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  1. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  2. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi

    2008-01-01

    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...

  3. [Quality control in herbal supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelker, Luisa

    2005-01-01

    Quality and safety of food and herbal supplements are the result of a whole of different elements as good manufacturing practice and process control. The process control must be active and able to individuate and correct all possible hazards. The main and most utilized instrument is the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system the correct application of which can guarantee the safety of the product. Herbal supplements need, in addition to standard quality control, a set of checks to assure the harmlessness and safety of the plants used.

  4. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996. Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. Ginko biloba, horse- chestnut, and only 10% of the herbs used in nutritional supplements are commonly present in the food (e.g. garlic, soy, blueberry, green the, ginger, curcuma (Eisenberg et al., 1993. There is much interest in "alternative natural approaches" in sport. It is appealing for athletes to use 'natural' substances with similar activity to 'pharmacological' ones in term of improving performance, are not considered doping, and are considered side-effects free (Table 1. Indeed, many herbal dietary supplements marketed on internet are presented as legal alternative to illicit drugs (Denneey et al., 2005. EcdysteroidsEcdysteroids are the steroid hormones of arthropods (Figure 1. They also occur in some plants, where they are known as phytoecdysteroids, and are believed to contribute to deter invertebrate predators. In insects, they regulate moulting and metamorphosis, may regulate reproduction and diapause. Most actions of ecdysteroids are mediated by intracellular receptor complexes, which regulate gene expression in a tissue- and development-specific manner (Lehmann et al 1989.Several phytoecdysteroids have anabolic growth-promoting effects on mice, rats, pigs and Japanese quails. Ecdysteroids stimulate muscle growth, and this anabolic effect promotes increased physical performance without training. Ecdysteroids are also able to increase muscle ATP content in vitamin D-deprived rats (Báthori, 2002. Ecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in the

  5. Herbal Supplements: What to Know Before You Buy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Regulations ensure that herbal supplements meet manufacturing standards but don't guarantee that ... of herbal remedies goes on and on. Herbal supplements, sometimes called botanicals, are one type of dietary ...

  6. Review article: herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchorntavakul, C; Reddy, K R

    2013-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements are commonly used throughout the World. There is a tendency for underreporting their ingestion by patients and the magnitude of their use is underrecognised by Physicians. Herbal hepatotoxicity is not uncommonly encountered, but the precise incidence and manifestations have not been well characterised. To review the epidemiology, presentation and diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity. This review will mainly discuss single ingredients and complex mixtures of herbs marketed under a single label. A Medline search was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms including 'herbal', 'herbs', 'dietary supplement', 'liver injury', 'hepatitis' and 'hepatotoxicity'. Furthermore, we scanned the reference lists of the primary and review articles to identify publications not retrieved by electronic searches. The incidence rates of herbal hepatotoxicity are largely unknown. The clinical presentation and severity can be highly variable, ranging from mild hepatitis to acute hepatic failure requiring transplantation. Scoring systems for the causality assessment of drug-induced liver injury may be helpful, but have not been validated for herbal hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity features of commonly used herbal products, such as Ayurvedic and Chinese herbs, black cohosh, chaparral, germander, greater celandine, green tea, Herbalife, Hydroxycut, kava, pennyroyal, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, skullcap, and usnic acid, have been individually reviewed. Furthermore, clinically significant herb-drug interactions are also discussed. A number of herbal medicinal products are associated with a spectrum of hepatotoxicity events. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risks involved are needed to improve herbal medicine safety. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Usefulness of herbal and dietary supplement references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Burgunda V; Gay, Wendy E; Leady, Michelle A; Stumpf, Janice L

    2003-04-01

    To describe the usefulness of some of the most common tertiary references that healthcare professionals employ to answer requests about herbal and dietary supplements. All requests for information on herbal and dietary supplements received by the drug information service between April and September 2000 were evaluated. Each question was independently reviewed by 4 clinicians using a 4-point scale; 14 references were searched for appropriate answers. The percent of responses for each of the possible scores for each reference overall and by category of question was reported to determine the most helpful references for answering the broadest range of questions. Fifty questions regarding herbal and dietary supplements were analyzed. The electronic databases (Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, Micromedex) and the Internet site (The Natural Pharmacist) were determined to be overall the most helpful references for providing information on herbal and dietary supplements. The Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide was the most helpful book reference. These results will facilitate the retrieval of useful information on herbal and dietary supplements and enable healthcare professionals to determine appropriate allocation of resources as they build a drug information library for handling requests about these products.

  8. Herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Mozūraitienė, Vilija

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the study: To examine and systematize assortment of herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion and also to find out public opinion about herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion using questionnaire. Aim of the study: (1) To examine which digestive tract ailments are treated most frequently herbal products, food supplements and teas. (2) To examine which herbal products, food supplements and teas are used most frequent...

  9. Herbal Supplements May Not Mix with Heart Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Changes in blood pressure Enioutina EY, et al. Herbal medicines: Challenges in the modern world. Part 5. Status ... Pharmacology. 2017;10:327. Saper RB. Overview of herbal medicines and dietary supplements. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ ...

  10. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  11. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  12. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

  13. The Content of Mercury in Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Fischer, Agnieszka; Szczelina, Wioletta; Stojko, Jerzy

    2018-01-17

    The dietary supplement market in Poland has been growing rapidly, and the number of registered products and their consumption increases steadily. Among the most popular and the easiest to get are herbal supplements, available in any supermarket. The aim of this paper was to investigate the mercury content in the herbal supplements. The dietary supplements that have been examined (24) are available on the Polish market and contain one or more herbal ingredients. Supplements were pulverized in porcelain mortar and identified by AMA 254 atomic absorption spectrometer. The range of variations for all tested supplements was within 0.02-4293.07 μg/kg. The arithmetic mean of the total result was 193.77 μg/kg. A higher mercury content then this mean was found in preparations-bamboo shoots and alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The studies have shown that mercury is present in every examined herbal supplement, and its content exceeds in two preparations (with bamboo and alga) the permissible limit of 0.10 mg/kg. There were statistically significant differences in the occurrence of mercury depending on the herbal ingredient in the supplement. The lowest content was found in the preparation with Tanacetum parthenium and the highest with bamboo shoots. The mercury content in the tested herbal supplements was statistically significant in the form of a supplement-a tablet and a capsule. Daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly consumption of mercury with examined supplements was calculated-the results did not exceed the PTWI-provisional tolerable weekly intake of mercury. To increase consumer safety, it is imperative to conduct further research on dietary supplements and implement a stricter quality control of the dietary supplements.

  14. Clinical Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Herbal Supplements and Anticancer Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goey, A.K.L.

    2013-01-01

    In cancer treatment the response to chemotherapy is often characterized by a wide interpatient variability. The increasing popularity of herbal supplements among cancer patients may contribute to this phenomenon. Since these supplements may affect drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes,

  15. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

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    ... at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products ...

  16. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Ivanova

    Full Text Available DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious.We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components.All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven-by NGS. NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components.Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product. Interpretation of results should

  17. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Natalia V; Kuzmina, Maria L; Braukmann, Thomas W A; Borisenko, Alex V; Zakharov, Evgeny V

    2016-01-01

    DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven-by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product. Interpretation of results should involve an

  18. Herbal Supplements for Prostate Enlargement: Current State of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Reza; Zangi, Mahdi; Kim, Michelle M; Yavari Bejestani, Maryam; Tabatabaei, Shahin

    2018-02-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of the current state of herbal supplement market for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and correlate the ingredients of each product with available scientific evidence. Twenty-seven products from Amazon.com that were advertised as herbal supplements for LUTS and had listed their active ingredients were selected. Active ingredients were reviewed on Google Scholar. Product price, warranty, and consumer review information were also collected. A total of 58 unique active ingredients were identified. The mean number of ingredients was 8.26 (standard deviation 5.25). Whereas 17 (63%) products had an ingredient with a systematic review to support their use, 20 (74%) had an ingredient with conflicting evidence based on systematic reviews. Out of the supplements that contained ingredients supported by literature, all (100%) products simultaneously had other ingredients with no, conflicting, or refuting evidence. There was no (0%) product that contained only scientifically proven ingredients. There is no scientific study to evaluate these supplements as a whole. Despite the widespread use of herbal supplements for LUTS, there is scant scientific evidence to support their safety and efficacy. Lack of adequate regulation and government support for research and development are some of the factors that disincentivize researchers to study safety and efficacy of these products. We encourage physicians to warn their patients on the lack of adequate evidence to support the safety and efficacy of many of these supplements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Use of Herbal Supplements as One of Self Medications in Bandung

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    Dika P. Destiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal supplements as one of self medications in Indonesia has not yet been well-documented since many people used these supplements in absence of medical consultation with pharmacist. This retrospective observational study was conducted at one of healthcare service centers in Bandung. Data related to the sale of herbal supplements during 2014 period was collected and analyzed. We found that 30.163 items of herbal supplements were sold in 2014. Approximately 1.277 sold items were specific supplements for chronic and degenerative diseases. Based on the category of therapy, the most sold item was a herbal supplement for hyperlipidemia with three major ingredients: garlic, lecithin, and spirulina. Despite the huge number of the use of herbal supplements in Indonesia, medical information from pharmacist about the use of herbal supplements is still scarce.

  20. DNA barcode identification of black cohosh herbal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David A; Stevenson, Dennis W; Little, Damon P

    2012-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) herbal dietary supplements are commonly consumed to treat menopausal symptoms, but there are reports of adverse events and toxicities associated with their use. Accidental misidentification and/or deliberate adulteration results in harvesting other related species that are then marketed as black cohosh. Some of these species are known to be toxic to humans. We have identified two matK nucleotides that consistently distinguish black cohosh from related species. Using these nucleotides, an assay was able to correctly identify all of the black cohosh samples in the validation set. None of the other Actaea species in the validation set were falsely identified as black cohosh. Of 36 dietary supplements sequenced, 27 (75%) had a sequence that exactly matched black cohosh. The remaining nine samples (25%) had a sequence identical to that of three Asian Actaea species (A. cimicifuga, A. dahurica, and A. simplex). Manufacturers should routinely test plant material using a reliable assay to ensure accurate labeling.

  1. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight

  2. Knowledge and characteristics of herbal supplement usage among community pharmacy customers in a Malaysian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, S W; Choong, Y C

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the knowledge and characteristics of herbal supplement usage of the customers of community pharmacies in a Malaysian population. Self-administered questionnaires (in English, Malay, or Chinese) were provided to customers at three community pharmacies in Malaysia (Ipoh, Perak). Questionnaire validation and translation validation were performed. A pilot study was conducted before actual questionnaire distribution. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Total number of participants was 270 (99 males and 171 females) with majority from the 31-50 age group (41.5%). Among the participants, 45.6% were herbal users. The most commonly used herbal supplements were evening primrose oil (17.9%), ginkgo biloba (13.0%), and milk thistle (8.5%). The participants seemed to have sufficient knowledge regarding herbal supplements including safety, quality, and indication of use from medical literature. Participants obtained information about herbal supplements from pharmacists (26.9%), package inserts (25.2%), friends (20.5%), and the Internet (13.3%) more often than from their doctors (9.8%). Most herbal users did not inform their doctors about their usage of herbal supplements (68.3%) or the side effects (61.5%). Herbal supplement users also tended to be women, >50-year-old, and those with higher monthly household incomes. Community pharmacists have a vital role in educating their customers about the safe use of herbal supplements. The participants had sufficient knowledge about herbal supplement usage; therefore, customers of these community pharmacies may have benefitted from the advice of the pharmacists. Further studies could be carried out in future on the knowledge, skills and roles of community pharmacists in the safe use of herbal supplements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The incidence of vitamin, mineral, herbal, and other supplement use in facial cosmetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiebel, Samantha J; Lee, Michelle; Alleyne, Brendan; Guyuron, Bahman

    2013-07-01

    Dietary supplement use is common in the United States. Some herbal supplements may cause coagulopathy, hypertension, or dry eyes. The goal of this study is to reveal the incidence of herbal supplement use in the cosmetic surgery population. A retrospective chart review of 200 patients undergoing facial cosmetic surgery performed by a single surgeon was performed. Variables studied included patient age, sex, surgical procedure, herbal medication use, and intraoperative variables. Exclusion criteria were age younger than 15 years, noncosmetic procedures such as trauma, and incomplete preoperative medication form. Patients were subdivided into the supplement user group (herbal) and the supplement nonuser group (nonherbal). Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, t test, and chi-square analysis. The incidence of supplement use was 49 percent in the 200 patients; 24.5 percent of patients used only vitamins or minerals, 2.5 percent of patients used only animal- and plant-based (nonvitamin/mineral) supplements, and 22 percent of patients used both types of supplements. In the herbal group, patients used an average of 2.8 supplements. The herbal and nonherbal groups differed significantly in sex (herbal, 89.8 percent female; nonherbal, 77.5 percent; p use is prevalent in the facial cosmetic surgery population, especially in the older female population. Considering the potential ill effects of these products on surgery and recovery, awareness and careful documentation and prohibiting the patients from the consumption of these products will increase the safety and reduce the recovery following cosmetic procedures.

  4. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.

  5. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein.

  6. Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Methods Used for the Screening of Certain Herbal Food Supplements Suspected of Adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, Cristina; Popescu, Anca Mihaela; Radu, Gabriel Lucian; Onisei, Tatiana; Raducanu, Adina Elena

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out in order to find a reliable method for the fast detection of adulterated herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. As some herbal products are advertised as "all natural", their "efficiency" is often increased by addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as PDE-5 inhibitors, which can be a real health threat for the consumer. Methodes: Adulterants, potentially present in 50 herbal food supplements with sexual improvement claims, were detected using 2 spectroscopic methods - Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared - known for reliability, reproductibility, and an easy sample preparation. GC-MS technique was used to confirm the potential adulterants spectra. Results: About 22% (11 out of 50 samples) of herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims analyzed by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods proved to be "enriched" with active pharmaceutical compounds such as: sildenafil and two of its analogues, tadalafil and phenolphthalein. The occurence of phenolphthalein could be the reason for the non-relevant results obtained by FTIR method in some samples. 91% of the adulterated herbal food supplements were originating from China. Conclusion: The results of this screening highlighted the necessity for an accurate analysis of all alleged herbal aphrodisiacs on the Romanian market. This is a first such a screening analysis carried out on herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims.

  7. Herbal Supplement in a Buffer for Dry Eye Syndrome Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chang; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Tsung-Jen; Drew, Victor J; Tseng, Ching-Li; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2017-08-03

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common types of ocular diseases. There is a major need to treat DES in a simple yet efficient way. Artificial tears (AT) are the most commonly used agents for treating DES, but are not very effective. Herbal extractions of ferulic acid (FA), an anti-oxidant agent, and kaempferol (KM), an anti-inflammatory reagent, were added to buffer solution (BS) to replace ATs for DES treatment. The cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects were examined in vitro by co-culture with human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) to obtain the optimal concentration of KM and FA for treating HCECs. Physical properties of BS, such as pH value, osmolality, and refractive index were also examined. Then, rabbits with DES were used for therapeutic evaluation. Tear production, corneal damage, and ocular irritation in rabbits' eyes were examined. The non-toxic concentrations of KM and FA for HCEC cultivation over 3 days were 1 µM and 100 µM, respectively. Live/dead stain results also show non-toxicity of KM and FA for treating HCECs. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs in inflammatory conditions treated with 100 µM FA and 1 µM KM (FA100/KM1) showed lower IL-1B , IL-6 , IL-8 , and TNFα expression when examined by real-time PCR. The BS with FA100/KM1 had neutral pH, and a similar osmolality and refractive index to human tears. Topical delivery of BS + FA100/KM1 showed no irritation to rabbit eyes. The corneal thickness in the BS + FA100/KM1 treated group was comparable to normal eyes. Results of DES rabbits treated with BS + FA100/KM1 showed less corneal epithelial damage and higher tear volume than the normal group. In conclusion, we showed that the combination of FA (100 µM) and KM (1 µM) towards treating inflamed HCECs had an anti-inflammatory effect, and it is effective in treating DES rabbits when BS is added in combination with these two herbal supplements and used as a topical eye drop.

  8. Herbal Supplement in a Buffer for Dry Eye Syndrome Treatment

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    Hung-Chang Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome (DES is one of the most common types of ocular diseases. There is a major need to treat DES in a simple yet efficient way. Artificial tears (AT are the most commonly used agents for treating DES, but are not very effective. Herbal extractions of ferulic acid (FA, an anti-oxidant agent, and kaempferol (KM, an anti-inflammatory reagent, were added to buffer solution (BS to replace ATs for DES treatment. The cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects were examined in vitro by co-culture with human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs to obtain the optimal concentration of KM and FA for treating HCECs. Physical properties of BS, such as pH value, osmolality, and refractive index were also examined. Then, rabbits with DES were used for therapeutic evaluation. Tear production, corneal damage, and ocular irritation in rabbits’ eyes were examined. The non-toxic concentrations of KM and FA for HCEC cultivation over 3 days were 1 µM and 100 µM, respectively. Live/dead stain results also show non-toxicity of KM and FA for treating HCECs. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs in inflammatory conditions treated with 100 µM FA and 1 µM KM (FA100/KM1 showed lower IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα expression when examined by real-time PCR. The BS with FA100/KM1 had neutral pH, and a similar osmolality and refractive index to human tears. Topical delivery of BS + FA100/KM1 showed no irritation to rabbit eyes. The corneal thickness in the BS + FA100/KM1 treated group was comparable to normal eyes. Results of DES rabbits treated with BS + FA100/KM1 showed less corneal epithelial damage and higher tear volume than the normal group. In conclusion, we showed that the combination of FA (100 µM and KM (1 µM towards treating inflamed HCECs had an anti-inflammatory effect, and it is effective in treating DES rabbits when BS is added in combination with these two herbal supplements and used as a topical eye drop.

  9. A Review of the Toxicity of Compounds Found in Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Amy; Lopez, Elizabeth; Almalki, Ahmad J; Roe, Amy L; Calderón, Angela I

    2018-04-19

    Use of herbal dietary supplements by the public is common and has been happening for centuries. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has a limited scope of regulation over marketed herbal dietary supplements, which may contain toxic botanical compounds that pose a public health risk. While the Food and Drug Administration has made efforts to prohibit the sale of unsafe herbal dietary supplements, numerous reports have proliferated of adverse events due to these supplements. This literature review investigates bioactive plant compounds commonly used in herbal dietary supplements and their relative toxicities. Using primarily the National Library of Medicine journal database and SciFinder for current reports, 47 toxic compounds in 55 species from 46 plant families were found to demonstrate harmful effects due to hepatic, cardiovascular, central nervous system, and digestive system toxicity. This review further contributes a novel and comprehensive view of toxicity across the botanical dietary market, and investigates the toxicity of the top ten botanical dietary supplements purchased in the United States of America to gauge the exposure risk of toxicity to the public. The criteria of measuring toxicity in this review (plant compound, family, quantity, and toxicity effects) across the entire market in the United States, with special attention to those supplements whose exposure to the consumer is maximal, provides a unique contribution to the investigation of botanical supplements. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. DRUG REACTION WITH HERBAL SUPPLEMENT: A POSSIBLE CASE OF DRUG INDUCED LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZIZ NA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old lady presented with four days history of fever, non-pruritic rash, ankle pain and swelling. She had consumed herbal supplement five days before the onset of symptoms. Examinations revealed erythematous maculo-papular lesions of varying sizes on sun exposed areas. Patient was suspected to have Drug Induced Lupus Erythematosus (DILE and subsequently symptoms subsided rapidly on withholding the herbal medication.

  11. Non-scientific classification of Chinese herbal medicine as dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.

  12. Kelp distribution off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set delineates kelp beds (Nereocystis leutkeana and Macrocystis spp.) along the Pacific Coast of California. Multiple years of kelp mapping data for the...

  13. A molecular docking study of phytochemical estrogen mimics from dietary herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Chelsea N; Setzer, William N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a molecular docking approach to identify potential estrogen mimics or anti-estrogens in phytochemicals found in popular dietary herbal supplements. In this study, 568 phytochemicals found in 17 of the most popular herbal supplements sold in the United States were built and docked with two isoforms of the estrogen receptor, ERα and ERβ (a total of 27 different protein crystal structures). The docking results revealed six strongly docking compounds in Echinacea, three from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), three from Gingko biloba, one from Sambucus nigra, none from maca (Lepidium meyenii), five from chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), two from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), and two from Rhodiola rosea. Notably, of the most popular herbal supplements for women, there were numerous compounds that docked strongly with the estrogen receptor: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) had a total of 26 compounds strongly docking to the estrogen receptor, 15 with wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), 11 from black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), eight from muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides or P. uncinatum), eight from red clover (Trifolium pratense), three from damiana (Turnera aphrodisiaca or T. diffusa), and three from dong quai (Angelica sinensis). Of possible concern were the compounds from men's herbal supplements that exhibited strong docking to the estrogen receptor: Gingko biloba had three compounds, gotu kola (Centella asiatica) had two, muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides or P. uncinatum) had eight, and Tribulus terrestris had six compounds. This molecular docking study has revealed that almost all popular herbal supplements contain phytochemical components that may bind to the human estrogen receptor and exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulation. As such, these herbal supplements may cause unwanted side effects related to estrogenic activity.

  14. Sildenafil and analogous phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in herbal food supplements sampled on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal food supplements, claiming to enhance sexual potency, may contain deliberately added active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements on the Dutch market indeed

  15. Evaluation of internet websites marketing herbal weight-loss supplements to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Melanie A; Haywood, Tasha

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of drug information available to consumers on Internet websites marketing herbal weight-loss dietary supplements in the United States. We conducted an Internet search using the search engines Yahoo and Google and the keywords "herbal weight loss." Website content was evaluated for the presence of active/inactive ingredient names and strengths and other Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling requirements. Information related to drug safety for the most common herbal ingredients in the products evaluated was compared against standard herbal drug information references. Thirty-two (32) websites were evaluated for labeling requirements and safety information. All sites listed an FDA disclaimer statement and most sites (84.4%) listed active ingredients, although few listed strengths or inactive ingredients. Based on the drug information for the most common ingredients found in the weight-loss dietary supplements evaluated, potential contraindications for cardiovascular conditions, pregnancy/nursing, and high blood pressure were listed most frequently (73%, 65.5%, and 37%, respectively), whereas few websites listed potential drug interactions or adverse reactions. Potential hazards posed by dietary supplements may not be accurately, if at all, represented on Internet websites selling these products. Since consumers may not approach their physicians or pharmacists for information regarding use of dietary supplements in weight loss, it becomes necessary for health care providers to actively engage their patients in open discussion regarding the use, benefits, and hazards of dietary supplements.

  16. Hematological alterations in broiler chicks during different seasons supplemented with herbal formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh1

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on Vencobb broiler chicks to ascertain the antistress affects of Zist, Zeetress and a combination of Amla and Turmeric during summer, rainy and winter seasons and thereby the haematological changes of birds revealed that during all the three seasons a marked improvement in Haemoglobin was encountered in all the three groups where herbal preparations were supplemented. A marked increase in the lymphocyte count occurred during summer and winter seasons in all the experimental groups of bird as compared to the control group. The heterophil count was decreased with the supplementation of herbal formulations in the feed irrespective of the seasons encountered in the season. This decrease in heterophil count was highly significant in seasons like summer, winter and rainy. This observation proves the hepato-stimulatory, hepato protective and immuno modulating effects of herbal preparations. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(4.000: 110-112

  17. Getting More Than You Paid For: Unauthorized "Natural" Substances in Herbal Food Supplements on EU Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko Končić, Marijana

    2018-04-01

    As the population in the industrialized world develops preference for what is perceived as a natural and holistic way of disease treatment, the popularity and the number of food supplements on the market, including herbal ones, is experiencing an unprecedented rise. However, unlike herbal medicinal products, intended for treating or preventing disease, current legislation classifies food supplements as products intended for achieving nutritional or physiological effect and to supplement the normal diet. Accordingly, most food supplements are not to be associated with specific health claims. However, either due to the subtle suggestions by the producers or the wishful thinking of the consumers, certain pharmacological effects from food supplements are often expected. Medicinal plants included in food supplements usually do not produce dramatic and instant pharmacological effects. Therefore, in order to meet the expectation of their customers, some producers have turned to the illicit and dangerous practice of adulterating their products with synthetic adulterants, including naturally occurring molecules, having the desired activity. Such practice is prevalent in, although not limited to, food supplements intended for use as weight-loss aids, as well as for sport performance and libido enhancement. The review is focusing on naturally occurring alkaloids, phenylethanolamines, and their semi-synthetic derivatives in food supplements in the European Union as reported by the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Their desired and undesired pharmacological effects, as well as the methods for their detection and quantification in food supplements, will be reviewed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Worku

    2003-01-01

    Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and

  19. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Elizabeth X.; Navarro, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury. PMID:26357638

  20. Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniak Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

  1. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... extracts, and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  2. Acute liver injury associated with a newer formulation of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, James L; Worman, Howard J

    2015-05-06

    Despite the widespread use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS), serious cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. The popular herbal weight loss supplement, Hydroxycut, has previously been implicated in acute liver injury. Since its introduction, Hydroxycut has undergone successive transformations in its formulation; yet, cases of liver injury have remained an ongoing problem. We report a case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man who developed acute hepatocellular liver injury with associated nausea, vomiting, jaundice, fatigue and asterixis attributed to the use of a newer formulation of Hydroxycut, SX-7 Clean Sensory. The patient required hospitalisation and improved with supportive therapy. Despite successive transformations in its formulation, potential liver injury appears to remain an ongoing problem with Hydroxycut. Our case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medication history, including HDS, regardless of new or reformulated product marketing efforts. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Screening and determination of sibutramine in adulterated herbal slimming supplements by HPTLC-UV densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Caroline; Ankli, Anita; Reich, Eike; Bieri, Stefan; Christen, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The adulteration of herbal supplements is of growing importance, especially when they contain undeclared compounds like sibutramine that are unsafe drugs. Sibutramine was withdrawn from US and European markets in 2010. In this study, an HPTLC-UV densitometric method was developed for the quantification of sibutramine in herbal diet foods. Sample extracts were directly applied onto HPTLC silica gel plates and separated with a mobile phase made of a toluene-methanol mixture. Sibutramine was quantified at 225 nm and its unequivocal identification was confirmed by MS using a TLC-MS interface. During two surveys, 52 weight loss supplements obtained via the Internet were screened. Half of those were adulterated with sibutramine at amounts reaching up to 35 mg per capsule. The results of this validated HPTLC method were compared with those obtained by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS/MS. The results were not significantly different with the three methods.

  4. Comparison of three methods for detection of herbal food supplement irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Hansen, Hanne; Boisen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    A survey for irradiation of 106 herbal food supplements was carried out in Denmark in 2003. The results from three methods, two screening methods and a specific method, were compared: Direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and the......A survey for irradiation of 106 herbal food supplements was carried out in Denmark in 2003. The results from three methods, two screening methods and a specific method, were compared: Direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), photostimulated luminescence (PSL......) and thermoluminescence (TL) standardised by Comite Europeen de Normalisation (CEN). Forty samples screened positive with the DEFT/APC method. However, the TL method could only confirm irradiation of 15 samples, 11 samples wholly irradiated and 4 samples with a minor irradiated ingredient. Thus, the DEFT/APC method gave...

  5. Chromatographic fingerprinting as a strategy to identify regulated plants in illegal herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, D; Van Praag, N; Courselle, P; Apers, S; Deconinck, E

    2017-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a sexual disorder characterized by the inability to achieve or maintain a sufficiently rigid erection. Despite the availability of non-invasive oral treatment options, many patients turn to herbal alternatives. Furthermore, herbal supplements are increasingly gaining popularity in industrialized countries and, as a consequence, quality control is a highly important issue. Unfortunately, this is not a simple task since plants are often crushed and mixed with other plants, which complicates their identification by usage of classical approaches such as microscopy. The aim of this study was to explore the potential use of chromatographic fingerprinting to identify plants present in herbal preparations intended for the treatment of ED. To achieve this goal, a HPLC-PDA and a HPLC-MS method were developed, using a full factorial experimental design in order to acquire characteristic fingerprints of three plants which are potentially beneficial for treating ED: Epimedium spp., Pausinystalia yohimbe and Tribulus terrestris. The full factorial design demonstrated that for all three plant references a C8 column (250mm×4.6mm; 5µm particle size) is best suited; methanol and an ammonium formate buffer (pH 3) were found to be the best constituents for the mobile phase. The suitability of this strategy was demonstrated by analysing several self-made triturations in three different botanical matrices, which mimic the influential effects that could be expected when analysing herbal supplements. To conclude, this study demonstrates that chromatographic fingerprinting could provide a useful means to identify plants in a complex herbal mixture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of herbal dietary supplements marketed on the internet for recreational use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cathi E; Tsourounis, Candy; Miller, Amy E

    2005-10-01

    The Internet is a popular tool for marketing and purchasing herbal dietary supplements (DS). Various Web sites sell these products purely for recreational use. To describe the content of Web sites that advertise and market herbal DS for recreational use (ie, for the purpose of altering mood/behavior/or perception, "getting high," or as a substitute for a drug of abuse). Four major search engines and the search terms "buy herbal high" and "buy legal high" were used to identify Web sites selling herbal DS for recreational use. Web sites were evaluated for their country of origin and for compliance with the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). Products were evaluated for their ingredient lists, effect claims, comparisons with illicit drugs, adverse effects, drug interactions, and contraindications. Twenty-eight unique Web sites with 119 products were evaluated. Most sites were in the US (54%) and were in compliance with DSHEA. Forty-seven percent of the products were likened to illicit drugs, typically marijuana (48%) or 3-,4-methylene dioxyamphetamine (Ecstasy; 23%). The most common product ingredients were ephedra alkaloids (27%), Salvia divinorum (17%), kava (10%), guarana (10%), Acorus calamus (10%), and damiana (10%). Effect claims frequently involved the products' use as a hallucinogen (51%) or stimulant (39%). Sixty-four percent of the sites mentioned adverse effects, and 54% mentioned drug interactions. This study demonstrates that herbal DS are being marketed for use as legal alternatives to illicit drugs of abuse. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of this trend and the products that are involved.

  7. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P J; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them, corroborating that the BMDL 10 for lasiocarpine represents a conservative POD for risk assessment. A risk assessment using this BMDL 10 and mean levels of PAs reported in literature for (herbal) teas, indicates that consumption of one cup of tea a day would result in MOE values lower than 10 000 for several types of (herbal) teas, indicating a priority for risk management for these products A refined risk assessment using interim relative potency (REP) factors showed that based on the mean PA levels, 7(54%) of 13 types of (herbal) teas and 1 (14%) of 7 types of plant food supplements (PFS) resulted in MOE values lower than 10 000, indicating a priority for risk management also for these products in particular. This includes both preparations containing PA-producing and non-PA-producing plants. Our study provides insight in the current state-of-the art and limitations in the risk assessment of PA-containing food products, especially (herbal) teas and PFS, indicating that PAs in food presents a field of interest for current and future risk management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans from Kelp and Copper Sulfate: Initial Investigations of Dioxin Formation in Mineral Feed Supplements (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and C...

  9. Rapid screening of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs illegally added in anti-rheumatic herbal supplements and herbal remedies by portable ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjiao; Ma, Haiyan; Gao, Jinglin; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Di; Bian, Jing; Jiang, Ye

    2017-10-25

    In this work, for the first time, a high-performance ion mobility spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-HPIMS) method has been employed as a rapid screening tool for the detection of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac sodium and indomethacin illegally added in anti-rheumatic herbal supplements and herbal remedies. Samples were dissolved and filtered through a 0.45μm microporous membrane, then the filtrate was directly injected into the high-performance ion mobility spectrometry for analysis. Using this approach, the screening of illegal additions can be accomplished in as rapid as two to three minutes with no pretreatment required. The proposed method provided a LOD of 0.06-0.33μgmL -1 , as well as a good seperation of the five NSAIDs. The precision of the method was 0.1-0.4% (repeatability, n=6) and 0.9-3.3% (reproducibility, n=3). The proposed method appeared to be simple, rapid and highly specific, thus could be effective for the in-situ screening of NSAIDs in anti-rheumatic herbal supplements and herbal remedies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana B. Bhaisare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.

  11. The effect of the humic acid and herbal additive supplement on production parameters of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pistová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and dietary herbal additive (clove (Syzygium aromaticum, lavender (Lavendula angustifolia and black pepper (Piper nigrum L. on production parameters of broiler chicken were studied.  A total of 60 Ross 308 broiler chicken were divided into 3 treatments (n=20. The control group of chickens was fed with complete feed mixtures without any additives. Chicken in treatment T1 were fed a diet containing 1% of humic acid and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. Chicken in treatment T2 were fed with complete feed mixture without any additives and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. The body weight, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. The results shout that the body weight was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in treatments groups compared to the control group (the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 2052.9±197.9 and 2140.4±300.4 g±SD. The feed intake was in the control group 3.11 kg, in the treatment T1 3.00 kg and in the treatment T2 3.12 kg. Feed conversion for the entire fattening period was in control group 2.19 kg/kg complete feed mixture, in the treatment T1 1.83 kg/kg complete feed mixture and in the treatment T2 1.84 kg/kg complete feed mixture with no significant different (P≥0.05 compared to control group. In conclusion, supplement by humic acid and herbal additive can improve production parameters of broiler chicken.

  12. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I. Avigan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States (US, the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized.

  13. Use and perception of herbal and dietary supplements in the Hutterites of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stacy; Shiyanbola, Olayinka

    2013-12-01

    South Dakota is home to 6,000 Hutterites, the largest population of Hutterites in the United States. Observation of frequent supplement use by this population prompted the current survey based study. Use of supplements is on the rise with around 53 percent of Americans reporting at least one herbal and dietary supplement (HDS). Use and perception of HDS has not previously been evaluated in the Hutterite population. Participants were 18 years of age and older and had to be present at the time of survey administration. Surveys were administered before and after an educational presentation at five colonies to volunteer participants. Survey data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and chi-square tests. One-hundred and six surveys were completed with 81.1 percent being female. Approximately 78 percent reported using at least one type of HDS, with an average of 2.7 (SD = 1.4) supplements per person. Women were more likely to report supplement use than men. Hutterites reported they felt HDS were safer than prescription medications. Education was effective on some aspects such as telling their doctor if they are taking HDS. Some study limitations included small sample size, possible lack of survey understanding, and the limited number of male participants. The frequency of HDS use in South Dakota Hutterites appears to be very high. Baseline knowledge on the safety and regulation of HDS reveals that education of this population is needed. Further investigation of HDS use in Hutterites is warranted.

  14. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Samanta

    Full Text Available Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder and prebiotic (inulin as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline, ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI. The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig.

  15. Herbal and dietary supplements related to diarrhea and acute kidney injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanitsriphinyo, Suphamat; Tangkiatkumjai, Mayuree

    2017-03-01

    Background There is very little evidence relating to the association of herbal medicine with diarrhea and the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study reports a case of diarrhea-induced AKI, possibly related to an individual ingesting copious amounts of homemade mixed fruit and herb puree. Case presentation A 45-year-old Thai man with diabetes had diarrhea for 2 days, as a result of taking high amounts of a puree made up of eight mixed fruits and herbs over a 3-day period. He developed dehydration and stage 2 AKI, with a doubling of his serum creatinine. He had been receiving enalapril, as a prescribed medication, over one year. After he stopped taking both the puree and enalapril, and received fluid replacement therapy, within a week his serum creatinine had gradually decreased. The combination of puree, enalapril and AKI may also have induced hyperkalemia in this patient. Furthermore, the patient developed hyperphosphatemia due to his worsening kidney function, exacerbated by regularly taking some dietary supplements containing high levels of phosphate. His serum levels of potassium and phosphate returned to normal within a week, once the patient stopped both the puree and all dietary supplements, and had begun receiving treatment for hyperkalemia. Results The mixed fruit and herb puree taken by this man may have led to his diarrhea due to its effect; particularly if the patient was taking a high concentration of such a drink. Both the puree and enalapril are likely to attenuate the progression of kidney function. The causal relationship between the puree and AKI was probable (5 scores) assessed by the modified Naranjo algorithm. This is the first case report, as far as the authors are aware, relating the drinking of a mixed fruit and herbal puree to diarrhea and AKI in a patient with diabetes. Conclusions This case can alert health care providers to the possibility that herbal medicine could induce diarrhea and develop acute kidney injury.

  16.  Hepatoportal sclerosis related to the use of herbals and nutritional supplements. Causality or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Fernanda Ferreira; Rodrigues de Freitas, Luiz Antônio; Codes, Liana; Santos Junior, Genario Oliveira; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Paraná, Raymundo

     Introduction and aim. Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH), also known as hepatoportal sclerosis (HPS) is a disease of uncertain etiology. However, various pathophysiological mechanisms has been postulated, including chronic or recurrent infections and exposure to drugs or toxins. In this context, it appears to be of multifactorial etiology or resulting from a portal vascular endothelium aggression. It is important to consider whether the use of dietary supplements and herbs can trigger or contribute to the occurance of HPS. We report a possible association of HPS with the consumption of herbals and / or dietary supplements. We describe two cases of HPS in patients without known etiology causes associated with this disease. Both patients were females who were diagnosed with HPS following the consumption of Herbalife® products and putative anorexigenic agents in the form herbals infusions. Image-based analysis and the assessment of the histopathological alterations found in the livers confirmed the diagnosis. The histopatological analysis of liver samples from both patients showed portal tracts enlarged by fibrosis with disappearance or reduction in the diameter of the portal vein branches. In many portal tracts, portal veins branches were replaced by aberrant thin-walled fendiforme vessels. The bile ducts and branches of the hepatic artery show normal aspects. After the exclusion of other etiologic factors and a comprehensive analysis of clinical history, consumption of Herbalife® products and anorexigenic agents was pointed-out as a puttative predisposing factor for the development of the disease.

  17. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topics and resources Diseases and Conditions Acupuncture Art, Dance, and Music Ayurveda Bell's Palsy Biofeedback Body Movement ... to your doctor before taking any herbal supplements. Black cohosh This shrub-like plant of eastern North ...

  18. Herbal supplement extends life span under some environmental conditions and boosts stress resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Villeponteau

    Full Text Available Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100 that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span.

  19. Mass spectrometric analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in products labeled as botanical dietary supplements or herbal remedies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-11-01

    The increased availability and use of botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies among consumers has been accompanied by an increased frequency of adulteration of these products with synthetic pharmaceuticals. Unscrupulous producers may add drugs and analogues of various classes, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, weight loss, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory agents, or anabolic steroids, to develop or intensify biological effects of dietary supplements or herbal remedies. The presence of such adulterated products in the marketplace is a worldwide problem and their consumption poses health risks to consumers. Analytical methods that allow rapid and reliable testing of dietary supplements for the presence of synthetic drugs are needed to address such fraudulent practices. Mass spectrometry (MS) and hyphenated techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have become primary tools in this endeavor. The present review critically assesses the role and summarizes the applications of MS in the analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies. The uses of MS techniques in detection, confirmation, and quantification of known pharmaceutical adulterants as well as in screening for and structure elucidation of unexpected adulterants and novel designer drugs are discussed.

  20. Risk assessment of plant food supplements and other herbal products containing aristolochic acids using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Rozaini; Diaz, Leolean Nyle; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-02-01

    After the incidences of induction of aristolochic acid nephropathy after consumption of herbal weight loss preparations that accidentally contained aristolochic acids (AAs), several countries defined national restrictions on the presence of AAs in food, including plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal products. This study investigates whether the risks associated with exposure to AAs via PFS and herbal products are at present indeed negligible. Data reported in literature on AA levels in PFS and other herbal products and also obtained from a new series of PFS in the present study were used to calculate the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and corresponding margins of exposure (MOEs). Available literature data revealed that 206 out of 573 samples were found to contain aristolochic acid I (AAI) and/or aristolochic acid II (AAII). The results obtained from recently collected PFS revealed that both AAI and AAII were detected in three out of 18 analysed PFS at levels up to 594.8 and 235.3 µg g -1 , respectively, being in line with the levels reported in literature. The EDIs resulting from intake of these PFS resulted in MOEs that were generally below 10,000, corroborating the priority for risk management. Although these results refer to PFS collected by targeted sampling strategies, the data reveal that AA-containing PFS are still freely available. When considering that the use of these samples may be limited to shorter periods of time, the EDIs might be lower, but MOE values would still be lower than 10,000 for more than 50% of the AA-containing PFS and herbal products. In conclusion, the presence of AAs in PFS and herbal products even several years after instalment of the legal restrictions still raises concern, especially for people who frequently use the respective PFS and herbal products.

  1. Herbal Supplement Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rats with CCl4-Induced Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver cirrhosis model to test the molecular mechanism of action involved in cirrhosis-associated cardiac hypertrophy and the effectiveness of Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE and silymarin against cardiac hypertrophy. We treated male wistar rats with CCl4 and either OGE (0.02 g/kg B.W. or 0.04 g/kg B.W. or silymarin (0.2 g/kg B.W.. Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced by CCl4 along with cirrhosis and increased expression of cardiac hypertrophy related genes NFAT, TAGA4, and NBP, and the interleukin-6 (IL-6 signaling pathway related genes MEK5, ERK5, JAK, and STAT3. OGE or silymarin co-treatment attenuated CCl4-induced cardiac abnormalities, and lowered expression of genes which were elevated by this hepatotoxin. Our results suggest that the IL-6 signaling pathway may be related to CCl4-induced cardiac hypertrophy. OGE and silymarin were able to lower liver fibrosis, which reduces the chance of cardiac hypertrophy perhaps by lowering the expressions of IL-6 signaling pathway related genes. We conclude that treatment of cirrhosis using herbal supplements is a viable option for protecting cardiac tissues against cirrhosis-related cardiac hypertrophy.

  2. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  3. Effects of Herbal Supplements on PTSD-Induced Changes in Rat Behavior & Brain Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Corporation; 2008. 14. Bent S. Herbal medicine in the United States: review of efficacy, safety, and regulation: grand rounds at University of...Ceremuga, Thomas COL (Ret) USU Project Number: N10-P12 70. Bent S: Herbal medicine in the United States: review of efficacy, safety, and regulation...2012;177(7):814-822. 135. Ang-Lee MK, Moss J, Yuan CS. Herbal medicines and perioperative care. Jama. Jul 11 2001;286(2):208-216. 136. Jankowsi K

  4. Organic solute carrier 22 (SLC22 family: Potential for interactions with food, herbal/dietary supplements, endogenous compounds, and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Lai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many drugs, hormones, components of herbal medicines, environmental pesticides and toxins are Solute Carrier family 22 (SLC22 substrates. The last twenty years has seen great progress in determining SLC22 tissue expression profiles, membrane localization, energetics, substrate profiles and biopharmaceutical significance. However, much still remains to be answered in terms of SLC22 family member's roles in ‘normal’ physiology as compared to pathophysiological states, as well as in drug interactions that impact pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity. This review begins with a brief synopsis of SLC22 family discovery, function and tissue expression. Subsequent sections provide examples establishing a role for SLC22 transporters in food-drug, herbal supplement-drug, endogenous substrate-drug and drug–drug interactions. Keywords: Hepatic transport, Nephrotoxicity, Organic anion transporter, Organic cation transporter, Renal transport

  5. Concealed use of herbal and dietary supplements among Thai patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putthapiban, Prapaipan; Sukhumthammarat, Weera; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been one of the most common chronic diseases that create great impacts on both morbidities and mortalities. Many patients who suffering from this disease seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and related factors of herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) use in patients with DM type 2 at a single university hospital in Thailand. A cross-sectional study was performed in 200 type 2 DM patients via face-to-face structured interviews using developed questionnaires comprised of demographic data, diabetes-specific information, details on HDS use, and medical adherence. From the endocrinology clinic, 61% of total patients reported HDS exposure and 28% were currently consuming. More than two-thirds of HDS users did not notify their physicians, mainly because of a lack of doctor concern; 73% of cases had no awareness of potential drug-herb interaction. The use of drumstick tree, turmeric and bitter gourd and holy mushroom were most frequently reported. The main reasons for HDS use were friend and relative suggestions and social media. Comparisons of demographic characteristics, medical adherence, and hemoglobin A1c among these non-HDS users, as well as current and former users, were not statistically significantly different. This study revealed a great number of DM patients interested in HDS use. The use of HDS for glycemic control is an emerging public health concern given the potential adverse effects, drug interactions and benefits associated with its use. Health care professionals should aware of HDS use and hence incorporate this aspect into the clinical practice.

  6. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products.

  7. PhytoAuthent: Molecular authentication of complex herbal food supplements for safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Ichim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The PhytoAuthent project was structured to gather, test, develop and apply, in real life case scenarios, molecular techniques, such as biochemical fingerprinting and DNA sequence-based methods, for plant identification of constituents in complex herbal products. The project had a strong focus on applied aspects like protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination of herbal products.

  8. Nutritional supplements and herbal medicines for women with polycystic ovary syndrome; a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentz, Susan; Smith, Caroline A; Abbott, Jason; Bensoussan, Alan

    2017-11-25

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, reproductive endocrinopathy associated with serious short and long term health risks. Many women with PCOS use ingestible complementary medicines. This systematic review examined the effect on menstrual regulation and adverse effects from randomised controlled trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared herbal or nutritional supplements to placebo or active controls in women with PCOS were eligible for inclusion. Electronic databases were searched to July 2017. Study selection and assessment of quality were conducted independently by two review authors. Twenty four studies (1406 women) investigating seven nutritional supplements and four herbal medicines were included. No one study was assessed as having a low risk of bias. Four trials reported on the primary endpoint menstrual regulation. There was no evidence on improved menstrual regularity for calcium plus vitamin D compared to Metformin (RR: 0.66, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.23, p = 0.19), reduced amenorrhoea for Camellia sinensis compared to placebo (RR: 0.17, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.72, p = 0.13) and no difference in the number of menses per month for Cinnamomum sp. against placebo (MD 0.05, 95% CI -0.36 to 1.36, p = 0.26). Adverse effects were investigated in seven studies (164 women). Mild adverse effects were found for Cinnamomum sp. compared to placebo (17 women, RR: 0.36, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.70, p = 0.03). No difference was found for adverse effects between inositol, B complex vitamins, vitamin D, chromium and placebo. Improved reproduction, metabolic hormones and hyperandrogenism was found for inositol and improved cholesterol for omega three fish oils. There is no high quality evidence to support the effectiveness of nutritional supplements and herbal medicine for women with PCOS and evidence of safety is lacking. High quality trials of nutritional supplements and herbal medicines examining menstrual regulation and adverse effects in women with PCOS

  9. A note on the effect of dietary supplementation with herbal extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the phytogenic product, Ruchamax® (Ayurvet, India), on the productivity of sows and the performance of their first litters. Ruchamax® contains a blend of herbal extracts from Adrographis paniculata, Phyllanthus emblica, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale and Allium sativum ...

  10. Hydroxycut hepatotoxicity: A case series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss supplements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Dare; Jennifer Hewett; Joseph Kartaik Lim

    2008-01-01

    Dietary supplements represent an increasingly common source of drug-induced liver injury. Hydroxycut is a popular weight loss supplement which has previously been linked to hepatotoxiciLy, although the individual chemical components underlying liver injury remain poorly understood. We report two cases of acute hepatitis in the seLLing of Hydroxycut exposure and describe possible mechanisms of liver injury. We also comprehensively review and summarize the existing literature on commonly used weight loss supplements,and their individual components which have demonstrated potential for liver toxicity. An increased effort to screen for and educate patients and physicians about supplement-associated hepatotoxicity is warranted.

  11. Gynaecomastia linked to the intake of a herbal supplement fortified with diethylstilbestrol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorians, A.W.F.T.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Rooy, De J.; Stolker, L.A.A.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a supplement marketed on the Internet for prostate problems. The supplement was orally taken by a 60-year-old man with divergent hormonal levels and who was surgically treated for gynaecomastia: development of abnormally large mammary glands in males. The

  12. Liver injury caused by a herbal and dietary supplement: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a previously healthy male admitted with acute hepatitis while using a body building supplement. An exhaustive laboratory workup for causes of hepatitis was unrevealing. He responded well to withdrawal of the supplement and a course of corticosteroids.

  13. The use of Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography for the development of herbal fingerprints to detect targeted plants in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements is increasing steadily and more and more, these products are bought through internet. Often the products sold through internet are not registered or declared with a national authority, meaning that no or minimal quality control is performed and that they could contain herbs or plants that are regulated. Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOS-LC) was evaluated for the development of specific fingerprints, to be used for the detection of targeted plants in plant food supplements. Three commonly used plants in plant food supplements and two regulated plants were used to develop fingerprints with SOS-LC. It was shown that for all plants specific fingerprints could be obtained, allowing the detection of these targeted plants in triturations with different herbal matrices as well as in real samples of suspicious supplements seized by the authorities. For three of the five plants a more specific fingerprint was obtained, compared to the ones developed on traditional columns described in literature. It could therefore be concluded that the combination of segments of different types of stationary phases, as used in SOS-LC, has the potential of becoming a valuable tool in the quality control and the identification of crude herbal or plant material and in the detection of regulated plants in plant food supplements or other herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of the Authenticity of Herbal Dietary Supplements: Comparison of Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Handy, Sara M; Cheng, Raymond; Shyong, Nicole; Grundel, Erich

    2017-07-01

    About 7 % of the U. S. population reports using botanical dietary supplements. Increased use of such supplements has led to discussions related to their authenticity and quality. Reports of adulteration with substandard materials or pharmaceuticals are of concern because such substitutions, whether inadvertent or deliberate, may reduce the efficacy of specific botanicals or lead to adverse events. Methods for verifying the identity of botanicals include macroscopic and microscopic examinations, chemical analysis, and DNA-based methods including DNA barcoding. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations may fail when a supplement consists of botanicals that have been processed beyond the ability to provide morphological characterizations. Chemical analysis of specific marker compounds encounters problems when these compounds are not distinct to a given species or when purified reference standards are not available. Recent investigations describing DNA barcoding analysis of botanical dietary supplements have raised concerns about the authenticity of the supplements themselves as well as the appropriateness of using DNA barcoding techniques with finished botanical products. We collected 112 market samples of frequently consumed botanical dietary supplements of ginkgo, soy, valerian, yohimbe, and St. John's wort and analyzed each for specific chemical markers (i.e., flavonol glycosides, total isoflavones, total valerenic acids, yohimbine, and hypericins, respectively). We used traditional DNA barcoding techniques targeting the nuclear ITS2 gene and the chloroplast gene psb A- trn H on the same samples to determine the presence of DNA of the labelled ingredient. We compared the results obtained by both methods to assess the contribution of each in determining the identity of the samples. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Judy Y; Rynders, Sara D; Patrie, James; McKnight, John; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a proprietary herbal/botanical supplement (StemSport, Stemtech, San Clemente, CA.) suggested to increase circulating stem cells, decrease inflammation, and attenuate exercise induced muscle damage on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Sixteen subjects (male = 7, female = 9; age 23.8 ± 10 years; height 171.9 ± 10 cm, mass 72.2 ± 15 kg) were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to receive a placebo or StemSport supplement (6150 mg/day) for 14 days. DOMS was induced on day 7 for both placebo and active conditions in the non-dominant elbow flexor group with repeated eccentric repetitions. Muscle swelling (biceps girth), elbow flexor isometric strength (hand held dynamometer), muscle pain/tenderness (visual analog scale), range of motion (active elbow flexion and extension), and inflammation (hsCRP, IL6, and TNF-α) were measured at baseline and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h (1 week) post eccentric exercise. The crossover washout period was ≥14 days. No significant condition-by-time interactions between placebo and StemSport supplementation were observed with regard to measures of pain (p = 0.59), tenderness (p = 0.71), isometric strength (p = 0.32), elbow flexion (p = 0.45), muscle swelling (p = 0.90), or inflammation (p > 0.90). Decrements in elbow extension range of motion 48 h post-exercise were less after StemSport supplementation (Δ elbow extension 48 h post; StemSport, -2.0 deg; placebo, -10 deg; p = 0.003). These data suggest that compared to placebo, StemSport supplementation does not improve outcome measures related to muscle recovery after acute upper-arm induced DOMS.

  16. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  17. A Review of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Five Commonly Used Herbal Food Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ruitang

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a pathological condition associated with prediabetes and diabetes. The incidence of prediabetes and diabetes is increasing and imposes great burden on healthcare worldwide. Patients with prediabetes and diabetes have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and other complications. Currently, management of hyperglycemia includes pharmacological interventions, physical exercise, and change of life style and diet. Food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat hyperglycemia, especially for subjects with mild hyperglycemia. This review summarized current patents and patent applications with relevant literature on five commonly used food supplements with claims of hypoglycemic effects, including emblica officinalis (gooseberry), fenugreek, green tea, momordica charantia (bitter melon) and cinnamon. The data from human clinical studies did not support a recommendation for all five supplements to manage hyperglycemia. Fenugreek and composite supplements containing emblica officinalis showed the most consistency in lowering fasting blood sugar (FBS) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in diabetic patients. The hypoglycemic effects of cinnamon and momordica charantia were demonstrated in most of the trials with some exceptions. However, green tea exhibited limited benefits in reducing FBS or HbA1c levels and should not be recommended for managing hyperglycemia. Certain limitations are noticed in a considerable number of clinical studies including small sample size, poor experimental design and considerable variations in participant population, preparation format, daily dose, and treatment duration. Future studies with more defined participants, standardized preparation and dose, and improved trial design and size are warranted. PMID:22329631

  18. Statement on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    day to assess the carcinogenic risks of PAs, and concluded that there is a possible concern for human health related to the exposure to PAs, in particular for frequent and high consumers of tea and herbal infusions. The Panel noted that consumption of food supplements based on PA-producing plants......, including the development of more sensitive and specific analytical methods. A recommendation was also issued on the generation of data to identify the toxic and carcinogenic potency of the PAs commonly found in food.......EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements and to identify the PAs of relevance in the aforementioned food commodities...

  19. 21 CFR 172.365 - Kelp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.365 Kelp. Kelp may be safely added to a food as a source of the...

  20. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Mixture Supplement on the Growth Performance, Egg Production and Health Status in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with dual-purpose fowls developed for rural backyard farming – indigenous Katunitsa chicken (line “AN”, in a free range management system from hatching to 52 weeks of age. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the influence of a blend of herbs as a dietary supplement on some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and creatinine, growth performance, egg production, egg fatty acid composition, and health status. The composition of this blend of herbs included: 0.05% garlic powder (Allium sativum, 0.3% cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum verum and 0.03% of each of the following dried herbs: yarrow (Achillea millefolium, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus serpyllum, basil (Ocimum basilicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare. The birds were divided into two groups – control (n=60 without supplemental mixture to the diet and experimental (n=700 with supplemental mixture to the diet from the first day of age to the end of the experiment. The results showed that the herbal mixture supplement decreased significantly the blood serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels – at 7 (P0.05. Over the entire investigation period the chickens from the experimental group had a better feed conversion ratio (with 3.37% and a higher egg laying capacity (with 1.79%. At the end of experiment (52 weeks of age, hens from the control group exhibited generalised fatty degeneration of liver parenchyma, while these in experimental group, the major part of hepatocytes had no fat droplets in their cytoplasm. The death rate from 0 to 7, from 8 to 21 and from 22 to 52 weeks of age was 18.33%, 0% and 8.57% in the control group and 1.00%, 0.26% and 2.62% in the experimental group, respectively. Therefore in conclusion, it can be affirmed that the use of this blend of herbs had a beneficial effect in the treated fowls and

  1. Restoration of the immune functions in aged mice by supplementation with a new herbal composition, HemoHIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Synthesis of core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers and detection of sildenafil and vardenafil in herbal dietary supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Meijuan; Wu Xiaoli; Yuan Lihua; Wang Shu; Li Yun; Wang Ruoyu; Wen Tingting; Du Shuhu; Zhou, Xuemin

    2011-01-01

    An analytical procedure for selective extraction of sildenafil and vardenafil in herbal dietary supplements (HDSs) has been set up by using the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) as the extraction and clean-up materials, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV). The MMIPs were prepared by a surface molecular imprinting technique, using Fe 3 O 4 magnetite as a magnetically susceptible component, sildenafil as template molecule, 2-(trifluoromethyl) acrylic acid (TFMAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as polymeric matrix components. The MMIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The heterogeneity of the MMIPs was modeled with the Freundlich isotherm equation. The resulting MMIPs had high recognition ability and fast binding kinetics for sildenafil. The MMIPs were used as dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) materials to selectively extract sildenafil and vardenafil from HDSs, the contents of sildenafil and vardenafil were found to be 8.05 and 3.86 μg g -1 , respectively, and the average recoveries in spiked HDSs were 70.91-91.75% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) below 7%. The MMIPs were successfully used to selectively enrich and determine sildenafil and vardenafil from HDSs.

  3. Liver injury from herbals and dietary supplements in the U.S. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-10-01

    The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity caused by conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight U.S. referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury caused by HDS. Hepatotoxicity caused by HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments, including death and liver transplantation (LT), were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury caused by bodybuilding HDS, 85 by nonbodybuilding HDS, and 709 by medications. Liver injury caused by HDS increased from 7% to 20% (P Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median, 91 days) in young men, but did not result in any fatalities or LT. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women, and, more frequently, led to death or transplantation, compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%; P bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes (death and transplantation). (Hepatology 2014;60:1399-1408). © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. An approach for identification and determination of arsenic species in the extract of kelp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lee L; Wei, Chao; Zeisler, Rolf; Tong, Junting; Oflaz, Rabia; Bao, Haixia; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology is developing a kelp powder standard reference material (SRM) in support of dietary supplement measurements. Edible seaweeds such as kelp and laver consumed as diet or dietary supplement contain tens of mg/kg arsenic. The speciation information of arsenic in the seaweed should be provided because the total arsenic alone does not fully address the safety issue of the dietary supplement as the value assignment is originally intended. The inability to avail all arsenic species for value assignment measurements prevented the certification of arsenic species in the candidate SRM; however, approximately 70 % of total arsenic extracted with a 1:1 volume fraction of methanol:water mixture allowed arsenic speciation values to be assigned to a procedure-defined extract, which may be used for method validation in research to improve upon current extraction and measurement practices. Arsenic species in kelp and laver were identified using electrospray ionization ion trap time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF). Arsenosugars As(328), As(482), and As(392) were found in the kelp candidate SRM while As(328) and As(482) were found in GBW 08521, a certified reference material (CRM) of laver produced by the National Institute of Metrology of China (NIM). A discovery that the digests of kelp and laver contained only dimethylarsinic acid led to the conclusion that the seaweeds did not contain detectible levels of arsenobetaine, arsenocholine or trimethylarsine oxide that could overlap with the peaks of arsenosugars in the separation. The mean ± s of (5.68 ± 0.28) mg/kg and (13.43 ± 0.31) mg/kg found for As(482) and As(392) in kelp, respectively, using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) demonstrated that value assignment measurement of arsenosugars was possible without arsenosugar calibration standards.

  5. Use and Factors Associated With Herbal/Botanical and Nonvitamin/Nonmineral Dietary Supplements Among Women of Reproductive Age: An Analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; Filippelli, Amanda C; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Low Dog, Tieraona; Gardiner, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the changes in prevalence of dietary supplement use in pregnancy, postpartum, and in a comparison group of nonpregnant women. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices II study. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of herbal or botanical and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use by US women with respect to demographic, behavioral, and health factors. We compared pregnant and postpartum women to a comparison group of nonpregnant women who had not given birth in the past 12 months. Our main outcome was the prevalence of dietary supplements. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with herbal or botanical and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use during reproductive age, pregnancy, and postpartum. The total sample included 1444 women assessed during the prenatal period, 1422 from the postpartum period, and 1517 women in a comparison group. In terms of herb or botanical use, 15% of the prenatal group, 16% of the postpartum group, and 22% of the comparison group reported using herbs or botanicals. The most frequently used nonvitamin, nonmineral supplement was omega-3 fatty acid. Among the total prenatal group and comparison group, women eating 5 or more servings of fruits or vegetables were less likely to report using herbs or botanicals. Women in the comparison group self-identifying as black were 4 times as likely to report using herbs or botanicals compared to participants self-identifying as white. In addition, women identifying as a race other than white were almost twice as likely to report herb or botanical use across all study groups. This is one of the rare studies that shows the changing prevalence of herbs or botanicals and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use in women in the reproductive stage of their lives. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  6. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p 0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  7. Kelp and Eelgrass in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    as sea lettuce (Ulva spp.) will overgrow eelgrass. Excessive nutrients also can cause over- growth by epiphytes on the blades, blocking light...Kelp and Eelgrass in Puget Sound Ackerman, J.D. 1997. Submarine pollination in the marine...Florida. 531 p. Cox, P.A. 1988. Hydophilous pollination . Annual Review in of Ecology and Systematics 19:261-280. Dayton, P.K. 1985. Ecology of kelp

  8. Herbal Products and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  9. West Coast Canopy-Forming Kelp, 1989-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data include the general extents of canopy-forming kelp surveys from 1989 to 2014 and a compilation of existing data sets delineating canopy-forming kelp beds...

  10. Memory improvements in elderly women following 16 weeks treatment with a combined multivitamin, mineral and herbal supplement: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Helen; Ellis, Kathryn A; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    There is potential for multivitamin supplementation to improve cognition in the elderly. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of 16 weeks multivitamin supplementation (Swisse Women's 50+ Ultivite ®) on cognition in elderly women. Participants in this study were 56 community dwelling, elderly women, with subjective complaints of memory loss. Cognition was assessed using a computerized battery of memory and attention tasks designed to be sensitive to age-related declines to fluid intelligence, and a measure of verbal recall. Biochemical measures of selected nutrients, homocysteine, markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood safety parameters were also collected. All cognitive and haematological parameters were assessed at baseline and 16 weeks post-treatment. The multivitamin improved speed of response on a measure of spatial working memory, however benefits to other cognitive processes were not observed. Multivitamin supplementation decreased levels of homocysteine and increased levels of vitamin B(6) and B(12), with a trend for vitamin E to increase. There were no hepatotoxic effects of the multivitamin formula indicating this supplement was safe for everyday usage in the elderly. Sixteen weeks ssupplementation with a combined multivitamin, mineral and herbal formula may benefit working memory in elderly women at risk of cognitive decline.

  11. The role of kelp crabs as consumers in bull kelp forests—evidence from laboratory feeding trials and field enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Dobkowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Northern kelp crab (Pugettia producta and the graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis are common primary consumers in bull kelp beds near the San Juan Islands (Salish Sea, NE Pacific. In this system, urchins (often considered the most voracious herbivores exerting top-down control on kelp beds tend to remain sedentary because of the high availability of detrital macroalgae, but the extent to which kelp crabs consume kelp (and other food options is largely unknown. I conducted four types of laboratory feeding experiments to evaluate kelp crab feeding patterns: (1 feeding electivity between bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana and seven species of co-occurring local macroalgae; (2 feeding electivity on aged vs. fresh bull kelp; (3 feeding preference between N. luetkeana and small snails (Lacuna sp.; and (4 scaling of feeding rate with body size in P. producta and P. gracilis. In choice experiments, P. producta consumed greater mass of N. luetkeana than of other macroalgal species offered and elected to eat fresh bull kelp over aged. However, P. producta also consumed snails (Lacuna sp., indicating more generalized feeding than previously suspected. Feeding rates for P. producta exceeded the expected 3∕4 scaling rule of metabolic rates, indicating that larger P. producta may have a disproportionately large impact on bull kelp. A subtidal field experiment, designed to assess the influence of consumers on juvenile bull kelp net tissue gain, found that only fully enclosed (protected bull kelp increased in wet mass and blade length. Herbivory by kelp crabs, among other consumers, is likely to play a previously unrecognized role in mediating the growth and survival of this annual kelp species within the Salish Sea.

  12. Genetic and experimental evidence for a mixed-age, mixed-origin bank of kelp microscopic stages in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Laura T; Bohonak, Andrew J; Edwards, Matthew S; Alberto, Filipe

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that the microscopic stages of kelps can rapidly resume development from a delayed state. Like terrestrial seeds or aquatic resting eggs, banks of delayed kelp stages may supplement population recovery after periods of stress, playing an important role for kelp populations that experience adult sporophyte absences due to seasonal or interannual disturbances. We found that removing the microscopic stages from natural rock substratum could prevent the appearance of juvenile kelp sporophytes for three months and the establishment of a diverse kelp assemblage for over four months within a southern California kelp forest. Juveniles were observed within one month in plots where microscopic stages were left intact, which may confer an advantage for the resulting sporophytes as they attain larger sizes before later recruiting neighbors. Microsatellite diversity was high (expected heterozygosity HE approximately 0.9) for juveniles and adults within our sites. Using a microsatellite-based parentage analysis for the dominant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, we estimated that a portion of the new M. pyrifera sporophyte recruits had originated from their parents at least seven months after their parents had disappeared. Similar delay durations have been demonstrated in recent laboratory studies. Additionally, our results suggest that zoospore dispersal distances > 50 m may be supported by including additional microsatellite loci in the analysis. We propose a mixed-age and, potentially, a mixed-origin bank of M. pyrifera gametophytes promotes maximal genetic diversity in recovering populations and reduces population genetic subdivision and self-fertilization rates for intact populations by promoting the survival of zoospores dispersed > 10 m and during inhospitable environmental conditions.

  13. Application of HRAM screening and LC-MS/MS confirmation of active pharmaceutical ingredient in "natural" herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascali, Jennifer P; Fais, Paolo; Vaiano, Fabio; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2018-05-01

    The growing market of herbal remedies worldwide could pose severe problems to consumers' health due to the possible presence of potentially harmful, undeclared synthetic substances or analogues of prescription drugs. The present work shows a simple but effective approach to unequivocally identify synthetic anorectic compounds in allegedly 'natural' herbal extracts, by exploiting liquid chromatography/time of flight (Q-TOF LC/MS) technology coupled to liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole (LC-MS/MS) confirmation and quantitation. The procedure was applied to five tea herbal extracts and pills sold as coadjutant for weigh loss. The method exploited liquid-liquid sample extraction (LLE) and separation in a C18 (2.1mm×150mm, 1.8μm) column. QTOF acquisitions were carried out both in scan mode and all ion MS/MS mode and results were obtained after search against ad hoc prepared library. Sibutramine, 4-hydroxyamphetamine, caffeine and theophylline were preliminary identified samples. Confirmation and quantitation of the preliminary identified compounds were obtained in LC-MS/MS after preparation of appropriated standards. Sibutramine, caffeine and theophylline were finally confirmed and quantitate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Mathematical Model for Estimation of Kelp Bed Productivity: Age Dependence and Contributions of Subsurface Kelp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, S. K.; Palacios, S. L.; Zimmerman, R. C.; Kudela, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Macrocystis pyrifera, giant kelp, is a major primary producer of the California coastal ocean that provides habitat for marine species through the formation of massive kelp beds. The estimation of primary productivity of these kelp beds is essential for a complete understanding of their health and of the biogeochemistry of the region. Current methods involve either the application of a proportionality constant to remotely sensed biomass or in situ frond density measurements. The purpose of this research was to improve upon conventional primary productivity estimates by developing a model which takes into account the spectral differences among juvenile, mature, and senescent tissues as well as the photosynthetic contributions of subsurface kelp. A modified version of a seagrass productivity model (Zimmerman 2006) was used to quantify carbon fixation. Inputs included estimates of the underwater light field as computed by solving the radiative transfer equation (with the Hydrolight(TM) software package) and biological parameters obtained from the literature. It was found that mature kelp is the most efficient primary producer, especially in light-limited environments, due to increased light absorptance. It was also found that incoming light attenuates below useful levels for photosynthesis more rapidly than has been previously accounted for in productivity estimates, with productivity dropping below half maximum at approximately 0.75 m. As a case study for comparison with the biomass method, the model was applied to Isla Vista kelp bed in Santa Barbara, using area estimates from the MODIS-ASTER Simulator (MASTER). A graphical user-interface was developed for users to provide inputs to run the kelp productivity model under varying conditions. Accurately quantifying kelp productivity is essential for understanding its interaction with offshore ecosystems as well as its contribution to the coastal carbon cycle.

  15. Kelp diagrams : Point set membership visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinkla, K.; Kreveld, van M.J.; Speckmann, B.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present Kelp Diagrams, a novel method to depict set relations over points, i.e., elements with predefined positions. Our method creates schematic drawings and has been designed to take aesthetic quality, efficiency, and effectiveness into account. This is achieved by a routing algorithm, which

  16. Dietary supplementation of Digestarom® herbal formulation: effect on apparent digestibility, faecal and caecal microbial counts and live performance of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Celia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to study the effect of Digestarom® dietary inclusion (herbal formulation containing a mixture of essential oils, herbs, spices and extracts on apparent digestibility and digestive ecosystem of growing rabbits, as well as the effects of its supplementation before and after weaning on growth performance. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into 2 dietary groups (51 does/group and fed either a control diet (C or a diet supplemented with 300 mg Digestarom®/kg diet (D until weaning, which occurred at 35 d (before weaning supplementation. Each group was further divided into 3 dietary groups: CC received the control diet and DD received the D diet from 5 to 12 wk of age, and DC were fed with D (from 5 to 8 wk of age and C diets (from 8 to 12 wk of age (after weaning supplementation; 54 kits/group. An in vivo digestibility trial and a faecal microbial count were carried out on growing rabbits that received only the C or D diets during the trial. The C group showed higher DM intake than D group (215 vs. 196 g/d; P<0.05. The faecal digestibility of ether extract (75.9 vs. 59.8%; P<0.001, cellulose (25.9 vs. 20.6%; P<0.05 and gross energy (51.8 vs. 49.1%; P<0.05 was higher for C than for D group, whereas that of starch (98.9 vs. 98.8%; P<0.001 and the digestible protein to digestible energy ratio (13.9 vs. 13.2 g digestible protein/MJ digestible energy; P<0.01 was the highest for rabbits fed D diet. Stomach and caecal pH, caecal and faecal microbial counts were independent of the dietary treatment. The only exception was the stomach pH in 8 wk-old rabbits, which had the lowest value in C rabbits (P<0.05. The D supplementation before weaning improved feed conversion ratio throughout the growing phase (4.3 vs. 4.4 for D and C, respectively; P<0.05, whereas significant differences in daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality were observed only in the first period after weaning. Based on the results obtained

  17. San Diego Coast Kelp Persistence (1967-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Giant kelp forests, with their extensive vertical structure, represent the most diverse of the marine habitats and support commercial fisheries, education, and...

  18. San Diego Coast Kelp Persistence (1967-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Giant kelp forests, with their extensive vertical structure, represent the most diverse of the marine habitats and support commercial fisheries, education, and...

  19. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the 131 I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others

  20. Radioiodine in kelp from Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, the distribution and uptake of 131 I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia were studied. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of 131 I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. The principal source of the 131 I was characterized; a general temporal correlation was found between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments enabled to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and the results are consistent with laboratory measurements, elsewhere. (author) 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  2. Complex trophic interactions in kelp forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J.A.; Danner, E.M.; Doak, D.F.; Konar, B.; Springer, A.M.; Steinberg, P.D.; Tinker, M. Tim; Williams, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The distributions and abundances of species and populations change almost continuously. Understanding the processes responsible is perhaps ecology’s most fundamental challenge. Kelp-forest ecosystems in southwest Alaska have undergone several phase shifts between alga- and herbivore-dominated states in recent decades. Overhunting and recovery of sea otters caused the earlier shifts. Studies focusing on these changes demonstrate the importance of top-down forcing processes, a variety of indirect food-web interactions associated with the otter-urchin-kelp trophic cascade, and the role of food-chain length in the coevolution of defense and resistance in plants and their herbivores. This system unexpectedly shifted back to an herbivore-dominated state during the 1990s, because of a sea-otter population collapse that apparently was driven by increased predation by killer whales. Reasons for this change remain uncertain but seem to be linked to the whole-sale collapse of marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean and southern Bering Sea. We hypothesize that killer whales sequentially "fished down" pinniped and sea-otter populations after their earlier prey, the great whales, were decimated by commercial whaling. The dynamics of kelp forests in southwest Alaska thus appears to have been influenced by an ecological chain reaction that encompassed numerous species and large scales of space and time.

  3. Herbal does not mean innocuous: ten cases of severe hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements from Herbalife products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Alain M; Engel, Antoinette; Fattinger, Karin; Marbet, Urs A; Criblez, Dominique; Reichen, Juerg; Zimmermann, Arthur; Oneta, Carl M

    2007-10-01

    Herbal agents are popular and perceived as safe because they are supposedly 'natural'. We report 10 cases of toxic hepatitis implicating Herbalife products. To determine the prevalence and outcome of hepatotoxicity due to Herbalife products. A questionnaire was sent to all public Swiss hospitals. Reported cases were subjected to causality assessment using the CIOMS criteria. Twelve cases of toxic hepatitis implicating Herbalife preparations (1998-2004) were retrieved, 10 sufficiently documented to permit causality analysis. Median age of patients was 51 years (range 30-69) and latency to onset was 5 months (0.5-144). Liver biopsy (7/10) showed hepatic necrosis, marked lymphocytic/eosinophilic infiltration and cholestasis in five patients. One patient with fulminant liver failure was successfully transplanted; the explant showed giant cell hepatitis. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome was observed in one case. Three patients without liver biopsy presented with hepatocellular (2) or mixed (1) liver injury. Causality assessment of adverse drug reaction was classified as certain in two, probable in seven and possible in one case(s), respectively. We present a case series of toxic hepatitis implicating Herbalife products. Liver toxicity may be severe. A more detailed declaration of components and pro-active role of regulatory agencies would be desirable.

  4. Herbal bathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't Charlotte I.E.A.; Haabo, Vinije; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Vossen, Tessa; Andel, van Tinde R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Herbal baths play an important role in the traditional health care of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. However, little is known on the differences in plant ingredients used among and within the Maroon groups. We compared plant use in herbal baths documented for Saramaccan and

  5. Estimates of numbers of kelp gulls and Kerguelen and Antarctic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four species are regular breeders at the islands: Subantarctic skua Catharacta antarctica, kelp gull Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern Sterna vittata and Kerguelen tern S. virgata. The latter three species currently each have populations of below 150 breeding pairs at the islands. Kelp gull numbers appear to be relatively ...

  6. Seasonal patterns in numbers of Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 66% and 80% of Kelp Gulls recorded around Port Elizabeth were in adult plumage. It is assumed that adults breeding outside of the Port Elizabeth area move into the area after breeding. During their first year Kelp Gulls showed distinct periods of influx — thought to be due to the fledging of local birds — followed ...

  7. Fuel gas production by anaerobic digestion of kelp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troiano, R.A. (Dynatech R/D Co., Cambridge, MA); Wise, D.L.; Augenstein, D.C.; Kispert, R.G.; Cooney, C.L.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of the experimental program was to explore the feasibility of the anaerobic digestion of kelp to produce methane. Experiments were carried out with freshly harvested U.S. East Coast kelp, Laminaria saccharina. The use for fuel conversion of the rapidly growing U.S. West Coast kelp, the so-called ''giant kelp,'' Macrocystis pyrifera, has been elsewhere. L. saccharina is similar to M. pyrifera in physical structure as well as chemical composition. Both are brown algae (phaeophyta) of the order Laminariales (kelp). Their principal products of photosynthesis are the sugar alcohol, mannitol, and the polysaccharide, laminarin. The cell walls are composed mostly of algin with some cellulose and fucoidin (a phycocolloid-like algin) and the brown color is due to fucoxanthin pigment. It was anticipated that all these constituents of kelp would be subject to anaerobic digestion. The digester operation, alkali pretreatment of kelp, and a comparison of kelp digestion with other substrates are discussed.

  8. Effects of herbal supplements on growth performance of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: Change in body composition and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDAN YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on growth performance, proximate composition and ammonia excretion of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (21 kj/g diets were formulated to contain 0% (control or 1% of thyme, rosemary or fenugreek. The thyme supplementation significantly increased protein efficiency ratio, fillet protein levels, protein and energy retentions (P0.05. The results indicate that dietary thyme improved the protein and energy retentions of sea bass.

  9. Supplementation of herbal plants differently modulated metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in transition dairy cows fed various extruded oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Riasi, A; Taghizadeh, A; Zebeli, Q

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a mixture of herbal plants (HM) and two sources of unsaturated fatty acids (FA), extruded linseed (LS) and soybean (SB), on metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative status of transition dairy cows. Thirty-two prepartum Holstein cows, blocked by parity and calving day, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, in a 2×2 factorial design, starting from 25 days before the expected calving date to 26 days postpartum. The supplementation rates of HM were 150 and 170 g/animal/day at pre- and postpartum, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed for metabolites on day 7.15±1.70 prepartum and on days 1 and 21 postpartum. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT) was conducted on day 25 postpartum. Data showed that cows supplemented with HM had lower serum concentration of NEFA (0.395 vs. 0.602±0.044 mmol/L; Pinsulin ratio (Pcows fed the LS-based diet had greater serum glucose concentration during prepartum (80.7 vs. 71.3±3.32 mg/dL; P=0.06) and postpartum period (86.3 vs. 73.5±3.35 mg/dL; P=0.01), as well as lower NEFA (0.425 vs. 0.572±0.044 mmol/L; P=0.03) and insulin to glucose ratio (Pinsulin-sensitivity check index revealed that supplementing HM in LS-based diet improved insulin sensitivity (0.45 vs. 0.41±0.013; P=0.03) prepartum, whereas after parturition, the HM addition was effective for both oil seeds (0.40 vs. 0.37±0.008; P=0.06) in enhancing insulin sensitivity. Result of IV-GTT indicated that cows fed LS-based diets had higher basal glucose concentration (63.7 vs. 55.7±2.37; mg/dL; P=0.02) and lower glucose area under the curve (995.8 vs. 1529.5±100.7; mg/dL×45 min; Pinsulin resistance, this feeding strategy lowered total antioxidant capacity prepartum (0. 48 vs. 0.55±0.017 nmol/L; Pinsulin response following glucose infusion, although feeding of LS-based diets induced an increased oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Seagrasses and Kelps in Marine Fish Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackmon, Derrick; Wyllie-Echeverria, Tina; Shafer, Deborah J

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive summary of research related to fish utilization of seagrass and kelp habitats in the Pacific Northwest in a single document that will serve as a useful reference...

  11. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Sea Temperature, 1993-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has subtidal temperature data taken at permanent monitoring sites. Since 1993,...

  12. Evaluation, management, and cultivation of Macrocystis kelp forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Giant kelp, Macrocystis, is a marine plant of significant commercial value with great promise for expanded usage in the future. It is widely distributed among temperate waters of the southern hemisphere, although it occurs only in the eastern Pacific in the northern hemisphere. This survey of the evaluation, management, and cultivation of Macrocystis kelp forests is presented under the following section headings: Macrocystis biology (distribution and ecology, physiology, nutrition, and productivity); resource aspects; controlling factors in Macrocystis ecology (waves and storms, temperature, nutrients, grazing and predation, and competition); human influences (municipal waste waters, kelp harvesting, miscellaneous factors); kelp culturing and restoration (control of predators and competitors, transplanting and culturing); Macrocystis biomass as an energy source; and, possibilities for fertilizing Macrocystis beds. (JGB)

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Herbal Medicine Use Among Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of herbal medicine use among US adults and to assess factors associated with and predictors of herbal use. Design: The data for herbal products use were collected from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience and Pharmacists’ Roles. Chi-square test was used to analyz factors associated with herbal use, and predictors of herbal use were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results: Factors associated with herbal supplement use include age older than 70, having a higher than high school education, using prescription medications or over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and using a mail-order pharmacy.” All Disease state associated significantly with herbal use. Approximately thirty-eight percent of those who used herbals used prescription medications and 42% of those who used herbals also used an OTC medication. The most frequent conditions associated with herbal supplement use were a stroke (48.7%), cancer (43.1%), and arthritis (43.0%). Among herbal product users, factors that predicted use included having higher than school education, using OTC medications, using mail-order pharmacy, stroke, obesity, arthritis, and breathing problems. Conclusions: More than one-third of respondents reported using herbal supplements. Older age and higher education were associated with a higher use of herbal supplements. People with chronic diseases are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. OTC drug users and patients with stroke are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. PMID:28959715

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Herbal Medicine Use Among Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashrash, Mohamed; Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M

    2017-09-01

    To describe the prevalence of herbal medicine use among US adults and to assess factors associated with and predictors of herbal use. The data for herbal products use were collected from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience and Pharmacists' Roles. Chi-square test was used to analyz factors associated with herbal use, and predictors of herbal use were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with herbal supplement use include age older than 70, having a higher than high school education, using prescription medications or over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and using a mail-order pharmacy." All Disease state associated significantly with herbal use. Approximately thirty-eight percent of those who used herbals used prescription medications and 42% of those who used herbals also used an OTC medication. The most frequent conditions associated with herbal supplement use were a stroke (48.7%), cancer (43.1%), and arthritis (43.0%). Among herbal product users, factors that predicted use included having higher than school education, using OTC medications, using mail-order pharmacy, stroke, obesity, arthritis, and breathing problems. More than one-third of respondents reported using herbal supplements. Older age and higher education were associated with a higher use of herbal supplements. People with chronic diseases are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. OTC drug users and patients with stroke are more likely to use herbal medicines than others.

  15. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  16. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  17. Fish diversity in southern California using scuba surveys in kelp forests.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from diver surveys on kelp beds in Southern California. Kelp diver visual census data was combined for two separate...

  18. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-11-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a field that has rapidly grown over the last few years along with increased use of herbal products worldwide. To summarize the various facets of this disease, we undertook a literature search for herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements with reported cases of herbal hepatotoxicity. A selective literature search was performed to identify published case reports, spontaneous case reports, case series and review articles regarding herbal hepatotoxicity. A total of 185 publications were identified and the results compiled. They show 60 different herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements with reported potential hepatotoxicity, additional information including synonyms of individual herbs, botanical names and cross references are provided. If known, details are presented for specific ingredients and chemicals in herbal products, and for references with authors that can be matched to each herbal product and to its effect on the liver. Based on stringent causality assessment methods and/or positive re-exposure tests, causality was highly probable or probable for Ayurvedic herbs, Chaparral, Chinese herbal mixture, Germander, Greater Celandine, green tea, few Herbalife products, Jin Bu Huan, Kava, Ma Huang, Mistletoe, Senna, Syo Saiko To and Venencapsan(®). In many other publications, however, causality was not properly evaluated by a liver-specific and for hepatotoxicity-validated causality assessment method such as the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). This compilation presents details of herbal hepatotoxicity, assisting thereby clinical assessment of involved physicians in the future. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Convergent evolution of vascular optimization in kelp (Laminariales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnitch, Sarah Tepler; Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Prentice, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plants and mammals, although separated by a great evolutionary distance, have each arrived at a highly conserved body plan in which universal allometric scaling relationships govern the anatomy of vascular networks and key functional metabolic traits. The universality of allometric...... (Phaeophyceae) are one such group—as distantly related to plants as mammals, they have convergently evolved a plant-like body plan and a specialized phloem-like transport network. To evaluate possible scaling and optimization in the kelp vascular system, we developed a model of optimized transport anatomy...... and tested it with measurements of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, which is among the largest and most successful of macroalgae. We also evaluated three classical allometric relationships pertaining to plant vascular tissues with a diverse sampling of kelp species. Macrocystis pyrifera displays strong...

  20. [Effects of Chinese herbal compound for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on actin, Cx43 expressions and gap junctional intercellular communication functions of myocardial cells in patients with Coxsackie virus B 3 viral myocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-xue; He, Wei; Gu, Ping

    2010-08-01

    To observe the effect of Chinese herbal compound for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation (CHC) on the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) function of myocardial cells in patients with Coxsackie virus B 3 (CVB3) viral myocarditis. Expressions of actin and connexin43 (Cx43) in myocardial cells of patients arranged in three groups (the normal control group, the viral infected group and the CHC treated group) were detected by immunohistochemical method; the fluorescence photobleaching recovery rate of cells was detected by laser scanning confocal microscope. As compared with the viral infected group, the expressions of actin and Cx43 were increased and the GJIC function was improved in the CHC treated group. CHC could antagonize viral injury on skeleton protein, and repair the structure of gap junction channel to improve the GJIC function of myocardial cells after being attacked by CVB3.

  1. Convergent evolution of vascular optimization in kelp (Laminariales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnitch, Sarah Tepler; Jensen, Kaare H; Prentice, Paige; Pittermann, Jarmila

    2015-10-07

    Terrestrial plants and mammals, although separated by a great evolutionary distance, have each arrived at a highly conserved body plan in which universal allometric scaling relationships govern the anatomy of vascular networks and key functional metabolic traits. The universality of allometric scaling suggests that these phyla have each evolved an 'optimal' transport strategy that has been overwhelmingly adopted by extant species. To truly evaluate the dominance and universality of vascular optimization, however, it is critical to examine other, lesser-known, vascularized phyla. The brown algae (Phaeophyceae) are one such group--as distantly related to plants as mammals, they have convergently evolved a plant-like body plan and a specialized phloem-like transport network. To evaluate possible scaling and optimization in the kelp vascular system, we developed a model of optimized transport anatomy and tested it with measurements of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, which is among the largest and most successful of macroalgae. We also evaluated three classical allometric relationships pertaining to plant vascular tissues with a diverse sampling of kelp species. Macrocystis pyrifera displays strong scaling relationships between all tested vascular parameters and agrees with our model; other species within the Laminariales display weak or inconsistent vascular allometries. The lack of universal scaling in the kelps and the presence of optimized transport anatomy in M. pyrifera raises important questions about the evolution of optimization and the possible competitive advantage conferred by optimized vascular systems to multicellular phyla. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Planctomycetes dominate biofilms on surfaces of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øvreås Lise

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria belonging to Planctomycetes display several unique morphological and genetic features and are found in a wide variety of habitats on earth. Their ecological roles in these habitats are still poorly understood. Planctomycetes have previously been detected throughout the year on surfaces of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea from southwestern Norway. We aimed to make a detailed investigation of the abundance and phylogenetic diversity of planctomycetes inhabiting these kelp surfaces. Results Planctomycetes accounted for 51-53% of the bacterial biofilm cells in July and September and 24% in February according to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH results. Several separate planctomycetes lineages within Pirellulae, Planctomyces and OM190 were represented in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and the most abundant clones belonged to yet uncultured lineages. In contrast to the abundance, the diversity of the planctomycete populations increased from July to February and was probably influenced by the aging of the kelp tissue. One planctomycete strain that was closely related to Rhodopirellula baltica was isolated using selective cultivation techniques. Conclusions Biofilms on surfaces of L. hyperborea display an even higher proportion of planctomycetes compared to other investigated planctomycete-rich habitats such as open water, sandy sediments and peat bogs. The findings agree well with the hypothesis of the role of planctomycetes as degraders of sulfated polymeric carbon in the marine environment as kelps produce such substances. In addition, the abundant planctomycete populations on kelp surfaces and in association with other eukaryotes suggest that coexistence with eukaryotes may be a key feature of many planctomycete lifestyles.

  3. Restricted access Giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, increases faunal diversity through physical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert J.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Lamy, Thomas; Kui, Li; Rassweiler, Andrew; Reed, Daniel C.

    2018-01-01

    Foundation species define the ecosystems they live in, but ecologists have often characterized dominant plants as foundational without supporting evidence. Giant kelp has long been considered a marine foundation species due to its complex structure and high productivity; however, there is little quantitative evidence to evaluate this. Here, we apply structural equation modelling to a 15-year time series of reef community data to evaluate how giant kelp affects the reef community. Although species richness was positively associated with giant kelp biomass, most direct paths did not involve giant kelp. Instead, the foundational qualities of giant kelp were driven mostly by indirect effects attributed to its dominant physical structure and associated engineering influence on the ecosystem, rather than by its use as food by invertebrates and fishes. Giant kelp structure has indirect effects because it shades out understorey algae that compete with sessile invertebrates. When released from competition, sessile species in turn increase the diversity of mobile predators. Sea urchin grazing effects could have been misinterpreted as kelp effects, because sea urchins can overgraze giant kelp, understorey algae and sessile invertebrates alike. Our results confirm the high diversity and biomass associated with kelp forests, but highlight how species interactions and habitat attributes can be misconstrued as direct consequences of a foundation species like giant kelp.

  4. Landsat satellite evidence of the decline of northern California bull kelp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, A.; Houskeeper, H. F.; Kudela, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana), a species of canopy-forming brown macroalga dominant in the Pacific Northwest of North America, provides critical ecological services such as habitat for a diverse array of marine species, nutrient regulation, photosynthesis, and regional marine carbon cycling. Starting around 2014, annual aerial surveys of bull kelp forests along California's northern coastline conducted by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) have reported a sudden 93% reduction in bull kelp canopy area. Remote sensing using satellite imagery is a robust, highly accurate tool for detecting and quantifying the abundance of the canopy-forming giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera; however, it has not been successfully applied to measuring northern bull kelp forests. One of the main difficulties associated with bull kelp detection via satellite is the small surface area of bull kelp canopies. As a result, bull kelp beds often only constitute part of a satellite pixel, making it difficult to obtain a kelp reflectance signal significantly different than water's reflectance signal. As part of the NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), we test a novel method for assessing bull kelp canopy using a multiple endmember spectral mixing analysis (MESMA) applied to Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 imagery from 2003-2016. Water and kelp spectral endmembers are selected along the northern California coastline from Havens Neck cape to Point Arena. MESMA results are ground truthed with the CDFW aerial multispectral imagery data. This project will present a satellite-based time series of bull kelp canopy area and evaluate canopy change in a northern California kelp ecosystem.

  5. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  6. The effects of commercial preparations of herbal supplements commonly used by women on the biotransformation of fluorogenic substrates by human cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley H Y; Singh, Mohini; Holloway, Alison C; Crankshaw, Denis J

    2011-07-01

    The study set out to determine the potential for commercially available preparations of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus), crampbark (Viburnum opulus) and false unicorn (Chamaelirium luteum) to inhibit the major human drug metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 as well as CYP1A1 which activates some carcinogens. In vitro microplate-based assays using cDNA-expressed CYP450 isoforms and fluorogenic substrates were used. Components of the commercial herbal preparations interfered with the assays and limited the concentration ranges that could be tested. Nevertheless, the fluorogenic assays were robust, reproducible and easy to perform and thus are still useful for initial screening for potential herb-drug interactions. None of the preparations affected CYPs 1A1 or 2C9 at the concentrations tested but all preparations inhibited some of the enzymes with potencies around 1 μg/mL. The three most potent interactions were: chaste tree berry and CYP2C19 (IC₅₀) 0.22 μg/mL); chaste tree berry and CYP3A4 (IC₅₀) 0.3 μg/mL); black cohosh and CYP2C19 (IC₅₀) 0.37 μg/mL,). Thus, the study successfully identified the potential for the commercial herbal preparations to inhibit human drug metabolizing enzymes. Whether this potential translates into clinically significant herb-drug interactions can only be confirmed by appropriate in vivo studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Elevated temperature drives kelp microbiome dysbiosis, while elevated carbon dioxide induces water microbiome disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah J Minich

    Full Text Available Global climate change includes rising temperatures and increased pCO2 concentrations in the ocean, with potential deleterious impacts on marine organisms. In this case study we conducted a four-week climate change incubation experiment, and tested the independent and combined effects of increased temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2, on the microbiomes of a foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, and the surrounding water column. The water and kelp microbiome responded differently to each of the climate stressors. In the water microbiome, each condition caused an increase in a distinct microbial order, whereas the kelp microbiome exhibited a reduction in the dominant kelp-associated order, Alteromondales. The water column microbiomes were most disrupted by elevated pCO2, with a 7.3 fold increase in Rhizobiales. The kelp microbiome was most influenced by elevated temperature and elevated temperature in combination with elevated pCO2. Kelp growth was negatively associated with elevated temperature, and the kelp microbiome showed a 5.3 fold increase Flavobacteriales and a 2.2 fold increase alginate degrading enzymes and sulfated polysaccharides. In contrast, kelp growth was positively associated with the combination of high temperature and high pCO2 'future conditions', with a 12.5 fold increase in Planctomycetales and 4.8 fold increase in Rhodobacteriales. Therefore, the water and kelp microbiomes acted as distinct communities, where the kelp was stabilizing the microbiome under changing pCO2 conditions, but lost control at high temperature. Under future conditions, a new equilibrium between the kelp and the microbiome was potentially reached, where the kelp grew rapidly and the commensal microbes responded to an increase in mucus production.

  8. Prescription for herbal healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, Phyllis A; Bell, Stacey J

    2012-01-01

    .... John's Wort, to less familiar remedies, such as khella and prickly ash Chinese and ayurvedic herbal combinations Discussion of more than 150 common disorders from acne to yeast infection, and suggested herbal treatment therapies"--

  9. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Kelp Wrack: Hopping with Life in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2011-01-01

    The same waves that pound the shore off California also tear large amounts of seaweed from the region’s giant kelp forests and rocky reefs. Much of this drift seaweed, known as wrack, is eventually washed ashore. On many of Southern California’s beaches, tractors will remove this wrack (along with trash and litter) and rake the sand, in a process known as beach grooming.

  11. Kelp Wrack: Hopping with Life in San Diego County

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2011-01-01

    The same waves that pound the shore off California also tear large amounts of seaweed from the region’s giant kelp forests and rocky reefs. Much of this drift seaweed, known as wrack, is eventually washed ashore. On many of Southern California’s beaches, tractors will remove this wrack (along with trash and litter) and rake the sand, in a process known as beach grooming.

  12. Kelp Wrack: Hopping with Life in Orange County

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2011-01-01

    The same waves that pound the shore off California also tear large amounts of seaweed from the region’s giant kelp forests and rocky reefs. Much of this drift seaweed, known as wrack, is eventually washed ashore. On many of Southern California’s beaches, tractors will remove this wrack (along with trash and litter) and rake the sand, in a process known as beach grooming.

  13. Kelp Wrack: Hopping with Life in Santa Barbara County

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2011-01-01

    The same waves that pound the shore off California also tear large amounts of seaweed from the region’s giant kelp forests and rocky reefs. Much of this drift seaweed, known as wrack, is eventually washed ashore. On many of Southern California’s beaches, tractors will remove this wrack (along with trash and litter) and rake the sand, in a process known as beach grooming.

  14. Kelp Wrack: Hopping with Life in Ventura County

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2011-01-01

    The same waves that pound the shore off California also tear large amounts of seaweed from the region’s giant kelp forests and rocky reefs. Much of this drift seaweed, known as wrack, is eventually washed ashore. On many of Southern California’s beaches, tractors will remove this wrack (along with trash and litter) and rake the sand, in a process known as beach grooming.

  15. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they…

  16. Herbal medicine for sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Maha; Slimeni, Olfa; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Kuvačić, Goran; D Hayes, Lawrence; Milic, Mirjana; Padulo, Johnny

    2018-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased during last decades. At present, some herbs are used to enhance muscle strength and body mass. Emergent evidence suggests that the health benefits from plants are attributed to their bioactive compounds such as Polyphenols, Terpenoids, and Alkaloids which have several physiological effects on the human body. At times, manufacturers launch numerous products with banned ingredient inside with inappropriate amounts or fake supplement inducing harmful side effect. Unfortunately up to date, there is no guarantee that herbal supplements are safe for anyone to use and it has not helped to clear the confusion surrounding the herbal use in sport field especially. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide guidance on the efficacy and side effect of most used plants in sport. We have identified plants according to the following categories: Ginseng, alkaloids, and other purported herbal ergogenics such as Tribulus Terrestris , Cordyceps Sinensis. We found that most herbal supplement effects are likely due to activation of the central nervous system via stimulation of catecholamines. Ginseng was used as an endurance performance enhancer, while alkaloids supplementation resulted in improvements in sprint and cycling intense exercises. Despite it is prohibited, small amount of ephedrine was usually used in combination with caffeine to enhance muscle strength in trained individuals. Some other alkaloids such as green tea extracts have been used to improve body mass and composition in athletes. Other herb (i.e. Rhodiola, Astragalus) help relieve muscle and joint pain, but results about their effects on exercise performance are missing.

  17. Internet marketing of herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles A; Avorn, Jerry

    2003-09-17

    Passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994 restricted the Food and Drug Administration's control over dietary supplements, leading to enormous growth in their promotion. The Internet is often used by consumers as a source of information on such therapies. To assess the information presented and indications claimed on the Internet for the 8 best-selling herbal products. We searched the Internet using the 5 most commonly used search engines. For each, we entered the names of the 8 most widely used herbal supplements (ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, echinacea, ginseng, garlic, saw palmetto, kava kava, and valerian root). We analyzed the health content of all Web sites listed on the first page of the search results. We analyzed all accessible, English-language Web sites that pertained to oral herbal supplements. A total of 522 Web sites were identified; of these, 443 sites met inclusion criteria for the analysis. The nature of the Web site (retail or nonretail), whether it was a sponsored link, and all references, indications, claims, and disclaimers were recorded. Two reviewers independently categorized medical claims as disease or nondisease according to Food and Drug Administration criteria. Among 443 Web sites, 338 (76%) were retail sites either selling product or directly linked to a vendor. A total of 273 (81%) of the 338 retail Web sites made 1 or more health claims; of these, 149 (55%) claimed to treat, prevent, diagnose, or cure specific diseases. More than half (153/292; 52%) of sites with a health claim omitted the standard federal disclaimer. Nonretail sites were more likely than retail sites to include literature references, although only 52 (12%) of the 443 Web sites provided referenced information without a link to a distributor or vendor. Consumers may be misled by vendors' claims that herbal products can treat, prevent, diagnose, or cure specific diseases, despite regulations prohibiting such statements. Physicians should be

  18. [Review on community herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenjun; Qu, Liping; Ye, Zuguang; Ji, Jianxin; Li, Bogang

    2011-12-01

    This article discusses the characteristics of cmmunity herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products and its establishment procedure. It also reviews the new development of cmmunity traditional herbal monographs. The purpose is to clarify the relationship between cmmunity herbal monographs and simplified registration for traditional herbal medicinal product in European Union and provide reference to the registration of taditional Chinese mdicinal products in Europe.

  19. Copper tolerance and distribution of epibiotic bacteria associated with giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in southern California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, Julia; Nascimento, Juliana Ribeiro; Magalhães, Ana Carolina Rubem; Dutilh, Bas E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth

    Kelp forests in southern California are important ecosystems that provide habitat and nutrition to a multitude of species. Macrocystis pyrifera and other brown algae that dominate kelp forests, produce negatively charged polysaccharides on the cell surface, which have the ability to accumulate

  20. Strong population structure but no equilibrium yet: Genetic connectivity and phylogeography in the kelp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, P.C.; van den Heuvel, F.H.M.; Rebours, C.; Witte, H.J.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Timmermans, K.

    2018-01-01

    Kelp aquaculture is globally developing steadily as human food source, along with other applications. One of the newer crop species is Saccharina latissima, a northern hemisphere kelp inhabiting temperate to arctic rocky shores. To protect and document its natural genetic variation at the

  1. Copper tolerance and distribution of epibiotic bacteria associated with giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in southern California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.; Nascimento, J.R.; Magalhaes, A.C.; Dutilh, B.E.; Dinsdale, E.

    2015-01-01

    Kelp forests in southern California are important ecosystems that provide habitat and nutrition to a multitude of species. Macrocystis pyrifera and other brown algae that dominate kelp forests, produce negatively charged polysaccharides on the cell surface, which have the ability to accumulate

  2. The fauna and flora of a kelp bed canopy | Allen | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fauna and flora of the canopy of a kelp bed off Oudekraal, on the Cape Peninsula, Is surveyed. Four species of epiphytic algae occur In the kelp canopy, three restricted to Ecklonia maxima and the fourth to Laminaria pallida. Epiphyte biomass is equivalent to 4-9% of host standing crop amongst E. maxima, but less than ...

  3. Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S

    1997-01-01

    Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available.

  4. An evaluation of selected herbal reference texts and comparison to published reports of adverse herbal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Christine A; Anderson, Ilene B; Kim, Susan Y; Blanc, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    There has been a recent proliferation of medical reference texts intended to guide practitioners whose patients use herbal therapies. We systematically assessed six herbal reference texts to evaluate the information they contain on herbal toxicity. We selected six major herbal references published from 1996 to 2000 to evaluate the adequacy of their toxicological information in light of published adverse events. To identify herbs most relevant to toxicology, we reviewed herbal-related calls to our regional California Poison Control System, San Francisco division (CPCS-SF) in 1998 and identified the 12 herbs (defined as botanical dietary supplements) most frequently involved in these CPCS-SF referrals. We searched Medline (1966 to 2000) to identify published reports of adverse effects potentially related to these same 12 herbs. We scored each herbal reference text on the basis of information inclusiveness for the target 12 herbs, with a maximal overall score of 3. The herbs, identified on the basis of CPCS-SF call frequency were: St John's wort, ma huang, echinacea, guarana, ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, tea tree oil, goldenseal, arnica, yohimbe and kava kava. The overall herbal reference scores ranged from 2.2 to 0.4 (median 1.1). The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database received the highest overall score and was the most complete and useful reference source. All of the references, however, lacked sufficient information on management of herbal medicine overdose, and several had incorrect overdose management guidelines that could negatively impact patient care. Current herbal reference texts do not contain sufficient information for the assessment and management of adverse health effects of botanical therapies.

  5. Supplying Fe from molten coal ash to revive kelp community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Sadakata, M. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    The phenomenon of a kelp-dominated community changing to a crust-dominated community, which is called 'barren-ground', is progressing in the world, and causing serious social problems in coastal areas. Among several suggested causes of 'barren-ground', we focused on the lack of Fe in seawater. Kelp needs more than 200 nM of Fe to keep its community. However there are the areas where the concentration of Fe is less than 1 nM, and the lack of Fe leads to the 'barren-ground.' Coal ash is one of the appropriate materials to compensate the lack of Fe for the kelp growth, because the coal ash is a waste from the coal combustion process and contains more than 5 wt% of Fe. The rate of Fe elution from coal fly ash to water can be increased by 20 times after melting in Ar atmosphere, because 39 wt% of the Fe(III) of coal fly ash was reduced to Fe(II). Additionally molten ash from the IGCC (integrated coal gasification combined cycle) furnace in a reducing atmosphere and one from a melting furnace pilot plant in an oxidizing atmosphere were examined. Each molten ash was classified into two groups; cooled rapidly with water and cooled slowly without water. The flux of Fe elution from rapidly cooled IGCC molten ash was the highest; 9.4 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. It was noted that the coal ash melted in a reducing atmosphere could elute Fe effectively, and the dissolution of the molten ash itself controlled the rate of Fe elution in the case of rapidly cooled molten ash.

  6. Decline in Kelp in West Europe and Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Raybaud

    Full Text Available Kelp ecosystems form widespread underwater forests playing a major role in structuring the biodiversity at a regional scale. Some seaweeds such as Laminaria digitata are also economically important, being exploited for their alginate and iodine content. Although some studies have shown that kelp ecosystems are regressing and that multiple causes are likely to be at the origin of the disappearance of certain populations, the extent to which global climate change may play a role remains speculative. Here we show that many populations of L. digitata along European coasts are on the verge of local extinction due to a climate-caused increase in sea temperature. By modeling the spatial distribution of the seaweed, we evaluate the possible implications of global climate change for the geographical patterns of the species using temperature data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5. Projections of the future range of L. digitata throughout the 21st century show large shifts in the suitable habitat of the kelp and a northward retreat of the southern limit of its current geographic distribution from France to Danish coasts and the southern regions of the United Kingdom. However, these projections depend on the intensity of warming. A medium to high warming is expected to lead to the extirpation of the species as early as the first half of the 21st century and there is high confidence that regional extinction will spread northwards by the end of this century. These changes are likely to cause the decline of species whose life cycle is closely dependent upon L. digitata and lead to the establishment of new ecosystems with lower ecological and economic values.

  7. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baby Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year. Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life.

  8. Determination of essential elements in beverages, herbal infusions and dietary supplements using a new straightforward sequential approach based on flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Nieto, Beatriz; Gismera, Mª Jesús; Sevilla, Mª Teresa; Procopio, Jesús R

    2017-03-15

    A simple method based on FAAS was developed for the sequential multi-element determination of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg and Si in beverages and food supplements with successful results. The main absorption lines for Cu, Zn and Si and secondary lines for Mn and Mg were selected to carry out the measurements. The sample introduction was performed using a flow injection system. Using the choice of the absorption line wings, the upper limit of the linear range increased up to 110mgL -1 for Mg, 200mgL -1 for Si and 13mgL -1 for Zn. The determination of the five elements was carried out, in triplicate, without the need of additional sample dilutions and/or re-measurements, using less than 3.5mL of sample to perform the complete analysis. The LODs were 0.008mgL -1 for Cu, 0.017mgL -1 for Zn, 0.011mgL -1 for Mn, 0.16mgL -1 for Si and 0.11mgL -1 for Mg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo potential of five berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) commonly used as herbal supplements to inhibit uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eu Jin; Park, Jung Bae; Yoon, Kee Dong; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated inhibitory potentials of popularly-consumed berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) as herbal supplements on UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 in vitro. We also investigated the potential herb-drug interaction via UGT1A1 inhibition by blueberry in vivo. We demonstrated that these berries had only weak inhibitory effects on the five UGTs. Bilberry and elderberry had no apparent inhibitions. Blueberry weakly inhibited UGT1A1 with an IC50 value of 62.4±4.40 μg/mL and a Ki value of 53.1 μg/mL. Blueberry also weakly inhibited UGT2B7 with an IC50 value of 147±11.1 μg/mL. In addition, cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50=458±49.7 μg/mL) and raspberry ketones weakly inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50=248±28.2 μg/mL). Among tested berries, blueberry showed the lowest IC50 value in the inhibition of UGT1A1 in vitro. However, the co-administration of blueberry had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, which was mainly eliminated via UGT1A1, in vivo. Our data suggests that these five berries are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safe use of popularly-consumed berries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Marzinelli

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km and depths (15-60 m across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  11. Climate-driven disparities among ecological interactions threaten kelp forest persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Euan J; Kelaher, Brendan P; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Russell, Bayden D; Connell, Sean D; Ghedini, Giulia; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Figueira, WillIAM; Coleman, Melinda A

    2017-01-01

    The combination of ocean warming and acidification brings an uncertain future to kelp forests that occupy the warmest parts of their range. These forests are not only subject to the direct negative effects of ocean climate change, but also to a combination of unknown indirect effects associated with changing ecological landscapes. Here, we used mesocosm experiments to test the direct effects of ocean warming and acidification on kelp biomass and photosynthetic health, as well as climate-driven disparities in indirect effects involving key consumers (urchins and rock lobsters) and competitors (algal turf). Elevated water temperature directly reduced kelp biomass, while their turf-forming competitors expanded in response to ocean acidification and declining kelp canopy. Elevated temperatures also increased growth of urchins and, concurrently, the rate at which they thinned kelp canopy. Rock lobsters, which are renowned for keeping urchin populations in check, indirectly intensified negative pressures on kelp by reducing their consumption of urchins in response to elevated temperature. Overall, these results suggest that kelp forests situated towards the low-latitude margins of their distribution will need to adapt to ocean warming in order to persist in the future. What is less certain is how such adaptation in kelps can occur in the face of intensifying consumptive (via ocean warming) and competitive (via ocean acidification) pressures that affect key ecological interactions associated with their persistence. If such indirect effects counter adaptation to changing climate, they may erode the stability of kelp forests and increase the probability of regime shifts from complex habitat-forming species to more simple habitats dominated by algal turfs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  13. Persistent differences between coastal and offshore kelp forest communities in a warming Gulf of Maine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon D Witman

    Full Text Available Kelp forests provide important ecosystem services, yet coastal kelp communities are increasingly altered by anthropogenic impacts. Kelp forests in remote, offshore locations may provide an informative contrast due to reduced impacts from local stressors. We tested the hypothesis that shallow kelp assemblages (12-15 m depth and associated fish and benthic communities in the coastal southwest Gulf of Maine (GOM differed significantly from sites on Cashes Ledge, 145 km offshore by sampling five coastal and three offshore sites at 43.0 +/- 0.07° N latitude. Offshore sites on Cashes Ledge supported the greatest density (47.8 plants m2 and standing crop biomass (5.5 kg m2 fresh weight of the foundation species Saccharina latissima kelp at this depth in the Western North Atlantic. Offshore densities of S. latissima were over 150 times greater than at coastal sites, with similar but lower magnitude trends for congeneric S. digitata. Despite these differences, S. latissima underwent a significant 36.2% decrease between 1987 and 2015 on Cashes Ledge, concurrent with a rapid warming of the GOM and invasion by the kelp-encrusting bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. In contrast to kelp, the invasive red alga Dasysiphonia japonica was significantly more abundant at coastal sites, suggesting light or dispersal limitation offshore. Spatial differences in fish abundance mirrored those of kelp, as the average biomass of all fish on Cashes Ledge was 305 times greater than at the coastal sites. Remote video censuses of cod (Gadus morhua, cunner (Tautaogolabrus adspersus, and pollock (Pollachius virens corroborated these findings. Understory benthic communities also differed between regions, with greater abundance of sessile invertebrates offshore. Populations of kelp-consuming sea urchins Stronglyocentrotus droebachiensis, were virtually absent from Cashes Ledge while small urchins were abundant onshore, suggesting recruitment limitation offshore. Despite

  14. Persistent differences between coastal and offshore kelp forest communities in a warming Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Jon D; Lamb, Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Kelp forests provide important ecosystem services, yet coastal kelp communities are increasingly altered by anthropogenic impacts. Kelp forests in remote, offshore locations may provide an informative contrast due to reduced impacts from local stressors. We tested the hypothesis that shallow kelp assemblages (12-15 m depth) and associated fish and benthic communities in the coastal southwest Gulf of Maine (GOM) differed significantly from sites on Cashes Ledge, 145 km offshore by sampling five coastal and three offshore sites at 43.0 +/- 0.07° N latitude. Offshore sites on Cashes Ledge supported the greatest density (47.8 plants m2) and standing crop biomass (5.5 kg m2 fresh weight) of the foundation species Saccharina latissima kelp at this depth in the Western North Atlantic. Offshore densities of S. latissima were over 150 times greater than at coastal sites, with similar but lower magnitude trends for congeneric S. digitata. Despite these differences, S. latissima underwent a significant 36.2% decrease between 1987 and 2015 on Cashes Ledge, concurrent with a rapid warming of the GOM and invasion by the kelp-encrusting bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. In contrast to kelp, the invasive red alga Dasysiphonia japonica was significantly more abundant at coastal sites, suggesting light or dispersal limitation offshore. Spatial differences in fish abundance mirrored those of kelp, as the average biomass of all fish on Cashes Ledge was 305 times greater than at the coastal sites. Remote video censuses of cod (Gadus morhua), cunner (Tautaogolabrus adspersus), and pollock (Pollachius virens) corroborated these findings. Understory benthic communities also differed between regions, with greater abundance of sessile invertebrates offshore. Populations of kelp-consuming sea urchins Stronglyocentrotus droebachiensis, were virtually absent from Cashes Ledge while small urchins were abundant onshore, suggesting recruitment limitation offshore. Despite widespread warming of

  15. Program for Research on Dietary Supplements in Military Operations and Healthcare Metabolically Optimized Brain - JWF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol; Vitamins / Minerals / Antioxidants / Dietary supplements (not specified); Herbal Medicine (Subsets: Ginseng and Gingko Biloba); Diet...looking specifically at the role of glucose (Hoyland 2008). c. Other Intervention Groupings considered: i. Herbal Medicine : 58 abstracts identified...involved herbal medicine (excluding gingko biloba and ginseng) as an intervention on the healthy adult population. 31 separate herb or herbal

  16. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, Fish Transect, 1985-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance of fish species. The original measurements...

  17. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from wild kelp gulls in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Olsen, Björn; Geurts, Yvon; Artursson, Karin; Berg, Charlotte; Mevius, Dik J.; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health concern due to limited treatment options. Here, we report on the occurrence and the molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered from wild birds (kelp gulls).

  18. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, Random Point Contact, 1982-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has estimates of substrate composition and percent cover of selected algal and...

  19. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, 5m Quadrat, 1996-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance of selected rare, clumped, sedentary indicator...

  20. Cultivation of kelp species in the Limfjord, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegeberg, S.

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the scope of the work and yield of cultivating kelp species in the Danish waters for DONG Energy, Denmark, a pilot?scale cultivation project was initiated in connection with the review of the potential of algal biomass for bio?energy production in Denmark. Two species of large brown algae, sea girdles (Laminaria digitata) and sweet tangle (Saccharina latissima) were cultivated with the expectation to gain maximum biomass yield, partly because of the species' size and partly because of their growth strategy. The result of the pilot study was that sugar seaweed's average maximum length was 7-8 cm, while finger seaweed's length was only 5 cm. The relative small yield is attributable to an overgrowth of sessile animals (hydroids and sea squirts). (ln)

  1. Intersection of Inflammation and Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Herbal remedies and dietary supplements have become an important area of research and clinical practice in orthopaedics and rheumatology. Understanding the risks and benefits of using herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatic diseases, and musculoskeletal complaints is a key priority of physicians and their patients. This review discusses the latest advances in the use of herbal medicines for treating osteoarthritis (OA) by focusing on the most significant trends and developme...

  2. Marketing herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, M

    1999-01-01

    HIV-positive support groups, together with hospital pharmacists in Thailand are fighting the high cost and lack of access to pharmaceuticals by producing and distributing herbal medicines. In Theung district, Chiang Rai province, members of the local support group for people with HIV produce their own, low-cost, herbal medicines. Although the herbal medicines they produce do not provide a cure for HIV/AIDS, they do offer relief for some of the symptoms of opportunistic infections. The herbs are prepared by the group members under the supervision of the pharmacy department at the district hospital. Local people judge their effectiveness by hearing testimonials from people who have witnessed improvement in symptoms. In response to the popularity and effectiveness of herbal medicines, the Ministry of Public Health has approved plans to sell products derived from local herbs in the pharmacies of government hospitals.

  3. Prescription for herbal healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, Phyllis A; Bell, Stacey J

    2012-01-01

    .... From the most trusted name in natural healing, Phyllis A. Balch's new edition of Prescription for Herbal Healing provides the most current research and comprehensive facts in an easy-to-read A- to-Z format, including...

  4. Herbal remedies for asthma treatment: between myth and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelenyi, Istvan; Brune, Kay

    2002-04-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. To treat this widespread disease there is a high prevalence of usage of herbal medicine. The use of plants is as old as humankind and it has been steadily increasing over the past 10 years. Plant-based remedies are now one of the most popular complementary treatments. Herbal supplements are receiving increasing exposure through media, including the Internet, in lay journals and more recently in the scientific press. Interest in herbal medicine has been facilitated by multiple factors, including the perception that pharmaceutical medications are expensive, overprescribed and may often be dangerous. Alternatively, herbal medicine is often perceived as being "natural" and therefore is considered safe. However, the scientific literature supporting the efficacy of herbal therapies is incomplete. There are few well-controlled studies that support the efficacy of herbal remedies in the treatment and clinical improvement of patients with asthma. Available scientific evidence has not yet confirmed the validity of their popular role in the treatment of asthma. The present review evaluates herbs and their efficacy in asthma to provide a balanced and objective view for the reader seeking information on herbal therapy

  5. Herbal products in pregnancy: experimental studies and clinical reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Tomaino, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an update from an overview of the literature of the most frequently consumed herbal remedies during pregnancy, both alone and concomitantly with prescribed medications and particularly on their side effects to the mother and fetus. We have also analyzed some of the adverse interactions that may occur due to concomitant use of herbal and pharmaceutical products during pregnancy. Herbal remedies are not evaluated according to the same standards as pharmaceuticals, and in the USA some of it are not licensed but sold as food supplements. There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. If 'traditional use' is the only available information, the pregnant woman should be made aware of this to enable her to make an informed decision concerning potential use. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

  7. Herbal hepatotoxicity: suspected cases assessed for alternative causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Schulze, Johannes; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Eickhoff, Axel; Frenzel, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Alternative explanations are common in suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and account for up to 47.1% of analyzed cases. This raised the question of whether a similar frequency may prevail in cases of assumed herb-induced liver injury (HILI). We searched the Medline database for the following terms: herbs, herbal drugs, herbal dietary supplements, hepatotoxic herbs, herbal hepatotoxicity, and herb-induced liver injury. Additional terms specifically addressed single herbs and herbal products: black cohosh, Greater Celandine, green tea, Herbalife products, Hydroxycut, kava, and Pelargonium sidoides. We retrieved 23 published case series and regulatory assessments related to hepatotoxicity by herbs and herbal dietary supplements with alternative causes. The 23 publications comprised 573 cases of initially suspected HILI; alternative causes were evident in 278/573 cases (48.5%). Among them were hepatitis by various viruses (9.7%), autoimmune diseases (10.4%), nonalcoholic and alcoholic liver diseases (5.4%), liver injury by comedication (DILI and other HILI) (43.9%), and liver involvement in infectious diseases (4.7%). Biliary and pancreatic diseases were frequent alternative diagnoses (11.5%), raising therapeutic problems if specific treatment is withheld; pre-existing liver diseases including cirrhosis (9.7%) were additional confounding variables. Other diagnoses were rare, but possibly relevant for the individual patient. In 573 cases of initially assumed HILI, 48.5% showed alternative causes unrelated to the initially incriminated herb, herbal drug, or herbal dietary supplement, calling for thorough clinical evaluations and appropriate causality assessments in future cases of suspected HILI.

  8. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Frenzel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Herb induced liver injury (HILI and drug induced liver injury (DILI share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT. However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance.

  9. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. A guide to herbal remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you choose and use herbals safely. Herbals are not Medicines You have to be careful when using an ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Herbal Medicine Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  11. Herbal medications and plastic surgery: a hidden danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arvind; Lahiri, Anindya

    2014-04-01

    Herbal medicine is a multibillion-pound industry, and surveys suggest that ~10% of the UK population uses herbal supplements concurrently with prescription medications. Patients and health care practitioners are often unaware of the adverse side effects of herbal medicines. In addition, because many of these herbal supplements are available over the counter, many patients do not disclose these when listing medications to health care providers. A 39-year-old nurse underwent an abdominoplasty with rectus sheath plication after weight loss surgery. Postoperatively, she experienced persistent drain output, and after discharge, a seroma developed requiring repeated drainage in the clinic. After scar revision 10 months later, the woman bled postoperatively, requiring suturing. Again, a seroma developed, requiring repeated drainage. It was discovered that the patient had been taking a herbal menopause supplement containing ingredients known to have anticoagulant effects. Complementary medicine is rarely taught in UK medical schools and generally not practiced in UK hospitals. Many supplements are known to have anticoagulant, cardiovascular, and sedative effects. Worryingly, questions about herbal medicines are not routinely asked in clinics, and patients do not often volunteer such information. With the number and awareness of complementary medications increasing, their usage among the population is likely to increase. The authors recommend specific questioning about the use of complementary medications and consideration of ceasing such medications before surgery. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. Effects of petroleum products on bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, W.W.; Thom, R.M.; Antrim, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The 1991 sinking of the fishing vessel, Tenyo Maru, resulted in the release of 380,000 L of intermediate fuel oil (IFO) and diesel fuel into Washington coastal waters. Field observers found slicks stranding in kelp beds and subsequent bleaching of stipes. Controlled assays were performed to test the effects of weathered and unweathered IFO and diesel on Nereocystis blade and stipe net photosynthesis (NP) and respiration (R). Light and dark bottle experiments were performed on sections of blade and stipe previously exposed to both weathered and unweathered IFO (UO and WO) and diesel (UD and WD). All treatments reduced both blade and stipe NP and NP:R ratios relative to the controls. Weathered diesel caused the most dramatic results, reducing blade and stipe NP to 0% and < 25% of the controls, respectively. Both oil type and oil type/weathering interaction significantly reduced NP and NP:R ratios (WD < UD ≤ WO < UO). Chemical analysis showed weathered diesel contains larger portions of light-PAH fractions than unweathered diesel and both weathered and unweathered IFO. These lighter fractions are effective solvents for chlorophyll and other pigments, supporting the observations of increased bleaching and reduced photosynthesis. The experiments showed that Nereocystis luetkeana is sensitive to PAHs. Diesel fuel, especially when weathered, may present a more serious problem to marine macroalgae than previously thought

  13. Long photoperiods sustain high pH in Arctic kelp forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria; Sanz-Martin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Concern on the impacts of ocean acidification on calcifiers, such as bivalves, sea urchins, and foraminifers, has led to efforts to understand the controls on pH in their habitats, which include kelp forests and seagrass meadows. The metabolism of these habitats can lead to diel fluctuation in pH...... with increases during the day and declines at night, suggesting no net effect on pH at time scales longer than daily. We examined the capacity of subarctic and Arctic kelps to up-regulate pH in situ and experimentally tested the role of photoperiod in determining the capacity of Arctic macrophytes to up......-regulate pH. Field observations at photoperiods of 15 and 24 hours in Greenland com- bined with experimental manipulations of photoperiod show that photoperiods longer than 21 hours, characteristic of Arctic summers, are conducive to sustained up-regulation of pH by kelp photosynthesis. We report a gradual...

  14. Constipation and Herbal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio eIizuka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity.This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs, Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine.

  15. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  16. A swath across the great divide: Kelp forests across the Samalga Pass biogeographic break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Brenda H.; Edwards, Matthew S.; Bland, Aaron; Metzger, Jacob; Ravelo, Alexandra; Traiger, Sarah; Weitzman, Ben P.

    2017-01-01

    Biogeographic breaks are often described as locations where a large number of species reach their geographic range limits. Samalga Pass, in the eastern Aleutian Archipelago, is a known biogeographic break for the spatial distribution of several species of offshore-pelagic communities, including numerous species of cold-water corals, zooplankton, fish, marine mammals, and seabirds. However, it remains unclear whether Samalga Pass also serves as a biogeographic break for nearshore benthic communities. The occurrence of biogeographic breaks across multiple habitats has not often been described. In this study, we examined if the biogeographic break for offshore-pelagic communities applies to nearshore kelp forests. To examine whether Samalga Pass serves as a biogeographic break for kelp forest communities, this study compared abundance, biomass and percent bottom cover of species associated with kelp forests on either side of the pass. We observed marked differences in kelp forest community structure, with some species reaching their geographic range limits on the opposing sides of the pass. In particular, the habitat-forming kelp Nereocystis luetkeana, and the predatory sea stars Pycnopodia helianthoides and Orthasterias koehleri all occurred on the eastern side of Samalga Pass but were not observed west of the pass. In contrast, the sea star Leptasterias camtschatica dispar was observed only on the western side of the pass. We also observed differences in overall abundance and biomass of numerous associated fish, invertebrate and macroalgal species on opposing sides of the pass. We conclude that Samalga Pass is important biogeographic break for kelp forest communities in the Aleutian Archipelago and may demark the geographic range limits of several ecologically important species.

  17. The Use of Herbal Medicine in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Suryawati, Suryawati; Suardi, Hijra Novia

    2015-01-01

    The herbal medicine has been widely used in children for the treatment of several symptoms and the prevention of diseases before accessing the hospital for professionals help. There are 3 kinds of marketed herbal medicine including empirical based herbal medicine (jamu), standardized herbal medicine (obat herbal terstandar) and clininically tested herbal medicine (fitofarmaka). This study aimed to investigate the utilization of the marketed herbal medicine along with non marketed ones which w...

  18. Ensuring the Quality of the New Fruit and Berry Marmalade by Adding Kelp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Nepochatykh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of a new method for the production of fruit and berry marmalade, which is adding kelp to the traditional recipe of fruit and berry marmalade. The use of this additive is scientifically grounded in the amount of 5 %. This can improve the quality of fruit and berry marmalade, as well as update its assortment. Adding kelp to marmalade increases the content of iodine in it by 7.95 %, phosphorus – by 2.15 %, magnesium – by 8.5 %, potassium – by 48.5 %, iron – by 0.03 %, vitamin PP – by 0.015 %.

  19. An Evaluation of Significance of Herbal Acupuncture on Treating Limb Impediment Among the Children with Development Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huh Young-Jin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to establish a standard and classify suitability in the treatment of limb impediment among the children with development disabilities using bee venom and eight principles herbal acupuncture. Methods : 10 patients with pediatric development disabilities with limb impediment as the main symptoms were chosen in this study. Bee venom herbal acupuncture and eight principles herbal acupuncture treatments were rendered and evaluated responses as well as pursuing most proper treatment methods. Results : 1. Bee venom herbal acupuncture showed a significant effects when used as supplement treatment technique for the children with partial movement, but insignificant for the children whom were unable to move. 2. Bee venom was effective for severe limb impediment and limb asthenia, whileas eight principles herbal acupuncture effective for mild limb impediment and spasticity. 3. Bee venom herbal acupuncture used in conjunction with eight principles herbal acupuncture for treating limb impediment among the children with development disabilities showed general improvement by intensifying muscular strength.

  20. Nephrotoxicity and Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Xie, Yun; Guo, Maojuan; Rosner, Mitchell H; Yang, Hongtao; Ronco, Claudio

    2018-04-03

    Chinese herbal medicine has been practiced for the prevention, treatment, and cure of diseases for thousands of years. Herbal medicine involves the use of natural compounds, which have relatively complex active ingredients with varying degrees of side effects. Some of these herbal medicines are known to cause nephrotoxicity, which can be overlooked by physicians and patients due to the belief that herbal medications are innocuous. Some of the nephrotoxic components from herbs are aristolochic acids and other plant alkaloids. In addition, anthraquinones, flavonoids, and glycosides from herbs also are known to cause kidney toxicity. The kidney manifestations of nephrotoxicity associated with herbal medicine include acute kidney injury, CKD, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis, Fanconi syndrome, and urothelial carcinoma. Several factors contribute to the nephrotoxicity of herbal medicines, including the intrinsic toxicity of herbs, incorrect processing or storage, adulteration, contamination by heavy metals, incorrect dosing, and interactions between herbal medicines and medications. The exact incidence of kidney injury due to nephrotoxic herbal medicine is not known. However, clinicians should consider herbal medicine use in patients with unexplained AKI or progressive CKD. In addition, exposure to herbal medicine containing aristolochic acid may increase risk for future uroepithelial cancers, and patients require appropriate postexposure screening. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Stability of strong species interactions resist the synergistic effects of local and global pollution in kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Falkenberg

    Full Text Available Foundation species, such as kelp, exert disproportionately strong community effects and persist, in part, by dominating taxa that inhibit their regeneration. Human activities which benefit their competitors, however, may reduce stability of communities, increasing the probability of phase-shifts. We tested whether a foundation species (kelp would continue to inhibit a key competitor (turf-forming algae under moderately increased local (nutrient and near-future forecasted global pollution (CO(2. Our results reveal that in the absence of kelp, local and global pollutants combined to cause the greatest cover and mass of turfs, a synergistic response whereby turfs increased more than would be predicted by adding the independent effects of treatments (kelp absence, elevated nutrients, forecasted CO(2. The positive effects of nutrient and CO(2 enrichment on turfs were, however, inhibited by the presence of kelp, indicating the competitive effect of kelp was stronger than synergistic effects of moderate enrichment of local and global pollutants. Quantification of physicochemical parameters within experimental mesocosms suggests turf inhibition was likely due to an effect of kelp on physical (i.e. shading rather than chemical conditions. Such results indicate that while forecasted climates may increase the probability of phase-shifts, maintenance of intact populations of foundation species could enable the continued strength of interactions and persistence of communities.

  2. 78 FR 13776 - National Organic Program: Notice of Policies Addressing Kelp, Seeds and Planting Stock, Livestock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Stock, Livestock Feed, and Responding to Pesticide Residue Testing AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... documents are entitled as follows: ``The Use of Kelp in Organic Livestock Feed (NOP 5027); Responding to... Minerals for Organic Livestock Feed (NOP 5030)''. These final guidance and instruction documents are...

  3. Connectivity of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among estuaries and open coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Melinda A

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats.

  4. Critical discussion : virtue epistemology and extended cognition: a reply to Kelp and Greco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaesen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Elsewhere, I have challenged virtue epistemology and argued that it doesn’t square with mundane cases of extended cognition. Kelp (forthcoming, this journal) and Greco (forthcoming) have responded to my charges, the former by questioning the force of my argument, the latter by developing a new

  5. Kelp gulls prey on the eyes of juvenile Cape fur seals in Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kelp gull Larus dominicanus is an abundant and highly successful avian predator and scavenger that breeds along the coastline in the Southern Hemisphere, ranging from Antarctica to the tropics. On account of its dietary breadth, wide-ranging foraging strategies, and acclimation to modified landscapes, this species ...

  6. Kelp forest monitoring 1993 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, D.; Walder, R.; Gorodezky, L.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1993-06-01

    The 1993 results of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algea, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using Sea Data batheothermographs, and HOBOTEMP temperature loggers. Temperature loggers were installed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artifical recruitment modules at nine sites. In 1993, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocysts pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. The 13 sites with kelp forests consisted of 10 mature and three young kelp forests. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins. Sea urchins wasting syndrome appears to have caused mass mortality of purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus, at two Santa Barbara Island sites.

  7. Spatially variable synergistic effects of disturbance and additional nutrients on kelp recruitment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Paul E; Keough, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the impact of multiple stressors on ecosystems is of pronounced importance, particularly when one or more of those stressors is anthropogenic. Here we investigated the role of physical disturbance and increased nutrients on reefs dominated by the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata. We combined experimental kelp canopy removals and additional nutrient at three different locations in a large embayment in temperate southeastern Australia. Over the following winter recruitment season, Ecklonia recruitment was unaffected by increased nutrients alone, but tripled at all sites where the canopy had been removed. At one site, the combination of disturbance and increased nutrients resulted in more than four times the recruitment of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida. Six months after disturbance, the proliferation of the Undaria canopy in the canopy-removal and nutrient-addition treatment negatively influenced the recovery of the native kelp Ecklonia. Given the otherwise competitive dominance of adult Ecklonia, this provides a mechanism whereby Undaria could maintain open space for the following recruitment season. This interplay between disturbance, nutrients and the response of native and invasive species makes a compelling case for how a combination of factors can influence species dynamics.

  8. Variation in blade morphology of the kelp Eisenia arborea : incipient speciation due to local water motion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberson, L.M.; Coyer, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The southern sea palm kelp Eisenia arborea produces wide, bullate (bumpy) blades in low-flow areas, whereas in adjacent high-flow areas blades are flat and narrow. Here we determine if morphological differences in these 2 closely associated populations are correlated with physical factors in the

  9. Long photoperiods sustain high pH in Arctic kelp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria; Sanz-Martin, Marina; Hendriks, Iris E; Thyrring, Jakob; Carstensen, Jacob; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Duarte, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Concern on the impacts of ocean acidification on calcifiers, such as bivalves, sea urchins, and foraminifers, has led to efforts to understand the controls on pH in their habitats, which include kelp forests and seagrass meadows. The metabolism of these habitats can lead to diel fluctuation in pH with increases during the day and declines at night, suggesting no net effect on pH at time scales longer than daily. We examined the capacity of subarctic and Arctic kelps to up-regulate pH in situ and experimentally tested the role of photoperiod in determining the capacity of Arctic macrophytes to up-regulate pH. Field observations at photoperiods of 15 and 24 hours in Greenland combined with experimental manipulations of photoperiod show that photoperiods longer than 21 hours, characteristic of Arctic summers, are conducive to sustained up-regulation of pH by kelp photosynthesis. We report a gradual increase in pH of 0.15 units and a parallel decline in pCO 2 of 100 parts per million over a 10-day period in an Arctic kelp forest over midsummer, with ample scope for continued pH increase during the months of continuous daylight. Experimental increase in CO 2 concentration further stimulated the capacity of macrophytes to deplete CO 2 and increase pH. We conclude that long photoperiods in Arctic summers support sustained up-regulation of pH in kelp forests, with potential benefits for calcifiers, and propose that this mechanism may increase with the projected expansion of Arctic vegetation in response to warming and loss of sea ice.

  10. Digital images of color-infrared photographic slides of kelp canopies taken during aerial surveys in 1999 as part of the California Coastal Kelp Resources project (NODC Accession 0002429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dynamic and sometimes vulnerable nature of the California coastal kelp resource, critical as habitat and food for hundreds of related species, required the...

  11. Digital images of color-infrared photographic slides of kelp canopies taken during aerial surveys in August 2000 as part of the California Coastal Kelp Resources Project (NODC Accession 0036513)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dynamic and sometimes vulnerable nature of the California coastal kelp resource, critical as habitat and food for hundreds of related species, required the...

  12. Intersection of inflammation and herbal medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-12-01

    Herbal remedies and dietary supplements have become an important area of research and clinical practice in orthopaedics and rheumatology. Understanding the risks and benefits of using herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatic diseases, and musculoskeletal complaints is a key priority of physicians and their patients. This review discusses the latest advances in the use of herbal medicines for treating osteoarthritis (OA) by focusing on the most significant trends and developments. This paper sets the scene by providing a brief introduction to ethnopharmacology, Ayurvedic medicine, and nutrigenomics before discussing the scientific and mechanistic rationale for targeting inflammatory signalling pathways in OA by use of herbal medicines. Special attention is drawn to the conceptual and practical difficulties associated with translating data from in-vitro experiments to in-vivo studies. Issues relating to the low bioavailability of active ingredients in herbal medicines are discussed, as also is the need for large-scale, randomized clinical trials.

  13. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  15. Trophic significance of the kelp Laminaria digitata (Lamour.) for the associated food web: a between-sites comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed at establishing the trophic significance of the kelp Laminaria digitata for consumers inhabiting two rocky shores of Northern Brittany (France), displaying contrasted ecological conditions. The general trophic structure did not vary between these two sites, with a wide diversity of filter-feeders and predators, and only 14% of the species sampled belonging to the grazers' trophic group. The diversity of food sources fueling the food web appeared also similar. The food webs comprised four trophic levels and the prevalence of omnivory appeared relatively low compared to previous studies in the same area. Conversely, to the food web structure, which did not differ, the biochemical composition of L. digitata differed between the two sites, and was correlated to a larger diversity of grazers feeding on this kelp in sheltered conditions. This indicated that the spatial variability occurring in the nutritive value of L. digitata is likely to deeply affect the functioning of kelp-associated food webs. The contribution of L. digitata-derived organic matter to the diet of filter-feeders inhabiting these two environments was assessed using the mixing model Isosource, which showed the higher contribution of kelp matter in sheltered conditions. These results highlight the spatial variability that may occur in the functioning of kelp-associated food webs. Moreover, this suggests that hydrodynamics is likely to control the availability of kelp-derived organic matter to local filter-feeders, probably through an increase of detritus export in exposed areas.

  16. Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-08-01

    The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Stability and change in kelp forest habitats at San Nicolas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Michael C.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2018-01-01

    Kelp forest communities are highly variable over space and time. Despite this complexity it has been suggested that kelp forest communities can be classified into one of 2 states: kelp dominated or sea urchin dominated. It has been further hypothesized that these represent “alternate stable states” because a site can remain in either of these states for decades before some perturbation causes a rapid shift to the other state. Our research group has maintained a subtidal community monitoring program for 38 years at San Nicolas Island consisting of twice-annual scuba-based surveys at 6 sites distributed within 4 regions around the island. Three types of perturbations are thought to be relevant to subtidal community dynamics at San Nicolas: (1) physical disturbances in the form of major storm and El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events; (2) invertebrate diseases, which periodically decimate urchin populations; and (3) the reintroduction and subsequent increase of sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). These 3 perturbations differ in spatial and temporal specificity; physical disturbances and disease outbreaks occur periodically and could affect all 4 regions, while sea otter predation has been concentrated primarily at the West End sites over the last 15 years. The different types of perturbations and the duration of the time series at the kelp forests at San Nicolas make the data set ideal for testing the “alternate stable state” hypothesis. We use nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) to examine spatial and temporal patterns of community similarity at the 4 regions. In particular, we evaluate support for the existence of stable states, which are represented on NMDS plots as distinct spatial clusters. Community dynamics at each site approximated a biased random walk in NMDS space, with one or more basins of attraction and occasional jumps between basins. We found evidence for alternative stable states at some sites, and we show that transitions from one

  18. Using Online Citizen Science to Assess Giant Kelp Abundances Across the Globe with Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J.; Cavanaugh, K. C.; Haupt, A. J.; Trouille, L.; Rosenthal, I.; Bell, T. W.; Rassweiler, A.; Pérez-Matus, A.; Assis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Global scale long-term data sets that document the patterns and variability of human impacts on marine ecosystems are rare. This lack is particularly glaring for underwater species - even moreso for ecologically important ones. Here we demonstrate how online Citizen Science combined with Landsat satellite imagery can help build a picture of change in the dynamics of giant kelp, an important coastal foundation species around the globe, from the 1984 to the present. Giant kelp canopy is visible from Landsat images, but these images defy easy machine classification. To get useful data, images must be processed by hand. While academic researchers have applied this method successfully at sub-regional scales, unlocking the value of the full global dataset has not been possible until given the massive effort required. Here we present Floating Forests (http://floatingforests.org), an international collaboration between kelp forest researchers and the citizen science organization Zooniverse. Floating Forests provides an interface that allows citizen scientists to identify canopy cover of giant kelp on Landsat images, enabling us to scale up the dataset to the globe. We discuss lessons learned from the initial version of the project launched in 2014, a prototype of an image processing pipeline to bring Landsat imagery to citizen science platforms, methods of assessing accuracy of citizen scientists, and preliminary data from our relaunch of the project. Through this project we have developed generalizable tools to facilitate citizen science-based analysis of Landsat and other satellite and aerial imagery. We hope that this create a powerful dataset to unlock our understanding of how global change has altered these critically important species in the sea.

  19. Host specificity and growth of kelp gametophytes symbiotic with filamentous red algae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Charlene B.; Garbary, David J.; Kim, Kwang Young; Chiasson, David M.

    2004-02-01

    Kelp gametophytes were previously observed in nature living endophytically in red algal cell walls. Here we examine the interactions of two kelp species and six red algae in culture. Gametophytes of Nereocystis luetkeana (Mertens) Postels et Ruprecht became endophytic in the cell walls of Griffithsia pacifica Kylin and Antithamnion defectum Kylin, and grew epiphytically in high abundance on G. japonica Okamura and Aglaothamnion oosumiense Itono. Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville from the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia became endophytic in Aglaothamnion oosumiense, Antithamnion defectum, Callithamnion sp., G. japonica, G. pacifica, and Pleonosporium abysicola Gardner, all from the Pacific Ocean. Some cultures were treated with phloroglucinol before infection to thicken the cell walls. The endophytic gametophytes were smaller and grew more slowly than gametophytes epiphytic on the same host. N. luetkeana failed to become endophytic in some of the potential hosts, and this may reflect host specificity, or culture artifacts. This work improves our understanding of the process of infection of red algae by kelp gametophytes, and broadens our knowledge of host specificity in endophytic symbioses.

  20. Novel ssDNA Viruses Detected in the Virome of Bleached, Habitat-Forming Kelp Ecklonia radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas T. Beattie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kelp forests provide essential habitats for organisms in temperate rocky shores. Loss of kelp forests has occurred over large areas in a number of temperate regions, including in Australia, where the dominant kelp Ecklonia radiata has been lost from substantial areas of the shoreline. Loss of E. radiata has been associated with environmental stressors, including increased temperature and anthropogenic contaminants, as well as biological factors, such as herbivory. Disease may also play a role, but there is little information on the role of disease in the loss of kelp from coastal ecosystems or on the potential role of pathogenic microorganisms, such as viruses. E. radiata across much of its distribution in Australia can develop a “bleached” phenotype, which may be a disease. To investigate whether the phenotype was associated with a potential viral agent, we shotgun sequenced viral particles that were isolated from kelp with normal (healthy and bleached phenotypes. Each virome consisted of ~380,000 reads, of which ~25% were similar to known viruses. All samples were dominated by bacteriophages, but novel ssDNA virus sequences were detected that were almost exclusively in viromes from the bleached kelp phenotype. These ssDNA viruses are covered by 11 contigs that contained complete capsids and characteristic rep genes that were 30–60% similar to those of circular, Rep-encoding ssDNA viruses (CRESS-DNA viruses. CRESS-DNA viruses have not previously been described from macroalgae, and the rep genes were similar to CRESS-DNA viruses from marine water samples, snails, crabs, anemones, but also dragonflies. This raises the interesting possibility that the kelp could be a vector of the CRESS-DNA viruses to other organisms that are associated with the bleached state.

  1. Importance of kelp-derived organic carbon to the scallop Chlamys farreri in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Gao, Fei; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Bivalves and seaweeds are important cleaners that are widely used in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems. A beneficial relationship between seaweed and bivalve in the seaweed-based IMTA system has been confirmed, but the trophic importance of seaweed-derived particulate organic materials to the co-cultured bivalve is still unclear. We evaluated the trophic importance of the kelp Saccharina japonica to the co-cultured scallop Chlamys farreri in a typical IMTA farm in Sungo Bay (Weihai, North China). The dynamics of detritus carbon in the water were monitored during the culturing period. The proportion of kelp-derived organic matter in the diet of the co-cultured scallop was assessed via the stable carbon isotope method. Results showed that the detritus carbon in the water ranged from 75.52 to 265.19 μg/L, which was 25.6% to 73.8% of total particulate organic carbon (TPOC) during the study period. The amount of detritus carbon and its proportion in the TPOC changed throughout the culture cycle of the kelp. Stable carbon isotope analysis showed that the cultured scallop obtained 14.1% to 42.8% of its tissue carbon from the kelp, and that the percentages were closely correlated with the proportion of detritus carbon in the water ( F =0.993, P= 0.003). Evaluation showed that for 17 000 tons (wet weight) of annual scallop production, the kelp contributed about 139.3 tons of carbon (535.8 tons of dry mass). This confirms that cultured kelp plays a similar trophic role in IMTA systems as it does in a natural kelp bed. It is a major contributor to the detritus pool and supplies a vital food source to filter-feeding scallops in the IMTA system, especially during winter and early spring when phytoplankton are scarce.

  2. Wave disturbance overwhelms top-down and bottom-up control of primary production in California kelp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C; Rassweiler, Andrew; Carr, Mark H; Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Malone, Daniel P; Siegel, David A

    2011-11-01

    We took advantage of regional differences in environmental forcing and consumer abundance to examine the relative importance of nutrient availability (bottom-up), grazing pressure (top-down), and storm waves (disturbance) in determining the standing biomass and net primary production (NPP) of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in central and southern California. Using a nine-year data set collected from 17 sites we show that, despite high densities of sea urchin grazers and prolonged periods of low nutrient availability in southern California, NPP by giant kelp was twice that of central California where nutrient concentrations were consistently high and sea urchins were nearly absent due to predation by sea otters. Waves associated with winter storms were consistently higher in central California, and the loss of kelp biomass to winter wave disturbance was on average twice that of southern California. These observations suggest that the more intense wave disturbance in central California limited NPP by giant kelp under otherwise favorable conditions. Regional patterns of interannual variation in NPP were similar to those of wave disturbance in that year-to-year variation in disturbance and NPP were both greater in southern California. Our findings provide strong evidence that regional differences in wave disturbance overwhelmed those of nutrient supply and grazing intensity to determine NPP by giant kelp. The important role of disturbance in controlling NPP revealed by our study is likely not unique to giant kelp forests, as vegetation dynamics in many systems are dominated by post-disturbance succession with climax communities being relatively uncommon. The effects of disturbance frequency may be easier to detect in giant kelp because it is fast growing and relatively short lived, with cycles of disturbance and recovery occurring on time scales of years. Much longer data sets (decades to centuries) will likely be needed to properly evaluate the role of

  3. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  4. The Hypoglycemic Effect of the Kelp on Diabetes Mellitus Model Induced by Alloxan in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dan Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic effects and the use of kelp in diabetes mellitus (DM model rats induced by alloxan were investigated. Sixty healthy male rats were used to establish DM models by injecting alloxan intraperitoneally. Kelp powder was added to the general forage for the rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG were determined by an automatic blood glucose device. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was applied to determine the serum levels of insulin. The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA were measured by thiobarbituric acid assay and nitric oxide (NO by nitrate reductase assay. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD were determined by xanthinoxidase assay and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px by chemical colorimetry. The shape and structure of islet cells were observed with Hematine-Eosin staining, and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in islet cells were detected by immunohistochemical assay. The results showed that the serum levels of insulin after treatment with kelp powder increased significantly compared to those in the DM-model group, while the FBG in the medium-high dose treated groups decreased significantly compared to those in the DM-model group (P < 0.05. The levels of MDA and NO in the kelp powder groups were lower than those in the DM-model group, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those in the DM-model group, of which a significant difference existed between the medium-high dose treated groups and the DM-model group (P < 0.05. The shape and structure of islet cells improved with the up-expressing SOD and down-expressing iNOS in the medium-high dose treated groups compared to those in the DM-model group (P < 0.05. There were no significant differences between the medium and high dose treated groups, all above indexes (P > 0.05. It is suggested that kelp might aid recovery of the the islet cell secreting function and reduce the level of FBG by an

  5. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  6. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  7. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: Actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf eTeschke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  8. Characterisation of phenolics in Flor-Essence--a compound herbal product and its contributing herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ammar; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Harris, Cory; Asim, Muhammad; Tamayo, Carmen; Sit, Summer; Arnason, John Thor

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available herbal mixture FE, a proprietary natural health product manufactured by Flora Manufacturing and Distributing Ltd (Flora), is a unique North American traditional herbal product. FE is a chemically complex mixture of eight herbs and has not been subjected to phytochemical analysis. To develop analytical methods to undertake detailed phytochemical analyses of FE, and its eight contributing herbs, including burdock (Arctium lappa L.), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.), Turkish rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), slippery elm Muhl. (Ulmus rubra), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus L.) and kelp (Laminaria digitata Lmx.). The identification was undertaken by a combination of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass selective detection (RP-HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSD) analysis and phenolics metabolomic library matching. New separation methods facilitated the identification of 43 markers in the individual herbs which constitute FE. Sixteen markers could be identified in FE originating from four contributing herbs including four caffeoyl quinic acids, three dicaffeoyl quinic acids and two caffeic acid derivatives from A. lappa, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, five apigenin glycosides and apigenin from R. acetocella and N. officinale and sissostrin from T. pretense. A validated method for quantitative determination of three markers is reported with good intraday, interday and interoperator repeatability using a reliable alcohol based extraction technique. FE and its contributing herbs predominantly contain phenolics. This methodology can be applied to further develop full-scale validation of this product.

  9. Environmental controls on spatial patterns in the long-term persistence of giant kelp in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary Alida; Cavanaugh, Kyle C.; Bell, Tom W.; Raimondi, Peter T.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Drake, Patrick T.; Erikson, Li H.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2016-01-01

    As marine management is moving towards the practice of protecting static areas, it is 44 important to make sure protected areas capture and protect persistent populations. Rocky reefs in 45 many temperate areas worldwide serve as habitat for canopy forming macroalgae and these 46 structure forming species of kelps (order Laminariales) often serve as important habitat for a great 47 diversity of species. Macrocystis pyrifera is the most common canopy forming kelp species found 48 along the coast of California but the distribution and abundance of M. pyrifera varies in space and 49 time. The purpose of this study is to determine what environmental parameters are correlated with 50 the spatial and temporal persistence of M. pyrifera along the central coast of California and how 51 well those environmental parameters can be used to predict areas where M. pyrifera is more likely 52 to persist. Nine environmental variables considered in this study included depth of the seafloor, 53 structure of the rocky reef, proportion of rocky reef, size of kelp patch, biomass of kelp within a 54 patch, distance from the edge of a kelp patch, sea surface temperature, wave orbital velocities, and 55 population connectivity of individual kelp patches. Using a generalized linear mixed effects model 56 (GLMM), the persistence of M. pyrifera was significantly associated with seven of the nine 57 variables considered: depth, complexity of the rocky reef, proportion of rock, patch biomass, 58 distance from the edge of a patch, population connectivity, and wave-orbital velocities. These 59 seven environmental variables were then used to predict the persistence of kelp across the central 60 coast and these predictions were compared to a reserved dataset of M. pyrifera persistence, which 61 was not used in the creation of the GLMM. The environmental variables were shown to accurately 62 predict the persistence of M. pyrifera within the central coast of California (r = 0.71, P<0.001). 63 Because

  10. Kelp as a bioindicator: does it matter which part of 5 m long plant is used for metal analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gray, Matt; Shukla, Tara; Shukla, Sheila; Burke, Sean

    2007-05-01

    Kelp may be useful as a bioindicator because they are primary producers that are eaten by higher trophic level organisms, including people and livestock. Often when kelp or other algae species are used as bioindicators, the whole organism is homogenized. However, some kelp can be over 25 m long from their holdfast to the tip of the blade, making it important to understand how contaminant levels vary throughout the plant. We compared the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in five different parts of the kelp Alaria nana to examine the variability of metal distribution. To be useful as a bioindicator, it is critical to know whether levels are constant throughout the kelp, or which part is the highest accumulator. Kelp were collected on Adak Island in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska from the Adak Harbor and Clam Cove, which opens onto the Bering Sea. In addition to determining if the levels differ in different parts of the kelp, we wanted to determine whether there were locational or size-related differences. Regression models indicated that between 14% and 43% of the variation in the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, manganese, mercury, and selenium was explained by total length, part of the plant, and location (but not for lead). The main contributors to variability were length (for arsenic and selenium), location (mercury), and part of the plant (for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and manganese). The higher levels of selenium occurred at Clam Cove, while mercury was higher at the harbor. Where there was a significant difference among parts, the holdfast had the highest levels, although the differences were not great. These data indicate that consistency should be applied in selecting the part of kelp (and the length) to be used as a bioindicator. While any part of Alaria could be collected for some metals, for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and manganese a conversion should be made among parts. In the Aleutians the holdfast can be

  11. Diversity of kelp holdfast-associated fauna in an Arctic fjord - inconsistent responses to glacial mineral sedimentation across different taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Kelp forests are complex underwater habitats that support diverse assemblages of animals ranging from sessile filter feeding invertebrates to fishes and marine mammals. In this study, the diversity of invertebrate fauna associated with kelp holdfasts was surveyed in a high Arctic glacial fjord (76 N, Hornsund, Svalbard). The effects of algal host identity (three kelp species: Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta), depth (5 and 10 m) and glacier-derived disturbance (three sites with varying levels of mineral sedimentation) on faunal species richness and composition were studied based on 239 collected algal holdfasts. The species pool was mostly made up by three taxa: colonial Bryozoa and Hydrozoa, and Polychaeta. While the all-taxa species richness did not differ between depths, algal hosts and sites, the patterns varied when the two colonial sessile filter-feeding taxa were analysed alone (Hydrozoa and Bryozoa). The Hydrozoa sample species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were the highest at undisturbed sites, whereas Bryozoa species richness was higher in sediment-impacted localities, indicating relative insensitivity of this phylum to the increased level of mineral suspension in the water column. The average taxonomic distinctness of Bryozoa did not vary between sites. The species composition of kelp-associated fauna varied between sites and depths for the whole community and the most dominant taxa (Bryozoa, Hydrozoa). The high load of inorganic suspension and sedimentation did not cause pauperization of kelp holdfast-associated fauna but instead triggered the changes in species composition and shifts between dominant taxonomic groups.

  12. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: Sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  13. Future development of global regulations of Chinese herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tai-Ping; Deal, Greer; Koo, Hoi-Lun; Rees, Daryl; Sun, He; Chen, Shaw; Dou, Jin-Hui; Makarov, Valery G; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Shikov, Alexander N; Kim, Yeong Shik; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chang, Yuan Shiun; Jia, William; Dias, Alberto; Wong, Vivian Chi-Woon; Chan, Kelvin

    2012-04-10

    GP-TCM is the first EU-funded Coordination Action consortium dedicated to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. One of the key deliverables of the Work Package 7 in GP-TCM was to investigate information of the existing requirements for registration of TCM products listed by global regulatory bodies. The paper aims to collate data and draw comparison of these regulations. Case studies are also presented to illustrate the problems involved in registering TCM products in different regions worldwide. A collaborative network task force was established during the early stage of the GP-TCM project and operated through exchanges, teleconferences and focused discussions at annual meetings. The task force involved coordinators, academics who are actively involved with R&D of Chinese herbal medicines, experts on monographic standards of Chinese materia medica, representatives from regulatory agencies, experts from industries in marketing Chinese medicines/herbal medicines and natural products. The co-ordinators took turns to chair teleconferences, led discussions on specific issues at AGM discussion sessions, at joint workshops with other work-packages such as WP1 (quality issues), WP3 (toxicology issues) and WP6 (clinical trial issues). Collectively the authors were responsible for collating discussion outcomes and updating written information. A global overview of regulations on herbal registration has been compiled during the three years of the consortium. The regulatory requirements for registration of herbal products in the EU and China were compared, and this is extended to other regions/countries: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. A wide variation of the regulations for the categories of herbal products exists: food (functional food, novel foods, dietary food for special medical purpose, foods for particular nutritional use, food supplement); cosmetic, traditional herbal medicine products; herbal

  14. Chinese herbal medicines for hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, X X; Yuan, Y; Liu, Y; Wu, T X; Han, S

    2007-04-18

    Hyperthyroidism is a disease in which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones circulate in the blood. Patients, among other things suffer from tachycardia, warm moist skin and raised body temperature. The treatment of hyperthyroidism includes symptom relief and therapy with antithyroid medications, radioiodine and thyroidectomy. Medicinal herbs are used alone or in combination with antithyroid agents to treat hyperthyroidism in China and some other countries. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines for treating hyperthyroidism. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database. Randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of Chinese herbal medicines alone with Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine or both. Three authors interviewed authors of all potentially relevant studies by telephone to verify randomisation procedures. One author entered data into a data extraction form and another author verified the results of this procedure. Thirteen relevant trials with 1770 participants were included. All of them were of low quality. Fifty-two studies still need to be assessed because the original authors could not be interviewed. None of these trials analysed mortality, health related quality of life, economic outcomes or compliance. Compared to antithyroid drugs alone the results showed that Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs may offer benefits in lowering relapse rates, reducing the incidence of adverse effects, relieving symptoms, improving thyroid antibody status and thyroid function. Two trials investigated Chinese herbal medicine versus radioiodine and reported improvements in anxiety, tachycardia and heat intolerance. However, thyroid function - with the exception of restored thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - was not significantly altered. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicines added to other routine

  15. A billion cups: The diversity, traditional uses, safety issues and potential of Chinese herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Yang, Jin-Chao; Cunningham, Anthony B; Towns, Alexandra Maria; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Hua-Ying; Li, Jian-Wen; Yang, Xue-Fei

    2018-08-10

    Herbal teas have long been consumed by Chinese people for preventive and/or therapeutic healthcare. Although herbal teas are widely consumed by many cultural groups in different regions of China, no thorough review has been undertaken to assess the diversity of the country's herbal tea usage. This literature review, complemented by a quantitative survey in an important tea market in Kunming, begins to fill this knowledge gap. The study aims to summarize the current knowledge of plant species used as herbal teas by different cultural groups in different regions of China, with a focus on the teas' perceived traditional healthcare functions, related phytochemical/pharmaceutical research, and safety issues. The study involved a comprehensive literature review and a market survey. The literature review was based on published ethnobotanical studies of herbal teas in China. We searched the Web of Science™, ELSEVIER, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the China Science and Technology Journal Database to locate relevant studies (including journal articles, Masters/PhD dissertations and books) that were published before March 2017. A species list was compiled based on the review and supplemented with information retrieved from the Scifinder database (https://scifinder.cas.org) and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010). A Use Value Index was employed for ranking the most cited species. Based on the 29 most cited species, we discussed the current research status in relation to healthcare benefits and safety concerns of herbal teas in China. To better understand the current status of the herbal tea market in China, we also surveyed 136 tea vendors at the Xiongda Tea Market in Kunming. Information gathered from the survey included the species sold, the sale prices and the form of the herbal tea product. The literature identified 759 plant species used as herbal tea in China and the market survey identified an additional 23 species. Most of the species used were

  16. Herbal medicine: biomolecular and clinical aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benzie, Iris F. F; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi

    2011-01-01

    .... With over 3,550 current references, the book highlights the role of herbal medicine in national health care while providing case studies of widely used herbal remedies and their effects on human...

  17. Trophic Cascades Induced by Lobster Fishing Are Not Ubiquitous in Southern California Kelp Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Carla M.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Grant, Laura E.; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and

  18. Effects of sporophyll storage on giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Agardh) bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gully, J.R.; Bottomley, J.P.; Baird, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Agardh) is a US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)-approved west coast marine species for chronic toxicity monitoring and compliance in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The protocol allows field-collected sporophylls to be stored for up to 24 h at 9 to 12 C prior to use. However, the effects of sporophyll storage on the bioassay results have not been fully investigated, particularly with kelp collected from beds south of Point Conception, CA, USA. Therefore, 13 matched-pair reference toxicant bioassays using fresh and stored sporophylls collected from a subtidal kelp bed near Laguna Beach, CA, USA, were performed and compared. The results indicate that a lower percentage of spores germinate and the germ tube lengths are reduced when stored sporophylls are used. The intratest precision of the germination endpoint decreased as evidenced by significant increases in the percent minimum significant difference (%MSD) statistic. The intertest precision also decreased in the germination endpoint as demonstrated by significant increases in the coefficient of variation (CV) values at four effect levels. Conversely, a significant reduction in the CVs was observed in the germ tube length data, possibly as a consequence of the decrease in germ tube length associated with storage. Finally, significant decreases in mean effect concentrations in the germination endpoint in tests using stored sporophylls indicated that storage increased the sensitivity of the spores to the toxic effects of CuCl{sub 2}. The toxicological sensitivity and intratest precision of the germ tube length endpoint were not significantly affected by storage of the sporophylls. The effects of sporophyll storage resulted in a high frequency of invalid tests, lower statistical power, less effective quality assurance standards, and apparent bias in the observed toxicity of CuCl{sub 2}.

  19. Sub-canopy light conditions only allow low annual net productivity of epiphytic algae on kelp Laminaria hyperborea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Nejrup, Lars Brammer; Pedersen, Troels Møller

    2014-01-01

    The stipes of older Laminaria hyperborea individuals are heavily covered by epiphytic assemblages that are dominated by macroalgae, and we hypothesized that the production of these algae may contribute significantly to total primary production of the kelp forest ecosystem. The epiphytic assemblages...... through spring as surface irradiance increased. Annual net productivity was relatively low, ranging from 42 to 96 g DW m-2 seafloor depending on site. We conclude that the net productivity of these macroalgal epiphytes is insignificant relative to that of kelp itself, and that the large observed biomass...

  20. Unmonitored use of herbal medicine by patients with breast cancer: reframing expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Noah; Ben-Arye, Eran; Maimon, Yair; Berger, Raanan

    2017-11-01

    To identify the unmonitored use of herbal medicine by female patients with breast cancer, examining the impact of an integrative physician (IP) consultation on this practice. The files of 269 female patients with breast cancer following an IP consultation were surveyed retrospectively for use of herbal medicine for cancer-related goals. Expectations from the IP consultation and adherence to the IP-guided treatments were examined as well. Among the cohort, 111 (41.3%) reported using herbal medicine for cancer-related goals, unmonitored by their oncology healthcare professional. Factors predicting herbal medicine use were the adoption of dietary changes (odds ratio = 13.6, p herbal medicine than non-users (34.5 vs. 22.8%; p = 0.088), as were those who had consulted with a complementary/alternative medicine practitioner (54.9 vs. 20.8%; p = 0.005). The IP advised 17 patients (15.3%) to stop taking specific herbal products due to safety-related concerns; and 10 patients to take dietary supplements for relief of specific symptoms. Herbal medicine users were less likely than non-users to adhere to the IP-recommended treatment program (34.7 vs. 48.3%; p = 0.037). Unmonitored use of herbal medicine by patients with breast cancer is more frequent among those adopting dietary changes for cancer-related goals. Integrative physicians provide evidence-based guidance on the safe and effective use of herbal products, and reframe patient expectations from cancer-related goals to reducing symptoms and improving quality of life.

  1. Frequency of chimerism in populations of the kelp Lessonia spicata in central Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V González

    Full Text Available Chimerism occurs when two genetically distinct conspecific individuals fuse together generating a single entity. Coalescence and chimerism in red seaweeds has been positively related to an increase in body size, and the consequent reduction in susceptibility to mortality factors, thus increasing survival, reproductive potential and tolerance to stress in contrast to genetically homogeneous organisms. In addition, they showed that a particular pattern of post-fusion growth maintains higher genetic diversity and chimerism in the holdfast but homogenous axes. In Chilean kelps (brown seaweeds, intraorganismal genetic heterogeneity (IGH and holdfast coalescence has been described in previous research, but the extent of chimerism in wild populations and the patterns of distribution of the genetically heterogeneous thallus zone have scarcely been studied. Since kelps are under continuous harvesting, with enormous social, ecological and economic importance, natural chimerism can be considered a priceless in-situ reservoir of natural genetic resources and variability. In this study, we therefore examined the frequency of IGH and chimerism in three harvested populations of Lessonia spicata. We then evaluated whether chimeric wild-type holdfasts show higher genetic diversity than erect axes (stipe and lamina and explored the impact of this on the traditional estimation of genetic diversity at the population level. We found a high frequency of IGH (60-100% and chimerism (33.3-86.7%, varying according to the studied population. We evidenced that chimerism occurs mostly in holdfasts, exhibiting heterogeneous tissues, whereas stipes and lamina were more homogeneous, generating a vertical gradient of allele and genotype abundance as well as divergence, constituting the first time "within- plant" genetic patterns have been reported in kelps. This is very different from the chimeric patterns described in land plants and animals. Finally, we evidenced that IGH

  2. Herbal Medicines: challenges in the modern world. Part 5. status and current directions of complementary and alternative herbal medicine worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enioutina, Elena Yu; Salis, Emma R; Job, Kathleen M; Gubarev, Michael I; Krepkova, Lubov V; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2017-03-01

    Herbal medicine (HM) use is growing worldwide. Single herb preparations, ethnic and modern HM formulations are widely used as adjunct therapies or to improve consumer wellbeing. Areas covered: This final part in the publication series summarizes common tendencies in HM use as adjunct or alternative medicine, education of healthcare professionals and consumers, current and proposed guidelines regulating of production. We discuss potential HM-HM and HM-drug interactions that could lead to severe adverse events in situations where HMs are taken without proper medical professional oversight. Expert commentary: A number of serious problems have arisen with the steady global increase in HM use. HM interaction with conventional drugs (CD) may result in inadequate dosing of CD or adverse reactions; HM-HM interaction within herbal supplements could lead to toxicity of formulations. Inadequate education of clinicians and patients regarding medicinal properties of HMs must be addressed regionally and globally to ensure consumer safety.

  3. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  4. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S D; Johnson, C R; Frusher, S D; Ridgway, K R

    2009-12-29

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans.

  5. Anthropogenic debris in the nests of kelp gulls in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Ryan, Peter G

    2017-01-30

    Anthropogenic debris results in detrimental interactions with many marine species. Several seabirds include debris items in their nests, which can lead to entanglement of chicks and adults, resulting in injury or death. Anthropogenic debris was found in 4-67% of kelp gull Larus dominicanus nests in seven colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa. Nests contained two types of litter: items included in the nest structure during construction (mainly ropes and straps), and regurgitated items (mainly bags and food wrappers) that probably accumulate primarily during the chick-rearing period. Debris used in nest construction was more likely to injure gulls, and was found mainly at coastal sites where there was little natural vegetation for construction. Distance to the nearest urban waste landfill significantly affected the occurrence of debris items in nests, especially dietary-derived items. The amount of debris in kelp gull nests highlights the need for improved debris management in South Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs. PMID:28423368

  7. The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ge, Tongtong; Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin

    2017-07-18

    Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs.

  8. Immobilization of Cold-Active Cellulase from Antarctic Bacterium and Its Use for Kelp Cellulose Ethanol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Bin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization is an effective way to solve the problem associated with the application of cold-active cellulase in industrial processes. In this study, a cold-active cellulase from the Antarctic psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ64 was obtained, immobilized, and analyzed for optimal immobilization conditions. Then it was used in kelp cellulose ethanol fermentation, achieving a higher purity level of kelp cellulose ethanol. The enzymatic activity of this cold-active cellulase was 49.7 U/mL. The optimal immobilization process conditions were as follows: sodium alginate, 30 g/L; calcium chloride, 5 g/L; glutaraldehyde, 0.4%; and cross-linking time, 5 h. Under these conditions, the activity recovery rate was 51.58%. The optimum reaction temperature was at 40 °C, the optimum initial pH was 9.0, and the relative enzyme activity was 58.37% after being recovered seven times. A higher purity level of kelp cellulose ethanol has reached (37.37%. Immobilized cold-active cellulase can effectively hydrolyze the cellulose of kelp residue, which is a valuable component of cellulose bio-ethanol production and will have broad implications in the development of the ethanol industry in China.

  9. Production method and cost of commercial-scale offshore cultivation of kelp in the Faroe Islands using multiple partial harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandorf Bak, Urd; Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Gregersen, Olavur

    2018-01-01

    was conducted. The total cost per kg dw of cultivated S. latissima decreased when the number of possible harvests without re-seeding was increased (from € 36.73 to € 9.27). This work has demonstrated that large-scale kelp cultivation is possible using multiple partial harvesting in the Faroe Islands...

  10. Crude fucoidan content in two North Atlantic kelp species, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata - seasonal variation and impact of environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Janicek, Tina; Manns, Dirk Martin

    2017-01-01

    , the biochemical composition of brown algae displays a seasonal fluctuation driven by environmental factors and endogenous rhythms. To cultivate and harvest kelps with high yields of fucoidans, knowledge is needed on seasonal variation and impact of environmental conditions on the fucoidan content of brown algae....... The relations between the fucoidan content and key environmental factors (irradiance, nutrient availability, salinity and exposure) were examined by sampling natural populations of the common North Atlantic kelps, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata, over a full year at Hanstholm in the North Sea...... an increased content of fucoidan in a cultivation scenario and emphasizes the need for knowledge on performance of local kelp ecotypes....

  11. Diet enriched with mushroom Phellinus linteus extract enhances the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against vibriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Phellinus linteus fed for 30 days was investigated in grouper Epinephelus bruneus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio carchariae; infected and treated fish had a significantly higher percent weight gain and feed efficiency. In groups fed with enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum and V. harveyi the mortality rate declined with a consequent rise in survival rate than with other pathogens. On the other hand, in groups fed with P. linteus enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum, V. harveyi, and V. alginolyticus the cellular and humoral immune responses, such as the alternative complement activity (ACH(50)), serum lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity (PA), phagocytic index (PI) significantly higher than in the control group. The respiratory bursts (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were found significantly enhanced when the groups fed with enriched diet against V. anguillarum and V. harveyi. The results reveal that kelp grouper fed for 30 days with P. linteus enriched diet had higher cellular and humoral immune response and disease protection from vibriosis than the group fed on basal diet with the protection linked to stimulation of immune system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying Physiological, Behavioral and Ecological Consequences of Hypoxic Events in Kelp Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, S. Y.; Beers, J. M.; Woodson, C. B.; Leary, P.; Fringer, O. B.; Goldbogen, J. A.; Micheli, F.; Monismith, S. G.; Somero, G. N.

    2016-02-01

    Rocky reef kelp forests that extend along the coast of central California, like many habitats in upwelling systems, often experience inundations of low dissolved oxygen (DO) or hypoxic waters. These events have the potential to influence the structure and function of coastal ecosystems. The ecological consequences of hypoxia for these systems will be mediated by physiological thresholds and behavioral responses of resident organisms in the context of the spatial and temporal variability of DO, and other potential stressors. Our research focuses on Sebastes (i.e. rockfish) because of their commercial, recreational and ecological importance, high abundance across near shore habitats and the potentially severe impacts of physiological stress due to hypoxia. In the lab, to investigate how hypoxic events physiologically effect rockfish, we exposed young of the year (YOY) of 5 species and two life stages of blue rockfish, S. mystinus (YOY and 1+), to DO concentrations representative of upwelling conditions and measured a suite of whole organisms and tissue level responses including metabolic rate, ventilation, tissue-level metabolism, and blood biochemistry. Results demonstrate species and life stage specific differences in physiological stress under upwelling driven hypoxic conditions and suggest YOY rockfishes may currently be living near their physiological limits. In the laboratory we further explored if physiological impacts result in behavioral consequences by examining the startle response of YOY rockfish, a relative measure of predator avoidance ability, under a range of DO concentrations and exposure durations. To further explore behavioral responses of rockfish to low in DO within the kelp forest we are using two approaches, monitoring the vertical distribution of fish communities across the water column using an acoustic imaging camera (ARIS 3000, Soundmetrics Inc.) and acoustic tagging, with 3-D positioning ability (VPS, VEMCO Inc.), of larger blue rockfish

  13. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim; Abdul Rahim Harun; Azhar Mohamad; Hawa Abdul Aziz; Wan Nazirah Wan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  14. Herbal Wisdom: memory and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Avila

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Within contemporary Western herbal medicine, traditional knowledge and modern science are combined to provide a unique meeting of patient, practitioner and plant. In the Australian context, herbalists have based their practice on knowledge which originates from the traditions of Europe, and has more recently been influenced by traditional medicine from Asia. The combination of these diverse ways of knowing—traditional and modern, Eastern and Western—means herbal practitioners are influenced by ancient philosophy alongside phytochemistry and biomedical sciences. The challenge for herbal medicine today is that faced by all living (as opposed to ossified traditions: how is a practice forged which retains what is valuable from the past while establishing relevance to the 21st century? We illustrate these issues in the context of the conference theme of ‘food for thought’ and consider medicinal plants which are used for the improvement of cognition. We focus on the therapeutic use of common herbs from the Eastern and Western traditions and present the scientific research which shows their ability to facilitate cognitive function and the laying down of memory. We also tell their traditional stories which indicate that these actions have been recognised and utilised for centuries. We go on to demonstrate, via case studies, the clinical application of this knowledge and in particular the importance of ancient practice of synergistic prescribing which occurs when a number of herbs are prescribed together in a formula. Scientific understanding of the basis of this practice is being developed which further complements and validates traditional herbal wisdom.

  15. Effects of superliv® supplementation in feed on some biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore the mechanisms for production performance enhancement effects of Superliv®(Superliv), an Ayurvedic proprietary herbal supplement for livestock and poultry, post peak Shika Brown layers were exposed to the herbal mixture in feed and monitored over 12 weeks for effects on some blood chemistry and egg ...

  16. The variable routes of rafting: stranding dynamics of floating bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) on beaches in the SE Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Boris A; Macaya, Erasmo C; Tala, Fadia; Tellier, Florence; Thiel, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Dispersal on floating seaweeds depends on availability, viability, and trajectories of the rafts. In the southern hemisphere, the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica is one of the most common floating seaweeds, but phylogeographic studies had shown low connectivity between populations from continental Chile, which could be due to limitations in local supply and dispersal of floating kelps. To test this hypothesis, the spatiotemporal dynamics of kelp strandings were examined in four biogeographic districts along the Chilean coast (28°-42°S). We determined the biomass and demography of stranded individuals on 33 beaches for three subsequent years (2013, 2014, 2015) to examine whether rafting is restricted to certain districts and seasons (winter or summer). Stranded kelps were found on all beaches. Most kelps had only one stipe (one individual), although we also frequently found coalesced holdfasts with mature males and females, which would facilitate successful rafting dispersal, gamete release, and reproduction upon arrival. High biomasses of stranded kelps occurred in the northern-central (30°S-33°S) and southernmost districts (37°S-42°S), and lower biomasses in the northernmost (28°S-30°S) and southern-central districts (33°S-37°S). The highest percentages and sizes of epibionts (Lepas spp.), indicative of prolonged floating periods, were found on stranded kelps in the northernmost and southernmost districts. Based on these results, we conclude that rafting dispersal can vary regionally, being more common in the northernmost and southernmost districts, depending on intrinsic (seaweed biology) and extrinsic factors (shore morphology and oceanography) that affect local supply of kelps and regional hydrodynamics. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  17. Kelp gulls, Larus dominicanus (Aves: Laridae, breeding in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the distribution, abundance and density of the Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823, at Keller Peninsula on two occasions during the breeding season of 2007-2008 (once for incubation and once for chick stages and compared our results with previously published data. We present information on the number of eggs, incubation success, and initial development of L. dominicanus chicks in the studied sites. The abundance and density of the species has remained statistically similar in Keller Peninsula over the last 30 years (since 1978-1979. Although the abundance and density were almost unchanged, we recorded alterations in the occupation of the breeding areas by L. dominicanus, mainly the abandonment of breeding sites in the eastern portion of Keller Peninsula. The results of the present study compared with similar previous investigations on the abundance of L. dominicanus indicate that the populations have been in equilibrium over the years.

  18. Herbal medicine: biomolecular and clinical aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benzie, Iris F. F; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi

    2011-01-01

    "Responding to the increased popularity of herbal medicines and other forms of complementary or alternative medicine in countries around the world, this reference reviews and evaluates various safety...

  19. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  20. A REVIEW ON MODIFICATION OF ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN HERBAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Rathod Shobhen; Patel N.M; Patel P.M

    2011-01-01

    As the demand and commercial value of the Herbal Medicines is increasing tremendously, assurance of safety, quality and efficacy of medicinal plants and herbal products is becoming a crucial issue. The need of the hour is to develop a systematic approach and well-designed methodologies for the standardization of herbal raw materials and herbal formulations. Standardization methods should take into consideration all aspects contributing to the quality of the herbal drugs. Herbal Medicines are ...

  1. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  2. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, "advertisement/public relations" was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, "low manpower/seeking business partners" were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers.

  3. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, “advertisement/public relations” was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, “low manpower/seeking business partners” were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers. PMID:26199635

  4. Preanesthetic Assessment of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    in the U.S. in 1995 were echinacea, garlic, goldenseal, ginseng, ginkgo, saw palmetto, ma huang, aloe, Siberian ginseng, and cranberry . Since then, St...should be avoided by patients taking prednisone and in patients with manic- depressive disorders and psychosis (Miller, 1998). Fishman, Catarau, Sachs

  5. CAM and Hepatitis C: A Focus on Herbal Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sophora root), chlorella (a type of algae), black cumin (Nigella sativa) , S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), and thymus ... 184. Prasad AS. Zinc: role in immunity, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation . Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition ...

  6. Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Licorice Root Nettle, Stinging Nettle Oregon Grape Root Parsley Root Pennyroyal Ruta Graveolens Uva Ursi Yohimbe What ... bucha leaves and juniper berries. Uva Ursi and parsley capsules may also have bad side effects. Can ...

  7. Herbal dietary supplements and knowledge of appropriate use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) and Aloe vera (32.2%). Fifty eight (71.6%) out of the 81 respondents on prescription drugs were using it alongside HDS. Respondents with poor, fair and good knowledge of appropriate use of HDS were 69.1%, 27.3% and 3.6% respectively.

  8. Carbon assimilation and transfer through kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is diminished under a warmer ocean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessarrodona, Albert; Moore, Pippa J; Sayer, Martin D J; Smale, Dan A

    2018-06-03

    Global climate change is affecting carbon cycling by driving changes in primary productivity and rates of carbon fixation, release and storage within Earth's vegetated systems. There is, however, limited understanding of how carbon flow between donor and recipient habitats will respond to climatic changes. Macroalgal-dominated habitats, such as kelp forests, are gaining recognition as important carbon donors within coastal carbon cycles, yet rates of carbon assimilation and transfer through these habitats are poorly resolved. Here, we investigated the likely impacts of ocean warming on coastal carbon cycling by quantifying rates of carbon assimilation and transfer in Laminaria hyperborea kelp forests-one of the most extensive coastal vegetated habitat types in the NE Atlantic-along a latitudinal temperature gradient. Kelp forests within warm climatic regimes assimilated, on average, more than three times less carbon and donated less than half the amount of particulate carbon compared to those from cold regimes. These patterns were not related to variability in other environmental parameters. Across their wider geographical distribution, plants exhibited reduced sizes toward their warm-water equatorward range edge, further suggesting that carbon flow is reduced under warmer climates. Overall, we estimated that Laminaria hyperborea forests stored ~11.49 Tg C in living biomass and released particulate carbon at a rate of ~5.71 Tg C year -1 . This estimated flow of carbon was markedly higher than reported values for most other marine and terrestrial vegetated habitat types in Europe. Together, our observations suggest that continued warming will diminish the amount of carbon that is assimilated and transported through temperate kelp forests in NE Atlantic, with potential consequences for the coastal carbon cycle. Our findings underline the need to consider climate-driven changes in the capacity of ecosystems to fix and donate carbon when assessing the impacts of

  9. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  10. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INTO HERBAL MEDICINES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent advances in the Research and development of Herbal Medicines are highlighted and a scheme for R & D work is presented. The need for adequate information (chemical, biological, botanical and so on) on local plants is highlighted. There is also the need to standardize the herbal product, prepare it in an ...

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Constituents in Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous Determination of Seven Constituents in Herbal Prescription Jaeumganghwa-Tang Using HPLC-PDA. CS Seo, JH Kim, HK Shin. Abstract. A simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the quantitative analysis of seven components of the traditional herbal prescription ...

  12. Determination of methanol in Iranian herbal distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Kobra; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Azar-Khiavi, Kamal Razavi; Moghaddam, Zohreh Samie; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard. In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. The methanol concentrations in all samples ranged from 43 to 277 mg/L. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. The maximum concentration was found in an herbal distillate of Mentha piperita (factory E) (277±12), and the minimum in a distillate of Carum carvi (factory B) (42.6 ± 0.5). Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.

  13. Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas.

  14. Concentrations of 99Tc and 137Cs in edible kelps and sea urchin ovaries from the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Iyogi, T.; Takaku, Y.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sekine, T.

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now under the active test using actual spent nuclear fuels. Since the plant will release small amount of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater nearby the plant will possibly increase in future. Since it is important to get background concentration levels of 99 Tc and 137 Cs in marine products from the ocean nearby the plant for assessing the effect to the concentration levels by the plant, the nuclides in edible kelps and sea urchin ovaries from the northern part of Japan (Aomori, Hokkaido and Iwate) were observed. Concentrations of 99 Tc in the kelps were lower than those reported for other non-edible seaweeds (Sargassum thunbergii) in Aomori, and the same level to the reported value of Hizikia fusiformis in Kyushu. 99 Tc concentrations in the urchin ovaries were lower than the detection limit of our method, and concentrations of 137 Cs in them were similar to these in the kelps. It suggested that 99 Tc is not concentrated in sea urchin ovaries. This work was supported by a grant from Aomori prefecture, Japan. (author)

  15. The Kelp Gull as bioindicator of environmental chemicals in the Magellan region. A comparison with other coastal sites in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Muñoz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding seasons 1994/5 and 1995/6 we collected Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus eggs from five locations in central to south Chile to study the contamination with mercury and organochlorine compounds. The sites were Algarrobo, Concepción, Maiquillahue Bay, Doña Sebastiana Island (Chalcao channel at Chiloé and Magdalena Island (Straits of Magellan. We found differences among the sites: Kelp Gull eggs from Chiloé and Algarrobo had the greatest concentrations of mercury (about 170 ng g-1 fresh weight. Residues of DDT were greatest in eggs from Algarrobo and Maiquillahue Bay, those of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls greatest at Algarrobo and Concepción. HCB had highest levels at Concepción. Considering all organochlorines, samples from Algarrobo had the highest concentrations, those from Chiloé the lowest. In consequence we found a geographical pattern from north to south, i.e., from areas with greater to lesser human impact. In comparison with other studies, the levels of environmental chemicals found in Kelp Gulls from Chile are much lower than those known to cause adverse effects on reproductive success.

  16. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  17. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, E.; Akunyili, Dora N.; Ekpo, B.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2006-01-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO 3 .The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies

  18. Integrating biomedical and herbal medicine in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boateng, Millicent Addai; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Turkson, Bernard Kofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past decade there has been growing interest in the use of herbal medicine both in developed and developing countries. Given the high proportion of patients using herbal medicine in Ghana, some health facilities have initiated implementation of herbal medicine as a component...... of their healthcare delivery. However, the extent to which herbal medicine has been integrated in Ghanaian health facilities, how integration is implemented and perceived by different stakeholders has not been documented. The study sought to explore these critical issues at the Kumasi South Hospital (KSH) and outline...... the definition, process and goals of integration were lacking, with respondents sharing different views about the purpose and value of integration of herbal medicine within public health facilities. Key informants were supportive of the initiative. Whilst biomedical health workers perceived the system...

  19. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N; Suryasaputra, C [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1981-04-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 8/ per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10/sup 5/ per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10/sup 3/ per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast.

  20. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Suryasaputra, C.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10 4 and 10 8 per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10 5 per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10 3 per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast. (author)

  1. Ocean acidification and kelp development: Reduced pH has no negative effects on meiospore germination and gametophyte development of Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Pablo P; Hurd, Catriona L; Fernández, Pamela A; Roleda, Michael Y

    2017-06-01

    The absorption of anthropogenic CO 2 by the oceans is causing a reduction in the pH of the surface waters termed ocean acidification (OA). This could have substantial effects on marine coastal environments where fleshy (non-calcareous) macroalgae are dominant primary producers and ecosystem engineers. Few OA studies have focused on the early life stages of large macroalgae such as kelps. This study evaluated the effects of seawater pH on the ontogenic development of meiospores of the native kelp Macrocystis pyrifera and the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida, in south-eastern New Zealand. Meiospores of both kelps were released into four seawater pH treatments (pH T 7.20, extreme OA predicted for 2300; pH T 7.65, OA predicted for 2100; pH T 8.01, ambient pH; and pH T 8.40, pre-industrial pH) and cultured for 15 d. Meiospore germination, germling growth rate, and gametophyte size and sex ratio were monitored and measured. Exposure to reduced pH T (7.20 and 7.65) had positive effects on germling growth rate and gametophyte size in both M. pyrifera and U. pinnatifida, whereas, higher pH T (8.01 and 8.40) reduced the gametophyte size in both kelps. Sex ratio of gametophytes of both kelps was biased toward females under all pH T treatments, except for U. pinnatifida at pH T 7.65. Germling growth rate under OA was significantly higher in M. pyrifera compared to U. pinnatifida but gametophyte development was equal for both kelps under all seawater pH T treatments, indicating that the microscopic stages of the native M. pyrifera and the invasive U. pinnatifida will respond similarly to OA. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability ...

  3. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Murga, L.; Garcia-Alvarez, A.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Williamson, G.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as

  4. Traditional use and safety of herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davyson de L. Moreira

    Full Text Available In the European Union, traditional herbal medicines that are regarded as "acceptably safe, albeit not having a recognized level of efficacy" fit into a special category of drugs ("traditional herbal medicine products" for which requirements of non-clinical and clinical studies are less rigorous. A regulation proposal published by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance (Anvisa defines a similar drug category ("traditional phytotherapeutic products" for registration purposes. Regarding herbal medicines, both agencies seem to be lenient regarding proof of efficacy, and consider long-standing folk use as evidence of safety and a waiver of a thorough toxicological evaluation. Nonetheless, several herbal products and constituents with a long history of folk usage are suspected carcinogenic and/or hepatotoxic. Herbal products have also been shown to inhibit and/or induce drug-metabolizing enzymes. Since herbal medicines are often used in conjunction with conventional drugs, kinetic and clinical interactions are a cause for concern. A demonstration of the safety of herbal medicines for registration purposes should include at least in vitroand in vivogenotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for > 3 months or intermittently for > 6 months, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies (for drugs used by women of childbearing age, and investigation of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  5. Potential risks associated with traditional herbal medicine use in cancer care: A study of Middle Eastern oncology health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Samuels, Noah; Goldstein, Lee Hilary; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Omran, Suha; Schiff, Elad; Charalambous, Haris; Dweikat, Tahani; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Bar-Sela, Gil; Turker, Ibrahim; Hassan, Azza; Hassan, Esmat; Saad, Bashar; Nimri, Omar; Kebudi, Rejin; Silbermann, Michael

    2016-02-15

    The authors assessed the use of herbal medicine by Middle Eastern patients with cancer, as reported by their oncology health care professionals (HCPs). Herbal products identified by the study HCPs were evaluated for potential negative effects. Oncology HCPs from 16 Middle Eastern countries received a 17-item questionnaire asking them to list 5 herbal products in use by their patients with cancer. A literature search (PubMed, Micromedex, AltMedDex, and the Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database) was conducted to identify safety-related concerns associated with the products listed. A total of 339 HCPs completed the study questionnaire (response rate of 80.3%), identifying 44 herbal and 3 nonherbal nutritional supplements. Safety-related concerns were associated with 29 products, including herb-drug interactions with altered pharmacodynamics (15 herbs), direct toxic effects (18 herbs), and increased in vitro response of cancer cells to chemotherapy (7 herbs). Herbal medicine use, which is prevalent in Middle Eastern countries, has several potentially negative effects that include direct toxic effects, negative interactions with anticancer drugs, and increased chemosensitivity of cancer cells, requiring a reduction in dose-density. Oncology HCPs working in countries in which herbal medicine use is prevalent need to better understand the implications of this practice. The presence of integrative physicians with training in complementary and traditional medicine can help patients and their HCPs reach an informed decision regarding the safety and effective use of these products. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. Evidence for absorption of kelp detritus by the ribbed mussel Aulacomya ater using a new 51Cr-labelled microsphere technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, V.; Field, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    A modification of the 51 Cr: 14 C twin-labelling technique is described in which the food source is labelled with 14 C but the 51 Cr is enclosed in a polymeric resin membrane and presented as microspheres of a similar diameter to the food particles. This eliminates the major uptake of 51 Cr which is transferred to the ctenidia and palps of the suspension-feeding mussel Aulacomya ater (Molina) from detritus labelled with 51 Cr. The results suggest that althoug bacterial cultures based on isolates of kelp bacteria can be absorbed with an efficiency of 67 to 70%, the debris itself is also absorbed with an efficiency of approximately 50%. The kelp debris, which forms an important component of the particulate matter potentially available for consumers, may thus represent an important source of carbon for the filter feeding community adjacent to kelp beds. In contrast to the results obtained in other studies with artificial food sources, the data for kelp debris suggest that A. ater is able to maintain a positive scope for grwoth at the concentrations of suspended organic matter which occur under natural conditions in the kelp bed environment. (orig.)

  7. A multi-decade time series of kelp forest community structure at San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kenner, Michael C.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.; Cowen, Robert K.; Harrold, Christopher; Novak, Mark; Rassweiler, Andrew; Reed, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    San Nicolas Island is surrounded by broad areas of shallow subtidal habitat, characterized by dynamic kelp forest communities that undergo dramatic and abrupt shifts in community composition. Although these reefs are fished, the physical isolation of the island means that they receive less impact from human activities than most reefs in Southern California, making San Nicolas an ideal place to evaluate alternative theories about the dynamics of these communities. Here we present monitoring data from seven sampling stations surrounding the island, including data on fish, invertebrate, and algal abundance. These data are unusual among subtidal monitoring data sets in that they combine relatively frequent sampling (twice per year) with an exceptionally long time series (since 1980). Other outstanding qualities of the data set are the high taxonomic resolution captured and the monitoring of permanent quadrats and swaths where the history of the community structure at specific locations has been recorded through time. Finally, the data span a period that includes two of the strongest ENSO events on record, a major shift in the Pacific decadal oscillation, and the reintroduction of sea otters to the island in 1987 after at least 150 years of absence. These events provide opportunities to evaluate the effects of bottom-up forcing, top-down control, and physical disturbance on shallow rocky reef communities.

  8. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  9. Personalized Herbal Medicine? A Roadmap for Convergence of Herbal and Precision Medicine Biomarker Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomford, Nicholas Ekow; Dzobo, Kevin; Chimusa, Emile; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Chirikure, Shadreck; Wonkam, Ambroise; Dandara, Collet

    2018-06-01

    While drugs remain the cornerstone of medicine, herbal medicine is an important comedication worldwide. Thus, precision medicine ought to face this clinical reality and develop "companion diagnostics" for drugs as well as herbal medicines. Yet, many are in denial with respect to the extent of use of traditional/herbal medicines, overlooking that a considerable number of contemporary therapeutic drugs trace their discovery from herbal medicines. This expert review underscores that absent such appropriate attention on both classical drug therapy and herbal medicines, precision medicine biomarkers will likely not stand the full test of clinical practice while patients continue to use both drugs and herbal medicines and, yet the biomarker research and applications focus only (or mostly) on drug therapy. This asymmetry in biomarker innovation strategy needs urgent attention from a wide range of innovation actors worldwide, including governments, research funders, scientists, community leaders, civil society organizations, herbal, pharmaceutical, and insurance industries, policymakers, and social/political scientists. We discuss the various dimensions of a future convergence map between herbal and conventional medicine, and conclude with a set of concrete strategies on how best to integrate biomarker research in a realm of both herbal and drug treatment. Africa, by virtue of its vast experience and exposure in herbal medicine and a "pregnant" life sciences innovation ecosystem, could play a game-changing role for the "birth" of biomarker-informed personalized herbal medicine in the near future. At this critical juncture when precision medicine initiatives are being rolled out worldwide, precision/personalized herbal medicine is both timely and essential for modern therapeutics, not to mention biomarker innovations that stand the test of real-life practices and implementation in the clinic and society.

  10. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Selected Herbal Leaves: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, I. A. Abd; Ismail, N.; Rahman, N. Abd

    2018-05-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is one of new alternative extraction method that has been widely used to isolate bioactive components from variety of plant materials. The method was proved to be clean and safe, compatible for the extraction of edible products such as spices, food additives, medicines and nutritional supplement products compared to traditional extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, hydro distillation and steam distillation. The SC-CO2 extraction was known as highly influenced by its process parameter such as temperature and pressure for obtaining maximum yield. Therefore, a clear review on the optimum range of temperature and pressure for herbal leaves extraction using SC-CO2 is necessary for future reference. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of temperature and pressure of SC-CO2 process without modifier on extraction yield of some selected herbal leaves i.e clubmoss, drumstick leaves, kratom leaves, mallee and myrtle leaves. The values of investigated parameters were; pressure from 8.9 to 50 MPa and temperature from 35 to 80°C. The results showed that the highest extraction yields were obtained when the pressure and temperature were above 30 MPa and 40°C. The interaction between pressure and temperature for SC-CO2 extraction of plant leaves are crucial since the values cannot be very high or very low in order to preserve the quality of the extracts.

  11. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxici...

  12. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  13. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  14. The influence of physical factors on kelp and sea urchin distribution in previously and still grazed areas in the NE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla W; Bekkby, Trine; Gundersen, Hege; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus; Hjermann, Dag Ø

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the coast-ocean gradient. The southern border corresponds to summer temperatures exceeding about 10°C, a threshold value known to be critical for sea urchin recruitment and development. The outer border along the coast-ocean gradient is related to temperature, wave exposure and salinity. On a finer scale, kelp recovery occurs mainly at ridges in outer, wave exposed, saline and warm areas whereas sea urchins still dominate in inner, shallow and cold areas, particularly in areas with optimal current speed for sea urchin foraging. In contrast to other studies in Europe, we here show a positive influence of climate change to presence of a long-lived climax canopy-forming kelp. The extent of the coast-ocean gradient varies within the study area, and is especially wide in the southern part where the presence of islands and skerries increases the area of the shallow coastal zone. This creates a large area with intermediate physical conditions for the two species and a mosaic of kelp and sea urchin dominated patches. The statistical models (GAM and BRT) show high performance and indicate recovery of kelp in 45-60% of the study area. The study shows the value of combining a traditional (GAM) and a more complex (BRT) modeling approach to gain insight into complex spatial patterns of species or habitats. The results, methods and approaches are of general ecological relevance regardless of ecosystems and species, although they are particularly relevant for understanding and exploring the corresponding changes between algae and grazers in different coastal areas.

  15. The influence of physical factors on kelp and sea urchin distribution in previously and still grazed areas in the NE Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Rinde

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the coast-ocean gradient. The southern border corresponds to summer temperatures exceeding about 10°C, a threshold value known to be critical for sea urchin recruitment and development. The outer border along the coast-ocean gradient is related to temperature, wave exposure and salinity. On a finer scale, kelp recovery occurs mainly at ridges in outer, wave exposed, saline and warm areas whereas sea urchins still dominate in inner, shallow and cold areas, particularly in areas with optimal current speed for sea urchin foraging. In contrast to other studies in Europe, we here show a positive influence of climate change to presence of a long-lived climax canopy-forming kelp. The extent of the coast-ocean gradient varies within the study area, and is especially wide in the southern part where the presence of islands and skerries increases the area of the shallow coastal zone. This creates a large area with intermediate physical conditions for the two species and a mosaic of kelp and sea urchin dominated patches. The statistical models (GAM and BRT show high performance and indicate recovery of kelp in 45-60% of the study area. The study shows the value of combining a traditional (GAM and a more complex (BRT modeling approach to gain insight into complex spatial patterns of species or habitats. The results, methods and approaches are of general ecological relevance regardless of ecosystems and species, although they are particularly relevant for understanding and exploring the corresponding changes between algae and grazers in different coastal areas.

  16. Kelp forest as a habitat for mobile epifauna: case study of Caprella septentrionalis Kröyer, 1838 (Amphipoda, Caprellidae in an Arctic glacial fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ronowicz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and abundance of the amphipod Caprella septentrionalis in relation to environmental conditions and habitat preferences were investigated in a kelp forest in Hornsund, Spitsbergen. Three sampling sites differed in hydrodynamics, organic and inorganic suspension concentration, and sedimentation rates. None of these abiotic factors or species of a macroalgal host appeared to have a significant influence on C. septentrionalis abundance and size range. An apparent preference towards the blade parts of the algal thalli was observed. These results support the idea of C. septentrionalis as a generalist Arctic–boreal species that takes advantage of the protective nature of kelp forests.

  17. Crude fucoidan content in two North Atlantic kelp species, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata - seasonal variation and impact of environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Janicek, Tina; Manns, Dirk Martin

    2017-01-01

    , the biochemical composition of brown algae displays a seasonal fluctuation driven by environmental factors and endogenous rhythms. To cultivate and harvest kelps with high yields of fucoidans, knowledge is needed on seasonal variation and impact of environmental conditions on the fucoidan content of brown algae....... The relations between the fucoidan content and key environmental factors (irradiance, nutrient availability, salinity and exposure) were examined by sampling natural populations of the common North Atlantic kelps, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata, over a full year at Hanstholm in the North Sea...

  18. A novel phytomyxean parasite associated with galls on the bull-kelp Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso) Hariot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke, Franz; Wiese, Jutta; Núñez, Alejandra; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F; Neuhauser, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Durvillaea antarctica (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) is a large kelp of high ecological and economic significance in the Southern Hemisphere. In natural beds along the central coast of Chile (Pacific Ocean), abnormal growth characterized by evident gall development and discolorations of the fronds/thallus was observed. Analysing these galls by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of endophytic eukaryotes showing typical characteristics for phytomyxean parasites. The parasite developed within enlarged cells of the subcortical tissue of the host. Multinucleate plasmodia developed into many, single resting spores. The affiliation of this parasite to the Phytomyxea (Rhizaria) was supported by 18S rDNA data, placing it within the Phagomyxida. Similar microorganisms were already reported once 23 years ago, indicating that these parasites are persistent and widespread in D. antarctica beds for long times. The symptoms caused by this parasite are discussed along with the ecological and economic consequences. Phytomyxean parasites may play an important role in the marine ecosystem, but they remain understudied in this environment. Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence of resting spores in Phagomyxida, an order in which resting spores were thought to be absent making this the first record of a phagomyxean parasite with a complete life cycle so far, challenging the existing taxonomic concepts within the Phytomyxea. The importance of the here described resting spores for the survival and ecology of the phagomyxid parasite will be discussed together with the impact this parasite may have on 'the strongest seaweed of the world', which is an important habitat forming and economic resource from the Southern Hemisphere.

  19. A novel phytomyxean parasite associated with galls on the bull-kelp Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Goecke

    Full Text Available Durvillaea antarctica (Fucales, Phaeophyceae is a large kelp of high ecological and economic significance in the Southern Hemisphere. In natural beds along the central coast of Chile (Pacific Ocean, abnormal growth characterized by evident gall development and discolorations of the fronds/thallus was observed. Analysing these galls by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of endophytic eukaryotes showing typical characteristics for phytomyxean parasites. The parasite developed within enlarged cells of the subcortical tissue of the host. Multinucleate plasmodia developed into many, single resting spores. The affiliation of this parasite to the Phytomyxea (Rhizaria was supported by 18S rDNA data, placing it within the Phagomyxida. Similar microorganisms were already reported once 23 years ago, indicating that these parasites are persistent and widespread in D. antarctica beds for long times. The symptoms caused by this parasite are discussed along with the ecological and economic consequences. Phytomyxean parasites may play an important role in the marine ecosystem, but they remain understudied in this environment. Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence of resting spores in Phagomyxida, an order in which resting spores were thought to be absent making this the first record of a phagomyxean parasite with a complete life cycle so far, challenging the existing taxonomic concepts within the Phytomyxea. The importance of the here described resting spores for the survival and ecology of the phagomyxid parasite will be discussed together with the impact this parasite may have on 'the strongest seaweed of the world', which is an important habitat forming and economic resource from the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. Temperature effects on gametophyte life-history traits and geographic distribution of two cryptic kelp species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Valeria Oppliger

    Full Text Available A major determinant of the geographic distribution of a species is expected to be its physiological response to changing abiotic variables over its range. The range of a species often corresponds to the geographic extent of temperature regimes the organism can physiologically tolerate. Many species have very distinct life history stages that may exhibit different responses to environmental factors. In this study we emphasized the critical role of the haploid microscopic stage (gametophyte of the life cycle to explain the difference of edge distribution of two related kelp species. Lessonia nigrescens was recently identified as two cryptic species occurring in parapatry along the Chilean coast: one located north and the other south of a biogeographic boundary at latitude 29-30°S. Six life history traits from microscopic stages were identified and estimated under five treatments of temperature in eight locations distributed along the Chilean coast in order to (1 estimate the role of temperature in the present distribution of the two cryptic L. nigrescens species, (2 compare marginal populations to central populations of the two cryptic species. In addition, we created a periodic matrix model to estimate the population growth rate (λ at the five temperature treatments. Differential tolerance to temperature was demonstrated between the two species, with the gametophytes of the Northern species being more tolerant to higher temperatures than gametophytes from the south. Second, the two species exhibited different life history strategies with a shorter haploid phase in the Northern species contrasted with considerable vegetative growth in the Southern species haploid stage. These results provide strong ecological evidence for the differentiation process of the two cryptic species and show local adaptation of the life cycle at the range limits of the distribution. Ecological and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Surface roughness of composite resin veneer after application of herbal and non-herbal toothpaste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraini, S.; Herda, E.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the surface roughness of composite resin veneer after brushing. In this study, 24 specimens of composite resin veneer are divided into three subgroups: brushed without toothpaste, brushed with non-herbal toothpaste, and brushed with herbal toothpaste. Brushing was performed for one set of 5,000 strokes and continued for a second set of 5,000 strokes. Roughness of composite resin veneer was determined using a Surface Roughness Tester. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Post Hoc Mann-Whitney. The results indicate that the highest difference among the Ra values occurred within the subgroup that was brushed with the herbal toothpaste. In conclusion, the herbal toothpaste produced a rougher surface on composite resin veneer compared to non-herbal toothpaste.

  2. Recent Advances in Antiepileptic Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchishi, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. The limited supply, high cost as well as low efficacy and adverse side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a matter of major concern. Herbal medicine has always been traditionally part of treatment of epilepsy. Herbal medicines are generally well tolerated, with fewer side effects. To highlight some herbal extracts that have been studied for their anticonvulsant activity in animal models, literature search from PubMed and Science Direct, was performed. The keywords for the search consisted of combinations of the following terms: Herbal antiepileptic and/or anticonvulsant, botanicals + epilepsy. Literature published in the last five years was considered. Eighteen (18) anticonvulsant herbal agents are reported and discussed. Experiments mostly consisted of phenotypic screens in rodents, with little diversity in screening methods. In most experiments, the tested extracts prolonged the time to onset of seizures and decreased their duration. Most experimenters implicate potentiation of GABAergic activity as the mode of action of the extracts, even though some experimenters did not fully characterise the bioactive chemical composition of their extracts. Potential herbal remedies have shown positive results in animal models. It remains unclear how many make it into clinical trials and eventually making part of the AED list. More rigorous research, applying strict research methodology with uniform herbal combinations, as well as clinical studies are urgently needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-10-06

    Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction

  5. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  6. Drug interactions in African herbal remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Werner; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Herbal usage remains popular as an alternative or complementary form of treatment, especially in Africa. However, the misconception that herbal remedies are safe due to their "natural" origins jeopardizes human safety, as many different interactions can occur with concomitant use with other pharmaceuticals on top of potential inherent toxicity. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly polymorphic, and pose a problem for pharmaceutical drug tailoring to meet an individual's specific metabolic activity. The influence of herbal remedies further complicates this. The plants included in this review have been mainly researched for determining their effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters. Usage of herbal remedies, such as Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens and Harpagophytum procumbensis popular in Africa. The literature suggests that there is a potential for drug-herb interactions, which could occur through alterations in metabolism and transportation of drugs. Research has primarily been conducted in vitro, whereas in vivo data are lacking. Research concerning the effect of African herbals on drug metabolism should also be approached, as specific plants are especially popular in conjunction with certain treatments. Although these interactions can be beneficial, the harm they pose is just as great.

  7. Preclinical efficacy and safety of herbal formulation for management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preclinical efficacy and safety of herbal formulation for management of wounds. ... The effects of the treatments on rate of wound closure, epithelialisation time ... inflammation and better tissue remodeling for rats treated with herbal product.

  8. Microbial quality of some herbal solid dosage forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Microbial quality, herbal, contamination, solid dosage form ... The type of dosage form, packaging, manufacturing and expiration dates of subject solid herbal .... According to WHO report (2002), Salmonella food.

  9. A Comparative Assessment of Herbal and Orthodox Medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This paper assessed the attributes of herbal and orthodox medicines such as affordability, packaging, ... Results showed that the respondents rated herbal medicines higher than orthodox ...

  10. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  11. SPORT SUPPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandаr Marinkov

    2016-01-01

    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...

  12. Hexa-herbal Chinese formula for eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Jäger, Anna; Heinrich, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diverse pharmacological activities and reliable clinical performances of Chinese herbal medicines have attracted worldwide attention in terms of its modernization. Here, a hexa-herbal Chinese formula (HHCF) for treating eczema topically has been studied from both chemical and biological perspective....... It consists of roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Gerogi, Rheum officinale Baill., Sophora flavescens Aiton; root's bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz.; bark of Phellodendron chinense C.K. Schnied and fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schard.. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the hexa-herbal decoction...... colonizes the skin of most patients with AD and produces superantigens that could further increase severity of AD via subverting T-regulatory cell activity and inducing corticosteroid resistance. [3] Therefore, activity of the decoctions prepared from mixture and individual medicinal plants of the formula...

  13. Ruzu ® herbal bitters and glibenclamide tablets: Dissolution and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concomitant intake of poly-herbal medicines with orthodox drugs raises huge concerns about herb-drug interactions and patient safety, especially as the pharmacokinetic properties of these herbal medicines are not known. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of Ruzu® herbal bitters on the ...

  14. Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2008-01-01

    Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal me...

  15. Contamination of herbal medicinal products marketed in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to evaluate the bacterial contamination of powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified herbal retail outlets in different parts of Kaduna metropolis. The assessments of the contamination of the herbal products were carried out using standard procedures: total aerobic bacterial plate count, ...

  16. Herbal medicine use among Turkish patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tulunay

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: In this study herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 217-220

  17. Antiulcerogenic benefits of herbal ingredients in ethanol-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiulcerogenic benefits of herbal ingredients in ethanol-induced animal models. ... Although therapeutic approaches are widely available, preventive regimens are limited. Numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal ... gastric ulcer. Key words: Herbal Medicines, Gastric ulcer, Prevention, Animal models, Alcohol ...

  18. Prescription for natural cures: a self-care guide for treating health problems with natural remedies including diet, nutrition, supplements, and other holistic methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, James F; Stengler, Mark; Young-Balch, Robin

    2011-01-01

    .... You'll find easy-to-understand discussions of the symptoms and root causes of each health problem along with a proven, natural, customized prescription that may include supplements, herbal medicine...

  19. Long-term patterns of benthic irradiance and kelp production in the central Beaufort sea reveal implications of warming for Arctic inner shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsell, Christina; Dunton, Kenneth H.

    2018-03-01

    This study synthesizes a multidecadal dataset of annual growth of the Arctic endemic kelp Laminaria solidungula and corresponding measurements of in situ benthic irradiance from Stefansson Sound in the central Beaufort Sea. We incorporate long-term data on sea ice concentration (National Sea Ice Data Center) and wind (National Weather Service) to assess how ice extent and summer wind dynamics affect the benthic light environment and annual kelp production. We find evidence of significant changes in sea ice extent in Stefansson Sound, with an extension of the ice-free season by approximately 17 days since 1979. Although kelp elongation at 5-7 m depths varies significantly among sites and years (3.8-49.8 cm yr-1), there is no evidence for increased production with either earlier ice break-up or a longer summer ice-free period. This is explained by very low light transmittance to the benthos during the summer season (mean daily percent surface irradiance ± SD: 1.7 ± 3.6 to 4.5 ± 6.6, depending on depth, with light attenuation values ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 m-1), resulting in minimal potential for kelp production on most days. Additionally, on month-long timescales (35 days) in the ice-free summer, benthic light levels are negatively related to wind speed. The frequent, wind-driven resuspension of sediments following ice break-up significantly reduce light to the seabed, effectively nullifying the benefits of an increased ice-free season on annual kelp growth. Instead, benthic light and primary production may depend substantially on the 1-3 week period surrounding ice break-up when intermediate sea ice concentrations reduce wind-driven sediment resuspension. These results suggest that both benthic and water column primary production along the inner shelf of Arctic marginal seas may decrease, not increase, with reductions in sea ice extent.

  20. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

  1. [Pain management with herbal antirheumatic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, Sigrun; Pollak, S

    2002-01-01

    Herbal antirheumatics are indicated in painful inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases. Their mechanism of action is broader than that of synthetic antirheumatics. Particular preparations from Devils's Claw with 50 to 100 mg of harpagoside in the daily dosage as well as a particular willow bark extract with 120 to 240 mg salicin in the daily dosage proved efficacy in a number of clinical studies including confirmatory ones. Exploratory studies indicate that these herbal antirheumatics were not inferior to the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib when treating acute exacerbations of chronic low back pain. For the proprietary nettle root extract IDS23 promising in vitro/in vivo results indicate an anti-inflammatory effect, however there are only 2 open uncontrolled clinical studies available and the proof of efficacy is still missing. Safety data in order to recommend use during pregnancy and lactation are only available for the herbal combination product Phytodolor prepared from aspen, ash and goldenrod. In principle, blackcurrent leaf with not less than 1.5% flavonoids may be an appropriate antirheumatic. Likewise, the seed oils of blackcurrent, evening primrose and borage offering at least 1 to 3 g gammalinolenic acid/day are recommendable. In case superiority versus placebo has been established, proprietary herbal antirheumatics should be administered before the conventional analgesics due to the lower incidence of adverse events.

  2. Research methodological issues in evaluating herbal interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dipika Bansal, Debasish Hota, Amitava ChakrabartiPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaAbstract: Randomized controlled trials provide the best evidence, and is seen as the gold standard for allopathic research. Herbal therapies are not an integral part of conventional care although they are still used by patients in their health care management. These medicines need to be subjected to rigorous research to establish their effectiveness and safety. Clearly defined treatments are required and should be recorded in a manner that enables other suitably trained researchers to reproduce them reliably. Quality control of herbal products is also a prerequisite of credible clinical trials. Methodological strategies for investigating the herbal interventions and the issues regarding appropriate patient selection, randomization and blinding, placebo effects and choice of comparator, occupational standardization and the selection of appropriate study endpoints to prove efficacy are being discussed. This paper will review research options and propose some suggestions for future research design.Keywords: CAM research, herbal therapies, methodology, clinical trial

  3. Treatment of glioblastoma with herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlić, Ivo; Trogrlić, Dragan; Trogrlić, Darko; Trogrlić, Amina Kadrić

    2018-02-13

    In the latest years, a lot of research studies regarding the usage of active agents from plants in the treatment of tumors have been published, but there is no data about successful usage of herbal remedies in the treatment of glioblastoma in humans. The phytotherapy involved five types of herbal medicine which the subjects took in the form of tea, each type once a day at regular intervals. Three patients took herbal medicine along with standard oncological treatment, while two patients applied for phytotherapy after completing medical treatment. The composition of herbal medicine was modified when necessary, which depended on the results of the control scans using the nuclear magnetic resonance technique and/or computed tomography. Forty-eight months after the introduction of phytotherapy, there were no clinical or radiological signs of the disease, in three patients; in one patient, the tumor was reduced and his condition was stable, and one patient lived for 48 months in spite of a large primary tumor and a massive recurrence, which developed after the treatment had been completed. The results achieved in patients in whom tumor regression occurred exclusively through the use of phytotherapy deserve special attention. In order to treat glioblastoma more effectively, it is necessary to develop innovative therapeutic strategies and medicines that should not be limited only to the field of conventional medicine. The results presented in this research paper are encouraging and serve as a good basis for further research on the possibilities of phytotherapy in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  4. Adult lead poisoning from a herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Abdulsalam S.; Latif, Ali H.

    2002-01-01

    A 56-year-old Indian lady presented with one week history of abdominal pain, jaundice and chronic polyarthralgia. She had evidence of hemolytic anemia and hepatitis. Her blood lead level was high and a peripheral blood film showed dense basophilic stippling. It is believed that the lead toxicity was due to the use of Indian herbal medicine. (author)

  5. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  6. Herbal medicine--sets the heart racing!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGovern, E

    2010-07-01

    The potential for pharmaceuticals to produce side effects and drug interactions is well known to medical practitioners and the lay public alike. However, the potential for alternative medicines to produce such effects is less widely known. We describe a potentially dangerous interaction between a herbal medicine and concomitant selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) ingestion.

  7. Herbal medicine for low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oltean, H.; Robbins, C.S.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.M.; Bombardier, C.; Gagnier, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines

  8. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary Investigations Of Effectiveness Of Herbal Remedies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed some of the widely publicised herbal remedies in use for HIV infection in Nigeria, and investigated their efficacy scientifically. Those found to be efficacious will be subjected to further analysis to identify their active chemical components. The research deals directly with patients living with HIV/AIDS that ...

  10. Chinese herbal medicine alleviating hyperandrogenism of PCOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women hence Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been chosen by many clinicians and patients as alternative treatment for PCOS. The present study was to explore the effects of CHM in alleviating hyperandrogenism of PCOS ...

  11. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  12. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  13. Herbal Medicine for Market Potential in Malaysia: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafii khamis

    2014-01-01

    Due to side effects of synthetic drugs, herbal products are rapidly gaining popularity in the world market. The global herbal market in 2010 was US$65 billion and is estimated to hit US$93 billion in 2015. The Malaysian herbal market is estimated to expand from RM7 billion in 2010 to about RM29 billion by 2020. Inspite of its rich biodiversity and well-practised knowledge of herbal medicine amongst its multi cultured population, the share of Malaysia in the global herbal market is very small and not up to the mark. The present article will deal with the measures to be adopted for global promotion of Malaysian herbal products. The scenario and perceptions of herbal medicine are discussed. (author)

  14. Detection of bacterial contaminants and hybrid sequences in the genome of the kelp Saccharina japonica using Taxoblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M. Dittami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern genome sequencing strategies are highly sensitive to contamination making the detection of foreign DNA sequences an important part of analysis pipelines. Here we use Taxoblast, a simple pipeline with a graphical user interface, for the post-assembly detection of contaminating sequences in the published genome of the kelp Saccharina japonica. Analyses were based on multiple blastn searches with short sequence fragments. They revealed a number of probable bacterial contaminations as well as hybrid scaffolds that contain both bacterial and algal sequences. This or similar types of analysis, in combination with manual curation, may thus constitute a useful complement to standard bioinformatics analyses prior to submission of genomic data to public repositories. Our analysis pipeline is open-source and freely available at http://sdittami.altervista.org/taxoblast and via SourceForge (https://sourceforge.net/projects/taxoblast.

  15. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  16. Facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use in Accra, Ghana: an inductive exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng

    2016-05-26

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. The study employed an inductive exploratory qualitative approach. It was conducted at a private herbal clinic in Accra. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit 16 participants. Data collection was through individual face-to-face interviews and these were transcribed and analysed using content analysis procedures. It was realized that the factors that enhanced the use of herbal medicine included use of convincing information to enhance the initiation of herbal medicine use, effectiveness of herbal medicine, personal preference for herbal medicine, perceived ineffectiveness of western medicine and integration of spirituality in herbal medicine. The factors that hindered herbal medicine use included negative perceptions and attitudes about herbal medicine, poor vending environment, poor knowledge of vendors, high cost of herbal products at credible herbal clinics and inconsistent effectiveness of some herbal products. Participants desired that the national health insurance scheme will cover the cost of herbal medicine to alleviate the financial burden associated with herbal medicine use. Although some Ghanaians patronize herbal medicine, the negative perceptions about herbal medicine resulting from deceitful producers and vendors call for enhanced education and monitoring to ensure that effective herbal products are used.

  17. TANGIBLE VALUE BIODIVERSITAS HERBAL DAN MENINGKATKAN DAYA SAING PRODUK HERBAL INDONESIA DALAM MENGHADAPI MASYARAKAT EKONOMI ASEAN 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Intan Kumala Putri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are environmentally friendly commodities that slogan 'back to nature'. Herbal is a reliable commodityIndonesia because herbal raw material comes from Indonesia's abundant biodiversity. However, the currentIndonesian herbal faced a number of challenges to be able to compete with the herbs that come from foreigncountries. The existence of the Free Trade Agreement can be seen by the opening of the market to the entry ofIndonesian herbal products imported from Cina, India, Malaysia, and others. Economically, Indonesia's tradebalance deficit with export figures of herbal products continues to decline. That is, the existence of free tradeagreements is adversely affected by the low competitiveness of herbal products against imported products thatcirculate in Indonesia. In the midst of adversity free trade, in 2015 has agreed a free trade agreement between theASEAN countries (EAC. Will EAC able to lift Indonesian herbal products from the domestic market?.

  18. Herbal Treatment for Anxiety: Is It Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anxiety generally need medical treatment or psychological counseling (psychotherapy) for symptoms to improve. With Brent A. Bauer, ... dietary supplements wisely. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/supplements/wiseuse. ...

  19. Phytotherapeutics: The Emerging Role of Intestinal and Hepatocellular Transporters in Drug Interactions with Botanical Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Ullah, Naveed; Mukhtar, Farah; Nawazish, Shamyla; Muneer, Saiqa

    2017-10-21

    In herbalism, botanical supplements are commonly believed to be safe remedies, however, botanical supplements and dietary ingredients interact with transport and metabolic processes, affecting drug disposition. Although a large number of studies have described that botanical supplements interfere with drug metabolism, the mode of their interaction with drug transport processes is not well described. Such interactions may result in serious undesired effects and changed drug efficacy, therefore, some studies on interaction between botanical supplement ingredients and drug transporters such as P-gp and OATPs are described here, suggesting that the interaction between botanical supplements and the drug transporters is clinically significant.

  20. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-dong Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD. However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN.

  1. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20-40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN.

  2. The effect of herbal formula PROVE 1 and Stevia levels in diets on diet utilization of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooprasert, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of 0.2% antibiotic (ascomix-s®, one kilogram of which contains lincomycin hydrochloride 44 g and sulfamethazine 110 g or 0.25% herbal formulaPROVE 1, combined with five levels of Stevia supplementation in the diets on digestibility of pigs. Two factors; 1 type of drug (0.2% antibiotic and 0.25% herbal formula PROVE 1 and 2 five Stevia levels (0,0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% were investigated and 10 dietary treatments were used in this study. Ten related growing crossbred (Large White x Landrace barrow pigs (30±1.5 kg body weight were raised in individualmetabolism cages for three collecting periods (30, 40 and 50 kg body weight, each pig was fed one experimental diet throughout the collecting period.The results showed that pigs fed diet with either 0.2% antibiotic or 0.25% herbal formula PROVE 1 had similar digestibility of diet, crude protein (CP, fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE (89.01 vs 87.83,94.96 vs 94.23, 60.73 vs 59.03, 61.22 vs 60.44 and 93.28 vs 92.03%, respectively. Negligible differences were observed between 0 and 0.4% Stevia supplementation in diet, but levels showed better digestibility than the other levels of Stevia supplementation, and the diet with 0.4% Stevia supplementation had the highestdigestibility of diet, CP, fiber, ash and NFE (91.04, 96.43, 69.48, 70.47 and 94.07%, respectively. The diet with antibiotic combined with 0.4% Stevia had digestibility of diet, CP, fat and fiber better than the otherlevels of Stevia supplementation, especially digestibility of ash, which was significantly higher than that of diet with 0.2% Stevia, but not significantly different from the other levels of Stevia supplementation. A partof herbal formula PROVE1 combined with 0% Stevia had the highest digestibility of ash (72.90%, significantly higher than the other levels of Stevia supplementation, except the diet with herbal formula PROVE 1combined with 0.4% Stevia supplementation

  3. Uso de hierbas medicinales en mujeres gestantes y en lactancia en un hospital universitario de Bogotá (Colombia The use of herbal medicine among pregnant and lactating women attending a university hospital in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Paulina Pulido Acuña

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las mujeres durante la gestación y lactancia utilizan diferentes hierbas y es escasa la información en el ámbito clínico en Colombia. Objetivo: Describir las prácticas relacionadas con el uso de hierbas en mujeres gestantes y en lactancia del Hospital de San José, Bogotá (Colombia. Metodología: Estudio de corte transversal. Con un cuestionario estructurado se indagó el uso, la frecuencia, el modo y razones de uso, de las hierbas medicinales y de quién se aprendió la práctica. Resultados: El uso de hierbas en mujeres gestantes y en lactancia fue de 33.6% (IC95%: 29.2% - 38% y 36.6% (IC95%: 30.8% - 42.3%, respectivamente. En el grupo de gestantes la hierba más usada fue la manzanilla (36.7% y en las mujeres en lactancia fue el hinojo (65%. Conclusión: Las mujeres gestantes y en lactancia, utilizan hierbas para las molestias del embarazo, acelerar el parto, disminuir el frío y promover la producción de leche.The use of herbal supplements is a common practice about pregnant and lactating women, however in Colombia there is limited data regarding the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of herbal medication use among pregnant and lactating women at the Hospital San Jose in Bogota, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was designed to measure the frequency of herbal supplementation, why women took the herbal medicine, form of supplements, and who recommended the supplements or how did they learn about the herbal supplements. Results: The use of herbal supplements among pregnant and lactating women is 33.6% (CI 95%: 29.2%-38% and 36.6 (CI 95%: 30.8%-42.3%, respectively. The most common supplement used by pregnant women is Chamomile (36,7%, and among lactating women is Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (65%. Conclusion: Pregnant and breastfeeding women use herbal supplements for specific pregnancy-related problems, to induce labor, to

  4. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed.

  5. Herbal option for diabetes: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amreen Fatima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The most spreading disease nowadays is diabetes. In a fast changing world, a number of means to treat diabetes naturally are explored by experts and clinicians today. Long-term use of insulin and other oral hypoglycemic agent will create unwanted side effects, resulting uncontrolled increase in blood sugar as well as complications with heart diseases also diabetics are highly prone to different types of microorganism and it will affect immune system of body. To avoid such problems herbal medications has greater advantages. Instead of using these types of allopathic formulations, it is beneficial to use Ayurvedic formulations for better management of diabetes mellitus. In this review, around a hundred of herbal plants were showing hypoglycemic activity and still they are using as home remedies for the effective treatment for diabetes mellitus.

  6. [Herbal textual research on origins of Chonglou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu; Kang, Li-Ping; Liu, Da-Hui; Peng, Hua-Sheng; Xie, Jin; Chen, Min

    2017-09-01

    Based on the field investigation, this paper researched the germplasms and geoherbs habitat of Chonglou in ancient herbal books systematically. The results showed that, Chonglou in ancient herbal books sometimes referred to certain specific germplasm, while sometimes it referred to many species derived from genus Paris except Sect. Paris. The medicinal material Chonglou in Chinese Materia Medica Bencaotujing and Bencaomengquan was verified as P. polyphylla var. chinensis, which could be P. polyphylla in Xinxiubencao, and it should include P. polyphylla or P. polyphylla var. stenophylla in Bencaogangmu. However, it proved to be a variety of species from Paris that can used as Chonglou in Diannanbencao and Zhiwumingshitukao. Moreover, the origins of Chonglou were correspondingly more diverse, with its producing areas changed from North to South. Therefore, with the resources increasing endangered, the botanical origin of Chonglou should be further studied. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Herbal Remedies: A Boon for Diabetic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Reshu; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Mahmood, Tarique; Bagga, Paramdeep; Ahsan, Farogh; Shamim, Arshiya

    2018-03-26

    Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus affecting about 50% of patients. Its symptoms include decreased motility and severe pain in peripheral parts. The pathogenesis involved is an abnormality in blood vessels that supply the peripheral nerves, metabolic disorders such as myo-inositol depletion, and increased nonenzymatic glycation. Moreover, oxidative stress in neurons results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways, which results in the generation of free radicals. Apart from available marketed formulations, extensive research is being carried out on herbal-based natural products to control hyperglycemia and its associated complications. This review is focused to provide a summary on diabetic neuropathy covering its etiology, types, and existing work on herbal-based therapies, which include pure compounds isolated from plant materials, plant extracts, and Ayurvedic preparations.

  8. Crossing the front: contrasting storm-forced dispersal dynamics revealed by biological, geological and genetic analysis of beach-cast kelp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Jonathan M; King, Tania M; Fraser, Ceridwen I; Craw, Dave

    2018-03-01

    The subtropical front (STF) generally represents a substantial oceanographic barrier to dispersal between cold-sub-Antarctic and warm-temperate water masses. Recent studies have suggested that storm events can drastically influence marine dispersal and patterns. Here we analyse biological and geological dispersal driven by two major, contrasting storm events in southern New Zealand, 2017. We integrate biological and physical data to show that a severe southerly system in July 2017 disrupted this barrier by promoting movement of substantial numbers of southern sub-Antarctic Durvillaea kelp rafts across the STF, to make landfall in mainland NZ. By contrast, a less intense easterly storm (Cyclone Cook, April 2017) resulted in more moderate dispersal distances, with minimal dispersal between the sub-Antarctic and mainland New Zealand. These quantitative analyses of approximately 200 freshly beach-cast kelp specimens indicate that storm intensity and wind direction can strongly influence marine dispersal and landfall outcomes. © 2018 The Author(s).

  9. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniglia, C. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: concetta.boniglia@iss.it; Aureli, P. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, E.; Onori, S. [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  10. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniglia, C.; Aureli, P.; Bortolin, E.; Onori, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  11. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF A HERBAL SHAMPOO

    OpenAIRE

    Gouri Kumar Dash* and Noor Husna Nazirah Binti A. Razak

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed at formulating and evaluating a complete herbal shampoo containing only traditionally used plant materials. The shampoo contained extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Phyllanthus emblica, Sapindus mukorossi, Acacia concinna and fresh juice of Aloe vera. The physicochemical parameters such as colour, clarity, pH, skin irritation, percentage of solid contents, dirt dispersion, foaming ability and foam stability, wetting time and c...

  12. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Calixto

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control, marketing and regulatory aspects of botanical medicines. Phytotherapeutic agents are standardized herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. A marked growth in the worldwide phytotherapeutic market has occurred over the last 15 years. For the European and USA markets alone, this will reach about $7 billion and $5 billion per annum, respectively, in 1999, and has thus attracted the interest of most large pharmaceutical companies. Insufficient data exist for most plants to guarantee their quality, efficacy and safety. The idea that herbal drugs are safe and free from side effects is false. Plants contain hundreds of constituents and some of them are very toxic, such as the most cytotoxic anti-cancer plant-derived drugs, digitalis and the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, etc. However, the adverse effects of phytotherapeutic agents are less frequent compared with synthetic drugs, but well-controlled clinical trials have now confirmed that such effects really exist. Several regulatory models for herbal medicines are currently available including prescription drugs, over-the-counter substances, traditional medicines and dietary supplements. Harmonization and improvement in the processes of regulation is needed, and the general tendency is to perpetuate the German Commission E experience, which combines scientific studies and traditional knowledge (monographs. Finally, the trend in the domestication, production and biotechnological studies and genetic improvement of medicinal plants, instead of the use of plants harvested in the wild, will offer great advantages, since it will be possible to obtain uniform and high quality raw materials which are fundamental to the efficacy and safety of herbal drugs.

  13. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston I. Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs.

  14. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprasad H. Venkatesha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities.

  15. Analysis of toxic metals in branded Pakistani herbal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.; Muhammad, N.; Khan, H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to estimate the concentration of heavy toxic metals in Pakistani herbal products frequently used for the treatment of various ailments. For this purpose, twenty five herbal products of well reputed herbal manufacturers were selected. The results of our investigation revealed that the concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium were far beyond the permissible limits proposed by the International Regulatory Authorities for herbal drugs. Therefore, this study conveys a strong message to the ministry of health to establish proper rules and regulations for the validation of herbal products on scientific grounds in order to protect the general public from the harmful effects of these heavy metals in herbal products. (author)

  16. Task 1: Whole-body concentrations of elements in kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens), and Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural areas in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Milton S.

    2009-01-01

    Resource managers are concerned that offshore oil platforms in the Southern California Bight may be contributing to environmental contaminants accumulated by marine fishes. To examine this possibility, 18 kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), 80 kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens), and 98 Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) were collected from five offshore oil platforms and 10 natural areas during 2005-2006 for whole-body analysis of 63 elements. The natural areas, which served as reference sites, were assumed to be relatively uninfluenced by contaminants originating from platforms. Forty-two elements were excluded from statistical comparisons for one of three reasons: they consisted of major cations that were unlikely to accumulate to potentially toxic concentrations under ambient exposure conditions; they were not detected by the analytical procedures; or they were detected at concentrations too low to yield reliable quantitative measurements. The remaining 21 elements consisted of aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, rubidium, selenium, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zinc. Statistical comparisons of these 21 elements indicated that none consistently exhibited higher concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas. Eight comparisons yielded significant interaction effects between total length (TL) of the fish and the two habitat types (oil platforms and natural areas). This indicated that relations between certain elemental concentrations (i.e., copper, rubidium, selenium, tin, titanium, and vanadium) and habitat type varied by TL of affected fish species. To better understand these interactions, we examined elemental concentrations in very small and very large individuals of affected species. Although significant interactions were detected for rubidium, tin, and selenium in kelp rockfish, the concentrations of these elements did not differ significantly between

  17. Assessing the ecosystem-level consequences of a small-scale artisanal kelp fishery within the context of climate-change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Kira A; Bergman, Jordanna N; Salomon, Anne K

    2017-04-01

    Coastal communities worldwide rely on small-scale artisanal fisheries as a means of increasing food security and alleviating poverty. Even small-scale fishing activities, however, are prone to resource depletion and environmental degradation, which can erode livelihoods in the long run. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify viable and resilient artisanal fisheries, and generate knowledge to support management within the context of a rapidly changing climate. We examined the ecosystem-level consequences of an artisanal kelp fishery (Macrocystis pyrifera), finding small-scale harvest of this highly productive species poses minimal impacts on kelp recovery rates, survival, and biomass dynamics, and abundances of associated commercial and culturally important fish species. These results suggest that small-scale harvest poses minimal trade-offs for the other economic benefits provided by these ecosystems, and their inherent, spiritual, and cultural value to humans. However, we detected a negative impact of warmer seawater temperatures on kelp recovery rates following harvest, indicating that the viability of harvest, even at small scales, may be threatened by future increases in global ocean temperature. This suggests that negative impacts of artisanal fisheries may be more likely to arise in the context of a warming climate, further highlighting the widespread effects of global climate change on coastal fisheries and livelihoods. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-05-27

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata.

  19. Public Knowledge about Herbal Beverages in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munaver Nazir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY:To explore public knowledge and perceptions of the efficacy, safety and reason to consume herbal beveragesincluding ginseng tea, gingko biloba tea and tongka ali tea.METHOD:This study was conducted in the state of Penang in June 2007. Participants were recruited at random;respondents were interviewed using a 19 item questionnaire. Non- parametric statistics was applied to analysethe data.RESULTS:Four hundred participants were recruited. Most of the respondents 228(57.0% were habitual consumers ofherbal beverages. 249(62.25% respondents believed that herbal beverages improved their health status.193(48.25% believed that herbal beverages boost the energy level of user and 120(30.0% used them toprevent diseases. 300(75% respondents agreed with the statement that herbal beverages are safe to use andthat they have less side effect than conventional medicines available on the market. Female respondents weremore likely to report using herbal beverages for slimming 78(19.5% and for cosmetic purposes 74(18.5%.However, the use of herbal beverages to boost energy levels was more frequent among male respondents.Respondents aged 18 – 25 years were significantly more likely to report the use of herbal beverages to preventcoughs and flu.CONCLUSION:This potentially ill advised and dangerous consumption of herbal beverages may delay appropriate help seekingfor various medical illnesses. In addition lack of knowledge about the side effects of herbal beverages may putusers at risk of side effects.

  20. Clinical Studies on HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG Herbal Acupuncture Therapy on Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Dae-Yong

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many treatments for headache. We suggested the clinical effect and utilization of HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG herbal acupuncture on headache. Methods: 1. We injected distillation of HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG(2.0cc on Both Pung-Ji(GB20 of patients. In 20 minutes later, We examined therapeutic value of headache. 2. We examined effects of HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG Herbal acupuncture by sex , age, area of headache, period of history, degree of headache. Results and Conclusions: 1. There was a significantly effect of HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG Herbal acupuncture on headache. 2. In therapeutic value, The effect of HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG Herbal acupuncture by each type is significant.

  1. Herbal medicines: old and new concepts, truths and misunderstandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carmona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Men have been using herbal medicines for thousands of years. The advantages of this type of therapeutics include good availability, local cultural aspects, individual preferences, the increasing demand for natural and organic products, and the already validated synergistic effects of herbal medicines. However, ethically, the scope and limits of these drugs need to be established not only by ethnopharmacological evidences but also by scientific investigations, which confirm the therapeutic effects. With this study, we propose to discuss the possible advantages of using herbal medicines instead of purified compounds, the truth and myths about herbal medicines, drug discovery, and the implications for medical education and health care.

  2. Herbal medicines for children: an illusion of safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, A J; Simone, K

    2001-04-01

    Herbal medicaments are in common use. In general, the judicious use of carefully selected and prepared herbal medications seems to cause few adverse effects and may be beneficial. However, toxic effects of these products have been reported with increasing frequency. Infants and children may be even more susceptible to some of the adverse effects and toxicity of these products because of differences in physiology, immature metabolic enzyme systems, and dose per body weight. Although information promoting the use of herbal medicine is widespread, true evidence-based information about the efficacy and safety of herbal medications is limited. Although the most conservative approach is to recommend against use of herbal medicine until such evidence is available, some patients are not receptive to this approach. A reasonable approach for health care providers may be to follow such use closely, assist in herbal therapeutic decisions, and monitor for adverse effects and interactions. This manuscript discusses general concepts about herbal medicines, public health implications, and a framework for mechanisms of adverse effects from the use of botanicals. Adverse effects and toxicity of selected herbal products, including Chinese herbal medicines, are presented. The authors propose a risk reduction approach in which physicians actively seek information about the use of complementary or alternative medicine while taking medical histories.

  3. Formation of trihalomethanes as disinfection byproducts in herbal spa pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakour, Hoda; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2018-04-09

    Herbal spa treatments are favorite recreational activities throughout the world. The water in spas is often disinfected to control pathogenic microorganisms and guarantee hygiene. However, chlorinated water may cause the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although there have been many studies on DBP formation in swimming pools, the role of organic matter derived from herbal medicines applied in herbal spa water has been largely neglected. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effect of herbal medicines on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in simulated herbal spa water. Water samples were collected from a spa pool, and then, disinfection and herbal addition experiments were performed in a laboratory. The results showed that the organic molecules introduced by the herbal medicines are significant precursors to the formation of THMs in spa pool water. Since at least 50% of THMs were produced within the first six hours of the reaction time, the presence of herbal medicines in spa water could present a parallel route for THM exposure. Therefore, despite the undeniable benefits of herbal spas, the effect of applied herbs on DBP formation in chlorinated water should be considered to improve the water quality and health benefits of spa facilities.

  4. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  5. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  6. Herbal medicines: challenges in the modern world. Part 2. European Union and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Helen M; Gubarev, Michael I; Krepkova, Lubov V; Bortnikova, Valentina V; Corrick, Fenella; Job, Kathleen M; Sherwin, Catherine Mt; Enioutina, Elena Y

    2016-08-01

    Herbal medicines (HMs) have been well known to people of the European Union (EU) and Russia for centuries. Currently, Western HMs can be classified into two categories, plant-derived conventional medicines and dietary supplements. Interest to HMs has grown rapidly in all countries during the past two decades. The main goal of this review article is to present the history of HMs in the EU and Russia, forms of modern HMs, including Oriental Medicines that are popular among consumers of both countries. Additional discussion points comprise safety and adulteration issues associated with HMs, including regulatory changes and new legislative measures undertaken by the authorities. Materials available from legislative and governmental websites, PubMed and news media were used. Expert commentary: Due to cultural diversities in the EU and Russia, traditional HMs of other regions, particularly Chinese Traditional and Ayurvedic medicines, are also popular. Recently, dietary supplements containing multiple herbal and other natural products have flooded the EU and Russian markets. Pharmacovigilance in these markets is challenging in terms of establishing quality and safety of ingredients, determining efficacy, and defining risks of herb-herb and herb-drug interactions. Both the EU and Russia have introduced new legislation aimed to overcome these deficiencies.

  7. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Jorge; Lucas, Ana Vaz; Bárbara, Ignacio; Serrão, Ester Álvares

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L

  8. Evaluation of effectiveness and safety of a herbal compound in primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Giancarlo; Contaldi, Paola; Fogliame, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disturbances and related daytime activities impairment are common diseases nowadays. General practitioners are often the first health care professional asked to alleviate sleep disturbances and primary insomnia symptoms. Beyond a wide class of hypnotic drugs, botanicals can represent an alternative treatment for those kinds of symptoms. The scope of the present study is to evaluate safety and effectiveness of a herbal compound composed of valerian, hop, and jujube (Vagonotte ® ) on primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes. One hundred and twenty subjects with sleep disturbances symptoms were randomized in two branches of 60 persons each, receiving the herbal compound or placebo at dosage of two pills per day 30 minutes before their scheduled bedtime. All subjects were screened for precise items related to sleep quality and daytime activity at the beginning, after 10 days, and after 20 days of consecutive dietary supplement (or placebo) consumption. The participants remained blind to group assignment until all of them completed the trial. Sleep onset, numbers of nocturnal awakenings, and overall nocturnal slept time were assessed. A statistically significant difference between the two groups emerged. The group receiving the herbal compound showed a lower time of sleep onset compared to placebo group, the same result was obtained for total slept time and night awakenings frequency ( p Botanicals dietary supplement with relaxing and soothing properties can help practitioner to treat primary insomnia, especially when the risk/benefit profile of a patient does not sustain hypnotic drugs prescription. This clinical investigation on safety and effectiveness of a herbal compound made of valerian, hop, and jujube opens interesting perspectives on usage of herbal compound to manage primary insomnia. Further investigations could help in understanding herbal compounds' effectiveness on sleep disturbances.

  9. Legal requirements for the quality of herbal substances and herbal preparations for the manufacturing of herbal medicinal products in the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed.

  10. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  11. A supplement to Prof. Shoji Shibata's achievements: the history of "Shōsō-in Medicines" and the reason why Magnolia obovata (old name: Hoogashiwa) was not given a Chinese herbal name in Japan's oldest anthology "Man'yōshū".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Prof. Shoji Shibata (1916-2016) left behind remarkable achievements in the field of the history of pharmacy. Among those, the scientific survey on medicines preserved in Shōsō-in, globally known as the World Cultural Heritage, is of particular interest, drawing wide attention from scholars to the general public. Its most spectacular and also shocking study in the field of pharmacognosy will be the one on the true origin of Kōboku (Houpu) that seems quite ordinary from its name. Prof. Shibata revealed that it is of juglandaceous origin that is completely different from what is known today under the same name. Juglandaceous Kōboku, which came into wide use in China at that time, was neither a homonym nor adulteration according to the pertinent description on this medicine in Chinese herbal books, and, furthermore, was regarded as authentic even at the Song Dynasty. In the Nara period of Japan, the name of Kōboku is not found except for the archives preserved in Shōsō-in, while the name of Hoogashiwa, an old name of Hoonoki (Magnolia obovata), appears only in "Man'yōshū", Japan's oldest anthology. Therefore, Hoonoki was not recognized as Kōboku at that time. Interestingly, this fact is also reflected in "Man'yōshū". In the epigraph of two poems including Hoonoki, the Japanese name is used instead of the Chinese name that should be employed in principle. The historical circumstances of "Shōsō-in Medicines" will also be outlined with elaborate and reliable evidence.

  12. Investigation of targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines and selected herbal teas sourced in Ireland using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  13. Multi-approach mapping to help spatial planning and management of the kelp species L. digitata and L. hyperborea: Case study of the Molène Archipelago, Brittany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajjouk, Touria; Rochette, Sébastien; Laurans, Martial; Ehrhold, Axel; Hamdi, Anouar; Le Niliot, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    The Molène Archipelago in Brittany (France) hosts one of the largest kelp forests in Europe. Beyond their recognized ecological importance as an essential habitat and food for a variety of marine species, kelp also contributes towards regional economies by means of the alginate industry. Thousands of tons of kelp are collected each year for the needs of the chemical and food industries. Kelp harvesting in Brittany mainly concerns two species, Laminaria digitata (59,000 t) and Laminaria hyperborea (24,000 t), that, together, represent approximately 95% of the national landings. Estimating the available standing stock and its distribution is a clear need for providing appropriate and sustainable management measures. Prior to estimating the spatial distribution of biomasses, we produced a detailed seabed topography map with accurate hard substrate delineation thanks to surveys and appropriate processing of airborne optical and acoustic imaging. Habitat suitability models of presence-absence and biomass were then developed for each species by relating in situ observations from underwater video and sampling to the many biotic and abiotic factors that may govern kelp species distribution. Our statistical approach combining generalized additive models (GAM) in a delta approach also provided spatial uncertainty associated with each prediction to help management decisions. This study confirmed that the adopted strategy, based on an integrated approach, enhanced knowledge on kelp biomass distributions in the Molène Archipelago and provided a promising direct link between research and management. Indeed, the high resolution topography and hard substrate maps produced for the study greatly improved knowledge on the sea bottom of the area. This was also of major importance for an accurate mapping of kelp distribution. The quality of the habitat suitability models was verified with fishing effort data (RECOPESCA program) and confirmed by local managers and kelp harvesters

  14. Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, S P; Jayaram, S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Hari, R; Jeyakumar, P; Sripathi, M S

    2002-12-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  15. Demystifying traditional herbal medicine with modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Shuang; Weng, Jing-Ke

    2017-07-31

    Plants have long been recognized for their therapeutic properties. For centuries, indigenous cultures around the world have used traditional herbal medicine to treat a myriad of maladies. By contrast, the rise of the modern pharmaceutical industry in the past century has been based on exploiting individual active compounds with precise modes of action. This surge has yielded highly effective drugs that are widely used in the clinic, including many plant natural products and analogues derived from these products, but has fallen short of delivering effective cures for complex human diseases with complicated causes, such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases. While the plant kingdom continues to serve as an important source for chemical entities supporting drug discovery, the rich traditions of herbal medicine developed by trial and error on human subjects over thousands of years contain invaluable biomedical information just waiting to be uncovered using modern scientific approaches. Here we provide an evolutionary and historical perspective on why plants are of particular significance as medicines for humans. We highlight several plant natural products that are either in the clinic or currently under active research and clinical development, with particular emphasis on their mechanisms of action. Recent efforts in developing modern multi-herb prescriptions through rigorous molecular-level investigations and standardized clinical trials are also discussed. Emerging technologies, such as genomics and synthetic biology, are enabling new ways for discovering and utilizing the medicinal properties of plants. We are entering an exciting era where the ancient wisdom distilled into the world's traditional herbal medicines can be reinterpreted and exploited through the lens of modern science.

  16. [Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Oren, Amnon; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2006-10-01

    Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and (Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety of these herbal remedies.

  17. rapid detection of microbial contamination in ghana- ian herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... SUMMARY. Background: There is widespread use of herbal medi- cines across the world and the need for regulatory measures to ensure their safety, efficacy and quality is therefore imperative. Conventional microbiological methods are used in carrying out quality control analy- sis of herbal medicines but ...

  18. Formulation Studies on the Water Extract of the Antidiabetic Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes is a condition of the body where metabolism of sugar is hampered by lack of adequate production of insulin from the organ, pancreas. Herbal remedies for diabetics have become increasingly relevant due to their wide acceptability and minimal toxicity. Bitter leaf is one of such herbal medicines for diabetes and ...

  19. Analysis of some selected toxic metals in registered herbal products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty brands of herbal remedies were purchased randomly from the Pharmacy shops in Lagos, digested with aquaregia (3:1 HCl: HNO3) and were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (Buck 205 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). There was no detectable lead in any of the 20 herbal samples; however, ...

  20. The effects of carbonated alcoholic herbal beverage on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Carbonated Alcoholic herbal beverages (CAHB) are a menace in our society as the drink is grossly abused; this study is therefore aimed at investigating the Histomorphological, selected hepatorenal function indices and some hematological parameters effects induced by a Carbonated Alcoholic Herbal Beverage that ...

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metal Content of Branded Pakistani Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the heavy metals present in branded Pakistani herbal medicines used in the management of various human ailments. Method: The herbal dosage forms assessed were tablets, capsules and syrups. The samples were prepared for analysis by wet digestion method using nitric acid and perchloric acid ...

  2. Safety of herbal preparations on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use and availability of herbal preparations covered by food law is increasing in the Netherlands and in other European Member States. Correspondingly, safety concerns relating to herbal preparations are growing as well. The aim of the present PhD project was therefore to review the toxicity of

  3. Pattern of herbal medicine utilization among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there is a statistically significant association between ethnic group, religion and utilization of herbal drugs(p<0.05). Conclusion: Herbal drugs utilization among the students is very high and many of the students combine it with orthodox drugs. The school health programme should be strengthened and the students ...

  4. Chinese herbal medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi

    2004-01-01

    To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....

  5. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  6. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  7. An Overview of Herbal Medicine Research and Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research pattern in medicinal plants and traditional medicine practices in Nigeria is largely unknown. Hence this paper examined such research patterns with a view to determining how the country fared in herbal medicine research and development. The study also identified the number of herbal medicine scientific ...

  8. Barriers to Herbal Medicine Research in Nigeria; Researcher's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the barriers to herbal medicine research in Nigeria. This is with a view to formulating appropriate strategies that would be deployed to overcome the identified barriers to herbal medicine research. The paper therefore identified and discussed some of these inherent barriers such as the standardization of ...

  9. Traditional herbal medicines used in neonates and infants less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicine use in children , adults and other groups have been documented but little information is known about the use herbal medicine mixtures in neonates and infants less than six months old. This is important because pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics changes between infants and adults ...

  10. Herbal Medicines: Socio-Demographic Characteristics And Pattern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbal medicines are used by patients, mostly without the knowledge of their Doctors and other Health providers. The presentation, course and outcomes of the patient's condition may thus be affected. There has been a lot of concern recently about the use of herbal medicines. The Ghana Food and Drugs Board has come ...

  11. Chinese herbal medicine and prednisone increase proportion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study investigated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and prednisone onCD4+FoxP3+ T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells in the MRL/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: MRL/lpr mice were treated with herbal medicine (yin-nourishing and heat-clearing therapy), prednisone, and a ...

  12. Microbial Load And Antimicrobial Property Of Two Nigerian Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative phytochemical screening of the herbal remedies revealed the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinone and cardiac glycosides which suggest possible antimicrobial effect. However, the presence of microbial contaminants in the herbal remedies suggests that they may serve as source of infection to ...

  13. Commercial herbal medicines used as African traditional medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.E. Mothibe, E Osuch, C.P. Kahler-Venter ... With commercialisation and marketing, some of the herbal medicines (HMs) used are readily ... The HM Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the THC test.

  14. The organoleptic and microbial quality of some herbal medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The WHO has advocated for the integration of herbal medicinal products into the primary health care system of developing countries. Safety, however, is a concern to the drug regulatory bodies. This study was carried out to determine the organoleptic properties and the microbial quality of herbal products ...

  15. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups ( Arctocephalus australis ) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms ( Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls ( Larus dominicanus ) and dolphin gulls ( Leucophaeus scoresbii ) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull-fur seal relationship.

  16. Arseno-sugars from brown kelp (Ecklonia radiata) as intermediates in cycling of Arsenic in a marine ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, J S; Francesconi, K A

    1981-02-12

    The high concentration (relative to seawater) of arsenic in many marine animals eaten as human food has stimulated interest in the cycling of arsenic in the marine environment. Although arsenic is present in arsenobetaine ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/As/sup +/CH/sub 2/COO/sup -/) in the wester rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus), the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and the school whiting (Sillago bassensis) it is not clear what intermediate stages are involved in the biosynthesis of this compound from arsenate, the major form of arsnenic in seawater. We now report the isolation of the two main arsenical constituents of the brown kelp, Ecklonia radiata, and their identification as a 2-hydroxy-3-sulphopropyl-5-deoxy-5-(dimethylarsenoso)furanoside and a 2,3-dihydroxypropyl-5-deoxy-5-(dimethylarsenoso)furanoside. A ..beta..-ribo structure for the sugar system is strongly indicated in each case. Ecklonia is the major organisms that concentrates arsenic in the coastal ecosystem to which the western rock lobster and school whiting belong. It is clear that the compounds described here could readily be further metabolized to arsenobetaine and may well be the source of arsenobetaine in marine fauna associated with the region.

  17. Dewatering treatments to increase dry matter content of the brown seaweed, kelp (Laminaria digitata ((Hudson) JV Lamouroux)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe A; Turner, Lesley B; Adams, Jessica M M; Dyer, Philip W; Theodorou, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable biorefining, including fuel production. Silage is a reduced-water, compactable, easily stored, transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass, but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the year. Treatments included air-drying, osmotic media and acids. Significant interactions between treatment and harvest-time were observed for traits of interest. Fresh weight loss during treatment was composed of changes in water and dry matter content. Air-drying gave reliable increase in final dry matter content; in summer and autumn 30% dry matter content was reached after 24h. Dilute hydrochloric acid reduced stickiness and rendered material suitable for dewatering by screw-pressing; it may be possible to use the consequent pH reduction to promote efficient preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P

    2013-10-25

    Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2008-08-01

    Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio. Significant challenges exist in determining shared concepts of social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio across international research collaborations. However, we argue that collaborative partnership, including democratic deliberation, offers the context and process by which many of the ethical challenges in international herbal medicine research can, and should be, resolved. By "cross-training" investigators, and investing in safety-monitoring infrastructure, the issues identified by this comprehensive framework can promote ethically sound international herbal medicine research that contributes to global health.

  20. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yi Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy.

  1. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Tavakoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult.

  3. Herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunay, Munevver; Aypak, Cenk; Yikilkan, Hulya; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used all over the world, and herbal medicines are the most preferred ways of CAM. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2014 among patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL) in Family Medicine Department of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, in Ankara. A questionnaire about herbal drug use was applied by face to face interview to the participants. A total of 217 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 56.6 ± 9.7 years (55 male and 162 female). The rate of herbal medicine use was 29%. Herbal medicine use among female gender was significantly higher (P = 0.040). Conventional medication use was found to be lower among herbal medicine consumers. There was no relationship between herbal medicine use and type of chronic disease, living area, and occupation or education level. Most frequently used herbs were lemon (39.6%) and garlic (11.1%) for HT, cinnamon (12.7%) for DM, and walnut (6.3%) for HL. In this study, herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore, physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines.

  4. Concurrent Use of Herbal and Orthodox Medicines among Residents of Tamale, Northern Ghana, Who Patronize Hospitals and Herbal Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Halimatu-Sadia; Habib, Rabiatu Hamisu; Gbedema, Stephen Yao

    2018-01-01

    Despite the development of more researched and formulated orthodox medicines, herbal medicines continue to be well patronized for persons across the world with some patrons concurrently using both forms, oblivious of the unwanted effects that may occur. Using a multistage sampling procedure, a semistructured questionnaire was used to collect data in April 2016 from 240 informants from three selected hospitals and three herbal clinics in Tamale, a city in northern Ghana. Using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, binary logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic predictors of concurrent use of herbal and orthodox medicines. Orthodox medicines were the drug of choice for 54.2% and 49.2% of patrons of hospitals and herbal clinics, respectively. Also, 67.5% of herbal clinic patrons used orthodox medicines, while 25.0% of hospital attendees used herbal medications prior to their visit to the health facilities. Up to 17.9% of respondents concurrently used herbal and orthodox medicines for their prevailing ailment with age, less than 30 years being the only predictor of this habit (p = 0.015; 95% CI, 1.183–4.793; cOR = 2.4). All health professionals including those in herbal clinics should therefore be interested in the drug history of their clients. PMID:29743917

  5. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  6. Acute effects of a weight loss supplement on resting metabolic rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response to the increasing incidence of obesity, a large number of weight loss supplements (WLS) have become available that proclaim to stimulate weight loss and perceived energy. The purpose of the study was to examine a WLS containing caffeine blended with herbal extracts to elucidate the effects of the WLS on ...

  7. USE OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Kores Plesničar

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. »Lost illusions« about conventionalmedicine, together with the orientation towards the »natural«way of life, lead into ever increasing use of alternative or complementaryways of treatment. Herbal medicines are enteringinto psychiatric practice with the intention of treatment (mostlyself-treatment psychiatric symptoms. Side effects may includechanges of mood, thinking processes or behaviour, and interactionswith psychiatric medications.Conclusions. With this article we would like to draw attentionto common self-treatment or self-medication in persons withpsychiatric symptoms, and to the equally common fact that thephysicians are – more often than not – unacquainted withthis practice. Some of the most frequently used herbal medicinesare presented in the article (registered in Slovenia as classC medicinal products. Regardless of their extensive use andimplementation of regulatory procedures, in most cases qualitativeand quantitative data are insufficient for final conclusionsabout their efficacy and safety to be reliable. Partial exceptionto this represents the use of St. John’s worth in the treatmentof depression and ginkgo in the treatment of memoryimpairments in dementia. Self-treatment in general populationshould not be neglected, however, full professional scepticismshould be maintained.

  8. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.

  9. The regulation of herbal medicines in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity

  10. Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a

  11. [Suggestions to strengthen quality management of herbal decoction pieces--based on production chain of herbal decoction pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing

    2015-08-01

    With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise.

  12. Evaluation of effectiveness and safety of a herbal compound in primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo Palmieri,1,2 Paola Contaldi,1 Giuseppe Fogliame1 1ANARDI Medical and Scientific Association, Scafati, Italy; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Niguarda Cà Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy Background and purpose: Sleep disturbances and related daytime activities impairment are common diseases nowadays. General practitioners are often the first health care professional asked to alleviate sleep disturbances and primary insomnia symptoms. Beyond a wide class of hypnotic drugs, botanicals can represent an alternative treatment for those kinds of symptoms. The scope of the present study is to evaluate safety and effectiveness of a herbal compound composed of valerian, hop, and jujube (Vagonotte® on primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes.Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty subjects with sleep disturbances symptoms were randomized in two branches of 60 persons each, receiving the herbal compound or placebo at dosage of two pills per day 30 minutes before their scheduled bedtime. All subjects were screened for precise items related to sleep quality and daytime activity at the beginning, after 10 days, and after 20 days of consecutive dietary supplement (or placebo consumption. The participants remained blind to group assignment until all of them completed the trial.Results: Sleep onset, numbers of nocturnal awakenings, and overall nocturnal slept time were assessed. A statistically significant difference between the two groups emerged. The group receiving the herbal compound showed a lower time of sleep onset compared to placebo group, the same result was obtained for total slept time and night awakenings frequency (p<0.001. Daily symptom improvement in subjects receiving the herbal compound showed significant reduction in tension and irritability, difficulty in concentration, and fatigue intensity, if compared to placebo scores (p<0.001. None of the 60 subjects in the verum group

  13. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.

  14. [Research and development on efficacy of Chinese herbal compound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Xun; Ren, Jian-Xun; Lin, Cheng-Ren

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy not only is summarized by clinical effect of Chinese herbal compound on theory of traditional Chinese medicine, but also is manifested to clinical effect by interaction of many intricate chemical substances. The efficacy of Chinese herbal compound is current research focus in field of traditional Chinese medicine. By currently knowing in different aspects which included the progression in efficacy of Chinese herbal compound, symptomatic efficacy of Chinese herbal compound, the relationship between the efficacy and pharmacologic effect of Chinese herbal compound, the efficacy related pharmacodynamic substance and the evaluation of efficacy, it had been summarized mainly problems and methods in research and development process of the efficacy of Chinese herbal compound in this paper. Paper also elucidated problems that need to pay attention in research of efficacy in order to provide references for clinical and experimental studies of efficacy in Chinese herbal compound, boost research and development level of new traditional Chinese drug and facilitate modernization of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Herbal Medicine in Ischemic Stroke: Challenges and Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Bhakta Prasad

    2018-04-01

    Herbal medicines, mainly of plant source, are invaluable source for the discovery of new therapeutic agents for all sorts of human ailments. The complex pathogenesis of stroke and multifactorial effect of herbal medicine and their active constituents may suggest the promising future of natural medicine for stroke treatment. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, neuroprotective and vascular protective effect of herbal medicines are believed to be efficacious in stroke treatment. Herbs typically have fewer reported side effects than allopathic medicine, and may be safer to use over longer period of time. Herbal medicines are believed to be more effective for the longstanding health complaints, such as stroke. Several medicinal plants and their active constituents show the promising results in laboratory research. However failure in transformation of laboratory animal research to the clinical trials has created huge challenge for the use of herbal medicine in stroke. Until and unless scientifically comprehensive evidence of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine in ischemic stroke patients is available, efforts should be made to continue implementing treatment strategies of proven effectiveness. More consideration should be paid to natural compounds that can have extensive therapeutic time windows, perfect pharmacological targets with few side effects. Herbal medicine has excellent prospective for the treatment of ischemic stroke, but a lot of effort should be invested to transform the success of animal research to human use.

  16. Microbial quality of some medicinal herbal products in Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazroi Arani Navid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of medicinal plants has risen worldwide. In Iran, herbal waters and rose waters are of traditional medicinal products and as a result, they are widespreadly consumed. Therefore, diagnosis of microbial quality of these products is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial quality of herbal extracts distributed in Kashan, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, 256 samples of herbal waters and 191 samples of rose waters (total samples of 447 distributed in Kashan during 2012 to 2013 were purchased and transferred to laboratory. Then microbial tests such as total aerobic bacterial count, mold and yeast count, total coliforms, and detection of Enterococcus, Pseudomonas and sulphite-reducing Clostridia were evaluated based on national standard of Iran. Results: Contamination with Pseudomonas and Enterococcus was observed in the herbal water samples. 196 cases (43.84% of the total samples, 113 cases (44.15% of the herbal waters and 83 cases (43.45% of the rose waters were usable based on the national standard of Iran. Neither herbal waters nor rosewater samples were contaminated by E.Coli and Sulphite-reducing clostridia. Additionally, none of the rosewater samples was contaminated by Coliforms and Pseudomonas. Conclusion: Based on the findings and due to the fact that these products are contaminated with aerobic mesophilic bacteria, mold and yeast, to minimize the risks we recommend to apply pasteurized temperature, high-quality packaging material and hygiene observance in processing time of herbal waters and rose waters.

  17. Species Adulteration in the Herbal Trade: Causes, Consequences and Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirama, Ramanujam; Santhosh Kumar, J U; Seethapathy, G S; Newmaster, Steven G; Ragupathy, S; Ganeshaiah, K N; Uma Shaanker, R; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2017-08-01

    The global economy of the international trade of herbal products has been increasing by 15% annually, with the raw material for most herbal products being sourced from South and Southeast Asian countries. In India, of the 8000 species of medicinal plants harvested from the wild, approximately 960 are in the active trade. With increasing international trade in herbal medicinal products, there is also increasing concern about the widespread adulteration and species admixtures in the raw herbal trade. The adverse consequences of such species adulteration on the health and safety of consumers have only recently begun to be recognised and documented. We provide a comprehensive review of the nature and magnitude of species adulteration in the raw herbal trade, and identify the underlying drivers that might lead to such adulteration. We also discuss the possible biological and chemical equivalence of species that are used as adulterants and substitutes, and the consequences thereof to consumer health and safety, and propose a framework for the development of a herbal trade authentication service that can help regulate the herbal trade market.

  18. [Key points of poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry and classification of recommended Chinese herbal medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Su, Gang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Lan-Ping; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian

    2017-11-01

    To build a well-off society in an all-round way, eliminate poverty, improve people's livelihood and improve the level of social and economic development in poverty-stricken areas is the frontier issues of the government and science and technology workers at all levels. Chinese herbal medicine is the strategic resource of the people's livelihood, Chinese herbal medicine cultivation is an important part of China's rural poor population income. As most of the production of Chinese herbal medicine by the biological characteristics of their own and the interaction of natural ecological environment factors, showing a strong regional character.the Ministry of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the State Council Poverty Alleviation Office and other five departments jointly issued the "China Herbal Industry Poverty Alleviation Action Plan (2017-2020)", according to local conditions of guidance and planning of Chinese herbal medicine production practice, promote Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation related work In this paper, based on the relevant data of poverty-stricken areas, this paper divides the areas with priority to the poverty alleviation conditions of Chinese herbal medicine industry, and analyzes and catalogs the list of Chinese herbal medicines grown in poverty-stricken areas at the macro level. The results show that there are at least 10% of the poor counties in the counties where the poverty-stricken counties and the concentrated areas are concentrated in the poverty-stricken areas. There is already a good base of Chinese herbal medicine industry, which is the key priority area for poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry. Poverty-stricken counties, with a certain degree of development of Chinese medicine industry poverty alleviation conditions, the need to strengthen the relevant work to expand the foundation and capacity of Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation; 37% of poor counties to develop Chinese medicine

  19. Herbal remedies: issues in licensing and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, D M; Po, A L

    1999-10-01

    In recent years, the use of alternative therapies has become widespread. In particular, there has been a resurgence in the public's demand for herbal remedies, despite a lack of high-quality evidence to support the use of many of them. Given the increasing pressures to control healthcare spending in most countries, it is not surprising that attention is being focused on the cost effectiveness of herbal remedies. We address the question of whether there is sufficient information to enable the assessment of the cost effectiveness of herbal remedies. In so doing, we discuss the current state of play with several of the more high-profile alternative herbal remedies [Chinese medicinal herbs for atopic eczema, evening primrose oil, ginkgo biloba, hypericum (St John's wort)] and some which have made the transition from being alternative to being orthodox remedies. We use historical context to discuss, on the one hand, the increasing commodification of herbal remedies and on the other, the trend towards greater regulatory control and licensing of alternative herbal remedies. We argue that unless great care is exercised, these changes are not necessarily in the best interests of patients. In order to identify cost-effective care, we need reliable information about the costs as well as the efficacy and safety of the treatments being assessed. For most alternative therapies, such data are not available. We believe that studies to gather such data are long overdue. Whilst we argue strongly in favour of control of some herbal remedies, we urge caution with the trend towards licensing of all herbal remedies. We argue that the licensing of those herbal remedies with equivocal benefits and few risks, as evidenced by a long history of safe use, increases barriers to entry and increases societal healthcare costs.

  20. Egg masses of the Patagonian squid Doryteuthis (Amerigo gahi attached to giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera in the sub-Antarctic ecoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Rosenfeld

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Egg masses of the Patagonian squid Doryteuthis (Amerigo gahi attached to giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera in the Magellanic channels of the sub-Antarctic ecoregion in southern South America is documented for the first time. Of seven egg masses observed between 2008 and 2011, one was taken to the laboratory to be analysed and photographed. Comprising long transparent capsules containing eggs, the masses were strongly attached to the stipes of M. pyrifera. This macroalgae is a potentially important economic resource due to its multiple industrial uses; this study shows that it also serves an important ecological role as a spawning substrate for D. gahi.

  1. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: The sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Psammechinus miliaris occurs in the Clyde Sea area in large numbers (diet of rotting weed but not on fresh weed. Large seasonal variation existed, however, with fast growth occurring in June-August and little, or no, growth in December-February, irrespective of diet. Starved controls did not grow. Correcting for seasonality, rotting kelp still promoted faster growth of young urchins than did fresh weed. Larger (older) individuals showed no difference. Urchins fed fresh weed had significantly longer gut retention times. Protein absorption efficiency was higher on fresh than rotting weed, varying with weed protein content and size of urchin. Very young individuals can only digest high protein weed efficiently, eg. material derived from near the frond meristem. Organic carbon content of rotting weed was significantly lower than fresh weed. Carbon absorption efficiencies were significantly higher on fresh weed which related to organic carbon content. Standard-sized urchins fed rotting weed produced larger dry weights of faeces per day, reflecting increased ingestion rate. In closed-system choice experiments urchins preferred rotting weed kinetically. Size-frequency analysis of field populations suggested that weed beds are principally colonized by larval settlement from the plankton. Mature Psammechinus have evolved different 'strategies' for exploiting fresh and rotting weed. Fresh weed is relatively difficult to digest and long gut retention times allow high protein absorption efficiencies to be attained. Rotting weed has microbial protein in quantities and a lower organic carbon fraction. Some bacterial protein is seemingly unavailable though and lower protein absorption efficiencies result. Thus gut retention time is shortened and more food passed through the gut. Growth remains equivalent. Substratum digestion is of paramount importance for Psammechinus feeding on either fresh or rotting weed, cf. the 'classical' microbe-stripping detritivore of Fenchel.

  2. A phylogeographic investigation of the kelp genus Laminaria (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae), with emphasis on the South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Mark D; Mattio, Lydiane; Anderson, Robert J; Bolton, John J

    2017-08-01

    The genus Laminaria has a wide distribution range compared with other kelp genera because it is found in both the North and the South Atlantic, on both sides of the North Pacific, as well as in the Mediterranean. Hypotheses behind this biogeographical pattern have been discussed by several authors but have not yet been fully evaluated with time-calibrated phylogenies. Based on the analysis of four molecular markers (ITS2, rbcL, atp8 and trnWI), our goal was to reassess the Laminaria species diversity in South Africa, assess its relationship with the other species distributed in the South Atlantic and reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus. Our results confirm the occurrence of a single species, L. pallida, in southern Africa, and its sister relationship with the North Atlantic L. ochroleuca. Both species belonged to a clade containing the other South Atlantic species: L. abyssalis from Brazil, and the Mediterranean L. rodriguezii. Our time-calibrated phylogenies suggest that Laminaria originated in the northern Pacific around 25 mya, followed by at least two migration events through the Bering Strait after its opening (~5.32 mya). Today, the first is represented by L. solidungula in the Arctic, while the second gave rise to the rest of the Atlantic species. The colonization of the North Atlantic was followed by a gradual colonization southward along the west coast of Europe, into the Mediterranean (~2.07 mya) and two recent, but disconnected, migrations (~1.34 and 0.87 mya) across the equator, giving rise to L. abyssalis in Brazil and L. pallida in southern Africa, respectively. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Alteration of sexual reproduction and genetic diversity in the kelp species Laminaria digitata at the southern limit of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Valeria Oppliger

    Full Text Available Adaptation to marginal habitats at species range-limits has often been associated with parthenogenetic reproduction in terrestrial animals and plants. Laboratory observations have shown that brown algae exhibit a high propensity for parthenogenesis by various mechanisms. The kelp Laminaria digitata is an important component of the ecosystem in Northern European rocky intertidal habitats. We studied four L. digitata populations for the effects of marginality on genetic diversity and sexual reproduction. Two populations were marginal: One (Locquirec, in Northern Brittany was well within the geographic range, but was genetically isolated from other populations by large stretches of sandy beaches. Another population was at the range limits of the species (Quiberon, in Southern Brittany and was exposed to much higher seasonal temperature changes. Microsatellite analyses confirmed that these populations showed decreased genetic and allelic diversity, consistent with marginality and genetic isolation. Sporophytes from both marginal populations showed greatly diminished spore-production compared to central populations, but only the southern-limit population (Quiberon showed a high propensity for producing unreduced (2N spores. Unreduced 2N spores formed phenotypically normal gametophytes with nuclear area consistent with ≥2N DNA contents, and microsatellite studies suggested these were produced at least in part by automixis. However, despite this being the dominant path of spore production in Quiberon sporophyte individuals, the genetic evidence indicated the population was maintained mostly by sexual reproduction. Thus, although spore production and development showed the expected tendency of geographical parthenogenesis in marginal populations, this appeared to be a consequence of maladaptation, rather than an adaptation to, life in a marginal habitat.

  4. Ethnoveterinary importance of herbal galactogogues - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mohanty

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Galactogogues elicit pharmacological effects, resulting in increased prolactin concentration through interactions with dopamine receptors and thereby augmenting milk supply. Commercially available synthetic drugs induce adverse effect on the neuro-endocrine axis of lactation physiology. Their prolonged uses have caused toxicity which opens a detrimental platform to normal health status of both human and animals. So the researchers have developed a keen interest in traditional herbs, because these are easily available, cheap and with a hope that they may not leave any toxic residues in milk. Phyto-pharmacological research on natural products can contribute for the discovery of new active compounds with novel structures which may serve as a lead for the development of new galactogogues. Although majority of these herbal preparations have not been evaluated their traditional use suggests that they are safe and effective. The purpose of this review paper was to succinctly review recent progress made in the field of commercially available and tranditional galactogogues.

  5. Herbal medicine, Chaplin, and "The Kid".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Zilletti, Lucilla

    2012-06-01

    At variance with other largely safe complementary alternative medicines like homeopathy and acupuncture, which only carry the risk of inducing patients to shun effective treatment, herbal remedies are real, albeit impure, drugs and therefore fully capable of producing undesirable consequences if misused. The advantages they offer are uncertain since genuine evidence of efficacy and effectiveness is present in only a few cases. A result of this imbalance is that studies in this field are considerably more meaningful when they deal with untoward effects than with therapeutic uses. This disproportion has suggested to us the curious similarity with the situation portrayed in the film "The Kid" where the essential task of the protagonist (Chaplin) is to repair the windows his stone-throwing child has just broken. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ghasemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil’s claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle.

  7. The Clinical Study on Acupuncture Sensation in CC, CF and BV Herbal Acupuncture -The Basic Study on Placebo Herbal Acupuncture-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Jung-Chul

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to find out whether NS(normal saline is able to be constituted as an appropriate control group for CC(Cervi Cornu Parvum herbal acupuncture, CF(Carthami-Flos herbal acupuncture and BV(bee venom herbal acupuncture. Methods : NS and three herbal acupuncture were inserted into Quchi(LI 11 of the subjects. After 5 minutes the subjects completed a questionnaire rating the intensity of 21 kinds of acupuncture sensation; hurting, penetrating, sharp, aching, intense, spreading, radiating, tingling, pricking, stinging, pulling, heavy, dull, numb, electric, shocking, hot, burning, cool, pulsing, and throbbing. We compared subjective evaluations of acupuncture sensation between or among the groups. Results : As for CC half items of the acupuncture sensation were significantly different from NS. As for CF all items were not significantly different from NS. As for CC all items were significantly different from NS except one item. In general the score of CF acupuncture sensation was lower than the others and the score of BV acupuncture sensation was higher than the others from comparison of sensation among herbal acupunctures(CC, CF, BV. Conclusion : We found that NS is able to be an appropriate placebo herbal acupuncture for CF. Further study is needed for new placebo herbal acupuncture for CC and BV.

  8. Facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use in Accra, Ghana: an inductive exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. Methods The study employed an inductive exploratory qua...

  9. Effect of Chinese herbal medicine on stroke patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lin, Jung-Chun; Lin, Chih-Chien; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Ying-Ju

    2017-03-22

    Complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) include stroke, which is a cerebrovascular disturbance characterized by reduced blood flow in the brain, leading to death or physical disability. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in ancient China for the treatment of diabetes and stroke by supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation. This study aimed to investigate the frequencies and patterns of CHM treatment for stroke patients with T2D and the outcomes of long-term use in Taiwan. We identified 3079 stroke patients (ICD-9-CM: 430-438) with T2D. We allocated 618 stroke patients, matched for age, gender, and T2D-to-stroke duration, to both CHM and non-CHM groups. Chi-square test, conditional multivariable logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test were used in this study. The CHM group was characterized by more cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ulcer disease, hyperlipidemia, tobacco use, and higher income. The cumulative survival probability was higher in the CHM group (Pherbs, respectively. The use of CHM as adjunctive therapy may improve the overall survival (OS) of stroke patients with T2D. The list of the comprehensive herbal medicines that they used might be useful in future large-scale, randomized clinical investigations of agent effectiveness, safety, and potential interactions with conventional treatments in stroke patients with T2D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of dietary supplements by female seniors in a large Northern California health plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Donna M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged ≥ 65 years are high utilizers of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and many of these women are also taking dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use by older women is a concern because of possible side effects and drug-supplement interactions. The primary aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture of dietary supplement use among older women in a large health plan in Northern California, USA, to raise awareness among health care providers and pharmacists about the need for implementing structural and educational interventions to minimize adverse consequences of self-directed supplement use. A secondary aim was to raise awareness about how the focus on use of herbals and megavitamins that has occurred in most surveys of complementary and alternative therapy use results in a significant underestimate of the proportion of older women who are using all types of dietary supplements for the same purposes. Methods We used data about use of different vitamin/mineral (VM supplements and nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM supplements, including herbals, from a 1999 general health survey mailed to a random sample of adult members of a large Northern California health plan to estimate prevalence of and characteristics associated with supplement use among women aged 65–84 (n = 3,109. Results Based on weighted data, 84% had in the past 12 months used >1 dietary supplement, 82% a VM, 59% a supplement other than just multivitamin or calcium, 32% an NVNM, and 25% an herbal. Compared to white, nonHispanic women, African-Americans and Latinas were significantly less likely to use VM and NVNM supplements and Asian/Pacific Islanders were less likely to use NVNM supplements. Higher education was strongly associated with use of an NVNM supplement. Prevalence did not differ by number of prescription medications taken. Among white, nonHispanic women, multiple logistic regression models showed that college

  11. Herbal carrier-based floating microparticles of diltiazem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydrochloride using psyllium husk and sodium alginate as natural herbal carriers to improve the ... Keywords: Diltiazem, Cardiac disease, Psyllium husk, Sodium alginate, Microsphere, ..... Barkai A, Pathak YV, Benita S. Polyacrylate (Eudragit.

  12. Herbal antihyperlipidemic formulation of cocoa tea: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 month, and body weight as well as total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL ... the cardiovascular complications associated with diet-induced obesity. ... Over the last few decades, hundreds of Chinese herbal.

  13. Assessment of the State of Herbal Medicines Research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were incremental or modification of products/process (58 %), continuous improvement of ... Strategies to enhance herbal medicine R&D were increased funding (36.3 %) ... the production of these new and improved .... brands, among others.

  14. Quantitative ethnobotanical study of common herbal remedies used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    standing use of herbal remedies. The present ethnobotanical survey was geared towards documenting and preserving local knowledge pertaining to common medicinal plants (MP) used as therapeutic agents in Mauritius. Methods: Interviews were ...

  15. Assessment of effectiveness of traditional herbal medicine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess efficacy of a South African traditional herbal medicine in ... Participants: Seven men and 26 women aged between 22 and 43 years took part ... (70%) and urogenital lesions (100%), resumption of workplace duties (60%), ...

  16. Herbal therapy for advanced breast cancer. Personal experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Between 1995 and 2001, 100 patients with adv lnced breast ... treated herbal therapy following palliative mastectorr:y. ... Referral and Teaching Hospital in Kenya between ... metastases in bone, liver and lungs were destroyed.

  17. Chinese herbal decoction as a complementary therapy for atrophic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the treatment of atrophic gastritis (AG) in China and other Far Eastern countries. ... However, the H. pylori eradication effect of CHD was not supported by the ... Keywords: atrophic gastritis; Helicobacter pylori; Chinese herbal decoction; ...

  18. Traditional herbal medicines used in neonates and infants less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-10

    Nov 10, 2015 ... wet and dry climateand experiences two rainy seasons, with the heaviest ... and infants and the herbal medicines used in the treat- ment of ... eyes (neonatal jaundice). Amongst ..... treatment of oral diseases in Burkina Faso. J.

  19. Willingness of Herbal Medicine Practitioners and Herbs Vendors to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willingness of Herbal Medicine Practitioners and Herbs Vendors to Contribute Financially to Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Ibadan, ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The earlier version of this paper had some errors.

  20. [Research progress on current pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin

    2011-03-01

    In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction.

  1. Monitoring of essential and toxic metals in imported herbal teas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Teas are the most consumed beverage worldwide after water, and its consumption ... Key words: Herbal teas, food safety, health risk assessment, THQ, EDI, HI, toxic metals ...

  2. Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentration in Kano Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-23

    Sep 23, 2017 ... toxic metals in the body system of the consumers of these herbal preparations in order to attain to safe and effective ..... heavy metal availability and vegetation recovery at a grown ... World Health Organization (WHO,. 2007).

  3. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.

  4. Systematic reviews of herbal medicines--an annotated bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Vickers, A.; Saller, R.; Melchart, D.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials on herbal medicines. METHODS: Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of

  5. From hospitals to herbalists: Rx herbal medicines | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... "Equally important, their services are inexpensive — in fact, herbal medicines ... There's also a strong cultural attachment to this form of health care. ... "People and associations of traditional healers now have home gardens of ...

  6. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially

  7. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Russell, Paul J; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2013-12-04

    Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being "natural" and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order to help determining substantial equivalence using fingerprint approaches, a quantitative measurement of similarity is required. In this paper, different (dis)similarity approaches, such as (dis)similarity metrics or exploratory analysis approaches applied on herbal medicinal fingerprints, are discussed and illustrated with several case studies. Copyright © 2013

  8. Consumption of herbal products: a study of urban community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul’Afifah Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Formulation of herbs into dosage forms promotes their marketing and usage. However, if these herbal products are being taken in an unhealthy trend, they may pose risks to consumers. Aims The present study aimed to investigate herbal product consumption trends (n=550 among adults in the main cities of Malaysia. Methods A questionnaire-based, six-week cross-sectional study was conducted. Respondents were randomly selected in Shah Alam, Klang, Subang, and Kuala Lumpur. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and Chi-square test was applied where appropriate. Results Out of the 550 survey instruments distributed, 453(82.4 per cent responded. The prevalence rate of herbal products use among the adult population in the past 12 months was 71.5 per cent. Regarding the consumption profile; the consumers were mostly female (73.4 per cent, age 25–44 (72.8, and educated at tertiary level (74.8 per cent. The majority of respondents perceived that herbal products helped reduce severity of illness and improve health related quality of life, while (16.4 per cent consumed the herbal products for the treatment of menstrual problem, 71.7 per cent without the recommendation of health care professionals and 85.0 per cent of them purchased through over-the-counter retail sales. The herbal products most commonly consume were Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah (32.4 per cent, Camellia sinensis (Green Tea (32.1 per cent, Panax ginseng (Ginseng (23.8 per cent, and Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali (22.5 per cent. Conclusion This study highlights an unhealthy trend in self-prescription of herbal product consumption without healthcare professionals’ recommendation. Hence, there is an urgent need for healthcare professionals to monitor herbal product consumption.

  9. BENEFITS OF HERBAL EXTRACTS IN COSMETICS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Amreen Fatima*, Shashi Alok, Parul Agarwal, Prem Prakash Singh and Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic formulations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Even today, people in rural and urban areas depend upon herbs for traditional cosmetics. Information on the herbal cosmetics was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, informati...

  10. [Current research situation of nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Fang, Sai-Nan; Gao, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2018-02-01

    To provide the basis for the future research on the nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine through systematic and comprehensive summary of all the Chinese herbal medicines which may lead to nephrotoxicity. Foreign resources included PubMed and Cochrane library, and domestic research resources was China Food and Drug Administration(CDFA) Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center database. The databases were searched from establishment to January 1, 2017. There was no limitation on research type. 28 English studies were found, including 97 Chinese herbs or prescriptions with the risk of nephrotoxicity. The following six Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity had a large number of studies: aristolochic acid(5 studies), Tripterygium wilfordii(4 studies), Erycibe obtusifolia(2 studies), Rheum palmatum(2 studies), Ephedra sinica(2 studies), and Atractylodes lances(2 studies). The remaining 91 Chinese medicines were reported with risk of nephrotoxicity in only 1 study respectively. CDFA reported 16 Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity, including Ganmaoqing Pian(capsule), Zhenju Jiangya Pian, T. wilfordii preparation, Vc-Yinqiao Pian, Chuanhuning injection, Shuanghuanglian injection, Qingkailing injection, Lianbizhi injection, herbal decoction containing Aristolochiae Radix, Guanxin Suhe Wan, Shugan Liqi Wan, Ershiwuwei Songshi Wan, herbal decoction containing Aristolochia Fangchi, herbal granules containing root of Kaempfer Dutchmanspipe, Ganmaotong(tablets), and Longdan Xiegan Wan. Currently, in addition to aristolochic acids, the most reported Chinese herbal medicine with the risk of nephrotoxicity is T. wilfordii preparation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Clinical study on constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver.

  12. Herbal Highs: Review on Psychoactive Effects and Neuropharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Graziano, Silvia; Orsolini, Laura; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Tittarelli, Roberta; Schifano, Fabrizio; Pichini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Background: A new trend among users of new psychoactive substances’ the consumption of “herbal highs”: plant parts containing psychoactive substances. Most of the substances extracted from herbs, in old centuries were at the centre of religious ceremonies of ancient civilizations. Currently, these herbal products are mainly sold by internet web sites and easily obtained since some of them have no legal restriction. Objective: We reviewed psychoactive effects and neuropharmacology of the most ...

  13. Genotoxicity of extracts of Japanese traditional herbal medicines (Kampo)

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto, Katami; Haruo, Kuboniwa; Shunichi, Maemura; Toshihiko, Yanagisawa; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.

    2002-01-01

    The possible genotoxicity potential of 128 Japanese traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) was investigated using a bacterial reverse mutation test (the Ames test), an in vivo micronucleus test (MN test) in mouse bone marrow cells and an unscheduled DNA synthesis test (UDS test) in rat hepatocytes. Of 128 Kampo extracts examined, 98 did not induce mutations in bacteria while 30 induced mutations weakly in Salmonella typhimurium TA1537. Extracts of Scutellariae Radix, a common herbal drug, and i...

  14. Identification of adulterants in a Chinese herbal medicine by LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR and comparative in vivo study with standards in a hypertensive rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, JingQi; Sørensen, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Based on anecdotal evidence of anti-hypertensive effect of Gold Nine Soft Capsules, an in vivo study of this complex Chinese "herbal-based" medicine was initiated. Dosage of the content of Gold Nine capsules in spontaneous hypertensive rats showed a remarkably good effect. This led to further...... of a combination of commercially purchased standards was shown to be equivalent to that of the capsule content. Adulteration of herbal remedies and dietary supplements with synthetic drugs is an increasing problem that may lead to serious adverse effects. LC-MS-SPE/NMR as a method for the rapid identification...

  15. Herbal medicine for low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Hanna; Robbins, Chris; van Tulder, Maurits W; Berman, Brian M; Bombardier, Claire; Gagnier, Joel J

    2014-12-23

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific LBP. We searched the following electronic databases up to September 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Clinical Trials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Portal and PubMed; checked reference lists in review articles, guidelines and retrieved trials; and personally contacted individuals with expertise in this area. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining adults (over 18 years of age) suffering from acute, sub-acute, or chronic non-specific LBP. The interventions were herbal medicines which we defined as plants used for medicinal purposes in any form. Primary outcome measures were pain and function. A library scientist with the Cochrane Back Review Group conducted the database searches. One review author contacted content experts and acquired relevant citations. We downloaded full references and abstracts of the identified studies and retrieved a hard copy of each study for final inclusion decisions. Two review authors assessed risk of bias, GRADE criteria (GRADE 2004), and CONSORT compliance and a random subset were compared to assessments by a third individual. Two review authors assessed clinical relevance and resolved any disagreements by consensus. We included 14 RCTs (2050 participants) in this review. One trial on Solidago chilensis M. (Brazilian arnica) (20 participants) found very low quality evidence of reduction in perception of pain and improved flexibility with application of Brazilian arnica-containing gel twice daily as compared

  16. Effects of Herbal vigRX on Premature Ejaculation: A randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Ghafuri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective :   "nWe conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study todetermine the efficacy of an herbal sexual supplement (vigRX on premature ejaculation (PE. Method: "nA randomized double blind study was conducted on a fixed dose of herbal vigRX at Roozbeh Psychiatry Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample consisted of 85 married patients diagnosed withprimary PE according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Each patient underwent diagnostic evaluation by one trained psychiatrist, using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Each patient was evaluated by researchers to exclude the organic sexual dysfunctions. The patients were randomly assigned in to two groups: group 1 consisting of 42 patients receiving placebo, and group 2 consisting of 43 patients receiving 540 mg herbal vigRX for a 4-week treatment course. The effects of the drug on the ejaculatory function in each group were assessed by the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT, and the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE before and at the end of the treatment course. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (15th version.      Results: "nThe mean IELT increased 22.4 and 32.0 seconds in the placebo and the vigRX group respectively after the treatment course. The mean IELT differences between the two groups was not significant. The mean CIPE score increased 2.40 and 4.37 in the placebo and the vigRX group respectively .The mean CIPE score differences between the two groups was not significant.No side effect was reported by the subjects in neither groups during the treatment course. "nConclusion: Although the improvement in IELT and CIPE scores in the herbal vigRX group was more than the placebo group, this difference was not statistically significant. The increasing of IELT and CIPE score in the placebo group may be due to the placebo effects. Further studies with higher vigRX doses, greater sample size

  17. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

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    Yun Jeong-hun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.

  18. Formulating natural based cosmetic product - irradiated herbal lip balm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Foziah Ali; Zainab Harun

    2007-01-01

    Herbal lip balm was formulated in efforts to produce a safe product, attractive with multifunctional usage i.e. prevent chap lips, reduce mouth odour and benefits in improving the health quality. Problems faced in constructing formulations of herbal lip balm were focused to the extraction of anthocyanins, the stability of the pigments in the formulations and changes of colour during irradiation for the sterilization of herbal lip balm. Natural pigment, anthocyanin was used as a colorant agent in herbal lip balm, obtained from various herbs and vegetables i.e. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle), Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra (red cabbage) and Daucus carota (carrot). Water based extraction method was used in extracting the anthocyanins. The incorporation of honey in the formulations improved the colour of the lip balm. The usage of plant based ingredient i.e. cocoa butter substituting the normal based ingredient i.e. petroleum jelly in lip balm also affecting the colour of herbal lip balm. Irradiation at 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy was carried out as preservation and reducing of microbial load of the herbal lip balm and changes in colour were observed in formulations irradiated at 10 kGy. (Author)

  19. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  20. Clinical Studies on Herbal Acupuncture Therapy in Peripheral Facial Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin, Min-Seop

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The treatment of Bell's palsy must be divided into three states(acute, subacute and healing state. 41 cases of the patient suffering from Bell's palsy were treated and observed from january 2000 to July 2001. The usage of herbal acupunctures on that disease have been effective. So I propose a method of herbal acupunctures on Bell's palsy. Methods : By the states(acute, subacute and healing state of Bell's palsy, SY(消炎 herbal acupuncture is used at the acute state, Hominis Placenta(紫河車 at the subacute, JGH(中氣下陷 at the healing state. Results : 1. At the acute state, SY(消炎 herbal acupuncture is effective to postauricular pain. 2. At the subacute state, Hominis Placenta(紫河車 herbal acupuncture is effective to decreasing pain and improving symptoms. 3. By the states(acute, subacute and healing state of Bell's palsy, SY(消炎, Hominis Placenta(紫河車 and JGH(中氣下陷 herbal acupuncture is effective to improving symptoms of Bell's palsy.

  1. Herbal diuretics in medieval Persian and Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Bosmia, Anand N; Fakhree, Mohammad A A; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Balch, Margaret Wood; Loukas, Marios; Khodadoust, Kazem; Khalili, Majid; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2015-06-01

    In accord with the notions of humoralism that prevailed in medieval medicine, therapeutic interventions, including diuretics, were used to restore the disturbed balance among the four humors of the human body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Most diuretics were derived from plants. The primary textual reference on herbal diuretics was Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, which was written during the first century CE. The authors reviewed the medieval medical texts written in Persian and Arabic and compiled a list of 135 herbal diuretics used by the medieval medical authorities for treating various ailments. Between the 8th and 11th centuries CE, Middle Eastern physicians systematically reviewed extant books on medicine and pharmacotherapy and compiled new and expanded lists of herbal medicines, diuretics in particular. Furthermore, they introduced new chemical methods of extraction, distillation, and compounding in the use of herbal medicines. Several herbal remedies now are considered as potentially safe and affordable alternatives to chemical pharmaceuticals. Thus, research on medieval herbal therapies may prove to be relevant to the practice of current cardiovascular and renal pharmacotherapy. The authors propose that modern research methods can be employed to determine which of these agents actually are effective as diuretics.

  2. Wound Healing: Concepts and Updates in Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meria M Dan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound is a common injury due to internal and or external factors, which are subsequently associated with many immunological events, including necrosis, inflammation, etc. Significant amounts of tissue damage and infection are two silent features of wound along with other co-morbidities. Wound healing is a complex process where immunohistochemistry, tissue regeneration, and remodeling are predominant events. Since early human life, there are many traditional procedures are in use to treat wounds of various kind. However, the modern medical practices are rapidly growing in wound healing, traditional herbal medicine and use of medicinal plant products are showing equal ability and drawing the attention of medical practitioners. Herbal/traditional medicine is one of the oldest procedures in countries like India and China. In recent days, it has become reliable option in developed nations such as USA, UK, and other European nations for treatment of many deadly diseases including cancer. India is one of the biggest biodiversity reservoirs in the world with vast range of plant species and high access to the ancient medical practices. According to the WHO data and available sources, there more than 80% world population depends on herbal medical products. This indicates that despite the lack of clinical and scientific evidences, the herbal or traditional market is growing at rapid pace. In this literature review, we presented the role of herbal medicine in wound healing, some of the common medicinal plants, the quality, safety, and efficacy concerns of herbal medical products.

  3. Application of transcriptomics in Chinese herbal medicine studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Lo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People’s Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine.

  4. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W.; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified

  5. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women’s Knowledge and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Kim Sooi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1% followed by coconut oil (35.4%. The majority of women (89.2% used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38% per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%, with most women getting information from their parents (60.7% and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2% and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P<0.05. Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy.

  6. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Egras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

  7. Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbal medicines commonly used in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2017-04-18

    Herbal medicines have been used for centuries for the management and treatment of various ailments due to the belief that they pose only little or no health risk and side effects, and also, in part, due to their availability, affordability and/or self-supply. However, the increasing information over the recent years on the occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, herbal food and tea products has raised concerns about the safety of herbal medicines with respect to contamination. To this day, little is known on the occurrence of toxic PAs in herbal medicines, especially in tropical West Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the PA content of 70 well-known and widely patronized plant-derived medicinal preparations, which are commercialized in Ghana and some West African countries, in order to ascertain their potential health risk. PAs of the herbal medicinal products, sourced from specialized drugstores and mostly regulatory approved, were analyzed for their PA content by a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method. The results show that a total of 60% of the analyzed herbal products were PA positive, indicating an average PA-concentration of 25.0μg/kg. The maximum PA level (1290.0μg/kg) was attributed to a regulatory-approved herbal medicine not known, according to the list of declared ingredients, to contain PA-plant parts. Interestingly, higher PA content (average, 30.2μg/kg) was detected in regulatory-approved herbal medicines, in contrast to lower amount (average, 8.0μg/kg) detected in non-regulatory-approved products. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that herbal medicines containing PA plants as ingredients, as well as some of those containing plant species not known to produce PAs, are likely to contain hepatotoxic PA at levels higher than the daily dose in food and herbal medicinal products proposed by the European Medicines Agency (i.e. 0.35μg PA per day for 50kg adult and 0.14μg PA per day for 20kg children

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Jehn-Yu Huang, Po-Ting Yeh, Yu-Chih Hou Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extract...

  9. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2013-05-31

    Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Seven studies (six different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies) and non-comparable studies (two studies) precluded pooling of results.Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD) -3.8 points (95% confidence intervals (CI) -10.1 to 2.5), absolute reduction 4% (10% reduction to 3% increase). Hand function was 7

  10. Herbal medicine for adults with asthma: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, Johannah L; Wu, Lei; Zhang, Anthony L; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie C

    2016-08-01

    Many people with asthma use herbal medicines to help reduce symptoms and improve asthma control. To update the systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of herbal medicine for adult asthma. Nine English and Chinese databases were searched (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL, AMED, CBM, CNKI, CQVIP, Wanfang). Herbal medicines combined with routine pharmacotherapies compared with the same pharmacotherapies alone or placebo. Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and GRADE Summary of Findings tables were used to evaluate methodological quality. Twenty-nine (29) studies involving 3,001 participants were included. Herbal interventions used multi-ingredients such as licorice root, crow-dipper, astragali, and angelica. Compared with routine pharmacotherapies alone, herbal medicines as add-on therapy improved lung function (FEV1: MD 7.81%, 95% CI 5.79, 9.83, I(2) = 63%; PEFR: MD 65.14 L/min, 95% CI 58.87, 71.41, I(2) = 21%); asthma control (MD 2.47 points, 95% CI 1.64, 3.29, I(2) = 55%); reduced salbutamol usage (MD -1.14 puffs/day, 95% CI -2.20, -0.09, I(2) = 92%); and reduced acute asthma exacerbations over one year (MD -1.20, 95% CI -1.82, -0.58, one study). Compared with placebo plus pharmacotherapies herbal medicines as add-on therapy improved lung function (FEV1: MD 15.83%, 95% CI 13.54, 18.12 and PEFR: MD 55.20 L/min, 95% CI 33.41, 76.99). Other outcomes were not reported in these placebo studies. Included studies were low to moderate quality. Adverse events were rare. Herbal medicines combined with routine pharmacotherapies improved asthma outcomes greater than pharmacotherapies alone. Included studies did not blind participants therefore more studies that address such weaknesses are warranted.

  11. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  12. A Study of Ginger Herbal Pharmacopuncture for Practical Application

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    Chae-Woo Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to present the standard for practical application of ginger herbal pharmacopuncture Material and Methods : We refer to ancient literatures and the recent papers for ginger. Conclusions : The following results have been obtained 1. The effect of ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe is to "release exterior", "balance nutrient & defe nsive qi", "resolve phlegm", "arrest coughing", "warm the lungs". So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating fever, chilling sign, headchae, snuffle and gasping cough due to cold affection and treating the symptoms like sputum and asthma that be revealed by pulmonary disease. 2. The effect of ginger is to "warm spleen and stomach", "arrest vomiting" "promote normal flow of water". So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and diarrhea due to phlegm & dampness and treating edema. 3. The effect of ginger is to eliminate blood stasis. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating contusion, blood stasis, sprain and gynecologic disease. 4. Ginger can treat myalgia and pain due to wind-damp and have anti-inflammatory effect in pharmacology. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating disease of joint, ligament and muscle. 5. Ginger can resolve phlegm and resuscitate. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating unconsciousness. But, treating incipient cardiovascular accident, it needs to call your special attention to the danger of blood pressure increase. 6. In pharmacology, ginger is effective for antitumor, antioxidant effects and activating immunocyte. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating broadly varieties of tumor and allergic disease.

  13. Inappropriate Usage of Dietary Supplements in Patients by Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements. PMID:25431879

  14. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  15. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are

  16. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-09-01

    Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q 10 , glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to predict, it is prudent to advise their

  17. [The safety of herbal medicines in the psychiatric practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniel, T; Dannon, P

    2001-08-01

    The use of alternative medicines is increasing world-wide and in Israel. These drugs, considered by the Ministry of Health as food supplements, are to be obtained at pharmacies and health stores and are being sold freely, without any professional advice. Many of the herbs are used by patients to treat psychiatric disorders. These herbs have a pharmacological activity, adverse effects and interactions with conventional drugs, which can produce changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. We present the most commonly used herbal drugs, and discuss their safety and efficacy in psychiatric practice. Hypericum--used as an antidepressant and as an antiviral medicine, was reported in 23 randomized clinical trials reviewed from the MEDLINE. It was found to be significantly more effective than placebo and had a similar level of effectiveness as standard antidepressants. Recent studies almost clearly prove that this herb, like most of the conventional antidepressants, can induce mania. Valerian--is used as an anti-anxiety drug, and reported to have sedative as well as antidepressant properties. In contrast to the significant improvement in sleep that was found with the use of valerian, compared to placebo, there are several reports on the valerian root toxicity. This includes nephrotoxicity, headaches, chest tightness, mydriasis, abdominal pain, and tremor of the hands and feet. Ginseng--another plant that is widely used as an aphrodisiac and a stimulant. It has been associated with the occurrence of vaginal bleeding, mastalgia, mental status changes and Stevens-Johnson syndrome after it's chronic administration. It has interactions with digoxin, phenelzine and warfarin. Ginkgo--in clinical trials the ginkgo extract has shown a significant improvement in symptoms such as memory loss, difficulties in concentration, fatigue, anxiety, and depressed mood. Long-term use has been associated with increased bleeding time and spontaneous hemorrhage. Ginkgo should be used cautiously in

  18. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Russell, Paul J.; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Similarity analyses of herbal fingerprints are reviewed. •Different (dis)similarity approaches are discussed. •(Dis)similarity-metrics and exploratory-analysis approaches are illustrated. •Correlation and distance-based measures are overviewed. •Similarity analyses illustrated by several case studies. -- Abstract: Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being “natural” and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order

  19. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Russell, Paul J. [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Vander Heyden, Yvan, E-mail: yvanvdh@vub.ac.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Similarity analyses of herbal fingerprints are reviewed. •Different (dis)similarity approaches are discussed. •(Dis)similarity-metrics and exploratory-analysis approaches are illustrated. •Correlation and distance-based measures are overviewed. •Similarity analyses illustrated by several case studies. -- Abstract: Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being “natural” and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order

  20. What risks do herbal products pose to the Australian community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Musgrave, Ian; Maker, Garth; Bunce, Michael

    2017-02-06

    Traditional herbal products are widely used in Australia to treat a broad range of conditions and diseases. It is popularly believed that these products are safer than prescribed drugs. While many may be safe, it is worrying that the specific effects and harmful interactions of a number of their components with prescription medications is not well understood. Some traditional herbal preparations contain heavy metals and toxic chemicals, as well as naturally occurring organic toxins. The effects of these substances can be dire, including acute hepatic and renal failure, exacerbation of pre-existing conditions and diseases, and even death. The content and quality of herbal preparations are not tightly controlled, with some ingredients either not listed or their concentrations recorded inaccurately on websites or labels. Herbal products may also include illegal ingredients, such as ephedra, Asarum europaeum (European wild ginger) and endangered animal species (eg, snow leopard). An additional problem is augmentation with prescription medications to enhance the apparent effectiveness of a preparation. Toxic substances may also be deliberately or inadvertently added: less expensive, more harmful plants may be substituted for more expensive ingredients, and processing may not be adequate. The lack of regulation and monitoring of traditional herbal preparations in Australia and other Western countries means that their contribution to illness and death is unknown. We need to raise awareness of these problems with health care practitioners and with the general public.

  1. 'Omic' genetic technologies for herbal medicines in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; Ng, Chee Hong; Schweitzer, Isaac

    2012-04-01

    The field of genetics, which includes the use of 'omic' technologies, is an evolving area of science that has emerging application in phytotherapy. Omic studies include pharmacogenomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Herbal medicines, as monotherapies, or complex formulations such as traditional Chinese herbal prescriptions, may benefit from omic studies, and this new field may be termed 'herbomics'. Applying herbomics in the field of psychiatry may provide answers about which herbal interventions may be effective for individuals, which genetic processes are triggered, and the subsequent neurochemical pathways of activity. The use of proteomic technology can explore the differing epigenetic effects on neurochemical gene expression between individual herbs, isolated constituents and complex formulae. The possibilities of side effects or insufficient response to the herb can also be assessed via pharmacogenomic analysis of polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 liver enzymes or P-glycoprotein. While another novel application of omic technology is for the validation of the concept of synergy in individual herbal extracts and prescriptive formulations. Chronic administration of psychotropic herbal medicines may discover important effects on chromatin remodelling via modification of histone and DNA methylation. This paper focuses on the emerging field of herbomics, and is to our knowledge the first publication to explore this in the area of psychiatry. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawatil Isqi Zakaria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers’ performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.

  3. Literature Review: Herbal Medicine Treatment after Large-Scale Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro; Numata, Takehiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Arita, Ryutaro; Saito, Natsumi; Kikuchi, Akiko; Ohsawa, Minoru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation's experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords "disaster" and "herbal medicine" were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.

  4. Herbal Highs: Review on Psychoactive Effects and Neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Silvia; Orsolini, Laura; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Tittarelli, Roberta; Schifano, Fabrizio; Pichini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    A new trend among users of new psychoactive substances' the consumption of "herbal highs": plant parts containing psychoactive substances. Most of the substances extracted from herbs, in old centuries were at the centre of religious ceremonies of ancient civilizations. Currently, these herbal products are mainly sold by internet web sites and easily obtained since some of them have no legal restriction. We reviewed psychoactive effects and neuropharmacology of the most used "herbal highs" with characterized active principles, with studies reporting mechanisms of action, pharmacological and subjective effects, eventual secondary effects including intoxications and/or fatalities Method: The PubMed database was searched using the following key.words: herbal highs, Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea violacea and Rivea corymbosa; Catha edulis; Datura stramonium; Piper methysticum; Mitragyna speciosa. Psychoactive plants here reviewed have been known and used from ancient times, even if for some of them limited information still exist regarding subjective and neuropharmacological effects and consequent eventual toxicity when plants are used alone or in combination with "classical" drugs of abuse. Some "herbal highs" should be classified as harmful drugs since chronic administration has been linked with addiction and cognitive impairment; for some others taking into consideration only the recent trends of abuse, studies investigating these aspects are lacking. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. HIM-herbal ingredients in-vivo metabolism database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Tang, Kailin; Liu, Qi; Sun, Yi; Huang, Qi; Zhu, Ruixin; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Duanfeng; Huang, Chenggang; Cao, Zhiwei

    2013-05-31

    Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients' metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski's Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients' targets databases). A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/.

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Yui Kau Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%. Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n=17, followed by food (n=10, dietary supplements (n=3, and other herbs/botanicals (n=3. Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients’ therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ.

  3. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  4. [Mathematical exploration of essence of herbal properties based on "Three-Elements" theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Bing

    2014-10-01

    Herbal property theory of traditional Chinese medicines is the theoretical guidance on authentication of medicinal plants, herborization, preparation of herbal medicines for decoction and clinical application, with important theoretical value and prac- tical significance. Our research team proposed the "three-element" theory for herbal properties for the first time, conducted a study by using combined methods of philology, chemistry, pharmacology and mathematics, and then drew the research conclusion that herbal properties are defined as the chemical compositions-based comprehensive expression with complex and multi-level (positive/negative) biological effects in specific organism state. In this paper, researchers made a systematic mathematical analysis in four aspects--the correlation between herbal properties and chemical component factors, the correlation between herbal properties and organism state fac- tor, the correlation between herbal properties and biological effect factor and the integration study of the three elements, proposed future outlook, and provided reference to mathematical studies and mathematical analysis of herbal properties.

  5. Systematic reviews of complementary therapies - an annotated bibliography. Part 2: herbal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Vickers, A.; Saller, R.; Melchart, D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with herbal medicine.

  6. Herbal medicines that benefit epidermal permeability barrier function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal permeability barrier function plays a critical role in regulating cutaneous functions. Hence, researchers have been searching for effective and affordable regimens to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function. In addition to topical stratum corneum lipids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and liver X receptor ligands, herbal medicines have been proven to benefit epidermal permeability barrier function in both normal and diseased skin, including atopic dermatitis, glucocorticoid-induced skin damage, and UVB-damaged skin. The potential mechanisms by which herbal medicines improve the permeability barrier include stimulation of epidermal differentiation, lipid production, antimicrobial peptide expression, and antioxidation. Therefore, utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative approach to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function in order to prevent and/or treat skin disorders associated with permeability barrier abnormalities.

  7. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes.

  8. Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa Rasaq; Fakeye Titilayo O; Musa Ismail E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. De...

  9. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Patients with Proven or Suspected Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun Bin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic search of bibliographic databases was conducted to describe the prevalence of dietary supplement use in cardiac patients. Included for review were studies that investigated supplement use in people with cardiovascular risk factors or proven cardiovascular disease. Databases searched were Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Meditext, H&S and IPA. Over five hundred articles were retrieved and twenty studies met the criteria for this review. Dietary supplements were taken by a median 36% (interquartile range: 26–42% of cardiac patients; 36% (IQR 18–43% reported taking a vitamin/mineral supplement and 12% (IQR 7–21% used herbal supplements. Many users indicated that supplements were taken specifically for heart health and 16–64% of users reported using supplements alongside prescription medications. However 39–95% of treating physicians were unaware of patients’ supplement use. Dietary supplement use in patients with cardiovascular disease appears common, as does the concurrent use of supplements with prescription medicines. This information is often not communicated to doctors and treating physicians may need to be more proactive in asking about supplement use.

  10. First quantification of subtidal community structure at Tristan da Cunha Islands in the remote South Atlantic: from kelp forests to the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott L.; Davis, Kathryn; Thompson, Christopher D. H.; Turchik, Alan; Jenkinson, Ryan; Simpson, Doug; Sala, Enric

    2018-01-01

    Tristan da Cunha Islands, an archipelago of four rocky volcanic islands situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and part of the United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), present a rare example of a relatively unimpacted temperate marine ecosystem. We conducted the first quantitative surveys of nearshore kelp forests, offshore pelagic waters and deep sea habitats. Kelp forests had very low biodiversity and species richness, but high biomass and abundance of those species present. Spatial variation in assemblage structure for both nearshore fish and invertebrates/algae was greatest between the three northern islands and the southern island of Gough, where sea temperatures were on average 3-4o colder. Despite a lobster fishery that provides the bulk of the income to the Tristan islands, lobster abundance and biomass are comparable to or greater than many Marine Protected Areas in other parts of the world. Pelagic camera surveys documented a rich biodiversity offshore, including large numbers of juvenile blue sharks, Prionace glauca. Species richness and abundance in the deep sea is positively related to hard rocky substrate and biogenic habitats such as sea pens, crinoids, whip corals, and gorgonians were present at 40% of the deep camera deployments. We observed distinct differences in the deep fish community above and below ~750 m depth. Concurrent oceanographic sampling showed a discontinuity in temperature and salinity at this depth. While currently healthy, Tristan’s marine ecosystem is not without potential threats: shipping traffic leading to wrecks and species introductions, pressure to increase fishing effort beyond sustainable levels and the impacts of climate change all could potentially increase in the coming years. The United Kingdom has committed to protection of marine environments across the UKOTs, including Tristan da Cunha and these results can be used to inform future management decisions as well as provide a baseline against which future

  11. First quantification of subtidal community structure at Tristan da Cunha Islands in the remote South Atlantic: from kelp forests to the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, Jennifer E; Hamilton, Scott L; Davis, Kathryn; Thompson, Christopher D H; Turchik, Alan; Jenkinson, Ryan; Simpson, Doug; Sala, Enric

    2018-01-01

    Tristan da Cunha Islands, an archipelago of four rocky volcanic islands situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and part of the United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), present a rare example of a relatively unimpacted temperate marine ecosystem. We conducted the first quantitative surveys of nearshore kelp forests, offshore pelagic waters and deep sea habitats. Kelp forests had very low biodiversity and species richness, but high biomass and abundance of those species present. Spatial variation in assemblage structure for both nearshore fish and invertebrates/algae was greatest between the three northern islands and the southern island of Gough, where sea temperatures were on average 3-4o colder. Despite a lobster fishery that provides the bulk of the income to the Tristan islands, lobster abundance and biomass are comparable to or greater than many Marine Protected Areas in other parts of the world. Pelagic camera surveys documented a rich biodiversity offshore, including large numbers of juvenile blue sharks, Prionace glauca. Species richness and abundance in the deep sea is positively related to hard rocky substrate and biogenic habitats such as sea pens, crinoids, whip corals, and gorgonians were present at 40% of the deep camera deployments. We observed distinct differences in the deep fish community above and below ~750 m depth. Concurrent oceanographic sampling showed a discontinuity in temperature and salinity at this depth. While currently healthy, Tristan's marine ecosystem is not without potential threats: shipping traffic leading to wrecks and species introductions, pressure to increase fishing effort beyond sustainable levels and the impacts of climate change all could potentially increase in the coming years. The United Kingdom has committed to protection of marine environments across the UKOTs, including Tristan da Cunha and these results can be used to inform future management decisions as well as provide a baseline against which future monitoring

  12. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina F Marón

    Full Text Available At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales' backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974-2011 (n = 2680 and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192 in 2003-2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five, but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000.

  13. Do native grazers from Patagonia, Argentina, consume the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida? ¿Pueden los pastoreadores nativos de Patagonia, Argentina, consumir al alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida?

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    S. Valeria Teso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales was first reported in Golfo Nuevo in 1992 and since then it has spread widely over more than 170 km, all along the northern Patagonian coast, Argentina. Field observations in the region have indicated the potential role of invertebrate grazers, like the sea urchins Arbacia dufresnii and Pseudechinus magellanicus and the gastropod Tegula patagonica, in controlling algal density. Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether, and if so, to what extent these grazers actually feed on the algae. The studied sea urchins fed on the alga, whereas the snail scraped off biofouling adhered to its surface. Higher densities of grazers were observed on the kelp during summer and might be attributed to increasing in metabolism with increasing temperature, and degradation of blades and sporophylls, which possibly increase their palatability.El alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales fue reportada por primera vez en Golfo Nuevo en 1992, dispersándose ampliamente a lo largo de 170 km de costa en el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina. Observaciones de campo hechas en los erizos de mar Arbacia dufresnii y Pseudechinus magellanicus y en el gasterópodo Tegula patagonica evidenciaron que son posibles consumidores de Undaria pinnatifida en la población local. Se realizaron experimentos de laboratorio con el objetivo de probar si estos pastoreadores eran capaces de consumir el alga. Los erizos de mar estudiados consumen el alga, mientras que el gasterópodo ramonea los epibiontes presentes sobre su superficie. Altas densidades de ramoneadores fueron encontradas sobre el alga durante el verano y podrían ser atribuidas a un aumento del su metabolismo con el aumento de la temperatura y a la degradación de las láminas y esporofilos, lo cual posiblemente aumente la palatabilidad del alga.

  14. Herbs and natural supplements in the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness

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    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Unaccustomed and intense eccentric exercise is a common cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. There are multiple remedies for the treatment of DOMS, but its clinical and laboratory pieces of evidence are scarce. Currently, the treatments proposed for DOMS are numerous and include pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, stretching, massage, nutritional supplements, and other alternatives. To find a holistic treatment with effective pain relief and minimum side effects, complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal therapies, plays a main role.Methods: In this review, the existing published studies investigating the efficacy of herbal and natural supplementation therapies for the prevention or treatment of side effects, symptoms, and signs of DOMS are summarized.Results: Previous studies have documented the efficacy of herbal therapies to treat pain, inflammation, as well as laboratory and clinical side effects of DOMS.Conclusion: The use of herbs in DOMS seems safer and has lower side effects than pharmacotherapy. However, the potential for side effects and drug interactions should be considered.

  15. The potential of three different PCR-related approaches for the authentication of mixtures of herbal substances and finished herbal medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay-Knapp, Kirsten; Orland, Annika; König, Gabriele M; Knöss, Werner

    2018-04-01

    Herbal substances and preparations thereof play an important role in healthcare systems worldwide. Due to the variety of these products regarding origin, composition and processing procedures, appropriate methodologies for quality assessment need to be considered. A majority of herbal substances is administered as multicomponent mixtures, especially in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine and ayurvedic medicine, but also in finished medicinal products. Quality assessment of complex mixtures of herbal substances with conventional methods is challenging. Thus, emphasis of the present work was directed on the development of complementary methods to elucidate the composition of mixtures of herbal substances and finished herbal medicinal products. An indispensable prerequisite for the safe and effective use of herbal medicines is the unequivocal authentication of the medicinal plants used therein. In this context, we investigated the potential of three different PCR-related methods in the characterization and authentication of herbal substances. A multiplex PCR assay and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay were established to analyze defined mixtures of the herbal substances Quercus cortex, Juglandis folium, Aristolochiae herba, Matricariae flos and Salviae miltiorrhizae radix et rhizoma and a finished herbal medicinal product. Furthermore, a standard cloning approach using universal primers targeting the ITS region was established in order to allow the investigation of herbal mixtures with unknown content. The cloning approach had some limitations regarding the detection/recovery of the components in defined mixtures of herbal substances, but the complementary use of two sets of universal primer pairs increased the detection of components out of the mixture. While the multiplex PCR did not retrace all components in the defined mixtures of herbal substances, the established qPCR resulted in simultaneous and specific detection of the five target sequences in all defined

  16. The efficacy of herbal therapy on quality of life in patients with breast cancer: self-control clinical trial

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    Lai Yi Eliza Wong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Lai Yi Eliza Wong1, Chun Kwok Wong2, Ping Chung Leung3, Wei Kei Christopher Lam41Assistant Professor, Department of Community and Family Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; 2Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; 3Director, Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5/F, School of Public Health Building, Prince of Wales Hospital, NT, Hong Kong; 4Chairman, Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1/F, Clinical Sciences Building, Prince of Wales Hospital, NT, Hong KongBackground: Mounting evidence indicates that herbal therapy is effective in alleviating anxiety, lessening cancer treatment-related side-effects, and facilitating rehabilitation. This is the first trial to examine the herbal therapy of combined yunzhi and danshen on quality of life among breast cancer patients.Methods: A multicenter, longitudinal, and self-control study was used. Eighty-two breast cancer patients were given combined yunzhi and danshen capsules for six months on a daily basis. Data collection including quality of life, vitality status and adverse effects were taken.Results: Results showed a significant improvement in physical function, role-physical, role-emotion and health transition (P < 0.05. Patients also reported less fatigue, better quality of sleep, better appetite, more regular bowel movements and more stable emotions (P < 0.05. As far as side-effects were concerned, only mild discomforts including sore throat (13.4% and dry mouth (9.8% were recorded.Conclusion: The findings add clinical evidence to support the beneficial effects of herbal therapy on quality of life and vitality status in breast cancer patients. Therefore, herbal therapy has a potentially important role to play in managing psychological distress in cancer patients. This study also suggests that herbal therapy is clinically acceptable and can be used safely with breast cancer

  17. Acute kidney injury from herbal vaginal remedy in Ilorin: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute kidney injury from herbal vaginal remedy in Ilorin: a case report. TO Olanrewaju, A Chijioke, IQ Ameh, AA Adewale. Abstract. The use of traditional herbal remedy is very common worldwide, and it is associated with complications such as acute kidney injury. Herbal remedy accounts for 35% of acute kidney injury in ...

  18. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species...

  19. In vitro effects of a commercial herbal medicine used as African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Commercial herbal medicines (CHMs) being marketed as immune boosters or tonics, have gained widespread popularity. The many herbal mixtures sold have not been tested for efficacy and safety, despite their modern packaging and presentations. It is imperative that these herbal mixtures be investigated for ...

  20. Review on herbal medicine on brain ischemia and reperfusion

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    Nahid Jivad

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is known to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to oxidative damage of proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids. A decrease in tissue antioxidant capacity, an increase in lipid peroxidation as well as an increase in lipid peroxidation inhibitors have been demonstrated in several models of brain ischemia. This paper reviews the number of commonly used types of herbal medicines effective for the treatment of stroke. The aim of this paper was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to discuss whether herbal medicine can be helpful in the treatment of brain ischemia and reperfusion.