, B. J.; Eger, G. W.; Clark, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    System Health Management functionality is an essential part of any space launch system. Health management functionality is an integral part of mission reliability, since it is needed to verify the reliability before the mission starts. Health Management is also a key factor in life cycle cost reduction and in increasing system availability. The degree of coverage needed by the system and the degree of coverage made available at a reasonable cost are critical parameters of a successful design. These problems are not unique to the launch vehicle world. In particular, the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System, commercial aircraft systems, train systems, and many types of industrial production facilities require various degrees of system health management. In all of these applications, too, the designers must balance the benefits and costs of health management in order to optimize costs. The importance of an integrated system is emphasized. That is, we present the case for considering health management as an integral part of system design, rather than functionality to be added on at the end of the design process. The importance of maintaining the system viewpoint is discussed in making hardware and software tradeoffs and in arriving at design decisions. We describe an approach to determine the parameters to be monitored in any system health management application. This approach is based on Design of Experiments (DOE), prototyping, failure modes and effects analyses, cost modeling and discrete event simulation. The various computer-based tools that facilitate the approach are discussed. The approach described originally was used to develop a fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles that incorporated health management as an integral part of the system. Finally, we discuss generalizing the technique to apply it to other domains. Several illustrations are presented.

  8. Ambiguity among Managers in Small-Scale Enterprises: How to Handle Business and Workplace Health Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Vinberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research on health in working life, few studies focus on this issue from the perspective of managers in small-scale enterprises (SSEs. To gain deeper knowledge of managers’ perceptions and strategies for dealing with workplace health management, 13 Norwegian and Swedish SSE managers were interviewed after participating in a workplace health development project. The methodical approach was based on Grounded Theory with a constructivist orientation. The main theme that emerged was ‘ambiguity in workplace health management and maintaining the business’, which was related to the categories ‘internal workplace settings’, ‘workplace surroundings’, and ‘leadership strategies’. The managers experienced ambiguity due to internal and external demands. These requirements were linked to the core challenges in dealing with multitasking leadership, financial decision-making, labour legislation, staff development and maintaining business. However, the managers developed new skills and competence and thereby a more reflexive approach and readiness to create a health-promoting workplace from being part of a development project. The implications are that managers in SSEs need to exchange experiences and discuss workplace health issues with other managers in networks. It is also important that occupational health services and social and welfare organizations use tailor-made models and strategies for supporting SSEs.

  9. Managing Home Health Care (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Palliative Care Electronic Health Records When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care ... Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit ...

  10. Health Risk Management for Bioenvironmental Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    with mission objectives. Decisions that include differing objectives, knowledge, and perceptions of those affected by the decision (e.g., workplace ...factors, controlling health care costs, predicting employee absenteeism , encouraging individuals to take a proactive stance concerning personal

  11. Health system strengthening and hypertension management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kehui; Song, Yu Ting; He, Yong Huan; Feng, Xing Lin

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of global burden of diseases, and hypertension is one of the most important risk factors. Hypertension prevalence doubled in China in the past decade and affects more than 300 million Chinese people. In the review we systematically searched peer-reviewed publications that link health system level factors with hypertension management in China and provide the current knowledge on how to improve a country's health system to manage the hypertension epidemic. A framework was developed to guide the review. The database of PubMed, CNKI were systematically searched from inception to April 13, 2016. Two authors independently screened the searched results for inclusion, conducted data extraction and appraised the quality of studies. Key findings were described according to the framework. Five hundred seventy-two publications were identified, where 11 articles were left according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study periods range from 2010 to 2015. All about 11 researches linked health system factors to the outcome of hypertension management. And the outcomes were just focused on the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension but not hypertension incidence. One study is about the role of health system governance, investigating the performance of different organized community health care centers; three studies were about health financing comparing differences in insurance coverage; three studies were about health information practicing the hypertension guidelines of China or the WHO, and the rest three about mechanisms of health service delivery. No researches were identified about physical resources for health and human resources for health. Hypertension prevalence has been rising rapidly in China and the management of hypertension in China is a detection problem rather than treatment problem. Limited evidence shows the positive effect of health system factors on hypertension management and joint efforts

  12. "Don't Have A Cow, Man!": Recognizing Herd Share Agreements for Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the industrial model of food production has caused many consumers to seek out food produced on local, family-scale farms that use U.S. Department of Agriculture certified organic or other sustainable practices to grow their food and raise their livestock. While almost all of the types of food that are available at the grocery store can also be found at the local farmers market, one food that is difficult to find in many states is raw milk—that is, milk that has not undergone pasteurization (heat treatment). This difficulty lies in the fact that most states prohibit the direct retail sale of raw milk to the final consumer because public health officials and state legislators fear that raw milk may contain bacteria harmful to human health such as E. coli, Campylobacter, and Listeria. However, some consumers reject these warnings and instead believe that raw milk possesses both nutritional and medicinal qualities. Indeed, an ever-increasing body of scientific research published in peer-reviewed journals supports the claim that raw milk consumption can mitigate or prevent some allergies and infections, especially in young children. In order for consumers to obtain raw milk in states where its sale is prohibited, some consumers have entered into arrangements with farmers known as “herd sharing,” through which the consumer effectively becomes an owner of the herd of cows or goats. For the price of the share and a monthly boarding fee, the shareholder can receive a weekly distribution of the herd’s primary dividend, namely the raw milk. Several states expressly permit this practice while most are silent and still a few prohibit it outright. The three courts in the United States that have ruled on herd share agreements have split, with two courts rejecting the agreements as a circumvention of the state’s prohibition on the sale of raw milk, and the other court assuming the agreement’s validity in light of the state’s failure to adequately

  13. [Health alert management and emerging risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillonel, J

    2010-12-01

    Following health crisis that have occurred in the nineties (contaminated blood, mad cow, asbestos, etc.) and more recently those generated by the heat wave in 2003 or by emerging infectious pathogens (SARS, West Nile, Chikungunya, H5N1, H1N1…), a real health vigilance system has been progressively developed in France. After a brief historical overview of the health alert system, this article will give the guiding principles of its current organization in France and will present two examples of recent health alerts (Chikungunya in the Reunion Island in 2005-2006 and hepatitis A outbreak in the Côtes-d'Armor in August 2007), that have needed the implementation of preventive measures regarding the blood donor selection. These two examples have shown that the position of the alert in the French health vigilance system needs to be very close to the event. In that case, health alert is a very useful tool for decision making especially when measures have to be taken to prevent transfusion-transmitted pathogens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Adherence to ministry of health guidelines in management of severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Guidelines have shown to impact positively on the management of medical conditions. The impact of these guidelines has not been evaluated for severe preeclampsia and eclampsia in Kenya. Objective: To evaluate the level of adherence to Kenya Ministry of Health (MOH) guidelines in the management of ...

  15. Setting international standards for the management of public health pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have highlighted the urgency of sound management of public health pesticides in vector-borne–disease–endemic countries. Major shortcomings are evident in national-level management practices throughout the pesticide life cycle from production to disposal; these shortcomings will

  16. Audit Trail Management System in Community Health Care Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nakaya, Jun; Tominaga, Teiji; Suganuma, Takuo; Shiratori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake we constructed a community health care information network system. Focusing on the authentication server and portal server capable of SAML&ID-WSF, we proposed an audit trail management system to look over audit events in a comprehensive manner. Through implementation and experimentation, we verified the effectiveness of our proposed audit trail management system.

  17. Management of health, safety and environment in process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan; Fiévez, C.; Gerbec, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of industrial HSE management in a number of EU member states is reviewed, with a focus on the integration of health, safety and environment in single management systems. The review provides insight into the standards and paradigms adopted by industry, and it identifies trends...

  18. Design for sustainable development : environmental management and safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.; Bos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is a report on the EU's environmental management and audit scheme and its interaction with the management of safety and health. The focus is on the interactions at company and at policy level. To illustrate the relevance of the interactions at company level, the Annex includes five case studies

  19. Fish health status, research and management in East Africa: past ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the state of research on fish pathogens in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda from the early 1900s, the period when fisheries management started in the region, to date, and evaluates the current policy, regulatory frameworks, management practices and frameworks for addressing fish health ...

  20. Mental Health Professionals' Suicide Risk Assessment and Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Mitchell, Sean M; Taylor, Nathanael J; Quinnett, Paul; Ries, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 20% of suicide decedents have had contact with a mental health professional within 1 month prior to their death, and the majority of mental health professionals have treated suicidal individuals. Despite limited evidence-based training, mental health professionals make important clinical decisions related to suicide risk assessment and management. The current study aimed to determine the frequency of suicide risk assessment and management practices and the association between fear of suicide-related outcomes or comfort working with suicidal individuals and adequacy of suicide risk management decisions among mental health professionals. Mental health professionals completed self-report assessments of fear, comfort, and suicide risk assessment and management practices. Approximately one third of mental health professionals did not ask every patient about current or previous suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Further, comfort, but not fear, was positively associated with greater odds of conducting evidence-based suicide risk assessments at first appointments and adequacy of suicide risk management practices with patients reporting suicide ideation and a recent suicide attempt. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the majority of mental health professionals report using evidenced-based practices, there appears to be variability in utilization of evidence-based practices.

  1. Using systems science for population health management in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Kong, Nan; Lawley, Mark A; Pagán, José A

    2014-10-01

    Population health management is becoming increasingly important to organizations managing and providing primary care services given ongoing changes in health care delivery and payment systems. The objective of this study is to show how systems science methodologies could be incorporated into population health management to compare different interventions and improve health outcomes. The New York Academy of Medicine Cardiovascular Health Simulation model (an agent-based model) and data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to evaluate a lifestyle program that could be implemented in primary care practice settings. The program targeted Medicare-age adults and focused on improving diet and exercise and reducing weight. The simulation results suggest that there would be significant reductions projected in the proportion of the Medicare-age population with diabetes after the implementation of the proposed lifestyle program for a relatively long term (3 and 5 years). Similar results were found for the subpopulations with high cholesterol, but the proposed intervention would not have a significant effect in the proportion of the population with hypertension over a time period of Systems science methodologies can be useful to compare the health outcomes of different interventions. These tools can become an important component of population health management because they can help managers and other decision makers evaluate alternative programs in primary care settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Implementing comprehensive health care management for sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-28

    May 28, 2015 ... adopted as the strategy for the management of SCD and this has resulted in the ... Therefore, there is a need to adapt this form of care for the low-resource settings in ..... Omilola B. Patterns and trends of child and maternal ...

  3. An Application of Business Process Management to Health Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohsen M D

    The purpose of this article is to help health care facility managers and personnel identify significant elements of their facilities to address, and steps and actions to follow, when applying business process management to them. The ABPMP (Association of Business Process Management Professionals) life-cycle model of business process management is adopted, and steps from Lean, business process reengineering, and Six Sigma, and actions from operations management are presented to implement it. Managers of health care facilities can find in business process management a more comprehensive approach to improving their facilities than Lean, Six Sigma, business process reengineering, and ad hoc approaches that does not conflict with them because many of their elements can be included under its umbrella. Furthermore, the suggested application of business process management can guide and relieve them from selecting among these approaches, as well as provide them with specific steps and actions that they can follow. This article fills a gap in the literature by presenting a much needed comprehensive application of business process management to health care facilities that has specific steps and actions for implementation.

  4. Management of Health Information in Malawi: Role of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Albert Chikumba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended version of the conference paper presented at IST Africa Week Conference 2016 and it discusses in detail the existing technology gaps using DHIS2 (District Health Information System 2.0 as an example, and how Geographic Information System (GIS and mobile application, as specific examples of technology, can enhance health management information system (HMIS in Malawi. The paper focuses on management of health information. When organisation information is made available, it is expected that the decision-makers use it objectively making rational decisions. This can be achieved by how the information is organized, integrated and presented probably through technology. Along with the increase in strengthening HMIS, questions of how to support the management of information at various organizational levels arise. Research on technologies in health management in developing countries has been on single technologies. Therefore, in this paper, the interest is on multiple technologies and how they support each other to enhance health information management. It has been observed that when it comes to health information management, HMIS employs a mix of paper-based and technology-based practices. Taking into account the infrastructure in Malawi, as in many developing countries, this is probably the most feasible approach. Hence, discussions of existing technology gaps include both paper-based and technology-based practices and how to better support health information management practices through this mixed use of media. The case study confirms that technology plays a role in strengthening HMIS. However, this should be supported by enhancing a culture of information management. It has been noted that DHIS2 is the main information system but it requires the enhancement through inclusions of other technologies. The DHIS2 alone cannot do everything.

  5. Priority issues in tropical animal health management | Etuk | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of livestock to sustain family and local economies have been acknowledged worldwide. However, the major constraints to the attainment of this potential especially in the tropics have been the incidence of disease and sundry ill health. Thus the development of an effective animal health management strategy ...

  6. Knowledge management, health information technology and nurses' work engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Ligthart, P.E.M.; Schouteten, R.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge management (KM) extends the health information technology (HIT) literature by addressing its impact on creating knowledge by sharing and using the knowledge of health care professionals in hospitals. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to provide insight into how HIT affects

  7. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Mental Health Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of school mental health professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  8. The Role of Council Health Management Team in the Improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Council Health Management Team in the Improvement of Health Services Quality: The Case of Kinondoni and Ilala Municipalities in Dar es ... poor working equipment, lack of commitment on the part of members of the CHMT, lack of effective CHMTs' supervision, as well as the lack of good networking and ...

  9. Public and private roles in plant health management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    World-wide, government institutions play an important role in the management of plant health. This paper develops a conceptual framework in which suppliers and demanders jointly determine the optimal level of plant health in a hypothetical market. Next this paper argues that this market falls short

  10. Software for the occupational health and safety integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vătăsescu, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to present the design and the production of a software for the Occupational Health and Safety Integrated Management System with the view to a rapid drawing up of the system documents in the field of occupational health and safety

  11. Evaluation of two communication strategies to improve udder health management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Renes, R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers’ udder health management, tools such as

  12. Software for the occupational health and safety integrated management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vătăsescu, Mihaela [University Politehnica Timisoara, Department of Engineering and Management, 5 Revolutiei street, 331128 Hunedoara (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    This paper intends to present the design and the production of a software for the Occupational Health and Safety Integrated Management System with the view to a rapid drawing up of the system documents in the field of occupational health and safety.

  13. An Examination of Health Information Management by the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how Deaf people perceive, access, and utilize interpersonal and media sources for health information. In light of the scarcity of research on health information management among this group, a two-phase study was conducted that included eight focus groups (N=39) and survey data (N=366) with Deaf participants to determine the…

  14. Reusable Rocket Engine Turbopump Health Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surko, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

  15. A new complementary approach for oral health and diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak; Freeman, Ruth; Schou, Lone

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health coaching (HC) is based on 'partnering with clients in a thought-provoking and creative process that inspires them to maximise their personal and professional potential' to adopt healthy lifestyles through 'building awareness and empowerment'. This study's objective is to assess......, for the first time to our knowledge, the effectiveness of HC compared with health education (HE) using clinical and subjective measures among type 2 diabetes (DM2) patients in Turkey and Denmark. METHODS: This stratified random prospective study selected type 2 diabetes patients in Turkey (n = 186) (TR) (2010...... management and health outcomes. There is a need for common health promotion strategies with behavioural interventions such as health coaching for the management of type 2 diabetes that focus on multidisciplinary approaches including oral health....

  16. Multivariate clustering of reindeer herding districts in Sweden according to range prerequisites for reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lundqvist

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The 51 reindeer herding districts in Sweden vary in productivity and prerequisites for reindeer herding. In this study we characterize and group reindeer herding districts based on relevant factors affecting reindeer productivity, i.e. topography, vegetation, forage value, habitat fragmentation and reachability, as well as season lengths, snow fall, ice-crust probability, and insect harassment, totally quantified in 15 variables. The herding districts were grouped into seven main groups and three single outliers through cluster analyses. The largest group, consisting of 14 herding districts, was further divided into four subgroups. The range properties of herding districts and groups of districts were characterized through principal component analyses. By comparisons of the suggested grouping of herding districts with existing administrative divisions, these appeared not to coincide. A new division of herding districts into six administrative sets of districts was suggested in order to improve administrative planning and management of the reindeer herding industry. The results also give possibilities for projections of alterations caused by an upcoming global climate change. Large scale investigations using geographical information systems (GIS and meteorological data would be helpful for administrative purposes, both nationally and internationally, as science-based decision tools in legislative, economical, ecological and structural assessments. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Multivariat gruppering av svenska samebyar baserat på renbetesmarkernas grundförutsettningar Svenska renskötselområdet består av 51 samebyar som varierar i produktivitet och förutsättningar för renskötsel. Vi analyserade variationen mellan samebyar med avseende på 15 variabler som beskriver topografi, vegetation, betesvärde, fragmentering av betesmarker, klimat, skareförekomst och aktivitet av parasiterande insekter och vi föreslår en indelning av

  17. Rural health service managers' perspectives on preparing rural health services for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rachael; McGirr, Joe

    2018-02-01

    To determine health service managers' (HSMs) recommendations on strengthening the health service response to climate change. Self-administered survey in paper or electronic format. Rural south-west of New South Wales. Health service managers working in rural remote metropolitan areas 3-7. Proportion of respondents identifying preferred strategies for preparation of rural health services for climate change. There were 43 participants (53% response rate). Most respondents agreed that there is scepticism regarding climate change among health professionals (70%, n = 30) and community members (72%, n = 31). Over 90% thought that climate change would impact the health of rural populations in the future with regard to heat-related illnesses, mental health, skin cancer and water security. Health professionals and government were identified as having key leadership roles on climate change and health in rural communities. Over 90% of the respondents believed that staff and community in local health districts (LHDs) should be educated about the health impacts of climate change. Public health education facilitated by State or Federal Government was the preferred method of educating community members, and education facilitated by the LHD was the preferred method for educating health professionals. Health service managers hold important health leadership roles within rural communities and their health services. The study highlights the scepticism towards climate change among health professionals and community members in rural Australia. It identifies the important role of rural health services in education and advocacy on the health impacts of climate change and identifies recommended methods of public health education for community members and health professionals. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Data Management for Evaluating Complications of Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Streed, Stephen A.; Massanari, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operating characteristics of a microcomputer-based data management system for assessing complications associated with the delivery of health care. The system was developed in response to the need to promote “risk management” as an essential component of the Quality Assurance effort within the health care delivery environment. The system herein described allows the epidemiological evaluation of complications of health care in a tertiary care referral center....

  19. Best practices in managing child and adolescent behavioral health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Vera; Rocker, Joshua; Saggu, Babar M; Andrus, Jason M

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral health emergencies most commonly present as depression, suicidal behavior, aggression, and severe disorganization. Emergency clinicians should avoid relying solely on past medical history or previous psychiatric diagnoses that might prematurely rule out medical pathologies. Treatments for behavioral health emergencies consist of de-escalation interventions aimed at preventing agitation, aggression, and harm. This issue reviews medical pathologies and underlying causes that can result in psychiatric presentations and summarizes evidence-based practices to evaluate, manage, and refer patients with behavioral health emergencies.

  20. A questionnaire study of associations between potential risk factors and salmonella status in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Frössling, Jenny; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    In this study associations between potential risk factors and salmonella status in Swedish dairy herds were investigated. A case-control study design was used, including existing as well as new cases. Herds were assigned a salmonella status on the basis of antibody analysis of bulk milk samples. Information on potential risk factors was collected from registry data and from farmers via a questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between salmonella status and potential risk factors. In addition, multivariate analysis with Additive Bayesian Network (ABN) modelling was performed to improve understanding of the complex relationship between all the variables. Because of the difficulty in identifying associations between potential risk factors and infections with low prevalence and a large regional variation, exposure of potential risk factors in the high-prevalence region (Öland) were compared to exposure in other regions in Sweden. In total 483 of 996 (48%) farmers responded to the questionnaire, 69 herds had test-positive bulk milk samples. The strongest association with salmonella status was 'presence of salmonella test-positive herds pastures and providing protective clothing for visitors. The latter is probably a reflection of increased disease awareness in Öland. The ABN model showed associations between herd size and housing as well as several management procedures. This provides an explanation why herd size frequently has been identified as a risk factor for salmonella by other studies. The study confirms the importance of local transmission routes for salmonella, but does not identify specific components in this local spread. Therefore, it supports the use of a broad biosecurity approach in the prevention of salmonella. In Öland, some potential risk factors are more common than in other parts of Sweden. Theoretically these could contribute to the spread of salmonella, but this was not