WorldWideScience

Sample records for herbaceous wetland plants

  1. Decomposition of aboveground biomass of a herbaceous wetland stand

    OpenAIRE

    KLIMOVIČOVÁ, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The master?s thesis is part of the project GA ČR č. P504/11/1151- Role of plants in the greenhouse gas budget of a sedge fen. This thesis deals with the decomposition of aboveground vegetation in a herbaceous wetland. The decomposition rate was established on the flooded part of the Wet Meadows near Třeboň. The rate of the decomposition processes was evaluated using the litter-bag method. Mesh bags filled with dry plant matter were located in the vicinity of the automatic meteorological stati...

  2. Multi-Polarization ASAR Backscattering from Herbaceous Wetlands in Poyang Lake Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyong Sang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. There is an urgent need to quantify the biophysical parameters (e.g., plant height, aboveground biomass and map total remaining areas of wetlands in order to evaluate the ecological status of wetlands. In this study, Environmental Satellite/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT/ASAR dual-polarization C-band data acquired in 2005 is tested to investigate radar backscattering mechanisms with the variation of hydrological conditions during the growing cycle of two types of herbaceous wetland species, which colonize lake borders with different elevation in Poyang Lake region, China. Phragmites communis (L. Trin. is semi-aquatic emergent vegetation with vertical stem and blade-like leaves, and the emergent Carex spp. has rhizome and long leaves. In this study, the potential of ASAR data in HH-, HV-, and VV-polarization in mapping different wetland types is examined, by observing their dynamic variations throughout the whole flooding cycle. The sensitivity of ASAR backscattering coefficients to vegetation parameters of plant height, fresh and dry biomass, and vegetation water content is also analyzed for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. and Carex spp. The research for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. shows that HH polarization is more sensitive to plant height and dry biomass than HV polarization. ASAR backscattering coefficients are relatively less sensitive to fresh biomass, especially in HV polarization. However, both are highly dependent on canopy water content. In contrast, the dependence of HH- and HV- backscattering from Carex community on vegetation parameters is poor, and the radar backscattering mechanism is controlled by ground water level.

  3. Nitrogen source tracking with δ15N content of coastal wetland plants in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory L. Bruland; Richard A.. Mackenzie

    2010-01-01

    Inter- and intra-site comparisons of the nitrogen (N) stable isotope composition of wetland plant species have been used to identify sources of N in coastal areas. In this study, we compared δ15N values from different herbaceous wetland plants across 34 different coastal wetlands from the five main Hawaiian Islands and investigated relationships of δ15N with...

  4. DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF ISOLATED HERBACEOUS WETLAND CONDITION IN FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic, epiphytic, and phytoplanktonic diatoms, as well as soil and water physical-chemical parameters, were sampled from 70 small (~1 ha) isolated depressional herbaceous wetlands located along a gradient of human disturbance in peninsular Florida to: 1) compare assemblage str...

  5. PREDICTING FIELD PERFORMANCE OF HERBACEOUS SPECIES FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of these short-term experiments coupled with ecological knowledge of the nine herbaceous plant species tested suggest that several species may by successful in on-site remediation of perchlorate. The two wetland species which appear to be most suitable for field experimen...

  6. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

    2007-12-01

    Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that

  7. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Deep Creek and Brandy Branch crossings, Nassau County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of surveys conducted July 14-18, 1992, at the Deep Creek and the Brandy Branch crossings of a pipeline installed during May 1991 in Nassau County, Florida. Both floodplains supported bottomland hardwood forests. The pipeline at the Deep Creek crossing was installed by means of horizontal directional drilling after the ROW had been clear-cut, while the pipeline at the Brandy Branch crossing was installed by means of conventional open trenching. Neither site was seeded or fertilized. At the time of sampling, a dense vegetative community, made up primarily of native perennial herbaceous species, occupied the ROW within the Deep Creek floodplain. The Brandy Branch ROW was vegetated by a less dense stand of primarily native perennial herbaceous plants. Plant diversity was also lower at the Brandy Branch crossing than at the Deep Creek crossing. The results suggest that some of the differences in plant communities are related to the more hydric conditions at the Brandy Branch floodplain.

  8. Herbaceous land plants as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Herbaceous tropical plants are a renewable energy source of major importance to many tropical nations. They convert the radiant energy of sunlight to chemical energy, which is stored in plant tissues (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) and fermentable solids (sugars, starches). Because all tropical plants do this - even those commonly regarded as weeds - they constitute an inexpensive, renewable, and domestic alternative to foreign fossil energy. The vast majority of herbaceous tropical plants have never been cultivated for food, fiber, or energy. A major screening program would be needed to identify superior species and the most effective roles they can play in a domestic energy industry. Other herbaceous plants, such as sugarcane and tropical forage grasses, have been cultivated for centuries as agricultural commodities. As energy crops, important revisions in management will be needed to maximize their energy yield. Two broad groups of herbaceous plants are seen to have an immediate potential for reducing Puerto Rico's reliance on imported fossil fuels: the tropical grasses (of which sugarcane is the dominant member) and the tropical legumes. Managed for its maximum growth potential, sugarcane is an excellent source of boiler fuel, fermentation substrates, cellulosic feedstocks, and the sweetener sucrose. Other tropical grasses store relatively little extractable sugar while equaling or moderately surpassing sugarcane in yield of cellulosic dry matter. The latter might soon become an economical source of fermentation substrates. Certain legume species are also very effective producers of biomass. Herbaceous tropical legumes are perceived as a potential source of biological nitrogen for energy crops unable to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere.

  9. Herbaceous land plants as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A G

    1980-01-01

    Herbaceous tropical plants are a renewable energy source of major importance to many tropical nations. They convert the radiant energy of sunlight to chemical energy, which is stored in plant tissues (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) and fermentable solids (sugars, starches). Because all tropical plants do this - even those commonly regarded as weeds - they constitute an inexpensive, renewable, and domestic alternative to foreign fossil energy. The vast majority of herbaceous tropical plants have never been cultivated for food, fiber, or energy. A major screening program would be needed to identify superior species and the most effective roles they can play in a domestic energy industry. Other herbaceous plants, such as sugarcane and tropical forage grasses, have been cultivated for centuries as agricultural commodities. As energy crops, important revisions in management will be needed to maximize their energy yield. Two broad groups of herbaceous plants are seen to have an immediate potential for reducing Puerto Rico's reliance on imported fossil fuels: the tropical grasses (of which sugarcane is the dominant member) and the tropical legumes. Managed for its maximum growth potential, sugarcane is an excellent source of boiler fuel, fermentation substrates, cellulosic feedstocks, and the sweetener sucrose. Other tropical grasses store relatively little extractable sugar while equaling or moderately surpassing sugarcane in yield of cellulosic dry matter. The latter might soon become an economical source of fermentation substrates. Certain legume species are also very effective producers of biomass. Herbaceous tropical legumes are perceived as a potential source of biological nitrogen for energy crops unable to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere.

  10. Herbaceous plants as filters: Immobilization of particulates along urban street corridors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo; Säumel, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is considered to be the most serious threat to human health. Plants provide ecosystem services in urban areas, including reducing levels of PM by providing a surface for deposition and immobilization. While previous studies have mostly addressed woody species, we focus on herbaceous roadside vegetation and assess the role of species traits such as leaf surface roughness or hairiness for the immobilization of PM. We found that PM deposition patterns on plant surfaces reflect site-specific traffic densities and that strong differences in particulate deposition are present among species. The amount of immobilized PM differed according to particle type and size and was related to specific plant species traits. Our study suggests that herbaceous vegetation immobilizes a significant amount of the air pollutants relevant to human health and that increasing biodiversity of roadside vegetation supports air filtration and thus healthier conditions along street corridors. -- Highlights: • We assessed PM immobilization by common urban herbaceous roadside species. • PM deposition was related to traffic density and plant species traits. • Amount of PM deposited differed according to particle type and size. • Increasing biodiversity of roadside vegetation supports air filtration. -- Herbaceous urban roadside vegetation immobilizes particulate matter relevant to human health, thus supporting healthier conditions next to busy roads

  11. Carbon storage potential by four macrophytes as affected by planting diversity in a created wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Mary M; Ahn, Changwoo; Korol, Alicia R; Williams, Lisa D

    2016-01-01

    Wetland creation has become a commonplace method for mitigating the loss of natural wetlands. Often mitigation projects fail to restore ecosystem services of the impacted natural wetlands. One of the key ecosystem services of newly created wetlands is carbon accumulation/sequestration, but little is known about how planting diversity (PD) affects the ability of herbaceous wetland plants to store carbon in newly created wetlands. Most mitigation projects involve a planting regime, but PD, which may be critical in establishing biologically diverse and ecologically functioning wetlands, is seldom required. Using a set of 34 mesocosms (∼1 m(2) each), we investigated the effects of planting diversity on carbon storage potential of four native wetland plant species that are commonly planted in created mitigation wetlands in Virginia - Carex vulpinoidea, Eleocharis obtusa, Juncus effusus, and Mimulus ringens. The plants were grown under the four distinctive PD treatments [i.e., monoculture (PD 1) through four different species mixture (PD 4)]. Plant biomass was harvested after two growing seasons and analyzed for tissue carbon content. Competition values (CV) were calculated to understand how the PD treatment affected the competitive ability of plants relative to their biomass production and thus carbon storage potentials. Aboveground biomass ranged from 988 g/m(2) - 1515 g/m(2), being greatest in monocultures, but only when compared to the most diverse mixture (p = 0.021). However, carbon storage potential estimates per mesocosm ranged between 344 g C/m(2) in the most diverse mesocosms (PD 4) to 610 g C/m(2) in monoculture ones with no significant difference (p = 0.089). CV of E. obtusa and C. vulpinoidea showed a declining trend when grown in the most diverse mixtures but J. effusus and M. ringens displayed no difference across the PD gradient (p = 0.910). In monocultures, both M. ringens, and J. effusus appeared to store carbon as biomass more

  12. Eleventh-year results of fertilization, herbaceous, and woody plant control in a loblolly pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Allan E. Tiarks

    1990-01-01

    Through 11 years, fertilization at planting significantly increased the stemwood volume (outside bark) per loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on an intensively prepared moderately well-drained fine sandy loam site in northern Louisiana. Four years of herbaceous plant control significantly increased pine survival, and because herbaceous plant control...

  13. Facilitation between woody and herbaceous plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in temperate European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresoglou, Stavros D; Wulf, Monika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2017-02-01

    In late-successional environments, low in available nutrient such as the forest understory, herbaceous plant individuals depend strongly on their mycorrhizal associates for survival. We tested whether in temperate European forests arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) woody plants might facilitate the establishment of AM herbaceous plants in agreement with the mycorrhizal mediation hypothesis. We used a dataset spanning over 400 vegetation plots in the Weser-Elbe region (northwest Germany). Mycorrhizal status information was obtained from published resources, and Ellenberg indicator values were used to infer environmental data. We carried out tests for both relative richness and relative abundance of herbaceous plants. We found that the subset of herbaceous individuals that associated with AM profited when there was a high cover of AM woody plants. These relationships were retained when we accounted for environmental filtering effects using path analysis. Our findings build on the existing literature highlighting the prominent role of mycorrhiza as a coexistence mechanism in plant communities. From a nature conservation point of view, it may be possible to promote functional diversity in the forest understory through introducing AM woody trees in stands when absent.

  14. Reduction of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in Prairie wetlands by common wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson R; Fehr, Jessica; Liber, Karsten; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Morrissey, Christy A

    2017-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are frequently detected in wetlands during the early to mid-growing period of the Canadian Prairie cropping season. These detections also overlap with the growth of macrophytes that commonly surround agricultural wetlands which we hypothesized may reduce neonicotinoid transport and retention in wetlands. We sampled 20 agricultural wetlands and 11 macrophyte species in central Saskatchewan, Canada, over eight weeks to investigate whether macrophytes were capable of reducing movement of neonicotinoids from cultivated fields and/or reducing concentrations in surface water by accumulating insecticide residues into their tissues. Study wetlands were surrounded by clothianidin-treated canola and selected based on the presence (n=10) or absence (n=10) of a zonal plant community. Neonicotinoids were positively detected in 43% of wetland plants, and quantified in 8% of all plant tissues sampled. Three plant species showed high rates of detection: 78% Equisetum arvense (clothianidin, range: wetlands had higher detection frequency and water concentrations of clothianidin (β±S.E.: -0.77±0.26, P=0.003) and thiamethoxam (β±S.E.: -0.69±0.35, P=0.049) than vegetated wetlands. We assessed the importance of wetland characteristics (e.g. vegetative zone width, emergent plant height, water depth) on neonicotinoid concentrations in Prairie wetlands over time using linear mixed-effects models. Clothianidin concentrations were significantly lower in wetlands surrounded by taller plants (β±S.E.: -0.57±0.12, P≤0.001). The results of this study suggest that macrophytes can play an important role in mitigating water contamination by accumulating neonicotinoids and possibly slowing transport to wetlands during the growing season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemical methane potential and anaerobic biodegradability of non-herbaceous and herbaceous phytomass in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triolo, Jin Mi; Pedersen, Lene; Qu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of municipal plant waste for anaerobic digestion was examined using 57 different herbaceous and non-herbaceous samples. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) and anaerobic biodegradability were related to the degree of lignification and crystallinity of cellulose. The BMP of herbace...

  16. Assessing radiation exposure of herbaceous plant species at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimullina, Elina; Antonova, Elena; Pozolotina, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) is a result of the Mayak Production Association accident that occurred in 1957 in Russia. Radiological assessment improves the interpretation of biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore a modeling approach was used to estimate dose rates on Leonurus quinquelobatus, Silene latifolia, Stellaria graminea and Bromus inermis. Soil-to-organism transfer parameter values are delivered from empirical data of 90 Sr and 137 Cs soil and vegetative plant mass activity concentrations. External and internal whole-body dose rates were calculated using deterministic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2 and R and D 128/SP1a) and probabilistic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 3) methods. The total dose rate for herbs was under 100 μGy h −1 at the most polluted site. The total absorbed dose rates increased 43–110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. Based on these data, it can be concluded that herbaceous plant populations currently exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area. -- Highlights: • A modeling approach (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2, Tier 3 and R and D 128/SP1a) was used to estimate dose rates for herbs growing in the wild at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace. • The highest levels of anthropogenic radiation exposure were determined for herbs at Impact EURT sites. • Total absorbed dose rates increased 43–110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. • Total dose rate per plant organism for herbs is under 100 μGy h −1 at the most polluted site. Currently herbaceous plant populations exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area

  17. Assessing tolerance of longleaf pine understory herbaceous plants to herbicide applications in a container nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Paul Jackson; Scott A. Enebak; James West; Drew Hinnant

    2015-01-01

    Renewed efforts in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem restoration has increased interest in the commercial production of understory herbaceous species. Successful establishment of understory herbaceous species is enhanced when using quality nursery-grown plants that have a better chance of survival after outplanting. Nursery growing practices have not been...

  18. Negative effects of excessive soil phosphorus on floristic quality in Ohio wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Monteith, Steven E

    2016-05-01

    Excessive soil nutrients, often from agricultural runoff, have been shown to negatively impact some aspects of wetland plant communities. We measured plant-available phosphorus (Mehlich-3: MeP) in soil samples, and assessed the vascular plant community and habitat degradation at 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. We tested two hypotheses: (1) that an index of vegetation biological integrity based on floristic quality was lower in wetlands with higher concentrations of MeP in the soil, and (2) that higher concentrations of MeP occurred in wetlands with more habitat degradation (i.e., lower quality), as estimated by a rapid assessment method. Hypothesis (1) was supported for emergent, but not for forested wetlands. Hypothesis (2) was marginally supported (P=0.09) for emergent, but not supported for forested wetlands. The results indicate that the effect of concentration of phosphorus in wetland soils and the quality of plant species assemblages in wetlands is more complex than shown in site-specific studies and may depend in part on degree of disturbance in the surrounding watershed and dominant wetland vegetation type. Woody plants in forested wetlands are typically longer lived than herbaceous species in the understory and emergent wetlands, and may persist despite high inputs of phosphorus. Further, the forested wetlands were typically surrounded by a wide band of forest vegetation, which may provide a barrier against sedimentation and the associated phosphorus inputs to the wetland interior. Our results indicate that inferences about soil nutrient conditions made from rapid assessment methods for assessing wetland habitat condition may not be reliable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Management of Herbaceous Seeps and Wet Savannas for Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harper, Mary

    1998-01-01

    Wetland communities such as herbaceous seeps and wet savannas occur on military installations throughout the southeastern United States, usually as pockets of wet habitat within a matrix of drier longleaf pine woodlands...

  20. The effect of technogenic emissions on the heavy metals accumulation by herbaceous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Victor; Minkina, Tatiana; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Burachevskaya, Marina; Sushkova, Svetlana; Poluektov, Evgeniy; Antonenko, Elena; Kumacheva, Valentina

    2018-02-07

    The effect of technogenic emissions on the input of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Cr, and Ni into plants from the Poaceae and Asteraceae families has been studied. Soil and plant contamination by anthropogenic emissions from industrial enterprises leads the decreasing of crop quality; therefore, the monitoring investigation of plants and soils acquires special importance. The herbaceous plants may be used as bioindicators for main environmental changes. It was found that the high level of anthropogenic load related to atmospheric emissions from the power plant favors the heavy metal (HM) accumulation in herbaceous plants. Contamination with Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni was revealed in plants growing near the power plant. Heavy metals arrive to plants from the soil in the form of mobile compounds. Plant family is one of the main factors affecting the HM distribution in the above- and underground parts of plants. Plants from the Poaceae family accumulate less chemical elements in their aboveground parts than the Asteraceae plants. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Artemisia austriaca are HM accumulators. For assessing the stability of plants under contamination with HMs, metal accumulation by plants from soil (the bioconcentration factor) and metal phytoavailability from plants above- and underground parts (the acropetal coefficient) were calculated. According to the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values, Poaceae species are most resistant to technogenic contamination with HMs. The translocation factor highest values were found for Tanacetum vulgare; the lowest bioconcentration factor values were typical for Poa pratensis.

  1. Random forest wetland classification using ALOS-2 L-band, RADARSAT-2 C-band, and TerraSAR-X imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdianpari, Masoud; Salehi, Bahram; Mohammadimanesh, Fariba; Motagh, Mahdi

    2017-08-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems around the world, although they are degraded due both to anthropogenic and natural process. Newfoundland is among the richest Canadian province in terms of different wetland classes. Herbaceous wetlands cover extensive areas of the Avalon Peninsula, which are the habitat of a number of animal and plant species. In this study, a novel hierarchical object-based Random Forest (RF) classification approach is proposed for discriminating between different wetland classes in a sub-region located in the north eastern portion of the Avalon Peninsula. Particularly, multi-polarization and multi-frequency SAR data, including X-band TerraSAR-X single polarized (HH), L-band ALOS-2 dual polarized (HH/HV), and C-band RADARSAT-2 fully polarized images, were applied in different classification levels. First, a SAR backscatter analysis of different land cover types was performed by training data and used in Level-I classification to separate water from non-water classes. This was followed by Level-II classification, wherein the water class was further divided into shallow- and deep-water classes, and the non-water class was partitioned into herbaceous and non-herbaceous classes. In Level-III classification, the herbaceous class was further divided into bog, fen, and marsh classes, while the non-herbaceous class was subsequently partitioned into urban, upland, and swamp classes. In Level-II and -III classifications, different polarimetric decomposition approaches, including Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden, Yamaguchi decompositions, and Kennaugh matrix elements were extracted to aid the RF classifier. The overall accuracy and kappa coefficient were determined in each classification level for evaluating the classification results. The importance of input features was also determined using the variable importance obtained by RF. It was found that the Kennaugh matrix elements, Yamaguchi, and Freeman-Durden decompositions were the most important parameters

  2. Eleventh-year response of loblolly pine and competing vegetation to woody and herbaceous plant control on a Georgia flatwoods site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Zutter; James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Through 11 growing seasons, growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) increased after control of herbaceous, woody, or both herbaceous and woody vegetation (total control) for the first 3 years after planting on a bedded site in the Georgia coastal flatwoods. Gains in stand volume index from controlling either herbaceous or woody vegetation alone were approximately two-...

  3. Response of herbaceous plant community diversity and composition to overstorey harvest within riparian management zones in Northern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Zenner; Michelle A. Martin; Brian J. Palik; Jerilynn E. Peck; Charles R. Blinn

    2013-01-01

    Partial timber harvest within riparian management zones (RMZs) may permit active management of riparian forests while protecting stream ecosystems, but impacts on herbaceous communities are poorly understood. We compared herbaceous plant community abundance, diversity and composition in RMZs along small streams in northern Minnesota, USA, among four treatments before...

  4. Model parameters for representative wetland plant functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amber S.; Kiniry, James R.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Attebury, Kelly; Lang, Megan; McCarty, Gregory W.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Effland, William R.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services including water quality remediation, biodiversity refugia, groundwater recharge, and floodwater storage. Realistic estimation of ecosystem service benefits associated with wetlands requires reasonable simulation of the hydrology of each site and realistic simulation of the upland and wetland plant growth cycles. Objectives of this study were to quantify leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (k), and plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in natural stands of representative plant species for some major plant functional groups in the United States. Functional groups in this study were based on these parameters and plant growth types to enable process-based modeling. We collected data at four locations representing some of the main wetland regions of the United States. At each site, we collected on-the-ground measurements of fraction of light intercepted, LAI, and dry matter within the 2013–2015 growing seasons. Maximum LAI and k variables showed noticeable variations among sites and years, while overall averages and functional group averages give useful estimates for multisite simulation modeling. Variation within each species gives an indication of what can be expected in such natural ecosystems. For P and K, the concentrations from highest to lowest were spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), cattail (Typha spp.), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Spikerush had the highest N concentration, followed by smartweed, bulrush, reed canary grass, and then cattail. These parameters will be useful for the actual wetland species measured and for the wetland plant functional groups they represent. These parameters and the associated process-based models offer promise as valuable tools for evaluating environmental benefits of wetlands and for evaluating impacts of various agronomic practices in

  5. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  6. Feeding habits of Carabidae (Coleoptera associated with herbaceous plants and the phenology of coloured cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Henrique da Matta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae are recognized as polyphagous predators and important natural enemies of insect pests. However, little is known about the feeding habits of these beetles. In this work, we determine the types of food content in the digestive tracts of nine species of Carabidae associated with herbaceous plants and different growth stages of coloured cotton. The food contents were evaluated for beetles associated with the coloured cotton cv. BRS verde, Gossypium hirsutum L. latifolium Hutch., adjacent to weed plants and the flowering herbaceous plants (FHPs Lobularia maritima (L., Tagetes erecta L., and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. The digestive tract analysis indicated various types of diets and related arthropods for Abaris basistriata, Galerita brasiliensis, Scarites sp., Selenophorus alternans, Selenophorus discopunctatus and Tetracha brasiliensis. The carabids were considered to be polyphagous predators, feeding on different types of prey.

  7. Gas Transport and Exchange through Wetland Plant Aerenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Aerenchyma, the large airspaces in aquatic plants, is a rapid gas transport pathway between atmosphere and soil in wetlands. Oxygen transport aerates belowground tissue and oxidizes rhizosphere soil, an important process in wetland biogeochemistry. Most plant O2 transport occurs by diffusion...

  8. Remote sensing of wetlands at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.J.; Jensen, J.R.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) occupies about 300 sq mi along a 10-mile stretch of the Savannah River. Large areas of wetlands cover the site, especially along tributary stream floodplains and the Savannah River. Some of these areas have been altered by cooling water discharges from nuclear production reactors onsite. To assess the effects of current and future plant operations on SRP and regional wetlands, an accurate quantitative survey was needed. Several studies were initiated to provide wetland acreage and distribution information: regional wetland inventories were provided from an analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) satellite data. Wetlands were mapped throughout the entire Savannah River watershed and in the Savannah River floodplain. SRP wetlands were identified using a combination of LANDSAT MSS and Thematic Mapper satellite data and aerial photography. Wetlands in the SRP Savannah River swamp and thermally affected areas were mapped using high resolution MSS data collected from a low-flying aircraft. Vegetation communities in areas receiving cooling water discharges were then compared to surface temperatures measured from the airborne scanner at the same time to evaluate plant temperature tolerance. Historic changes to SRP wetlands from cooling water discharges were tabulated using aerial photography

  9. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - summary of seventeen plant-community studies at ten wetland crossings. Topical report, February 1990--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States); Shem, L.M.; Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Alsum, S.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program, Argonne National Laboratory conducted field studies on 10 wetland crossings located in six states to document impacts of natural gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) on 15 wetland plant communities. This study is unique in the number, range, ages, and variety of wetland crossings surveyed and compared. Vegetation data and recorded observations were analyzed to reveal patterns associated with age, installation technology, maintenance practices, and wetland type. This report summarizes the findings of this study. Results revealed that ROWs of pipelines installed according to recent wetland regulations rapidly revegetated with dense and diverse plant communities. The ROW plant communities were similar to those in the adjacent natural areas in species richness, wetland indicator values, and percentages of native species. The ROW plant communities developed from naturally available propagules without fertilization, liming, or artificial seeding. ROWs contributed to increased habitat and plant species diversity in the wetland. There was little evidence that they degrade the wetland by providing avenues for the spread of invasive and normative plant species. Most impacts are temporal in nature, decreasing rapidly during the first several years and more slowly thereafter to the extent permitted by maintenance and other ROW activities.

  10. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  11. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  12. Use of Plant Growth Regulators to Improve Branching of Herbaceous Perennial Liners

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Mara Celeste

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of PGRs to improve branching during production of herbaceous perennial liners and finished plants. The effects of benzyladenine (BA) on the branching and root and shoot growth of Agastache Clayt. Ex Gronov. 'Purple Hazeâ , Gaura lindheimeri Engelm. & A. Gray 'Siskiyou Pink', Lavandula à intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. 'Provence', Leucanthemum à superbum (Bergmans ex J.W. Ingram) Bergmans ex Kent. 'Snowcap', and Salvia à sylv...

  13. Leachates and elemental ratios of macrophytes and benthic algae of an Andean high altitude wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz MODENUTTI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In wetlands, macrophytes and filamentous algae constitute an important carbon source for the total content of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM of the environment. Mallín wetland meadows are highly diverse and rare habitats in Patagonia, that can be characterized as wet meadows with a dense cover mainly dominated by herbaceous plants. We carried out a field study comparing elemental composition (C:N:P of benthic algae (Spirogyra sp. and Zygnema sp. and the submerged macrophyte (Myriophyllum quitense from a high latitude wetland (local name: mallín. Besides we performed laboratory experiments in order to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR on the optical properties and nutrient release of DOM from leachates of these benthic algae and submerged macrophyte. The obtained results indicated that macrophyte leachates could contribute significantly to changes in the optical characteristics of the wetlands while benthic algae contribute with leachates with low photoreactivity. Finally, nutrient release differs among plant species and season: benthic algae leachates release more P in spring, while M. quitense releases more of this nutrient in autumn. These results suggested that the different colonization may contribute differentially to the chemical environment of the wetland.

  14. Evaluating subsoiling and herbaceous weed control on shortleaf pine planted in retired farm land

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Kushla

    2010-01-01

    In March 2005, shortleaf pine was planted on retired fields of the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station in Holly Springs. The objectives were to evaluate subsoiling and herbaceous weed control on first year seedling stocking, survival, and size. First year seedling measurements were made on stocking, survival, and size. Only results for first year...

  15. Linking plant ecology and long-term hydrology to improve wetland restoration success

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.V. Caldwell; M.J. Vepraskas; J.D. Gregory; R.W. Skaggs; R.L. Huffman

    2011-01-01

    Although millions of dollars are spent restoring wetlands, failures are common, in part because the planted vegetation cannot survive in the restored hydrology. Wetland restoration would be more successful if the hydrologic requirements of wetland plant communities were known so that the most appropriate plants could be selected for the range of projected hydrology at...

  16. Wetland Plants of Great Salt Lake, A Guide to Identification, Communities, & Bird Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Downard, Rebekah; Frank, Maureen; Perkins, Jennifer; Kettenring, Karin; Larese-Casanova, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Wetland Plants of Great Salt Lake: a guide to identification, communities, & bird habitat is a wetland plant identification guide, resulting from collaborative research efforts about Great Salt Lake (GSL) wetland conditions and bird habitat. Dr. Rebekah Downard collected dissertation field data from GSL wetlands during 2012–2015, the majority of which informed this work. Dr. Maureen Frank contributed her guide to GSL wetland vegetation and how to manage native plants as high-quality habitat f...

  17. Modeling adaptation of wetland plants under changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, R.; Muneepeerakul, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    An evolutionary-game-theoretic approach is used to study the changes in traits of wetland plants in response to environmental changes, e.g., altered patterns of rainfall and nutrients. Here, a wetland is considered as a complex adaptive system where plants can adapt their strategies and influence one another. The system is subject to stochastic rainfall, which controls the dynamics of water level, soil moisture, and alternation between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in soil. Based on our previous work, a plant unit is characterized by three traits, namely biomass nitrogen content, specific leaf area, and allocation to rhizome. These traits control the basic functions of plants such as assimilation, respiration, and nutrient uptake, while affecting their environment through litter chemistry, root oxygenation, and thus soil microbial dynamics. The outcome of this evolutionary game, i.e., the best-performing plant traits against the backdrop of these interactions and feedbacks, is analyzed and its implications on important roles of wetlands in supporting our sustainability such as carbon sequestration in biosphere, nutrient cycling, and repository of biodiversity are discussed.

  18. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna I. Murillo-Pacheco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1 type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms and (2 origins (natural, mixed and artificial. A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81% were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution. Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha, with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  19. Wetland plant influence on sediment ecosystem structure and trophic function

    OpenAIRE

    Whitcraft, Christine René

    2007-01-01

    Vascular plants structure wetland ecosystems. To examine mechanisms behind their influence, plants were studied under different scenarios of change: experimental manipulation of cover, invasion, and response to flushing regimes. I tested the hypothesis that wetland plants alter benthic communities through modification of abiotic factors, with cascading effects on microalgae and invertebrate communities. Major plant effects were observed in all systems studied, but the magnitude of, mechanisms...

  20. THE CANOPY EFFECTS OF Prosopis juliflora (DC. AND Acacia tortilis (HAYNE TREES ON HERBACEOUS PLANTS SPECIES AND SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN NJEMPS FLATS, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Kahi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The canopy effects of an exotic and indigenous tree species on soil properties and understorey herbaceous plant species were investigated on the Njemps Flats, Baringo district, Kenya. Samples of soil and herbaceous plant species were obtained within the canopies of systematically selected P. juliflora (exotic and A. tortilis (indigenous trees, and from adjacent open areas. Standing biomass, frequency and cover of understorey plant species were significantly (P

  1. An ecohydrological model for studying groundwater-vegetation interactions in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Low, Swee Yang; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2011-10-01

    SummaryDespite their importance to the natural environment, wetlands worldwide face drastic degradation from changes in land use and climatic patterns. To help preservation efforts and guide conservation strategies, a clear understanding of the dynamic relationship between coupled hydrology and vegetation systems in wetlands, and their responses to engineering works and climate change, is needed. An ecohydrological model was developed in this study to address this issue. The model combines a hydrology component based on the Richards' equation for characterizing variably saturated groundwater flow, with a vegetation component described by Lotka-Volterra equations tailored for plant growth. Vegetation is represented by two characteristic wetland herbaceous plant types which differ in their flood and drought resistances. Validation of the model on a study site in the Everglades demonstrated the capability of the model in capturing field-measured water table and transpiration dynamics. The model was next applied on a section of the Nee Soon swamp forest, a tropical wetland in Singapore, for studying the impact of possible drainage works on the groundwater hydrology and native vegetation. Drainage of 10 m downstream of the wetland resulted in a localized zone of influence within half a kilometer from the drainage site with significant adverse impacts on groundwater and biomass levels, indicating a strong need for conservation. Simulated water table-plant biomass relationships demonstrated the capability of the model in capturing the time-lag in biomass response to water table changes. To test the significance of taking plant growth into consideration, the performance of the model was compared to one that substituted the vegetation component with a pre-specified evapotranspiration rate. Unlike its revised counterpart, the original ecohydrological model explicitly accounted for the drainage-induced plant biomass decrease and translated the resulting reduced transpiration

  2. Wetland Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time Salinity Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Feldmann, Sara A.

    2004-10-15

    This wetland plant guide was developed to aid moist soil plant identification and to assist in the mapping of waterfowl and shorebird habitat in the Grassland Water District and surrounding wetland areas. The motivation for this habitat mapping project was a concern that real-time salinity management of wetland drainage might have long-term consequences for wildfowl habitat health--changes in wetland drawdown schedules might, over the long term, lead to increased soil salinity and other conditions unfavorable to propagation of the most desirable moist soil plants. Hence, the implementation of a program to monitor annual changes in the most common moist soil plants might serve as an index of habitat health and sustainability. Our review of the current scientific and popular literature failed to identify a good, comprehensive field guide that could be used to calibrate and verify high resolution remote sensing imagery, that we had started to use to develop maps of wetland moist soil plants in the Grassland Water District. Since completing the guide it has been used to conduct ground truthing field surveys using the California Native Plant Society methodology in 2004. Results of this survey and a previous wetland plant survey in 2003 are published in a companion LBNL publication summarizing 4 years of fieldwork to advance the science of real-time wetland salinity management.

  3. Comparison of radiocesium concentration changes in leguminous and non-leguminous herbaceous plants observed after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2018-06-01

    Transfer of radiocesium from soil to crops is an important pathway for human intake. In the period from one to two years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, food monitoring results showed that radiocesium concentrations in soybean (a legume) were higher than those in other annual agricultural crops; in these crops, root uptake is the major pathway of radiocesium from soil to plant. However, it was not clear whether or not leguminous and non-leguminous herbaceous plants have different Cs uptake abilities from the same soil because crop sample collection fields were different. In this study, therefore, we compared the concentrations of 137 Cs in seven herbaceous plant species including two leguminous plants (Trifolium pratense L. and Vicia sativa L.) collected in 2012-2016 from the same sampling field in Chiba, Japan that had been affected by the FDNPP accident fallout. Among these species, Petasites japonicus (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. showed the highest 137 Cs concentration in 2012-2016. The correlation factor between all concentration data for 137 Cs and those for 40 K in these seven plants was R = 0.54 (p plants did not differ significantly, but 137 Cs data in the Poaceae family plants were significantly lower than those in T. pratense (p plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  5. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  6. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  7. Conundrums in mixed woody-herbaceous plant systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    House, JI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available -form communities, the novel, complex, nonlinear behaviour of mixed tree-grass systems cannot be accounted for by simply studying or modelling woody and herbaceous components independently. A more robust understanding requires addressing three fundamental conundrums...

  8. The impacts of Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) invasion on wetland plant richness in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, depend on beavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, T.; Wilson, M.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive plants can threaten diversity and ecosystem function. We examined the relationship between the invasive Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) and species richness in beaver wetlands in Oregon, USA. Four basins (drainages) were chosen and three sites each of beaver impoundments, unimpounded areas and areas upstream of debris jams were randomly chosen in each basin for further study (n = 36). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that the relationship between Phalaris and species richness differed significantly (p = 0.01) by site type. Dam sites (beaver impoundments) exhibited a strong inverse relationship between Phalaris and species richness (bD = a??0.15), with one species lost for each 7% increase in Phalaris cover. In contrast, there was essentially no relationship between Phalaris cover and species richness in jam sites (debris jam impoundments formed by flooding; bJ = +0.01) and unimpounded sites (bU = a??0.03). The cycle of beaver impoundment and abandonment both disrupts the native community and provides an ideal environment for Phalaris, which once established tends to exclude development of herbaceous communities and limits species richness. Because beaver wetlands are a dominant wetland type in the Coast Range, Phalaris invasion presents a real threat to landscape heterogeneity and ecosystem function in the region.

  9. Loss of native herbaceous species due to woody plant encroachment facilitates the establishment of an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alofs, Karen M; Fowler, Norma L

    2013-03-01

    Although negative relationships between diversity (frequently measured as species richness) and invasibility at neighborhood or community scales have often been reported, realistic natural diversity gradients have rarely been studied at this scale. We recreated a naturally occurring gradient in species richness to test the effects of species richness on community invasibility. In central Texas savannas, as the proportion of woody plants increases (a process known as woody plant encroachment), herbaceous habitat is both lost and fragmented, and native herbaceous species richness declines. We examined the effects of these species losses on invasibility in situ by removing species that occur less frequently in herbaceous patches as woody plant encroachment advances. This realistic species removal was accompanied by a parallel and equivalent removal of biomass with no changes in species richness. Over two springs, the nonnative bunchgrass Bothriochloa ischaemum germinated significantly more often in the biomass-removal treatment than in unmanipulated control plots, suggesting an effect of native plant density independent of diversity. Additionally, significantly more germination occurred in the species-removal treatment than in the biomass-removal treatment. Changes in species richness had a stronger effect on B. ischaemum germination than changes in plant density, demonstrating that niche-related processes contributed more to biotic resistance in this system than did species-neutral competitive interactions. Similar treatment effects were found on transplant growth. Thus we show that woody plant encroachment indirectly facilitates the establishment of an invasive grass by reducing native diversity. Although we found a negative relationship between species richness and invasibility at the scale of plots with similar composition and environmental conditions, we found a positive relationship between species richness and invasibility at larger scales. This apparent

  10. Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackun, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake showed two distinct community types: one dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata, and one dominated by graminoids and other herbaceous species. Within two years, liming did not alter the structure of either community type, and changed the cover or frequency of only 6 of 64 individual taxa. Most of these changes occurred in the herbaceous community type. The only strong positive response to liming was a nearly threefold increase in cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides. The cover of Carex interior and Sphagnum spp. benefited from lime addition, while cover of Drosera intermedia and Muhlenbergia uniflora, and frequency of Hypericum canadense responded negatively to lime. Liming influenced the competitive release of only three taxa, all forbs with small growth forms. The tissue chemistry of foliage and twigs of Myrica gale, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Carex stricta in the Chamaedaphne calyculata community type clearly illustrated species-specific patterns of nutrient accumulation and allocation both before and after liming. Concentrations of 17 of 20 elements responded to liming, although the responses varied among species and plant parts. Carex foliage was least responsive to liming, and Chamaedaphne twigs were most responsive. Elemental changes in plant tissues will be reflected in litter and many influence long-term nutrient dynamics in the wetland community.

  11. Wetland Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time Salinity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Feldmann, Sara A.

    2004-01-01

    This wetland plant guide was developed to aid moist soil plant identification and to assist in the mapping of waterfowl and shorebird habitat in the Grassland Water District and surrounding wetland areas. The motivation for this habitat mapping project was a concern that real-time salinity management of wetland drainage might have long-term consequences for wildfowl habitat health -- changes in wetland drawdown schedules might, over the long term, lead to increased soil salinity and othe...

  12. The importance of water quality to wetland establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trites, M.; Bayley, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Extracting oil from sands produces huge volumes of saline tailings. This presentation demonstrated that the ability to recreate boreal peatland communities after oil sands mining will be constrained by water quality. Typical boreal wetlands can be described along a bog to poor fen to rich fen gradient that correlates to increasing water pH and calcium concentration. There are major differences in vegetation communities along this gradient. Bogs and poor fens are characterized by slowly decomposing Sphagnum moss, while brown moss and productive herbaceous communities characterize rich fens. Post-mining wetlands generally have sodium concentrations above the tolerance limits of most freshwater peatland species. This study involved a survey of 25 boreal wetlands across a natural salinity gradient to determine a suite of potential native vegetation species to use for oils sand reclamation. Sixteen herbaceous vegetation communities that could be incorporated into oil sands wetlands were identified, but the diversity of communities decreased as salinity increased. Some of these wetlands had thick organic matter accumulations, despite having salinity equal to or higher than oil sands wetlands. Organic matter accumulation rates were also measured. If salinity is moderate and nutrient levels adequate, highly productive species like Carex aquatilis and Typha latifolia can accumulate organic matter quickly. Triglochin maritima can accumulate organic matter over the long term, even if salinity is high and nutrient levels are low. Although there is potential for peat to accumulate in future oil sands wetlands, the rates of peat accumulation will probably be slower than in undisturbed freshwater bogs and fens because of the elevated salinity. tabs., figs.

  13. The importance of water quality to wetland establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trites, M.; Bayley, S.

    2010-01-01

    Extracting oil from sands produces huge volumes of saline tailings. This presentation demonstrated that the ability to recreate boreal peatland communities after oil sands mining will be constrained by water quality. Typical boreal wetlands can be described along a bog to poor fen to rich fen gradient that correlates to increasing water pH and calcium concentration. There are major differences in vegetation communities along this gradient. Bogs and poor fens are characterized by slowly decomposing Sphagnum moss, while brown moss and productive herbaceous communities characterize rich fens. Post-mining wetlands generally have sodium concentrations above the tolerance limits of most freshwater peatland species. This study involved a survey of 25 boreal wetlands across a natural salinity gradient to determine a suite of potential native vegetation species to use for oils sand reclamation. Sixteen herbaceous vegetation communities that could be incorporated into oil sands wetlands were identified, but the diversity of communities decreased as salinity increased. Some of these wetlands had thick organic matter accumulations, despite having salinity equal to or higher than oil sands wetlands. Organic matter accumulation rates were also measured. If salinity is moderate and nutrient levels adequate, highly productive species like Carex aquatilis and Typha latifolia can accumulate organic matter quickly. Triglochin maritima can accumulate organic matter over the long term, even if salinity is high and nutrient levels are low. Although there is potential for peat to accumulate in future oil sands wetlands, the rates of peat accumulation will probably be slower than in undisturbed freshwater bogs and fens because of the elevated salinity. tabs., figs.

  14. Effect of Single Selection Method on Woody and Herbaceous Plant Biodiversity in Khalil-Mahale Forest, Behshahr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Kazemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the role of forest management in tree diversity, regeneration and vegetation in control and managed parcels of series No. 1 of forestry plan in Khalil-Mahale, Behshahr. Thirty samples with an area of 1000 m2 were systematically and randomly taken with a 100 × 75 m grid in both parcels. In each plot, tree number and species type were recorded. In order to study the vegetation, five micro-plots (1 m2, one in the center and four others in four main directions (half radius from the center of the plot were taken in each plot. The type and percentage of herbaceous species were recorded in each microplot. To count the regeneration in the center of the main plot, circular sample plots with an area of 100 m2 were used. To study and compare the biodiversity in the two plots and to calculate the richness and evenness, the Simpson and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices, Margalef and Menhinic indices and the Pilo index were used, respectively, using PAST software. The results showed that the number of plant species was more in managed plots. The biodiversity of woody and herbaceous plants richness indices and regeneration of tree species were higher in managed plots. In fact, the results showed that forest management using single selection method had different effects on woody species regeneration and diversity of herbaceous and tree species.

  15. Gas Transport and Exchange through Wetland Plant Aerenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Aerenchyma, the large airspaces in aquatic plants, is a rapid gas transport pathway between atmosphere and soil in wetlands. Oxygen transport aerates belowground tissue and oxidizes rhizosphere soil, an important process in wetland biogeochemistry. Most plant O2 transport occurs by diffusion......, and the major challenge for its accurate measurement is avoiding disturbing small-scale gradients in O2 concentration and demand in the pathway. Small O2 sensors with rapid response times and high spatial resolution are the most popular methods for quantifying O2 transport and rhizosphere oxidation...... such as stirring of solutions. In some species, pressurized gas flows develop in shoots and rhizomes, and their contribution to gas fluxes can be assessed with pressure transducers and flow meters. Other gases produced in wetlands (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) are also transported in aerenchyma. Their fluxes...

  16. Soil Oxidation-Reduction in Wetlands and Its Impact on Plant Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, S. R.; DeLaune, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    Soil flooding in wetlands is accompanied by changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics. These changes include the lowering of soil redox potential (Eh) leading to increasing demand for oxygen within the soil profile as well as production of soil phytotoxins that are by-products of soil reduction and thus, imposing potentially severe stress on plant roots. Various methods are utilized for quantifying plant responses to reducing soil conditions that include measurement of radial oxygen transport, plant enzymatic responses, and assessment of anatomical/morphological changes. However, the chemical properties and reducing nature of soil environment in which plant roots are grown, including oxygen demand, and other associated processes that occur in wetland soils, pose a challenge to evaluation and comparison of plant responses that are reported in the literature. This review emphasizes soil-plant interactions in wetlands, drawing attention to the importance of quantifying the intensity and capacity of soil reduction for proper evaluation of wetland plant responses, particularly at the process and whole-plant levels. Furthermore, while root oxygen-deficiency may partially account for plant stress responses, the importance of soil phytotoxins, produced as by-products of low soil Eh conditions, is discussed and the need for development of methods to allow differentiation of plant responses to reduced or anaerobic soil conditions vs. soil phytotoxins is emphasized. PMID:24832223

  17. Trophic relations of Opatrum sabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761 – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours, Euphorbia virgata (3.45, Solanum nigrum (3.32, Centauria scabiosa (2.47, Lamium album (2.41, Aristolochia clematitis (1.76, Chenopodium album (1.73, Arctium lappa (1.51, Asperula odorata (1.20. A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perilla nankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours, Lycopersicon esculentum (3.75, Tropaeolum majus (3.29, Nicotiana tabacum (2.66, Rumex acetosa (1.96, Beta vulgaris (1.27. O. sabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched.

  18. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-11-27

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands.

  19. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  20. Presence of indicator plant species as a predictor of wetland vegetation integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We fit regression and classification tree models to vegetation data collected from Ohio (USA) wetlands to determine (1) which species best predict Ohio vegetation index of biotic integrity (OVIBI) score and (2) which species best predict high-quality wetlands (OVIBI score >75). The simplest regression tree model predicted OVIBI score based on the occurrence of three plant species: skunk-cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), and swamp rose (Rosa palustris). The lowest OVIBI scores were best predicted by the absence of the selected plant species rather than by the presence of other species. The simplest classification tree model predicted high-quality wetlands based on the occurrence of two plant species: skunk-cabbage and marsh-fern (Thelypteris palustris). The overall misclassification rate from this tree was 13 %. Again, low-quality wetlands were better predicted than high-quality wetlands by the absence of selected species rather than the presence of other species using the classification tree model. Our results suggest that a species’ wetland status classification and coefficient of conservatism are of little use in predicting wetland quality. A simple, statistically derived species checklist such as the one created in this study could be used by field biologists to quickly and efficiently identify wetland sites likely to be regulated as high-quality, and requiring more intensive field assessments. Alternatively, it can be used for advanced determinations of low-quality wetlands. Agencies can save considerable money by screening wetlands for the presence/absence of such “indicator” species before issuing permits.

  1. Lead and zinc accumulation and tolerance in populations of six wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H. [Biology Department and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Environmental Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Ye, Z.H. [Biology Department and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Life Sciences, Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wong, M.H. [Biology Department and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2006-05-15

    Wetland plants such as Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis have been indicated to show a lack of evolution of metal tolerance in metal-contaminated populations. The aim of the present study is to verify whether other common wetland plants such as Alternanthera philoxeroides and Beckmannia syzigachne, also possess the same characteristics. Lead and zinc tolerances in populations of six species collected from contaminated and clean sites were examined by hydroponics. In general, the contaminated populations did not show higher metal tolerance and accumulation than the controls. Similar growth responses and tolerance indices in the same metal treatment solution between contaminated and control populations suggest that metal tolerance in wetland plants are generally not further evolved by contaminated environment. The reasons may be related to the special root anatomy in wetland plants, the alleviated metal toxicity by the reduced rooting conditions and the relatively high innate metal tolerance in some species. - Populations from metal contaminated sites did not have significantly higher metal tolerance indices.

  2. Lead and zinc accumulation and tolerance in populations of six wetland plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Wetland plants such as Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis have been indicated to show a lack of evolution of metal tolerance in metal-contaminated populations. The aim of the present study is to verify whether other common wetland plants such as Alternanthera philoxeroides and Beckmannia syzigachne, also possess the same characteristics. Lead and zinc tolerances in populations of six species collected from contaminated and clean sites were examined by hydroponics. In general, the contaminated populations did not show higher metal tolerance and accumulation than the controls. Similar growth responses and tolerance indices in the same metal treatment solution between contaminated and control populations suggest that metal tolerance in wetland plants are generally not further evolved by contaminated environment. The reasons may be related to the special root anatomy in wetland plants, the alleviated metal toxicity by the reduced rooting conditions and the relatively high innate metal tolerance in some species. - Populations from metal contaminated sites did not have significantly higher metal tolerance indices

  3. Internal aeration development and the zonation of plants in wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith

    differing in flooding tolerance. Maintaining species diversity in managed wetlands therefore involves hydrological conditions suitable for a variety of plants that differ in their flooding tolerance. The shallowest areas of wetlands, in which soils are waterlogged but there is little standing water, can...... of pressurized gas flows in their aerenchyma. These close linkages between flooding tolerance and species distributions are key considerations for maintaining species diversity in wetlands....

  4. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Foti, R.; del Jesus, M.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2012-01-01

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of ...

  5. REMOTE DETENTION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

  6. Phytoremediation of Composition-B Derived TNT and RDX in Herbaceous Plant-vegetated and Bare Lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    ER D C TR -0 9- 10 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Phytoremediation of Composition-B Derived TNT and RDX in...Program ERDC TR-09-10 December 2009 Phytoremediation of Composition-B Derived TNT and RDX in Herbaceous Plant-vegetated and Bare Lysimeters Elly P. H...for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 ERDC TR-09-10 ii Abstract: This report describes a study in which phytoremediation of

  7. Wetland management strategies lead to tradeoffs in ecological structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane L. Peralta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic legacy effects often occur as a consequence of land use change or land management and can leave behind long-lasting changes to ecosystem structure and function. This legacy is described as a memory in the form of ecological structure or ecological interactions that remains at a location from a previous condition. We examined how forested floodplain restoration strategy, based on planting intensity, influenced wetland community structure and soil chemical and physical factors after 15 years. The site was divided into 15 strips, and strips were assigned to one of five restoration treatments: plantings of acorns, 2-year-old seedlings, 5-ft bareroot trees, balled and burlapped trees, and natural seed bank regeneration. Our community composition survey revealed that plots planted with bareroot or balled and burlapped trees developed closed tree canopies with little herbaceous understory, while acorn plantings and natural colonization plots developed into dense stands of the invasive species reed canary grass (RCG; 'Phalaris arundinacea'. Restoration strategy influenced bacterial community composition but to a lesser degree compared to the plant community response, and riverine hydrology and restoration strategy influenced wetland soil conditions. Soil ammonium concentrations and pH were similar across all wetland restoration treatments, while total organic carbon was highest in forest and RCG-dominated plots compared to mixed patches of trees and open areas. The differences in restoration strategy and associated economic investment resulted in ecological tradeoffs. The upfront investment in larger, more mature trees (i.e., bareroot, balled and burlapped led to floodplain forested communities, while cheaper, more passive planting strategies (i.e., seedlings, seedbank, or acorns resulted in dense stands of invasive RCG, despite the similar floodplain hydrology across all sites. Therefore, recovery of multiple ecosystem services that

  8. Relative importance of plant uptake and plant associated denitrification for removal of nitrogen from mine drainage in sub-arctic wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Sara; Hellman, Maria; Choudhury, Maidul I; Ecke, Frauke

    2015-11-15

    Reactive nitrogen (N) species released from undetonated ammonium-nitrate based explosives used in mining or other blasting operations are an emerging environmental problem. Wetlands are frequently used to treat N-contaminated water in temperate climate, but knowledge on plant-microbial interactions and treatment potential in sub-arctic wetlands is limited. Here, we compare the relative importance of plant uptake and denitrification among five plant species commonly occurring in sub-arctic wetlands for removal of N in nitrate-rich mine drainage in northern Sweden. Nitrogen uptake and plant associated potential denitrification activity and genetic potential for denitrification based on quantitative PCR of the denitrification genes nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII were determined in plants growing both in situ and cultivated in a growth chamber. The growth chamber and in situ studies generated similar results, suggesting high relevance and applicability of results from growth chamber experiments. We identified denitrification as the dominating pathway for N-removal and abundances of denitrification genes were strong indicators of plant associated denitrification activity. The magnitude and direction of the effect differed among the plant species, with the aquatic moss Drepanocladus fluitans showing exceptionally high ratios between denitrification and uptake rates, compared to the other species. However, to acquire realistic estimates of N-removal potential of specific wetlands and their associated plant species, the total plant biomass needs to be considered. The species-specific plant N-uptake and abundance of denitrification genes on the root or plant surfaces were affected by the presence of other plant species, which show that both multi- and inter-trophic interactions are occurring. Future studies on N-removal potential of wetland plant species should consider how to best exploit these interactions in sub-arctic wetlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, Steven L. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States); Duvall, Kenneth W. [Sterling Energy Services, LLC, Atlanta, GA (United States); Nelson, Theresa M. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States); Mensing, Douglas M. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States); Bengtson, Harlan H. [Sterling Energy Services, LLC, Atlanta, GA (United States); Eppich, John [Waterflow Consultants, Champaign, IL (United States); Penhallegon, Clayton [Sterling Energy Services, LLC, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thompson, Ry L. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive

  10. On the global relationships between photosynthetic water-use efficiency, leaf mass per unit area and atmospheric demand in woody and herbaceous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, M. G.; Fox, T. A.; Gulias, J.; Galmes, J.; Hikosaka, K.; Wright, I.; Flexas, J.; Awada, T.; Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J.; Tobita, H.

    2013-12-01

    A global dataset was compiled including woody and herbaceous C3 species from forest, Mediterranean and grassland-shrubland ecosystems, to elucidate the dependency of photosynthetic water-use efficiency on vapour pressure deficit (D) and leaf traits. Mean leaf mass per unit area (LMA) was lower and mass-based leaf nitrogen content (Nmass) was higher in herbaceous species. Higher mean stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) and net CO2 assimilation rate under light saturating conditions (Amax) were observed in herbs, but photosynthetic and intrinsic water-use efficiencies (WUE = Amax/E and WUEi = Amax/gs) were lower than in woody plants. Woody species maintained stricter stomatal regulation of water loss at low D, resulting in a steeper positive and linear relationship between log D and log E. Herbaceous species possessed very high gs at low D, resulting in higher ratio of substomatal to atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ci/ca) and E, but lower WUE and WUEi than woody plants, despite higher Amax. The lower WUE and higher rates of gas exchange were most pronounced in herbs with low LMA and high Nmass. Photosynthetic water use also differed between species from grassland-shrubland and Mediterranean or forest environments. Water-use efficiency showed no relationship with either D or LMA in grassland-shrubland species, but showed a negative relationship with D in forest and chaparral. The distinct photosynthetic water-use of woody and herbaceous plants is consistent with the opportunistic growth strategy of herbs and the more conservative growth strategy of woody species. Further research is recommended to examine the implications of these functional group and ecosystem differences in the contexts of climate and atmospheric change.

  11. Impacts of climate change on submerged and emergent wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick T. Short; Sarian Kosten; Pamela A. Morgan; Sparkle L Malone; Gregg E. Moore

    2016-01-01

    Submerged and emergent wetland plant communities are evaluated for their response to global climate change (GCC), focusing on seagrasses, submerged freshwater plants, tidal marsh plants, freshwater marsh plants and mangroves. Similarities and differences are assessed in plant community responses to temperature increase, CO2increase, greater UV-B exposure, sea...

  12. Methane dynamics in Northern Wetlands: Significance of vascular plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joabsson, Anna

    2001-09-01

    The studies presented illustrate several different aspects of the impact of vascular plants on methane emissions from northern natural wetlands. The subject has been approached on different scales, ranging from the study of microbial substrates in the vicinity of a single plant root, to an attempt to extrapolate some of the results to the entire northern hemisphere north of 50 meridian. The main overall conclusions from the papers are that vascular plants affect net methane emissions 1) by offering an efficient route of transport to the atmosphere so that methane oxidation in oxic surface soils is avoided, and 2) by being sources of methanogenic substrate. The degree to which vascular wetland plants affect methane emissions seems to be dependent on species-specific differences in both the capacity to act as gas conduits and the exudation of labile carbon compounds to the soil. An intimate coupling between vascular plant production and methane emission was found in an Arctic tundra wetland, although other environmental variables (water table, temperature) also contributed significantly to the explained variation in methane exchange. Studies of vascular plant extidation of organic acids suggest that the available pool of methanogenic substrates is both qualitatively and quantitatively correlated to vascular plant production (photosynthetic rate). On global scales, vascular plant production as a single factor does not seem to be sufficient to explain the majority of variation in methane flux patterns. Based on comparable experiments at five different sites in the northwestern Eurasian and Greenlandic North, we suggest that mean seasonal soil temperature is the best predictor of methane exchange on broad spatial and temporal scales.

  13. Nitrogen and COD Removal from Septic Tank Wastewater in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Plants Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland treatment performance with respect to organics (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) wastewater as affected by the presence of plants, substrate "rock" cation exchange capacity (CEC), laboratory versus field conditions and use of synthetic as compared to actual domestic wastewater. This article considers the effects of plants on constructed wetland treatment in the field. Each constructed wetland system was comprised of two beds (2.6 m long by 0.28 m wide and deep filled with ~18 mm crushed lava rock) separated by an aeration tank connected in series. The lava rock had a porosity of ~47% and a CEC of 4 meq/100 gm. One pair of constructed wetland systems was planted with cattails in May 2008, while an adjacent pair of systems remained un-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each constructed wetland system and effluent samples were regularly collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species during four time periods spanning November 2008 through June 2009. These effluent concentrations were tested for statistical differences at the 95% level for individual time periods as well as the overall 6-month period. Organics removal from domestic wastewater was 78.8% and 76.1% in the planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 94.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Similarly, organics removal from the synthetic wastewater of equivalent strength was 88.8% and 90.1% for planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 96.9% and 97.3%, respectively.

  14. Data on wastewater treatment plant by using wetland method, Babol, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Dadban Shahamat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Date in this paper highlights the applications of constructed horizontal surface flow (HF-CW wetland with two different local plants (Louis latifoila and Phragmites -australis (Cav. Trin at the wastewater treatment plant in Babol city. This system was designed as an advanced treatment unit in field scale after the treatment plant. Parameters such as Total Dissolved Solid (TDS, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Turbidity, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, were investigated. The result shows that treatment efficiency increases with the passage of time. The efficiency of Phragmites planted setups in open environment was fairly good for all studied parameters (28.6% of TDS, 94.4% for TSS, 79.8% for turbidity, 93.7% for BOD and 82.6% for COD. The efficiency of the latifoila set up was also good, but lower than that of Phragmites (26.5% of TDS, 76.9% for TSS, 71.5% for turbidity, 79.1 for BOD and 68.8% for COD. In brief, the obtained dates show that using local plants in (HF-CW wetland not only effectively reduces various contaminants from the effluent of the wastewater according to Effluent Guideline regulations (WHO & EPA, but it is also a cost- effective and environmentally friendly method. Also, it was calculated that in full scale operation [time (1 day and a depth (0.3 m], 8 ha of wetland was needed. Keywords: BOD, Babol, COD, Horizontal subsurface flow wetland, TSS, TSD

  15. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An ecosustainable approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, P.K. [Mizoram Central University, Tanhril (India). School for Earth Science & Natural Resource Management

    2008-07-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavy metal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavy metal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some of the potent wetland plants for heavy metal removal. Biomass disposal problem and seasonal growth of aquatic macrophytes are some limitations in the transfer of phytoremediation technology from the laboratory to the field. However, the disposed biomass of macrophytes may be used for various fruitful applications. An ecosustainable model has been developed through the author's various works, which may ameliorate some of the limitations. The creation of more areas for phytoremediation may also aid in wetlands conservation. Genetic engineering and biodiversity prospecting of endangered wetland plants are important future prospects in this regard.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation in invertebrate consumer diets in forested and herbaceous wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani N. Taylor; Darold P. Batzer

    2010-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates have important functional roles in wetland ecosystems, but these roles are not always well understood. This study assessed which foods invertebrate consumers assimilate within a set of wetland habitats. During 2006 and 2007, non-Tanypodinae chironomid larvae and select crustaceans (Crangonyx amphipods, Caecidotea isopods, Simocephalus cladocerans)...

  17. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands.

  18. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Grismer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, wineries in the western United States and sugarcane processing for ethanol in Central and South America have experienced problems related to the treatment and disposal of process wastewater. Both winery and sugarcane (molasses wastewaters are characterized by large organic loadings that change seasonally and are detrimental to aquatic life. We examined the role of plants for treating these wastewaters in constructed wetlands. In the greenhouse, subsurface-flow flumes with volcanic rock substrates and plants steadily removed approximately 80% of organic-loading oxygen demand from sugarcane process wastewater after about 3 weeks of plant growth; unplanted flumes removed about 30% less. In field studies at two operational wineries, we evaluated the performance of similar-sized, paired, subsurface constructed wetlands with and without plants; while both removed most of the oxygen demand, removal rates in the planted system were slightly greater and significantly different from those of the unplanted system under field conditions.

  19. The contribution of plant uptake to nutrient removal by floating treatment wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Dekkers, T.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) may provide an appealing alternative to the more conventional (sub) surface flow wetlands to solve problems associated with eutrophication in urban surface waters, because they do not claim additional land area. This study examined the contribution of plant uptake

  20. Ecosystem development after mangrove wetland creation: plant-soil change across a 20-year chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J.; Spivak, Amanda C.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Lessmann, Jeannine M.; Almario, Alejandro E.; Heitmuller, Paul T.; Russell, Marc J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Alvarez, Federico; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; From, Andrew S.; Cormier, Nicole; Stagg, Camille L.

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland losses. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands are poorly understood. We compared a 20-year chronosequence of created tidal wetland sites in Tampa Bay, Florida (USA) to natural reference mangrove wetlands. Across the chronosequence, our sites represent the succession from salt marsh to mangrove forest communities. Our results identify important soil and plant structural differences between the created and natural reference wetland sites; however, they also depict a positive developmental trajectory for the created wetland sites that reflects tightly coupled plant-soil development. Because upland soils and/or dredge spoils were used to create the new mangrove habitats, the soils at younger created sites and at lower depths (10-30 cm) had higher bulk densities, higher sand content, lower soil organic matter (SOM), lower total carbon (TC), and lower total nitrogen (TN) than did natural reference wetland soils. However, in the upper soil layer (0-10 cm), SOM, TC, and TN increased with created wetland site age simultaneously with mangrove forest growth. The rate of created wetland soil C accumulation was comparable to literature values for natural mangrove wetlands. Notably, the time to equivalence for the upper soil layer of created mangrove wetlands appears to be faster than for many other wetland ecosystem types. Collectively, our findings characterize the rate and trajectory of above- and below-ground changes associated with ecosystem development in created mangrove wetlands; this is valuable information for environmental managers planning to sustain existing mangrove wetlands or mitigate for mangrove wetland losses.

  1. Using Mass Spectroscopy to Examine Wetland Carbon Flow from Plants to Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, N.; Tfaily, M. M.; Moran, J.; Hu, D.; Cliff, J. B.; Gough, H. L.; Chistoserdova, L.; Beck, D.; Neumann, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    In the anoxic soil of wetlands, microbes produce methane (CH4), a greenhouse gas. Prior studies have documented an increase in CH4 emissions as plant productivity increases, likely due to plants releasing more labile organic carbon from roots. But in the field, it is difficult to separate changes in plant productivity and root carbon exudation from other seasonal changes that can affect methane emissions, e.g. temperature. Clarifying the role that root exudation plays in fueling methane production is important because increasing atmospheric temperatures and CO2 levels are projected to increase plant productivity and exudation. To advance understanding of climate-methane feedbacks, this study tracked the flow of carbon from plants into the wetland rhizosphere as plant productivity increased in controlled laboratory conditions. We grew Carex aquatilis, a wetland sedge, in peat-filled rootboxes. Both early and late during the plant growth cycle, we exposed plants to headspace 13CO2, which the plants fixed. Some of this labeled carbon was exuded by the roots and used by rhizosphere microbes. We tracked the isotope ratio of emitted CH4 to establish the time required for plant-released carbon to fuel methanogenesis, and to determine the relative contribution of plant-derived carbon to total CH4 emission. We destructively harvested root and rhizosphere samples from various locations that we characterized by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (MS) to determine isotopic enrichment and therefore relative abundance of root exudates. We analyzed additional aliquots of rhizosphere soil by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS to track chemical changes in soil carbon as root exudates were converted into methane. To advance mechanistic understanding of the synergistic and competitive microbial interactions that affect methane dynamics in the wetland rhizosphere, we used fluorescence in-situ hybridization to visualize microbial community composition and spatial associations

  2. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  3. The effect of hydrological regime on the metal bioavailability for the wetland plant species Salix cinerea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Quataert, Paul; Tack, Filip M.G.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrological conditions on a site constitute one of the many factors that may affect the availability of potentially toxic trace metals for uptake by plants. Bioavailability of Cd, Mn and Zn in a contaminated dredged sediment-derived soil under different hydrological regimes was determined by measuring metal uptake by the wetland plant species Salix cinerea, both in field circumstances and in a greenhouse experiment. Longer submersion periods in the field caused lower Cd concentrations in leaves and bark. The wetland hydrological regime in the greenhouse experiment resulted in normal Cd and Zn concentrations in the leaves, while the upland hydrological regime resulted in elevated Cd and Zn concentrations in the leaves. Field observations and the greenhouse experiment suggest that a hydrological regime that creates or sustains a wetland is a potential management option that reduces metal bioavailability to willows. This would constitute a safe management option of metal-polluted, willow-dominated wetlands provided that wetland conditions can be maintained throughout the full growing season. - A hydrological regime aiming at wetland creation is a potential management option that favors reducing Cd plant availability in polluted freshwater wetlands

  4. Growth Responses of Three Dominant Wetland Plant Species to Various Flooding and Nutrient Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.; Shaffer, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is experiencing a greater rate of wetland loss than any other wetland system in the United States. This is primarily due to anthropogenic stressors such as flood control levees, backfilling and development of wetlands, and other hydrologic modifications. Methods employed to mitigate wetland loss include the construction of river diversions and assimilation wetlands, which can provide consistent sources of freshwater influx and nutrients to impounded swamps and marshes. It is well known that prolonged flooding causes strain on wetland plant communities and facilitates or exacerbates wetland degradation. However, because river diversions and assimilation wetlands bring high nutrient loads along with freshwater, there is debate over whether prolonged flooding or high influx of nutrients is the primary cause of stress in river diversion and assimilation wetland discharge areas. This mesocosm experiment addresses this question by isolating the effects of flooding and nutrients on the biomass of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), and cordgrass (Spartina patens) over the course of a growing season. The results of this study provide clarity as to whether flooding stress, high nutrient loads, or both cause a reduction in wetland plant productivity. By evaluating the growth responses of T. distichum, P. hemitomon, and S. patens at varying nutrient regimes, we gain insight on how these more dominant species will react to high nutrient discharges from large river diversions, such as those proposed in Louisiana's 2017 Master Plan.

  5. Functional leaf attributes predict litter decomposition rate in herbaceous plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J. H C; Thompson, K.

    1997-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that functional attributes of living leaves provide a basis for predicting the decomposition rate of leaf litter. The data were obtained from standardized screening tests on 38 British herbaceous species. Graminoid monocots had physically tougher leaves with higher silicon

  6. Impacts of Extreme Events on Phenology: Drought-Induced Changes in Productivity of Mixed Woody-Herbaceous Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, P. M.; Breshears, D. D.; White, A. B.

    2006-12-01

    Ecosystem responses to key climate drivers are reflected in phenological dynamics such as the timing and degree of "greenup" that integrate responses over spatial scales from individual plants to ecosystems. This integration is clearest in ecosystems dominated by a single species or life form, such as seasonally dynamic grasslands or more temporally constant evergreen forests. Yet many ecosystems have substantial contribution of cover from both herbaceous and woody evergreen plants. Responses of mixed woody- herbaceous ecosystems to climate are of increasing concern due to their extensive nature, the potential for such systems to yield more complex responses than those dominated by a single life form, and projections that extreme climate and weather events will increase in frequency and intensity with global warming. We present responses of a mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystem type to an extreme event: regional scale piñon pine mortality following an extended drought and the subsequent herbaceous greenup following the first wet period after the drought. This example highlights how reductions in greenness of the slower, more stable evergreen woody component can rapidly be offset by increases associated with resources made available to the relatively more responsive herbaceous component. We hypothesize that such two-phase phenological responses to extreme events are characteristic of many mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystems.

  7. Using Tradtional Ecological Knowledge to Protect Wetlands: the Swinomish Tribe's Wetland Cultural Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T.

    2017-12-01

    "Traditional" wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The combined score of the cultural and physcial modules provides an overall wetland score that relates to proscribed buffer protection widths. With this local native knowledge incorporated into wetland assessments, we are protecting and preserving Swinomish Reservation wetlands for both cultural uses and ecological functionality through the Tribe's wetland protection law.

  8. Do tropical wetland plants possess a convective gas flow mechanism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Konnerup; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Internal pressurization and convective gas flow, which can aerate wetland plants more efficiently than diffusion, are common in temperate species. Here, we present the first survey of convective flow in a range of tropical plants. The occurrence of pressurization and convective flow was determined...... in 20 common wetland plants from the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. The diel variation in pressurization in culms and the convective flow and gas composition from stubbles were examined for Eleocharis dulcis, Phragmites vallatoria and Hymenachne acutigluma, and related to light, humidity and air temperature....... Nine of the 20 species studied were able to build up a static pressure of >50Pa, and eight species had convective flow rates higher than 1mlmin-1. There was a clear diel variation, with higher pressures and flows during the day than during the night, when pressures and flows were close to zero...

  9. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed

  10. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H

    2004-11-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed.

  11. Performance of dryland and wetland plant species on extensive green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, J Scott; Ranalli, Melissa A; Lundholm, Jeremy T

    2011-04-01

    Green roofs are constructed ecosystems where plants perform valuable services, ameliorating the urban environment through roof temperature reductions and stormwater interception. Plant species differ in functional characteristics that alter ecosystem properties. Plant performance research on extensive green roofs has so far indicated that species adapted to dry conditions perform optimally. However, in moist, humid climates, species typical of wetter soils might have advantages over dryland species. In this study, survival, growth and the performance of thermal and stormwater capture functions of three pairs of dryland and wetland plant species were quantified using an extensive modular green roof system. Seedlings of all six species were germinated in a greenhouse and planted into green roof modules with 6 cm of growing medium. There were 34 treatments consisting of each species in monoculture and all combinations of wet- and dryland species in a randomized block design. Performance measures were survival, vegetation cover and roof surface temperature recorded for each module over two growing seasons, water loss (an estimate of evapotranspiration) in 2007, and albedo and water capture in 2008. Over two seasons, dryland plants performed better than wetland plants, and increasing the number of dryland species in mixtures tended to improve functioning, although there was no clear effect of species or habitat group diversity. All species had survival rates >75 % after the first winter; however, dryland species had much greater cover, an important indicator of green roof performance. Sibbaldiopsis tridentata was the top performing species in monoculture, and was included in the best treatments. Although dryland species outperformed wetland species, planting extensive green roofs with both groups decreased performance only slightly, while increasing diversity and possibly habitat value. This study provides further evidence that plant composition and diversity can

  12. Metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands, with emphasis on the importance of plants and standardized measurements: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, L.; Mench, M.; Jacob, D.L.; Otte, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    This review integrates knowledge on the removal of metals and metalloids from contaminated waters in constructed wetlands and offers insight into future R and D priorities. Metal removal processes in wetlands are described. Based on 21 papers, the roles and impacts on efficiency of plants in constructed wetlands are discussed. The effects of plant ecotypes and class (monocots, dicots) and of system size on metal removal are addressed. Metal removal rates in wetlands depend on the type of element (Hg > Mn > Fe = Cd > Pb = Cr > Zn = Cu > Al > Ni > As), their ionic forms, substrate conditions, season, and plant species. Standardized procedures and data are lacking for efficiently comparing properties of plants and substrates. We propose a new index, the relative treatment efficiency index (RTEI), to quantify treatment impacts on metal removal in constructed wetlands. Further research is needed on key components, such as effects of differences in plant ecotypes and microbial communities, in order to enhance metal removal efficiency. - A new index, the relative treatment efficiency index (RTEI), to quantify treatment impacts on metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands.

  13. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  15. The wetlands of Magdalena medio Antioqueno from a physical and socio-cultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero Acosta, Humberto; Durango Lopez, Consuelo; Giraldo Castro, Carlos Augusto

    2001-01-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems with environmental and ecological importance that require of a new methodological and legal focus that allows developing conservation policies in agreement with the natural and socio-cultural conditions. In the Magdalena Medio Antioqueno, CORANTIOQUIA region, were recognized 362 wetlands, divided in two main groups; in Puerto Nare and Puerto Berrio to the south prevails herbaceous wetlands without permanent surface water, locally known as Bajos. In Yondo the wetlands have permanent surface water. The environmental dynamic depends from the geomorphologic and hydrological conditions and are affected in a differential way by the human action. The region is the result of a long occupation process that begins in prehistoric times and had changed depending on the different historical moments. This complex social configuration has given origin to diverse perceptions and types of appropriation of the wetlands what explains the identified environmental circumstances

  16. Impacts of water development on aquatic macroinvertebrates, amphibians, and plants in wetlands of a semi-arid landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the macroinvertebrate and amphibian communities of 12 excavated and 12 natural wetlands in western North Dakota, USA, to assess the effects of artificially lengthened hydroperiods on the biotic communities of wetlands in this semi-arid region. Excavated wetlands were much deeper and captured greater volumes of water than natural wetlands. Most excavated wetlands maintained water throughout the study period (May to October 1999), whereas most of the natural wetlands were dry by June. Excavated wetlands were largely unvegetated or contained submergent and deep-marsh plant species. The natural wetlands had two well-defined vegetative zones populated by plant species typical of wet meadows and shallow marshes. Excavated wetlands had a richer aquatic macroinvertebrate community that included several predatory taxa not found in natural wetlands. Taxa adapted to the short hydroperiods of seasonal wetlands were largely absent from excavated wetlands. The amphibian community of natural and excavated wetlands included the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata), northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), plains spadefoot (Scaphiopus bombifrons), Woodhouse's toad (Bufo woodhousii woodhousii), and tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). The plains spadefoot occurred only in natural wetlands while tiger salamanders occurred in all 12 excavated wetlands and only one natural wetland. Boreal chorus frogs and northern leopard frogs were present in both wetland types; however, they successfully reproduced only in wetlands lacking tiger salamanders. Artificially extending the hydroperiod of wetlands by excavation has greatly influenced the composition of native biotic communities adapted to the naturally short hydroperiods of wetlands in this semi-arid region. The compositional change of the biotic communities can be related to hydrological changes and biotic interactions, especially predation related to excavation.

  17. Small seed size increases the potential for dispersal of wetland plants by ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, M.B.; van der Vlugt, C.; van Lith, B.; Heil, G.W.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Long-distance dispersal (LDD) is important in plants of dynamic and ephemeral habitats. For plants of dynamic wetland habitats, waterfowl are generally considered to be important LDD vectors. However, in comparison to the internal (endozoochorous) dispersal of terrestrial plants by birds,

  18. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  19. Flora characteristics of Chenier Wetland in Bohai Bay and biogeographic relations with adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; Liu, Jingtao; Hu, Shugang

    2017-12-01

    A key step towards the restoration of heavily disturbed fragile coastal wetland ecosystems is determining the composition and characteristics of the plant communities involved. This study determined and characterized the community of higher plants in the Chenier wetland of Bohai Bay using a combination of field surveys, quadrat approaches, and multivariate statistical analyses. This community was then compared to other adjacent wetlands (Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Laizhouwan, Jiaozhouwan, and Yellow River Delta wetland) located near the Huanghai and Bohai Seas using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results showed a total of 56 higher plant species belonging to 52 genera from 20 families in Chenier wetland, the majority of which were dicotyledons. Single-species families were predominant, while larger families, including Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Chenopodiaceae contained a higher number of species (each⩾6 species). Cosmopolitan species were also dominant with apparent intrazonality. Abundance (number of species) of temperate species was twice that of tropical taxa. Species number of perennial herbs, such as Gramineae and Compositae, was generally higher. Plant diversity in the Chenier wetland, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, was observed to be between the Qinhuangdao and Laizhouwan indices, while no significant difference was found in other wetlands using the Simpson index. Despite these slight differences in diversity, PCoA based on species abundance and composition of the wetland flora suggest that the Bohai Chenier community was highly similar to the coastal wetlands in Tianjin and Laizhouwan, further suggesting that these two wetlands could be important breeding grounds and resources for the restoration of the plant ecosystem in the Chenier wetland.

  20. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    Root exudates from wetland plants have both positive and negative interactions among microbe, plants and ecosystems. Wetland species releasing organic carbon into the rhizosphere for providing energy to denitrifying bacteria fuel denitrification for removal nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed...... wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic...... chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may...

  1. Hydrological-niche models predict water plant functional group distributions in diverse wetland types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, David C; Nicol, Jason M; Gehrig, Susan L; Harding, Claire; Aldridge, Kane T; Goodman, Abigail M; Brookes, Justin D

    2017-06-01

    Human use of water resources threatens environmental water supplies. If resource managers are to develop policies that avoid unacceptable ecological impacts, some means to predict ecosystem response to changes in water availability is necessary. This is difficult to achieve at spatial scales relevant for water resource management because of the high natural variability in ecosystem hydrology and ecology. Water plant functional groups classify species with similar hydrological niche preferences together, allowing a qualitative means to generalize community responses to changes in hydrology. We tested the potential for functional groups in making quantitative prediction of water plant functional group distributions across diverse wetland types over a large geographical extent. We sampled wetlands covering a broad range of hydrogeomorphic and salinity conditions in South Australia, collecting both hydrological and floristic data from 687 quadrats across 28 wetland hydrological gradients. We built hydrological-niche models for eight water plant functional groups using a range of candidate models combining different surface inundation metrics. We then tested the predictive performance of top-ranked individual and averaged models for each functional group. Cross validation showed that models achieved acceptable predictive performance, with correct classification rates in the range 0.68-0.95. Model predictions can be made at any spatial scale that hydrological data are available and could be implemented in a geographical information system. We show the response of water plant functional groups to inundation is consistent enough across diverse wetland types to quantify the probability of hydrological impacts over regional spatial scales. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC WETLANDS PLANT SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  3. Diversity of herbaceous plants and bacterial communities regulates soil resistome across forest biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Wang, Jun-Tao; Singh, Brajesh K; Liu, Yu-Rong; Chen, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Yu-Jing; He, Ji-Zheng

    2018-04-24

    Antibiotic resistance is ancient and prevalent in natural ecosystems and evolved long before the utilization of synthetic antibiotics started, but factors influencing the large-scale distribution patterns of natural antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) remain largely unknown. Here, a large-scale investigation over 4000 km was performed to profile soil ARGs, plant communities and bacterial communities from 300 quadrats across five forest biomes with minimal human impact. We detected diverse and abundant ARGs in forests, including over 160 genes conferring resistance to eight major categories of antibiotics. The diversity of ARGs was strongly and positively correlated with the diversity of bacteria, herbaceous plants and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The ARG composition was strongly correlated with the taxonomic structure of bacteria and herbs. Consistent with this strong correlation, structural equation modelling demonstrated that the positive effects of bacterial and herb communities on ARG patterns were maintained even when simultaneously accounting for multiple drivers (climate, spatial predictors and edaphic factors). These findings suggest a paradigm that the interactions between aboveground and belowground communities shape the large-scale distribution of soil resistomes, providing new knowledge for tackling the emerging environmental antibiotic resistance. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Firn; J.L. Moore; A.S. MacDougall; E.T. Borer; E.W. Seabloom; J. HilleRisLambers; S. Harpole; E.E. Cleland; C.S. Brown; J.M.H. Knops; S.M. Prober; D.A. Pyke; K.A. Farrell; J.D. Bakker; L.R. O’Halloran; P.B. Adler; S.L. Collins; C.M. D’Antonio; M.J. Crawley; E.M. Wolkovich; K.J. La Pierre; B.A. Melbourne; Y. Hautier; J.W. Morgan; A.D.B. Leakey; A.D. Kay; R.L. McCulley; K.F. Davies; C.J. Stevens; C.J. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at...

  5. Analysing how plants in coastal wetlands respond to varying tidal regimes throughout their life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tian; Cui, Baoshan; Li, Shanze

    2017-10-15

    Important to conserve plant species in coastal wetlands throughout their life cycle. All life stages in these habitats are exposed to varying tidal cycles. It is necessary to investigate all life stages as to how they respond to varying tidal regimes. We examine three wetlands containing populations of an endangered halophyte species, each subjected to different tidal regimes: (1). wetlands completely closed to tidal cycles; (2). wetlands directly exposed to tidal cycles (3). wetlands exposed to a partially closed tidal regime. Our results showed that the most threatened stage varied between wetlands subjected to these varying tidal regimes. We hypothesis that populations of this species have adapted to these different tidal regimes. Such information is useful in developing management options for coastal wetlands and modifying future barriers restricting tidal flushing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of plants on the reduction of hexavalent chromium in wetland sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazo, Juan A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, 28049 (Spain)], E-mail: juan.zazo@uam.es; Paull, Jeffery S.; Jaffe, Peter R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This work addresses the effect that plants (Typha latifolia and Carex lurida) have on the reduction of Cr(VI) in wetland sediments. Experiments were carried out using tubular microcosms, where chemical species were monitored along the longitudinal flow axis. Cr(VI) removal was enhanced by the presence of plants. This is explained by a decrease in the redox potential promoted by organic root exudates released by plants. Under these conditions sulfate reduction is enhanced, increasing the concentration of sulfide species in the sediment pore water, which reduce Cr(VI). Evapotranspiration induced by plants also contributed to enhance the reduction of Cr(VI) by concentrating all chemical species in the sediment pore water. Both exudates release and evapotranspiration have a diurnal component that affects Cr(VI) reduction. Concentration profiles were fitted to a kinetic model linking sulfide and Cr(VI) concentrations corrected for evapotranspiration. This expression captures both the longitudinal as well as the diurnal Cr(VI) concentration profiles. - The presence of plants enhances the reduction of Cr(VI) in wetland sediments by modifying the governing biogeochemical cycle.

  7. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

  8. Phytoremediation of imazalil and tebuconazole by four emergent wetland plant species in hydroponic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Zhang, Yang; Casas, Mònica E; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Bester, Kai; Brix, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Pollution from pesticide residues in aquatic environments is of increasing concern. Imazalil and tebuconazole, two commonly used systemic pesticides, are water contaminants that can be removed by constructed wetlands. However, the phytoremediation capability of emergent wetland plants for imazalil and tebuconazole, especially the removal mechanisms involved, is poorly understood. This study compared the removal of both pesticides by four commonly used wetland plants, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus and Juncus effusus, and aimed to understand the removal mechanisms involved. The plants were individually exposed to an initial concentration of 10 mg/L in hydroponic solution. At the end of the 24-day study period, the tebuconazole removal efficiencies were relatively lower (25%-41%) than those for imazalil (46%-96%) for all plant species studied. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole fit a first-order kinetics model, with the exception of tebuconazole removal in solutions with I. pseudacorus. Changes in the enantiomeric fraction for imazalil and tebuconazole were detected in plant tissue but not in the hydroponic solutions; thus, the translocation and degradation processes were enantioselective in the plants. At the end of the study period, the accumulation of imazalil and tebuconazole in plant tissue was relatively low and constituted 2.8-14.4% of the total spiked pesticide in each vessel. Therefore, the studied plants were able to not only take up the pesticides but also metabolise them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil Microbial Community Structure Evolution along Halophyte Succession in Bohai Bay Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Cong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is urgent to recover Bohai Bay costal wetland ecosystem because of covering a large area of severe saline-alkali soil. To explore the relationship between halophyte herbaceous succession and microbial community structure, we chose four local communities which played an important role in improving soil microenvironment. We performed phospholipid fatty acid analysis, measured soil parameters, and evaluated shifts of microbial community structure. Results showed that microbial community structure changed significantly along succession and bacteria community was dominant. Total phospholipid fatty acid content increased in different successional stages but decreased with depth, with similar variations in bacterial and fungal biomass. Soil organic carbon and especially total nitrogen were positively correlated with microbial biomass. Colonization of pioneering salt-tolerant plants Suaeda glauca in saline-alkali bare land changed total soil microorganism content and composition. These results showed that belowground processes were strongly related with aboveground halophyte succession. Fungal/bacterial ratio, Gram-negative/Gram-positive bacteria ratio, total microbial biomass, and fungi and bacteria content could indicate the degree of succession stages in Bohai Bay wetland ecosystem. And also these findings demonstrated that microbial community biomass and composition evolved along with vegetation succession environmental variables.

  10. Research Note Pilot survey to assess sample size for herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot survey to determine sub-sample size (number of point observations per plot) for herbaceous species composition assessments, using a wheel-point apparatus applying the nearest-plant method, was conducted. Three plots differing in species composition on the Zululand coastal plain were selected, and on each plot ...

  11. Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: gabriel.maltais-landry@umontreal.ca; Maranger, Roxane [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada)], E-mail: r.maranger@umontreal.ca; Brisson, Jacques [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: jacques.brisson@umontreal.ca; Chazarenc, Florent [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by constructed wetlands (CWs) could mitigate the environmental benefits of nutrient removal in these man-made ecosystems. We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons. CW emitted 2-10 times more GHG than natural wetlands. Overall, CH{sub 4} was the most important GHG emitted in unplanted treatments. Oxygen availability through artificial aeration reduced CH{sub 4} fluxes. Plant presence also decreased CH{sub 4} fluxes but favoured CO{sub 2} production. Nitrous oxide had a minor contribution to global warming potential (GWP < 15%). The introduction of oxygen through artificial aeration combined with plant presence, particularly Typha angustifolia, had the overall best performance among the treatments tested in this study, including lowest GWP, greatest nutrient removal, and best hydraulic properties. - Methane is the main greenhouse gas produced in constructed wetlands and oxygen availability is the main factor controlling fluxes.

  12. Mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids : degradation in OSPW and wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Water Science and Technology Directorate

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids and the degradation in OSPW and wetland plants. It presented background information on the Athabasca oil sands and naphthenic acids which involve a mixture of alkanes and cycloalkane carboxylic acids with aliphatic side chains. The presentation also discussed mass spectrometry with electrospray operating in negative ion modes. Loop injection, external standard methods and solid phase extraction were reviewed along with improved analysis by removing background ions. Other topics that were presented included hydroponic test systems and wetland plant toxicity, growth and transpiration. It was concluded that dissipation included species containing oxygen, ozone, O{sub 4}, and O{sub 5}. tabs., figs.

  13. Plant biodiversity changes in Carboniferous tropical wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, C. J.; Uhl, D.; Cascales-Miñana, B.

    2012-01-01

    and Sydney coal basins. In all cases, species richness expansion followed an essentially logistic curve typical of that associated with ecologically closed habitats, with niche saturation being achieved in about three million years. The resulting steady-state (“climax”) coal swamp vegetation had a local......Using a combination of species richness, polycohort and constrained cluster analyses, the plant biodiversity of Pennsylvanian (late Carboniferous) tropical wetlands (“coal swamps”) has been investigated in five areas in Western Europe and eastern North America: South Wales, Pennines, Ruhr, Saarland...

  14. Pipeline Corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1992 Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to identify representative impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of the survey July 1992, at the Mills Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. Data were collected from three wetland communities along the 1991 pipeline and compared with predisturbance data obtained in a June 1991 survey. Within one year after pipeline installation, 50% of the soil surface of the ROW in the scrub-shrub community was covered by emergent vegetation. Average wetland values for the ROW in 1992 were lower than in 1991, indicating that the removal of woody plants resulted in a community composed of species with greater fidelity to wetlands. In the emergent marsh community after one year, the average percentage of surface covered by standing water was greater in the ROW than in the adjacent natural areas. The ROW in the forested wetland community also contained standing water, although none was found in the natural forest areas. The entire study site remains a wetland, with the majority of plant species in all sites being either obligate or facultative wetland species. Weighted and unweighted average wetland indices for each community, using all species, indicated wetland vegetation within the newly established ROW.

  15. Environmental Behavior and Fate of Explosives in Groundwater from the Milan Army Ammunition Plant in Aquatic and Wetland Plants. Fate of TNT and RDX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly

    1998-01-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the environmental behavior and fate of TNT and RDX in aquatic and wetland plants collected from a field-scale wetland demonstration deployed at Milan Army...

  16. Aquatic adventitious roots of the wetland plant Meionectes brownii can photosynthesize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    • Many wetland plants produce aquatic adventitious roots from submerged stems. Aquatic roots can form chloroplasts, potentially producing endogenous carbon and oxygen. Here, aquatic root photosynthesis was evaluated in the wetland plant Meionectes brownii, which grows extensive stem-borne aquatic...... roots during submergence. • Underwater photosynthetic light and CO(2) response curves were determined for aquatic-adapted leaves, stems and aquatic roots of M. brownii. Oxygen microelectrode and (14)CO(2)-uptake experiments determined shoot inputs of O(2) and photosynthate into aquatic roots. • Aquatic...... adventitious roots contain a complete photosynthetic pathway. Underwater photosynthetic rates are similar to those of stems, with a maximum net photosynthetic rate (P(max)) of 0.38 µmol O(2) m(-2) s(-1); however, this is c. 30-fold lower than that of aquatic-adapted leaves. Under saturating light with 300 mmol...

  17. A Regional Study of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Plantation Development During the First 15 Years After Early Complete Woody and/or Herbaceous Plant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Bruce R. Zutter; Shepard M. Zedaker; M. Boyd Edwards; Ray A. Newbold

    2002-01-01

    Conifer plantations in North America and elsewhere in the world are increasingly cultured using early control of herbaceous and woody plants. Development of sustainable cultural practices are hindered by the absence of long-term data on productivity gains relative to competition levels, crop- competition dynamics, and ecological changes. There are lmany reports of...

  18. Responses of high-elevation herbaceous plant assemblages to low glacial CO₂ concentrations revealed by fossil marmot (Marmota) teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Bryan S; Ward, Joy K; Polito, Michael J; Emslie, Steven D

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric CO2 cycles of the Quaternary likely imposed major constraints on the physiology and growth of C3 plants worldwide. However, the measured record of this remains both geographically and taxonomically sparse. We present the first reconstruction of physiological responses in a late Quaternary high-elevation herbaceous plant community from the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA. We used a novel proxy-fossilized tooth enamel of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)-which we developed using detailed isotopic analysis of modern individuals. Calculated C isotopic discrimination (Δ) of alpine plants was nearly 2 ‰ lower prior to the Last Glacial Maximum than at present, a response almost identical to that of nonherbaceous taxa from lower elevations. However, initial shifts in Δ aligned most closely with the onset of the late Pleistocene bipolar temperature "seesaw" rather than CO2 increase, indicating unique limitations on glacial-age high-elevation plants may have existed due to both low temperatures and low CO2. Further development of system-specific faunal proxies can help to clarify this and other plant- and ecosystem-level responses to past environmental change.

  19. Analysis of chemical reaction kinetics of depredating organic pollutants from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Dengling; Yang, Yong; Cao, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Four subsurface constructed wetlands were built to treat the secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan, China. The chemical pollutant indexes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants from the secondary effluent of the wastewater treatment plant. In all cases, the subsurface constructed wetlands were efficient in treating organic pollutants. Under the same hydraulic loading condition, the horizontal flow wetlands exhibited better efficiency of COD removal than vertical flow wetlands: the removal rates in horizontal flow wetlands could be maintained at 68.4 ± 2.42% to 92.2 ± 1.61%, compared with 63.8 ± 1.19% to 85.0 ± 1.25% in the vertical flow wetlands. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction kinetics of organic pollutants was analyzed, and the results showed that the degradation courses of the four subsurface wetlands all corresponded with the first order reaction kinetics to a large extent.

  20. Above- and belowground competition from longleaf pine plantations limits performance of reintroduced herbaceous species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.B. Harrington; C.M. Dagley; M.B. Edwards.

    2003-10-01

    Although overstory trees limit the abundance and species richness of herbaceous vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood because of confounding among limiting factors. In fall 1998, research was initiated to determine the separate effects of above- and belowground competition and needlefall from overstory pines on understory plant performance. Three 13- to 15-yr-old plantations near Aiken, SC, were thinned to 0, 25, 50, or 100% of nonthinned basal area (19.5 m2 ha-1). Combinations of trenching (to eliminate root competition) and needlefall were applied to areas within each plot, and containerized seedlings of 14 perennial herbaceous species and longleaf pine were planted within each. Overstory crown closure ranged from 0 to 81%, and soil water and available nitrogen varied consistently with pine stocking, trenching, or their combination. Cover of planted species decreased an average of 16.5 and 14.1% as a result of above- and below-ground competition, respectively. Depending on species, needlefall effects were positive, negative, or negligible. Results indicate that understory restoration will be most successful when herbaceous species are established within canopy openings (0.1-0.2 ha) managed to minimize negative effects from above- and belowground competition and needlefall.

  1. Nitrous oxide emission from polyculture constructed wetlands: Effect of plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yanhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Min Hang, Shanghai 200240 (China); Inamori, Ryuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Kong Hainan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Min Hang, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: remanda@126.com; Xu Kaiqin [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan Unviversity, Wuhan 430072 (China); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang Jixiang [School of Economics and Management, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Loss of nitrogen from the soil-plant system has raised environmental concern. This study assessed the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs). To better understand the mechanism of N{sub 2}O emission, spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in four kinds of wetlands soil were compared. N{sub 2}O emission data showed large temporal and spatial variation ranging from -5.5 to 32.7 mg N{sub 2}O m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. The highest N{sub 2}O emission occurred in the cell planted with Phragmites australis and Zizania latifolia. Whereas, the lower emission rate were obtained in the cell planted with P. australis and Typha latifolia. These revealed that Z. latifolia stimulated the N{sub 2}O emission. Transportation of more organic matter and oxygen for AOB growth may be the reason. The study of AOB also supported this result, indicating that the root structure of Z. latifolia was favored by AOB for N{sub 2}O formation. - Zizania latifolia has a large contribution to global warming.

  2. The impact of grazing on forage quality of the herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on research conducted in the Mamoro cork oak forest of Morocco to describe the impacts of sheep grazing in March, April, May and June of 1987 and 1988 on seasonal changes in forage quality of the herbaceous vegetation. The study showed that trends in herbage quality were related mainly to plant maturity.

  3. Effects of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on vegetation. I. Herbaceous plants PAN injury symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Iijima, T.; Oodaira, T.

    1975-01-01

    A series of exposure experiments were conducted in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber equipped with artificial light apparatus, using PAN synthesized from ultraviolet irradiation of ethyl nitrite vapor in oxygen. Exposures of 6 approx. 16 hours and 10 pphm PAN caused serious damage like caving with glazing or bronzing in caved lesions to the lower surface of younger leaves. Leaves of white-flowered petunia were found to be most sensitive to PAN and were damaged even by a 3 pphm exposure. Microscopic examinations showed that the PAN characteristically caused injuries of spongy cells and that these cells collapsed and turned brown. Leaf injury symptoms on herbaceous plants caused by synthesized PAN in the exposure experiments were found to be quite similar to those seen in the field under high oxidant emergence. Therefore, it seems that the said type of injuries to leaf beet, kidney bean, and head lettuce observed in the field were caused by PAN. 21 references. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Plant community, primary productivity, and environmental conditions following wetland re-establishment in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.L.; Fujii, R.

    2010-01-01

    Wetland restoration can mitigate aerobic decomposition of subsided organic soils, as well as re-establish conditions favorable for carbon storage. Rates of carbon storage result from the balance of inputs and losses, both of which are affected by wetland hydrology. We followed the effect of water depth (25 and 55 cm) on the plant community, primary production, and changes in two re-established wetlands in the Sacramento San-Joaquin River Delta, California for 9 years after flooding to determine how relatively small differences in water depth affect carbon storage rates over time. To estimate annual carbon inputs, plant species cover, standing above- and below-ground plant biomass, and annual biomass turnover rates were measured, and allometric biomass models for Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) acutus and Typha spp., the emergent marsh dominants, were developed. As the wetlands developed, environmental factors, including water temperature, depth, and pH were measured. Emergent marsh vegetation colonized the shallow wetland more rapidly than the deeper wetland. This is important to potential carbon storage because emergent marsh vegetation is more productive, and less labile, than submerged and floating vegetation. Primary production of emergent marsh vegetation ranged from 1.3 to 3.2 kg of carbon per square meter annually; and, mid-season standing live biomass represented about half of the annual primary production. Changes in species composition occurred in both submerged and emergent plant communities as the wetlands matured. Water depth, temperature, and pH were lower in areas with emergent marsh vegetation compared to submerged vegetation, all of which, in turn, can affect carbon cycling and storage rates. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  5. The factors controlling species density in herbaceous plant communities: An assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates both the ideas and empirical evidence pertaining to the control of species density in herbaceous plant communities. While most theoretical discussions of species density have emphasized the importance of habitat productivity and disturbance regimes, many other factors (e.g. species pools, plant litter accumulation, plant morphology) have been proposed to be important. A review of literature presenting observations on the density of species in small plots (in the vicinity of a few square meters or less), as well as experimental studies, suggests several generalizations: (1) Available data are consistent with an underlying unimodal relationship between species density and total community biomass. While variance in species density is often poorly explained by predictor variables, there is strong evidence that high levels of community biomass are antagonistic to high species density. (2) Community biomass is just one of several factors affecting variations in species density. Multivariate analyses typically explain more than twice as much variance in species density as can be explained by community biomass alone. (3) Disturbance has important and sometimes complex effects on species density. In general, the evidence is consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis but exceptions exist and effects can be complex. (4) Gradients in the species pool can have important influences on patterns of species density. Evidence is mounting that a considerable amount of the observed variability in species density within a landscape or region may result from environmental effects on the species pool. (5) Several additional factors deserve greater consideration, including time lags, species composition, plant morphology, plant density and soil microbial effects. Based on the available evidence, a conceptual model of the primary factors controlling species density is presented here. This model suggests that species density is controlled by the effects of

  6. Nutrient and metal uptake in wetland plants at stormwater detension ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and metals were analysed in tissues of various wetland plants growing in stormwater detention ponds in Denmark. Nutrient and metal concentrations in below and aboveground tissues were compared to the concentrations of the adjacent sediment. The results showed accumulation of heavy metal...

  7. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  8. Root porosity and radial oxygen loss related to arsenic tolerance and uptake in wetland plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wei, Z.J.; Wong, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, concentrations of arsenic (As), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in shoot and root tissues and on root surfaces, As tolerances, and their relationships in different wetland plants were investigated based on a hydroponic experiment (control, 0.8, 1.6 mg As L -1 ) and a soil pot trail (control, 60 mg As kg -1 ). The results revealed that wetland plants showed great differences in root porosity (9-64%), rates of ROL (55-1750 mmo1 O 2 kg -1 root d.w. d -1 ), As uptake (e.g., 8.8-151 mg kg -1 in shoots in 0.8 mg As L -1 treatment), translocation factor (2.1-47% in 0.8 mg As L -1 ) and tolerance (29-106% in 0.8 mg As L -1 ). Wetland plants with higher rates of ROL and root porosity tended to form more Fe/Mn plaque, possess higher As tolerance, higher concentrations of As on root surfaces and a lower As translocation factor so decreasing As toxicity. - Research highlights: → There is significant correlation between the porosity of roots and rates of ROL. → The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with tolerance indices and concentrations of As, Fe, Mn on root surface. → The rates of ROL is negatively correlated with As translocation factor. - Wetland plants with high rates of ROL tended to form more Fe plaque on root surfaces and possess higher As tolerance.

  9. The influence of tree thinning on the establishment of herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of tree thinning on the establishment of herbaceous plants in a semi-arid savanna of southern Africa. GN Smit, FG Rethman. Abstract. The investigation was conducted on an area covered by a dense stand of Colophospermum mopane. Seven plots (65 m × 180 m) were subjected to different intensities of tree ...

  10. Degradation kinetics of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by methane oxidizers naturally-associated with wetland plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. L.; Goltz, M. N.; Agrawal, A.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) are common groundwater contaminants that can be removed from the environment by natural attenuation processes. CAH biodegradation can occur in wetland environments by reductive dechlorination as well as oxidation pathways. In particular, CAH oxidation may occur in vegetated wetlands, by microorganisms that are naturally associated with the roots of wetland plants. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cometabolic degradation kinetics of the CAHs, cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1TCA), by methane-oxidizing bacteria associated with the roots of a typical wetland plant in soil-free system. Laboratory microcosms with washed live roots investigated aerobic, cometabolic degradation of CAHs by the root-associated methane-oxidizing bacteria at initial aqueous [CH4] ~ 1.9 mg L- 1, and initial aqueous [CAH] ~ 150 μg L- 1; cisDCE and TCE (in the presence of 1,1,1TCA) degraded significantly, with a removal efficiency of approximately 90% and 46%, respectively. 1,1,1TCA degradation was not observed in the presence of active methane oxidizers. The pseudo first-order degradation rate-constants of TCE and cisDCE were 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.59 ± 0.07 d- 1, respectively, which are comparable to published values. However, their biomass-normalized degradation rate constants obtained in this study were significantly smaller than pure-culture studies, yet they were comparable to values reported for biofilm systems. The study suggests that CAH removal in wetland plant roots may be comparable to processes within biofilms. This has led us to speculate that the active biomass may be on the root surface as a biofilm. The cisDCE and TCE mass losses due to methane oxidizers in this study offer insight into the role of shallow, vegetated wetlands as an environmental sink for such xenobiotic compounds.

  11. Wetland Survey of Selected Areas in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Area of Responsibilty, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel.

    1997-01-01

    This document was prepared to summarize wetland surveys performed in the Y- 1 2 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994. Wetland surveys were conducted in three areas within the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994: the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Operable Unit (OU), part of the Bear Creek Valley OU (the upper watershed of Bear Creek from the culvert under Bear Creek Road upstream through the Y-12 West End Environmental Management Area, and the catchment of Bear Creek North Tributary 1), and part of Chestnut Ridge OU 2 (the McCoy Branch area south of Bethel Valley Road). Using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual, 18 wetland areas were identified in the 3 areas surveyed; these areas were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin. Fourteen wetlands and one wetland/pond area that are associated with disturbed or remnant stream channels and seeps were identified in the UEFPC OU. Three wetlands were identified in the Bear Creek Valley OU portion of the survey area. One wetland was identified in the riparian zone of McCoy Branch in the southern portion of Chestnut Ridge OU 2

  12. Effects of plant species on soil microbial processes and CH4 emission from constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Hao; Ye, Chun; Chen, Xia; Xie, Biao; Huang, Changchun; Zhang, Jixiang; Xu, Meina

    2013-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) emission from constructed wetland has raised environmental concern. This study evaluated the influence of mono and polyculture constructed wetland and seasonal variation on CH 4 fluxes. Methane emission data showed large temporal variation ranging from 0 to 249.29 mg CH 4 m −2 h −1 . Results indicated that the highest CH 4 flux was obtained in the polyculture system, planted with Phragmites australis, Zizania latifolia and Typha latifolia, reflecting polyculture system could stimulate CH 4 emission. FISH analysis showed the higher amount of methanotrophs in the profile of Z. latifolia in both mono and polyculture systems. The highest methanogens amount and relatively lower methanotrophs amount in the profile of polyculture system were obtained. The results support the characteristics of CH 4 fluxes. The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher potential of global warming. -- Highlights: ► The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher contribution to CH 4 emission. ► The CH 4 –C conversion ranged from 0 to 3.7%. ► The Z. latifolia played important roles in methanotrophs growth and CH 4 consumption. ► Major influence of T-N, TOC and plant cover on CH 4 emission was obtained. -- The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher contribution to global warming

  13. Comparing herbaceous plant communities in active and passive riparian restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Gornish

    Full Text Available Understanding the efficacy of passive (reduction or cessation of environmental stress and active (typically involving planting or seeding restoration strategies is important for the design of successful revegetation of degraded riparian habitat, but studies explicitly comparing restoration outcomes are uncommon. We sampled the understory herbaceous plant community of 103 riparian sites varying in age since restoration (0 to 39 years and revegetation technique (active, passive, or none to compare the utility of different approaches on restoration success across sites. We found that landform type, percent shade, and summer flow helped explain differences in the understory functional community across all sites. In passively restored sites, grass and forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age, but in actively restored sites forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age. Native cover and richness were lower with passive restoration compared to active restoration. Invasive species cover and richness were not significantly different across sites. Although some of our results suggest that active restoration would best enhance native species in degraded riparian areas, this work also highlights some of the context-dependency that has been found to mediate restoration outcomes. For example, since the effects of passive restoration can be quite rapid, this approach might be more useful than active restoration in situations where rapid dominance of pioneer species is required to arrest major soil loss through erosion. As a result, we caution against labeling one restoration technique as better than another. Managers should identify ideal restoration outcomes in the context of historic and current site characteristics (as well as a range of acceptable alternative states and choose restoration approaches that best facilitate the achievement of revegetation goals.

  14. Diagnosis of vegetation recovery within herbaceous sub-systems in the West African Sahel Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchang, J.; Hanan, N. P.; Prihodko, L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Ji, W.; Ross, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The West African Sahel (WAS) region is an extensive water limited environment that features a delicate balance of herbaceous and woody vegetation sub systems. These play an important role in the cycling of carbon while also supporting the dominant agro-pastoral human activities in the region. Quantifying the temporal trends in vegetation with regard to these two systems is therefore very important in assessing resource sustainability and food security. In water limited areas, rainfall is a primary driver of vegetation productivity and past watershed scale studies in the WAS region have shown that increase in the slope of the productivity-to-rainfall relationship is indicative of increasing cover and density of herbaceous plants. Given the importance of grazing resources to the region, we perform a wall-to-wall pixel based analysis of changing short-term vegetation sensitivity to changing annual rainfall (hereafter referred to as dS) to examine temporal trends in herbaceous vegetation health. Results indicate that 43% of the Sahelian region has experienced changes (P Western and Central Mali and South Western Niger. Positive dS is indicative of herbaceous vegetation recovery, in response to changing management and rainfall conditions that promote long-term herbaceous community recovery following degradation during the 1970-1980s droughts.

  15. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh HB

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West, Thoubal, and Bishnupur. A total of 224 wetland-plant-collectors were interviewed for the use and economics of species using semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Imphal, Bishenpur and Thoubal markets were investigated in detail for influx and consumption pattern of these plants. The collectors were also inquired for medicinal use of wetland species. Nutritive values of 21 species were analyzed in laboratory. The vouchers were collected for all the species and deposited in the CSIR-NEIST (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory, Substation, Lamphelpat, Imphal, Manipur, India. Results We recorded 51 edible wetland species used by indigenous people for food and medicinal purposes. Thirty eight species had high medicinal values and used in the traditional system to treat over 22 diseases. At least 27 species were traded in three markets studied (i.e. Imphal, Thoubal and Bishenpur, involving an annual turnover of 113 tons of wetland edible plants and a gross revenue of Rs. 907, 770/- (US$1 = Rs. 45/-. The Imphal market alone supplies 60% of the total business. Eighty per cent of the above mentioned species are very often used by the community. The community has a general opinion that the availability of 45% species has depleted in recent times, 15 species need consideration for conservation while another 7 species deserved immediate protection measures. The nutrient analysis showed that these species contribute to the dietary balance of tribal

  17. Large herbivores maintain termite-caused differences in herbaceous species diversity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okullo, Paul; Moe, Stein R

    2012-09-01

    Termites and large herbivores affect African savanna plant communities. Both functional groups are also important for nutrient redistribution across the landscape. We conducted an experiment to study how termites and large herbivores, alone and in combination, affect herbaceous species diversity patterns in an African savanna. Herbaceous vegetation on large vegetated Macrotermes mounds (with and without large herbivores) and on adjacent savanna areas (with and without large herbivores) was monitored over three years in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. We found substantial differences in species richness, alpha diversity, evenness, and stability between termite mound herbaceous vegetation and adjacent savanna vegetation. Within months of fencing, levels of species richness, evenness, and stability were no longer significantly different between savanna and mounds. However, fencing reduced the cumulative number of species, particularly for forbs, of which 48% of the species were lost. Fencing increased the beta diversity (dissimilarity among plots) on the resource-poor (in terms of both nutrients and soil moisture) savanna areas, while it did not significantly affect beta diversity on the resource-rich termite mounds. While termites cause substantial heterogeneity in savanna vegetation, large herbivores further amplify these differences by reducing beta diversity on the savanna areas. Large herbivores are, however, responsible for the maintenance of a large number of forbs at the landscape level. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying the effects of termites and large herbivores on savanna plant communities scale up to shape community structure and dynamics at a landscape level.

  18. Uptake and Bioaccumulation of Pentachlorophenol by Emergent Wetland Plant Phragmites australis (Common Reed) in Cadmium Co-contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechmi, Nejla; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on phytoremediation of soils contaminated with either heavy metals or organics, little information is available on the effectiveness of phytoremediation of co-occurring metal and organic pollutants especially by using wetland species. Phragmites australis is a common wetland plant and its potential for phytoremediation of cadmium pentachlorophenol (Cd-PCP) co-contaminated soil was investigated. A greenhouse study was executed to elucidate the effects of Cd (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1)) without or with PCP (0, 50, and 250 mg kg(-1)) on the growth of the wetland plant P. australis and its uptake, accumulation and removal of pollutant from soils. After 75 days, plant biomass was significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP and the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PCP. Coexistence of PCP at low level lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues. The dissipation of PCP in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PCP and plant presence or absence. As an evaluation of soil biological activities after remediation soil enzyme was measured.

  19. Root porosity and radial oxygen loss related to arsenic tolerance and uptake in wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: lssyzhh@mail.sysu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wei, Z.J. [School of Information and Technology, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-15

    The rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, concentrations of arsenic (As), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in shoot and root tissues and on root surfaces, As tolerances, and their relationships in different wetland plants were investigated based on a hydroponic experiment (control, 0.8, 1.6 mg As L{sup -1}) and a soil pot trail (control, 60 mg As kg{sup -1}). The results revealed that wetland plants showed great differences in root porosity (9-64%), rates of ROL (55-1750 mmo1 O{sub 2} kg{sup -1} root d.w. d{sup -1}), As uptake (e.g., 8.8-151 mg kg{sup -1} in shoots in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1} treatment), translocation factor (2.1-47% in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1}) and tolerance (29-106% in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1}). Wetland plants with higher rates of ROL and root porosity tended to form more Fe/Mn plaque, possess higher As tolerance, higher concentrations of As on root surfaces and a lower As translocation factor so decreasing As toxicity. - Research highlights: There is significant correlation between the porosity of roots and rates of ROL. The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with tolerance indices and concentrations of As, Fe, Mn on root surface. The rates of ROL is negatively correlated with As translocation factor. - Wetland plants with high rates of ROL tended to form more Fe plaque on root surfaces and possess higher As tolerance.

  20. Nutrient-enhanced decomposition of plant biomass in a freshwater wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodker, James E.; Turner, Robert Eugene; Tweel, Andrew; Schulz, Christopher; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied soil decomposition in a Panicum hemitomon (Schultes)-dominated freshwater marsh located in southeastern Louisiana that was unambiguously changed by secondarily-treated municipal wastewater effluent. We used four approaches to evaluate how belowground biomass decomposition rates vary under different nutrient regimes in this marsh. The results of laboratory experiments demonstrated how nutrient enrichment enhanced the loss of soil or plant organic matter by 50%, and increased gas production. An experiment demonstrated that nitrogen, not phosphorus, limited decomposition. Cellulose decomposition at the field site was higher in the flowfield of the introduced secondarily treated sewage water, and the quality of the substrate (% N or % P) was directly related to the decomposition rates. We therefore rejected the null hypothesis that nutrient enrichment had no effect on the decomposition rates of these organic soils. In response to nutrient enrichment, plants respond through biomechanical or structural adaptations that alter the labile characteristics of plant tissue. These adaptations eventually change litter type and quality (where the marsh survives) as the % N content of plant tissue rises and is followed by even higher decomposition rates of the litter produced, creating a positive feedback loop. Marsh fragmentation will increase as a result. The assumptions and conditions underlying the use of unconstrained wastewater flow within natural wetlands, rather than controlled treatment within the confines of constructed wetlands, are revealed in the loss of previously sequestered carbon, habitat, public use, and other societal benefits.

  1. Finding the harvesting frequency to maximize nutrient removal in a constructed wetland dominated by submerged aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhofstad, M.J.J.M.; Poelen, M.D.M.; Van Kempen, M.M.L.; Bakker, E.S.; Smolders, A.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Water quality is still poor in many freshwater ecosystems around the world as a result of anthropogenic nutrient loading. Constructed wetlands can be used to remove excess nutrients. In these wetlands, helophytes or free floating aquatic plants are traditionally used to absorb the nutrients. The

  2. Woody plant encroachment of grasslands: a comparison of terrestrial and wetland settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintilan, Neil; Rogers, Kerrylee

    2015-02-01

    A global trend of woody plant encroachment of terrestrial grasslands is co-incident with woody plant encroachment of wetland in freshwater and saline intertidal settings. There are several arguments for considering tree encroachment of wetlands in the context of woody shrub encroachment of grassland biomes. In both cases, delimitation of woody shrubs at regional scales is set by temperature thresholds for poleward extent, and by aridity within temperature limits. Latitudinal expansion has been observed for terrestrial woody shrubs and mangroves, following recent warming, but most expansion and thickening has been due to the occupation of previously water-limited grassland/saltmarsh environments. Increases in atmospheric CO₂, may facilitate the recruitment of trees in terrestrial and wetland settings. Improved water relations, a mechanism that would predict higher soil moisture in grasslands and saltmarshes, and also an enhanced capacity to survive arid conditions, reinforces local mechanisms of change. The expansion of woody shrubs and mangroves provides a negative feedback on elevated atmospheric CO₂ by increasing carbon sequestration in grassland and saltmarsh, and is a significant carbon sink globally. These broad-scale vegetation shifts may represent a new stable state, reinforced by positive feedbacks between global change drivers and endogenic mechanisms of persistence in the landscape.

  3. Incorporation of oxygen contribution by plant roots into classical dissolved oxygen deficit model for a subsurface flow treatment wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezbaruah, Achintya N; Zhang, Tian C

    2009-01-01

    It has been long established that plants play major roles in a treatment wetland. However, the role of plants has not been incorporated into wetland models. This study tries to incorporate wetland plants into a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) model so that the relative contributions of the aerobic and anaerobic processes to meeting BOD can be quantitatively determined. The classical dissolved oxygen (DO) deficit model has been modified to simulate the DO curve for a field subsurface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) treating municipal wastewater. Sensitivities of model parameters have been analyzed. Based on the model it is predicted that in the SFCW under study about 64% BOD are degraded through aerobic routes and 36% is degraded anaerobically. While not exhaustive, this preliminary work should serve as a pointer for further research in wetland model development and to determine the values of some of the parameters used in the modified DO deficit and associated BOD model. It should be noted that nitrogen cycle and effects of temperature have not been addressed in these models for simplicity of model formulation. This paper should be read with this caveat in mind.

  4. Removal of the pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and iohexol by four wetland plant species in hydroponic culture: plant uptake and microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Lv, Tao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Chen, Zhanghe; Brix, Hans

    2016-02-01

    We aimed at assessing the effects of four wetland plant species commonly used in constructed wetland systems: Typha, Phragmites, Iris and Juncus for removing ibuprofen (IBU) and iohexol (IOH) from spiked culture solution and exploring the mechanisms responsible for the removal. IBU was nearly completely removed by all plant species during the 24-day experiment, whereas the IOH removal varied between 13 and 80 %. Typha and Phragmites were the most efficient in removing IBU and IOH, respectively, with first-order removal rate constants of 0.38 and 0.06 day(-1), respectively. The pharmaceuticals were taken up by the roots and translocated to the aerial tissues. However, at the end of the experiment, plant accumulation constituted only up to 1.1 and 5.7 % of the amount of IBU and IOH spiked initially. The data suggest that the plants mainly function by facilitating pharmaceutical degradation in the rhizosphere through release of root exudates.

  5. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE HERBACEOUS AND SHRUBBY-ARBOREAL COMPONENTS IN A SEMIARID REGION IN THE NORTHEAST OF BRAZIL: COMPETITION OR FACILITATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLEBER ANDRADE DA SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of high stress, interactions between species can be positive. Islands of perennial vegetation can improve the conditions of the understory and facilitate the establishment of herbaceous plants. The hypothesis of this study is that islands of perennial vegetation in an area of caatinga harbor, a greater richness, diversity and density of herbaceous plants, and that individuals reach a greater height and diameter than in open spaces. The study was conducted in Petrolândia, Pernambuco, Brazil. Twenty-seven plots were installed in the center of the islands, 38 at the edge of the islands (in a total of 38 islands and 35 in the open spaces. A total of 51 species were recorded in the center and 55 on the edge of the islands and 48 in the open spaces. The mean richness of the open spaces was lower than on the islands. The diversity was greater in the center of the island and became less on the edge of the island and in the open spaces. The mean density was lower in the open spaces than on the islands. The mean density at the edge of the islands was greater than in the center of the islands. There was no difference in mean diameter of herbaceous plants. The mean height of the individuals was higher in the center of the islands. The herbaceous community growing on the islands exhibited higher richness, diversity, density and height than in open spaces. Thus, islands of perennial vegetation facilitate the establishment of herbaceous species.

  6. Tree plantings in depression wetland restorations show mixed success (South Carolina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca R. Sharitz; Christopher D. Barton; Diane De Steven

    2006-01-01

    Studies of bottomland forest restoration in the southeastern United States indicate that success can be improved by protecting planted tree seedlings from herbivores and controlling competing vegetation. Reforesting “isolated” depressional wetlands may present different challenges: growing-season ponding may expose seedlings to flooding stress, and competition control...

  7. Phytoremediation of arsenic in submerged soil by wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomjun, Nateewattana; Siripen, Trichaiyaporn; Maliwan, Saeouy; Jintapat, Nateewattana; Prasak, Thavornyutikarn; Somporn, Choonluchanon; Petch, Pengchai

    2011-01-01

    Wetland aquatic plants including Canna glauca L., Colocasia esculenta L. Schott, Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were used in the phytoremediation of submerged soil polluted by arsenic (As). Cyperus papyrus L. was noticed as the largest biomass producer which has arsenic accumulation capacity of 130-172 mg As/kg plant. In terms of arsenic removal rate, however, Colocasia esculenta L. was recognized as the largest and fastest arsenic remover in this study. Its arsenic removal rate was 68 mg As/m2/day while those rates of Canna glauca L., Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were 61 mg As/m2/day, 56 mg As/m2/day, and 56 mg As/m2/day, respectively. Although the 4 aquatic plants were inferior in arsenic accumulation, their high arsenic removal rates were observed. Phytostabilization should be probable for the application of these plants.

  8. Wetland craft plants in KwaZulu-Natal: an ecological review of har­vesting impacts and implications for sustainable utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Traynor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, wetland plants have been used for centuries and they continue to be harvested for subsistence and commercial purposes. Fibres for crafts are collected by cutting the aboveground parts. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the major basket-producing regions in southern Africa and at least twenty-two species of wetland plants are harvested for crafts. A literature review of the harvested species revealed that the impacts of cutting have only been extensively investigated for Phragmites australis (Cav. Steud. and Juncus kraussii Hochst. The review suggested that, where plants display strong seasonal aboveground productivity patterns, cutting should take place after shoot senescence and before new shoot emergence to minimize damage to plants. Cutting in the short term could increase the density of green stems. However, in the long term in  Phragmites australis, it may deplete the rhizome reserves and reduce the density of useable (longer and thicker culms.The opportunity for sustainable harvests was investigated by considering the geographic distribution, whether species are habitat specific or not, and local population sizes of the craft plants. Juncus kraussii is of the greatest conservation concern.Ecologically sustainable wetland plant harv esting could contribute to the wise use of wetlands, an approach promoted nationally and internationally.

  9. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  10. Effects of Dichrostachys cinerea (l. Wight & Arn (Fabaceae on herbaceous species in a semi-arid rangeland in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Mudzengi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic alteration of an environment and other disturbance regimes may enable the expansion of some native species into new geographical areas, a phenomenon observed with Dichrostachys cinerea. Five D. cinerea invaded sites, each approximately one hectare in size were assessed for the effects of D. cinerea on native herbaceous species diversity, richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper and plant vigour. The same attributes were studied in five uninvaded sites adjacent to, and equal in size to each invaded site. Forty herbaceous species were identified in the area. There were significant differences (P < 0.05 noted in species richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper, plant vigour, and species diversities between invaded and uninvaded sites, with uninvaded sites recording higher values than invaded sites. Altitude, erosion and the edaphic variables pH, N, P and K, which were included as explanatory variables, also differed significantly (P<0.05 between invaded and uninvaded sites. Of the 30 D. cinerea invaded plots established for herbaceous species assessments, 26 were positively correlated with altitude, erosion, pH, P, N and K. It is imperative to find ways of managing D. cinerea in order to reduce its adverse effects on herbaceous species.

  11. Biotic development comparisons of a wetland constructed to treat mine water drainage with a natural wetland system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, H.J.; Hummer, J.W.; Lacki, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Using 5-yr of baseline data from a constructed wetland, the authors compared the biotic changes in this wetland to conditions in a natural wetland to determine if biotic development patterns were similar. The constructed wetland was built in 1985 to treat a coal mine discharge and was planted with broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia) within the three-cell, 0.26 ha wetland. Species richness in permanent quadrants of the constructed wetland declined over the study period, while cattail coverage increased. Plant species composition diversified at the edges, with several species becoming established. The constructed wetland deepened and expanded slightly in area coverage during the study period. The constructed wetland supported herptofaunal communities that appeared more stable through time than those of the natural wetland and sustained a rudimentary food chain dependent upon autotrophic algal populations. Despite fundamental differences in substrate base, morphology, and water flow patterns, biotic trends for the constructed wetland coincided with succession-like patterns at the natural wetland. They suggest that further shifts in the biotic composition of the constructed wetland are likely, but the system should continue to persist if primary production meets or exceeds the microbial metabolic requirements necessary to treat mine drainage

  12. Facilitation by a Spiny Shrub on a Rhizomatous Clonal Herbaceous in Thicketization-Grassland in Northern China: Increased Soil Resources or Shelter from Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saixiyala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of fertility islands by shrubs increases soil resources heterogeneity in thicketization-grasslands. Clonal plants, especially rhizomatous or stoloniferous clonal plants, can form large clonal networks and use heterogeneously distributed resources effectively. In addition, shrubs, especially spiny shrubs, may also provide herbaceous plants with protection from herbivores, acting as ‘shelters’. The interaction between pre-dominated clonal herbaceous plants and encroaching shrubs remains unclear in thicketization-grassland under grazing pressure. We hypothesized that clonal herbaceous plants can be facilitated by encroached shrubs as a ‘shelter from herbivores’ and/or as an ‘increased soil resources’ under grazing pressure. To test this hypothesis, a total of 60 quadrats were chosen in a thicket-grassland in northern China that was previously dominated by Leymus chinensis and was encroached upon by the spiny leguminous plant Caragana intermedia. The soil and plant traits beneath and outside the shrub canopies were sampled, investigated and contrasted with an enclosure. The soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen and soil water content were significantly higher in the soil beneath the shrub canopies than in the soil outside the canopies. L. chinensis beneath the shrub canopies had significantly higher plant height, single shoot biomass, leaf length and width than outside the shrub canopies. There were no significantly differences between plant growth in enclosure and outside the shrub canopies. These results suggested that under grazing pressure in a grassland undergoing thicketization, the growth of the rhizomatous clonal herbaceous plant L. chinensis was facilitated by the spiny shrub C. intermedia as a ‘shelter from herbivores’ more than through ‘increased soil resources’. We propose that future studies should focus on the community- and ecosystem-level impacts of plant clonality.

  13. The importance of hydrology in restoration of bottomland hardwood wetland functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.G.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gibson, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests have important biogeochemical functions and it is well known that certain structural components, including pulsed hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation, enhance these functions. It is unclear, however, how functions of restored BLH wetlands compare to mature, undisturbed wetlands. We measured a suite of structural and functional attributes in replicated natural BLH wetlands (NAT), restored BLH wetlands with hydrology re-established (RWH), and restored BLH wetlands without hydrology re-established (RWOH) in this study. Trees were replanted in all restored wetlands at least four years prior to the study and those wetlands with hydrology re-established had flashboard risers placed in drainage ditches to allow seasonal surface flooding. Vegetation, soils, and selected biogeochemical functions were characterized at each site. There was a marked difference in woody vegetation among the wetlands that was due primarily to site age. There was also a difference in herbaceous vegetation among the restored sites that may have been related to differences in age or hydrology. Water table fluctuations of the RWH wetlands were comparable to those of the NAT wetlands. Thus, placing flashboard risers in existing drainage ditches, along with proper management, can produce a hydroperiod that is similar to that of a relatively undisturbed BLH. Average length of saturation within the upper 15 cm of soils was 37, 104, and 97 days for RWOH, RWH, and NAT, respectively. Soil moisture, denitrification potential, and soluble organic carbon concentrations differed among wetland sites, but soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, heterotrophic microbial activity, and readily mineralizable carbon concentrations did not. Significant linear relationships were also found between soil moisture and heterotrophic microbial activity, readily mineralizable carbon, and soluble organic carbon. In addition, sedimentation rates were higher in NAT and RWH

  14. Remote-Sensed Monitoring of Dominant Plant Species Distribution and Dynamics at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora is one of the most hazardous invasive plant species in China. Monitoring the changes in dominant plant species can help identify the invasion mechanisms of S. alterniflora, thereby providing scientific guidelines on managing or controlling the spreading of this invasive species at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China. However, because of the complex terrain and the inaccessibility of tidal wetlands, it is very difficult to conduct field experiments on a large scale in this wetland. Hence, remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring the dynamics of plant species and its distribution on both spatial and temporal scales. In this study, based on multi-spectral and high resolution (<10 m remote sensing images and field observational data, we analyzed spectral characteristics of four dominant plant species at different green-up phenophases. Based on the difference in spectral characteristics, a decision tree classification was built for identifying the distribution of these plant species. The results indicated that the overall classification accuracy for plant species was 87.17%, and the Kappa Coefficient was 0.81, implying that our classification method could effectively identify the four plant species. We found that the area of Phragmites australi showed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2012, with an annual spreading rate of 33.77% and 31.92%, respectively. The area of Scirpus mariqueter displayed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 (12.16% per year and a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2012 (−7.05% per year. S. alterniflora has the biggest area (3302.20 ha as compared to other species, accounting for 51% of total vegetated area at the study region in 2012. It showed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2012, with an annual spreading rate of 130.63% and 28.11%, respectively. As a result, the native species P. australi was surrounded and the habitats of S. mariqueter were

  15. Role of Plants in a Constructed Wetland: Current and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of plants in the treatment of effluents by constructed wetland (CW systems is under debate. Here, we review ways in which plants can affect CW processes and suggest two novel functions for plants in CWs. The first is salt phytoremediation by halophytes. We have strong evidence that halophytic plants can reduce wastewater salinity by accumulating salts in their tissues. Our studies have shown that Bassia indica, a halophytic annual, is capable of salt phytoremediation, accumulating sodium to up to 10% of its dry weight. The second novel use of plants in CWs is as phytoindicators of water quality. We demonstrate that accumulation of H2O2, a marker for plant stress, is reduced in the in successive treatment stages, where water quality is improved. It is recommended that monitoring and management of CWs consider the potential of plants as phytoremediators and phytoindicators.

  16. Variation in tidal wetland plant diversity and composition within and among coastal estuaries: assessing the relative importance of environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Question: Does wetland plant composition vary more by estuarine type (differentiated by the degree of riverine versus oceanic influence) or habitat type within estuaries (defined by US National Wetlands Inventory [NWI] marsh classes)? Location: Oregon estuaries: Netarts Bay, ...

  17. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  18. Effects of sediment removal on vegetation communities in Rainwater Basin playa wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beas, Benjamin J; Smith, Loren M; LaGrange, Theodore G; Stutheit, Randy

    2013-10-15

    Sedimentation from cultivated agricultural land use has altered the natural hydrologic regimes of depressional wetlands in the Great Plains. These alterations can negatively affect native wetland plant communities. Our objective was to determine if restored wetlands are developing plant communities similar to reference wetland conditions following hydrologic restoration. For this study, hydrology was restored via sediment removal. Thirty-four playa wetlands in reference, restored, and agricultural condition within the Rainwater Basin Region of Nebraska were sampled in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness and more native, annual, and perennial species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands had similar exotic species richness compared to reference and agricultural wetlands; however, reference wetlands contained more than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands proportion of exotics was 3.5 and 2 times less than agricultural wetlands and reference wetlands respectively. In 2009, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness, more perennial species, and more native species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands contained a greater number and proportion of annuals than reference and agricultural wetlands. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that reference, restored, and agricultural wetlands are dominated by different plant species and guilds. Restored wetland plant communities do not appear to be acting as intermediates between reference and agricultural wetland conditions or on a trajectory to reach reference conditions. This may be attributed to differing seed bank communities between reference and restored wetlands, dispersal limitations of perennial plant guilds associated with reference wetland conditions, and/or management activities may be preventing restored wetlands from reaching reference status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon gas fluxes in re-established wetlands on organic soils differ relative to plant community and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes for 6 years following permanent flooding of an agriculturally managed organic soil at two water depths (~25 and ~55 cm standing water) in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, as part of research studying C dynamics in re-established wetlands. Flooding rapidly reduced gaseous C losses, and radiocarbon data showed that this, in part, was due to reduced oxidation of "old" C preserved in the organic soils. Both CO2 and CH4 emissions from the water surface increased during the first few growing seasons, concomitant with emergent marsh establishment, and thereafter appeared to stabilize according to plant communities. Areas of emergent marsh vegetation in the shallower wetland had greater net CO2 influx (-485 mg Cm-1 h-1), and lower CH4 emissions (11.5 mg Cm-2 h-1), than in the deeper wetland (-381 and 14.1 mg Cm-2 h-1, respectively). Areas with submerged and floating vegetation in the deeper wetland had CH4 emissions similar to emergent vegetation (11.9 and 12.6 mg Cm-2 h-1, respectively), despite lower net CO2 influx (-102 gC m-2 h-1). Measurements of plant moderated net CO2 influx and CH4 efflux indicated greatest potential reduction of greenhouse gases in the more shallowly flooded wetland.

  20. Effect of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction on Arsenic dynamics in the wetland rhizosphere and its bioaccumulation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Myneni, Satish; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic (As) pollution in water soil and sediments is of worldwide concern due to its ecological toxicity and chronic effects on human health. Wetlands are at the interface between ground and surface waters and because of their unique biogeochemical dynamics could be promising location for arsenic immobilization. However, the nature of biogeochemical reactions of As in wetlands are complex and not well understood. The dynamics of As in wetland sediments are closely linked to the redox cycling of Fe and S, both of which are affected by water-table fluctuations and wetland plants activity that are typical in such environments. Little is not known about redox cycling of Fe or S and their effects on As speciation, biogeochemical dynamics, and bioaccumulation in the wetland rhizosphere and plants. To gain further insights into these processes, twelve mesocosms were set up and planted with wetland plants (Scirpus actus), six were submerged in a tray (reactor) with ~ 170 mM SO4-2 and six in a tray with ~ 350 uM SO4-2 and two levels of ferrihydrite in the soil for each SO4-2 treatment. Each mesocosm was sealed and the only contact with the solution in the reactor was via the surface of the mesocosm. The mesocosms were run for 1.5 months to establish the plants, after which 50μM Na2HAsO4·7H2O was added to the reactors. Water in the reactors was constantly recirculated to make the solution homogeneous. The reactors were run for 4 months and monitored regularly for dissolved species, and were then dismantled. Results show that the presence of plants, high Fe, and high SO42- levels enhanced As sequestration in the soil. We hypothesize that the reason for this compounding effect is that plants release easily biodegradable organic carbon, which is used by microorganism to reduce ferrihydrite and SO42- to generate FeS or FeS2. More As is then sequestrated via sorption or co-precipitation on FeS or FeS2. Analysis of As in plant tissue showed that As uptake by Scirpus actus was

  1. The use of halophytic plants for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Abolfazl; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Vossoughi, Manouchehr

    2017-07-03

    This research studied the use of constructed wetlands (CWs) to reduce water salinity. For this purpose, three halophytic species of the Chenopodiaceae family (Salicornia europaea, Salsola crassa, and Bienertia cycloptera) that are resistant to saline conditions were planted in the CWs, and experiments were conducted at three different salinity levels [electrical conductivity (EC)∼2, 6, 10 dS/m]. EC and concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and chlorine (Cl) were measured before and after phytoremediation with a retention time of 1 week. The results suggested that these plants were able to grow well and complete their life cycles at all the salinity levels within this study. Moreover, these plants reduced the measured parameters to acceptable levels. Therefore, these plants can be considered good options for salt phytoremediation.

  2. An introduction to constructed wetlands (reed beds) sustainable low cost wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    The use of 'conventional' wastewater treatment technology (trickling filters and activated sludge) in developing countries has often been unsuccessful due to high cost, complex operating requirements and expensive maintenance procedures. Typical examples of such projects are wastewater plants in Islamabad and Karachi. Actually the conventional systems, such as trickling filters and activated sludge plants were developed to address the concerns about organic pollution of natural water bodies in western temperate climates, rather than the reduction of organic matter as well as pathogens which is often a priority in developing countries. Pakistan, being a developing country cannot and should not follow the western technology blindly but needs the use of a ppropriate technology . Appropriate technology is defined as a treatment system which meets the following criteria: Affordable: Total amount costs, including capital, operation, maintenance and depreciation are within the user's ability to pay. Operable: Operation of the system is possible with locally available labor and support. Reliable: Effluent quality requirements can be met consistently. Currently there are a limited number of appropriate technologies for small communities, which should be considered by a community and their designers. These include conventional and non-conventional systems such as stabilization ponds or lagoons, slow sand filters, land treatment systems, and wetlands (natural or constructed). The non-conventional systems often utilize 'ecological' treatment mechanism (such as aquatic systems or wetlands) and do not have the mechanical parts or energy requirements of conventional systems. Waste Stabilization Ponds are one such solution but sometimes are constrained by land availability, topography, and are not environment friendly. In such locations, natural or constructed wetlands (Reed Beds) could provide an alternative technology. It is what we call a LOW technology, rather than HI TECH

  3. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  4. Response of loblolly pine to complete woody and herbaceous control: projected yields and economic outcomes - the COMProject

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; R.L. Busby; B.R. Zutter; S.M. Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold

    1995-01-01

    Abstract.Age-8 and -9 data from the 13 study plantations of the Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) were used to project yields and derive economic outcomes for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). COMP treatments were chop-burn, complete woody plant control, complete herbaceous plant control for 4 years, and complete woody...

  5. Methane emissions from different coastal wetlands in New England, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Tang, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Gonneea, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    According to the IPCC, methane have 25 times warming effect than CO2, and natural wetlands contribute 20-39 % to the global emission of methane. Although most of these methane was from inland wetlands, there was still large uncertain in the methane emissions in coastal wetlands. In the past three years, we have investigated methane emissions in coastal wetlands in MA, USA. Contrary to previous assumptions, we have observed relative larger methane flux in some salt marshes than freshwater wetlands. We further detect the methane source, and found that plant activities played an important role in methane flux, for example, the growth of S. aterniflora, the dominate plants in salt marsh, could enhance methane emission, while in an fresh water wetland that was dominated by cattail, plant activity oxided methane and reduced total flux. Phragmite, an invasive plant at brackish marsh, have the highest methane flux among all coastal wetland investigated. This study indicated that coastal wetland could still emit relatively high amount of methane even under high water salinity condiations, and plant activity played an important role in methane flux, and this role was highly species-specific.

  6. Inter-specific variation in salinity effects on germination in Pacific Northwest tidal wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stressors such as salinity may affect plant germination and early growth, eventually impacting the distribution and abundance of more mature individuals. In a lab study we evaluated germination sensitivity to salinity in 13 tidal wetland species found in the Pacific...

  7. Seedling Composition and Facilitative Effects of the Herbaceous Layer in a Monsoon-Affected Forest in Nanjenshan, Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Wei Fan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree seedlings play an important role in forest regeneration. To understand the factors that control seedling establishment, we (1 compared the composition patterns of tree seedlings and their corresponding overstories, (2 examined the relationships between seedling composition and environmental factors and (3 evaluated the interaction (competition or facilitation between seedlings and herbaceous layer in a wind-stressed forest in Nanjenshan, southern Taiwan. In the study plot, seedling abundance of canopy, subcanopy and shrub species (with true leaves and < 1 cm diameter at breast height and coverage of herbaceous species (including herbaceous species, climbers and tree ferns ≤ ca. 1 m in height were investigated on three transects with a total of 180 contiguous 5 × 5 m quadrats. Clustering classification and ordination methods were used to reveal the tree seedling composition patterns and the relationships between seedling composition and environmental factors. Correlation coefficients were computed between herbaceous coverage and seedling abundance among herb-seedling species pairs and between tall (≥ 1 m high/short (< 0.5 m high herbs and seedlings pairs to test the herb-seedling interaction. The spatial distribution of tree seedlings presented a perfect match to the overstory vegetation pattern. There was a strong relationship among seedling composition, herbaceous composition and topographic features, especially exposure to monsoon winds. Because of the absence of strong correlations between herbaceous structure/species and seedling abundances, the strong linkage in spatial patterns between seedling and herbaceous compositions suggests that certain plant species in the study plot have similar responses to the monsoon exposure. Our results also indicated that seedlings < 1 cm in diameter were strongly influenced by wind stress, similar to the response of the overstory composition, and that the facilitative/competitive effects of the

  8. Herbaceous forage and selection patterns by ungulates across varying herbivore assemblages in a South African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treydte, A.C.; Baumgartner, S.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Grant, C.C.; Getz, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivores generally have strong structural and compositional effects on vegetation, which in turn determines the plant forage species available. We investigated how selected large mammalian herbivore assemblages use and alter herbaceous vegetation structure and composition in a southern African

  9. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, L.M.; Carter, V.; Golet, F.C.; LaRoe, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    that grow principally on or below the surface of the water; (2) Moss-Lichen Wetland, dominated by mosses or lichens; (3) Emergent Wetland, dominated by emergent herbaceous angiosperms; (4) Scrub-Shrub Wetland, dominated by shrubs or small trees; and (5) Forested Wetland, dominated by large trees.The Dominance Type, which is named for the dominant plant or animal forms, is the lowest level of the classification hierarchy. Only examples are provided for this level; Dominance Types must be developed by individual users of the classification.Modifying terms applied to the Classes or Subclasses are essential for use of the system. In tidal areas, the type and duration of flooding are described by four Water Regime Modifiers: subtidal, irregularly exposed, regularly flooded, and irregularly flooded. In nontidal areas, eight Regimes are used: permanently flooded, intermittently exposed, semipermanently flooded, seasonally flooded, saturated, temporarily flooded, intermittently flooded, and artificially flooded. A hierarchical system of Water Chemistry Modifiers, adapted from the Venice System, is used to describe the salinity of the water. Fresh waters are further divided on the basis of pH. Use of a hierarchical system of soil modifiers taken directly from U.S. soil taxonomy is also required. Special modifiers are used where appropriate: excavated, impounded, diked, partly drained, farmed, and artificial.Regional differences important to wetland ecology are described through a regionalization that combines a system developed for inland areas by R. G. Bailey in 1976 with our Marine and Estuarine provinces.The structure of the classification allows it to be used at any of several hierarchical levels. Special data required for detailed application of the system are frequently unavailable, and thus data gathering may be prerequisite to classification. Development of rules by the user will be required for specific map scales. Dominance Types and relationships of plant and anima

  10. EASTERN DODDER (CUSCUTA MONOGYNA VAHL.) SEED GERMINATION AFFECTED BY SOME HERBACEOUS DISTILLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassaghi, M; Hassannejad, S

    2015-01-01

    Eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) is one of the noxious parasitic weeds that infected many ornamental trees in green spaces and gardens. Our purpose is to find natural inhibitors for prevention of its seed germination. In order to reach this aim, laboratory studies were conducted by using of herbaceous distillates of Dracocephalum moldavica, Nasturtium officinalis, Malva neglecta, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Rosa damascene, Ziziphora tenuior, and Urtica dioica on seed germination of C. monogyna. Z. tenuior distillate stimulated C. monogyna seed germination, whereas others reduced this parasitic weed's seed germination. D. moldavica caused maximum inhibition on weed seed germination. Seedling growth of C. monogyna was more affected than its seed germination. All of these herbaceous distillates reduced C. monogyna seedling length so that the latter decreased from 28.2 mm in distilled water to 4.5, 3.97, 3.85, 3.67, 3.1, 2.87, 2.57, 1.9, and 1.17 in M. pulegium, M. piperita, F. officinalis, Z. tenuior, N. officinalis, M. neglecta, R. damascene, U. dioica and D. moldavica, respectively. By using these medicinal plants distillates instead of herbicides, the parasitic weed seedling length and host plant infection will reduce.

  11. Bioaccumulation of metals in constructed wetlands used to treat acid drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.S.; Mays, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are being used extensively as a potential mitigation for acid drainage. However, removal of metals to meet compliance requirements has varied among wetlands, ranging from partial to total success. In addition, wetlands are sinks for contaminants found in acid drainage, and bioaccumulation of these contaminants to levels that would adversely affect the food web is of growing concern. The primary objective of this project was to determine whether bioaccumulation of metals occurs in wetlands constructed for treatment of acid drainage. Water, sediment, plant and benthos samples were collected from two wetlands constructed by the Tennessee Valley Authority and a natural wetland in the spring and fall of 1992, and metal concentrations were determined. One of the constructed wetlands, Impoundment 1, has generally been in compliance for NPDES; the other, Widow's Creek, has never been in compliance. Preliminary results indicate similarities in sediment and plant metal concentrations between Impoundment 1 and the natural wetland and greater metal concentrations in the sediment and plants at Widow's Creek. Data also indicate that Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr are being accumulated in the plants at each wetland. However, accumulation of metals by these plants probably accounts for only a small percentage of the removal of the annual metal load supplied to each wetland. Bioaccumulation of metals in the benthic organisms at each wetland is currently being investigated

  12. Spatial partitioning of water use by herbaceous and woody lifeforms in semiarid woodlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological studies of soil moisture, plant water uptake, and community composition in semiarid regions have focused on differences with depth in the soil profile, yet there are many reasons to expect that moisture also varies with the presence or absence of woody vegetation. Plant and soil moisture relationships for three dominant species in a semiarid woodland, Bouteloua gracilis, Juniperus monosperma, and Pinus edulis, were studied for 1.5 years. Soil moisture varied by type of plant cover as well as by depth. Plant water potential and conductance differed among species and was related to spatial variability in soil moisture. Water potential for blue grama was most correlated with soil moisture in the 0-15 cm layer of intercanopies; juniper water potential was highly correlated with soil moisture in the 0-15 cm layer beneath tree canopies of either species, and pinyon water potential was only weakly correlated with soil moisture in the 15-30 cm depth interval beneath pinyons. Pinyons had consistently greater maximum conductance rates than junipers, even though pinyon conductance was more sensitive to reductions in soil moisture. The results from this study indicate that horizontal differences in the soil moisture profile associated with type of plant cover may be as important as differences in depth for predicting plant-water relationships. A simple model was hypothesized for predicting community composition of three lifeforms: Herbaceous plants, shallow-rooted woody plants, and deeper-rooted woody plants. Distributions of roots of each lifeform and plant-available water were defined with respect to four soil compartments that distinguish upper vs. lower and canopy vs. intercanopy soil regions. The model predicts that multiple combinations of herbaceous and woody biomass can exist at a site and was qualitatively consistent with field data from a climatic gradient

  13. AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF INVASIVE AND AGRESSIVE PLANT SPECIES IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES: A COMBINED FIELD BASED AND REMOTE SENSING APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aquatic plant communities within coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are among the most biologically diverse and productive systems of the world. Coastal wetlands have been especially impacted by landscape conversion and have undergone a marked decline in plant com...

  14. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Souza

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period and April (rainy period, 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April, but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir. Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb. Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth. had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  15. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, David J. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: davematt00@hotmail.com; Moran, Bridget M. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Otte, Marinus L. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. - Some wetland angiosperms are tolerant to high concentrations of metals, regardless of conditions in the plants' natural habitat.

  16. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, David J.; Moran, Bridget M.; Otte, Marinus L.

    2005-01-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. - Some wetland angiosperms are tolerant to high concentrations of metals, regardless of conditions in the plants' natural habitat

  17. Recreating wetland ecosystems in an oil sands disturbed landscape : Suncor consolidated-tailings demonstration wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, C. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada). Aquatic Reclamation Research; Tedder, W.; Marlowe, P. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Div.

    2009-10-01

    Open pit oil sands mining involves the disturbance of thin overburden covers of Boreal forest lands that must be returned to equivalent land capability after mining activities have ceased. Before mining starts, any wetlands are drained, timber is harvested, and peat, topsoils and subsoils are stockpiled for later use. This article discussed wetland reclamation activities conducted by Suncor Energy at its open pit mining operations. Research facilities were constructed in order to determine if wetlands constructed with consolidated tailings (CT) and pond effluent water (PEW) were able to support a sustainable vegetation community. Thirty-three cat-tail plots were established at the facility as well as unplanted plots in order to determine how quickly natural establishment occurred. Shoreline plug transplants and transplants from a natural saline lake were also introduced. Within 5 years, over 23 plant species had naturally colonized the CT wetlands. However, diversity was lower in CT and PEW-constructed wetlands. It was concluded that the application of a native peat-mineral mix soil may help to increase plant diversity. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  18. A Synthesis of Environmental and Plant Community Data for Tidal Wetland Restoration Planning in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2013-12-01

    This report reanalyzes and synthesizes previously existing environmental and plant community data collected by PNNL at 55 tidal wetlands and 3 newly restored sites in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) between 2005 and 2011. Whereas data were originally collected for various research or monitoring objectives of five studies, the intent of this report is to provide only information that will have direct utility in planning tidal wetland restoration projects. Therefore, for this report, all tidal wetland data on plants and the physical environment, which were originally developed and reported by separate studies, were tabulated and reanalyzed as a whole. The geographic scope of the data collected in this report is from Bonneville Lock and Dam to the mouth of the Columbia River

  19. Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of βT and Jaccard’s coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20 m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing β-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20 m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion.

  20. Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Qu, Fanzhu; Wang, Guangmei; Fu, Yuqin; Zhan, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of β T and Jaccard's coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20 m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing β-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20 m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion. PMID:25147872

  1. CORINE land cover and floristic variation in a Mediterranean wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallonardo, Tommaso; Landi, Marco; Frignani, Flavio; Geri, Francesco; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Angiolini, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate whether CORINE land cover classes reflect significant differences in floristic composition, using a very detailed CORINE land cover map (scale 1:5000); (2) decompose the relationships between floristic assemblages and three groups of explanatory variables (CORINE land cover classes, environmental characteristics and spatial structure) into unique and interactive components. Stratified sampling was used to select a set of 100-m(2) plots in each land cover class identified in the semi-natural wetland surrounding a lake in central Italy. The following six classes were considered: stable meadows, deciduous oak dominated woods, hygrophilous broadleaf dominated woods, heaths and shrublands, inland swamps, canals or watercourses. The relationship between land cover classes and floristic composition was tested using several statistical techniques in order to determine whether the results remained consistent with different procedures. The variation partitioning approach was applied to identify the relative importance of three groups of explanatory variables in relation to floristic variation. The most important predictor was land cover, which explained 20.7% of the variation in plant distribution, although the hypothesis that each land cover class could be associated with a particular floristic pattern was not verified. Multi Response Permutation Analysis did not indicate a strong floristic separability between land cover classes and only 9.5% of species showed a significant indicator value for a specific land cover class. We suggest that land cover classes linked with hygrophilous and herbaceous communities in a wetland may have floristic patterns that vary with fine scale and are not compatible with a land cover map.

  2. Interspecific differences in growth response and tolerance to the antibiotic sulfadiazine in ten clonal wetland plants in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Xu, Huilian; Sun, Yingbo; Huang, Lili; Zhang, Peixia; Zou, Chunping; Yu, Bo; Zhu, Genfa; Zhao, Chaoyi

    2016-02-01

    Pollution caused by residual antibiotics is a worldwide environmental issue. Antibiotic residues often occur in aquatic ecosystems, posing threats to the health of aquatic organisms. The effects of antibiotic residues on the growth of crop plants and on human health are reasonably well known. However, less is known about antibiotic effects on wetland plants. Therefore, we studied the response and tolerance of ten clonal wetland plants grown in soil spiked with sulfadiazine at 10 mg kg(-1) (an environmentally relevant concentration) and 100 mg kg(-1). At 10 mg kg(-1), ramet number was the least affected trait, while root number was the most affected among plant species. Plant shoot and total biomass were reduced in all species except in Cyperus malaccensis var. brevifolius and Panicum repens. Chlorophyll content was reduced in Alocasia macrorrhiza, Saururus chinensis, and Commelina diffusa. In general, Panicum paludosum and C. malaccensis var. brevifolius showed the least reduction of growth parameters, whereas growth of both A. macrorrhiza and S. chinensis was severely reduced. At 100 mg kg(-1), negative responses occurred in all species. Comprehensive tolerance analysis revealed that P. paludosum and C. malaccensis var. brevifolius were the species most resistant to sulfadiazine. These species are potential candidates for sulfadiazine polluted wetland restoration. A. macrorrhiza and S. chinensis were the most susceptible species and they should be protected from sulfadiazine pollution. Relative plant shoot biomass and height were the most useful indicators for evaluating plant tolerance to sulfadiazine. Plant tolerance to sulfadiazine was associated with the differences of plants in height and shoot biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals.

  4. [Effect of flooding time length on mycorrhizal colonization of three AM fungi in two wetland plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei-Meng; Wang, Peng-Teng; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information for elucidating effect of flooding on the formation and function of AM in wetland plants, three AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, Glomus versiforme, Glomus etunicatum) were used to investigate the effects of flooding time length on their colonization in cattail (Typha orientalis) and rice (Oryza sativa L. ). The results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization rate (MCR) presented downtrend with increasing flooding time length. In cattail, MCR of the fungus F3 was higher than those of fungi F1 and F2, but no significant difference in MCR was found between fungi F1 and F2. In rice, the MCRs of fungi F2 and F3 were higher than that of E1. In both plants, the proportional frequency of hyphae was the highest while the proportional frequency of arbuscules and vesicles was very low in all treatments, indicating that hyphal colonization was the main route for AM formation. The proportional frequency of hyphae in cattail increased with the flooding time length, but no significant trend was observed in rice plant. The proportional frequency of arhuscules decreased with the increase of flooding time, and was the highest in the treatment without flooding (treatment IV). The number of spores produced by AM fungi increased with increasing flooding time, and reached the highest in the treatment of long time flooding (treatment I). In the same treatment, the fungus F3 produced more spores than fungi F1 and F2. Changes in wet weight of the two plants showed that AM could increase cattail growth under flooding, hut little effect on rice growth was found. It is concluded that flooding time length significantly affected the mycorrhizal colonization rate and the proportional frequency of colonization. AM could enhance the growth of wetland plant, but this depends on the mycorrhizal dependence of host plant on AM fungi. Therefore, flooding time length should be considered in the inoculation of wetland plants with AM fungi.

  5. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  6. Effect of plants in constructed wetlands for organic carbon and nutrient removal: a review of experimental factors contributing to higher impact and suggestions for future guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, João M; Danko, Anthony S; Fiúza, António; Borges, Maria-Teresa

    2018-02-01

    Constructed wetland is a proven technology for water pollution removal, but process mechanisms and their respective contribution are not fully understood. The present review details the effect of plants on removal efficiency of constructed wetlands by focusing on literature that includes experiments with unplanted controls for organic carbon and nutrient (N and P) removal. The contribution of plant direct uptake is also assessed. Although it was found that several studies, mostly at laboratory or pilot scales, showed no statistical differences between planted and unplanted controls, some factors were found that help maximize the effect of plants. This study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of the effect of plants in a constructed wetland, as well as to suggest a set of experimental guidelines in this field.

  7. Diversity and distribution patterns of root-associated fungi on herbaceous plants in alpine meadows of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of root-associated fungi associated with four ectomycorrhizal herbaceous species, Kobresia capillifolia, Carex parva, Polygonum macrophyllum and Potentilla fallens, collected in three sites of alpine meadows in southwestern China, was estimated based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis of root tips. Three hundred seventy-seven fungal sequences sorted to 154 operational taxonomical units (sequence similarity of ≥ 97% across the ITS) were obtained from the four plant species across all three sites. Similar taxa (in GenBank with ≥ 97% similarity) were not found in GenBank and/or UNITE for most of the OTUs. Ectomycorrhiz a made up 64% of the fungi operational taxonomic units (OTUs), endophytes constituted 4% and the other 33% were unidentified root-associated fungi. Fungal OTUs were represented by 57% basidiomycetes and 43% ascomycetes. Inocybe, Tomentella/Thelophora, Sebacina, Hebeloma, Pezizomycotina, Cenococcum geophilum complex, Cortinarius, Lactarius and Helotiales were OTU-rich fungal lineages. Across the sites and host species the root-associated fungal communities generally exhibited low host and site specificity but high host and sampling site preference. Collectively our study revealed noteworthy diversity and endemism of root-associated fungi of alpine plants in this global biodiversity hotspot. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  8. Rhizofiltration of a Heavy metal (lead) containing wastewater using the wetland plant carex pendula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Brijesh K. [Environmental Hydrogeology Group, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Department of Civil Engineering, New Delhi (India); Siebel, Maarten A.; Bruggen, Johan J.A. van [Department of Environmental Resources, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Rhizofiltration is a subset technique of phytoremediation which refers to the approach of using plant biomass for removing contaminants, primarily toxic metals, from polluted water. The effective implementation of this in situ remediation technology requires experimental as well as conceptual insight of plant-water interactions that control the extraction of targeted metal from polluted water resources. Therefore, pot and simulation experiments are used in this study to investigate the rhizofiltration of a lead containing wastewater using plants of Carex pendula, a common wetland plant found in Europe. The metal contaminant extraction along with plant growth and water uptake rates from a wastewater having varying Pb concentration is studied experimentally for 2 wk. The temporal distribution of the metal concentration in the wastewater and the accumulated metal in different compartments of C. pendula at the end are analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Parameters of the metal uptake kinetics are deduced experimentally for predicting the metal removal by root biomass. Further, mass balance equations coupled with the characterized metal uptake kinetics are used for simulating the metal partitioning from the wastewater to its accumulation in the plant biomass. The simulated metal content in wastewater and plant biomass is compared with the observed data showing a good agreement with the later. Results show that C. pendula accumulates considerable amounts of lead, particularly in root biomass, and can be considered for the cleanup of lead contaminated wastewaters in combination with proper biomass disposal alternatives. Also, the findings can be used for performing further non-hydroponics experiment to mimic the real wetland conditions more closely. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Recent land cover history and nutrient retention in riparian wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D.M.; Walbridge, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are profoundly affected by altered nutrient and sediment loads received from anthropogenic activity in their surrounding watersheds. Our objective was to compare a gradient of agricultural and urban land cover history during the period from 1949 to 1997, with plant and soil nutrient concentrations in, and sediment deposition to, riparian wetlands in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. We observed that recent agricultural land cover was associated with increases in Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) concentrations in a native wetland plant species. Conversely, recent urban land cover appeared to alter receiving wetland environmental conditions by increasing the relative availability of P versus N, as reflected in an invasive, but not a native, plant species. In addition, increases in surface soil Fe content suggests recent inputs of terrestrial sediments associated specifically with increasing urban land cover. The observed correlation between urban land cover and riparian wetland plant tissue and surface soil nutrient concentrations and sediment deposition, suggest that urbanization specifically enhances the suitability of riparian wetland habitats for the invasive species Japanese stiltgrass [Microstegium vimenium (Trinius) A. Camus]. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, Roni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  11. Effect of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction on arsenic dynamics in the wetland rhizosphere and its bioaccumulation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Zhang, Z.; Moon, H. S.; Myneni, S.

    2015-12-01

    The mobility of arsenic in soils is linked to biogeochemical redox processes. The presence of wetland plants in riparian wetlands has a significant impact on the biogeochemical dynamics of the soil/sediment-redoxcline due to the release of root exudates and root turnover and oxygen transfer from the roots into the surrounding sediment. Micro-environmental redox conditions in the rhizosphere affect As, Fe, and S speciation as well as Fe(III) plaque deposition, which affects arsenic transport and uptake by plants. To investigate the dynamics of As coupled to S and Fe cycling in wetlands, mesocosms were operated in a greenhouse under various conditions (high and low Fe, high and low sulfate, with plant and without plants) for four months. Results show that the presence of plants, high Fe, and high SO42- levels enhanced As sequestration in these soils. We hypothesize that this compounding effect is because plants release biodegradable organic carbon, which is used by microorganism to reduce ferrihydrite and SO42- to generate FeS, FeS2, and/or orpiment (As2S3). Over the concentration range studied, As immobilization in soil and uptake by Scirpus actus was mainly controlled by SO42- rather than Fe levels. Under high sulfate levels, As immobilization in soil increased by 50% and As concentrations in plant roots increased by 97%, whereas no significant changes in plant As levels were seen for varying Fe concentrations. More than 80% of As was sequestrated in soils rather than plant uptake. Pore water As speciation analyses indicate that 20% more As(V) was reduced to As(III) under high sulfate as than low sulfate levels and that low Fe was more favorable to the As dissimilatory reduction. More dissimilatory arsenate-respiring bacteria (DARB) under high sulfate were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Arsenic distribution in plant leafs and roots after 30 days of exposure to As was analyzed via Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analyses. The uptake of As by plants was distributed

  12. Responses of herbaceous plants to urban air pollution: Effects on growth, phenology and leaf surface characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honour, Sarah L.; Bell, J. Nigel B.; Ashenden, Trevor W.; Cape, J. Neil; Power, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions are a dominant feature of urban environments and are widely believed to have detrimental effects on plants. The effects of diesel exhaust emissions on 12 herbaceous species were studied with respect to growth, flower development, leaf senescence and leaf surface wax characteristics. A diesel generator was used to produce concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) representative of urban conditions, in solardome chambers. Annual mean NO x concentrations ranged from 77 nl l -l to 98 nl l -1 , with NO:NO 2 ratios of 1.4-2.2, providing a good experimental simulation of polluted roadside environments. Pollutant exposure resulted in species-specific changes in growth and phenology, with a consistent trend for accelerated senescence and delayed flowering. Leaf surface characteristics were also affected; contact angle measurements indicated changes in surface wax structure following pollutant exposure. The study demonstrated clearly the potential for realistic levels of vehicle exhaust pollution to have direct adverse effects on urban vegetation. - Fumigation experiments demonstrate adverse effects of exhaust emissions on urban vegetation

  13. Effects of Fe plaque and organic acids on metal uptake by wetland plants under drained and waterlogged conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Deng, H; Wong, M H

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to assess the role of Fe plaque in metal uptake and translocation by different wetland plants and examine the effects of organic acids on metal detoxification in wetland plants. It was found that although exposed to a similar level of metals in rhizosphere soil solution, metal uptake by shoots of Cypercus flabelliformis and Panicum paludosum was greatly reduced, consequently leading to a better growth under flooded than under drained conditions. This may be related to the enhanced Fe plaque in the former, but due to the decreased root permeability in the latter under anoxic conditions. The Fe plaque on root surface has potential to sequester metals and then reduce metal concentrations and translocation in shoot tissues. However, whether the Fe plaque acts as a barrier to metal uptake and translocation may also be dependent on the root anatomy. Although metal tolerance in wetland plants mainly depends upon their metal exclusion ability, the higher-than-toxic-level of metal concentrations in some species indicates that internal metal detoxification might also exist. It was suggested that malic or citric acid in shoots of P. paludosum and C. flabelliformis may account for their internal detoxification for Zn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; Zhang, Changkuan; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd 2+ /NH 4 + sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH 4 + and Cd 2+ , with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g −1 , respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g −1 ) for Cd 2+ . Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd 2+ sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd 2+ . • NH 4 + and Cd 2+ sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  15. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hao, Hulin [Ningbo Raw Water Resource Research Academy, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Changkuan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}, with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g{sup −1}) for Cd{sup 2+}. Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd{sup 2+} sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd{sup 2+}. • NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+} sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  16. Influence of tree cover on herbaceous layer development and carbon and water fluxes in a Portuguese cork-oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbert, Maren; Mosena, Alexander; Piayda, Arndt; Cuntz, Matthias; Correia, Alexandra Cristina; Pereira, Joao Santos; Werner, Christiane

    2014-08-01

    Facilitation and competition between different vegetation layers may have a large impact on small-scale vegetation development. We propose that this should not only influence overall herbaceous layer yield but also species distribution and understory longevity, and hence the ecosystems carbon uptake capacity especially during spring. We analyzed the effects of trees on microclimate and soil properties (water and nitrate content) as well as the development of an herbaceous community layer regarding species composition, aboveground biomass and net water and carbon fluxes in a cork-oak woodland in Portugal, between April and November 2011. The presence of trees caused a significant reduction in photosynthetic active radiation of 35 mol m-2 d-1 and in soil temperature of 5 °C from April to October. At the same time differences in species composition between experimental plots located in open areas and directly below trees could be observed: species composition and abundance of functional groups became increasingly different between locations from mid April onwards. During late spring drought adapted native forbs had significantly higher cover and biomass in the open area while cover and biomass of grasses and nitrogen fixing forbs was highest under the trees. Further, evapotranspiration and net carbon exchange decreased significantly stronger under the tree crowns compared to the open during late spring and the die back of herbaceous plants occurred earlier and faster under trees. This was most likely caused by interspecific competition for water between trees and herbaceous plants, despite the more favorable microclimate conditions under the trees during the onset of summer drought.

  17. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

  18. Assessment of nutrient retention by Natete wetland Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyiginya, V.; Kansiime, F.; Kimwaga, R.; Mashauri, D. A.

    Natete wetland which is located in a suburb of Kampala city in Uganda is dominated by C yperus papyrus and covers an area of approximately 1 km 2. The wetland receives wastewater and runoff from Natete town which do not have a wastewater treatment facility. The main objective of this study was to assess nutrient retention of Natete wetland and specifically to: determine the wastewater flow patterns in the wetland; estimate the nutrient loads into and out of the wetland; determine the nutrient retention by soil, plants and water column in the wetland; and assess the above and belowground biomass density of the dominant vegetation. Soil, water and plant samples were taken at 50 m intervals along two transects cut through the wetland; soil and water samples were taken at 10 cm just below the surface. Physico-chemical parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity and temperature were measured in situ. Water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for ammonium-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate and total phosphorus. Electrical conductivity ranged between 113 μS/cm and 530 μS/cm and the wastewater flow was concentrated on the eastern side of the wetland. pH varied between 6 and 7, temperature ranged from 19 °C to 24 °C. NH 4-N, NO 3-N, and TN concentrations were retained by 21%, 98%, and 35% respectively. Phosphorus concentration was higher at the outlet of the wetland possibly due to release from sediments and leaching. Nutrient loads were higher at the inlet (12,614 ± 394 kgN/day and 778 ± 159 kgP/day) than the outlet (2368 ± 425 kgN/day and 216 ± 56 kgP/day) indicating retention by the wetland. Plants stored most nutrients compared to soil and water. The belowground biomass of papyrus vegetation in the wetland was higher (1288.4 ± 8.3 gDW/m 2) than the aboveground biomass (1019.7 ± 13.8 gDW/m 2). Plant uptake is one of the important routes of nutrient retention in Natete wetland. It is recommended that harvesting papyrus can be an

  19. Biomass energetics potential of wetlands at Saare county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kask, U.; Kask, L.

    2002-01-01

    Most of the fuels that are being used to produce the thermal and electrical power are nonrenewable. Transferring them into energy pollutes the environment with CO 2 and surplus heat. Biomass is the most suitable energy resource in Estonian natural circumstances. Hitherto, one kind of biomass - plants of wetland - has almost not been used. There are plenty of wetlands in Saaremaa that have reasonably high productivity of biomass. Exertion of technologies of processing and using the biomass helps to create new jobs in agriculture as well in other sector of economy and evolve the regional development. The local currency circulation will improve and there are also possibilities in increase of capital expenditures and export potential. The biomass productivity of wetland plants accounting to dry matter can reach up to 4-5 kg/m 2 in a year. One advantage to use the plants of wetland (reed, cattail) in energy production is the fact that these plants will disengage from water in the end of their growth period and will need no extra drying. There are over 12000 ha of wetlands in Saaremaa, half of them could be used to get energetical biomass. The other half is either under (nature)protection or it would be economically inefficient to cut reed there. The major wetlands are in the surroundings of Mullatu bay and the Koigi swamp, also in Tornimae. There could be significant reduce in the emission of solid particles into the atmosphere, if the biomass of wetlands would be used to produce thermal and electrical power in Kuressaare. (author)

  20. Constructed wetlands : the Canadian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, S.; Champagne, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Large volumes of wastewater from livestock and production facilities must be treated to minimize the contamination of waterways in agricultural areas. This paper investigated the use of constructed wetlands as a lower-cost and efficient method of treating agricultural wastewaters. The study found that while constructed wetlands required limited maintenance, temperature dependency of the constructed wetlands systems is a limiting factor in their widespread implementation. Lower operating temperatures are only overcome by constructing larger wetlands systems, which require a substantial amount of land. The Canadian climate poses significant challenges to the implementation of constructed wetlands, which become inoperative during winter months. Plants and bacteria normally become dormant or die during winter months, which can create a lag in wetland treatment during the initial months of operation in the Spring. Snowmelt and added rainfall in the Spring can also create a high flow within the wetland cells, as many constructed wetlands rely on runoff as a feed source. Washout of bacteria can occur. Wastewater storage systems or further engineering of the wetlands may be required. It was concluded that insulating wetland cells will maintain a warmer operating temperature, while the addition of an aeration system will increase the treatment efficiency of the wetland during winter months. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Effects of chlorimuron ethyl on terrestrial and wetland plants: Levels of, and time to recovery following sublethal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Current pesticide registration guidelines call for short-term testing of plants; long-term effects on vegetative parts and reproduction remain untested. The aims of our study were to determine level of recovery and recovery times for plants exposed to the sulfonylurea herbicide chlorimuron ethyl using data collected from single species, dose–response greenhouse experiments. The nine terrestrial and eight wetland species tested showed variable levels of recovery and recovery timeframes. Many species (six terrestrial and five wetland) were vegetatively stunted at sublethal doses and were reproductively impaired. Full recovery did not occur at all doses and maximum recovery times varied from 3 to 15 weeks in this controlled environment. In a complex community, affected species may be displaced by tolerant species, through interspecific competition, before they fully recover. It is plausible that individual populations could be diminished or eliminated through reduced seedbank inputs (annuals and perennials) and asexual reproduction (perennials). - Highlights: ► Native terrestrial and wetland plants were used to assess the risks of herbicide drift. ► Vegetative and reproductive health endpoints were evaluated over time. ► Recovery rates were found to be both species and dose dependant. ► Reproductive recovery does not always equal vegetative recovery. ► Susceptible species may be displaced by resilient or resistant species. - Capsule: This study serves to bridge the gap between simplified short-term greenhouse tests and effects of herbicides on recovery of non-target plant species after sublethal exposures.

  2. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species

  3. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-12-17

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species.

  4. Africa's wild C4 plant foods and possible early hominid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Charles R; Vogel, John C

    2005-03-01

    A small minority of Africa's wild plant foods are C4. These are primarily the seeds of some of the C4 grasses, the rootstocks and stem/leaf bases of some of the C4 sedges (especially papyrus), and the leaves of some of the C4 herbaceous dicots (forbs). These wild food plants are commonly found in disturbed ground and wetlands (particularly the grasses and sedges). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that C4 grasses were present in Africa by at least the late Miocene. It is a reasonable hypothesis that the prehistory of the C4 sedges parallels that of the C4 grasses, but the C4 forbs may not have become common until the late Pleistocene. CAM plants may have a more ancient history, but offer few opportunities for an additional C4-like dietary signal. The environmental reconstructions available for the early South African hominid sites do not indicate the presence of large wetlands, and therefore probably the absence of a strong potential for a C4 plant food diet. However, carbon isotope analyses of tooth enamel from three species of early South African hominids have shown that there was a significant but not dominant contribution of C4 biomass in their diets. Since it appears unlikely that this C4 component could have come predominantly from C4 plant foods, a broad range of potential animal contributors is briefly considered, namely invertebrates, reptiles, birds, and small mammals. It is concluded that the similar average C4 dietary intake seen in the three South African hominid species could have been acquired by differing contributions from the various sources, without the need to assume scavenging or hunting of medium to large grazing ungulates. Effectively similar dominantly dryland paleo-environments may also be part of the explanation. Theoretically, elsewhere in southern and eastern Africa, large wetlands would have offered early hominids greater opportunities for a C4 plant diet.

  5. Ecological and Landscape Drivers of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Detections and Concentrations in Canada's Prairie Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson R; Michel, Nicole L; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Morrissey, Christy A

    2015-07-21

    Neonicotinoids are commonly used seed treatments on Canada's major prairie crops. Transported via surface and subsurface runoff into wetlands, their ultimate aquatic fate remains largely unknown. Biotic and abiotic wetland characteristics likely affect neonicotinoid presence and environmental persistence, but concentrations vary widely between wetlands that appear ecologically (e.g., plant composition) and physically (e.g., depth) similar for reasons that remain unclear. We conducted intensive surveys of 238 wetlands, and documented 59 wetland (e.g., dominant plant species) and landscape (e.g., surrounding crop) characteristics as part of a novel rapid wetland assessment system. We used boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to predict both probability of neonicotinoid analytical detection and concentration. BRT models effectively predicted the deviance in neonicotinoid detection (62.4%) and concentration (74.7%) from 21 and 23 variables, respectively. Detection was best explained by shallow marsh plant species identity (34.8%) and surrounding crop (13.9%). Neonicotinoid concentration was best explained by shallow marsh plant species identity (14.9%) and wetland depth (14.2%). Our research revealed that plant composition is a key indicator and/or driver of neonicotinoid presence and concentration in Prairie wetlands. We recommend wetland buffers consisting of diverse native vegetation be retained or restored to minimize neonicotinoid transport and retention in wetlands, thereby limiting their potential effects on wetland-dependent organisms.

  6. Digital Gene Expression Analysis to Screen Disease Resistance-Relevant Genes from Leaves of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Infected by Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saijie Gong

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a well-known traditional flower in China and is widely used for landscaping and garden greening due to its high ornamental value. However, disease spots usually appear after the flowering of the plant and may result in the withering of the plant in severe cases. This study examined the disease incidence in an herbaceous peony field in the Yangzhou region, Jiangsu Province. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular data, the disease in this area was identified as a gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Based on previously obtained transcriptome data, eight libraries generated from two herbaceous peony cultivars 'Zifengyu' and 'Dafugui' with different susceptibilities to the disease were then analyzed using digital gene expression profiling (DGE. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened by comparing the eight samples, and these genes were annotated using the Gene ontology (GO and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG database. The pathways related to plant-pathogen interaction, secondary metabolism synthesis and antioxidant system were concentrated, and 51, 76, and 13 disease resistance-relevant candidate genes were identified, respectively. The expression patterns of these candidate genes differed between the two cultivars: their expression of the disease-resistant cultivar 'Zifengyu' sharply increased during the early stages of infection, while it was relatively subdued in the disease-sensitive cultivar 'Dafugui'. A selection of ten candidate genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to validate the DGE data. These results revealed the transcriptional changes that took place during the interaction of herbaceous peony with B. cinerea, providing insight into the molecular mechanisms of host resistance to gray mold.

  7. The ecological value of constructed wetlands for treating urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, S; Young, T; Cuevas-Arellano-, H; Kumar, R; Ambrose, R F; Suffet, I H

    2007-01-01

    The Sweetwater Authority's urban runoff diversion system (URDS) comprises constructed wetlands on a hillside between the town of Spring Valley and the Sweetwater Reservoir, California, USA. The URDS were designed to divert dry-weather and first-flush urban runoff flows from the Sweetwater reservoir. However, these constructed wetlands have developed into ecologically valuable habitat. This paper evaluates the following ecological questions related to the URDS: (1) the natural development of the species present and their growth pattern; (2) the biodiversity and pollutant stress on the plants and invertebrates; and (3) the question of habitat provided for endangered species. The URDS wetlands are comprised primarily of rush (Scirpus spp.) and cattails (Typha spp.). This vegetative cover ranged from 39-78% of the area of the individual wetland ponds. Current analyses of plant tissues and wetland sediment indicates the importance of sediment sorption for metals and plant uptake of nutrients. Analyses of URDS water following runoff events show the URDS wetlands do reduce the amount of nutrients and metals in the water column. Invertebrate surveys of the wetland ponds revealed lower habitat quality and environmental stress compared to unpolluted natural habitat. The value of the wetlands as wildlife habitat is constrained by low plant biodiversity and pollution stress from the runoff. Since the primary Sweetwater Authority goal is to maintain good water quality for drinking, any secondary utilization of URDS habitat by species (endangered or otherwise) is deemed an added benefit.

  8. Bacterial carbon utilization in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Alexandra; Langergraber, Günter; Watzinger, Andrea; Haberl, Raimund; Kirschner, Alexander K T

    2008-03-01

    Subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands with intermittent loading are considered as state of the art and can comply with stringent effluent requirements. It is usually assumed that microbial activity in the filter body of constructed wetlands, responsible for the removal of carbon and nitrogen, relies mainly on bacterially mediated transformations. However, little quantitative information is available on the distribution of bacterial biomass and production in the "black-box" constructed wetland. The spatial distribution of bacterial carbon utilization, based on bacterial (14)C-leucine incorporation measurements, was investigated for the filter body of planted and unplanted indoor pilot-scale constructed wetlands, as well as for a planted outdoor constructed wetland. A simple mass-balance approach was applied to explain the bacterially catalysed organic matter degradation in this system by comparing estimated bacterial carbon utilization rates with simultaneously measured carbon reduction values. The pilot-scale constructed wetlands proved to be a suitable model system for investigating microbial carbon utilization in constructed wetlands. Under an ideal operating mode, the bulk of bacterial productivity occurred within the first 10cm of the filter body. Plants seemed to have no significant influence on productivity and biomass of bacteria, as well as on wastewater total organic carbon removal.

  9. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between Rice Landsat and Rice NLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  10. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  11. High-resolution mapping of wetland vegetation biomass and distribution with L-band radar in southeastern coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N. M.; Simard, M.; Byrd, K. B.; Windham-Myers, L.; Castaneda, E.; Twilley, R.; Bevington, A. E.; Christensen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Louisiana coastal wetlands account for approximately one third (37%) of the estuarine wetland vegetation in the conterminous United States, yet the spatial distribution of their extent and aboveground biomass (AGB) is not well defined. This knowledge is critical for the accurate completion of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. We generated high-resolution baselines maps of wetland vegetation extent and biomass at the Atchafalaya and Terrebonne basins in coastal Louisiana using a multi-sensor approach. Optical satellite data was used within an object-oriented machine learning approach to classify the structure of wetland vegetation types, offering increased detail over currently available land cover maps that do not distinguish between wetland vegetation types nor account for non-permanent seasonal changes in extent. We mapped 1871 km2 of wetlands during a period of peak biomass in September 2015 comprised of flooded forested wetlands and leaf, grass and emergent herbaceous marshes. The distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) was mapped using JPL L-band Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). Relationships between time-series radar imagery and field data collected in May 2015 and September 2016 were derived to estimate AGB at the Wax Lake and Atchafalaya deltas. Differences in seasonal biomass estimates reflect the increased AGB in September over May, concurrent with periods of peak biomass and the onset of the vegetation growing season, respectively. This method provides a tractable means of mapping and monitoring biomass of wetland vegetation types with L-band radar, in a region threatened with wetland loss under projections of increasing sea-level rise and terrestrial subsidence. Through this, we demonstrate a method that is able to satisfy the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement requirement for Tier 2/Tier 3 reporting of coastal wetland GHG inventories.

  12. Effect of Calcium Sprays on Mechanical Strength and Cell Wall Fractions of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall. Inflorescence Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Ge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an essential element and imparts significant structural rigidity to the plant cell walls, which provide the main mechanical support to the entire plant. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the inflorescence stems of herbaceous peony, the stems are treated with calcium chloride. The results shows that preharvest sprays with 4% (w/v calcium chloride three times after bud emergence are the best at strengthening “Da Fugui” peonies’ stems. Calcium sprays increased the concentrations of endogenous calcium, total pectin content as well as cell wall fractions in herbaceous peonies stems, and significantly increased the contents of them in the top segment. Correlation analysis showed that the breaking force of the top segment of peonies’ stems was positively correlated with the ratio of water insoluble pectin to water soluble pectin (R = 0.673 as well as lignin contents (R = 0.926 after calcium applications.

  13. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two iron loadings with different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (~0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values, U concentrations in root exposed ...

  14. General Design Memorandum Appendix D, Environmental Documents. Pascagoula Harbor Channel Improvement, Pascagoula, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    herbaceous uplands ( Cogon grass ), and 29 acres of tidal marsh. The entire area includes about 183 acres. 3. Alternative 3 is similar to Alternative 2...acres of tidal wetlands outside of the old Tenneco dike 61 acres of scrub/shrub uplands 21 acres of herbaceous uplands ( Cogon grass ) While wetlands...shrub wetlands exist within the old levees at the Tenneco site. Wetland grasses include such species as threesquare (Sciryus spp.), black needlerush

  15. Freshwater availability and coastal wetland foundation species: ecological transitions along a rainfall gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Stagg, Camille L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate gradient-focused ecological research can provide a foundation for better understanding critical ecological transition points and nonlinear climate-ecological relationships, which is information that can be used to better understand, predict, and manage ecological responses to climate change. In this study, we examined the influence of freshwater availability upon the coverage of foundation plant species in coastal wetlands along a northwestern Gulf of Mexico rainfall gradient. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) what are the region-scale relationships between measures of freshwater availability (e.g., rainfall, aridity, freshwater inflow, salinity) and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands; (2) How vulnerable are foundation plant species in tidal wetlands to future changes in freshwater availability; and (3) What is the potential future relative abundance of tidal wetland foundation plant species under alternative climate change scenarios? We developed simple freshwater availability-based models to predict the relative abundance (i.e., coverage) of tidal wetland foundation plant species using climate data (1970-2000), estuarine freshwater inflow-focused data, and coastal wetland habitat data. Our results identify regional ecological thresholds and nonlinear relationships between measures of freshwater availability and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands. In drier coastal zones, relatively small changes in rainfall could produce comparatively large landscape-scale changes in foundation plant species abundance which would affect some ecosystem good and services. Whereas a drier future would result in a decrease in the coverage of foundation plant species, a wetter future would result in an increase in foundation plant species coverage. In many ways, the freshwater-dependent coastal wetland ecological transitions we observed are analogous to those present in dryland

  16. Boron in Pariette Wetland Sediments, Aquatic Vegetation & Benthic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, P.; Jones, C. P.; Powelson, D.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands are comprised of 20 ponds located in Utah's Uintah Basin. Boron concentration in the Pariette Wetlands have been observed to exceed the total maximum daily limit of 750 µg L-1. Considering water flow in and out of the wetlands, boron is accumulating within the wetlands where it is sorbed to sediments and bioconcentrated by wetland plant and macro invertebrates. Since boron is an avian teratogen, an estimate of boron ingestion exposure is warranted. Samples from 3 of the 23 Pariette Wetland ponds with one pond near the inlet, one near the outlet, and one in the middle were collected. Five sampling points were designated along a 100 m transect of each pond. At each sampling point duplicate (or triplicate) samples of water, sediments, benthic organisms and wetland vegetation were collected. The sediments were collected with a KB-corer and divided at depths of 0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm from the sediment surface. Sample splits were sent to the USU Bug lab for identification of invertebrate species. Whenever this transect was not intercepting vegetation, 2-3 additional sample sites were identified at the pond within stands of representative vegetation where bird nests are located. The plant parts used for boron analyses will include seeds, shoot and roots of vascular plants, as well as algae or duckweeds skimmed from the surface. Samples were processed within 2 days of collection. Water samples filtered through a 0.45 μ membrane filter were analyzed for DOC, pH and ECe. The dried and washed vegetation samples were ground and stored. The benthic organisms and macro invertebrates were netted at the water surface. The dried samples were weighed, ground and stored. Samples were weighed, oven dried and reweighed. For plant and macro-invertebrate samples, a nitric and hydrogen peroxide digestion procedure is used to dissolve environmentally available elements. The Hot Water extraction and DTPA-Sorbitol extraction were compared to estimate wetland plant

  17. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  18. Tritium as tracer of flow in constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachniew, P.; Czuprynski, P.; Maloszewski, P.

    2005-01-01

    Constructed wetlands technology is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method used world-wide to treat waste waters of different origins. The soluble pollutants are transformed and removed mainly through the processes that occur at surfaces of plants, plant debris or filtering media. The efficiency of soluble pollutants removal is thus primarily related to the extent of contact between waste waters and the reactive surfaces. Residence time distributions function (RTD)is basic characteristic of wetland hydraulic properties and can be obtained by combined use of tracer technique and mathematical modelling. Tritium was used as to obtain RTD's of three parallel cells of a sub-surface flow constructed wetland overgrown with Pharagmites australis in Nowa Slupia. Tritium as a part of water molecule, is an ideal tracer of flow in the highly reactive environment of constructed wetlands. Results of the tracer test interpreted by the assumed model (Multi Flow Dispersion Model) of conservative solute transport revealed a complex structure of flow through the wetland. (author)

  19. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  20. Functional role of the herbaceous layer in eastern deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Barton D. Clinton; Brian D. Kloeppel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the herbaceous layer in regulating ecosystem processes in deciduous forests is generally unknown. We use a manipulative study in a rich, mesophytic cove forest in the southern Appalachians to test the following hypotheses: (i) the herbaceous functional group (HFG) in mesophytic coves accelerates carbon and nutrient cycling, (ii) high litter quality...

  1. Spatial pattern of a fish assemblage in a seasonal tropical wetland: effects of habitat, herbaceous plant biomass, water depth, and distance from species sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaias M Fernandes

    Full Text Available The influence of habitat, biomass of herbaceous vegetation, depth and distance from permanent water bodies on the structure of fish assemblages of a seasonal floodplain was evaluated using data collected along 22 transects in an area of 25 km² in the floodplain of Cuiabá River, Pantanal, Brazil. Each transect was sampled for fish using throw traps and gillnets during the flood period of 2006. Multivariate multiple regression analysis and multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that depth was the only variable that affected the structure of the fish assemblage, both for quantitative data (abundance and qualitative data (presence-absence. Species such as Neofundulus parvipinnis and Laetacara dorsigera were more abundant in shallower sites (below 25 cm, while Serrasalmus maculatus and Metynnis mola were found mostly in the deepest areas (over 55 cm. However, species such as Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus occurred at all sampled depths. Although the distribution of most species was restricted to a few sites, there was a positive relationship between species richness and depth of the water body. Surprisingly, the replacement of native vegetation by exotic pasture did not affect the fish assemblage in the area, at the probability level considered.

  2. Macroclimatic change expected to transform coastal wetland ecosystems this century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Christopher A.; Osland, Michael J.; Grace, James B.; Stagg, Camille L.; Day, Richard H.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; From, Andrew S.; McCoy, Meagan L.; McLeod, Jennie L.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands, existing at the interface between land and sea, are highly vulnerable to climate change. Macroclimate (for example, temperature and precipitation regimes) greatly influences coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. However, research on climate change impacts in coastal wetlands has concentrated primarily on sea-level rise and largely ignored macroclimatic drivers, despite their power to transform plant community structure and modify ecosystem goods and services. Here, we model wetland plant community structure based on macroclimate using field data collected across broad temperature and precipitation gradients along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast. Our analyses quantify strongly nonlinear temperature thresholds regulating the potential for marsh-to-mangrove conversion. We also identify precipitation thresholds for dominance by various functional groups, including succulent plants and unvegetated mudflats. Macroclimate-driven shifts in foundation plant species abundance will have large effects on certain ecosystem goods and services. Based on current and projected climatic conditions, we project that transformative ecological changes are probable throughout the region this century, even under conservative climate scenarios. Coastal wetland ecosystems are functionally similar worldwide, so changes in this region are indicative of potential future changes in climatically similar regions globally.

  3. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  4. Purification of fuel and nitrate contaminated ground water using a free water surface constructed wetland plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machate, T.; Heuermann, E.; Schramm, K.W.; Kettrup, A.

    1999-10-01

    Contaminated ground water from a former coke plant site was purified in a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland plant during a 3-mo short-term experiment. The pilot plant (total surface area 27 m{sup 2}) was filled with a 1 m thick lava-gravel substrate planted with cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus lacustrls). Major contaminants were low to moderate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, BTEX, nitrate, and nitrite. The wetland was dosed at hydraulic loading rates of q{sub A} = 4.8 and 9.6 cm d{sup {minus}1} with a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 13.7 and 6.8 d. The surface removal rates of PAH were between 98.8 and 1914 mg m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Efficiency was always {gt}99%. Extraction of lava gravel showed that approx. 0.4% of the applied PAH were retained on the substratum. The ratio of {Sigma}2,3-ring PAH and {Sigma}4,5,6-ring PAH showed a shift from 1:0.11 in water to 1:2.5 in lava. The removal of BTEX was {gt}99%, but might be in part due to volatilization. The efficiency in the removal of nitrate was 91% and of nitrite was 97%. Purification performance was not influenced by hydraulic loading rates or after die-back of the macrophytes.

  5. [Changes in vegetation and soil characteristics under tourism disturbance in lakeside wetland of northwest Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming-Yan; Yang, Yong-Xing

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics of vegetation and soil were investigated in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands in northwest Yunnan Plateau under tourism disturbance. The 22 typical plots in the wetlands were classified into 4 types by TWINSPAN, including primary wetland, light degradation, moderate degradation, and severe degradation. Along the degradation gradient, the plant community density, coverage, species number and Shannon diversity index increased and the plant height decreased in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands, and Whittaker diversity index increased in Bita Lake wetland. Plant species number, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, porosity, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium contents were higher in Shudu Lake wetland than in Bita Lake wetland, but the plant density, height, soil total potassium and pH were opposite. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) by importance values of 42 plants and 11 soil variables showed that soil organic matter, total nitrogen and total potassium were the key factors on plant species distribution in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands under tourism disturbance. TWINSPAN classification and analysis of vegetation-soil characteristics indicated the effects of tourism disturbance in Bita Lake wetland were larger than in Shudu Lake wetland.

  6. Effect of different plant species in pilot constructed wetlands for wastewater reuse in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the first results of an experiment carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily on the evapotranspiration (ET and removal in constructed wetlands with five plant species are presented. The pilot plant used for this study is made of twelve horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands (each with a surface area of 4.5 m2 functioning in parallel, and it is used for tertiary treatment of part of the effluents from a conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (trickling filter. Two beds are unplanted (control while ten beds are planted with five different macrophyte species: Cyperus papyrus, Vetiveria zizanoides, Miscanthus x giganteus, Arundo donax and Phragmites australis (i.e., every specie is planted in two beds to have a replication. The influent flow rate is measured in continuous by an electronic flow meter. The effluent is evaluated by an automatic system that measure the discharged volume for each bed. Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on wastewater samples collected at the inlet of CW plant and at the outlet of the twelve beds. An automatic weather station is installed close to the experimental plant, measuring air temperature, wind speed and direction, rainfall, global radiation, relative humidity. This allows to calculate the reference Evapotranspiration (ET0 with the Penman-Monteith formula, while the ET of different plant species is measured through the water balance of the beds. The first results show no great differences in the mean removal performances of the different plant species for TSS, COD and E.coli, ranged from, respectively, 82% to 88%, 60% to 64% and 2.7 to 3.1 Ulog. The average removal efficiency of nutrient (64% for TN; 61 for NH4-N, 31% for PO4-P in the P.australis beds was higher than that other beds. From April to November 2012 ET measured for plant species were completely different from ET0 and ETcontrol, underlining the strong effect of vegetation. The cumulative

  7. Recreational transformation of the herbaceous layer in an urban forest ecosystem of Central Podolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Blinkova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of recreational activities on herbaceous cover of forests on the example of an urban environment in Central Podolia. The features of changes in environmental conditions of ecotypes of an urban forest have been shown through the systematic, biomorphological and ecomorphic structure of the herbaceous cover, the ratio of ecological groups, changes in type of ecological strategy of species, assessment of ecological fractions valences, and phytodiversity. We found 78 species of vascular plants. The most diverse families are Asteraceae, Poaceae and Lamiaceae. The biomorphological range of phytodiversity of the intensive recreational zone is characterized by a high proportion of adventive and ruderal species, dominance of vegetative mobile species, forming of monodominant groups and disturbed distribution of all spectrum types for coenotic morphs. Perennial hemicryptophytes dominate in the spectrum of life forms. The share of therophytes increased along the gradient of recreational transformation. Unrosellate herbal plants dominate in the structure of aboveground shoots and leaf placement, plants that don’t have special modifications dominate in the structures of underground shoots. Helophytes dominated in the analysis of heliomorphic plants. Mesophytes dominated almost everywhere. The share of hydrocontrastophobes increased with a gradual removal from places of recreation. Changes in acidomorphic and nitromorphic structures of plants were not found. Types of transitional groups of ecological strategies, including CR-, CS-, and CRS-strategies prevailed. The share of patiens diminished. Exsplerents from all types of primary ecological strategies dominated. Analysis of ecological valence fractions showed that species of hemi-euryvalent and euryvalent fractions dominate among hydromorphs, hemi-euryvalent species dominate among ecogroups of scale variability humidification of soil, hemystenovalences species dominate among

  8. Towards reconstructing herbaceous biome dynamics and associated precipitation in Africa: insights from the classification of grass morphological traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasturel, Marine; Alexandre, Anne; Novello, Alice; Moctar Dieye, Amadou; Wele, Abdoulaye; Paradis, Laure; Hely, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Inter-tropical herbaceous ecosystems occupy a 1/5th of terrestrial surface, a half of the African continent, and are expected to extend in the next decades. Dynamic of these ecosystems is simulated with poor accuracy by Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). One of the bias results from the fact that the diversity of the grass layer dominating these herbaceous ecosystems is poorly taken into account. Mean annual precipitation and the length of the dry season are the main constrains of the dynamics of these ecosystems. Conversely, changes in vegetation affect the water cycle. Inaccuracy in herbaceous ecosystem simulation thus impacts simulations of the water cycle (including precipitation) and vice versa. In order to increase our knowledge of the relationships between grass morphological traits, taxonomy, biomes and climatic niches in Western and South Africa, a 3-step methodology was followed: i) values of culm height, leaf length and width of dominant grass species from Senegal were gathered from flora and clustered using the Partition Around Medoids (PAM) method; ii) trait group ability to sign climatic domains and biomes was assessed using Kruskal-Wallis tests; iii) genericity and robustness of the trait groups were evaluated through their application to Chadian and South African botanical datasets. Results show that 8 grass trait groups are present either in Senegal, Chad or South Africa. These 8 trait groups are distributed along mean annual precipitation and dry season length gradients. The combination of three of them allow to discriminate mean annual precipitation domains (1000 mm) and herbaceous biomes (steppes, savannas, South African grasslands and Nama-Karoo). With these results in hand, grass Plant Functional Types (PFTs) of the DGMV LPJ-GUESS will be re-parameterized and particular attention will be given to the herbaceous biomass assigned to each grass trait group. Simultaneously, relationships between grass trait groups and phytolith vegetation

  9. Roles for root iron plaque in sequestration and uptake of heavy metals and metalloids in aquatic and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Rudra D; Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet S; Norton, Gareth J; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2014-10-01

    Toxic metal(loid) contamination of soil and sediment poses long term risk to soil and human health through plant-human or plant-animal-human food chain pathways. Iron plaque (IP) formation is frequent in aquatic and wetland plant species and is responsible for the sequestration of various metal(loids). The presence of IP may act as a buffer or barrier and may thus enhance or reduce the uptake of potentially phytotoxic metals and metalloids by plants. If IP acts as a barrier, then low IP producing macrophytes/aquatic plants may be better accumulators of toxic metals and may find use in constructed wetlands for remediation of pollutants, while high IP forming edible plant species could be safer for human consumption. Conversely, if IP acts as a buffer for mineral nutrients and toxic elements then those cultivars may be rich in nutrients, but may also cause toxicity. However, an ecotoxicological risk is also inevitable if IP rich macrophyte roots containing heavy metals are consumed by herbivores. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the role of IP in metal and metalloid sequestration, uptake, and transport. Furthermore, we will address the role of root IP in Oryza sativa for arsenic (As) sequestration leading to lower grain As translocation, reducing the risk of human exposure.

  10. Nonstructural carbon dynamics are best predicted by the combination of photosynthesis and plant hydraulics during both bark beetle induced mortality and herbaceous plant response to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Guadagno, C.; Peckham, S. D.; Pendall, E.; Borkhuu, B.; Aston, T.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Yarkhunova, Y.; Weinig, C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has shown that nonstructural carbon (NSC) provides both a signal and consequence of water stress in plants. The dynamics of NSC are likely not solely a result of the balance of photosynthesis and respiration (carbon starvation hypothesis) but also the availability of NSC for plant functions due to hydraulic condition. Further, plant hydraulics regulates photosynthesis both directly through stomatal conductance and indirectly through leaf water status control over leaf biochemistry. To test these hypotheses concerning NSC in response to a wide variety of plant perturbations, we used a model that combines leaf biochemical controls over photosynthesis (Farquhar model) with dynamic plant hydraulic conductance (Sperry model). This model (Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator; TREES) simulates the dynamics of NSC through a carbon budget approach that responds to plant hydraulic status. We tested TREES on two dramatically different datasets. The first dataset is from lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce trees dying from bark beetles that carry blue-stain fungi which block xylem and cause hydraulic failure. The second data set is from Brassica rapa, a small herbaceous plant whose accessions are used in a variety of crops. The Brassica rapa plants include two parents whose circadian clock periods are different; NSC is known to provide inputs to the circadian clock likely modified by drought. Thus, drought may interact with clock control to constrain how NSC changes over the day. The Brassica rapa plants were grown in growth chamber conditions where drought was precisely controlled. The connection between these datasets is that both provide rigorous tests of our understanding of plant NSC dynamics and use similar leaf and whole plant gas exchange and NSC laboratory methods. Our results show that NSC decline (water stress. The model is able to capture this relatively small decline in NSC by limiting NSC utilization through loss of plant hydraulic

  11. Use of created cattail ( Typha) wetlands in mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberteen, Ross A.; Nickerson, Norton H.

    1991-11-01

    In order to balance pressures for land-use development with protection of wetland resources, artificial wetlands have been constructed in an effort to replace lost ecosystems. Despite its regulatory appeal and prominent role in current mitigation strategies, it is unclear whether or not created systems actually compensate for lost wetland resources. Mitigation predictions that rely on artificial wetlands must be analyzed critically in terms of their efficacy. Destruction of wetlands due to burial by coal fly ash at a municipal landfill in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA, provided an opportunity to compare resulting growth of created cattail ( Typha) marshes with natural wetland areas. Once the appropriate cattail species was identified for growth under disturbed landfill conditions, two types of artificial wetlands were constructed. The two systems differed in their hydrologic attributes: while one had a surface water flow characteristic of most cattail wetlands, the second system mimicked soil and water conditions found in naturally occurring floating cattail marshes. Comparison of plant growth measurements for two years from the artificial systems with published values for natural cattail marshes revealed similar structure and growth patterns. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the ability of created cattail marshes to remove and accumulate heavy metals from polluted landfill leachate. Research of the type reported here must be pursued aggressively in order to document the performance of artificial wetlands in terms of plant structure and wetland functions. Such research should allow us to start to evaluate whether artificial systems actually compensate for lost wetlands by performing similar functions and providing the concomitant public benefits.

  12. A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.H.

    1999-11-24

    To perform a statistically rigorous meta-analysis of research results on the response by herbaceous vegetation to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, a multiparameter database of responses was compiled from the published literature. Seventy-eight independent CO{sub 2}-enrichment studies, covering 53 species and 26 response parameters, reported mean response, sample size, and variance of the response (either as standard deviation or standard error). An additional 43 studies, covering 25 species and 6 response parameters, did not report variances. This numeric data package accompanies the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center's (CDIAC's) NDP-072, which provides similar information for woody vegetation. This numeric data package contains a 30-field data set of CO{sub 2}-exposure experiment responses by herbaceous plants (as both a flat ASCII file and a spreadsheet file), files listing the references to the CO{sub 2}-exposure experiments and specific comments relevant to the data in the data sets, and this documentation file (which includes SAS{reg_sign} and Fortran codes to read the ASCII data file). The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from CDIAC.

  13. Ecosystem function in oil sands wetlands : rates of detrital decomposition, moss growth, and microbial respiration in oilsands wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykush, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Hornung, J. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which leaf litter breakdown and biomass accrual in 31 reference and oilsands affected (OSPM) wetlands in Northeastern Alberta was examined. The purpose was to determine how the decomposition of dead plant matter controls the primary productivity in wetlands. The data collected from this study will provide information about carbon flow and dynamics in oilsands affected wetlands. The study involved the investigation of wetlands that contrasted in water origin (OSPM vs. reference), sediment origin (OSPM vs. natural), sediment organic content and age. Mesh bags containing 5 g of dried Typha (cattail) or 20 g of damp moss were placed into 31 wetlands in order to monitor the rate at which biomass was lost to decomposition, as measured by changes in dry mass. After 1 year, moss growth was found to be greatest in younger wetlands with natural sediments. Cattail decomposition was found to be slower in wetlands containing OSPM water than that in reference wetlands. Preliminary analysis of respiration rates of biota associated with decomposing cattail indicate that the amount of oxygen consumed is not affected by wetland water source, sediment source, level of initial sediment organic content, or age.

  14. Climate Variability Structures Plant Community Dynamics in Mediterranean Restored and Reference Tidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan E. Chapple

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean regions and other areas with variable climates, interannual weather variability may impact ecosystem dynamics, and by extension ecological restoration projects. Conditions at reference sites, which are often used to evaluate restoration projects, may also be influenced by weather variability, confounding interpretations of restoration outcomes. To better understand the influence of weather variability on plant community dynamics, we explore change in a vegetation dataset collected between 1990 and 2005 at a historic tidal wetland reference site and a nearby tidal wetland restoration project initiated in 1976 in California’s San Francisco (SF Bay. To determine the factors influencing reference and restoration trajectories, we examine changes in plant community identity in relation to annual salinity levels in the SF Bay, annual rainfall, and tidal channel structure. Over the entire study period, both sites experienced significant directional change away from the 1990 community. Community change was accelerated following low salinity conditions that resulted from strong El Niño events in 1994–1995 and 1997–1998. Overall rates of change were greater at the restoration site and driven by a combination of dominant and sub-dominant species, whereas change at the reference site was driven by sub-dominant species. Sub-dominant species first appeared at the restoration site in 1996 and incrementally increased during each subsequent year, whereas sub-dominant species cover at the reference site peaked in 1999 and subsequently declined. Our results show that frequent, long-term monitoring is needed to adequately capture plant community dynamics in variable Mediterranean ecosystems and demonstrate the need for expanding restoration monitoring and timing restoration actions to match weather conditions.

  15. Differences in phytotoxicity and dissipation between ionized and nonionized oil sands naphthenic acids in wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Germida, James J

    2009-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are composed of alkyl-substituted acyclic and cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids and, because they are acutely toxic to fish, are of toxicological concern. During the caustic hot-water extraction of oil from the bitumen in oil sands deposits, NAs become concentrated in the resulting tailings pond water. The present study investigated if dissipation of NAs occurs in the presence of hydroponically grown emergent macrophytes (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, and Scirpus acutus) to determine the potential for phytoremediation of these compounds. Plants were grown with oil sands NAs (pKa approximately 5-6) in medium at pH 7.8 (predominantly ionized NAs) and pH 5.0 (predominantly nonionized NAs) to determine if, by altering their chemical form, NAs may be more accessible to plants and, thus, undergo increased dissipation. Whereas the oil sands NA mixture in its nonionized form was more toxic to wetland plants than its ionized form, neither form appeared to be sequestered by wetland plants. The present study demonstrated that plants may selectively enhance the dissipation of individual nonionized NA compounds, which contributes to toxicity reduction but does not translate into detectable total NA dissipation within experimental error and natural variation. Plants were able to reduce the toxicity of a NA system over 30 d, increasing the median lethal concentration (LC50; % of hydroponic solution) of the medium for Daphnia magna by 23.3% +/- 8.1% (mean +/- standard error; nonionized NAs) and 37.0% +/- 2.7% (ionized NAs) as determined by acute toxicity bioassays. This reduction in toxicity was 7.3% +/- 2.6% (nonionized NAs) and 45.0% +/- 6.8% (ionized NAs) greater than that in unplanted systems.

  16. Soil recovery across a chronosequence of restored wetlands in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qibing; Li, Yuncong; Zhang, Min

    2015-12-01

    The restoration project in the Hole-in-the-Donut of Everglades National Park in Florida, USA is to reestablish native wetlands by complete removal of the invasive plants and the associated soil. However, there is little information available about changes in properties of the newly formed Marl soils in restored wetlands. In this study, we measured soil physicochemical properties, soil enzymatic activities, and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) in plants and soil organic carbon (SOC) in an undisturbed natural wetland (UNW) and three wetlands restored respectively in 1989, 1996 and 1999 (WR89, WR96 and WR99). The older restored wetlands (WR89 and WR96) are characterized by greater SOC and mineral nitrogen. The values of soil dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities in the four wetlands follow the order: UNW > WR89 > WR96 > WR99, and are consistent with changes in vegetation coverage. The principal component analysis shows that dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities are the vital variables contributing to the soil of UNW. The similar δ13C values of SOC and plants in the restored wetlands suggest the formation of SOC during restoration is mainly derived from the associated plants. These results indicate that the newly restored soils develop toward the soil in the UNW with time since restoration.

  17. The contrasting effects of nutrient enrichment on growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissue in coastal wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Matthew A.; Jesse, Amber; Tabet, Basam; Reef, Ruth; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters can have consequences for the growth, function and soil processes of coastal wetlands. Our aims were to assess how nutrient enrichment affects growth, biomass allocation and decomposition of plant tissues of a common and widespread mangrove, Avicennia marina, and how

  18. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water, soil and plants in wetlands and agricultural areas in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalahmeh, Sahar; Tirgani, Sana; Komakech, Allan John; Niwagaba, Charles B; Ahrens, Lutz

    2018-08-01

    Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6-9.1ngL -1 ) than in the corresponding influent (3.4-5.1ngL -1 ), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8.5-12ngL -1 ) and Lake Victoria (1.0-2.5ngL -1 ), due to dilution, sorption to sediment and uptake by plants in the wetland. ∑PFAS concentrations were within the range 1700-7900pgg -1 dry weight (dw) in soil and 160pgg -1 dw (maize cobs) to 380pgg -1 dw (sugarcane stems) in plants. The dominant PFASs were perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in wastewater, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in surface water, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in soil and perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) and PFOA in different plant tissues, reflecting PFAS-specific partitioning behaviour in different matrices. Soil-water partitioning coefficient (log K d ) in wetland soil under yam was lowest for short-chain PFHxA (1.9-2.3Lkg -1 ) and increased with increasing chain length to 2.8-3.1Lkg -1 for perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and 2.8-3.1Lkg -1 for perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS). The log K oc values ranged between 2.2 and 3.6Lkg -1 , with the highest log K oc estimated for long-chain perfluorocarbon PFASs (i.e. PFUnDA 3.2-3.5Lkg -1 and PFOS 3.2-3.6Lkg -1 ). The concentration ratio (CR) between plants and soil was <1 for all PFASs and plant species, with the highest CR estimated for PFHpA (0.65-0.67) in sugarcane stem and PFBS (0.53-0.59) in yam root. Overall, this investigation demonstrated PFASs entry into the terrestrial food chain and drinking water resources in Kampala, Uganda. Source identification, assessment of

  19. Microbial community dynamics and transformation of vascular plant detritus in two wetland ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The microbial ecology of two wetland ecosystems in southeastern Georgia, USA, was studied with respect to microbial community dynamics and microbially-mediated transformations of vascular plant detritus. In the Okefenokee Swamp, biomass of microorganisms in the water column and sediments was generally lower in winter months and higher during spring and summer. Biomass and activity (measured as 14 C-lignocellulose mineralization) differed significantly among five habitats within the Okefenokee, and also among locations within each habitat. Significant heterogeneity in the structure of Okefenokee microbial communities was found at scales from 30 cm to 150 m. In field and laboratory studies of vascular plant decomposition in the Okefenokee and a salt marsh on Sapelo Island, the mathematical model which best describes decomposition kinetics is the decaying coefficient model

  20. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, "buritizais" and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families. We recorded six new occurrences for Brazil, two for the northern Brazilian region and 21 for Roraima state. These new occurrences, added to the other species listed here, highlight the floristic similarity between the study site and the Guiana Shield, an adjacent phytogeographical unit and geologically related to the origin of white-sand savannas.

  1. Will Tidal Wetland Restoration Enhance Populations of Native Fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of tidal wetlands might enhance populations of native fishes in the San Francisco Estuary of California. The purpose of this paper is to: (1 review the currently available information regarding the importance of tidal wetlands to native fishes in the San Francisco Estuary, (2 construct conceptual models on the basis of available information, (3 identify key areas of scientific uncertainty, and (4 identify methods to improve conceptual models and reduce uncertainty. There are few quantitative data to suggest that restoration of tidal wetlands will substantially increase populations of native fishes. On a qualitative basis, there is some support for the idea that tidal wetland restoration will increase populations of some native fishes; however, the species deriving the most benefit from restoration might not be of great management concern at present. Invasion of the San Francisco Estuary by alien plants and animals appears to be a major factor in obscuring the expected link between tidal wetlands and native fishes. Large-scale adaptive management experiments (>100 hectares appear to be the best available option for determining whether tidal wetlands will provide significant benefit to native fishes. Even if these experiments are unsuccessful at increasing native fish populations, the restored wetlands should benefit native birds, plants, and other organisms.

  2. Changes in standing stocks and fluxes of carbon due to salinization: tidal freshwater wetland forest retreat to marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.; Noe, G. B.; Duberstein, J. A.; Conner, W. H.; Stagg, C. L.; Jones, M.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Cormier, N.

    2017-12-01

    Assessments of organic carbon (C) standing stocks and fluxes as wetland ecosystems transition from tidally influenced freshwater forested wetlands to low-salinity marshes are not typically included in "blue carbon" accounting. However, these ecosystems have the potential to store and convey large quantities of C. Here, we report on data collected from eight riverine sites along salinity and hydro-edaphic gradients in South Carolina and Georgia to provide the first complete estimates of C storage, flux, and burial, including estimation of C export to aquatic environments, in tidal freshwater forested wetlands undergoing transition to oligohaline marsh. Total standing stocks of C ranged from 280 to 891 Mg C/ha along both rivers but with no consistent trend in standing stock shifts along salinity gradients between the two rivers. Soil C standing stocks were most variable among sites. Furthermore, we assessed input (litterfall, woody growth, herbaceous growth, root growth and surface sediment C accretion) in comparison with output (surface litter decomposition, root decomposition and gaseous C) fluxes over periods ranging from 2 to 11 years. C sequestration from mass balance calculations ranged from 103 to 728 g C/m2/year among sites, with generally greater C sequestration on sites with prominent salinity-mediated conversion to oligohaline marsh. Dissolved C export was estimated as the difference between C sequestration and soil C burial using 14C dating of cores, and ranged from 144 to 404 g C/m2/year, representing a large amount of C export to feed aquatic biogeochemical transformations and secondary productivity. Along with C accounting, these sites also differed in how N and P were mineralized in soils, with considerable N mineralization on salinity-stressed (2.4-4.3 parts per thousand) forested sites with newly encroached marsh plants and considerable P mineralization on slightly higher salinity marshes. In all, C storage from tidal freshwater forested wetlands

  3. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. White

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.

  4. Disturbance metrics predict a wetland Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Mack, John; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian; Micacchion, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas in the USA. Knowledge of the best predictors of VIBIs would enable management agencies to make better decisions regarding mitigation site selection and performance monitoring criteria. We use a novel statistical technique to develop predictive models for an established index of wetland vegetation integrity (Ohio VIBI), using as independent variables 20 indices and metrics of habitat quality, wetland disturbance, and buffer area land use from 149 wetlands in Ohio, USA. For emergent and forest wetlands, predictive models explained 61% and 54% of the variability, respectively, in Ohio VIBI scores. In both cases the most important predictor of Ohio VIBI score was a metric that assessed habitat alteration and development in the wetland. Of secondary importance as a predictor was a metric that assessed microtopography, interspersion, and quality of vegetation communities in the wetland. Metrics and indices assessing disturbance and land use of the buffer area were generally poor predictors of Ohio VIBI scores. Our results suggest that vegetation integrity of emergent and forest wetlands could be most directly enhanced by minimizing substrate and habitat disturbance within the wetland. Such efforts could include reducing or eliminating any practices that disturb the soil profile, such as nutrient enrichment from adjacent farm land, mowing, grazing, or cutting or removing woody plants.

  5. 76 FR 777 - National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... the Wetland Conservation Provisions of the Food Security Act. Other applications of the list include... recommended changes and additions to the NWPL. The process will be supported by an interactive Web site where...

  6. Biodiversity studies in three Coastal Wetlands in Ghana, West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biodiversity studies of three coastal wetlands in Ghana were made. The wetlands are the Sakumo, Muni-Pomadze and Densu Delta Ramsar sites. Each wetland is made up of a flood plain which consists of salt marsh (about 20%), mangrove swamps (between 15 and 30%), fresh water swamp (about 40 - 45%), and in ...

  7. Uptake and translocation of Ti from nanoparticles in crops and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Donna L; Borchardt, Joshua D; Navaratnam, Leelaruban; Otte, Marinus L; Bezbaruah, Achintya N

    2013-01-01

    Bioavailability of engineered metal nanoparticles affects uptake in plants, impacts on ecosystems, and phytoremediation. We studied uptake and translocation of Ti in plants when the main source of this metal was TiO2 nanoparticles. Two crops (Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) and Triticum aestivum (wheat)), a wetland species (Rumex crispus, curly dock), and the floating aquatic plant (Elodea canadensis, Canadian waterweed), were grown in nutrient solutions with TiO2 nanoparticles (0, 6, 18 mmol Ti L(-1) for P. vulgaris, T. aestivum, and R. crispus; and 0 and 12 mmol Ti L(-1) for E. canadensis). Also examined in E. canadensis was the influence of TiO2 nanoparticles upon the uptake of Fe, Mn, and Mg, and the influence of P on Ti uptake. For the rooted plants, exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles did not affect biomass production, but significantly increased root Ti sorption and uptake. R. crispus showed translocation of Ti into the shoots. E. canadensis also showed significant uptake of Ti, P in the nutrient solution significantly decreased Ti uptake, and the uptake patterns of Mn and Mg were altered. Ti from nano-Ti was bioavailable to plants, thus showing the potential for cycling in ecosystems and for phytoremediation, particularly where water is the main carrier.

  8. Modeling the Effect of Plants and Peat on Evapotranspiration in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Chazarenc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET in constructed wetlands (CWs represents a major factor affecting hydrodynamics and treatment performances. The presence of high ET was shown to improve global treatment performances, however ET is affected by a wide range of parameters including plant development and CWs age. Our study aimed at modelling the effect of plants and peat on ET in CWs; since we hypothesized peat could behave like the presence of accumulated organic matter in old CWs. Treatment performances, hydraulic behaviour, and ET rates were measured in eight 1 m2 CWs mesocosm (1 unplanted, 1 unplanted with peat, 2 planted with Phragmites australis, 2 planted with Typha latifolia and 2 planted with Phragmites australis with peat. Two models were built using first order kinetics to simulate COD and TKN removal with ET as an input. The effect of peat was positive on ET and was related to the better growth conditions it offered to macrophytes. Removal efficiency in pilot units with larger ET was higher for TKN. On average, results show for COD a k20 value of 0.88 d-1 and 0.36 d-1 for TKN. We hypothesized that the main effect of ET was to concentrate effluent, thus enhancing degradation rates.

  9. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: Delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-02-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007-Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  10. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Cassadaga Creek Tributary Crossing, Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. Topical report, August 1992--November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 3-4, 1992, at the Cassadaga wetlands crossing in Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. The pipeline at this site was installed during February and March 1981. After completion of pipeline installation, the ROW was fertilized, mulched, and seeded with annual ryegrass. Two adjacent sites were surveyed in this study: a forested wetland and an emergent wetlands Eleven years after pipeline installation, the ROW at both sites supported diverse vegetative communities. Although devoid of large woody species, the ROW within the forested wetland had a dense vegetative cover. The ROW within the emergent wetland had a slightly less dense and more diverse vegetative community compared with that in the adjacent natural areas (NAs). The ROW within the emergent wetland also had a large number of introduced species that were not present in the adjacent NAs. The ROW, with its emergent marsh plant community, provided habitat diversity within the forested wetlands Because the ROW contained species not found within the adjacent NAs, overall species diversity was increased.

  11. Rural herbaceous plant diversity under different land uses in North Zhejiang Province%浙北地区不同土地利用下乡村草本层植物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴灏; 张建锋; 陈光才; 汪庆兵; 王丽; 张颖

    2016-01-01

    该文以浙江省安吉县两个典型乡村—繅舍村和赋石村为例,选取公园、农耕区、河道、人工林地四种不同土地利用类型,用Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数、Sorensen指数为标识多样性的指标,分析不同生境下草本植物多样性差异。结果表明:乡村生境中共记录物种162种,分属47科123属,其中禾本科与菊科物种数占总数的31.48%;农耕区生境的Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数最高,分别为2.76和0.91,农耕区与河道的Sorensen指数最高为0.57。从农耕区、河道、公园到林地生境,草本物种多样性整体呈减小趋势。另外,发现人工绿化措施会导致草本物种减少,如从种植水稻单一作物到复合作物,草本层植物随之改变。单一稻田与复合种植区比较,草本植物主要的科属组成无明显变化,莎草科、菊科、禾本科植物仍占主体;但草本植物群落主要物种组成发生变化,稻田转变成农耕区后,牛筋草、黑麦草,碎米荠、小飞蓬、喜旱莲子草成为草本层群落主要构成植物,水竹叶覆盖度减少,小飞蓬和喜旱莲子草的覆盖度增加。此外,还发现4种生境中共有喜旱莲子草、加拿大一枝黄花、土荆芥三种入侵物种,但未能对本土物种构成显著影响。这表明不同土地利用方式会严重影响草本群落物种组成及物种多样性;土地利用方式的变化,会引起草本植物主要群落构成发生改变;土地利用类型的多样化有利于本土草本物种多样性生存。该研究结果有助于为城镇化进程中保护乡村植物多样性、加速推进美丽中国建设提供技术支撑。%Local plants were important for ecosystem diversity, of which herbaceous plants took a great account. In the article Fushi Village and Saoshe Village in Zhejiang Province were taken as test plots, where land use systems were di-vided into four artificial habits such as artificial forest, gardens, rivers

  12. Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We focus on the ecosystem engineering role of small mammals, primarily the degu Octodon degus. We also consider the interacting effects of shrubs, trees, avian activity, livestock, slope, and soil quality on herbaceous communities in central Chile. We sampled herbaceous diversity on a private landholding characterized by a mosaic of savanna, grassland and matorral, across a range of degu disturbance intensities. We find that the strongest factors affecting endemic herbaceous diversity are density of degu runways, shrub cover and avian activity. Our results show that the degu, a charismatic and easily identifiable and countable species, could be used as an indicator species to aid potential conservation actions such as private protected area uptake. We map areas in central Chile where degus may indicate endemic plant diversity. This area is larger than expected, and suggests that significant areas of endemic plant communities may still exist, and should be identified and protected. Keywords: Cryptic species, Diversity, Endemic, Indicator species, Octodon degus, Plant

  13. Changes in the Vegetation Cover in a Constructed Wetland at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, C.L.; LaGory, K.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable resources that are disappearing at an alarming rate. Land development has resulted in the destruction of wetlands for approximately 200 years. To combat this destruction, the federal government passed legislation that requires no net loss of wetlands. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for regulating wetland disturbances. In 1991, the USACE determined that the construction of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory would damage three wetlands that had a total area of one acre. Argonne was required to create a wetland of equal acreage to replace the damaged wetlands. For the first five years after this wetland was created (1992-1996), the frequency of plant species, relative cover, and water depth was closely monitored. The wetland was not monitored again until 2002. In 2003, the vegetation cover data were again collected with a similar methodology to previous years. The plant species were sampled using quadrats at randomly selected locations along transects throughout the wetland. The fifty sampling locations were monitored once in June and percent cover of each of the plant species was determined for each plot. Furthermore, the extent of standing water in the wetland was measured. In 2003, 21 species of plants were found and identified. Eleven species dominated the wetland, among which were reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), crown vetch (Coronilla varia), and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). These species are all non-native, invasive species. In the previous year, 30 species were found in the same wetland. The common species varied from the 2002 study but still had these non-native species in common. Reed canary grass and Canada thistle both increased by more than 100% from 2002. Unfortunately, the non-native species may be contributing to the loss of biodiversity in the wetland. In the future, control measures should be taken to ensure the establishment of more desired native species.

  14. Effects of Ontogeny on δ13C of Plant- and Soil-Respired CO2 and on Respiratory Carbon Fractionation in C3 Herbaceous Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Salmon

    Full Text Available Knowledge gaps regarding potential ontogeny and plant species identity effects on carbon isotope fractionation might lead to misinterpretations of carbon isotope composition (δ13C of respired CO2, a widely-used integrator of environmental conditions. In monospecific mesocosms grown under controlled conditions, the δ13C of C pools and fluxes and leaf ecophysiological parameters of seven herbaceous species belonging to three functional groups (crops, forage grasses and legumes were investigated at three ontogenetic stages of their vegetative cycle (young foliage, maximum growth rate, early senescence. Ontogeny-related changes in δ13C of leaf- and soil-respired CO2 and 13C/12C fractionation in respiration (ΔR were species-dependent and up to 7‰, a magnitude similar to that commonly measured in response to environmental factors. At plant and soil levels, changes in δ13C of respired CO2 and ΔR with ontogeny were related to changes in plant physiological status, likely through ontogeny-driven changes in the C sink to source strength ratio in the aboveground plant compartment. Our data further showed that lower ΔR values (i.e. respired CO2 relatively less depleted in 13C were observed with decreasing net assimilation. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ontogenetic stage and plant community composition in ecological studies using stable carbon isotopes.

  15. Effects of Ontogeny on δ13C of Plant- and Soil-Respired CO2 and on Respiratory Carbon Fractionation in C3 Herbaceous Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Yann; Buchmann, Nina; Barnard, Romain L

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge gaps regarding potential ontogeny and plant species identity effects on carbon isotope fractionation might lead to misinterpretations of carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of respired CO2, a widely-used integrator of environmental conditions. In monospecific mesocosms grown under controlled conditions, the δ13C of C pools and fluxes and leaf ecophysiological parameters of seven herbaceous species belonging to three functional groups (crops, forage grasses and legumes) were investigated at three ontogenetic stages of their vegetative cycle (young foliage, maximum growth rate, early senescence). Ontogeny-related changes in δ13C of leaf- and soil-respired CO2 and 13C/12C fractionation in respiration (ΔR) were species-dependent and up to 7‰, a magnitude similar to that commonly measured in response to environmental factors. At plant and soil levels, changes in δ13C of respired CO2 and ΔR with ontogeny were related to changes in plant physiological status, likely through ontogeny-driven changes in the C sink to source strength ratio in the aboveground plant compartment. Our data further showed that lower ΔR values (i.e. respired CO2 relatively less depleted in 13C) were observed with decreasing net assimilation. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ontogenetic stage and plant community composition in ecological studies using stable carbon isotopes.

  16. Hydrology and Ecology of Freshwater Wetlands in Central Florida - A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.

    2010-01-01

    how wetlands are affected by human activities. Freshwater wetlands are unique and complex ecosystems defined by characteristic properties. Wetlands usually have standing water during at least part of the year, although water depths can vary from a few inches to as much as several feet from one wetland to another. The hydrologic behavior of wetlands is influenced by drainage basin characteristics, as well as by natural variations in climate. Wetlands in central Florida (especially forested wetlands) often have acidic waters that are darkly stained from organic substances released by decomposing leaves and other plant material. Wetlands are characterized by biogeochemical cycles in which vital elements such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and others are transformed as they move between wetland soils and sediments, the open water, and the atmosphere. Wetlands are populated with plants that can thrive under conditions of saturated soils and low dissolved-oxygen concentrations. The bottoms of many wetlands, especially marshes, are covered with decayed plant material that can accumulate over time to form brown peat or black muck soils. Wetlands are inhabited by animals that need standing water to complete some or all of their life cycles, and they also provide periodic food, water, and shelter for many other animals that spend most of their lives on dry land. The complex and interrelated components of wetlands directly affect one another and there are numerous feedback mechanisms.

  17. Renovation of food-processing wastewater by a Riparian wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Priscilla W.

    1995-01-01

    Treated wastewater from a food-processing plant, together with intermittent outflow from a hypereutrophic pond, were discharged over a 20-year period to a cattail-dominated wetland and hence to a small stream. Organics and nutriet levels in the effluent were comparable to levels in domestic wastewater. Fifteen variables were monitored upstream and downstream from the plant over 18 months. Means for most variables were slightly higher downstream, but differences between stations were not statistically significant. Wetland processing of nitrogen was markedly affected by a change from drought to flood conditions. After accounting for dilution, the overall effect of the wetland on the effluent was to reduce biological oxygen demand 43.7%, ammonia N 46.3%, nitrate/nitrite N 17.4%, and conductivity 15.6%. However, total suspended solids were increased 41.4%, total organic nitrogen 28.8%, and total phosphorus 24.7%. It was concluded that the wetland effectively renovated the effluent but the removal efficiency would be improved if the effluent were pretreated to reduce phosphorus and dispersed to increase residence time in the wetland.

  18. Plant-mediated CH4 transport and C gas dynamics quantified in-situ in a Phalaris arundinacea-dominant wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Askær; Elberling, Bo; Friborg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    passive. Thus, diurnal variations are less important in contrast to wetland vascular plants facilitating convective gas flow. Despite of plant-dominant CH4 transport, net CH4 fluxes were low (–0.005–0.016 µmol m-2 s-1) and annually less than 1% of the annual C-CO2 assimilation. This is considered a result......±35% of ecosystem CH4 emissions were plant-mediated, but data show no evidence of significant diurnal variations related to convective gas flow regardless of season or plant growth stages. Therefore, despite a high percentage of arenchyma, P. arundinacea-mediated CH4 transport is interpreted to be predominantly...

  19. Aquatic herbivores facilitate the emission of methane from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, B.J.J.; Bakker, E.S.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands are significant sources of atmospheric methane. Methane produced by microbes enters roots and escapes to the atmosphere through the shoots of emergent wetland plants. Herbivorous birds graze on helophytes, but their effect on methane emission remains unknown. We hypothesized that grazing on

  20. The invasive wetland plant Alternanthera philoxeroides shows a higher tolerance to waterlogging than its native Congener Alternanthera sessilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Chen

    Full Text Available Plant invasion is one of the major threats to natural ecosystems. Phenotypic plasticity is considered to be important for promoting plant invasiveness. High tolerance of stress can also increase survival of invasive plants in adverse habitats. Limited growth and conservation of carbohydrate are considered to increase tolerance of flooding in plants. However, few studies have examined whether invasive species shows a higher phenotypic plasticity in response to waterlogging or a higher tolerance of waterlogging (lower plasticity than native species. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to compare the growth and morphological and physiological responses to waterlogging of the invasive, clonal, wetland species Alternanthera philoxeroides with those of its co-occurring, native, congeneric, clonal species Alternanthera sessilis. Plants of A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis were subjected to three treatments (control, 0 and 60 cm waterlogging. Both A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis survived all treatments. Overall growth was lower in A. philoxeroides than in A. sessilis, but waterlogging negatively affected the growth of A. philoxeroides less strongly than that of A. sessilis. Alternanthera philoxeroides thus showed less sensitivity of growth traits (lower plasticity and higher waterlogging tolerance. Moreover, the photosynthetic capacity of A. philoxeroides was higher than that of A. sessilis during waterlogging. Alternanthera philoxeroides also had higher total non-structural and non-soluble carbohydrate concentrations than A. sessilis at the end of treatments. Our results suggest that higher tolerance to waterlogging and higher photosynthetic capacity may partly explain the invasion success of A. philoxeroides in wetlands.

  1. Modeling wetland plant community response to assess water-level regulation scenarios in the Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Christiane; Wilcox, Douglas; Ingram, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The International Joint Commission has recently completed a five-year study (2000-2005) to review the operation of structures controlling the flows and levels of the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system. In addition to addressing the multitude of stakeholder interests, the regulation plan review also considers environmental sustainability and integrity of wetlands and various ecosystem components. The present paper outlines the general approach, scientific methodology and applied management considerations of studies quantifying the relationships between hydrology and wetland plant assemblages (% occurrence, surface area) in Lake Ontario and the Upper and Lower St. Lawrence River. Although similar study designs were used across the study region, different methodologies were required that were specifically adapted to suit the important regional differences between the lake and river systems, range in water-level variations, and confounding factors (geomorphic types, exposure, sediment characteristics, downstream gradient of water quality, origin of water masses in the Lower River). Performance indicators (metrics), such as total area of wetland in meadow marsh vegetation type, that link wetland response to water levels will be used to assess the effects of different regulation plans under current and future (climate change) water-supply scenarios.

  2. Receding Water Line and Interspecific Competition Determines Plant Community Composition and Diversity in Wetlands in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Gong, Huili; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Climate and human-induced wetland degradation has accelerated in recent years, not only resulting in reduced ecosystem services but also greatly affecting the composition and diversity of wetland plant communities. To date, the knowledge of the differences in community parameters and their successional trends in degraded wetlands remains scarce. Here based on remote sensing images, geographic information system technology, and statistical methods, we produced a successional gradient map of the Yeyahu Wetland Nature Reserve in Beijing, which has experienced a steady decline in water level in recent decades. In addition, we analyzed community composition and diversity along with each identified gradient. The results showed that community diversity decreases while dominance increases with the progress of succession, with the highest diversity occurring during the early stage of succession. Moreover, the community demonstrates greater similarity among subareas during later successional stages, and the similarity coefficients calculated from the important value (IV) of each species are more accurate. Correlation analysis showed that the impact of soil factors on diversity was not significant at a subarea scale, although these nutrients showed an increasing trend with the community succession. Furthermore, the IVs of the dominant species had a particularly significant impact on diversity, showing a significantly negative correlation with diversity indices and a significantly positive correlation with dominance indices. Further analysis showed that the retreat of water level resulted from sustained drought and local human activities was a major extrinsic driving force resulting in observed differences in the community successional stages, which resulted in differences in community composition and diversity. On the other hand, interspecific competition was the main intrinsic mechanism, which significantly influenced the IVs of the dominant species and community diversity

  3. Ecophysiological responses of two herbaceous species to prescribed burning, alone or in combination with overstory thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Boerner, Ralph E J; Rebbeck, Joanne

    2007-05-01

    The oak-rich deciduous forests of the central Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America have changed significantly since the onset of effective fire suppression early in the 20th century. Those changes have resulted in progressively decreasing light and nutrient supplies to herbaceous perennial understory species. Application of ecological restoration treatments such as reintroduction of frequent dormant-season fire and overstory thinning to pre-suppression density often increase light, soil temperature and moisture, and short-term nutrient availability to pre-suppression levels. To persist in this environment, perennial understory herbs must be able to acclimate phenotypically to the very different resource supply combinations present with and without fire suppression. As part of a larger study of the response of the long-lived herbaceous perennials Desmodium nudiflorum and Panicum boscii to ecosystem restoration treatments in Ohio mixed-oak forests, this study examined the ecophysiological effects of prescribed burning (B) and the combination of burning and thinning (T + B) in mixed-oak forests in southern Ohio. Control (C) plants had significantly lower maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)) than those in the treated plots. The enhancement of A(max) averaged 26.7% and 52.7% in the B and T + B treatments, respectively. Plants from the T + B plots had higher quantum yield, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency than B and C plants. B plants had greater intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) than plants in the C or T + B treatments. Light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), and "dark" respiration (DR) did not differ among treatments. Photosynthetic parameters did vary significantly between the species, but no significant treatment × species interactions were detected. Our results support the hypothesis that prescribed burning, especially when combined with overstory thinning, in these perennial herbs can result in

  4. Uranium Immobilization in an Iron-Rich Rhizosphere of a Native Wetland Plant from the Savannah River Site under Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypothesis of this study was that iron plaque formed on the roots of wetland plants and their rhizospheres create environmental conditions favorable for iron reducing bacteria that promote the in situ immobilization of uranium. Greenhouse microcosm studies were conducted usin...

  5. Herbaceous Legume Encroachment Reduces Grass Productivity and Density in Arid Rangelands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Wagner

    Full Text Available Worldwide savannas and arid grasslands are mainly used for livestock grazing, providing livelihood to over a billion people. While normally dominated by perennial C4 grasses, these rangelands are increasingly affected by the massive spread of native, mainly woody legumes. The consequences are often a repression of grass cover and productivity, leading to a reduced carrying capacity. While such encroachment by woody plants has been extensively researched, studies on similar processes involving herbaceous species are rare. We studied the impact of a sustained and massive spread of the native herbaceous legume Crotalaria podocarpa in Namibia's escarpment region on the locally dominant fodder grasses Stipagrostis ciliata and Stipagrostis uniplumis. We measured tussock densities, biomass production of individual tussocks and tussock dormancy state of Stipagrostis on ten 10 m x 10 m plots affected and ten similarly-sized plots unaffected by C. podocarpa over eight consecutive years and under different seasonal rainfalls and estimated the potential relative productivity of the land. We found the percentage of active Stipagrostis tussocks and the biomass production of individual tussocks to increase asymptotically with higher seasonal rainfall reaching a maximum around 300 mm while the land's relative productivity under average local rainfall conditions reached only 40% of its potential. Crotalaria podocarpa encroachment had no effect on the proportion of productive grass tussocks, but reduced he productivity of individual Stipagrostis tussocks by a third. This effect of C. podocarpa on grass productivity was immediate and direct and was not compensated for by above-average rainfall. Besides this immediate effect, over time, the density of grass tussocks declined by more than 50% in areas encroached by C. podocarpa further and lastingly reducing the lands carrying capacity. The effects of C. podocarpa on grass productivity hereby resemble those of woody

  6. Hydrological Conditions Affect the Interspecific Interaction between Two Emergent Wetland Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological conditions determine the distribution of plant species in wetlands, where conditions such as water depth and hydrological fluctuations are expected to affect the interspecific interactions among emergent wetland species. To test such effects, we conducted a greenhouse experiment with three treatment categories, interspecific interaction (mixed culture or monoculture, water depth (10 or 30 cm depth, and hydrological fluctuation (static or fluctuating water level, and two common emergent wetland plant species, Scirpus planiculumis Fr. (Cyperaceae and Phragmites australis var. baiyangdiansis (Gramineae. An increase in the water depth significantly restrained the growth of both S. planiculumis and P. australis, while hydrological fluctuations did not obviously alter the growth of either species. In addition, both water depth and hydrological fluctuations significantly affected the interspecific interaction between these two wetland species. P. australis benefited from interspecific interaction under increasing water depth and hydrological fluctuations, and the RII values were clearly positive for plants grown at a water depth that fluctuated around 30 cm. The results may have some implications for understanding how S. planiculumis and P. australis, as well as wetland communities, respond to the natural variation or human modification of hydrological conditions.

  7. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  8. Translocation of radiocesium from stems and leaves of plants and the effect on radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kagiya, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    An accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 at which time large amounts of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere and the sea. In early May 2011, it was found that newly emerged tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves contained radiocesium, both 134 Cs and 137 Cs in some areas more than 300 km away from the Fukushima plant. To understand the mechanisms of radiocesium transfer to newly emerged tissues (shoots, leaves and fruits) of other plants in the future, radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged leaves of 14 plant species collected from the sampling areas in and near National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. The studied plant types were: (1) herbaceous plants, (2) woody plants with no old leaves at the time of the March accident, and (3) woody plants with old leaves out before the accident. About 40–50 d after the start of the accident, newly emerged leaves from woody plant with old leaves tended to show higher values than other woody or herbaceous plants. Concentrations of radiocesium in newly emerged tissues of trees decreased with time, but they did not decrease to the level of herbaceous plants. The type of the plant and presence of old leaves at the time of the heavy deposition period affected the radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged tissues.

  9. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    OpenAIRE

    White, John R.; Belmont, Marco A.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the ...

  10. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  11. Effects of water level on three wetlands soil seed banks on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaojun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the effect of water level on germination in soil seed banks has been documented in many ecosystems, the mechanism is not fully understood, and to date no empirical studies on this subject exist. Further, no work has been done on the effect of water level on seed banks of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands in alpine areas on the Tibetan Plateau. METHODOLOGY: We examined the effects of water level (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm on seed germination and seedling establishment from soil seed banks at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths in typical, drying, and saline-alkaline wetlands. We also explore the potential role of soil seed bank in restoration of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness decreased with increase in water level, but there almost no change in seed density. A huge difference exists in species composition of the seed bank among different water levels in all three wetlands, especially between 0 cm and 5 cm and 0 cm and 10 cm. Similarity of species composition between seed bank and plant community was higher in 0 cm water level in drying wetland than in the other two wetlands. The similarity was much higher in 0 cm water level than in 5 cm and 10 cm water levels in all three wetlands. Species composition of the alpine wetland plant community changed significantly after drying and salinization, however, species composition of the seed bank was unchanged regardless of the environment change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Water level greatly affects seed bank recruitment and plant community establishment. Further, different water levels in restored habitats are likely to determine its species composition of the plant community. The seed bank is important in restoration of degraded wetlands. Successful restoration of drying and salinization wetlands could depend on the seed bank.

  12. Constructed wetlands for treatment of dissolved phase hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B J; Ross, S D [Komex International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gibson, D [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Hardisty, P E [Komex Clarke Bond, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    The use of constructed wetlands as an alternative to conventional treatment of condensate-contaminated groundwater was studied. In 1997 a pilot scale wetland was constructed and implemented at the Gulf Strachan Gas Processing Plant to determine its ability in treating extracted groundwater contaminated with natural gas condensates. This paper presented the results of hydrocarbon removal efficiency, hydrocarbon removal mechanisms, winter operation, and the effect of hydrocarbons on vegetation health. The inflow water to the wetland contains 15 to 20 mg/L of C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] hydrocarbons, including 50 per cent BTEX compounds. During the summer months, hydrocarbon removal efficiency was 100 per cent, but decreased to 60 and 30 per cent in the spring and late fall, respectively. The hydrocarbons not removed in the wetland were eventually removed along the outflow channel. Temperature was determined to be an important factor in the variable removal rates, particularly when there is no aeration. The main hydrocarbon removal mechanisms appear to be volatilization, biodegradation and dilution. At present, plant uptake is not a factor. 12 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  13. Constructed wetlands for treatment of dissolved phase hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.J.; Ross, S.D.; Gibson, D.; Hardisty, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The use of constructed wetlands as an alternative to conventional treatment of condensate-contaminated groundwater was studied. In 1997 a pilot scale wetland was constructed and implemented at the Gulf Strachan Gas Processing Plant to determine its ability in treating extracted groundwater contaminated with natural gas condensates. This paper presented the results of hydrocarbon removal efficiency, hydrocarbon removal mechanisms, winter operation, and the effect of hydrocarbons on vegetation health. The inflow water to the wetland contains 15 to 20 mg/L of C 5 -C 10 hydrocarbons, including 50 per cent BTEX compounds. During the summer months, hydrocarbon removal efficiency was 100 per cent, but decreased to 60 and 30 per cent in the spring and late fall, respectively. The hydrocarbons not removed in the wetland were eventually removed along the outflow channel. Temperature was determined to be an important factor in the variable removal rates, particularly when there is no aeration. The main hydrocarbon removal mechanisms appear to be volatilization, biodegradation and dilution. At present, plant uptake is not a factor. 12 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  14. Organic and metallic pollutants in water treatment and natural wetlands: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarstad, K; Bavor, H J; Mæhlum, T

    2012-01-01

    A literature review shows that more than 500 compounds occur in wetlands, and also that wetlands are suitable for removing these compounds. There are, however, obvious pitfalls for treatment wetlands, the most important being the maintenance of the hydraulic capacity and the detention time. Treatment wetlands should have an adapted design to target specific compounds. Aquatic plants and soils are suitable for wastewater treatment with a high capacity of removing nutrients and other substances through uptake, sorption and microbiological degradation. The heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb were found to exceed limit values. The studies revealed high values of phenol and SO(4). No samples showed concentrations in sediments exceeding limit values, but fish samples showed concentrations of Hg exceeding the limit for fish sold in the European Union (EU). The main route of metal uptake in aquatic plants was through the roots in emergent and surface floating plants, whereas in submerged plants roots and leaves take part in removing heavy metals and nutrients. Submerged rooted plants have metal uptake potential from water as well as sediments, whereas rootless plants extracted metals rapidly only from water. Caution is needed about the use of SSF CWs (subsurface flow constructed wetlands) for the treatment of metal-contaminated industrial wastewater as metals are shifted to another environmental compartment, and stable redox conditions are required to ensure long-term efficiency. Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals and wetlands have been shown to be a source of methylmercury. Methyl Hg concentrations are typically approximately 15% of Hgt (total mercury). In wetlands polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), bisphenol A, BTEX, hydrocarbons including diesel range organics, glycol, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), cyanide, benzene, chlorophenols and formaldehyde were found to exceed limit values. In sediments only PAH and PCB

  15. Treatment Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  16. The Compatibility of Geothermal Power Plants with Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems: The Case of the Cesine Wetland (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio De Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cesine Wetland, located along the Adriatic coast, was recognized as a Wetland of International Interest and a National Natural Park. Managed by the “World Wide Fund for nature” (WWF, it is considered a groundwater dependent ecosystem which is affected by seawater intrusion. The site was selected to test the environmental compatibility of a low-enthalpy geothermal power plant (closed loop operating in the aquifer saturated portion with purpose to improving the visitor centre. For this purpose, the long-lasting thermal impact on groundwater was assessed using a multi-methodological approach. The complex aquifer system was carefully studied with geological, hydrogeological and geochemical surveys, including chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses of surface water, groundwater and seawater. The isotopes δ18O, δD, δ11B, and 3H were useful to clarify the recharge contribution, the water mixing and the water age. All information was used to improve the conceptualization of the water system, including aquifers and the boundary conditions for a density driven numerical groundwater model. The purpose was to forecast anthropogenic thermal groundwater variations up to 10 years of plant working before the plant realization and to validate the solution after some working years. All results show the environmental compatibility notwithstanding the peculiar ecological environment.

  17. Design and Implement a System of Wastewater Treatment Based on Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Dominínguez-Patiño

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wetlands are considered as a natural passive cleaning of waste water. Is a process characterizes by its simplicity of operation, low or zero-energy consumption and low waste production. These consist of shallow ponds planted with plants. The processes of decontamination are performed simultaneously by its physical, chemical and biological properties. The objectives of this work are design and implement a system of artificial wetlands as an alternative method for treating waste water produced from the Faculty of Chemistry Science and Engineering that allow to reduce the costs of operation, knowing the degree of water pollution to determine how efficient the wetland and, finally improve the health and environmental conditions of the irrigation water. So the first step was to know the degree of water pollution and quantity to determine the wetland process variables. The second step was to determine the kind of plants that allow reducing the water contaminants. The Manning formula was applied to evaluate the free flow and Darcy’s equation for the surface flow by wetlands. A micro-scale prototype was design and built based on buckets. The absorption capacity of several plants (Bacopa monnieri, Nephrolepis exaltata,Tradescantia zebrine was determined. Also we use a natural filter consisting of Tezontle (first layer, sand (second layer, gravel (third layer, sand (fourth layer, Tezontle (fifth layer, gravel (sixth layer, sand (seventh layer and, organic substrate (eighth layer. A wetland decreases more than 60% the cost compared to a water purification plant as everything is based biodegradable materials and not using any energy or sophisticated equipment to water filtration. Wetlands not only help to purify the water, but also help the conservation of flora and fauna that is dependent on wet conditions, as only biodegradable materials are used there is no pollution to the ground, helping the conservation of the environment. Today we are

  18. An assessment of the performance of municipal constructed wetlands in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Anthony; Arnscheidt, Joerg; Joyce, Eadaoin; O'Toole, James; Galvin, Gerry; O' Callaghan, Mark; Conroy, Ken; Killian, Darran; Shryane, Tommy; Hughes, Francis; Walsh, Katherine; Kavanagh, Emily

    2018-03-15

    While performance assessments of constructed wetlands sites around the world have appraised their capacity for effective removal of organics, a large variance remains in these sites' reported ability to retain nutrients, which appears to depend on differences in design, operation and climate factors. Nutrient retention is a very important objective for constructed wetlands, to avoid eutrophication of aquatic environments receiving their effluents. This study assessed the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of nutrient retention and associated parameters under the humid conditions of Ireland's temperate maritime climate. A review of the performance of 52 constructed wetland sites from 17 local authorities aimed to identify the best performing types of constructed wetlands and the treatment factors determining successful compliance with environmental standards. Data analysis compared effluent results from constructed wetlands with secondary free surface flow or tertiary horizontal subsurface flow, hybrid systems and integrated constructed wetlands with those from small-scale mechanical wastewater treatment plants of the same size class. Nutrient concentrations in effluents of constructed wetlands were negatively correlated (p treatment performance of constructed wetlands significantly (p wastewater treatment plants, secondary free surface water and tertiary horizontal subsurface flow wetlands showed a very large variance in effluent concentrations for organic and nutrient parameters. E. coli numbers in effluents were lowest for integrated constructed wetlands with an arithmetic mean of 89 MPN/100 ml. Despite Ireland's humid climate, some constructed wetland sites achieved long or frequent periods of zero effluent discharge and thus did not transfer any waterborne pollution to their receptors during these periods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ``Living off the land'': resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Odum, H. T.; Brown, M. T.; Alling, A.

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens™) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require 1/5 the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save 2/3 of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  20. Phenological Indicators of Vegetation Recovery in Wetland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeo, S.; Dronova, I.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape phenology is increasingly used to measure the impacts of climatic and environmental disturbances on plant communities. As plants show rapid phenological responses to environmental changes, variation in site phenology can help characterize vegetation recovery following restoration treatments and qualify their resistance to environmental fluctuations. By leveraging free remote sensing datasets, a phenology-based analysis of vegetation dynamics could offer a cost-effective assessment of restoration progress in wetland ecosystems. To fulfill this objective, we analyze 20 years of free remote sensing data from NASA's Landsat archive to offer a landscape-scale synthesis of wetland restoration efforts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA. Through an analysis of spatio-temporal changes in plant phenology and greenness, we assess how 25 restored wetlands across the Delta have responded to restoration treatments, time, and landscape context. We use a spline smoothing approach to generate both site-wide and pixel-specific phenological curves and identify key phenological events. Preliminary results reveal a greater variability in greenness and growing season length during the initial post-restoration years and a significant impact of landscape context in the time needed to reach phenological stability. Well-connected sites seem to benefit from an increased availability of propagules enabling them to reach peak greenness and maximum growing season length more rapidly. These results demonstrate the potential of phenological analyses to measure restoration progress and detect factors promoting wetland recovery. A thorough understanding of wetland phenology is key to the quantification of ecosystem processes including carbon sequestration and habitat provisioning.

  1. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  2. Broken connections of wetland cultural knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    As global agriculture intensifies, cultural knowledge of wetland utilization has eroded as natural resources become more stressed, and marginal farmers move away from the land. The excellent paper by Fawzi et al. (2016) documents a particularly poignant case of traditional knowledge loss among the Marsh Arab women of Iraq. Through interviews, the authors document the breakdown of skill transfer from the older to younger generation of women. The authors link the loss of their cultural knowledge with the loss of wetlands in the region. Women no longer can help provide for their families using wetland products, and along with that, their ancient knowledge of plant usage is lost. These ancient skills included medicinal uses, and reed harvesting for weaving and water buffalo fodder. As, the majority of the Mesopotamian Marshes have dried, this way of life is being forgotten (Fawzi et al. 2015). The global tragedy is that while the careful alliance of wetlands and people have sustained human cultures for millennia, degraded wetlands lose their ability to provide these services (Maltby 1980).

  3. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  4. Removal efficiencies of constructed wetland and efficacy of plant on treating benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio Ballesteros, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaking underground petroleum storage poses human and environmental health risks as it contaminates the soil and the groundwater. Of the many contaminants, benzene – a major constituent of gasoline, is of primary concern. It is an identified carcinogen with a permissible limit set at a low level of 0.005 mg L−1. This poses technical and regulatory challenge to remediation of contaminated sites. Various specialized treatment methods are available, but despite of the high removal efficiencies of sophisticated treatments, the residual level still poses health risks. Thus, additional alternative ways that are cost effective and require minimum technical expertise are necessary, and a constructed wetland (CW is a potential alternative. This study evaluates the performance of a surface flow type CW for the removal of benzene from the contaminated water. It further determines the efficacy of a common reed plant Phragmites karka in treating benzene. Planted and unplanted CW were acclimated with benzene for 16 wk and tested for an 8-d hydraulic retention time at benzene levels of 66 and 45 mg L−1. Results indicate that the planted CW performed better and gave reliable and stable results.

  5. Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. as an Alternative Source of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA have been proven to possess many biological activities, and much attention is focused on the search for plants which are rich in OA and UA. In this report, the OA and UA accumulation characteristics were investigated in 47 cultivars of Chinese herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. and were followed in three cultivars over different developmental stages as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. OA and UA levels in leaves and stems demonstrated an overall upward trend from May 1 to September 15 except for UA in the leaves of “Hong Feng”. The maximum values of OA and UA in leaves of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 852.98, 575.60, 290.48 μg/g FW and 924.94, 827.36, 432.67 μg/g FW, respectively. The maximum values of OA and UA in stems of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 359.28, 90.49, 43.90 μg/g FW and 326.86, 82.25, 56.63 μg/g FW, respectively. OA and UA contents in leaves of 47 different herbaceous peony cultivars ranged from 66.73–618.12 and 36.23–665.14 μg/g FW, respectively, with average values of 171.62 and 227.57 μg/g FW, respectively. The results suggested that the aboveground parts of herbaceous peony may be used as an alternative source of OA and UA for medicinal purposes in addition to its ornamental purposes.

  6. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viru? National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, ?buritizais? and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herb...

  7. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moreno-Mateos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages, and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils, remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  8. Plant species of Okhla Bird Sanctuary: a wetland of Upper Gangetic Plains, India [with erratum

    OpenAIRE

    Manral, Upma; Raha, Angshuman; Solanki, Ridhima; Hussain, Syed; Babu, Mattozbiyil; Mohan, Dhananjai; Veeraswami, Gopi; Sivakumar, K.; Talukdar, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    The Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS), a man-modified floodplain wetland having high human impact, is located in an urbanized landscape. Its location in the Central Asian Flyway of migratory birds makes it an ideal transit and wintering ground for birds. This paper describes the vegetation composition and significance of the Sanctuary as a bird habitat. A floristic survey was carried out from winter 2009 to spring 2010 while preparing a management plan for OBS. 192 species of plants belonging to 46 ...

  9. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (~0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values, U concentrations in root exposed sediments were an order of magnitude greater than concentrations in root excluded sediments. Micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µ-XANES) spectroscopy indicated that U was associated with the plant roots primarily as U(VI) or U(V), with limited evidence of U(IV). Micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) of plant roots suggested that for high iron loading at circumneutral pH, U was co-located with Fe, perhaps co-precipitated with root Fe plaques, while for low iron loading at a pH of ~4 the correlation between U and Fe was not significant, consistent with previous observations of U associated with organic matter. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated that the root exposed sediments also contained elevated numbers of Geobacter spp., which are likely associated with enhanced iron cycling, but may also reduce mobile U(VI) to less mobile U(IV) species. There are significant uncertainties regarding the environmental fate of uranium (U) and efforts to minimize U exposures require understanding of its mobility in environmental systems. Much research has focused on sequestering U as solids within groundwater aquifers, where localized risks can be controlled.1 Subsurface sequestration limits t

  10. [Interrelations between plant communities and environmental factors of wetlands and surrounding lands in mid- and lower reaches of Tarim River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruifeng; Zhou, Huarong; Qian, Yibing; Zhang, Jianjun

    2006-06-01

    A total of 16 quadrants of wetlands and surrounding lands in the mid- and lower reaches of Tarim River were surveyed, and the data about the characteristics of plant communities and environmental factors were collected and counted. By using PCA (principal component analysis) ordination and regression procedure, the distribution patterns of plant communities and the relationships between the characteristics of plant community structure and environmental factors were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of the plant communities was closely related to soil moisture, salt, and nutrient contents. The accumulative contribution rate of soil moisture and salt contents in the first principal component accounted for 35.70%, and that of soil nutrient content in the second principal component reached 25.97%. There were 4 types of habitats for the plant community distribution, i. e., fenny--light salt--medium nutrient, moist--medium salt--medium nutrient, mesophytic--medium salt--low nutrient, and medium xerophytic-heavy salt--low nutrient. Along these habitats, swamp vegetation, meadow vegetation, riparian sparse forest, halophytic desert, and salinized shrub were distributed. In the wetlands and surrounding lands of mid- and lower reaches of Tarim River, the ecological dominance of the plant communities was markedly and unitary-linearly correlated with the compound gradient of soil moisture and salt contents. The relationships between species diversity, ecological dominance, and compound gradient of soil moisture and salt contents were significantly accorded to binary-linear regression model.

  11. Wetland Management - A Success Story In Transition - Restoration of Bhoj Wetland, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, M. K.; Tech, B. M.; Miwwa

    Wetlands are beautiful, biologically diverse, hydrologically disperse and ecological vibrant landscape world wide, embracing soils, water, plants, animals and human be- ing. The population growth in the catchment of wetlands led to multifarious human interventions for deriving maximum benefit from the wetlands and their catchments neglecting and disrespecting the principles of sustainability. This act of destruction has been pronounced in developing countries which are under the grip of poverty, illiteracy and lack of environmental education. SBhoj WetlandS is a Lake situated ´ in Central India, Earthen Dam across the river KOLANS in 1061 AD by then ruler king BHOJ. Till 1950 this Wetland was served as a principal source of water supply, even not requiring filtration. As the city grew and the wetland started getting encir- cled by habitation and urban development, the anthropogenic pressures on the lake increased, thus accelerating the process of eutrophication, making the water unfit for human consumption without due treatment due to deterioration of quality of water. For the conservation and management of Bhoj Wetland (Lake Bhopal) a project is under- taken in the financial assistance from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC, Japan). The project envisages tackle various issues of conservation and management ofn the wetlands under a multi prongs strategies and manner. Although these issues are deeply interrelated and interlinked but for operational and management ease, these issues have been divided into various sub projects which are being tackled indepen- dently, albeit with undercurrent knowledge and understanding of the related issues and interconnectivity with each other. The Project itself is an apt example of the spectrum of varied problems and issues that come to light when attempts are made for sustain- able conservation and management of a wetland. The Project as envisaged intends to conserve and manage through 14 sub projects as under:- Sub

  12. Wetland restoration and compliance issues on the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wein, G.R.; McLeod, K.W.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Operation of the nuclear production reactors on the Savannah River Site has faced potential conflicts with wetland regulations on several occasions. This paper provides two examples in which regulatory compliance and restoration research have been meshed, providing both compliance and better knowledge to aid future regulatory needs. The decision to restart the L reactor required the mitigation of thermal effluents under Sec. 316 of the Clean Water Act. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, permit for the selected mitigation alternative, a 405-ha once-through cooling reservoir, required the establishment of a balanced biological community (BBC) within the lake. To promote the development of a BBC, the reservoir was seeded with water from an existing BBC (Par Pond) and stocked with fish and had artificial reefs constructed. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also requested that the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory establish littoral/wetland vegetation along the shoreline to provide aquatic and wildlife habitat, shoreline stabilization, and a good faith effort toward the establishment of a BBC. The development of wetland vegetation was deemed important to the successful development of a BBC within L Lake. However, in a similar cooling reservoir system constructed in 1957 (Par Pond), wetland vegetation successfully developed without any planting effort. Other than the good faith effort toward a BBC, there is no reason to assume a littoral/wetland community would not develop of its own accord. However, research conducted at L Lake indicates that the planting of wetland vegetation at L Lake accelerated the process of natural selection over that of areas that were not planted

  13. Estimation of wetland evapotranspiration in northern New York using infrared thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K.; Chandler, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water budget and often regarded as a major water loss. In freshwater wetlands, cumulative annual ET can equal precipitation under well-watered conditions. Wetland ET is therefore an important control on contaminant and nutrient transport. Yet, quantification of wetland ET is challenged by complex surface characteristics, diverse plant species and density, and variations in wetland shape and size. As handheld infrared (IR) cameras have become available, studies exploiting the new technology have increased, especially in agriculture and hydrology. The benefits of IR cameras include (1) high spatial resolution, (2) high sample rates, (3) real-time imaging, (4) a constant viewing geometry, and (5) no need for atmosphere and cloud corrections. Compared with traditional methods, infrared thermometer is capable of monitoring at the scale of a small pond or localized plant community. This enables finer scale survey of heterogeneous land surfaces rather than strict dependence on atmospheric variables. Despite this potential, there has been a limited number of studies of ET and drought stress with IR cameras. In this study, the infrared thermometry-based method was applied to estimate ET over wetland plant species in St. Lawrence River Valley, NY. The results are evaluated with traditional methods to test applicability over multiple vegetation species in a same area.

  14. Water management can reinforce plant competition in salt-affected semi-arid wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Janaine Z.; Vogwill, Ryan; Hipsey, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The diversity of vegetation in semi-arid, ephemeral wetlands is determined by niche availability and species competition, both of which are influenced by changes in water availability and salinity. Here, we hypothesise that ignoring physiological differences and competition between species when managing wetland hydrologic regimes can lead to a decrease in vegetation diversity, even when the overall wetland carrying capacity is improved. Using an ecohydrological model capable of resolving water-vegetation-salt feedbacks, we investigate why water surface and groundwater management interventions to combat vegetation decline have been more beneficial to Casuarina obesa than to Melaleuca strobophylla, the co-dominant tree species in Lake Toolibin, a salt-affected wetland in Western Australia. The simulations reveal that in trying to reduce the negative effect of salinity, the management interventions have created an environment favouring C. obesa by intensifying the climate-induced trend that the wetland has been experiencing of lower water availability and higher root-zone salinity. By testing alternative scenarios, we show that interventions that improve M. strobophylla biomass are possible by promoting hydrologic conditions that are less specific to the niche requirements of C. obesa. Modelling uncertainties were explored via a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Overall, the study demonstrates the importance of including species differentiation and competition in ecohydrological models that form the basis for wetland management.

  15. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  16. Using Water Depth Sensors and High-resolution Topographic Mapping to Inform Wetland Management at a Globally Important Stopover Site for Migratory Shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer-Smith, D.; Swenson, J. J.; Reiter, M. E.; Isola, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Over 50% of western hemisphere shorebird species are in decline due to ongoing habitat loss and habitat degradation. Wetland dependent shorebirds prefer shallowly flooded habitats (water depth managed to optimize shallow areas. In-situ water depth measurements and microtopography data coupled with satellite image analysis can assist in understanding habitat suitability patterns at broad spatial scales. We generated detailed bathymetry, and estimated spatial daily water depths, the proportion of wetland area providing flooded habitat within the optimal depth range, and the volume of water present in 23 managed wetlands in the Sacramento Valley of California, a globally important shorebird stopover site. Using 30 years of satellite imagery, we estimated suitable habitat extent across the landscape under a range of climate conditions. While spring shorebird abundance has historically peaked in early April, we found that maximum optimal habitat extent occurred after mid-April. More than 50% of monitored wetlands provided limited optimal habitat (fleeting; only 4 wetlands provided at least 10 consecutive days with >5% optimal habitat during the peak of migration. Wetlands with a higher percent clay content and lower topographic variability were more likely to provide a greater extent and duration of suitable habitat. We estimated that even in a relatively wet El-Nino year as little as 0.01%, to 10.72% of managed herbaceous wetlands in the Sacramento Valley provided optimal habitat for shorebirds at the peak of migration in early April. In an extreme drought year, optimal habitat decreased by 80% compared to a wet year Changes in the timing of wetland irrigation and drawdown schedules and the design of future wetland restoration projects could increase the extent and duration of optimal flooded habitat for migratory shorebirds, without significant increases in overall water use requirements.

  17. A phytoremediation approach using Calamagrostis ligulata and Juncus imbricatus in Andean wetlands of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Bobadilla; Edell, Aliaga; Edson, Yupanqui; Edwin, Palomino

    2013-01-01

    Emergent plant species growing in Andean natural wetlands have shown efficient phytoremediation capabilities in wetlands polluted by acid mine drainage. However, the types and amounts of heavy metals accumulated by native plant species are not well understood. In this study, we focused on determining heavy metal concentrations and bioaccumulation factors in Calamagrostis ligulata and Juncus imbricatus. Two acid wetlands located above 3,500 m a.s.l. in Ancash, Peru were assessed. Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals concentrations in control and experimental plant samples were measured in dry and rainy seasons. Results indicated that C. ligulata and J. imbricatus aerial parts accumulated higher amounts of Fe, Zn, As and Al. Also, bioaccumulation factors revealed notable increases in As, Pb and Al, but less so in Cd, Fe and Zn. On the other hand, physico-chemical parameters of water quality (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, sulphides) between inflow and outflow of wetlands indicated significant differences in the presence of metals in comparison with their maximum permissible limits. Both emergent plant species showed an accumulation of heavy metals and thus the ability to recovery of water quality in wetland outflows.

  18. Electricity generation from wetlands with activated carbon bioanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudirjo, E.; Buisman, C. J. N.; Strik, D. P. B. T. B.

    2018-03-01

    Paddy fields are potential non-tidal wetlands to apply Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (PMFC) technology. World widely they cover about 160 million ha of which 13.3 million ha is located in Indonesia. With the PMFC, in-situ electricity is generated by a bioanode with electrochemically active bacteria which use primary the organic matter supplied by the plant (e.g. as rhizodeposits and plant residues). One of limitations when installing a PMFC in a non-tidal wetland is the usage of “expensive” large amounts of electrodes to overcome the poor conductivity of wet soils. However, in a cultivated wetland such as rice paddy field, it is possible to alter soil composition. Adding a conductive carbon material such as activated carbon is believed to improve soil conductivity with minimum impact on plant vitality. The objective of this research was to study the effect of activated carbon as an alternative bioanode material on the electricity output and plants vitality. Lab result shows that activated carbon can be a potential alternative for bioanode material. It can continuously deliver current on average 1.54 A/m3 anode (0.26 A/m2 PGA or 66 mW/m2 PGA) for 98 days. Based on this result the next step is to do a test of this technology in the real paddy fields.

  19. [Development characteristics of aquatic plants in a constructed wetland for treating urban drinking water source at its initial operation stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Xin-Tang; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The development characteristics and improvement measures of aquatic plants were studied in Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (SCW) at its initial operation stage. SCW was a large-scale wetland aiming to help relieve the source water pollution in Jiaxing City. A checklist of vascular plants in SCW was built, and species composition, life forms, biomass and association distributions were examined. Our objectives were to examine the diversity and community structure of aquatic plants in SCW at its initial operation stage, and to find out the possible hydrophyte improvement measures. The survey results showed that there were 49 vascular plant species belonging to 41 genera, 25 families in SCW, which greatly exceeded the artificially transplanted 13 species. The life forms of present aquatic plants in SCW were dominated by hygrophilous plants (20 species) and emerged plants (17 species), which accounted for 75.5% of the total number of aquatic plants. The aquatic plants transplanted artificially were dominated by emerged plants (accounted for 69.2%), while those naturally developed were predominated by hygrophilous plants (accounted for 47.2%). The horizontal distribution of aquatic plant community in SCW was mixed in the form of mosaics, which made up typical association complex. Except association Aeschynomene indica L., the dominant species of other associations were all those transplanted artificially. The naturally grown species scattered throughout the SCW and only occupied a small percentage. A marked difference was detected on the species and species richness of aquatic plants in different regions of SCW. Biomass of aquatic plant associations in SCW was 167.7 t. SCW has shown a trend of succession heading for quick increase of plant diversity at the primary operation stage. This trend provides a good material base for the future stable community of aquatic plants in SCW. According to the current status of aquatic plants, some suggestions were put forward on the

  20. Influences of image resolution on herbaceous root morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zeyou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Root images of four herbaceous species (including Plantago virginica,Solidago canadensis,Conyza canadensis and Erigeron philadelphicus were obtained by using EPSON V7000 scanner with different resolutions.Root morphological parameters including root length,diameter,volume and area were determined by using a WinRhizo root analyzing software.The results show a distinct influence of image resolution on root morphological parameter.For different herbaceous species,the optimal resolutions of root images,which would produce an acceptable precision with relative short time,vary with different species.For example,a resolution of 200 dpi was recommended for the root images of Plantago virginica and S.Canadensis, while 400 dpi for Conyza canadensis and Erigeron philadelphicus.

  1. Wetland biogeochemical processes and simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Haifeng; Jia, Jia; Wang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    As the important landscape with rich biodiversity and high productivity, wetlands can provide numerous ecological services including playing an important role in regulating global biogeochemical cycles, filteringpollutants from terrestrial runoff and atmospheric deposition, protecting and improving water quality, providing living habitats for plants and animals, controlling floodwaters, and retaining surface water flow during dry periods (Reddy and DeLaune, 2008; Qin and Mitsch, 2009; Zhao et al., 2016). However, more than 50% of the world's wetlands had been altered, degraded or lost through a wide range of human activities in the past 150 years, and only a small percentage of the original wetlands remained around the world after over two centuries of intensive development and urbanization (O'connell, 2003; Zhao et al., 2016).

  2. Ecosystem Development after Mangrove Wetland Creation: Plant-Soil Change across a 20-year Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland loss. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands is poorly understood. We compared a 20-yr chrono...

  3. The cost of silage harvest and transport systems for herbaceous crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.; Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Butler, J. [Butler (James), Tifton, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some of the highest yielding herbaceous biomass crops are thick- stemmed species. Their relatively high moisture content necessitates they be handled and stored as silage rather than hay bales or modules. This paper presents estimated costs of harvesting and transporting herbaceous crops as silage. Costs are based on an engineering- economic approach. Equipment costs are estimated by combining per hour costs with the hours required to complete the operation. Harvest includes severing, chopping, and blowing stalks into a wagon or truck.

  4. A rop net and removable walkway used to quantitatively sample fishes over wetland surfaces in the dwarf mangrove of the Southern Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, J.J.; McIvor, C.C.; Powell, G.V.N.; Frederick, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a 9 m2 drop net and removable walkways designed to quantify densities of small fishes in wetland habitats with low to moderate vegetation density. The method permits the collection of small, quantitative, discrete samples in ecologically sensitive areas by combining rapid net deployment from fixed sites with the carefully contained use of the fish toxicant rotenone. This method requires very little contact with the substrate, causes minimal alteration to the habitat being sampled, samples small fishes in an unbiased manner, and allows for differential sampling of microhabitats within a wetland. When used in dwarf red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) habitat in southern Everglades National Park and adjacent areas (September 1990 to March 1993), we achieved high recovery efficiencies (78–90%) for five common species <110 mm in length. We captured 20,193 individuals of 26 species. The most abundant fishes were sheepshead minnowCyprinodon variegatus, goldspotted killifishFloridichthys carpio, rainwater killifishLucania parva, sailfin mollyPoecilia latipinna, and the exotic Mayan cichlidCichlasoma urophthalmus. The 9 m2 drop net and associated removable walkways are versatile and can be used in a variety of wetland types, including both interior and coastal wetlands with either herbaceous or woody vegetation.

  5. Approaches to Management and Utilization of Plant Resources in Ecological Wetlands%生态湿地植物资源管理和利用途径刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘潇; 朱豪杰; 陈鹏冲; 张荣斌; 王为东

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing application of ecological wetlands in China, the approaches to managing and utilizing massive wetlands macrophytes are becoming an urgent new practical challenge. Transferring the harvested wetland plants from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems is one of the ultimate pathways of aquatic pollutants removal. This mini-review, as such, summarized the potential approaches of wetlands plants resources management and regenerative utilization, under the coupling circumstances of natural resource shortage and environmental pollution. As estimated in a 1.33 km2 wetland in South China, the plant harvesting can remove 450 kg phosphorus (P) and 9 540 kg nitrogen (N) per year directly from wetland system, thus avoiding the potential secondary pollution. The reaping methods, reaping season and frequency, and the effects of plant harvesting on the wetlands were compared and brielfy reviewed. Several potential models of subsequent utilization of the harvested plant biomass such as being made into fuel, fiber, industrial production, fertilizer, fodder, and biochar were reviewed. The promising future and far-reaching environmental signiifcance was emphasized on the secondary utilization of wetland bio-resources under the current socio-economic background.%随着生态湿地技术在我国的规模化推广应用,湿地植物资源的管理和利用途径成为新的挑战.将湿地植物刈割并移至陆地生态系统是水体系统污染控制的终极途径之一.概述了在资源紧缺和环境污染双重背景下,湿地植物资源管理和利用的潜在途径.以南方某133.3 hm2规模化湿地为例进行估算,通过植物刈割,可以直接带走450 kg/a磷、9 540 kg/a氮,从而避免潜在二次污染.总结了植物刈割的方法、参数及对湿地的影响.综述了刈割转移生物质的几种潜在后续利用方式:燃料、纤维、工业材料、饲料、肥料及生物炭等.指出在我国目前社会经济背景下,湿地生物质资源二次利用具有广阔的前景和深远的环保意义.

  6. Herbaceous Plants for Climate Adaptation and Intensely Developed Urban Sites In Northern Europe: A Case Study From the Eastern Romanian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöman Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the increasingly compact city, services currently provided for in parks will in future be compressed into smaller green unit-structures, often associated with paved surfaces. Left-over spaces in urban environments, such as traffic roundabouts and strips along paths, roads and other corridors, will be important in the future city in order to deliver different eco-system services, especially stormwater management. It is therefore essential to start now to develop the knowledge and experience needed to create sustainable plantings for these sites. This paper presents the findings of a field survey in eastern Romania that sought to identify potential species for urban paved plantings in the Scandinavian region (northern Europe. The research approach is rooted in the hypothesis that studies of natural vegetation systems and habitats where plants are exposed to environmental conditions similar to those in inner-city environments can: 1 identify new or non-traditional species and genotypes adapted to urban environments; and 2 supply information and knowledge about their use potential concerning growth, flowering, life form, etc. In total, 117 different herbaceous species, all of which experience water stress regimes comparable to those in urban paved sites in Scandinavia. The initial information obtained from this field survey present a base of knowledge of which species that have a future potential for use in urban environment, which is of great importance in the following work within this project instead of testing species randomly without this knowledge of the species tolerance and performance in similar habitats.

  7. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Bayou Grand Cane, De Soto Parish, Louisiana. Topical report, August 1991--July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Hayes, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipeline on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and night of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 12-13, 1991, at the Bayou Grand Cane crossing in De Soto Parish, Louisiana, where a pipeline constructed three years prior to the survey crosses the bayou through mature bottomland hardwoods. The sit was not seeded or fertilized after construction activities. At the time of sampling, a dense herb stratum (composed of mostly native species) covered the 20-m-wide ROW, except within drainage channels. As a result of the creation of the ROW, new habitat was created, plant diversity increased, and forest habitat became fragmented. The ROW must be maintained at an early stage of succession to allow access to the pipeline however, impacts to the wetland were minimized by decreasing the width of the ROW to 20 m and recreating the drainage channels across the ROW. The canopy trees on the ROW`s edge shaded part of the ROW, which helped to minimize the effects of the ROW.

  8. Peat as Substrate for Small-Scale Constructed Wetlands Polishing Secondary Effluents from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Jin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the recent development of constructed wetland technology, it has become a mainstream treatment technology for the mitigation of a variety of wastewaters. This study reports on the treatment performance and pH attenuation capacity of three different configurations of small-scale on-site surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW: T1 (Peat + Typha latifolia, T2 (T. latifolia alone, and T3 (Peat alone treating secondary effluent from the Amherstview Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP for two treatment periods (start-up period and operational period. The aim of this study was to compare the nutrients removal efficiencies between the different treatments, as well as to evaluate the effects of substrate and vegetation on the wetland system. For a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 days, the results showed that all treatment systems could attenuate the pH level during both the start-up and operational periods, while significant nutrient removal performance could only be observed during the operational period. Peat was noted to be a better SFCW substrate in promoting the removal of nitrate (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, and phosphorus. The addition of T. latifolia further enhanced NO3-N and TN removal efficiencies, but employing T. latifolia alone did not yield effluents that could meet the regulatory discharge limit (1.0 mg/L for phosphorus.

  9. Design and Implement a System of Wastewater Treatment Based on Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Martha L. Dominínguez-Patiño; Antonio Rodríguez-Martínez; Luis A. Jasso-Castillo

    2012-01-01

    The wetlands are considered as a natural passive cleaning of waste water. Is a process characterizes by its simplicity of operation, low or zero-energy consumption and low waste production. These consist of shallow ponds planted with plants. The processes of decontamination are performed simultaneously by its physical, chemical and biological properties. The objectives of this work are design and implement a system of artificial wetlands as an alternative method for treating waste water produ...

  10. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  11. Uranium Redistribution Due to Water Table Fluctuations in Sandy Wetland Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand better the fate and stability of immobilized uranium (U) in wetland sediments, and how intermittent dry periods affect U stability, we dosed saturated wetland mesocosms planted with Scirpus acutus with low levels of uranyl acetate for 4 months before imposing...

  12. Control of invasive plant species in created wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) has been using a herbicide in the form of glyphosate for the control of unwanted species in created wetlands. Results with this particular herbicide have been somewhat mixed. It was requested that the ...

  13. Variation in herbaceous vegetation and soil moisture under treated and untreated oneseed juniper trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector Ramirez; Alexander Fernald; Andres Cibils; Michelle Morris; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Clearing oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) may make more water available for aquifer recharge or herbaceous vegetation growth, but the effects of tree treatment on soil moisture dynamics are not fully understood. This study investigated juniper treatment effects on understory herbaceous vegetation concurrently with soil moisture dynamics using vegetation sampling...

  14. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J. [JAYCOR, Environmental Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees.

  15. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees

  16. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 2 - Southeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    22 7.V.: 14 -1b Jil -7 1 N.- .- WETLANDS RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT Y-87-1 CORPS OF ENGINEERS WETLANDS DELINEATION MANUAL APPENDIX C SECTIONS ...ARMYLA- US Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 B , , , -I *. 4 -w *" APPENDIX C SECTION 1 NATIONAL LIST OF PLANT SPECIES THAT OCCUR IN...Redtop FACW A. hiernalia (Walter) B.S.P. Winter bent FAC A. scabra Wilid. Rough bentgrass FAC A. st~nfyaL. Carpet bentgrass FACW Aletris aurea

  17. Evaluation de la diversité floristique en herbacées dans le Parc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Phyllanthaceae. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. 1. Polygalaceae. Polygala petitiana A. Rich. 1. Portulacaceae. Portulaca quadrifida L. 1. Total. 23. DISCUSSION. Les résultats de cette étude fournissent des informations sur l'état actuel de la végétation herbacée du PNM au Tchad. La végétation herbacée de la zone du.

  18. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  19. Multi-element accumulation near Rumex crispus roots under wetland and dryland conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissoon, La Toya T.; Jacob, Donna L.; Otte, Marinus L.

    2010-01-01

    Rumex crispus was grown under wet and dry conditions in two-chamber columns such that the roots were confined to one chamber by a 21 μm nylon mesh, thus creating a soil-root interface ('rhizoplane'). Element concentrations at 3 mm intervals below the 'rhizoplane' were measured. The hypothesis was that metals accumulate near plant roots more under wetland than dryland conditions. Patterns in element distribution were different between the treatments. Under dryland conditions Al, Ba, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, La, Mg, Na, Sr, V, Y and Zn accumulated in soil closest to the roots, above the 'rhizoplane' only. Under wetland conditions Al, Fe, Cr, K, V and Zn accumulated above as well as 3 mm below the 'rhizoplane' whereas La, Sr and Y accumulated 3 mm below the 'rhizoplane' only. Plants on average produced 1.5 times more biomass and element uptake was 2.5 times greater under wetland compared to dryland conditions. - Patterns of element accumulation near the roots of plants differ between dryland and wetland conditions.

  20. Herbaceous energy crops in humid lower South USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The humid lower South has the long warm growing season and high rainfall conditions needed for producing high-yielding perennial herbaceous grasses and shrubs. Many potential biomass plants were evaluated during a ten-year period. Perennial tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum spp.) and the leguminous shrub Leucaena leucocephala were the highest in biomass production. These perennial crops often have top growth killed by winter freezes and regenerate from underground parts. The tall grasses have high yields because of linear crop growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2} d{sup {minus}1} for long periods (140 to 196 d) each season. Tall grasses must be planted vegetatively, which is more costly than seed propagation, however, once established, they may persist for many seasons. Oven dry biomass yields have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in colder subtropical to mild temperate locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in the lower portion of the Florida peninsular. Highest biomass yields have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils in south Florida. The energy content of 1 Mg of oven dry tall grass and leucaena is equivalent to that of about 112 and 123 gallons of number 2 diesel fuel, respectively.

  1. Application of Plants as Bio-markers to Assess Wetland Ecosystem Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Kupferschmidt, D.A.; Sharp, K.J.; Benz, M.L.; Kim, S.B.; Shultz, C.; Audette-Stuart, M.; Carr, J.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of non-human biota to radionuclides or other contaminants depends upon a number of factors, which relate to the distribution of a given contaminant in the environment relative to the utilization of the environment by resident biota. Potential effects to biota following contaminant exposure must then be assessed based on the development of defensible linkages between the probability of exposure and the probability of corresponding effects. In many cases, contaminants, such as radionuclides, can show highly localized distributions in natural systems, covering relatively small spatial extents. Despite this, however, in the case of sedentary organisms, such as plants, it is possible for individuals to live in areas with relatively high contaminant levels throughout their lives. Plants represent integral components of ecosystems due to their capacity to use solar energy to convert CO 2 into digestible organic molecules, due to their position at the base of terrestrial and aquatic food chains, and due to their importance as habitat and refuges for terrestrial and aquatic biota. As a result, the integrity of ecosystems is dependent upon plant health. The objective of this study was to determine whether significant changes in parameters reflecting plant photosynthetic capacity occurred with significant differences in 14 C exposure in a wetland ecosystem. The study was conducted in Duke Swamp, a wetland ecosystem that receives 14 C through groundwater influx. Sampling was conducted at 4 locations with varying 14 C concentrations. These locations were selected based on a detailed survey of the swamp that was conducted in 2001 to evaluate the spatial distribution of 14 C in surface vegetation, relative to concentrations reported in Sphagnum moss and soil in the swamp in the early 1990's. Locations were also selected to assess the impacts of both 14 C exposure and the degree of incident solar radiation on plant photosynthetic parameters. A screening analysis of

  2. Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and

  3. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  4. Possible use of wetlands in ecological restoration of surface mined lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, R.B.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining for coal has dramatically altered millions of hectares throughout the Appalachian region of eastern North America. Flat benches and vertical high walls have replaced well-drained slopes, and wetlands have developed 'accidentally' on abandoned benches. Surface mining is continuing in this region, but new regulations do not include specifications for wetland construction in the reclamation process. Recent research has suggested that many ecosystem services appropriate for the Appalachian landscape could be performed by constructed wetlands. Inclusion of wetland construction in a reclamation plan could lead to a net increase in wetland acreage locally, as well as offset the loss of natural and/or accidental wetlands that are constructed to enhance nontreatment goals in reclamation. Study sites included 14 emergent wetlands in Wise County, Virginia. Sampling in June and August detected a total of 94 species in 36 vascular plant facilities. Obligate wetlands species, species that occur in wetlands over 99% of the time, were found in all 14 sites and included 26 species. The presence of so many wetland species without intentional management efforts suggests that wetland establishment could become a common component of mine reclamation. 18 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Stimulating a Great Lakes coastal wetland seed bank using portable cofferdams: implications for habitat rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.; Wiley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetland seed banks exposed by low lake levels or through management actions fuel the reestablishment of emergent plant assemblages (i.e., wetland habitat) critical to Great Lakes aquatic biota. This project explored the effectiveness of using portable, water-filled cofferdams as a management tool to promote the natural growth of emergent vegetation from the seed bank in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. A series of dams stretching approximately 450??m was installed temporarily to isolate hydrologically a 10-ha corner of the Crane Creek wetland complex from Lake Erie. The test area was dewatered in 2004 to mimic a low-water year, and vegetation sampling characterized the wetland seed bank response at low, middle, and high elevations in areas open to and protected from bird and mammal herbivory. The nearly two-month drawdown stimulated a rapid seed-bank-driven response by 45 plant taxa. Herbivory had little effect on plant species richness, regardless of the location along an elevation gradient. Inundation contributed to the replacement of immature emergent plant species with submersed aquatic species after the dams failed and were removed prematurely. This study revealed a number of important issues that must be considered for effective long-term implementation of portable cofferdam technology to stimulate wetland seed banks, including duration of dewatering, product size, source of clean water, replacement of damaged dams, and regular maintenance. This technology is a potentially important tool in the arsenal used by resource managers seeking to rehabilitate the functions and values of Great Lakes coastal wetland habitats.

  6. Bioenergy production potential for aboveground biomass from a subtropical constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Chung [Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114 (China); Ko, Chun-Han [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Bioenergy Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Chang, Fang-Chih [The Instrument Center, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City 70101 (China); Chen, Pen-Yuan [Department of Landscape Architecture, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City 60004 (China); Liu, Tzu-Fen [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Sheu, Yiong-Shing [Department of Water Quality Protection, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan, Taipei 10042 (China); Shih, Tzenge-Lien [Department of Chemistry, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taipei 25137 (China); Teng, Chia-Ji [Environmental Protection Bureau, Taipei County Government, Taipei 22001 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Wetland biomass has potentials for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration. Planted with multiple species macrophytes to promote biodiversity, the 3.29 ha constructed wetland has been treated 4000 cubic meter per day (CMD) domestic wastewater and urban runoff. This study investigated the seasonal variations of aboveground biomass of the constructed wetland, from March 2007 to March 2008. The overall aboveground biomass was 16,737 kg and total carbon content 6185 kg at the peak of aboveground accumulation for the system emergent macrophyte at September 2007. Typhoon Korsa flood this constructed wetland at October 2007, however, significant recovery for emergent macrophyte was observed without human intervention. Endemic Ludwigia sp. recovered much faster, compared to previously dominated typha. Self-recovery ability of the macrophyte community after typhoon validated the feasibility of biomass harvesting. Incinerating of 80% biomass harvested of experimental area in a nearby incineration plant could produce 11,846 kWh for one month. (author)

  7. Floodplain Hydrodynamics and Ecosystem Function in a Dryland Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Sandi, S. G.; Saco, P. M.; Wen, L.; Saintilan, N.; Kuczera, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Macquarie Marshes is a floodplain wetland system located in the semiarid region of south-east Australia, regularly flooded by small channels and creeks that get their water from a regulated river system. Flood-dependent vegetation in the wetland includes semi-permanent wetland areas (reed beds, lagoons, and mixed marsh), and floodplain forests and woodlands mainly dominated by River Red Gum (Eucalyptus Camaldulensis). These plant communities support a rich ecosystem and provide sanctuary for birds, frogs and fish and their ecological importance has been recognized under the Ramsar convention. During droughts, wetland vegetation can deteriorate or transition to terrestrial vegetation. Most recently, during the Millennium drought (2001-2009) large areas of water couch and common reeds transitioned to terrestrial vegetation and many patches of River Red Gum reported up to an 80% mortality. Since then, a significant recovery has occurred after a few years of record or near record rainfall. In order to support management decisions regarding watering of the wetland from the upstream reservoir, we have developed an eco-hydraulic model that relates vegetation distribution to the inundation regime (present and past) determined by floodplain hydrodynamics. The model couples hydrodynamic simulations with a rules-based vegetation module that considers water requirements for different plant associations and transition rules accounting for patch dynamics and vegetation resilience. The model has been setup and calibrated with satellite-derived inundation and vegetation maps as well as fractional cover products during the period from 1991 to 2013. We use the model to predict short-term wetland evolution under dry and wet future conditions.

  8. Extractor capacity of different plant species cultivated in wetlands used to pig wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extracting capacity of different plant species when cultivated in constructed wetlands systems (CWS for the treatment of pig wastewaters (PW. For this, four CWS were constructed with 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m, sealed with geomembrana of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of gravel “zero”. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 were planted cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and grass-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In CWS4 was planted Alternanthera on the 1st third, Typha in 2nd third and tifton-85 in the 3rd third of the bed. After passing through a organic filter filled with crushed sugar cane bagasse, the ARS was applied in SACS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which provided a detention time of 4.8 days. There was a trend to obtain higher extraction of pollutants by plants grown at the beginning of the CWS. The Alternanthera plant species that was presented greater capacity for nutrient extractor, extracting 9.5 and 23% of all total-N and K applied through ARS. Plants extracted small amounts of copper from the ARS. Because of the improved performance of plants, Alternanthera or Tifton-85 grass must be cultivated in CWS for the ARS treatment.

  9. Feasibility of constructed wetland planted with Leersia hexandra Swartz for removing Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yi-Nian; Gu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    As a low-cost treatment technology for effluent, the constructed wetlands can be applied to remove the heavy metals from wastewater. Leersia hexandra Swartz is a metal-accumulating hygrophyte with great potential to remove heavy metal from water. In this study, two pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with L. hexandra (CWL) were set up in greenhouse to treat electroplating wastewater containing Cr, Cu and Ni. The treatment performance of CWL under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and initial metal concentrations were also evaluated. The results showed that CWL significantly reduced the concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in wastewater by 84.4%, 97.1% and 94.3%, respectively. High HLR decreased the removal efficiencies of Cr, Cu and Ni; however, the heavy metal concentrations in effluent met Emission Standard of Pollutants for Electroplating in China (ESPE) at HLR less than 0.3 m3/m2 d. For the influent of 5 mg/L Cr, 10 mg/L Cu and 8 mg/L Ni, effluent concentrations were below maximum allowable concentrations in ESPE, indicating that the removal of Cr, Cu and Ni by CWL was feasible at considerably high influent metal concentrations. Mass balance showed that the primary sink for the retention of contaminants within the constructed wetland system was the sediment, which accounted for 59.5%, 83.5%, and 73.9% of the Cr, Cu and Ni, respectively. The data from the pilot wetlands support the view that CWL could be used to successfully remove Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

  10. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impact on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1991 survey. Topical report, June 1991--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States); Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted in June 1991 at the Mill Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. One pipeline had been installed through the wetland in 1966, and another was scheduled to be installed later in 1991. Data were collected along the existing pipeline ROW and also along the planned ROW for use as baseline data in future studies. Four separate communities were surveyed. A scrub-shrub wetland and a forested wetland were sampled along the existing ROW where the planned pipeline was to be installed. A mixed vegetation community was sampled along the existing ROW, west of where the planned pipeline would joint the ROW. A marsh community was sampled along the route of the planned pipeline. All plant species found on the ROW of the scrub-shrub community were also present in the adjacent natural areas. The vegetation on the ROW of the forested wetland community also consisted mostly of species found in the adjacent natural areas. In the mixed vegetation community, a small drainage channel present on the ROW, possibly resulting from the pipeline construction, provided habitat for a number of obligate species not found in other areas of this community. Differences noted among different areas of this community were also attributed to slight variations in elevation.

  11. Spatial variation in the structure and composition of the herbaceous community in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KA. Silva

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid environments of the world, microhabitats serve as models for the structure of vegetation communities. The goal of this study was to identify differences in the structures of the herbaceous communities growing on a crystalline substrate and those growing on a sedimentary substrate in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. One hundred 1 × 1 m plots were established in each area for quantitative sampling, with 69 species recorded in the crystalline area and 76 in the sedimentary area. The average plant density was higher in the sedimentary area, and average diameters and heights were greater in the crystalline area. The families and species with a high Importance Value Index (IVI and a high Mixed Ecological Value Index (MEVI differed between the areas. Of the species with high densities, only four were found in both areas. Shannon-Weiner diversity index values in the crystalline (2.96 nats/ind.-1 and sedimentary (2.89 nats/ind.-1 areas were similar. Evenness values on both substrates were also similar (0.72 and 0.71 in the crystalline and sedimentary areas, respectively. This study shows that variations in plant establishment conditions between crystalline and sedimentary areas in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil should be considered as structure-modeling factors for the herbaceous community.

  12. Use of wetlands for the treatment of acidic mining drainage: the processes in the wetland; Utilizacion de humedales para el tratamiento de aguas acidas de mina: procesos que tienen lugar en el humedal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lastra, M.; Loredo Perez, J. [Departamento de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas. Escuela de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1995-04-01

    Wetlands constitute an alternative method for the treatment of acidic mining drainage, through the utilization of some plant species complex physico-chemical and biological processes take place, producing and improvement of the quality of waters moving through. The inherent characteristics of a wetland in operation will originate an horizontal zonation as for the quality of waters due to their progressive ameliorations of pH increase and heavy metals concentration decreases, anyway a vertical zonation, giving rise to oxidation and reduction zones on the wetland. From the different physical processes occurring on the wetland, the plant roots filtering, the dilution of effluents with superficial and underground waters and aeration phenomena can be considered very important. Oxidation, hydrolysis and sulphate reduction constitute important chemical processes leading to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated effluents. Wetlands have plants as sphagnum, typha and algae advantageous for the treatment of acidic waters provided that they retain heavy metals in their tissues and the contribute furthermore to modify the substrate conditions favoring the creation of reduction zones. The aerobic-anaerobic mixed systems are from the different wetland types those are prevailing because of the advantages of sulphate reduction as contrasted with oxides precipitation for the removal of heavy metals. Wetlands although are not the panacea for the treatment of acidic mining waters they offer advantages and some disadvantages too, over other treatment methods, and they constitute a real alternative for the conventional methods of chemical neutralization. (Author)

  13. Species richness, alpha and beta diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants in the woodlands of swat, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Bergmeier, E.

    2015-01-01

    The variation in species richness and diversity of trees, shrubs and herbs in the mountains of Miandam, Swat, North Pakistan, along an elevation gradient between 1600 m and 3400 m was explored. Field data were collected in 18 altitudinal intervals of 100 m each. Polynomial regression was used to find relations of the different growth forms with elevation. The Shannon index was used for calculating α-diversity and the Simpson index for β-diversity. Species richness and α-diversity of herbs were unrelated to elevation. Herbaceous species turnover was high, ranging between 0.46 and 0.89, with its maximum between 2700 and 3000 m. Hump-shaped relationship was observed for shrubs with maximum richness between 2000 and 2200 m; and α-diversity decreased monotonically. Turnover of shrub species was highest between 2000 and 2500 m. Tree species richness was highest at low elevations, and α-diversity was relatively low along the entire gradient. Tree species turnover was also high in the lower zone and again at 2600-2800 m. Species richness of all vascular plants was highest at 2200-2500 m, and α-diversity was highest in the lower part of the gradient. Beta diversity of all growth forms was quite high ranging between 0.53 and 0.87 along the entire gradient reflecting high species and structural turnover. (author)

  14. Wetland restoration in the Andes: improving healthy water ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Maria Cecilia Roa-GarcIa

    characterization is being done using a high-resolution satellite image and field ... With the wetland plant inventory, the current plant composition will be ... pollen analysis technique and results, I decided not to embark on this method. ... available water throughout the year with water consumption for domestic and productive.

  15. Iron Mineralogy and Uranium-Binding Environment in the Rhizosphere of a Wetland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands mitigate the migration of groundwater contaminants through a series of biogeochemical gradients that enhance multiple contaminant-binding processes. The hypothesis of this study was that wetland plant roots contribute organic carbon and release O2 within the ...

  16. Growth of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steudel in mine water treatment wetlands: effects of metal and nutrient uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, Lesley C.; Younger, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    The abandoned mine of Shilbottle Colliery, Northumberland, UK is an example of acidic spoil heap discharge that contains elevated levels of many metals. Aerobic wetlands planted with the common reed, Phragmites australis, were constructed at the site to treat surface runoff from the spoil heap. The presence of a perched water table within the spoil heap resulted in the lower wetlands receiving acidic metal contaminated water from within the spoil heap while the upper wetland receives alkaline, uncontaminated surface runoff from the revegetated spoil. This unique situation enabled the comparison of metal uptake and growth of plants used in treatment schemes in two cognate wetlands. Results indicated a significant difference in plant growth between the two wetlands in terms of shoot height and seed production. Analyses of metal and nutrient concentrations within plant tissues provided the basis for three hypotheses to explain these differences: (i) the toxic effects of high levels of metals in shoot tissues (ii) the inhibition of Ca (an essential nutrient) uptake by the presence of metals and H + ions, and (iii) low concentrations of bioavailable nitrogen sources resulting in nitrogen deficiency. This has important implications for the engineering of constructed wetlands in terms of the potential success of plant establishment and vegetation development

  17. Analysis of herbaceous vegetation diversity in a reservoir in the Brazilian semiarid region (Açude Itans – RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Félix da Silva Costa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants represent a significant portion of the biodiversity in the Caatinga and are also found around artificial reservoirs in different habitats. This work studied the diversity and the spatial distribution of herbaceous vegetation in the flood zone of Açude Itans, a reservoir located in Caicó (which has a semiarid climate in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. Using the spatial analysis results, the statistical data were stored and analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS and a series of thematic maps of the study area were generated. Nine points were sampled in the water/soil ecotone of the reservoir and 142 specimens were collected. Forty-four species were identified and there was a strong presence of weeds and/or ruderal species. The most significant family was Poaceae, with 37 individuals and seven species, followed by Fabaceae, with 31 individuals and ten species. Cucurbitaceae, Plantaginaceae and Portulacaceae were the least representative families. The least diverse sampling site was the transition zone upstream of the reservoir, while the area near the dam was the most diverse.

  18. Soil recovery across a chronosequence of restored wetlands in the Florida Everglades

    OpenAIRE

    Qibing Wang; Yuncong Li; Min Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The restoration project in the Hole-in-the-Donut of Everglades National Park in Florida, USA is to reestablish native wetlands by complete removal of the invasive plants and the associated soil. However, there is little information available about changes in properties of the newly formed Marl soils in restored wetlands. In this study, we measured soil physicochemical properties, soil enzymatic activities, and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) in plants and soil organic carbon (SOC) in an undi...

  19. Wetlands and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smardon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization for water quality treatment.

  20. Performance and bacterial community structure of a 10-years old constructed mangrove wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tingting; Tam, Nora F Y; Zan, Qijie; Cheung, S G; Shin, Paul K S; Wong, Y S; Zhang, Li; Chen, Zhanghe

    2017-11-30

    Constructed mangrove wetland has been used for wastewater treatment but its long-term performance has not been reported. One-year monitoring of a 10-years old horizontal subsurface-flow constructed mangrove wetland consisting of three belts, two with mangrove plants and one without, revealed that the system maintained high and stable removal percentages of organic matter and nutrients, and planted belts performed better than unplanted control. Substrates in belts planted with Aegiceras corniculatum or Kandelia obovata had higher abundance of ammonifiers, nitrifiers and denitrifiers but lower total heterotrophic bacteria than unplanted substrate. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that microbial diversity in planted substrate was significantly lower than that in unplanted one. The bacteria in substrates, irrespective to belts, were phylogenetically related to Proteobacteria (most dominant), Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria. The steady performance of this 10-year old constructed mangrove wetland was affected by the abundance and diversity of bacterial community in substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  2. Floristic Quality Index of Restored Wetlands in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 5 Ecosystem Management and Restoration Research Program Floristic Quality Index of Restored Wetlands in Coastal...of Wisconsin Lake Plant Communities with Example Applications. Lake and Reservoir Management 15(2): 133-141. Rocchio, J. 2007. Floristic Quality ... quality in Ohio wetlands. Science of the Total Environment 551: (556-562). Steyer, G. D., and R. E. Stewart, Jr. 1992. Monitoring Program for Coastal

  3. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored Southeastern depressional wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz; Christopher D. Barton

    2010-01-01

    Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can...

  4. Implications of agricultural encroachment on the carbon and greenhouse gas dynamics in tropical African wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Matthew; Kansiime, Frank; Jones, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus) wetlands dominate the permanently inundated wetlands of tropical East Africa and support the livelihoods of millions of people in rural sub-Saharan Africa through the provision of multiple ecosystem services such as the supply of drinking water, fish protein, building materials and biofuels. These wetlands are also extremely important in local and regional scale biogeochemical cycles due to their extensive spatial distribution, high rates of photosynthetic carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation, long-term carbon (C) sequestration in the form of peat and the control of water loss through evapotranspiration. However, these wetlands are facing significant anthropogenic pressures due to the increasing demand for agricultural land where the papyrus plants are removed and replaced with subsistence crops such as cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). Eddy covariance measurements were made on an undisturbed papyrus wetland and a cocoyam dominated wetland on the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria to better understand the impacts of agricultural encroachment on the C sequestration potential of these wetlands. Peak rates of net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation at the papyrus wetland were over 40 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, even under increasing vapour pressure deficit (≥2 kPa), while maximum rates of assimilation at the cocoyam site were 28 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Annual rates of papyrus net primary productivity (NPP) were amongst the highest recorded for wetland systems globally (3.09 kg C m-2 yr-1) and the continual regeneration of the papyrus plants, due to an absence of pronounced seasonal climatic variability, can lead to significant C accumulation in the above and belowground biomass (≥88 t C ha-1). Where these wetlands remain inundated and anaerobic conditions prevail, significant detrital and peat deposits can form further increasing the combined C sink capacity of these ecosystems to over 700 t C ha-1. The C sink strength of these wetlands is however offset by

  5. Optimum Vegetation Conditions for Successful Establishment of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Pitt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 10th-growing season performance of planted eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings was evaluated in response to herbaceous and woody vegetation control treatments within a clearcut and two variants of the uniform shelterwood regeneration system (single vs. multiple future removal cuts. Herbaceous vegetation control involved the suppression of grasses, forbs, ferns and low shrubs for the first 2 or 4 growing seasons after planting. Deciduous woody vegetation control treatments, conducted in combination with the herbaceous treatments within a response-surface design, involved the permanent removal of all tall shrubs and deciduous trees at the time of planting, at the end of the 2nd or 5th growing seasons, or not at all. In general, the average size of planted pine was related positively to the duration of herbaceous vegetation control and negatively to delays in woody control. White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck altered these trends, reducing the height of pine on plots with little or no overtopping deciduous woody vegetation or mature tree cover. Where natural pine regeneration occurred on these plots, growth was similar but subordinate to the planted pine. Data from the three sites indicate that at least 60% of planted pine may be expected to reach an age-10 height target of 2.5 m when overtopping cover (residual overstory + regenerating deciduous is managed at approximately 65% ± 10%, and total herbaceous cover is suppressed to levels not exceeding 50% in the first five years. On productive sites, this combination may be difficult to achieve in a clearcut, and requires fairly rigorous vegetation management in shelterwood regeneration systems. Currently, synthetic herbicides offer the only affordable and effective means of achieving such vegetation control.

  6. Iron mineralogy and uranium-binding environment in the rhizosphere of a wetland soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I., E-mail: daniel.kaplan@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Seaman, John C. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Arey, Bruce W.; Dohnalkova, Alice C. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Buettner, Shea [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Li, Dien [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Varga, Tamas [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G. [US Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Jaffé, Peter R. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Wetlands mitigate the migration of groundwater contaminants through a series of biogeochemical gradients that enhance multiple contaminant-binding processes. The hypothesis of this study was that wetland plant roots contribute organic carbon and release O{sub 2} within the rhizosphere (plant-impact soil zone) that promote the formation of Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides. In turn, these Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides stabilize organic matter that together contribute to contaminant immobilization. Mineralogy and U binding environments of the rhizosphere were evaluated in samples collected from contaminated and non-contaminated areas of a wetland on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Based on Mössbauer spectroscopy, rhizosphere soil was greatly enriched with nanogoethite, ferrihydrite-like nanoparticulates, and hematite, with negligible Fe(II) present. X-ray computed tomography and various microscopy techniques showed that root plaques were tens-of-microns thick and consisted of highly oriented Fe-nanoparticles, suggesting that the roots were involved in creating the biogeochemical conditions conducive to the nanoparticle formation. XAS showed that a majority of the U in the bulk wetland soil was in the + 6 oxidation state and was not well correlated spatially to Fe concentrations. SEM/EDS confirm that U was enriched on root plaques, where it was always found in association with P. Together these findings support our hypothesis and suggest that plants can alter mineralogical conditions that may be conducive to contaminant immobilization in wetlands. - Highlights: • Uranium concentrated in wetland environments • Hypothesized that plant roots change mineralogy and contaminant binding environment, promoting contaminant immobilization • Field study showed sharp dissolved U concentration profiles over the centimeter scale. • Spectroscopy identified unique mineralogy in rhizosphere compared to non-rhizosphere soil. • Uranium concentrated in root plaques in the + 6

  7. Iron mineralogy and uranium-binding environment in the rhizosphere of a wetland soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Seaman, John C.; Arey, Bruce W.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Buettner, Shea; Li, Dien; Varga, Tamas; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Jaffé, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands mitigate the migration of groundwater contaminants through a series of biogeochemical gradients that enhance multiple contaminant-binding processes. The hypothesis of this study was that wetland plant roots contribute organic carbon and release O_2 within the rhizosphere (plant-impact soil zone) that promote the formation of Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides. In turn, these Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides stabilize organic matter that together contribute to contaminant immobilization. Mineralogy and U binding environments of the rhizosphere were evaluated in samples collected from contaminated and non-contaminated areas of a wetland on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Based on Mössbauer spectroscopy, rhizosphere soil was greatly enriched with nanogoethite, ferrihydrite-like nanoparticulates, and hematite, with negligible Fe(II) present. X-ray computed tomography and various microscopy techniques showed that root plaques were tens-of-microns thick and consisted of highly oriented Fe-nanoparticles, suggesting that the roots were involved in creating the biogeochemical conditions conducive to the nanoparticle formation. XAS showed that a majority of the U in the bulk wetland soil was in the + 6 oxidation state and was not well correlated spatially to Fe concentrations. SEM/EDS confirm that U was enriched on root plaques, where it was always found in association with P. Together these findings support our hypothesis and suggest that plants can alter mineralogical conditions that may be conducive to contaminant immobilization in wetlands. - Highlights: • Uranium concentrated in wetland environments • Hypothesized that plant roots change mineralogy and contaminant binding environment, promoting contaminant immobilization • Field study showed sharp dissolved U concentration profiles over the centimeter scale. • Spectroscopy identified unique mineralogy in rhizosphere compared to non-rhizosphere soil. • Uranium concentrated in root plaques in the + 6 oxidation

  8. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  9. Treatment of acid drainage in uranium deposit by means of a natural wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudeva, V.I.; Stoyanova, A.D.; Grudev, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    Acid drainage waters generated in the uranium deposit G-1, Western Bulgaria, were treated by means of a natural wetland located in the deposit. The waters had a pH in the range of about 2.4-3.9 and contained uranium and radium radionuclides, heavy metals (copper, zinc , cadmium, iron, manganese) arsenic and sulfates in concentrations usually much higher than the relevant permissible levels for waters intended for use in agriculture and/or industry. The wetland was characterized by abundant and emergent vegetation and a diverse microflora. Typha latifolia, Typha augustifolia and Potamogeton australis were the main plant species in the wetland but representatives of the genera Scirpus, Juncus, Elepchoris, Potamogeton, Carex and Poa as well as different algae were also present. The water flows through the wetland varied in the range at about 0.2-1,2 l/s reflecting water residence times in the wetland of about 10-50 hours. An efficient water cleanup took place in the wetland even during the cold winter months at ambient temperatures close to 0 o C. The removal of pollutants was due to different processes but the microbial dissimilatory sulphate reduction and the sorption of pollutants on organic matter (living and dead plant and microbial biomass) and clays present in the wetland played the main role. (author)

  10. Refugial persistence and postglacial recolonization of North America by the cold-tolerant herbaceous plant Orthilia secunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Gemma E; Provan, Jim

    2010-11-01

    Previous phylogeographical and palaeontological studies on the biota of northern North America have revealed a complex scenario of glacial survival in multiple refugia and differing patterns of postglacial recolonization. Many putative refugial regions have been proposed both north and south of the ice sheets for species during the Last Glacial Maximum, but the locations of many of these refugia remain a topic of great debate. In this study, we used a phylogeographical approach to elucidate the refugial and recolonization history of the herbaceous plant species Orthilia secunda in North America, which is found in disjunct areas in the west and east of the continent, most of which were either glaciated or lay close to the limits of the ice sheets. Analysis of 596 bp of the chloroplast trnS-trnG intergenic spacer and five microsatellite loci in 84 populations spanning the species' range in North America suggests that O. secunda persisted through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in western refugia, even though palaeodistribution modelling indicated a suitable climate envelope across the entire south of the continent. The present distribution of the species has resulted from recolonization from refugia north and south of the ice sheets, most likely in Beringia or coastal regions of Alaska and British Columbia, the Washington/Oregon region in the northwest USA, and possibly from the region associated with the putative 'ice-free corridor' between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Our findings also highlight the importance of the Pacific Northwest as an important centre of intraspecific genetic diversity, owing to a combination of refugial persistence in the area and recolonization from other refugia. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Herbaceous Angiosperms Are Not More Vulnerable to Drought-Induced Embolism Than Angiosperm Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Delmas, Chloé E L; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Cochard, Hervé; Jansen, Steven; Chauvin, Thibaud; Doria, Larissa Chacon; Del Arco, Marcelino; Delzon, Sylvain

    2016-10-01

    The water transport pipeline in herbs is assumed to be more vulnerable to drought than in trees due to the formation of frequent embolisms (gas bubbles), which could be removed by the occurrence of root pressure, especially in grasses. Here, we studied hydraulic failure in herbaceous angiosperms by measuring the pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance (P 50 ) in stems of 26 species, mainly European grasses (Poaceae). Our measurements show a large range in P 50 from -0.5 to -7.5 MPa, which overlaps with 94% of the woody angiosperm species in a worldwide, published data set and which strongly correlates with an aridity index. Moreover, the P 50 values obtained were substantially more negative than the midday water potentials for five grass species monitored throughout the entire growing season, suggesting that embolism formation and repair are not routine and mainly occur under water deficits. These results show that both herbs and trees share the ability to withstand very negative water potentials without considerable embolism formation in their xylem conduits during drought stress. In addition, structure-function trade-offs in grass stems reveal that more resistant species are more lignified, which was confirmed for herbaceous and closely related woody species of the daisy group (Asteraceae). Our findings could imply that herbs with more lignified stems will become more abundant in future grasslands under more frequent and severe droughts, potentially resulting in lower forage digestibility. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  13. Constructing a Baseline Model of Alpine Wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjasik, M.; Ford, R. L.; Bartholomew, L. M.; Welsh, S. B.; Hernandez, M.; Koerner, D.; Muir, M.

    2008-12-01

    Alpine wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, contain a variety of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Unlike their counterparts in other areas of the Rocky Mountains, these systems have been relatively unstudied. The Reader Lakes area on the southern slope of the range was selected for detailed study because of its variety of wetland plant communities, homogenous bedrock geology, and minimal human impact. The primary goal of this interdisciplinary study is to establish the functional links between the geomorphology and hydrogeology of these high mountain wetlands and their constituent plant communities. In addition to traditional field studies and water chemistry, geospatial technologies are being used to organize and analyze both field data (water chemistry and wetland vegetation) and archived multispectral imagery (2006 NAIP images). The hydrology of these wetlands is dominated by groundwater discharge and their surface is dominated by string-and-flark morphology of various spatial scales, making these montane wetlands classic patterned fens. The drainage basin is organized into a series of large-scale stair-stepping wetlands, bounded by glacial moraines at their lower end. Wetlands are compartmentalized by a series of large strings (roughly perpendicular to the axial stream) and flarks. This pattern may be related to small ridges on the underlying ground moraine and possibly modified by beaver activity along the axial stream. Small-scale patterning occurs along the margins of the wetlands and in sloping-fen settings. The smaller-scale strings and flarks form a complex; self-regulating system in which water retention is enhanced and surface flow is minimized. Major plant communities have been identified within the wetlands for example: a Salix planifolia community associated with the peaty strings; Carex aquatilis, Carex limosa, and Eriophorum angustifolium communities associated with flarks; as well as a Sphagnum sp.- rich hummocky transition zone

  14. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Rastorfer, J.R.; Van Dyke, G.D.

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 x1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems ≥2 cm dbh in 10 x 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Sulphur transformation and deposition in the rhizosphere of Juncus effusus in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiessner, A.; Kuschk, P.; Jechorek, M.; Seidel, H.; Kaestner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sulphur cycling and its correlation to removal processes under dynamic redox conditions in the rhizosphere of helophytes in treatment wetlands are poorly understood. Therefore, long-term experiments were performed in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands treating artificial domestic wastewater in order to investigate the dynamics of sulphur compounds, the responses of plants and nitrifying microorganisms under carbon surplus conditions, and the generation of methane. For carbon surplus conditions (carbon:sulphate of 2.8:1) sulphate reduction happened but was repressed, in contrast to unplanted filters mentioned in literature. Doubling the carbon load caused stable and efficient sulphate reduction, rising of pH, increasing enrichment of S 2- and S 0 in pore water, and finally plant death and inhibition of nitrification by sulphide toxicity. The data show a clear correlation of the occurrence of reduced S-species with decreasing C and N removal performance and plant viability in the experimental constructed wetlands. - In an experimental constructed wetland a clear correlation of the occurrence of reduced S-species with decreasing C and N removal performance and plant viability was observed

  17. Mitigation of two pyrethroid insecticides in a Mississippi Delta constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M.T. [USDA Agricultural Research Service National Sedimentation Laboratory, Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, PO Box 1157, 598 McElroy Drive, Oxford, MS 38655 (United States)], E-mail: matt.moore@ars.usda.gov; Cooper, C.M.; Smith, S.; Cullum, R.F.; Knight, S.S.; Locke, M.A.; Bennett, E.R. [USDA Agricultural Research Service National Sedimentation Laboratory, Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, PO Box 1157, 598 McElroy Drive, Oxford, MS 38655 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Constructed wetlands are a suggested best management practice to help mitigate agricultural runoff before entering receiving aquatic ecosystems. A constructed wetland system (180 m x 30 m), comprising a sediment retention basin and two treatment cells, was used to determine the fate and transport of simulated runoff containing the pyrethroid insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin, as well as suspended sediment. Wetland water, sediment, and plant samples were collected spatially and temporally over 55 d. Results showed 49 and 76% of the study's measured lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin masses were associated with vegetation, respectively. Based on conservative effects concentrations for invertebrates and regression analyses of maximum observed wetland aqueous concentrations, a wetland length of 215 m x 30 m width would be required to adequately mitigate 1% pesticide runoff from a 14 ha contributing area. Results of this experiment can be used to model future design specifications for constructed wetland mitigation of pyrethroid insecticides. - A wetland length of 215 m x 30 m mitigated pyrethroid runoff from a 14 ha field.

  18. Mitigation of two pyrethroid insecticides in a Mississippi Delta constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.T.; Cooper, C.M.; Smith, S.; Cullum, R.F.; Knight, S.S.; Locke, M.A.; Bennett, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are a suggested best management practice to help mitigate agricultural runoff before entering receiving aquatic ecosystems. A constructed wetland system (180 m x 30 m), comprising a sediment retention basin and two treatment cells, was used to determine the fate and transport of simulated runoff containing the pyrethroid insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin, as well as suspended sediment. Wetland water, sediment, and plant samples were collected spatially and temporally over 55 d. Results showed 49 and 76% of the study's measured lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin masses were associated with vegetation, respectively. Based on conservative effects concentrations for invertebrates and regression analyses of maximum observed wetland aqueous concentrations, a wetland length of 215 m x 30 m width would be required to adequately mitigate 1% pesticide runoff from a 14 ha contributing area. Results of this experiment can be used to model future design specifications for constructed wetland mitigation of pyrethroid insecticides. - A wetland length of 215 m x 30 m mitigated pyrethroid runoff from a 14 ha field

  19. Mitigation of two pyrethroid insecticides in a Mississippi Delta constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Cooper, C M; Smith, S; Cullum, R F; Knight, S S; Locke, M A; Bennett, E R

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are a suggested best management practice to help mitigate agricultural runoff before entering receiving aquatic ecosystems. A constructed wetland system (180 m x 30 m), comprising a sediment retention basin and two treatment cells, was used to determine the fate and transport of simulated runoff containing the pyrethroid insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin, as well as suspended sediment. Wetland water, sediment, and plant samples were collected spatially and temporally over 55 d. Results showed 49 and 76% of the study's measured lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin masses were associated with vegetation, respectively. Based on conservative effects concentrations for invertebrates and regression analyses of maximum observed wetland aqueous concentrations, a wetland length of 215 m x 30 m width would be required to adequately mitigate 1% pesticide runoff from a 14 ha contributing area. Results of this experiment can be used to model future design specifications for constructed wetland mitigation of pyrethroid insecticides.

  20. Underwater photosynthesis and respiration in leaves of submerged wetland plants: gas films improve CO2 and O2 exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, Timothy David; Pedersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    (N) was enhanced up to sixfold. Gas films on submerged leaves enable continued gas exchange via stomata and thus bypassing of cuticle resistance, enhancing exchange of O(2) and CO(2) with the surrounding water, and therefore underwater P(N) and respiration.......Many wetland plants have gas films on submerged leaf surfaces. We tested the hypotheses that leaf gas films enhance CO(2) uptake for net photosynthesis (P(N)) during light periods, and enhance O(2) uptake for respiration during dark periods. Leaves of four wetland species that form gas films......, and two species that do not, were used. Gas films were also experimentally removed by brushing with 0.05% (v/v) Triton X. Net O(2) production in light, or O(2) consumption in darkness, was measured at various CO(2) and O(2) concentrations. When gas films were removed, O(2) uptake in darkness was already...

  1. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin; Anderson, Bruce; Cheng, Shuiping

    2016-01-01

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L"−"1). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ_P_S_I_I) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos loads

  2. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Anderson, Bruce [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston K7L3N6 (Canada); Cheng, Shuiping, E-mail: shpcheng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L{sup −1}). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ{sub PSII}) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos

  3. Phytoremediation of explosives in groundwater using innovative wetlands-based treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, F.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Coonrod, H.S.; Phillips, W.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Environmental Research Center; Bader, D.F. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Many army ammunition plants across the country have problems with groundwater contaminated with explosives. A field demonstration was initiated at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant near Milan, Tennessee early in 1996 to demonstrate the feasibility of treating contaminated groundwater with constructed wetlands. Two different systems were designed and installed. A lagoon system consisted of two cells in series with each cell having dimensions of 24 x 9.4 x 0.6 m (L x W x H). A gravel-bed system consisted of three gravel-beds operated in series with a primary anaerobic cell having dimensions of 32 x 11 x 1.4 m (L x W x H), followed by a pair of secondary cells each with dimensions of 5.5 x 11 x 1.4 m (L x W x H). The primary cell is maintained anaerobic by adding powdered milk to the water every two weeks. The secondary cells are maintained aerobic via reciprocation, whereby water is pumped back and forth from one cell to another to cause a recurrent fill and drain action. The lagoons were planted with sago pond weed, water stargrass, elodea, and parrot feather. The gravel-bed wetlands were planted with canary grass, wool grass, sweet flag, and parrot feather. Water began flowing to each of the wetland treatment systems at 19 L min{sup {minus}1} starting in June 1996. The design hydraulic retention time through each treatment system was approximately 10 days. Influent and effluent water samples were collected every 2 weeks. Intensive sampling of water interior to the wetlands occurred every 2 months.

  4. Modeling natural wetlands: A new global framework built on wetland observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.; Romanski, J.; Olefeldt, D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural wetlands are the world's largest methane (CH4) source, and their distribution and CH4 fluxes are sensitive to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Wetland distributions used in wetland-CH4 models diverge widely, and these geographic differences contribute substantially to large variations in magnitude, seasonality and distribution of modeled methane fluxes. Modeling wetland type and distribution—closely tied to simulating CH4 emissions—is a high priority, particularly for studies of wetlands and CH4 dynamics under past and future climates. Methane-wetland models either prescribe or simulate methane-producing areas (aka wetlands) and both approaches result in predictable over- and under-estimates. 1) Monthly satellite-derived inundation data include flooded areas that are not wetlands (e.g., lakes, reservoirs, and rivers), and do not identify non-flooded wetlands. 2) Models simulating methane-producing areas overwhelmingly rely on modeled soil moisture, systematically over-estimating total global area, with regional over- and under-estimates, while schemes to model soil-moisture typically cannot account for positive water tables (i.e., flooding). Interestingly, while these distinct hydrological approaches to identify wetlands are complementary, merging them does not provide critical data needed to model wetlands for methane studies. We present a new integrated framework for modeling wetlands, and ultimately their methane emissions, that exploits the extensive body of data and information on wetlands. The foundation of the approach is an existing global gridded data set comprising all and only wetlands, including vegetation information. This data set is augmented with data inter alia on climate, inundation dynamics, soil type and soil carbon, permafrost, active-layer depth, growth form, and species composition. We investigate this enhanced wetland data set to identify which variables best explain occurrence and characteristics of observed

  5. Iron oxides stimulate microbial monochlorobenzene in situ transformation in constructed wetlands and laboratory systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Birkigt, Jan; Ahlheim, Jörg; Paschke, Heidrun; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are transition zones between anoxic ground and oxic surface water which may enhance the (bio)transformation potential for recalcitrant chloro-organic contaminants due to the unique geochemical conditions and gradients. Monochlorobenzene (MCB) is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant which is toxic and was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, to date, no degradation pathways for anoxic MCB removal have been proven in the field. Hence, it is important to investigate MCB biodegradation in the environment, as groundwater is an important drinking water source in many European countries. Therefore, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, were used to investigate the processes in situ contributing to the biotransformation of MCB in these gradient systems. The wetlands were fed with anoxic MCB-contaminated groundwater from a nearby aquifer in Bitterfeld, Germany. An overall MCB removal was observed in both wetlands, whereas just 10% of the original MCB inflow concentration was detected in the ponds. In particular in the gravel bed of the planted wetland, MCB removal was highest in summer season with 73 ± 9% compared to the unplanted one with 40 ± 5%. Whereas the MCB concentrations rapidly decreased in the transition zone of unplanted gravel to the pond, a significant MCB removal was already determined in the anoxic gravel bed of the planted system. The investigation of hydro-geochemical parameters revealed that iron and sulphate reduction were relevant redox processes in both wetlands. In parallel, the addition of ferric iron or nitrate stimulated the mineralisation of MCB in laboratory microcosms with anoxic groundwater from the same source, indicating that the potential for anaerobic microbial degradation of MCB is present at the field site. - Highlights: • MCB removal in anoxic gravel bed of a planted and an unplanted constructed wetland was accompanied by iron

  6. Iron oxides stimulate microbial monochlorobenzene in situ transformation in constructed wetlands and laboratory systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Birkigt, Jan [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Ahlheim, Jörg [Department of Groundwater Remediation, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Paschke, Heidrun [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Richnow, Hans-Hermann [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Nijenhuis, Ivonne, E-mail: ivonne.nijenhuis@ufz.de [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Natural wetlands are transition zones between anoxic ground and oxic surface water which may enhance the (bio)transformation potential for recalcitrant chloro-organic contaminants due to the unique geochemical conditions and gradients. Monochlorobenzene (MCB) is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant which is toxic and was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, to date, no degradation pathways for anoxic MCB removal have been proven in the field. Hence, it is important to investigate MCB biodegradation in the environment, as groundwater is an important drinking water source in many European countries. Therefore, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, were used to investigate the processes in situ contributing to the biotransformation of MCB in these gradient systems. The wetlands were fed with anoxic MCB-contaminated groundwater from a nearby aquifer in Bitterfeld, Germany. An overall MCB removal was observed in both wetlands, whereas just 10% of the original MCB inflow concentration was detected in the ponds. In particular in the gravel bed of the planted wetland, MCB removal was highest in summer season with 73 ± 9% compared to the unplanted one with 40 ± 5%. Whereas the MCB concentrations rapidly decreased in the transition zone of unplanted gravel to the pond, a significant MCB removal was already determined in the anoxic gravel bed of the planted system. The investigation of hydro-geochemical parameters revealed that iron and sulphate reduction were relevant redox processes in both wetlands. In parallel, the addition of ferric iron or nitrate stimulated the mineralisation of MCB in laboratory microcosms with anoxic groundwater from the same source, indicating that the potential for anaerobic microbial degradation of MCB is present at the field site. - Highlights: • MCB removal in anoxic gravel bed of a planted and an unplanted constructed wetland was accompanied by iron

  7. Ten Years of Vegetation Change in Northern California Marshlands Detected using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology was applied to detected changes in perennial vegetation cover at marshland sites in Northern California reported to have undergone restoration between 1999 and 2009. Results showed extensive contiguous areas of restored marshland plant cover at 10 of the 14 sites selected. Gains in either woody shrub cover and/or from recovery of herbaceous cover that remains productive and evergreen on a year-round basis could be mapped out from the image results. However, LEDAPS may not be highly sensitive changes in wetlands that have been restored mainly with seasonal herbaceous cover (e.g., vernal pools), due to the ephemeral nature of the plant greenness signal. Based on this evaluation, the LEDAPS methodology would be capable of fulfilling a pressing need for consistent, continual, low-cost monitoring of changes in marshland ecosystems of the Pacific Flyway.

  8. Effect of submergence-emergence sequence and organic matter or aluminosilicate amendment on metal uptake by woody wetland plant species from contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Site-specific hydrological conditions affect the availability of trace metals for vegetation. In a greenhouse experiment, the effect of submersion on the metal uptake by the wetland plant species Salix cinerea and Populus nigra grown on a contaminated dredged sediment-derived soil and on an uncontaminated soil was evaluated. An upland hydrological regime for the polluted sediment caused elevated Cd concentrations in leaves and cuttings for both species. Emergence and soil oxidation after initial submersion of a polluted sediment resulted in comparable foliar Cd and Zn concentrations for S. cinerea as for the constant upland treatment. The foliar Cd and Zn concentrations were clearly higher than for submerged soils after initial upland conditions. These results point at the importance of submergence-emergence sequence for plant metal availability. The addition of foliar-based organic matter or aluminosilicates to the polluted sediment-derived soil in upland conditions did not decrease Cd and Zn uptake by S. cinerea. - The effect of a wetland hydrological regime on Cd uptake was similar for Populus nigra and Salix cinerea

  9. Teaching multidisciplinary environmental science in a wetland setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Nuzzo, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    High-school students from across the country came to the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) to assist in field research for two weeks in July, 1994, as part of The Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth Summer Experience Program. During the research project at the ISGS, students were exposed to a multidisciplinary scientific investigation where geology, hydrogeology, ground-water chemistry, and plant biology could be directly observed and used to study the potentially destructive effects of nearby road and house construction on a fen-wetland complex. Experienced researchers provided classroom and field instruction to the students prior to leading the field investigations. Following field work, the students returned to the ISGS laboratories where they assisted with the chemical analysis of ground-water samples and compiled and interpreted their data. The students wrote up their results in standard scientific report format and gave oral presentations covering various aspects of the project to an audience of ISGS scientists and guests. The results of their work, which showed changes in the wetland's plant biodiversity resulting from urban development within the watershed, will provide data needed for the preservation of biodiversity in these and other wetlands.

  10. Investigation of nitrogen transformations in a southern California constructed wastewater treatment wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartoris, J.J.; Thullen, J.S.; Barber, L.B.; Salas, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    A 9.9-ha combined habitat and wastewater treatment demonstration wetland was constructed and planted in the summer of 1994, at Eastern Municipal Water District’s (EMWD) Hemet/San Jacinto Regional Water Reclamation Facility (RWRF) in southern California. From January 1996 through September 1997, the marsh–pond–marsh wetland system was operated to polish an average of 3785 m3 d−1 (1×106 gal day−1) of secondary-treated effluent from the RWRF. Nitrogen removal was a major objective of this wetland treatment. Weekly inflow/outflow water quality monitoring of the wetland was supplemented with biannual, 45-station synoptic surveys within the system to determine internal distribution patterns of the nitrogen species (total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and organic nitrogen), total organic carbon (TOC), and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). Synoptic surveys were carried out during May 22 and September 17, 1996, and May 6 and September 25, 1997 and the results were mapped using the ARC/INFO processing package and inverse distance weighted mathematical techniques. Distribution patterns of the various nitrogen species, TOC, and UV254 within the wetland indicate that the nitrogen dynamics of the system are influenced both by variations in treatment plant loading, and, increasingly, by the degree of coverage and maturity of the emergent vegetation.

  11. Evaluation of Subsurface Flow and Free-water Surface Wetlands Treating NPR-3 Produced Water - Year No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J. E.; Jackson, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a summary of some of the activities conducted during the first year of a three-year cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Texaco relating to the treatment of produced water by constructed wetlands. The first year of the CRADA is for design, construction and acclimation of the wetland pilot units. The second and third years of the CRADA are for tracking performance of pilot wetlands as the plant and microbial communities mature. A treatment wetland is a proven technology for the secondary and tertiary treatment of produced water, storm water and other wastewaters. Treatment wetlands are typically classified as either free-water surface (FWS) or subsurface flow (SSF). Both FWS and SSF wetlands work well when properly designed and operated. This paper presents a collection of kinetic data gathered from pilot units fed a slipstream of Wyoming (NPR-3) produced water. The pilot units are set up outdoors to test climatic influences on treatment. Monitoring parameters include evapotranspiration, plant growth, temperature, and NPDES discharge limits. The pilot wetlands (FWS and SSF) consist of a series of 100-gal plastic tubs filled with local soils, gravel, sharp sand and native wetland plants (cattail (Typha spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.), dwarf spikerush (Eleocharis)). Feed pumps control hydraulic retention time (HRT) and simple water control structures control the depth of water. The treated water is returned to the existing produced water treatment system. All NPDES discharge limits are met. Observations are included on training RMOTC summer students to do environmental work

  12. Direct effects of warming increase woody plant abundance in a subarctic wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Lindsay G; Beard, Karen H; Adler, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Both the direct effects of warming on a species' vital rates and indirect effects of warming caused by interactions with neighboring species can influence plant populations. Furthermore, herbivory mediates the effects of warming on plant community composition in many systems. Thus, determining the importance of direct and indirect effects of warming, while considering the role of herbivory, can help predict long-term plant community dynamics. We conducted a field experiment in the coastal wetlands of western Alaska to investigate how warming and herbivory influence the interactions and abundances of two common plant species, a sedge, Carex ramenskii , and a dwarf shrub, Salix ovalifolia . We used results from the experiment to model the equilibrium abundances of the species under different warming and grazing scenarios and to determine the contribution of direct and indirect effects to predict population changes. Consistent with the current composition of the landscape, model predictions suggest that Carex is more abundant than Salix under ambient temperatures with grazing (53% and 27% cover, respectively). However, with warming and grazing, Salix becomes more abundant than Carex (57% and 41% cover, respectively), reflecting both a negative response of Carex and a positive response of Salix to warming. While grazing reduced the cover of both species, herbivory did not prevent a shift in dominance from sedges to the dwarf shrub. Direct effects of climate change explained about 97% of the total predicted change in species cover, whereas indirect effects explained only 3% of the predicted change. Thus, indirect effects, mediated by interactions between Carex and Salix, were negligible, likely due to use of different niches and weak interspecific interactions. Results suggest that a 2°C increase could cause a shift in dominance from sedges to woody plants on the coast of western Alaska over decadal timescales, and this shift was largely a result of the direct effects

  13. An Australian experience with a constructed wetland to treat ash dam water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.W. Jensen; K.W. Riley [Delta Electricity (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness of a wetland system to treat water from a power station ash dam is discussed. The wetlands were constructed during 1996 and 1997. The length of the canals within the system is 1700 metres. There was a total planting of 35,000 tube stock of nine different species. In the summer of 1998, Typha orientalis colonised the system and is now the dominant species of emergent plant present. Water is introduced to the wetland from the return channel of the power station. The ash dam water is acidic (pH 4.5 5.5) and contains elevated levels of some trace elements including selenium, boron and fluorine. Of these three trace elements, selenium is regarded as the element of particular environmental concern. Since June 2000, there has been periodic sampling and analysis of both the inlet and outlet waters. The analytes include conductivity, pH, total organic carbon, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cl, K, F, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, selenite, total selenium, Si, Sr, sulfate and Zn. As well, plant material (stems and roots of the Typha) and sediments have been analysed for selenium. The results indicate boron and fluorine are not removed from the ash dam water by the processes occurring in the wetland. Selenium is partly removed. It appears that selenite is removed in preference to selenate. The development and operation of this experimental wetland is discussed in the context of a sustainable and ecologically sound system of minimising detrimental effects of the discharge of ash water. 26 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Transfers and transformations of zinc in flow-through wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, W B; Hawkins, W B; Rodgers, J H; Cano, M L; Dorn, P B

    1999-06-01

    Two microcosm-scale wetlands (570-liter containers) were integratively designed and constructed to investigate transfers and transformations of zinc associated with an aqueous matrix, and to provide future design parameters for pilot-scale constructed wetlands. The fundamental design of these wetland microcosms was based on biogeochemical principles regulating fate and transformations of zinc (pH, redox, etc.). Each wetland consisted of a 45-cm hydrosoil depth inundated with 25 cm of water, and planted with Scirpus californicus. Zinc ( approximately 2 mg/liter) as ZnCl2 was amended to each wetland for 62 days. Individual wetland hydraulic retention times (HRT) were approximately 24 h. Total recoverable zinc was measured daily in microcosm inflow and outflows, and zinc concentrations in hydrosoil and S. californicus tissue were measured pre- and post-treatment. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas7-day aqueous toxicity tests were performed on wetland inflows and outflows, and Hyalella azteca whole sediment toxicity tests (10-day) were performed pre- and post-treatment. Approximately 75% of total recoverable zinc was transferred from the water column. Toxicity decreased from inflow to outflow based on 7-day C. dubia tests, and survival of H. azteca in hydrosoil was >80%. Data illustrate the ability of integratively designed wetlands to transfer and sequester zinc from the water column while concomitantly decreasing associated toxicity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Seminatural Wetlands and Activated Sludge Wastewater-Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  16. Response of wetland herbaceous communities to gradients of light and substrate following disturbance by thermal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Christopher P.; Scott, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of thermal disturbance and site characteristics on distribution of herbs was studied in portions of a 3020 ha wetland in the southeastern USA. Presence-absence of 52 species in 130 0.25 m2 plots was determined from four sites with different disturbance histories and from an undisturbed site. Data from the four disturbed sites were ordinated by detrended correspondence analysis. Differences in species composition among sites (coarse scale) were associated with water depth, light, and substrate type. Within a site (at a fine scale), correlation of environmental variables with ordination scores at a chronically disturbed site was weakly correlated with light (r=0.50). At two sites with episodic disturbance, species composition correlated significantly and positively with substrate and water depth. At a recovering site, vegetation patterns were moderately correlated with water depth (r=−0.52). Species richness was correlated with substrate type along the disturbance gradient. Our results are consistent the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and the subsidy-stress gradient concept.

  17. A survey of the wetlands and floodplains of the borrow area and wetland/shorebird complex for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting cleanup operations at the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles, Missouri, that will include development of a 77-ha (191-acre) soil borrow area. Eight wetlands, including riverine and palustrine emergent wetland types and totaling 0.9 ha (2.2 acres), will be eliminated during excavation of the borrow area. A 23-ha (57-acre) wetland/shorebird complex will be created at the Busch Conservation Area. The complex will include 2 ha (5 acres) of palustrine emergent wetland as mitigation for wetland losses in the borrow area.

  18. Application of the artificial intelligence to estimate the constructed wetland response to heavy metal removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elektorowicz, M.; Balanzinski, M.; Qasaimeh, A.

    2002-01-01

    Current design approaches lack essential parameters necessary to evaluate the removal of metals contained in wastewater which is discharged to constructed wetlands. As a result, there is no guideline for an accurate design of constructed wetlands. An artificial intelligence approach was used to assess constructed wetland design. For this purpose concentrations of bioavailable mercury were evaluated in conditions where initial concentrations of inorganic mercury, chloride concentrations and pH values changed. Fuzzy knowledge base was built based on results obtained from previous investigations performed in a greenhouse for floating plants, and from computations for mercury speciation. The Fuzzy Decision Support System (FDSS) used the knowledge base to find parameters that permit to generate the highest amount of mercury available for plants. The findings of this research can be applied to wetlands and all natural processes where correlations between them are uncertain. (author)

  19. Application of the artificial intelligence to estimate the constructed wetland response to heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elektorowicz, M. [Concordia Univ., Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: mariae@civil.concordia.ca; Balanzinski, M. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Mechnical Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Qasaimeh, A. [Concordia Univ., Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    Current design approaches lack essential parameters necessary to evaluate the removal of metals contained in wastewater which is discharged to constructed wetlands. As a result, there is no guideline for an accurate design of constructed wetlands. An artificial intelligence approach was used to assess constructed wetland design. For this purpose concentrations of bioavailable mercury were evaluated in conditions where initial concentrations of inorganic mercury, chloride concentrations and pH values changed. Fuzzy knowledge base was built based on results obtained from previous investigations performed in a greenhouse for floating plants, and from computations for mercury speciation. The Fuzzy Decision Support System (FDSS) used the knowledge base to find parameters that permit to generate the highest amount of mercury available for plants. The findings of this research can be applied to wetlands and all natural processes where correlations between them are uncertain. (author)

  20. Influence of microhabitats on the performance of herbaceous species in areas of mature and secondary forest in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ramos de Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for plant establishment in mature forest are different from those found in disturbed areas. In dry environments, the herbaceous cover is the most important in the recolonization of deforested areas. It can, therefore, act as an ideal biological group for assessing how changes in habitat heterogeneity affect the resilience of dry forests. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether natural regeneration of the herbaceous stratum differed between areas of mature and secondary forest of Caatinga and to describe this process. The study took place in the Brazilian semiarid region during the rainy season 2011 (January to August, where fifty 1m² plots were set up, 25 allocated to the microhabitat established as “between canopies” and 25 to the microhabitat “under the canopy”. The herbaceous species selected for the study were Delilia biflora (Asteraceae, Gomphrena vaga (Amaranthaceae and Pseudabutilon spicatum (Malvaceae, abundant species occurring in both areas. All individuals from the selected populations were counted, marked with sequential numbers, and the height of the stem was measured. Differences between areas, and in size and survival between microhabitats, were found only for the first two species. Fruit production was higher in the mature forest for the three species. The study concluded that: 1. The effect of the microhabitats “between canopies” and “under the canopy” in mature and secondary forest areas depends on the species considered; 2. Populations sensitive to light intensity differ in number of individuals, height and fruit production; and 3. The resilience of anthropogenic areas in semiarid environments can be characterized by the presence of spatial heterogeneity with regard to the emergence and survival of herbaceous seedlings, suggesting that the regeneration of disturbed areas may occur in patches. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2: 357-368. Epub 2015 June 01.

  1. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  2. Physical and biological controls over patterns of methane flux from wetland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, S. M.; von Fischer, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    While methane (CH4) production and plant-facilitated gas transport both contribute to patterns of CH4 emissions from wetlands, the relative importance of each mechanism is uncertain. In flooded wetland soils, CH4 is produced by anaerobic methanogenic bacteria. In the absence of competing oxidizers (i.e. SO42-, NO3-, O2), CH4 production is limited by the availability of labile carbon, which is supplied from recent plant primary production (e.g. as root exudates) and converted by anaerobic fermenting bacteria into methanogenic substrate (e.g. acetate). Because diffusion of gases through saturated soils is extremely slow, the aerenchymous tissues of wetland plants provide the primary pathway for CH4 emissions in systems dominated by emergent vascular vegetation. Aerenchyma also function to shuttle atmospheric oxygen to belowground plant tissues for respiration. Consequentially, root radial oxygen loss results in an oxidized rhizosphere, which limits CH4 production and provides habitat for aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, potentially reducing CH4 emissions. To test the contribution of recent photosynthates on CH4 emissions, a shading experiment was conducted in a Juncus-dominated wetland in the Colorado Front Range. Shade treatments significantly reduced net ecosystem production (NEE) and gross primary production (GPP) compared to control plots (p=0.0194 and p=0.0551, respectively). While CH4 emissions did not significantly differ between treatments, CH4 flux rates were strongly correlated with NEE (p=0.0063) and GPP (p=0.0020), in support of the hypothesis that labile carbon from recent photosynthesis controls patterns of CH4 emissions. The relative importance of plant gas transport and methane consumption rates on CH4 emissions is not known. Methane flux is more tightly correlated with NEE than GPP, which may be explained by increased CH4 consumption or decreased CH4 production as a result of rhizospheric oxidation. The ability to predict future emissions of this

  3. Effects of radiation, litterfall and throughfall on herbaceous biomass production in oak woodlands of Southern Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.; Sa, C.; Madeira, M.; Gazarini, L.

    2002-01-01

    Micro climatic characteristics (soil moisture, and air and soil temperature) were monitored both under and outside the influence of Quercus rotundifolia canopy. The influence of tree cover on biomass production of herbaceous vegetation was studied through the simulation of the physical and chemical effects associated to the tree canopy (radiation, litterfall, throughfall). Treatments were: control (T), radiation shortage (RR), application of leaf litter (F), application of leaflitter and radiation shortage (FRR) , application of throughfall (N) and application of throughfall and radiation shortage (NRR). Most of the times, and especially in winter, soil temperature was higher in areas not influenced by the canopies than in those under their influence. Soil moisture tended to decrease faster in the areas outside the canopy influence. Mean annual biomass production of the herbaceous vegetation was 159.5, 145.8, 132.2, 126.66, 134.9 and 173.1 g m2, respectively, in treatments C, RR, F, FRR, N and NRR. The N, P, K, Mg, Mn and Ca concentrations in the herbaceous biomass were generally higher in the shaded treatments. When the amount of nutrients accumulated in the herbaceous vegetation biomass was expressed on an area basis, the highest values were observed for treatment with throughfall application and radiation shortage. Besides the possible effects of the micro climatic characteristics, differences with respect to herbaceous vegetation production may be explained by the presence of litterfall, as well as by the nutrients present in the throughfall solution [pt

  4. Competition between two wetland macrophytes under different levels of sediment saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant-plant interactions have been widely studied under various environmental conditions. However, in wetland ecosystems how plant interactions change in response to variation in sediment saturation remains largely unclear, even though different levels of sediment saturation play important roles in determining plant growth performance in wetland ecosystems. To this end, a competition experiment with two typical wetland species, Carex brevicuspis (neighbor plant and Polygonum hydropiper (target plant, was conducted in a target-neighbor design. Two water levels (0 cm and -40 cm water levels representing waterlogged and drained sediments, respectively and three neighbor plant densities (0 plants m-2, 400 plants m-2, and 1600 plants m-2 were tested in a factorial design. Biomass accumulation of P. hydropiper decreased along with enhanced C. brevicuspis density in the waterlogged treatment. However, in the drained treatment, biomass accumulation did not change under two C. brevicuspis densities. Above-ground relative neighbor effect index (ARNE and relative neighbor effect index (RNE of C. brevicuspis on P. hydropiper increased along with enhanced C. brevicuspis density only under waterlogged conditions. The below-ground relative neighbor effect index (BRNE was not affected at the different water level and density treatments. The below-ground mass fraction of P. hydropiper was much higher in the waterlogged treatment than it was in the drained one, especially with no C. brevicuspis treatment. However, the leaf mass fraction displayed the opposite pattern. The longest root length of P. hydropiper was much shorter under waterlogged treatment than under the drained treatment. These results suggest that the competition intensity of C. brevicuspis to P. hydropiper increased along with increasing C. brevicuspis density only under waterlogged conditions. Moreover, this study also confirms that P. hydropiper can acclimate to water stress mainly through

  5. Impact of hydraulic and carbon loading rates of constructed wetlands on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, Fariya; Westerhoff, Paul; Herckes, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands remove trace organic contaminants via synergistic processes involving plant biomass that include hydrolysis, volatilization, sorption, biodegradation, and photolysis. Wetland design conditions, such as hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) and carbon loading rates (CLRs), influence these processes. Contaminant of emerging concern (CEC) removal by wetland plants was investigated at varying HLRs and CLRs. Rate constants and parameters obtained from batch-scale studies were used in a mechanistic model to evaluate the effect of these two loading rates on CEC removal. CLR significantly influenced CEC removal when wetlands were operated at HLR >5 cm/d. High values of CLR increased removal of estradiol and carbamazepine but lowered that of testosterone and atrazine. Without increasing the cumulative HLR, operating two wetlands in series with varying CLRs could be a way to improve CEC removal. -- Highlights: • A fate-predictive model was developed to evaluate the effect of loading rates on CEC removal in constructed wetlands. • Carbon loading rates (CLRs) can influence CEC removal when wetlands are operated at higher hydraulic loading rates (HLRs). • The effect of CLRs varies among CECs with different physico-chemical properties. • Combination of wetlands with different CLRs can optimize CEC removal without changing the net HLR. -- This article evaluates the effect of design loading rates on contaminant of emerging concern (CEC) removal in constructed wetlands

  6. Removal of chlorpyrifos insecticide in constructed wetlands with different plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara D. de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the remediation of water containing the insecticide chlorpyrifos by using constructed wetlands (CW cultivated with Polygonum punctatum, Cynodon spp. and Mentha aquatica, operated under different hydraulic retention times: 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h. The system efficiency was based on reduction of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos and toxicity of the contaminated water. The results showed that constructed wetlands are an excellent alternative for remediation of the insecticide chlorpyrifos in aqueous medium. It was observed that the average overall removal efficiency of the insecticide was 98.6%, and in the first hydraulic retention time, 24 h, chlorpyrifos was removed to levels below the detection limit in all CW. This result is mainly attributed to adsorption and microbial degradation. For the qualitative standard acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis, for most samples there was a reduction in toxicity greater than 80%. It was reported that the ecotoxicological tests with the effluents of the constructed wetland are a good option as an indicator of the effectiveness of treatments and a promising alternative to complement the physical and chemical analyses.

  7. Modelling nitrogen transformation and removal in mara river basin wetlands upstream of lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Aloyce W.; Muraza, Marwa; Norbert, Joel

    2018-06-01

    Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa, is a resource of social-economic potential in East Africa. This lake receives water from numerous tributaries including Mara River, which contributes about 4.8% of the total Lake water inflow. Unfortunately, Mara River basin faces environmental problems because of intensive settlement, agriculture, overgrazing in the basin and mining activities, which has lead to water pollution in the river, soil erosion and degradation, decreased soil fertility, loss of vegetation cover, decreased water infiltration capacity and increased sedimentation. One of the pollutants carried by the river includes nitrogen, which has contributed to ecological degradation of the Lake Victoria. Therefore this research work was intended to determine the effectiveness of Mara River wetland for removal of nitrogen and to establish nitrogen removal mechanisms in the wetland. To predict nitrogen removal in the wetland, the dynamics of nitrogen transformation was studied using a conceptual numerical model that takes into account of various processes in the system using STELLA II version 9.0®2006 software. Samples of model input from water, plants and sediments were taken for 45 days and were analyzed for pH, temperature, and DO in situ and chemical parameters such as NH3-N, Org-N, NO2-N, and NO3-N were analyzed in the laboratory in accordance with Standard methods. For plants, the density, dominance, biomass productivity and TN were determined and for sediments TN was analyzed. Inflow into the wetland was determined using stage-discharge relationship and was found to be 734,400 m3/day and the average wetland volume was 1,113,500 m3. Data collected by this study were used for model calibration of nitrogen transformation in this wetland while data from another wetland were used for model validation. It was found that about 37.8% of total nitrogen was removed by the wetland system largely through sedimentation (26.6%), plant uptake (6.6%) and

  8. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: five decades of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The first experiments on the use of wetland plants to treat wastewaters were carried out in the early 1950s by Dr. Käthe Seidel in Germany and the first full-scale systems were put into operation during the late 1960s. Since then, the subsurface systems have been commonly used in Europe while free water surface systems have been more popular in North America and Australia. During the 1970s and 1980s, the information on constructed wetland technology spread slowly. But since the 1990 s the technology has become international, facilitated by exchange among scientists and researchers around the world. Because of the need for more effective removal of ammonia and total nitrogen, during the 1990 s and 2000s vertical and horizontal flow constructed wetlands were combined to complement each other to achieve higher treatment efficiency. Today, constructed wetlands are recognized as a reliable wastewater treatment technology and they represent a suitable solution for the treatment of many types of wastewater.

  9. Review of Constructed Subsurface Flow vs. Surface Flow Wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALVERSON, NANCY

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to use existing documentation to review the effectiveness of subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands in treating wastewater and to demonstrate the viability of treating effluent from Savannah River Site outfalls H-02 and H-04 with a subsurface flow constructed wetland to lower copper, lead and zinc concentrations to within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits. Constructed treatment wetlands are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to use the natural functions of wetlands for wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands have significantly lower total lifetime costs and often lower capital costs than conventional treatment systems. The two main types of constructed wetlands are surface flow and subsurface flow. In surface flow constructed wetlands, water flows above ground. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to keep the water level below the top of the rock or gravel media, thus minimizing human and ecological exposure. Subsurface flow wetlands demonstrate higher rates of contaminant removal per unit of land than surface flow (free water surface) wetlands, therefore subsurface flow wetlands can be smaller while achieving the same level of contaminant removal. Wetlands remove metals using a variety of processes including filtration of solids, sorption onto organic matter, oxidation and hydrolysis, formation of carbonates, formation of insoluble sulfides, binding to iron and manganese oxides, reduction to immobile forms by bacterial activity, and uptake by plants and bacteria. Metal removal rates in both subsurface flow and surface flow wetlands can be high, but can vary greatly depending upon the influent concentrations and the mass loading rate. Removal rates of greater than 90 per cent for copper, lead and zinc have been demonstrated in operating surface flow and subsurface flow wetlands. The constituents that exceed NPDES limits at outfalls H-02 a nd H

  10. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  11. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  12. Effects of power-line construction on wetland vegetation in Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Norton H.; Dobberteen, Ross A.; Jarman, Nancy M.

    1989-07-01

    Utility rights-of-way corridors through wetland areas generate long-term impacts from construction activities to these valuable ecosystems. Changes to and recovery of the vegetation communities of a cattail marsh, wooded swamp, and shrub/bog wetland were documented through measurements made each growing season for two years prior, five years following, and again on the tenth year after construction of a 345-kV transmission line. While both the cattail marsh and wooded swamp recovered within a few years, measures of plant community composition in the shrub/bog wetland were still lower, compared to controls, after ten years. Long-term investigations such as the one reported here help decrease uncertainty and provide valuable information for future decision making regarding construction of power utility lines through valuable and dwindling wetland resources.

  13. Performance of a half-saturated vertical flow wetland packed with volcanic gravel in stormwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaoping; Park, Kisoo; Niu, Siping; Kim, Youngchul

    2014-01-01

    A half-saturated pilot-scale wetland planted with Acorus calamus was built to treat urban stormwater. The design comprises a sedimentation tank for pretreatment, and a vertical flow volcanic gravel wetland bed equipped with a recirculation device. Eighteen rainfall events were monitored in 2012. The treatment system achieved total removal efficiencies of 99.4, 81, 50, and 86% for suspended solids, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively, and 29, 68, and 25% for copper, zinc, and lead, respectively, at a 3-day hydraulic residence time. In the wetland bed, the removal of ammonia, total nitrogen, and zinc were improved by recirculation. Plant uptake provided 18% of nitrogen removal and 39% of phosphorus removal. During the experimental stage, only 1.4% of the pore volume in substrate was reduced due to clogging, implying that the wetland can operate without clogging for a relatively long period.

  14. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, M

    2003-01-01

    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species.

  15. Vegetation of natural and artificial shorelines in Upper Klamath Basin’s fringe wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Hamilton, Andy S.

    2013-01-01

    The Upper Klamath Basin (UKB) in northern California and southern Oregon supports large hypereutrophic lakes surrounded by natural and artificial shorelines. Lake shorelines contain fringe wetlands that provide key ecological services to the people of this region. These wetlands also provide a context for drawing inferences about how differing wetland types and wave exposure contribute to the vegetative assemblages in lake-fringe wetlands. Here, we summarize how elevation profiles and vegetation richness vary as a function of wave exposure and wetland type. Our results show that levee wetland shorelines are 4X steeper and support fewer species than other wetland types. We also summarize the occurrence probability of the five common wetland plant species that represent the overwhelming majority of the diversity of these wetlands. In brief, the occurrence probability of the culturally significant Nuphar lutea spp. polysepala and the invasive Phalaris arundinacea in wave exposed and sheltered sites varies based on wetland type. The occurrence probability for P. arundinacea was greatest in exposed portions of deltaic shorelines, but these trends were reversed on levees where the occurrence probability was greater in sheltered sites. The widespread Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus occurred throughout all wetland and exposure type combinations but had a higher probability of occurrence in wave exposed sites. Results from this work will add to our current understanding of how wetland shoreline profiles interact with wave exposure to influence the occurrence probability of the dominant vegetative species in UKB’s shoreline wetlands.

  16. Impacts of environmental factors on the climbing behaviors of herbaceous stem-twiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Chen, Youfang; Liu, Meicun

    2017-11-01

    The curvature of the helical trajectory formed by herbaceous stem-twiners has been hypothesized to be constant on uniformly sized cylindrical supports and remains constant on different supports varying in diameter. However, experimental studies on the constant curvature hypothesis have been very limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis in a series of experiments on five herbaceous stem-twiners ( Ipomoea triloba , Ipomoea nil , Phaseolus vulgaris , Vigna unguiculata, and Mikania micrantha ). We investigated how internode characteristics (curvature [β], diameter [ d ], and length [ L ]) and success rate (SR) of twining shoots would be affected by support thickness ( D ), temperature ( T ), illumination, and support inclination. The results showed that: (1) the SR of tested species decreased, but d increased with increasing support thickness. The β of the twining shoots on erect cylindrical poles was not constant, but it decreased with increasing d or support thickness. (2) The SR of tested species was not obviously reduced under low-temperature conditions, but their β was significantly higher and d significantly lower when temperature was more than 5°C lower. (3) The SR , d, and L of two tested Ipomoea species significantly declined, but β increased under 50% shading stress. (4) The curvatures of upper semicycles of I. triloba shoots on 45° inclined supports were not significantly different from curvatures of those shoots climb on erect supports, whereas the curvatures of lower semicycles were 40%-72% higher than curvatures of upper semicycles. Synthesis : Our study illustrates that stem curvatures of a certain herbaceous stem-twiners are not constant, but rather vary in response to external support, temperature, and illumination conditions. We speculate that herbaceous stem-twiners positively adapt to wide-diameter supports by thickening their stems and by reducing their twining curvatures. This insight helps us better understand climbing processes and

  17. Plant growth and microbial processes in a constructed wetland planted with Phalaris arundinacea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edwards, K.R.; Čížková, Hana; Zemanová, K.; Šantrůčková, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2006), s. 153-165 ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/1036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Constructed wetland * N mineralization * P mineralization * nutrient uptake * Phalaris arundinacea * non-structural carbohydrates * eutrophication Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2006

  18. Floral diversity of Baanganga Wetland, Uttarakhand, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Baanganga wetland, a 45 km long channel originates near Bishenpur and flows in Idrishpur-Chakheri forestblock of Haridwar district in Uttarakhand, India represents riverine ecosystem. The study area harbors many islands,varying in shape and size, which remains underwater during the rainy season and provide a good habitat to various planttaxa, birds (resident as well as migratory and animals mainly Swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli, a criticallyendangered species and Hog deer (Axis procinus. To asses the status and distribution of flora, trips were conducted inthe intensive study area. The plants were classified based on their habit and their presence was visually observed. Atotal of 178 plant species were recorded, of which 40 species (hydrophytes were found in aquatic habitat, 122 specieson moist shores and 117 species in upland habitat. Phragmites karka, Polygonum barbatum, Ipomoea carnea, and Typhaelephantina were the most common species in all the habitats. The majority of plants (40 are from Indian orientalregion. The moist shore and upland habitats had maximum similarity (64 % followed by aquatic and moist shore (26% habitats. The status of flora and management of Baanganga wetland ecosystem has been discussed in the paper.

  19. Plant community analysis and ecology of afromontane and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant communities of the forests of southwestern Ethiopia were described based on floristic analysis of the data collected between February 1995 and May 1996. Floristic analysis is based on the cover-abundance values of both woody and herbaceous species. Plant community-environment relationship was assessed ...

  20. Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C. M.; Nowicki, R. S.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    In west-central Florida, wetland and lake distribution is strongly controlled by karst landforms. Sandhill wetlands and lakes are sand-filled upland basins whose water levels are groundwater driven. Lake dimensions only reach wetland edges during extreme precipitation events. Current wetland classification schemes are inappropriate for identifying sandhill wetlands due to their unique hydrologic regime and ecologic expression. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not a wetland is impacted by groundwater pumping, development, and climate change. A better understanding of subsurface structures and how they control the hydrologic regime is necessary for development of an identification and monitoring protocol. Long-term studies record vegetation diversity and distribution, shallow ground water levels and surface water levels. The overall goals are to determine the hydrologic controls (groundwater, seepage, surface water inputs). Most recently a series of geophysical surveys was conducted at select sites in Hernando and Pasco County, Florida. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar were employed to image sand-filled basins and the top of the limestone bedrock and stratigraphy of wetland slopes, respectively. The deepest extent of these sand-filled basins is generally reflected in topography as shallow depressions. Resistivity along inundated wetlands suggests the pools are surface expressions of the surficial aquifer. However, possible breaches in confining clay layers beneath topographic highs between depressions are seen in resistivity profiles as conductive anomalies and in GPR as interruptions in otherwise continuous horizons. These data occur at sites where unconfined and confined water levels are in agreement, suggesting communication between shallow and deep groundwater. Wetland plants are observed outside the historic wetland boundary at many sites, GPR profiles show near-surface layers dipping towards the wetlands at a shallower

  1. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Dark Septate Endophyte Fungal Associations in South Indian Aquatic and Wetland Macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Seerangan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the prevalence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and dark septate endophyte (DSE fungal symbioses are limited for plants growing in tropical aquatic and wetland habitats compared to those growing on terrestrial moist or dry habitats. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of AM and DSE symbiosis in 8 hydrophytes and 50 wetland plants from four sites in south India. Of the 58 plant species examined, we found AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in 21 and five species, respectively. We reported for the first time AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in seven and five species, respectively. Intermediate-type AM morphology was common, and AM morphology is reported for the first time in 16 plant species. Both AM and DSE fungal colonization varied significantly across plant species and sites. Intact and identifiable AM fungal spores occurred in root zones of nine plant species, but AM fungal species richness was low. Though no clear relationship between AM and DSE fungal colonization was recognized, a significant negative correlation between AM colonization and spore numbers was established. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in plants growing in hydrophytic and wetland habitats is not as common as in terrestrial habitats.

  2. Warming increases plant biomass and reduces diversity across continents, latitudes, and species migration scenarios in experimental wetland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Andrew H; Jensen, Kai; Schönfeldt, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric warming may influence plant productivity and diversity and induce poleward migration of species, altering communities across latitudes. Complicating the picture is that communities from different continents deviate in evolutionary histories, which may modify responses to warming and migration. We used experimental wetland plant communities grown from seed banks as model systems to determine whether effects of warming on biomass production and species richness are consistent across continents, latitudes, and migration scenarios. We collected soil samples from each of three tidal freshwater marshes in estuaries at three latitudes (north, middle, south) on the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America. In one experiment, we exposed soil seed bank communities from each latitude and continent to ambient and elevated (+2.8 °C) temperatures in the greenhouse. In a second experiment, soil samples were mixed either within each estuary (limited migration) or among estuaries from different latitudes in each continent (complete migration). Seed bank communities of these migration scenarios were also exposed to ambient and elevated temperatures and contrasted with a no-migration treatment. In the first experiment, warming overall increased biomass (+16%) and decreased species richness (-14%) across latitudes in Europe and North America. Species richness and evenness of south-latitude communities were less affected by warming than those of middle and north latitudes. In the second experiment, warming also stimulated biomass and lowered species richness. In addition, complete migration led to increased species richness (+60% in North America, + 100% in Europe), but this higher diversity did not translate into increased biomass. Species responded idiosyncratically to warming, but Lythrum salicaria and Bidens sp. increased significantly in response to warming in both continents. These results reveal for the first time consistent impacts of warming on biomass and

  3. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmadi, Andri T; Kitajima, Masaaki; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the occurrence and attenuation of several human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus 1, polyomaviruses, and enterovirus) as well as a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), at two surface flow wetlands in Arizona. The retention time in one of the wetlands was seven days, whereas in the other wetland it could not be defined. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet from the wetlands over nine months, and concentration of viral genomes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the human enteric viruses tested, adenovirus and Aichi virus 1 were found in the greatest prevalence in treated wastewater (i.e., inlet of the wetlands). Reduction efficiencies of enteric viruses by the wetlands ranged from 1 to 3 log10. Polyomaviruses were generally removed to below detection limit, indicating at least 2 to 4 log10 removal. PMMoV was detected in a greater concentration in the inlet of both wetlands for all the viruses tested (10(4) to 10(7) genome copies/L), but exhibited little or no removal (1 log10 or less). To determine the factors associated with virus genome attenuation (as determined by qPCR), the persistence of PMMoV and poliovirus type 1 (an enterovirus) was studied in autoclaved and natural wetland water, and deionized water incubated under three different temperatures for 21 days. A combination of elevated water temperature and biological activities reduced poliovirus by 1 to 4 log10, while PMMoV was not significantly reduced during this time period. Overall, PMMoV showed much greater persistence than human viruses in the wetland treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Floral diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in hogsback, the eastern cape province, south africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.Y.; Tol, J.J.V.; Maroyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate plant species diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in Hogsback, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Twenty four circular plots with radius of 2m were established between March and August 2013 within Hogsback montane wetland. Within each sample plot, the habitat information and species present were recorded including Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance values for all species present in the plot. A total of 41 species belonging to 19 families and 36 genera were recorded. Of the documented species, 7.3% were exotic and endemic to South Africa, indicating diversity and dynamic nature of Hogsback montane wetland flora. Plant families with the highest number of species were: Poaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (six species), Onagraceae and Cyperaceae (three species each) and Lamiaceae with two species. The low number of exotic plant species recorded in Hogsback wetland (three species in total) indicates limited anthropogenic influences. Unique species recorded in Hogsback montane wetland were three species that are endemic to South Africa, namely, Alchemilla capensis Thunb., Helichrysum rosum (P.J. Bergius) Lees and Lysimachia nutans Nees. Five main floristic associations were identified from the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that edaphic factors, particularly area covered with water, erosion category, organic matter content and water table depth were the most important environmental variables measured accounting for the vegetation pattern present in the Hogsback montane wetland. Montane wetlands have a relatively low species richness characterised by unique species compositions which are distinctive and habitat specific. (author)

  6. Nitrogen removal and recovery from lagoon-pretreated swine wastewater by constructed wetlands under sustainable plant harvesting management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Shunan; Li, Hongfang; Yao, Ran; Jiang, Qianwen; Xiao, Runlin; Wu, Jinshui

    2018-06-01

    A series of three-stage pilot-scale surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with Myriophyllum aquaticum were fed with three strengths of lagoon-pretreated swine wastewater to study nitrogen (N) removal and recovery under sustainable plant harvesting management. The CWs had mean removal efficiency of 87.7-97.9% for NH 4 + -N and 85.4-96.1% for total N (TN). The recovered TN mass via multiple harvests of M. aquaticum was greatest (120-222 g N m -2  yr -1 ) when TN concentrations were 21.8-282 mg L -1 . The harvested TN mass accounted for 0.85-100% of the total removal in the different CW units. Based on mass balance estimation, plant uptake, sediment storage, and microbial removal accounted for 13.0-55.0%, 4.9-8.0%, and 33.0-67.5% of TN loading mass, respectively. The results of this study confirm that M. aquaticum is appropriate for the removal and recovery of nutrients in CW systems designed for treating swine wastewater in conjunction with sustainable plant harvesting strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Model estimation of land-use effects on water levels of northern Prairie wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldseth, R.A.; Johnson, W.C.; Gilmanov, T.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Millett, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region exist in a matrix of grassland dominated by intensive pastoral and cultivation agriculture. Recent conservation management has emphasized the conversion of cultivated farmland and degraded pastures to intact grassland to improve upland nesting habitat. The consequences of changes in land-use cover that alter watershed processes have not been evaluated relative to their effect on the water budgets and vegetation dynamics of associated wetlands. We simulated the effect of upland agricultural practices on the water budget and vegetation of a semipermanent prairie wetland by modifying a previously published mathematical model (WETSIM). Watershed cover/land-use practices were categorized as unmanaged grassland (native grass, smooth brome), managed grassland (moderately heavily grazed, prescribed burned), cultivated crops (row crop, small grain), and alfalfa hayland. Model simulations showed that differing rates of evapotranspiration and runoff associated with different upland plant-cover categories in the surrounding catchment produced differences in wetland water budgets and linked ecological dynamics. Wetland water levels were highest and vegetation the most dynamic under the managed-grassland simulations, while water levels were the lowest and vegetation the least dynamic under the unmanaged-grassland simulations. The modeling results suggest that unmanaged grassland, often planted for waterfowl nesting, may produce the least favorable wetland conditions for birds, especially in drier regions of the Prairie Pothole Region. These results stand as hypotheses that urgently need to be verified with empirical data.

  8. Soil and water characteristics of a young surface mine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Cole, C.; Lefebvre, Eugene A.

    1991-05-01

    Coal companies are reluctant to include wetland development in reclamation plans partly due to a lack of information on the resulting characteristics of such sites. It is easier for coal companies to recreate terrestrial habitats than to attempt experimental methods and possibly face significant regulatory disapproval. Therefore, we studied a young (10 years) wetland on a reclaimed surface coal mine in southern Illinois so as to ascertain soil and water characteristics such that the site might serve as a model for wetland development on surface mines. Water pH was not measured because of equipment problems, but evidence (plant life, fish, herpetofauna) suggests suitable pH levels. Other water parameters (conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, chloride, copper, total hardness, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate) were measured, and only copper was seen in potentially high concentrations (but with no obvious toxic effects). Soil variables measured included pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, iron, sulfate, chloride, and percent organic matter. Soils were slightly alkaline and most parameters fell within levels reported for other studies on both natural and manmade wetlands. Aluminum was high, but this might be indicative more of large amounts complexed with soils and therefore unavailable, than amounts actually accessible to plants. Organic matter was moderate, somewhat surprising given the age of the system.

  9. Incorporating H2 Dynamics and Inhibition into a Microbially Based Methanogenesis Model for Restored Wetland Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, David; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of global CH4 emissions from wetlands indicate that wetlands are the largest natural source of CH4 to the atmosphere. In this paper, we propose that there is a missing component to these models that should be addressed. CH4 is produced in wetland sediments from the microbial degradation of organic carbon through multiple fermentation steps and methanogenesis pathways. There are multiple sources of carbon for methananogenesis; in vegetated wetland sediments, microbial communities consume root exudates as a major source of organic carbon. In many methane models propionate is used as a model carbon molecule. This simple sugar is fermented into acetate and H2, acetate is transformed to methane and CO2, while the H2 and CO2 are used to form an additional CH4 molecule. The hydrogenotrophic pathway involves the equilibrium of two dissolved gases, CH4 and H2. In an effort to limit CH4 emissions from wetlands, there has been growing interest in finding ways to limit plant transport of soil gases through root systems. Changing planted species, or genetically modifying new species of plants may control this transport of soil gases. While this may decrease the direct emissions of methane, there is little understanding about how H2 dynamics may feedback into overall methane production. The results of an incubation study were combined with a new model of propionate degradation for methanogenesis that also examines other natural parameters (i.e. gas transport through plants). This presentation examines how we would expect this model to behave in a natural field setting with changing sulfate and carbon loading schemes. These changes can be controlled through new plant species and other management practices. Next, we compare the behavior of two variations of this model, with or without the incorporation of H2 interactions, with changing sulfate, carbon loading and root volatilization. Results show that while the models behave similarly there may be a discrepancy of nearly

  10. Phragmites australis + Typha latifolia Community Enhanced the Enrichment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Soil of Qin Lake Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN and phosphorus (TP in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that (1 the consumption effect of Qin Lake wetland on soluble N was much more significant than on soluble P. (2 The efficiency of TN enrichment in wetland soil was enhanced by vegetation covering of P. australis and T. latifolia. (3 Wetland soil P was consumed by P. australis community and this pattern was relieved with the introduction of T. latifolia. (4 According to the grey relativity analysis, the most intensive interaction between plants and soil occurred in summer. In addition, the exchange of N in soil-vegetation system primarily occurred in the 0–15 cm soil layer. Our results indicated that vegetation covering was essential to the enrichment of TN and TP, referring to the biology-related fixation in the wetland soil.

  11. Limits to understory plant restoration following fuel-reduction treatments in a piñon-juniper woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Miranda D; Zelikova, Tamara J; Barger, Nichole N

    2014-11-01

    National fuel-reduction programs aim to reduce the risk of wildland fires to human communities and to restore forest and rangeland ecosystems to resemble their historical structure, function, and diversity. There are a number of factors, such as seed bank dynamics, post-treatment climate, and herbivory, which determine whether this latter goal may be achieved. Here, we examine the short-term (2 years) vegetation response to fuel-reduction treatments (mechanical mastication, broadcast burn, and pile burn) and seeding of native grasses on understory vegetation in an upland piñon-juniper woodland in southeast Utah. We also examine how wildlife herbivory affects the success of fuel-reduction treatments. Herbaceous cover increased in response to fuel-reduction treatments in all seeded treatments, with the broadcast burn and mastication having greater increases (234 and 160 %, respectively) in herbaceous cover than the pile burn (32 %). In the absence of seeding, herbaceous cover only increased in the broadcast burn (32 %). Notably, fuel-reduction treatments, but not seeding, strongly affected herbaceous plant composition. All fuel-reduction treatments increased the relative density of invasive species, especially in the broadcast burn, which shifted the plant community composition from one dominated by perennial graminoids to one dominated by annual forbs. Herbivory by wildlife reduced understory plant cover by over 40 % and altered plant community composition. If the primary management goal is to enhance understory cover while promoting native species abundance, our study suggests that mastication may be the most effective treatment strategy in these upland piñon-juniper woodlands. Seed applications and wildlife exclosures further enhanced herbaceous cover following fuel-reduction treatments.

  12. Investigation into the kinetics of constructed wetland degradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -scale, horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland (6.0 m × 1.0 m × 0.5 m) in Leipzig, Germany. The bed contained glacial gravel (4–8 mm) planted with Phragmites australis. Construction was completed in October 2013 and experiments ...

  13. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser

    2015-01-01

    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  14. Assessment of nutrient removal in vegetated and unvegetated gravel bed mesocosm treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, J.M.; Werker, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are being considered more frequently as an option for wastewater treatment around the world. However, widespread application of this technology requires further understanding of the system performance. Such knowledge is necessary to develop improved models, better characterize the essential treatment processes and improve the reliability in performance. The goal of achieving predictable levels of wastewater amelioration with minimal performance variability is an essential part of securing regulatory approval for treatment wetland systems. Laboratory mesocosms or unit-wetlands are being utilized and novel in-situ calibration methods are being applied to reference and compare kinetics of wastewater contaminant transformations. Tracer studies are being applied to reference plant and biofilm development within and between mesocosms with respect to carbon and nitrogen. Through detailed characterization of these unit wetlands, aspects of nutrient removal are being systematically examined. This paper will highlight the unit-wetland approach and experimental results juxtaposed the relevant literature surrounding wetland treatment of wastewater. (author)

  15. [Factors affecting the vegetation restoration after fires in cold temperate wetlands: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Jun; Wang, Li-Zhong; Shu, Li-Fu; Chen, Peng-Yu; Chen, Li-guang

    2013-03-01

    Cold temperate wetland plays an important role in maintaining regional ecological balance. Fire is an important disturbance factor in wetland ecosystem. Severe burning can induce the marked degradation of the ecological functions of wetland ecosystem. The vegetation restoration, especially the early vegetation restoration, after fires, is the premise and basis for the recovery of the ecological functions of the ecosystem. This paper reviewed the research progress on the factors affecting the vegetation restoration after fires in wetlands. The vegetation restoration after fires in cold temperate wetlands was controlled by the fire intensity, fire size, vegetation types before fires, regeneration characteristics of plant species, and site conditions. It was considered that the long-term monitoring on the post-fire vegetation restoration in cold temperate wetland, the key factors affecting the vegetation restoration, the roles of frozen soil layer on the post-fire vegetation restoration, and the theories and technologies on the vegetation restoration would be the main research directions in the future.

  16. Diurnal adjustment in ultraviolet sunscreen protection is widespread among higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Tobler, Mark A; Ryel, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) in the epidermis of higher plants reduces the penetration of solar UV radiation to underlying tissues and is a primary mechanism of acclimation to changing UV conditions resulting from ozone depletion and climate change. Previously we reported that several herbaceous plant species were capable of rapid, diurnal adjustments in epidermal UV transmittance (T UV), but how widespread this phenomenon is among plants has been unknown. In the present study, we tested the generality of this response by screening 37 species of various cultivated and wild plants growing in four locations spanning a gradient of ambient solar UV and climate (Hawaii, Utah, Idaho and Louisiana). Non-destructive measurements of adaxial T UV indicated that statistically significant midday decreases in T UV occurred in 49 % of the species tested, including both herbaceous and woody growth forms, and there was substantial interspecific variation in the magnitude of these changes. In general, plants in Louisiana exhibited larger diurnal changes in T UV than those in the other locations. Moreover, across all taxa, the magnitude of these changes was positively correlated with minimum daily air temperatures but not daily UV irradiances. Results indicate that diurnal changes in UV shielding are widespread among higher plants, vary both within and among species and tend to be greatest in herbaceous plants growing in warm environments. These findings suggest that plant species differ in their UV protection "strategies" though the functional and ecological significance of this variation in UV sunscreen protection remains unclear at present.

  17. A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semi-permanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential for misdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

  18. Evaluation of Organic Matter Removal Efficiency and Microbial Enzyme Activity in Vertical-Flow Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, enzyme activities and their relationships to organics purification were investigated in three different vertical flow constructed wetlands, namely system A (planting Pennisetum sinese Roxb, system B (planting Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and system C (no plant. These three wetland systems were fed with simulation domestic sewage at an influent flow rate of 20 cm/day. The results showed that the final removal efficiency of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in these three systems was 87%, 85% and 63%, respectively. Planting Pennisetum sinese Roxb and Pennisetum purpureum Schum. could improve the amount of adsorption and interception for organic matter in the substrate, and the amount of interception of organic matter in planting the Pennisetum sinese Roxb system was higher than that in planting the Pennisetum purpureum Schum. system. The activities of enzymes (urease, phosphatase and cellulase in systems A and B were higher than those in system C, and these enzyme activities in the top layer (0–30 cm were significantly higher than in the other layers. The correlations between the activities of urease, phosphatase, cellulase and the COD removal rates were R = 0.815, 0.961 and 0.973, respectively. It suggests that using Pennisetum sinese Roxb and Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as wetland plants could promote organics removal, and the activities of urease, phosphatase and cellulase in those three systems were important indicators for COD purification from wastewater. In addition, 0–30 cm was the main function layer. This study could provide a theoretical basis for COD removal in the wetland system and supply new plant materials for selection.

  19. Vertical distribution of mercury and MeHg in Nandagang and Beidagang wetlands: Influence of microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruhai; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Jin; Shan, Huayao

    2018-02-01

    Wetlands often show different small-scale topography, such as riffle, habitat island, deep water, shallow water zone and dry zone. Core soils in different micro topographical landforms of Nandagang and Beidagang wetlands in North China were sampled for THg and MeHg to analyze the influence of microtopography. Results showed that THg content in surface soil (pollution in past. High THg content in undisturbed natural wetland soil implied accumulation of mercury. Harvest of plant, drained water decreased the accumulation of mercury in wetlands. Water level caused by microtopography affected the production of MeHg. Depth of the highest MeHg content decreased from N1, N2, N6, N3 to N4 following the increase of water level. Plant type and coverage also affected the vertical distribution of MeHg. More detailed profiles of MeHg, organic matter and total phosphorus in different sites show strong differences in soil chemistry, suggesting a complex interplay among hydrology, biogeochemistry and microtopography.

  20. Negative Plant-Soil Feedback and Positive Species Interaction in a Herbaceous Plant Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanomi, G.; Rietkerk, M.; Dekker, S.C.; Mazzoleni, S.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that facilitative interaction and negative plant¿soil feedback are driving factors of plant population dynamics and community processes. We studied the intensity and the relative impact of negative feedback on clonal growth and seed germination of Scirpus holoschoenus, a

  1. Distribution of clonal growth forms in wetlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosnová, Monika; van Diggelen, R.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 1 (2010), s. 33-39 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : clonal growth organ * the Netherlands * wetland plant community Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.087, year: 2010

  2. Vertical flow constructed wetlands: kinetics of nutrient and organic matter removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M M; Hernández, J M; Bossens, J; Jiménez, T; Rosa, E; Tack, F

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of organic matter and nutrient removal in a pilot vertical subsurface wetland with red ferralitic soil as substrate were evaluated. The wetland (20 m(2)) was planted with Cyperus alternifolius. The domestic wastewater that was treated in the wetland had undergone a primary treatment consisting of a septic moat and a buffer tank. From the sixth week of operation, the performance of the wetland stabilized, and a significant reduction in pollutant concentration of the effluent wastewater was obtained. Also a significant increase of dissolved oxygen (5 mg/l) was obtained. The organic matter removal efficiency was greater than 85% and the nutrient removal efficiency was greater than 75% in the vertical subsurface wetland. Nitrogen and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal could be described by a first-order model. The kinetic constants were 3.64 and 3.27 d(-1) for BOD and for total nitrogen, respectively. Data on the removal of phosphorus were adapted to a second-order model. The kinetic constant was 0.96 (mg/l)(-1) d(-1). The results demonstrated the potential of vertical flow constructed wetlands to clean treated domestic wastewater before discharge into the environment.

  3. Constructed wetland: an alternative for wastewater treatment; Humedales construidos: una alternativa a considerar para el tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza de los Reyes del Rio, C.; Vidal Saez, G.

    2007-07-01

    Research and trends dealing with sewage and industrial wastewaters treated by constructed wetlands are shown in this paper. Plant and constructed wetlands configurations are also described. Sewage domestic wastewaters from individual houses or villages have used constructed wetlands as wastewater treatment. On the other hand, constructed wetlands as finally treatment working together with conventional technologies could be a good alternative for improving the treated quality wastewater. (Author) 56 refs.

  4. Silica in invasive wetland plant species of lagoons, Côte d'Ivoire: Spatio-temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-mathieu Koné, Yéfanlan; Schoelynck, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    Tropical wetlands are known to accumulate a large quantity of Biogenic Silica (BSi) produced by wetland plant species (Struyf et al., 2015), and approximately 70-80% of the total supply of Dissolved Si (DSi) to the coastal zone occurs in (sub) tropical river systems (Jennerjahn et al. 2006). However, the data at these latitudes are limited. Here, we present the BSi concentration from eleven invasive macrophyte species randomly collected in three small ( 800ha) lagoons of Côte d'Ivoire during 12 months. Our data showed a large spatio-temporal variability of BSi in the three lagoons with no consistent trends. In general, the BSi concentrations obtained were high and values ranged from 0 to 54 mg g-1 through the entire sampling period, with the highest values found in Acroceras zizaniodes (emergent species of Poaceae). In general, free floating species had significantly less BSi than emergent species (Pspecies of fern, Salviniaceae) at the young stage were similar to those found in the emergent species. Based on yearly averages, highest BSi values were observed in Kodjoboué lagoon, and the lowest in the Ono lagoon that is 80% covered by macrophytes. Moreover, the dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations were systematically higher in Ono Lagoon than in Kodjoboué Lagoon. We conclude that in an eutrophic system Si accumulating in aquatic macrophytes is not related to Si availability but to other environmental factors. Jennerjahn, T.C., Knoppers, B.A., de Souze, W.F.L., Brunskill, G.J., Silva, E.I.L., Adi, S. et al., 2006. Factors controlling dissolved silica in tropical rivers. In: Ittekot, V. (ed) The silicon cycle. Island Press, Washington, D. C, pp 29-51 Schoelynck J and Struyf E, 2016. Silicon in aquatic vegetation. Functional Ecology. 30: 1323-1330. Struyf, E., Mosimane, K., Van Pelt, D., Murray-Hudson, M., Meire, P., Frings, P., Wolski, P., Schaller, J., Gondwe, M.J., Schoelynck, J. and Conley, D.J., 2015. The role of vegetation in the Okavango Delta silica sink

  5. Soil respiration in typical plant communities in the wetland surrounding the high-salinity Ebinur Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Zhao, Mingliang; Li, Fadong

    2018-03-01

    Soil respiration in wetlands surrounding lakes is a vital component of the soil carbon cycle in arid regions. However, information remains limited on the soil respiration around highly saline lakes during the plant growing season. Here, we aimed to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variation in soil respiration to elucidate the controlling factors in the wetland of Ebinur Lake, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, western China. We used a soil carbon flux automatic analyzer (LI-840A) to measure soil respiration rates during the growing season (April to November) in two fields covered by reeds and tamarisk and one field with no vegetation (bare soil) from 2015 to 2016. The results showed a single peak in the diurnal pattern of soil respiration from 11:00 to 17:00 for plots covered in reeds, tamarisk, and bare soil, with minimum values being detected from 03:00 to 07:00. During the growing season, the soil respiration of reeds and tamarisk peaked during the thriving period (4.16 and 3.75 mmol•m-2•s-1, respectively), while that of bare soil peaked during the intermediate growth period (0.74 mmol•m-2•s-1). The soil respiration in all three plots was lowest during the wintering period (0.08, 0.09, and-0.87 mmol•m-2•s-1, respectively). Air temperature and relative humidity significantly influenced soil respiration. A significant linear relationship was detected between soil respiration and soil temperature for reeds, tamarisk, and bare soil. The average Q10 of reeds and tamarisk were larger than that of bare soil. However, soil moisture content was not the main factor controlling soil respiration. Soil respiration was negatively correlated with soil pH and soil salinity in all three plot types. In contrast, soil respiration was positively correlated with organic carbon. Overall, CO2 emissions and greenhouse gases had a relatively weak effect on the wetlands surrounding the highly saline Ebinur Lake.

  6. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond

  7. The state of oil sands wetland reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The state of oil sand and wetlands reclamation was the subject of this presentation. Wildlife habitat and response, plant community and production, and microbial biology were examples of research areas surrounding this body of knowledge. Hydrological research and landscape ecology were discussed along with peatlands and marshes such as the Corvette and the Kia. A few examples of what has been learned in the area of wetlands reclamation was presented. Other topics were also discussed, such as timeframes, pragmatic policy approaches, reclamation costs, research needs and some ideas on maturing the field. It was concluded that environmental conditions change with time and area because of time, chemistry, physics, stoichiometry, as well as biotic mediation and facilitation. figs.

  8. Desempenho de bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes Banana plant performance intercropping with perennial herbaceous legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Perin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de plantas de cobertura em consórcio com bananeiras pode ser uma estratégia de manejo, possibilitando aumentos de produtividade associados à otimização de processos biológicos e maior estabilidade do sistema produtivo. Neste trabalho, objetivo-se avaliar o efeito da cobertura viva, formada por leguminosas herbáceas perenes sobre a produção de bananeira cultivar Nanicão. Os tratamentos foram: amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth., siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb., vegetação espontânea (dominada por Panicum maximum Jacq. e vegetação espontânea + N-fertilizante. Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras entre abril/1999 e julho/2000 e os atributos de produtividade. O peso do cacho e da penca foram positivamente influenciados pelo siratro e cudzu tropical empregados como coberturas vivas, quando comparados aos demais tratamentos. Todas as leguminosas proporcionaram maior crescimento das bananeiras (notadamente a partir do 6º mês, maior número de folhas emitidas e maior proporção de cachos colhidos, em relação aos tratamentos com vegetação espontânea (com e sem N-fertilizante. As leguminosas siratro e cudzu tropical promoveram condições adequadas ao desenvolvimento das bananeiras, acarretando ganhos de produtividade e eliminação da adubação nitrogenada no bananal. O potencial benéfico das leguminosas cudzu tropical e siratro como coberturas vivas capazes de proporcionar aumentos na produtividade de banana, qualifica essas espécies como alternativa promissora para a fertilidade do solo e nutrição das bananeiras.The use of coverage plants in cover cropping with bananas can be a management strategy, increasing in productivity associated with the optimization of biological processes and greater stability of production system. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of live coverage by herbaceous perennial legume on

  9. An Improved Estimation of Regional Fractional Woody/Herbaceous Cover Using Combined Satellite Data and High-Quality Training Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping vegetation cover is critical for understanding and monitoring ecosystem functions in semi-arid biomes. As existing estimates tend to underestimate the woody cover in areas with dry deciduous shrubland and woodland, we present an approach to improve the regional estimation of woody and herbaceous fractional cover in the East Asia steppe. This developed approach uses Random Forest models by combining multiple remote sensing data—training samples derived from high-resolution image in a tailored spatial sampling and model inputs composed of specific metrics from MODIS sensor and ancillary variables including topographic, bioclimatic, and land surface information. We emphasize that effective spatial sampling, high-quality classification, and adequate geospatial information are important prerequisites of establishing appropriate model inputs and achieving high-quality training samples. This study suggests that the optimal models improve estimation accuracy (NMSE 0.47 for woody and 0.64 for herbaceous plants and show a consistent agreement with field observations. Compared with existing woody estimate product, the proposed woody cover estimation can delineate regions with subshrubs and shrubs, showing an improved capability of capturing spatialized detail of vegetation signals. This approach can be applicable over sizable semi-arid areas such as temperate steppes, savannas, and prairies.

  10. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  11. A network model framework for prioritizing wetland conservation in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Gene; Haukos, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ContextPlaya wetlands are the primary habitat for numerous wetland-dependent species in the Southern Great Plains of North America. Plant and wildlife populations that inhabit these wetlands are reciprocally linked through the dispersal of individuals, propagules and ultimately genes among local populations.ObjectiveTo develop and implement a framework using network models for conceptualizing, representing and analyzing potential biological flows among 48,981 spatially discrete playa wetlands in the Southern Great Plains.MethodsWe examined changes in connectivity patterns and assessed the relative importance of wetlands to maintaining these patterns by targeting wetlands for removal based on network centrality metrics weighted by estimates of habitat quality and probability of inundation.ResultsWe identified several distinct, broad-scale sub networks and phase transitions among playa wetlands in the Southern Plains. In particular, for organisms that can disperse >2 km a dense and expansive wetland sub network emerges in the Southern High Plains. This network was characterized by localized, densely connected wetland clusters at link distances (h) >2 km but <5 km and was most sensitive to changes in wetland availability (p) and configuration when h = 4 km, and p = 0.2–0.4. It transitioned to a single, large connected wetland system at broader spatial scales even when the proportion of inundated wetland was relatively low (p = 0.2).ConclusionsOur findings suggest that redundancy in the potential for broad and fine-scale movements insulates this system from damage and facilitates system-wide connectivity among populations with different dispersal capacities.

  12. Addendum to the 1996 Gunnison Monitoring Report for the Gunnison, Colorado Wetlands Mitigation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This document is an addendum to the 1996 Gunnison Monitoring Report for the Gunnison, Colorado, Wetlands Mitigation Report, dated July 1997. The purpose of this addendum is to: (1) modify how information on plant height and plant species criteria are presented; and (2) provide more detailed information regarding the evaluation of the bare ground criteria at the Camp Ketle site. The information in this addendum is provided at the request of the Bureau of Land Management to aid in future monitoring and evaluation of the wetland mitigation sites

  13. Landscape object-based analysis of wetland plant functional types: the effects of spatial scale, vegetation classes and classifier methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Gong, P.; Wang, L.; Clinton, N.; Fu, W.; Qi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Remote sensing-based vegetation classifications representing plant function such as photosynthesis and productivity are challenging in wetlands with complex cover and difficult field access. Recent advances in object-based image analysis (OBIA) and machine-learning algorithms offer new classification tools; however, few comparisons of different algorithms and spatial scales have been discussed to date. We applied OBIA to delineate wetland plant functional types (PFTs) for Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China and Ramsar wetland conservation site, from 30-m Landsat TM scene at the peak of spring growing season. We targeted major PFTs (C3 grasses, C3 forbs and different types of C4 grasses and aquatic vegetation) that are both key players in system's biogeochemical cycles and critical providers of waterbird habitat. Classification results were compared among: a) several object segmentation scales (with average object sizes 900-9000 m2); b) several families of statistical classifiers (including Bayesian, Logistic, Neural Network, Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines) and c) two hierarchical levels of vegetation classification, a generalized 3-class set and more detailed 6-class set. We found that classification benefited from object-based approach which allowed including object shape, texture and context descriptors in classification. While a number of classifiers achieved high accuracy at the finest pixel-equivalent segmentation scale, the highest accuracies and best agreement among algorithms occurred at coarser object scales. No single classifier was consistently superior across all scales, although selected algorithms of Neural Network, Logistic and K-Nearest Neighbors families frequently provided the best discrimination of classes at different scales. The choice of vegetation categories also affected classification accuracy. The 6-class set allowed for higher individual class accuracies but lower overall accuracies than the 3-class set because

  14. Benefits from restoring wetlands for nitrogen abatement: A case study of Gotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The values of nitrogen abatement by measures involving restoration of wetlands, sewage treatment plants and agriculture are calculated and compared. The analytical results show that the value of wetlands is likely to exceed the values of other measures due to the multi-functionality of wetlands and their self-organizing ability. The multi-functionality implies that, in addition to nitrogen abatement, other outputs like buffering of water and biodiversity are produced and the self-organizing feature reduces the rate at which future values of outputs are discounted. According to the empirical results applied to Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic with high concentrations of nitrate in the ground water, the imputed value of wetlands exceeds the corresponding values of the other nitrogen abatement measures by several hundred per cent. 21 refs, 6 tabs

  15. Introduction to the Wetland Book 1: Wetland structure and function, management, and nethods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Nick C.; Middleton, Beth A.; McInnes, Robert J.; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; Van Dam, Anne A.; Finlayson, C. Max; Finlayson, C. Max; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; McInnes, Robert J.; Middleton, Beth A.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Davidson, Nick C.

    2016-01-01

    The Wetland Book 1 is designed as a ‘first port-of-call’ reference work for information on the structure and functions of wetlands, current approaches to wetland management, and methods for researching and understanding wetlands. Contributions by experts summarize key concepts, orient the reader to the major issues, and support further research on such issues by individuals and multidisciplinary teams. The Wetland Book 1 is organized in three parts - Wetland structure and function; Wetland management; and Wetland methods - each of which is divided into a number of thematic Sections. Each Section starts with one or more overview chapters, supported by chapters providing further information and case studies on different aspects of the theme.

  16. The role of pH in structuring communities of Maine wetland macrophytes and chironomid larvae (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, T.S.; Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Mingo, T.M.; Bennatti, C.R.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Aquatic vascular plants, or macrophytes, are an important habitat component for many wetland organisms, and larvae of chironomid midges are ubiquitous components of wetland fauna. Many chironomids are primary consumers of algae and detritus and form an essential energetic link between allochthonous and autochthonous primary production and higher trophic levels, while others are predators and feed on smaller invertebrates. Live macrophytes serve mostly as habitat, whereas plant detritus serves as both habitat and as a food source. Assemblages of macrophytes and chironomid larvae were surveyed in ten Maine wetlands, five with low pH (5.5), and explained in terms of physical and chemical habitat variables. Macrophyte richness was significantly greater, and richness of chironomid larvae was lower, in low pH wetlands. There was no difference in chironomid abundance related to pH. However, community structure was related to pH, suggesting that competitive dominance of a few taxa was responsible for lower richness in low pH wetlands, whereas competition was weaker in high pH wetlands, making coexistence of more chironomid taxa possible. An examination of individual chironomid taxa by stepwise multiple regression showed that distribution of most taxa was controlled by water chemistry variables and macrophyte habit (i.e., floating, submergent).

  17. CAN PALYNOLOGY CONTRIBUTE TO PLANT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES? THE WETLAND PLANTS IN SOUTHERN PO PLAIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Buldrini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Po Plain has long been modified by natural and human factors. The present plant landscape is almost entirely anthropogenic. Many hydro-hygrophilous species, quite common until a few decades ago, are now very rare and in danger of extinction, so conservation programmes are necessary for their protection and maintenance. It is known that the former vegetation can be reconstructed thanks to palynological data, but assessing the real presence of a given species is not always possible. This work aims to understand whether palynology can give information about the presence and identification of hydro-hygrophilous species, supporting the classical flora analyses commonly conducted on herbarium data. In some cases, these species are well characterized from a morphopalynological and phytogeographical viewpoint: the plant occurrence may be suggested even by pollen findings in surface-samples. Discovering the presence of some of these species by pollen morphotypes offers a real opportunity to gear the reintroduction/reinforcing programmes, but ecological analysis will obviously be essential to ascertain the real suitability of the chosen sites, according to the ecological requirements of the species. Our analysis refers to wetlands of the southern Po plain within the Modena Province, where detailed palynological data about present and historical local flora were available.

  18. Role of extrinsic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in heavy metal-contaminated wetlands with various soil moisture levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S; Wang, C; Shen, Z; Quan, Y; Liu, X

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an efficient heavy metal (HM) control method in HM-contaminated wetlands with varied soil moisture levels through the introduction of extrinsic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) into natural wetland soil containing indigenous AMF species. A pot culture experiment was designed to determine the effect of two soil water contents (5-8% and 25-30%), five extrinsic AMF inoculants (Glomus mosseae, G. clarum, G. claroideum, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices), and HM contamination on root colonization, plant growth, and element uptake of common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel) plantlets in wetland soils. This study showed the prevalence of mycorrhizae in the roots of all P. australis plantlets, regardless of extrinsic AMF inoculations, varied soil moisture or HM levels. It seems that different extrinsic AMF inoculations effectively lowered HM concentrations in the aboveground tissues of P. australis at two soil moisture levels. However, metal species, metal concentrations, and soil moisture should also be very important factors influencing the elemental uptake performance of plants in wetland ecosystems. Besides, the soil moisture level significantly influenced plant growth (including height, and shoot and root dry weight (DW)), and extrinsic AMF inoculations differently affected shoot DW.

  19. Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period

  20. Design and Hydrologic Performance of a Tile Drainage Treatment Wetland in Minnesota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lenhart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment wetlands are increasingly needed to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage water to protect downstream waters, such as the Gulf of Mexico. This project sought to develop a new edge-of-field treatment wetland, designed to remove nitrate-nitrogen and enhance phosphorus removal by plant harvest and to monitor its effectiveness. A 0.10 ha wetland was designed and installed to treat subsurface drainage flow from farmland in southwestern Minnesota, USA, in 2013, and monitored for three years by recording flow, nitrate-nitrogen, total phosphorus (TP and soluble orthophosphorus (OP input to and output from the wetland. Prior to construction, a level-pool routing, mass balance approach with DRAINMOD flow inputs was used to predict nitrate removal efficiency. Nitrate load removal averaged 68% over three years, nearly matching model predictions. However, most denitrification occurred in the sub-soil of the wetland rather than in surface flow as predicted. Phosphorus removal was approximately 76% over three years, and phosphorus removed by plant uptake exceeded inflow mass in the third year. The edge-of-field design has potential as a cost-effective method to treat field outflows because agricultural landowners can adopt this treatment system with minimal loss of productive farmland. The wet-prairie vegetation and shallow depth also provide the opportunity to remove additional phosphorus via vegetative harvest.

  1. Spatial variability of coastal wetland resilience to sea-level rise using Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, T.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    The coastal wetlands in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) account for 40% of coastal wetland area in the United States and provide various ecosystem services to the region and broader areas. Increasing rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR), and reduced sediment input have increased coastal wetland loss in the NGOM, accounting for 80% of coastal wetland loss in the nation. Traditional models for predicting the impact of RSLR on coastal wetlands in the NGOM have focused on coastal erosion driven by geophysical variables only, and/or at small spatial extents. Here we developed a model in Bayesian inference to make probabilistic prediction of wetland loss in the entire NGOM as a function of vegetation productivity and geophysical attributes. We also studied how restoration efforts help maintain the area of coastal wetlands. Vegetation productivity contributes organic matter to wetland sedimentation and was approximated using the remotely sensed normalized difference moisture index (NDMI). The geophysical variables include RSLR, tidal range, river discharge, coastal slope, and wave height. We found a significantly positive relation between wetland loss and RSLR, which varied significantly at different river discharge regimes. There also existed a significantly negative relation between wetland loss and NDMI, indicating that in-situ vegetation productivity contributed to wetland resilience to RSLR. This relation did not vary significantly between river discharge regimes. The spatial relation revealed three areas of high RSLR but relatively low wetland loss; these areas were associated with wetland restoration projects in coastal Louisiana. Two projects were breakwater projects, where hard materials were placed off-shore to reduce wave action and promote sedimentation. And one project was a vegetation planting project used to promote sedimentation and wetland stabilization. We further developed an interactive web tool that allows stakeholders to develop similar wetland

  2. Diversity of gall-inducing insects in the high altitude wetland forests in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Santos

    Full Text Available We report on the richness of galling insects in the altitudinal wetland forests of Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. We found 80 distinct types of insect galls on 49 species of host plants belonging to 28 families and 35 genera. Most of the galled plant species belong to Nyctaginaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common gall were spheroid and globoid; most galls were glabrous, predominantly green and with one chamber, and on the leaves. Most galls were induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge richness of galling insects and host-plant diversity in the altitudinal wetland forests of Northeastern Brazil.

  3. Sediment oxygen demand of wetlands in the oil sands region of northeastern Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slama, C.; Gardner Costa, J.; Ciborowski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) can significantly influence the dissolved oxygen concentrations in shallow water bodies. This study discussed the types of sediments used to reclaim wetlands and their influence on SOD, successional processes, and ecosystem trajectories. The study hypothesized that oil sands process material (OSPM) affected wetlands would support cyanobacterial biofilms as opposed to submergent macrophytes as a result of insufficient phosphorus levels. SOD was assessed by monitoring dissolved oxygen concentrations within domes placed on the sediment surface for a 3-hour period. Gas flux and composition analyses were used to quantify the biological SOD components. Chemical SOD components were then determined by subtraction. Concentrations of phosphorus bioavailable to the macrophytes were estimated using plant root simulator probes. The study showed that OSPM wetlands exhibited higher chemical SOD and SOD than reference wetlands, and supported benthic biofilms as opposed to the submergent macrophyte communities typically found in northeastern Alberta wetlands.

  4. Sediment oxygen demand of wetlands in the oil sands region of northeastern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slama, C.; Gardner Costa, J.; Ciborowski, J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) can significantly influence the dissolved oxygen concentrations in shallow water bodies. This study discussed the types of sediments used to reclaim wetlands and their influence on SOD, successional processes, and ecosystem trajectories. The study hypothesized that oil sands process material (OSPM) affected wetlands would support cyanobacterial biofilms as opposed to submergent macrophytes as a result of insufficient phosphorus levels. SOD was assessed by monitoring dissolved oxygen concentrations within domes placed on the sediment surface for a 3-hour period. Gas flux and composition analyses were used to quantify the biological SOD components. Chemical SOD components were then determined by subtraction. Concentrations of phosphorus bioavailable to the macrophytes were estimated using plant root simulator probes. The study showed that OSPM wetlands exhibited higher chemical SOD and SOD than reference wetlands, and supported benthic biofilms as opposed to the submergent macrophyte communities typically found in northeastern Alberta wetlands.

  5. Kinetic and empirical design criteria for constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, P.G.; Gulley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of wetlands as long-term, self-sustaining natural systems for the treatment of large quantities of waste water released from tailings ponds after mine abandonment. Constructed wetlands were built and planted with aquatic plants. The experimental design included three replicate trenches for each of two treatment systems. The objective of the research was to assess the optimum contaminant loading rates which would result in an acceptable quality of the effluent water. Using empirical data (i.e., hydrocarbon loading rates versus effluent quality), the optimal range of hydrocarbon loading was 5 to 25 gTEH/m 2/ month. Using more conservative kinetic data (i.e. microbial mineralization rates), the range of optimal treatment effectiveness was 9.6 to 13.2 gTEH/m 2/ month. The two design criteria methodologies were calculated using two independent analytical methods. The similarity in results was judged to be a confirmation of their accuracy. 20 refs., 5 figs

  6. Aquatic macrophytes can be used for wastewater polishing but not for purification in constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yingying; Harpenslager, Sarah F.; van Kempen, Monique M. L.; Verbaarschot, Evi J. H.; Loeffen, Laury M. J. M.; Roelofs, Jan G. M.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Lamers, Leon P. M.

    2017-02-01

    The sequestration of nutrients from surface waters by aquatic macrophytes and sediments provides an important service to both natural and constructed wetlands. While emergent species take up nutrients from the sediment, submerged and floating macrophytes filter nutrients directly from the surface water, which may be more efficient in constructed wetlands. It remains unclear, however, whether their efficiency is sufficient for wastewater purification and how plant species and nutrient loading affects nutrient distribution over plants, water and sediment. We therefore determined nutrient removal efficiencies of different vegetation (Azolla filiculoides, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum) and sediment types (clay, peaty clay and peat) at three nutrient input rates, in a full factorial, outdoor mesocosm experiment. At low loading (0.43 mg P m-2 d-1), plant uptake was the main pathway (100 %) for phosphorus (P) removal, while sediments showed a net P release. A. filiculoides and M. spicatum showed the highest biomass production and could be harvested regularly for nutrient recycling, whereas C. demersum was outcompeted by spontaneously developing macrophytes and algae. Higher nutrient loading only stimulated A. filiculoides growth. At higher rates ( ≥ 21.4 mg P m-2 d-1), 50-90 % of added P ended up in sediments, with peat sediments becoming more easily saturated. For nitrogen (N), 45-90 % was either taken up by the sediment or lost to the atmosphere at loadings ≥ 62 mg N m-2 d-1. This shows that aquatic macrophytes can indeed function as an efficient nutrient filter but only for low loading rates (polishing) and not for high rates (purification). The outcome of this controlled study not only contributes to our understanding of nutrient dynamics in constructed wetlands but also shows the differential effects of wetland sediment types and plant species. Furthermore, the acquired knowledge may benefit the application of macrophyte harvesting to remove

  7. Microbial CH4 and N2O consumption in acidic wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen eKolb

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acidic wetlands are global sources of the atmospheric greenhouse gases methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. Consumption of both atmospheric gases has been observed in various acidic wetlands, but information on the microbial mechanisms underlying these phenomena is scarce. A substantial amount of CH4 is consumed in sub soil by aerobic methanotrophs at anoxic–oxic interfaces (e.g., tissues of Sphagnum mosses, rhizosphere of vascular plant roots. Methylocystis-related species are likely candidates that are involved in the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in acidic wetlands. Oxygen availability regulates the activity of methanotrophs of acidic wetlands. Other parameters impacting on the methanotroph-mediated CH4 consumption have not been systematically evaluated. N2O is produced and consumed by microbial denitrification, thus rendering acidic wetlands as temporary sources or sinks for N2O. Denitrifier communities in such ecosystems are diverse, and largely uncultured and/or new, and environmental factors that control their consumption activity are unresolved. Analyses of the composition of N2O reductase genes in acidic wetlands suggest that acid-tolerant Proteobacteria have the potential to mediate N2O consumption in such soils. Thus, the fragmented current state of knowledge raises open questions concerning methanotrophs and dentrifiers that consume atmospheric CH4 and N2O in acidic wetlands.

  8. The medicinal plants of Frangensko Plateau (Northeastern Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Dimcho; Kacheva, Cvetelina

    2015-12-01

    The Frangensko Plateau is located in the northeastern part of Bulgaria and covers an area of 360 km2. On the territory of the plateau there are two protected areas, as well as two areas of the European ecological network NATURA 2000. The study of the medicinal plants on the territory of the Frangensko Plateau is made for the first time. As a result of our research we found 362 species of vascular plants from 242 genera and 80 families. The most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The analysis of their life form indicates that the hemicryptophytes dominate with 39.50%, followed by the phanerophytes (22.10%). The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (52.21%), annual herbaceous plants (14.09%) and trees (10.50%). There are 8 types of floristic elements divided in 32 groups. The largest percentage of species is of European type (51.93%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species, one Bulgarian endemic species and 30 relic species. Thirty four species with protection statute are described. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 242 species (66.85%).

  9. Modelling carbon cycle in boreal wetlands with the Earth System Model ECHAM6/MPIOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzieh, Robert J.; Brovkin, Victor; Kleinen, Thomas; Raivonen, Maarit; Sevanto, Sanna

    2010-05-01

    Wetlands of the northern high latitudes provide excellent conditions for peat accumulation and methanogenesis. High moisture and low O2 content in the soils lead to effective preservation of soil organic matter and methane emissions. Boreal Wetlands contain about 450 PgC and currently constitute a significant natural source of methane (CH4) even though they cover only 3% of the global land surface. While storing carbon and removing CO2 from the atmosphere, boreal wetlands have contributed to global cooling on millennial timescales. Undisturbed boreal wetlands are likely to continue functioning as a net carbon sink. On the other hand these carbon pools might be destabilised in future since they are sensitive to climate change. Given that processes of peat accumulation and decay are closely dependent on hydrology and temperature, this balance may be altered significantly in the future. As a result, northern wetlands could have a large impact on carbon cycle-climate feedback mechanisms and therefore play an important role in global carbon cycle dynamics. However global biogeochemistry models used for simulations of CO2 dynamics in past and future climates usually neglect carbon cycle in wetlands. We investigate the potential for positive or negative feedbacks to the climate system through fluxes of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) with the general circulation model ECHAM6/MPIOM. A generic model of peat accumulation and decay has been developed and implemented into the land surface module JSBACH. We consider anaerobic biogeochemical processes which lead to formation of thick organic soils. Furthermore we consider specific wetland plant functional types (PFTs) in our model such as