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Sample records for herb paeoniae radix

  1. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

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    Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K. E-mail: skjo@kaeri.re.kr

    2004-10-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with {gamma}-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  2. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  3. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

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    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  4. Discrimination and chemical characterization of different Paeonia lactifloras (Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra) by infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ping; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun; Shi, Zhe; Li, Jin; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Cui, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Paeonia lactiflora, a commonly used herbal medicine (HM) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), mainly has two species, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR), for different clinical applications in TCM. For expounding the chemical profile of RPA and RPR and ensuring the clinical efficacy and safety, an infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation method integrated with statistical pattern recognition was developed to analyze and discriminate the two Paeonia lactifloras. In IR spectra, the major difference between the two was in the range of 1200-900 cm-1: the strongest peak of RPA was at 1024 cm-1, while that of RPR was 1049 cm-1. The difference was magnified in second derivative spectra. The findings were further verified by investigating the separation process of total glucosides, stepwisely monitored by both of IR and UPLC-MS/MS. Simultaneously, the aqueous extracts of RPA and RPR had been separated continuously to acquire the comprehensively hierarchical chemical characteristics for undoubtedly identification and subsequently discrimination of the two herbs. Moreover, 60 batches of the two HMs (30 for each) were objectively classified by principal component regression (PCR) model based on IR macro-fingerprints.

  5. [Growth rings in roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species and its application on identification of Paeoniae Radix Rubra].

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    Chu, Shan-Shan; Zha, Liang-Ping; Duan, Hai-Yan; Xu, Tao; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    The growth years of medicinal materials are closely related to their quality, and "Herb-chronology" has been used to determine the growth years of perennial dicotyledonous plants in recent years. On the basis of conventional paraffin section and freehand section, the anatomical study on roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species and main roots of cultivated Paeonia lactiflora was conducted in this paper. The results showed that, there existed some differences in microstructure of the seven species such as P. lactiflora, P. obovata, P. veitchii, P. mairei, P. anomala, P. sinjiangensis and P. anomala var. intermedia, and this could be used to distinguish different species. In the roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species, distinct growth rings were formed because that the different diameters or density of xylem vessels in the secondary xylem formed clusters and arranged interrupted rings in tangential direction. There were growth rings in the main roots of P. lactiflora cultivated 1-4 years in Siping, Jilin, which were all consistent with their growth years. Due to the similar growth characteristics between wild Sect. Paeonia species and cultivated P. lactiflora, the growth rings can provide a basis for the age identification and lay the foundation for the quality evaluation of Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. [Analyze and compare activities of polysaccharide form rhizoma chuanxiong and radix paeoniae rubra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Jie; Wang, Peng; Yang, Ming-Jun; Wang, Yong-Gang; Ju, Ying; Du, Rui-Hu

    2011-10-01

    To explore the difference of biological activities between two Chinese Herbs polysaccharides. Extracted two kinds of Chinese Herbs Polysaccharides by hot water, and determined the content of Polysaccharides. Determined the antibacterial activity with turbidimetry. Explored antioxidant activity using an in vitro antioxidant analysis, probed into the effects on cell growth with MTT colorimetric analysis. The two polysaccharides both showed activities on the antibacterial, anti-oxidation and promotion of cell growth but different in degree. The Radix Paeoniae Rubra polysaccharide was stronger than Rhizoma Chuanxiong in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and weaker in promotion of cell growth activity. Activity differences exist between the two polysaccharides and the activities show some complementary effects. The differences provide important value in research on polysaccharide compound.

  7. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

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    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  8. Study on anti-tumor effect of total glycosides from radix paeoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the paper was to study the anti-tumor effect of total glycosides from Radix paeoniae rubra in S180 tumor-bearing mice, and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action. Mice were made into S180 solid tumor model, grouped and administered with the extracts; tumor inhibition rate was measured by ...

  9. Differential effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chishao on cytokine and chemokine expression inducible by mycobacteria

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    Li James

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon initial infection with mycobacteria, macrophages secrete multiple cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, to mediate host immune responses against the pathogen. Mycobacteria also induce the production of IL-10 via PKR activation in primary human monocytes and macrophages. As an anti-inflammatory cytokine, over-expression of IL-10 may contribute to mycobacterial evasion of the host immunity. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR, Chishao, a Chinese medicinal herb with potentials of anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects, is used to treat tuberculosis. This study investigates the immunoregulatory effects of RPR on primary human blood macrophages (PBMac during mycobacterial infection. Methods The interaction of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG with PBMac was used as an experimental model. A series of procedures involving solvent extraction and fractionation were used to isolate bioactive constituents in RPR. RPR-EA-S1, a fraction with potent immunoregulatory effects was obtained with a bioactivity guided fractionation scheme. PBMac were treated with crude RPR extracts or RPR-EA-S1 before BCG stimulation. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured by qPCR and ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the effects of RPR-EA-S1 on signaling kinases and transcriptional factors in the BCG-activated PBMac. Results In BCG-stimulated macrophages, crude RPR extracts and fraction RPR-EA-S1 specifically inhibited IL-10 production while enhanced IL-8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels without affecting the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. Inhibition of BCG-induced IL-10 expression by RPR-EA-S1 occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RPR-EA-S1 did not affect the phosphorylation of cellular protein kinases including MAPK, Akt and GSK3β. Instead, it suppressed the degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm and inhibited the

  10. Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS

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    Gang Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma.

  11. Evaluation of the In Vivo Therapeutic Effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra Ethanol Extract with the Hypoglycemic Activities Measured from Multiple Cell-Based Assays

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    Chia-Chuan Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chi Shao contains several phytochemicals with hypoglycemic actions. Current research aims to explore potential insulinotropic effects and long-term therapeutic efficacy of such herb against type 2 diabetes. Methods. Composition analysis for the ethanol extract (PRExt was executed by high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenol-enriched fraction was characterized by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Multiple cell platforms were employed to evaluate hypoglycemic bioactivities. In animal experiments, blood glucose, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-index assessment, glucose tolerance test, and in vivo glucose uptake were all measured. Additional effects of PRExt on obesity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by serum and histological analysis. Results. PRExt provides multiple hypoglycemic effects including the enhancement of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Pentagalloylglucose and polyphenol-enriched fraction are two insulinotropic constituents. Moreover, PRExt intraperitoneal injection causes acute hypoglycemic effects on fasted db/db mice. Oral administration of PRExt (200 mg/kg b.w. gradually reduces blood glucose in db/db mice to the level similar to that in C57J/B6 mice after 30 days. The improvement of glucose intolerance, HOMA-index, and in vivo glucose uptake is evident in addition to the weight loss effect and attenuation of hepatic steatosis. Conclusion. PRExt is an effective antidiabetic herbal extract with multiple hypoglycemic bioactivities.

  12. In vivo effect of guiding-herb Radix platycodonis and Radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological samples were processed; the assays of specificity, precision, linearity, intra-day and interday precisions, recovery and stability were conducted; high ... Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae, significantly increased the absorption amount and rate of paeoniflorin in XFZYT, and accelerated its elimination from the ...

  13. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

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    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. [Effect of Chinese Herbs Used in Treating Multiple Sclerosis on T Subsets Using Association Rules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Tao; Xu, Yong-gang; Yang, Xiao-hong

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the effect of Chinese herbs used by Prof. LI Tao on peripheral blood T subsets in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) by using association rules and statistical methods, thereby providing evidence for optimizing prescriptions. Data of MS inpatients and outpatients recorded by data collecting system, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences were resorted. The relationship between Chinese herbs and T cell subsets were analyzed using SPSS17.0 and Aprior module in SPSS Clementine 12.0. Radix bupleuri, Radix Paeoniae alba, Fructus Aurantii, Atractylodes, and Radix Glycyrrhizae were most commonly used herbal combinations.Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata and Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae were often added. Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata was associated with decreased Th1 cells (confidence level 83.78%, supportive level 36.26%). Decreased Th1 cell was associated with Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata (confidence level 71.26%, supportive level 36.26%).Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata was obviously associated with decreased Th1 cells. Radix Bupleuri, Radix Paeoniae alba, bitter orange, Atractylodes , Radix glycyrrhizae, and Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata could reduce peripheral blood Th1 subsets of MS patients and elevate Th2 subsets (all P < 0.01). The herbal combination of Radix Bupleuri, Radix Paeoniae alba, Fructus Aurantii, Atractylodes, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae, and Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata could lower peripheral blood Th1 cells and elevate Th2 cells, and prevent the relapse of MS possibly by reducing Th1 cells and elevating Th2 cells. Especially Radix Aconiti lateralis preparata played important roles in aforesaid changes of Th1 and Th2.

  15. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

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    Chen Su-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD- induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg or captopril (15 mg/kg all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO and endothelin (ET levels.

  16. Determination of cytotoxicity of traditional Chinese medicine herbs, Rhizoma coptidis, Radix scutellariae, and Cortex phellodendri, by three methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boost, Maureen; Yau, Philip; Yap, Maurice; Cho, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Many herbs are used in traditional Chinese medicine TCM) for treatment of infections but their properties, in particular, their effects on normal cells have received little attention. This study investigated the cytotoxic properties of three TCM herbs with potential use in prevention and treatment of ocular infections, including Acanthamoeba keratitis. The study investigated cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts of Rhizoma coptidis, Radix scutellariae, and Cortex phellodendri on human corneal epithelial cells using trypan blue staining, MTT production, and flow cytometry. Differences between herbs were determined using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance, followed by paired t-tests where appropriate. These three herbs appeared to lack cytotoxicity when tested with trypan blue and MTT, but flow cytometry revealed that R. coptidis led to cell membrane damage. Lack of cytotoxicity of R. scutellariae and C. phellodendri extracts suggest that these are potentially suitable for use in ocular preparations. Only flow cytometry was able to accurately predict cytotoxic effects of extracts of TCM herbs on HCEC, demonstrating the importance of using a sensitive method of detection of cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of Radix Paeoniae Alba sulfur-fumigated with different durations and purchased from herbal markets: simultaneous determination of twelve components belonging to three chemical types by improved high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector.

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    Kong, Ming; Liu, Huan-Huan; Xu, Jun; Wang, Chun-Ru; Lu, Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Li, You-Bin; Li, Song-Lin

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a improved high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneous quantification of twelve major components belonging to three chemical types was developed and validated, and was applied to quantitatively compare the quality of Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) sulfur-fumigated with different durations and purchased from commercial herbal markets. The contents of paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, benzoic acid and paeonol decreased whereas that of paeoniflorin sulfonate increased in RPA with the extending of sulfur-fumigation duration. Different levels of paeoniflorin sulfonate were determined in ten of seventeen commercial RPA samples, indicating that these ten samples may be sulfur-fumigated with different durations. Moreover, the relative standard deviation of the contents of each component was higher in the commercial sulfur-fumigated RPA samples than that in commercial non-fumigated RPA samples, and the percentage of the total average content of monoterpene glycosides in the determined analytes was higher in the decoctions of commercial sulfur-fumigated RPA than that in commercial non-fumigated RPA samples. All these results suggested that the established method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough for the global quality evaluation of sulfur-fumigated RPA, and sulfur-fumigation can not only change the proportions of bioactive components, but also cause the reduction of the quality consistency of both raw materials and aqueous decoctions of RPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry and QuEChERS for sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yanyan; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Wanyang; Li, Dongxiang; Yu, Zhiguo; Tong, Ling; Zhao, Yunli

    2016-09-15

    A high-throughput method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) was developed by coupling the modified QuEChERS method with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS). The 21 mycotoxins were extracted and cleaned up using QuEChERS-based procedure, then further separated on a C18 column and detected by a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in the multiple reaction monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) mode. Under this technique, 13 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase in positive mode while the other 8 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% ammonia as the mobile phase in negative mode. The calibration curves of all analytes showed good linearity (r(2)>0.995) within test ranges. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.031 to 5.4μg/kg and 0.20 to 22μg/kg, respectively. Additionally, recoveries were all above 75.3% with relative standard deviations within 15%. The method proposed herein with significant advantages including simple pretreatment, rapid determination as well as high sensitivity, accuracy and throughput would be a preferred candidate for the determination and quantification of multi-class mycotoxin contaminants in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Compatibility Effects on Invigorating Blood Circulation for Cyperi Rhizoma Series of Herb Pairs Using Untargeted Metabolomics

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    Pei Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mutual-assistance compatibility of Cyperi Rhizoma (Xiangfu, XF and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui, DG, Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong, CX, Paeoniae Radix Alba (Baishao, BS, or Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo, YH, found in a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM named Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD, can produce synergistic and promoting blood effects. Nowadays, XFSWD has been proved to be effective in activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis. However, the role of the herb pairs synergistic effects in the formula were poorly understood. In order to quantitatively assess the compatibility effects of herb pairs, mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics studies were performed. The plasma and urine metabolic profiles of acute blood stasis rats induced by adrenaline hydrochloride and ice water and administered with Cyperi Rhizoma—Angelicae Sinensis Radix (XD, Cyperi Rhizoma—Chuanxiong Rhizoma (XC, Cyperi Rhizoma—Paeoniae Radix Alba (XB, Cyperi Rhizoma—Corydalis Rhizoma (XY were compared. Relative peak area of identified metabolites was calculated and principal component analysis (PCA score plot from the potential markers was used to visualize the overall differences. Then, the metabolites results were used with biochemistry indicators and genes expression values as parameters to quantitatively evaluate the compatibility effects of XF series of herb pairs by PCA and correlation analysis. The collective results indicated that the four XF herb pairs regulated glycerophospholipid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. XD was more prominent in regulating the blood stasis during the four XF herb pairs. This study demonstrated that metabolomics was a useful tool to efficacy evaluation and compatibility effects of TCM elucidation.

  20. Comparative analysis of web search trends between experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yea, Sang-Jun; Jang, Yunji; Seong, BoSeok; Kim, Chul

    2015-12-24

    The information and knowledge about ethno-medicinal herbs are getting stronger interest in Global and Korea after the agreement of the Nagoya Protocol. However, it is known that there is a serious asymmetry of ethno-medicinal information between experts and public, thus this study aimed to analyze the similarities and differences in interest between experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea through big data analysis. The medicinal herbs selected in this study were the top 10 herbs in terms of the amounts purchased by TKM centers. And two representative web search engines were selected to collect the web search logs, i.e. big data, of experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea. Comparative analysis was accomplished through descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and time-series graph analysis. The web search traffic logs were collected for the past three years (2012-2014) from OASIS and NAVER, which are the representative web search engines of experts and public respectively in Korea. First, regarding OASIS, the most searched medicinal herb was Angelicae Gigantis Radix while the least searched was Alismatis Rhizoma; for NAVER, the most searched medicinal herb was Paeoniae Radix, unlike OASIS, and the least searched was Alismatis Rhizoma, as with OASIS. The coefficient between rank of herbs and OASIS was -0.401, and that between rank of herbs and NAVER was -0.387, and the correlational coefficient for web search trends of OASIS and NAVER during the past three years was 0.438. Also the correlation of interest between experts and public for each herb on monthly web trends basis was similar with regard to Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Angelicae Gigantis Radix, but different with regard to the other 8 medicinal herbs. Finally, significant outcomes or suggestions were figured out through time-series graph analysis. This study presents meaningful results concerning the similarities and differences in interest between experts and

  1. Radix Entomolaris

    OpenAIRE

    Filloy DDS, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of the root canal morphology and its variations is a basic requisite for the success of the endodontic treatment. Mandibular molars may present a third or additional root, which if located lingually is called radix entomolaris or bucally is referred as radix paramolaris. This case report shows an endodontic retreatment of a radix entomolaris and details some variations in the approach to guarantee a successful terapy. El conocimiento de la morfología y posibles va...

  2. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of important medicinal plant species in genus Paeonia based on rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL DNA barcode sequences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Choi, G; Kang, Y M; Yang, S; Moon, B C

    2016-01-01

    .... suffruticosa, using DNA barcodes. These four species, which are commonly used in traditional medicine as Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex, are pharmaceutically defined in different ways in the national pharmacopoeias in Korea, Japan, and China...

  3. Radix Bupleuri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fude; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yin, Xingbin; Wang, Wenping; You, Longtai; Ni, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Radix Bupleuri (Chaihu) has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that this plant contains essential oils, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, lignans, fatty acids, and sterols. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Radix Bupleuri exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Radix Bupleuri could also lead to hepatotoxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive compounds (saikosaponins a, b 2 , c, and d) were absorbed rapidly in rats after oral administration of the extract of Radix Bupleuri . This review aims to comprehensively summarize the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics of Radix Bupleuri reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  4. [Evolution and characteristics of system,assessing quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, of Dao-di herbs of Astragali Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, He-Ting; Peng, Dai-Yin; Cheng, Ming-En; Zha, Liang-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-05-01

    "Assessing the quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials" is a characteristic quality evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine, and it is also the basis of "Rating according to characters and setting the price by the grade" on the market. Astragali Radix was regarded as a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and this paper has carried out herbal textual research on the development and formation of the concept, "assessing the quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials", of Astragali Radix. The authentic medicine producing areas of Astragalus in China have experienced a great change, Gansu , Sichuan and adjacent areas before the Tang Dynasty; Shanxi during the Tang and Song Dynasty. The concept, "assessing the quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials", of Astragali Radix was formed in the Song and Ming Dynasty and still used today, which described as that the shape is "straight as an arrow"; the texture is "soft as cotton"; the section looks like" gold well and jade hurdle"; it was sweet in taste and has beany flavor. The system, "assessing the quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials", of Astragali Radix has undergone the adjustments from "true or false" to "good or bad", advance with the times, pick out the advantages from others and absorb the experience of traditional identification actively. Besides, it always returns to laconism from erudition and was summarized highly. Assessing the quality by distinguishing features of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and commodity specifications have the same root, so the former has reference meaning to revise the latter. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. [Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials for Treatment of Child Amblyopia with Otopoint Pellet-pressure Combined with Chinese Medical Herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-hong; Qiu, Min

    2015-06-01

    To observe the clinical effedt of auricular pressure combined with Chinese herbal medicine for amblyopia. A total of 66 child patients with amblyopia were randomly divided into Chinese herbal medicine (control) and herbal medicine+ auricular pressure (treatment) groups, with 33 patients in each group. The patients in the control group were treated with Chinese medical herbs as Danggui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis), Gouqizi (Fructus Lycii), Baijuhua (Flos Chrysanthemi), Baizhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), Shudi (Radix Rehmanniae Proeparata), Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba) , etc. according to syndrome differentiation, while the patients in the treatment group were treated by auricular pressure of otopoints Yan (Eye), Gan (Liver), Shen (Kidney), Xin (Heart), Mu 1 (Eye-1), Mu 2(Eye-2), and Pi (Spleen) and herbal medicines (being the same to the control group). The treatment was conducted for 6 months. After the treatment, the clinical effect, improvement degree of vision, onset time of improvement, and recurrence rate in the 3 and 6 months' follow-up visit were analyzed. Of the 45 and 47 eyes in the treatment and control groups, 22 and 15 were basically cured, 12 and 5 had marked improvement, 9 and 20 were improved, 2 and 7 failed in the treatment, with the effective rates being 75. 56% and 42.55%, respectively. In comparison with pre-treatment, the visual acuity in both control group and treatment group were improved (Ptreatment group were 26 and 31 eyes, 10 and 11 eyes, respectively. The recurrence rate 6 months after the treatment was 50. 00 % in the control group and 16. 28% in the treatment group. The effective rate of the treatment group was significantly superior to that of the control group (Ptreatment is effective in improving visual acuity, and had a higher efficacy, faster action, and lower recurrence rate in amblyopia children in comparison with simple herbal medicine treatment.

  6. Influence of Plant Growth Retardants on Quality of Codonopsis Radix

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    Yinyin Liao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth retardant (PGR refers to organics that can inhibit the cell division of plant stem tip sub-apical meristem cells or primordial meristem cell. They are widely used in the cultivation of rhizomatous functional plants; such as Codonopsis Radix, that is a famous Chinese traditional herb. However, it is still unclear whether PGR affects the medicinal quality of C. Radix. In the present study, amino acid analyses, targeted and non-targeted analyses by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS and gas chromatography-MS were used to analyze and compare the composition of untreated C. Radix and C. Radix treated with PGR. The contents of two key bioactive compounds, lobetyolin and atractylenolide III, were not affected by PGR treatment. The amounts of polysaccharides and some internal volatiles were significantly decreased by PGR treatment; while the free amino acids content was generally increased. Fifteen metabolites whose abundance were affected by PGR treatment were identified by UPLC-TOF-MS. Five of the up-regulated compounds have been reported to show immune activity, which might contribute to the healing efficacy (“buqi” of C. Radix. The results of this study showed that treatment of C. Radix with PGR during cultivation has economic benefits and affected some main bioactive compounds in C. Radix.

  7. The skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin: in vitro evaluation using reconstructed pigmented human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Chen, M; Liu, J; Huang, X; Chen, J; Zhou, L; Ma, J; Sextius, P; Pena, A-M; Cai, Z; Jeulin, S

    2016-10-01

    The roots of the herb Paeonia lactiflora ('White Peony') are used in association with other herbs in traditional clinical cosmetic practice in China as oral treatment for skin pigmentary disorders, such as brown or dark pigmentary spots. However, the skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and its main ingredient paeoniflorin has been scarcely investigated by topical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin as skin whitening agent in cosmetic application. Paeonia lactiflora root extract (containing 53.25% of paeoniflorin) and paeoniflorin (97% purity) were applied topically on reconstructed pigmented human epidermis model, a three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent, showing morphological and functional characteristics similar to those of in vivo human skin. Two specific methods were used for quantifying melanin inside the reconstructed pigmented epidermis: Fontana-Masson staining (2D quantification) and multiphoton microscopy (3D quantification). Compared to vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO), a significant decrease in 2D and 3D melanin content was observed after topical application on reconstructed pigmented epidermis of Paeonia lactiflora extract at 300 μg mL(-1) (-28% and -27%, respectively) and paeoniflorin at 120 μg mL(-1) /250 μM (-30% and -23%, respectively), which is in the same order of magnitude as the positive reference 4-n-butylresorcinol at 83 μg mL(-1) /500 μM (-26% and -40%, respectively). These results demonstrate, for the first time, the depigmenting potential of paeoniflorin and thus the potential interest of using Paeonia lactiflora root extracts containing paeoniflorin in cosmetic or dermatological applications for reducing the severity of some hyperpigmented skin disorders. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Rehmanniae Radix in osteoporosis: A review of traditional Chinese medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenyue; Ma, Rufeng; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Ruyuan; Liu, Haixia; Guo, Yubo; Zhao, Baosheng; Zhao, Shangang; Tang, Jinfa; Li, Yu; Niu, Jianzhao; Fu, Min; Zhang, Dongwei; Gao, Sihua

    2017-02-23

    Emerging clinical usage and pharmacological effects have been achieved in using Rehmanniae Radix either singly or in combination with other herbs to treat skeletal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the recent years. This study is aimed to provide a comprehensive review about the historical TCM interpretation of the action of Rehmanniae Radix in osteoporosis, its usage in clinical trials and osteoporotic models, its main phytochemical constituents, and its pharmacokinetics. Several databases included PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, China Science and Technology Journal Database, National Science and Technology Library and the Web of Science Database were consulted to locate the publications pertaining to Rehmanniae Radix. The initial inquiry was conducted for the presence of the following terms combinations in the abstracts: Rehmanniae Radix, Dihuang, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, osteoporosis, bone, osteoclast and osteoblast. About 330 research papers and reviews were consulted. In TCM, Rehmanniae Radix exerts the anti-osteoporotic effect via regulating the functions of kidney and liver as well as improving blood circulation. 107 clinical trials are identified that used Rehmanniae Radix in combination with other herbs to treat post-menopausal, senile and secondary osteoporosis. Most of the clinical trials are characterized by high efficacy and no obvious adverse effects. However, the efficacies of these clinical trials are limited because of small patient sample size, short treatment duration and poor clinical design. In addition, TCM herbs under the clinical study are not clear because of a lack of standardization and authentication. The pharmacokinetics data demonstrate that the ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix are widely distributed after administration, and that catalpol and ajugol as well as acetoside are supposed to be the active constituents. More than 140 individual compounds have been currently isolated from this

  9. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Clozapine in Concomitant Use of Radix Rehmanniae, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Bupleuri, or Fructus Gardeniae in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dan-Dan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hua-Ning; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2016-05-27

    Radix Rehmanniae, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Bupleuri, and Fructus Gardeniae are often used alongside with clozapine (CLZ) for schizophrenia patients in order to reduce side effects and enhance therapeutic efficacy. However, worse outcomes were observed raising concern about a critical issue, herb-drug interactions, which were rarely reported when antipsychotics were included. This study aims to determine whether the concomitant use of these herbal medicines affects the pharmacokinetic characteristics of CLZ in rat models. Rats were given a single or multiple intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg CLZ, either alone or with individual herbal water extracts administered orally. CLZ and its two inactive metabolites, norclozapine and clozapine N-oxide, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In the acute treatment, the formation of both metabolites was reduced, while no significant change was observed in the CLZ pharmacokinetics for any of the herbal extracts. In the chronic treatment, none of the four herbal extracts significantly influenced the pharmacokinetic parameters of CLZ and its metabolites. Renal and liver functions stayed normal after the 11-day combined use of herbal medicines. Overall, the four herbs had limited interaction effect on CLZ pharmacokinetics in the acute and chronic treatment. Herb-drug interaction includes both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. This result gives us a hint that pharmacodynamic herb-drug interaction, instead of pharmacokinetic types, may exist and need further confirmation.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Clozapine in Concomitant Use of Radix Rehmanniae, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Bupleuri, or Fructus Gardeniae in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Radix Rehmanniae, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Bupleuri, and Fructus Gardeniae are often used alongside with clozapine (CLZ for schizophrenia patients in order to reduce side effects and enhance therapeutic efficacy. However, worse outcomes were observed raising concern about a critical issue, herb-drug interactions, which were rarely reported when antipsychotics were included. This study aims to determine whether the concomitant use of these herbal medicines affects the pharmacokinetic characteristics of CLZ in rat models. Rats were given a single or multiple intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg CLZ, either alone or with individual herbal water extracts administered orally. CLZ and its two inactive metabolites, norclozapine and clozapine N-oxide, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In the acute treatment, the formation of both metabolites was reduced, while no significant change was observed in the CLZ pharmacokinetics for any of the herbal extracts. In the chronic treatment, none of the four herbal extracts significantly influenced the pharmacokinetic parameters of CLZ and its metabolites. Renal and liver functions stayed normal after the 11-day combined use of herbal medicines. Overall, the four herbs had limited interaction effect on CLZ pharmacokinetics in the acute and chronic treatment. Herb-drug interaction includes both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. This result gives us a hint that pharmacodynamic herb-drug interaction, instead of pharmacokinetic types, may exist and need further confirmation.

  11. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of important medicinal plant species in genus Paeonia based on rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL DNA barcode sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Choi, G; Kang, Y M; Yang, S; Moon, B C

    2016-08-05

    This study was performed to identify and analyze the phylogenetic relationship among four herbaceous species of the genus Paeonia, P. lactiflora, P. japonica, P. veitchii, and P. suffruticosa, using DNA barcodes. These four species, which are commonly used in traditional medicine as Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex, are pharmaceutically defined in different ways in the national pharmacopoeias in Korea, Japan, and China. To authenticate the different species used in these medicines, we evaluated rDNA-internal transcribed spacers (ITS), matK and rbcL regions, which provide information capable of effectively distinguishing each species from one another. Seventeen samples were collected from different geographic regions in Korea and China, and DNA barcode regions were amplified using universal primers. Comparative analyses of these DNA barcode sequences revealed species-specific nucleotide sequences capable of discriminating the four Paeonia species. Among the entire sequences of three barcodes, marker nucleotides were identified at three positions in P. lactiflora, eleven in P. japonica, five in P. veitchii, and 25 in P. suffruticosa. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed four distinct clusters showing homogeneous clades with high resolution at the species level. The results demonstrate that the analysis of these three DNA barcode sequences is a reliable method for identifying the four Paeonia species and can be used to authenticate Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex at the species level. Furthermore, based on the assessment of amplicon sizes, inter/intra-specific distances, marker nucleotides, and phylogenetic analysis, rDNA-ITS was the most suitable DNA barcode for identification of these species.

  12. Radix Entomolaris: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Movassagh; Ghahari; Heidari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During endodontic treatment the variety of mandibular sectorial in the form of an extra lingual (radix entomolaris) or buccal root (radix paramolaris) can often cause difficulties. In other words, awareness and understanding of this unusual root, and its canal morphology, are factors that can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. Case Presentation A 30-year-old male patient with a history of severe, throbbing, c...

  13. Study of the distribution patterns of the constituent herbs in classical Chinese medicine prescriptions treating respiratory disease by data mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian-Jun; Song, Xu-Xia; Wei, Lin-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2013-08-01

    To provide the distribution pattern and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in prescriptions, for doctor's convenience to make decision in choosing correct herbs and prescriptions for treating respiratory disease. Classical prescriptions treating respiratory disease were selected from authoritative prescription books. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets and association rules) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. A total of 562 prescriptions were selected to be studied. The result exhibited that, Radix glycyrrhizae was the most frequently used in 47.2% prescriptions, other frequently used were Semen armeniacae amarum, Fructus schisandrae Chinese, Herba ephedrae, and Radix ginseng. Herbal ephedrae was always coupled with Semen armeniacae amarum with the confidence of 73.3%, and many herbs were always accompanied by Radix glycyrrhizae with high confidence. More over, Fructus schisandrae Chinese, Herba ephedrae and Rhizoma pinelliae was most commonly used to treat cough, dyspnoea and associated sputum respectively besides Radix glycyrrhizae and Semen armeniacae amarum. The prescriptions treating dyspnoea often used double herb group of Herba ephedrae & Radix glycyrrhizae, while prescriptions treating sputum often used double herb group of Rhizoma pinelliae & Radix glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma pinelliae & Semen armeniacae amarum, triple herb groups of Rhizoma pinelliae & Semen armeniacae amarum & Radix glycyrrhizae and Pericarpium citri reticulatae & Rhizoma pinelliae & Radix glycyrrhizae. The prescriptions treating respiratory disease showed common compatibility laws in using herbs and special compatibility laws for treating different respiratory symptoms. These principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful for doctors to choose correct herbs and prescriptions in treating respiratory disease.

  14. Comparison of the Immunoregulatory Function of Different Constituents in Radix Astragali and Radix Hedysari

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    Hubiao Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Astragali (RA, known as “Huangqi” in China, is one of the most popular herbal medicines known worldwide to reinforce “Qi”. RA is traditionally prepared from the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus (MJHQ and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (MGHQ. Radix Hedysari is named “Hongqi” (HQ, which is similar to RA. We assessed and compared the chemical constituents and bioactivity of RA and HQ. Different constituents were extracted into five major parts and were analyzed using different methods. Comparison of the immunological effects of extracts was done by using two immunological models. Results showed that flavonoids and saponins present in RA and HQ were not only structurally significantly different but also different in their immunological effect. Amino acids extract (AE in MGHQ shows immunological effect while AE in MJHQ and HQ did not. Polysaccharides comprised the major constituents in RA and HQ. All polysaccharides extract (PE of the three herbs showed similar levels of immunological effect in both immunological assays.

  15. Analysis of swaps in Radix selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Mahmoud, Hosam

    2011-01-01

    Radix Sort is a sorting algorithm based on analyzing digital data. We study the number of swaps made by Radix Select (a one-sided version of Radix Sort) to find an element with a randomly selected rank. This kind of grand average provides a smoothing over all individual distributions for specific...

  16. [Clinical study on aconite prescriptions with incompatible herbs in different areas based on association rules and analysis on compatibility features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ting; Fan, Xin-sheng; Tian, Shuo; Jiang, Chen-xue; Chen, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To explore the current application and features of Aconite prescriptions with incompatible herbs in grade A class three hospitals in east China and central China through a clinical study and comparative analysis. Clinical prescriptions containing Aconite with incompatible herbs were collected. Association rules were utilized to analyze the compatible features of these herbs. This analysis found that the frequently used incompatible herba; pairs are Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata-Pinelliae Rhizoma, with the support rate of 44.45%, occupying nearly half of the surveyed prescriptions; Pinelliae Rhizoma is the most frequently used herb in the two areas, with support rate up to 76.24%. Among the top 10 herbal pairs in the support rate, except for Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Pinelliae Rhizoma, the top 10 herbs in Central China were mostly for warming the middle jiao and tonifying qi, such as Zingiberis Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Codonopsis Radix; Whereas those in east China were mostly for activating and nourishing blood, such as Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Among the top 10 herbal pairs in the support rate, except for Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata-Pinelliae Rhizoma, the core herbal pairs applied in central China were mainly for resolving phlegm and warming the middle jiao, such as Pinelliae Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Pinelliae Rhizoma-Zingiberis Rhizoma; Whereas those in east China were principally for activating blood and tonifying qi, like Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Pinelliae Rhizoma. Among the core herbal groups in the two areas, the most frequently used herbal groups in the two areas are Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma with the support rate of 59.73%, accounting for the highest proportion among all of herbal groups. There are the combined

  17. Radix Entomolaris: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movassagh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During endodontic treatment the variety of mandibular sectorial in the form of an extra lingual (radix entomolaris or buccal root (radix paramolaris can often cause difficulties. In other words, awareness and understanding of this unusual root, and its canal morphology, are factors that can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. Case Presentation A 30-year-old male patient with a history of severe, throbbing, constant pain in the lower mandibular molars was referred to the department of endodontics of Hamedan Dental university. The patient’s medical history was noncontributory. The buccal object rule (same-lingual opposite-buccal technique confirmed the additional root as a distolingual root (radix entomolaris. Following the evaluation of vitality tests, we began endodontic treatment for this patient, after administration of local anesthesia using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Daroupakhsh, Tehran, Iran and rubber dam isolation. The working length was determined by a Root ZX apex locator (Dentaport ZX, J Morita and later confirmed by parallel periapical radiograph. Canals were shaped in a crown down fashion with Protaper Nickel Titanium rotary instruments (Dentsply, Maillefer under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and lubrication with RC-Prep. After drying the canals with paper points, the master gutta-percha points were fitted within the canals and confirmation radiography was taken. The root canal system was obturated with the cold lateral compaction technique. Conclusions This case is about a mandibular molar with radix entomolaris and the radiographic exploration and endodontic order. Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular molars. The initial diagnosis of a radix entomolaris or paramolaris before root canal treatment is important to facilitate the endodontic procedure.

  18. Herbs at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Herbs at a Glance Share: © Steven Foster Herbs at ... Thunder God Vine Turmeric Valerian Yohimbe How might herbs interact with medicines? Learn about herb-drug interactions. ...

  19. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...... and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  20. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...... and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  1. Comparative analysis of four terpenoids in root and cortex of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix by different drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuanjie; Shen, Fei; Su, Shulan; Bai, Yongliang; Guo, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Ji, Tao; Wang, Yanyan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-11-23

    Tripterygium wilfordii Radix, a well-known traditional medicine in china which is used for treatment of inflammation, pain, tumor and immune regulation for centuries in china, accompany with the serious toxic side effects. This study was carried out for simultaneously analyzing the four main components (triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral and celastrol) in Tripterygium wilfordii Radix under different drying processes, which was important for reducing the toxicity and quality control of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix in future. The terpenes were extracted by using ultrasonic method with ethyl acetate from root or cortex of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix, and the sensitive and rapid HPLC-PDA method was developed for simultaneous quantification of triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral and celastrol in root and cortex of Tripterygium wilfordii Radix for evaluation of the impacts by different drying processes. The four compounds in their respective determined arrange had good linearity of 0.9998≦R 2 ≦0.9999 and the average recoveries were range from 94.69 to 100.28%, RSDs were within 0.27 to 2.42%, respectively. The contents of triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral and celastrol in different Tripterygium wilfordii Radix individuals were varied greatly at different drying temperatures. Under different temperatures, the contents of triptolide, triptophenolide, demethylzeylasteral, and celastrol were 37.94-70.31 mg/g, 0-1.807 mg/g, 0.3513-9.205 mg/g, 3.202-15.31 mg/g, respectively. The suitable drying temperature of terpenoids in root of wild and cultivate are 80 °C and 60 °C, the suitable drying temperature of terpenoids in cortex is 40 °C. The method established is high sensitivity, accuracy, reliability and suitable for the simultaneous analysis of terpenoids in Tripterygium wilfordii Radix. The data provide a scientific basis and reference for the quality control of herb and preparations related to Tripterygium wilfordii

  2. Pharmacological effects of Chinese herb aconite (fuzi) on cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Jie; Cui, Yanjing; Wu, Xinfang

    2012-09-01

    Fuzi (aconite, Radix Aconiti praeparata), a widely used Chinese herb, plays a significant role in the cardiovascular system. This is mainly reflected by Fuzi's cardiotonic effect, its protective effect on myocardial cells, and its effect on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, and hemodynamics. In this article, the pharmacological effects and the corresponding mechanisms of Fuzi (aconite) and its active components on cardiovascular system are reviewed.

  3. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis of Paeonia ostii

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    Shuai Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paeonia ostii, a common oil-tree peony, is important ornamentally and medicinally. However, there are few studies on the chloroplast genome of Paeonia ostii. We sequenced and analyzed the complete chloroplast genome of P. ostii. The size of the P. ostii chloroplast genome is 152,153 bp, including a large single-copy region (85,373 bp, a small single-copy region (17,054 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats regions (24,863 bp. The P. ostii chloroplast genome encodes 111 genes, including 77 protein-coding genes, four ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 transfer RNA genes. The genome contains forward repeats (22, palindromic repeats (28, and tandem repeats (24. The presence of rich simple-sequence repeat loci in the genome provides opportunities for future population genetics work for breeding new varieties. A phylogenetic analysis showed that P. ostii is more closely related to Paeonia delavayi and Paeonia ludlowii than to Paeonia obovata and Paeonia veitchii. The results of this study provide an assembly of the whole chloroplast genome of P. ostii, which may be useful for future breeding and further biological discoveries. It will provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of peony yield and the determination of phylogenetic status.

  4. [Research model on commodity specification standard of radix Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Wei-Ke; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2016-03-01

    As an important part of the market commodity circulation, the standard grade of Chinese traditional medicine commodity is very important to restrict the market order and guarantee the quality of the medicinal material. The State Council issuing the "protection and development of Chinese herbal medicine (2015-2020)" also make clear that the important task of improving the circulation of Chinese herbal medicine industry norms and the commodity specification standard of common traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, as a large class of Chinese herbal medicines, the standard grade of the radix is more confused in the market circulation, and lack of a more reasonable study model in the development of the standard. Thus, this paper summarizes the research background, present situation and problems, and several key points of the commodity specification and grade standard in radix herbs. Then, the research model is introduced as an example of Pseudostellariae Radix, so as to provide technical support and reference for formulating commodity specifications and grades standard in other radix traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. [Preparation and characterization of Radix Salvia reference material for heavy metals under GAP control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-yong; Zhuang, Zhi-xia; Wang, Xiao-ru; Lee, Frank S

    2003-09-01

    To prepare and characterize the heavy metal reference material of radix salvia planted in Zhongjiang, Sichuan province under the good agricultural procedure (GAP). After being prepared, the reference material was digested with 65% HNO3 and H2O2 by microwave-assisted oven systems, and the heavy metals in Radix salvia reference material were accurately determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measuring method was validated by running certificated reference materials, including bush twigs and leaves (GBW07602) and tea twigs and leaves (GBW07605) under the same conditions. The recoveries of the elements mostly ranged from 90% to 110%, and the RSD was within 5%. The measurement of radix salvia reference material was carried out by different laboratories with ICP-MS and by several time intervals in one year for the stability. The results showed that the concentration of the heavy metals provided were accurate and the reference material was stable. The reference material is suitable to be the criterions of heavy metals for radix salvia in the qualities controlling, and is also suitable to be the criterion of poisonous heavy metals of other herbs in the administration of GAP.

  6. Long-Term Treatment of Puerariae Radix Extract Ameliorated Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Ovariectomy in Mature Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Li Dong; Quan-Gui Gao; Sa-Sa Gu; Hao-Tian Feng; Man-Sau Wong; Liya Denney

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disorder characterized by the progressive bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women. This imbalance affects calcium–phosphate metabolism and results in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Purariae Radix (PR), the root of P. lobata (Wild.) Ohwi, is one of the earliest medicinal herbs employed in ancient China. PR contains a high quantity of isoflavones and their glycosides, which are regarded as phytoestrogen. Few investig...

  7. The Herb Garden Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each…

  8. Characterization of the Anti-Influenza Activity of the Chinese Herbal Plant Paeonia lactiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yuan Ho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bai Shao (BS, the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., a common Chinese herb in many recipes used to treat viral infection and liver diseases, is recognized for its ability to nourish menstruation, its Yin convergence, and as an antiperspirant. However, the mechanism and components for its antiviral function remain to be elucidated. In this study, an ethanolic extract of BS was further partitioned into aqueous and organic parts (EAex for in vitro functional study and in vivo efficacy testing. EAex exhibited an IC50 of 0.016 ± 0.005 mg/mL against influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1, with broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against different strains of human influenza A viruses, including clinical oseltamivir-resistant isolates and an H1N1pdm strain. The synthesis of both viral RNA and protein was profoundly inhibited when the cells were treated with EAex. A time-of-addition assay demonstrated that EAex exerted its antiviral activity at various stages of the virus replication cycle. We addressed its antiviral activity at virus entry and demonstrated that EAex inhibits viral hemagglutination and viral binding to and penetration into host cells. In vivo animal testing showed that 200 mg/kg/d of EAex offered significant protection against viral infection. We conclude that BS possesses antiviral activity and has the potential for development as an anti-influenza agent.

  9. Effects of Lead Phytochemicals of Radix Scutellariae on Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Pauline; Shi, Guangsen; Yap, Maurice; Boost, Maureen V

    2016-12-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), which is associated with noncompliant use of contact lenses, remains difficult to treat due to delayed diagnosis and paucity of therapeutic agents. Although improvements in activity against Acanthamoeba infection have been achieved in disinfecting solutions for soft contact lenses, such modifications have not been extended to those for special rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses, which are increasingly used for myopia control in children. Phytochemicals present in herbs used for traditional Chinese medicine may be effective as therapeutic or preventive agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate amoebicidal properties of lead phytochemicals of Radix scutellariae alone and in combination with multipurpose (disinfecting) solutions (MPS) for RGP lenses. Viability of Acanthamoeba castellani and A. polyphaga trophozoites was determined following exposure to four phytochemicals: baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, and oroxylin A and both alone and in combination with four RGP MPS, using a modified stand-alone technique. As individual agents, wogonoside and oroxylin A showed highest activity against A. castellani and A. polyphaga trophozoites, respectively. For both organisms, the combination of baicalein and oroxylin A was superior. Effectiveness of MPS alone did not exceed 0.27 log reduction, but addition of combined baicalein and oroxylin A resulted in 0.92 and 0.64 log reductions of A. castellani and A. polyphaga, respectively. The combination of baicalein and oroxylin A enhanced the activity of MPS for RGP contact lenses against trophozoites of two pathogens, A. castellani, and A. polyphaga, and offers a potential therapeutic and/or preventative agent for AK.

  10. Anti-depressant effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pall extract in rats | Yu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neither PLPE nor fluoxetine, at the doses tested, produced significant effects on locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that Paeonia lactiflora Pall is a potential agent for the treatment of depression in humans. Keywords: Paeonia lactiflora, Depression, Tail suspension test, Forced swimming test ...

  11. Raw rehmannia radix polysaccharide can effectively release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duck viral hepatitis (DVH), caused by duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), is a fatal contagious infectious disease which spreads rapidly with high morbidity and high mortality, and there is no effective clinical drug against DVH. Materials and Methods: Raw Rehmannia Radix Polysaccharide (RRRP), Lycii Fructus ...

  12. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...

  13. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liriopogons (Liriope and Opiopogon) species are used as the main medicinal ingredient in traditional medicine in several Asian countries. The roots or tubers of Liriope plants (Liriopes radix; LR) have traditionally been used for hundreds of years to treat cough, insomnia, constipation, asthma, and inflammation. The present ...

  14. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publi...

  15. The effects of wine-processing on ascending and descending: The distribution of flavonoids in rat tissues after oral administration of crude and wine-processed Radix scutellariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Tan, Shanzhong; Zhang, Yong-xin; Li, Jun-song; Chai, Chuan; Li, Jin-ji; Cai, Bao-chang

    2014-08-08

    Ascending and descending theory is a core principle of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theories. It plays an essential role in TCM clinical applications. Some TCM medicine has specific properties, which could alter the inclination and direction of their actions. The properties of the ascending and floating process of one herbal medicine are affected by means of herb processing. Wine-processing, which is sautéing with rice wine, is one of the most popular technologies of herb processing. Wine-processing increases the inclination and direction of its actions, thereby producing or strengthening their efficacy in cleaning the upper-energizer heat. Radix scutellariae, the dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a well-known TCM used for the treatment of inflammation, pyrexia, jaundice, etc. Recently, wine-processed Radix scutellariae was normally applied in clinical studies for the treatment of upper-energizer syndrome. In order to investigate the effects of wine-processing on ascending and descending of Radix scutellariae, the comparative study of distribution of flavonoids in rat tissues of triple energizers (SanJiao-upper, middle, lower jiao) after oral administration of crude and wine-processed Radix scutellariae aqueous extracts was carried out. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups and orally administered with crude and wine-processed Radix scutellariae aqueous extracts, respectively. At different pre-determined time points after administration, the concentrations of compounds in rat tissue homogenate were determined, and the main tissue pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. Tissue pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0-t, t1/2, Tmax and Cmax were calculated using DAS 2.0. An unpaired Student t-test was used to compare the differences in tissue pharmacokinetic parameters between the two groups. All the results were expressed as arithmetic mean±S.D. The parameters of Cmax and AUC0-t of some flavonoids in wine-processed Radix

  16. [The influences of ultrafiltration and alcohol sedimentation on protective effects of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri against rat's cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-qi; Wang, Zhi-wang; Wei, Shu-chang; Yan, Chun-lu; Wang, Rui-qiong; Li, Ying-dong

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the influences of ultrafiltration and alcohol sedimentation on protective effects of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri against rat's cerebral ischemia. Using dexamethasone (im.) and ligating common carotid artery, the rat stasis model combined transient cerebral ischemia was established to evaluate the effects of the ultrafiltration and alcohol sedimentation through detecting antioxidant system and other indexes in brain tissue. The results showed that the 6 g/kg water extract(crude drug), ultrafiltration and alcohol sedimentation of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri could upgrade adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and degrade malondialdehyde(MDA) and water content of brain tissue in rat stasis model combined transient cerebral ischemia, the water extract and ultrafiltration of them could degrade lactic acid (LD) of brain tissue, and the effects of alcohol sedimentation of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri become weaker than water extract of them. The water extract, ultrafiltration and alcohol sedimentation of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri have some protective effects on cerebral ischemia in rats, the effective differences of the extract through the same extraction method are not remarkable, and alcohol precipitation method has obvious influences effect on Radix Astragali and Radix Hedyseri.

  17. Herbs in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan

    2011-12-01

    Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PhD Education High School & College Programs Our Research Advantage About Our Research Researcher Interviews Core Facilities Research ... Herbs Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products: FAQs About Herbs App Email Us About Mind-Body Therapies Our Research & ...

  19. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  20. [Exclusive control substance of radix Stephaniae tetrandrae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Anjun; Li, Xifeng; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Jinlan; Du, Guanhua; Qin, Hailin

    2009-08-01

    To develop the system for the exclusive control substance of plant drug (CSPD) in traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHM), this paper investigated the (CSPD) of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae as well as its proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical methods for the purpose of original identification and quality control of the crude drug. The CSPDs and their 1H-NMR and HPLC profiles of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae were obtained by standardized procedure. Chemical components were isolated from the CSPD by silica gel column chromatography. The assignments of the characteristic signals in 1H-NMR and HPLC profiles were achieved on the basis of elucidation of the isolates structures. For nine samples from the different sources in this paper, the 1H-NMR and HPLC profiles from eight sources had wonderful reproducibility and characteristics, and the other gave differences compared with the eight samples in the signal strength of the main components. Furthermore, seven compounds were isolated from CSPD and their chemical structures were authenticated by spectral analysis as tetrandrine, fangchinoline, tetrandrine-2'-N-beta-oxide, tetrandrine-2'-N-alpha-oxide, dicentrine, dicentrinone, and adenine, respectively. The 1H-NMR and HPLC profiles of the CSPD of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae showed mainly the characteristic signals of the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids isolated in this work. The 1H-NMR and HPLC profiles of the CSPD of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae exhibit the structures and total composition of the main active constituents in it, and can be used for its original identification and quality evaluation.

  1. Chemical Components and Pharmacological Activities of Terpene Natural Products from the Genus Paeonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Li-Li; Li, Hong-Yi; Yan, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Yan-Long

    2016-10-13

    Paeonia is the single genus of ca. 33 known species in the family Paeoniaceae, found in Asia, Europe and Western North America. Up to now, more than 180 compounds have been isolated from nine species of the genus Paeonia, including terpenes, phenols, flavonoids, essential oil and tannins. Terpenes, the most abundant naturally occurring compounds, which accounted for about 57% and occurred in almost every species, are responsible for the observed in vivo and in vitro biological activities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive overview of the recent phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge of the terpenes from Paeonia plants, and enlighten further drug discovery research.

  2. Chemical Components and Pharmacological Activities of Terpene Natural Products from the Genus Paeonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Paeonia is the single genus of ca. 33 known species in the family Paeoniaceae, found in Asia, Europe and Western North America. Up to now, more than 180 compounds have been isolated from nine species of the genus Paeonia, including terpenes, phenols, flavonoids, essential oil and tannins. Terpenes, the most abundant naturally occurring compounds, which accounted for about 57% and occurred in almost every species, are responsible for the observed in vivo and in vitro biological activities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive overview of the recent phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge of the terpenes from Paeonia plants, and enlighten further drug discovery research.

  3. Dynamic variation of bioactive compounds and aflatoxins in contaminated Radix Astragali during extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Luo, Hongli; Zhao, Lianhua; Yang, Meihua

    2016-03-30

    Although increasing attention has been paid to the health threat caused by mycotoxins in commodities such as food or medicines, mycotoxin transfer processes from crude material to products have raised little concern so far. Radix Astragali is a commonly used edible and medicinal herbal plant that is susceptible to contamination with aflatoxins from Aspergillus flavus. There have been no studies on mycotoxin transfer into pharmaceutical preparations or derivative products. To facilitate the aflatoxin reduction and bioactivity retention, the dynamic variations of aflatoxins as well as herbal compounds, namely calycosin-7-glucoside, astragaloside and formononetin, in Radix Astragali contaminated by A. flavus during water decoction and ethanol refluxing treatments were evaluated simultaneously by an ultra-fast liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method. After the extraction processes, although the amount of alfatoxins was reduced remarkably, aflatoxin residuals in preparation still exceed recommended limits, manifesting the great need to establish a limit for aflatoxins in herbal extractions or derivative products. Meanwhile, due to the hydrolysis of glucoside, water decoction period should be no longer than 4 h. This investigation would benefit from the determination of the dynamic variation of aflatoxins in infected herbs in preparation treatments, in order to further develop aflatoxin limits in herbal preparations. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Inhibitory effect of saponins and polysaccharides from Radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different Radix ranunculi ternati extracts on human gastric cancer BGC823 cells were investigated, different methods were used to extract the saponins and polysaccharides from Radix ranunculi ternati, and MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to observe the effects of saponins and ...

  5. Radix mesiolingualis and radix distolingualis: a case report of a tooth with an unusual morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Nayak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the root and canal morphology of the maxillary first molars is quite common. The most common configuration is 3 roots and 3 or 4 canals. Nonetheless, other possibilities still exist. The presence of an additional palatal root is rather uncommon and has been reported to have an incidence of 0.06 - 1.6% in varying populations studied. Whenever two palatal roots exist, one of them is the normal palatal root, the other is a supernumerary structure which can be located either mesiolingually (radix mesiolingualis or distolingually (radix distolingualis. This case report describes successful endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with radix mesiolingualis and radix distolingualis. Identification of this variation was done through clinical examination along with the aid of multiangled radiographs, and an accurate assessment of this morphology was made with the help of a cone-beam computed tomography imaging. In addition to the literature review, this article also discusses the epidemiology, classifications, morphometric features, guidelines for diagnosis, and endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with extra-palatal root.

  6. Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus Extracts Effectively Inhibit BK Virus and JC Virus Infection of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Yuan; Teng, Ru-Hsiou; Wang, Meilin; Chen, Pei-Lain; Lin, Mien-Chun; Chao, Chun-Nun; Chiang, Ming-Ko

    2017-01-01

    The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs) and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections. PMID:28757888

  7. Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus Extracts Effectively Inhibit BK Virus and JC Virus Infection of Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV and JC (JCPyV are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections.

  8. Influence of herbal combinations on the extraction efficiencies of chemical compounds from Cinnamomum cassia, Paeonia lactiflora, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the herbal components of Gyeji-tang, evaluated by HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Woo-Ram; Park, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Guemsan; Choi, Goya; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-09-10

    During decoction process, the ingredients of herbal formula interact with each other, such that therapeutic properties and chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Cinnamomum cassia (CC), Paeonia lactiflora (PL), and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU), are the main herbal constituents of Gyeji-tang, a traditional herbal formula. To evaluate the chemical interaction between CC, PL, and GU during the course of decoction, quantification of 16 marker compounds in the herbal decoction, performed using a Box-Behnken experimental design, was carried out by HPLC-diode array detection using validated method. Correlations between the amounts of marker compounds from CC, PL, and GU were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained showed that amounts of single herb marker compounds significantly changed (usually decreased) by decoction in the presence of other herbs and that these changes depended on the chemical natures of the markers and the herbal medicines present. Results also demonstrated that the extraction efficiencies of marker compounds increased when the proportion of the herb containing them was increased and decreased in proportion to amounts of herbs added. In conclusion, chemical interactions between compositional herbal medicines may occur when herbs are co-decocted. This study provides insight of understanding the herbal interactions in herbal formulae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular identification of Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis paeoniae and Botrytis pseudocinerea associated with gray mould disease in peonies (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Gastón; Campos, Felipe; Salgado, Daisy; Galdames, Rafael; Gilchrist, Lucy; Chahin, Gabriela; Andrade, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, the peony is the most important ornamental flower exported from the country. Gray mould is a phytopathological problem of this crop. This disease is caused by Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis paeoniae. We carried out the first survey of Botrytis species associated with peony gray mould in Southern Chile to estimate the diversity of these pathogens. Diseased peony leaves were collected from seven locations in Southern Chile covering a distance of 300km. The Botrytis isolates obtained were studied by morphological and molecular methods. Finally, a PCR assay using primers based on the necrosis and ethylene-inducing protein gene (nep1) was used to specifically identify B. paeoniae. Seventeen isolates belonging to Botrytis genus were obtained, and all of them were pathogenic to peonies when inoculated in plants grown in a greenhouse. Morphological analyses showed that four isolates shared common characteristics, which distinguish them from the rest. Homology and phylogenetic analysis of G3PDH, as well as determination of the Bc-hch allele, allowed us to identify 12 isolates as B. cinerea, 4 as B. paeoniae and one isolate as Botrytis pseudocinerea. The PCR assay was found to be specific to B. paeoniae, amplifying a single band of 470bp. Three Botrytis species involved in peony gray mould disease are present in Chile. This is the first time that both B. paeoniae and B. pseudocinerea have been reported to be present in the country and also that they affect peonies. Finally, to our knowledge, the PCR based method herein described is the first of its kind to be used to identify B. paeoniae. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Aqueous Extract of Paeonia suffruticosa Inhibits Migration and Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells via Suppressing VEGFR-3 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC cells are characterized by strong drug resistance and high metastatic incidence. In this study, the effects of ten kinds of Chinese herbs on RCC cell migration and proliferation were examined. Aqueous extract of Paeonia suffruticosa (PS-A exerted strong inhibitory effects on cancer cell migration, mobility, and invasion. The results of mouse xenograft experiments showed that the treatment of PS-A significantly suppressed tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. We further found that PS-A markedly decreased expression of VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3 and phosphorylation of FAK in RCC cells. Moreover, the activation of Rac-1, a modulator of cytoskeletal dynamics, was remarkably reduced by PS-A. Additionally, PS-A suppressed polymerization of actin filament as demonstrated by confocal microscopy analysis and decreased the ratio of F-actin to G-actin in RCC cells, suggesting that PS-A inhibits RCC cell migration through modulating VEGFR-3/FAK/Rac-1 pathway to disrupt actin filament polymerization. In conclusion, this research elucidates the effects and molecular mechanism for antimigration of PS-A on RCC cells and suggests PS-A to be a therapeutic or adjuvant strategy for the patients with aggressive RCC.

  11. Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Common Garden Peony ( Paeonia lactifl ora Pall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tserenlkham Tserendejid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied different extracts of aboveground and underground parts of Paeonia lactifl ora Pall.in experiment. For doing so this research needs to start up with total cholesterol. Total cholesterol is a direct cholesterol measurement that measures all cholesterol molecules in the blood, including low density lipoproteins (LDL, high density lipoproteins (HDL, and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL. The serum total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoproteins (LDL levels were signifi cantly different in the experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemia rats. Effect on serum triglyceride (TG level compared to control group, simvastatin and hypercholesterolemia diet (HD, but almost all were similar with simvastatin. Effect on serum high density lipoproteins (HDL level compared between those. Extracts (PL1, PL2 were lower, almost the same with hypercholesterolemia diet (HD.

  12. Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis: an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Winnie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT is one of the simplest. Containing only two herbs, namely Radix Astragali (RA and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS, DBT is traditionally used to treat ailments in women. The weight ratio of RA to RAS in DBT was prescribed to be 5:1 as early as in 1247 AD. In addition to advanced chemical analysis of herbal constituents, DNA genotyping techniques have been developed for reliable standardization of RA and RAS. Chemical evaluation shows that main active constituents in DBT, including astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin and ferulic acid, were most abundant after extraction at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1, whereas other tested RA to RAS ratios only gave sub-optimal levels of the active constituents. Biological evaluation indicates that bioactivities of DBT, e.g. immuno-modulatory, oesteotropic and estrogenic effects are also best exerted at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1. Correlation analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationship between the tested chemical constituents and tested bioactivities. Up- and down-regulation of expression of some genes as potential biomarkers has been detected by using gene chip technology. This systematic approach on the basis of herbal standardization, chemical and biological verification and mechanism studies, as exemplified in this article, will be useful to reveal the complexity of not only DBT but also other Chinese medicine herbal formulae.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A and Anhydrosafflor Yellow B in Safflower Series of Herb Pairs Using Prep-HPLC and a Selective Knock-Out Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The flower of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Carthami Flos, safflower, important in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, is known for treating blood stasis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease in clinical and experimental studies. It is widely accepted that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA and anhydrosafflor yellow B (ASYB are the major bioactive components of many formulae comprised of safflower. In this study, selective knock-out of target components such as HSYA and ASYB by using preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC followed by antiplatelet and anticoagulation activities evaluation was used to investigate the roles of bioactive ingredients in safflower series of herb pairs. The results showed that both HSYA and ASYB not only played a direct role in activating blood circulation, but also indirectly made a contribution to the total bioactivity of safflower series of herb pairs. The degree of contribution of HSYA in the safflower and its series herb pairs was as follows: Carthami Flos-Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma Rubra (CF-GR > Carthami Flos-Sappan Lignum (CF-SL > Carthami Flos-Angelicae Sinensis Radix (CF-AS > Carthami Flos-Astragali Radix (CF-AR > Carthami Flos-Angelicae Sinensis Radix (CF-AS > Carthami Flos-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (CF-GL > Carthami Flos-Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (CF-SM > Carthami Flos (CF, and the contribution degree of ASYB in the safflower and its series herb pairs: CF-GL > CF-PS > CF-AS > CF-SL > CF-SM > CF-AR > CF-GR > CF. So, this study provided a significant and effective approach to elucidate the contribution of different herbal components to the bioactivity of the herb pair, and clarification of the variation of herb-pair compatibilities. In addition, this study provides guidance for investigating the relationship between herbal compounds and the bioactivities of herb pairs. It also provides a scientific basis for reasonable clinical applications and new drug

  14. The design of disengaging mechanism of radix pseudostellariae and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shungen; Song, Mengmeng; Chen, Chanwei

    2017-12-01

    With the continuous development of the scale of the cultivation of the radix pseudostellariae, the traditional separation mode cannot adapt to the mass production of the crown prince, and the existing manual separation mode is of great labor intensity and low degree of mechanization. Therefore, it is necessary to design a disengaging mechanism of radix pseudostellariae and soil on the basis of the design principle of modern agricultural machinery. According to the physical characteristics and growing environment of radix pseudostellariae, a drum-type separating component is presented, and the drum screen separating mechanism and vibration mechanism of the disengaging mechanism are designed. In this paper, the movement rule and time of the mixture of radix pseudostellariae and soil are determined in the drum screen. Rotation speed of the drum screen is calculated, and the operation rules of the eccentric wheel in the vibration mechanism are summarized.

  15. [Effects of soil factor on active components of Radix Ophiopogonis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianting; Ye, Zhengliang; Guo, Qiaosheng

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of soil factors on the active components in Radix Ophiopogonis. The content of polysaccharide, flavonoids, saponins, water-soluble extract and inorganic elements in Radix Ophiopogonis gathered from 7 different places were compared, physical and chemical properties and inorganic elements of soil were analyzed. The path and grey connection analysis were applied for studying the effects on the active components of Radix Ophiopogonis. The concentrations of mineral elements in plant were mainly adjusted by active absorption. The active components in Radix Ophiopogonis was primarily effected by soil enzyme activity, the other important factors were potassium, pH, and organic matter. K, Fe, Mn, B, Ba, Zn of soil also had much influence on it then others inorganic elements.

  16. The difference between blood-associated and water-associated herbs of Danggui-Shaoyao San in theory of TCM, based on serum pharmacochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunlai; Li, Guoqiang; Zhou, Yu; Yin, Dengke; Tao, Chunlei; Han, Lan; Yue, Xiaoli; Pan, Yongfu; Yao, Yao; Peng, Daiyin; Xu, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Danggui-Shaoyao San (DSS) is a famous Chinese formula for activating blood circulation and promoting urination. This study was to investigate the difference of material basis between a blood-associated herbs group and a water-associated herbs group. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the formula can be divided into a blood-associated herbs group (Angelica sinensis, Paeonia lactiflora and Ligusticum chuanxiong) and a water-associated herbs group (Atractylodes macrocephala, Alisma orientale and Poria cocos). The HPLC fingerprint of the formula was established for quality control. Serum samples from rats, orally administrated DSS, and the decomposed recipes of DSS, were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and the transitional blood components of DSS were identified. Twenty-one common peaks were identified in the fingerprint of DSS. Contents of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid and alisol B 23-acetate in co-decoction were significantly higher than those in individual decoction. Eleven peaks belonged to the blood-associated herbs group (four metabolites and seven prototype components; paeoniflorin and ferulic acid appeared in prototype components), whereas six peaks belonged to the water-associated herbs group (three metabolites and three prototype components). It was concluded that the serum pharmacochemistry is a meaningful approach for clarifying the difference between blood-associated and water-associated herbs in chemical composition. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Cause and control of Radix Ophiopogonis browning during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Qi, Jin; Han, Dong-Qi; Xu, Tian; Liu, Ji-Hua; Qin, Min-Jian; Zhu, Dan-Ni; Bo-Yang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    In the storage of Radix Ophiopogonis, browning often happens to cause potential risk with regard to safety. Previously few reports investigate the browning of Radix Ophiopogonis. In this research, the causes and mechanisms of the browning of Radix Ophiopogonis were preliminarily elucidated. Content determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry, enzyme activity determination by colorimetry, and morphological observation by electron microscopy were performed in the present study. Uniform design and three-dimensional response surfaces were applied to investigate the relationship between browning and storage factors. The cortex cell wall of browned Radix Ophiopogonis was ruptured. Compared with the normal Radix Ophiopogonis, cellulase and polyphenol oxidase enzymes were activated, the levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), total sugars, and reducing sugars were increased, while the levels of polysaccharides and methylophiopogonanone A were decreased in browned Radix Ophiopogonis. The relationship between the storage factors and degree of browning (Y) could be described by following correlation equation: Y = - 0.625 4 + 0.020 84 × X3 + 0.001 514 × X1 × X2 - 0.000 964 4 × X2 × X3. Accompanied with browning under storage conditions, the chemical composition of Radix Ophiopogonis was altered. Following the activation of cellulase, the rupture of the cortex cell wall and the outflow of cell substances flowed out, which caused the Radix Ophiopogonis tissue to become soft and sticky. The main causes of the browning were the production of 5-HMF, the activation of polyphenol oxidase, Maillard reactions and enzymatic browning. Browning could be effectively prevented when the air relative humidity (HR), temperature, and moisture content were under 25% RH, 12 °C and 18%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Herbs: Bridging the Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Deborah J.

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the challenge for caregivers in developing intergenerational programs is to engage both groups with the materials and with each other while taking into consideration each group's needs and interests. Offers tips for planning any intergenerational activity. Explains how to plan activities using herbs, presents instructions for three…

  19. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puiyan Lam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  20. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-03-29

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  1. The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; An, Mi Ra; Nah, Seung Yeol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jae Ha; Shin, Dong Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products.

  2. Hepatoprotective Herbs, Avicenna Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi-Baghbanan, Hamid; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Minaei, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liver injury or dysfunction is considered as a serious health problem. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders are expensive and cause further damage. Hence, hepatoprotective effects of some herbal drugs have been investigated, and one of the methods to choose herbs in order to study their biological effects is to search in ancient medical texts. Avicenna who is known as the prince of physicians had collected and classified Greek, Persian and Islamic medicine in the...

  3. Simultaneous determination of four iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides and comparative analysis of Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and their related substitutes by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Zhe-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been frequently used to dispel rheumatism and ease pain. There are four species of Gentiana (G. macrophylla, G. straminea, G. dahurica and G. crassicaulis) recorded as herbal drugs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and two other Gentiana species (G. officinalis and G. siphonantha) are often used as substitutes. Currently, the LC fingerprint comparison among different species and evidence for the equivalent application of these herbs are lacking. To develop an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of four iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides and a comparative study of six species of Gentiana. HPLC analysis was performed on a C(18) column (Phenomenex, 150 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm particle size) with gradient elution using 0.4% aqueous phosphoric acid and methanol at 242 nm. The proposed method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough for simultaneous quantitative evaluation of four iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides (loganic acid, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside) in the six species of Gentiana. Contents of the four marker compounds varied from each other even among the samples from the same species and the LC chromatograms of the six species of Gentiana showed high similarities. he close similarity of LC chromatograms and chemical composition of the four genuine Gentiana species explain their popular usage as Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae in Chinese medicine. By comparing the four genuine Gentiana species, it is suggested that the two substitutes could be used as Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae to relieve the scarcity of resources.

  4. Hepatoprotective herbs, avicenna viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi-Baghbanan, Hamid; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Minaei, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Liver injury or dysfunction is considered as a serious health problem. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders are expensive and cause further damage. Hence, hepatoprotective effects of some herbal drugs have been investigated, and one of the methods to choose herbs in order to study their biological effects is to search in ancient medical texts. Avicenna who is known as the prince of physicians had collected and classified Greek, Persian and Islamic medicine in the best possible way in the book of Canon in Arabic. Avicenna's book of The Canon of Medicine was reviewed to find the hepatoprotective herbs. Three different versions of the Canon were prepared and utilized. To find scientific names of plants we took advantage of three botany references. All of the herbs were investigated on the basis of scientific data from hepatoprotective effects point of view. The searched term was "hepatoprotective" without narrowing and limiting. The searched databases included Cochrane library, Web of science, SID, Irandoc and IranMedex. 18 plants were found. 85% of the presented species, genus or families of plants were reported to have hepatoprotective properties and in the remaining 15% there were no reports of hepatoprotective effect. Flowers and fruits were the most used part of the plants. Most of the plants had simultaneous protective effects on multiple organs but the protective effect on the liver was mostly accompanied by protective effect on the stomach (83%). The average temperament of these herbs is "hot" in the 2nd phase of the 2nd grade, and "dry" in the 3rd phase of the 2nd grade. Hepatoprotective herbs mostly prescribed as a part of hepatoprotective compound drugs formula or other formula for liver diseases are Crocus sativus, Pistacia lentiscus, and Cinnamomum spp. Maybe there is common mechanism for protecting both liver and stomach. Aquilaria agallocha, Aquilaria malaccensis, and Ruscus aculeatus whose hepatoprotective effects have not yet been

  5. Radix entomolaris dificultad y reto endodóntico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lliliana Rodríguez Ballesteros

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa variante anatómica más importante que presenta el primer molar inferior es una tercera raíz adicional distolingual llamada radix entomolaris o bucal llamada radix paramolaris. En un tratamiento de endodoncia es importante tener la información completa sobre las variaciones de los conductos radiculares en la medida en que esta asegura el resultado sustancialmente. Para que un tratamiento endodóntico pueda tener éxito, es necesario localizar todos los conductos radiculares, limpiarlos a fondo y sellarlos completamente con un material inerte. El endodoncista debe conocer la morfología interna de los dientes permanentes y las posibles variaciones que estos puedan tener como es el caso de una raíz adicional situada en lingual (el radix entomolaris o en vestibular (el radix paramolaris. La anatomía del conducto radicular es muy compleja e impredecible, y la comprensión de la presencia de una raíz adicional es esencial ya que determinara el éxito del tratamiento endodóntico. El presente caso clínico describe un primer molar inferior con RE sometido a tratamiento endodóntico con tres raíces: una mesial (con un conducto mesio vestibular y otro mesio lingual, una distal (con un conducto y otra raíz disto lingual: radix entomolaris (con un conducto. (DUAZARY 2011, 74 - 79 AbstractThe most important anatomical variant which presents the first molar is third distolingual additional root called radix entomolaris paramolaris call or oral. In root canal treatment is important to have complete information on variations of the root canals to the extent that this ensures the result substantially. For endodontic treatment to succeed, it is necessary to locate all the canals, clean them thoroughly and completely sealed with an inert material. The endodontist must know the internal morphology of permanent teeth and possible variations that they can have as is the case of an additional root located on the tongue (the radix entomolaris or

  6. Radix entomolaris dificultad y reto endodóntico

    OpenAIRE

    Lliliana Rodríguez Ballesteros; Raul Fortich Carballo; Antonio Diaz C

    2013-01-01

    ResumenLa variante anatómica más importante que presenta el primer molar inferior es una tercera raíz adicional distolingual llamada radix entomolaris o bucal llamada radix paramolaris. En un tratamiento de endodoncia es importante tener la información completa sobre las variaciones de los conductos radiculares en la medida en que esta asegura el resultado sustancialmente. Para que un tratamiento endodóntico pueda tener éxito, es necesario localizar todos los conductos radiculares, limpiarlos...

  7. Radix Sophorae flavescentis for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Zhu, Minghui; Shi, Rui

    2003-01-01

    , or interferon for chronic hepatitis B were identified by electronic and manual searches. Trials of Sophorae herb plus other drugs versus other drugs alone were also included. No blinding and language limitations were applied. The methodological quality of trials was assessed by the Jadad scale plus allocation...... biochemical effects, and improved symptoms and signs compared with non-specific treatment and other herbal medicines. The combination of matrine and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), thymosin, or basic treatment showed better effects on viral and liver biochemical responses. The antiviral and biochemical...

  8. A systematic review of the active saikosaponins and extracts isolated from Radix Bupleuri and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bochuan; Yang, Rui; Ma, Yongsheng; Zhou, Shan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Radix Bupleuri has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 2000 years with functions of relieving exterior syndrome, clearing heat, regulating liver-qi, and lifting yang-qi. More natural active compounds, especially saikosaponins, have been isolated from Radix Bupleuri, which possess various valuable pharmacological activities. To summarize the current knowledge on pharmacological activities, mechanisms and applications of extracts and saikosaponins isolated from Radix Bupleuri, and obtain new insights for further research and development of Radix Bupleuri. PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Research Gate, Academic Journals and Google Scholar were used as information sources through the inclusion of the search terms 'Radix Bupleuri', 'Bupleurum', 'saikosaponins', 'Radix Bupleuri preparation', and their combinations, mainly from the year 2008 to 2016 without language restriction. Clinical preparations containing Radix Bupleuri were collected from official website of China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA). 296 papers were searched and 128 papers were reviewed. A broad spectrum of in vitro and in vivo research has proved that Radix Bupleuri extracts, saikosaponin a, saikosaponin d, saikosaponin c, and saikosaponin b2, exhibit evident anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiviral, anti-allergic, immunoregulation, and neuroregulation activities mainly through NF-κB, MAPK or other pathways. 15 clinical preparations approved by CFDA remarkably broaden the application of Radix Bupleuri. The main side effect of Radix Bupleuri is liver damage when the dosage is excess, which indicates that the maximum tolerated dose is critical for clinical use of Radix Bupleuri extract and purified compounds.

  9. Dehnh. Utilizando radix en diferentes concentraciones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarrete-Luna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de desarrollar una técnica de propagación asexual de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, mediante el uso de rebrotes, se establecieron dos ensayos, uno en el mes de marzo y otro en el mes de mayo, para evaluar el efecto de la dosis de AIB (ácido indolbutírico, aplicado en forma del producto comercial Radix® y del genotipo en la capacidad de enraizado de las estaca, en un sustrato compuesto por la mezcla de turba de musgo, vermiculita y agrolita en una proporción de 60:30:10; ambos presentan el mismo diseño, con la diferencia de que en el segundo ensayo no se pudieron incluir todos los clones presentes en el primero. A las cinco semanas de establecidos los ensayos, se extrajeron las estacas para determinar la presencia de raíces o callos. De acuerdo con los datos obtenidos, no se encontró un efecto significativo de la dosis de AIB en el porcentaje de estacas enraizadas, estacas con callo o número de raíces; la dosis de AIB sólo afectó la longitud de las raíces en el segundo ensayo. Sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias significativas en la capacidad de enraizado entre los ensayos, asociadas posiblemente a las condiciones ambientales y fisiológicas de las estacas en cada uno de ellos. Además, se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los clones en el porcentaje de estacas enraizadas y estacas que formaron callo, así como en la longitud de raíz, aunque no en el número de raíces formadas. Esto implica que existen diferencias genéticas en la capacidad de enraizado de los clones de E. camaldulensis incluidos en el estudio.

  10. Pharmaceutical properties of calycosin, the major bioactive isoflavonoid in the dry root extract of Radix astragali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, JunQing; Liu, Zong Jun; Chen, Tao; Zhao, DeQiang

    2014-09-01

    Radix astragali (Fabaceae astragalus propinquus Schischkin) is a Chinese medicinal herb traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases. Calycosin is the major bioactive chemical in the dry root extract of this medical plant. This work presents a brief overview of recent reports on the potential effects of calycosin on several diseases and the possible mechanisms of action of this chemical. This review gathers information from the scientific literature (before 1 June 2013) that was compiled from various databases, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. The potential pharmaceutical properties of calycosin in the treatment of tumors, inflammation, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases have gained increasing attention in the recent years. The literature survey showed that calycosin exhibits promising effects for the treatment of several diseases and that these effects may be due to its isoflavonoid and phytoestrogenic properties. The effects of calycosin most likely result from its interaction with the ER receptors on the cell membrane and the modulation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Calycosin exhibits great potential as a therapeutic drug and may be a successful example of the standardization and modernization of traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

  11. Effect of Lithospermi Radix on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluorobenzene in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han-Na

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. (Lithospermi Radix, LR is a kind of heat clearing and blood cooling medicinal herbs. It can clear away heat and cool the blood, reduce toxins and disperse maculae. LR has long been used as efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we investigate anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of LR by using the 1-fluoro-2, 4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis mouse model. Results: Topical application of 10 mg/mL of LR effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. Topical application of LR also inhibited hyperplasia, edema, spongiosis and infiltrations of mononuclear cells. In addition, production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG1 in serum were decreased by using LR in vivo. Conclusions: These data suggest that LR acts as an antiinflammatory agent, improving skin lesions in CD mice.

  12. Effects of Dietary Isoflavones from Puerariae Radix on Lipid and Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Tai Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Puerariae radix, the dried root of Pueraria lobata Ohwi, is one of the earliest and most important edible crude herbs used for various medical purposes in oriental medicine. This study evaluated the metabolic effects of total isoflavones from P. lobata (PTIF in ovariectomized (OVX rats. The OVX rats were divided into four groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 μg/kg, once daily, i.p. and PTIF (30 and 100 mg/kg, once daily, p.o. for eight weeks. The treatments with high-dose PTIF significantly decreased the bone mineral density (BMD loss in the femur and inhibited the increase in body weight and lipoprotein levels compared to the OVX-control group without elevating the serum levels of the liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT. Furthermore, PTIF exhibits a hepatoprotective effect in OVX-induced hepatic steatosis, indicated with reduced hepatic lipid contents. Taken together, our findings suggest that PTIF may be useful for controlling lipid and bone metabolism, at least in OVX rats. Further research is necessary to determine whether PTIF will have the same effects in humans.

  13. Effects of ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper mainly studied the inhibitory effect of total ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on proliferation of colon cancer HT29 cells. By reflux extraction method and with ethanol as extraction solvent, different extracts were obtained at different ethanol concentrations, different solid-liquid ratios, and at different ...

  14. Extraction and Purification of Flavonoids from Radix Puerariae | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an efficient method for the purification of flavonoids from Radix puerariae. Methods: Optimal extraction technology was obtained using orthogonal test. Through adsorption and desorption tests, 8 resins with different polarity, diameter, and surface area were studied. Finally, a novel macroporous resin, ...

  15. Radix bupleuri Extract Inhibits Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Radix bupleuri extract (RBE) on hyperplasia of mammary gland (HMG) in rats. Methods: Forty virgin female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, HMG model, positive control (Rupisanjie capsule, RPSJC), and low-, middle-, and high-dose RBE groups. Estrogen and ...

  16. Inhibition of Three Novel Radix Scutellariae Extracts on Immediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radix Scutellariae, a few papers reported its pharmacology activities including alleviate small intestines smooth muscles spasm, sedation, antihypertensive effect. However, the inhibition of its different organic extracts on immediate hypersensitivity has not bee researched. Materials and Methods: To investigate ...

  17. Evaluation of Embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae Based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the potential embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae (RS) extract using an embryonic stem cell test (EST) and to evaluate its effect on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem. (ES) cells. Methods: All the test samples were obtained by water extraction method. The embryotoxicity of RS was assessed ...

  18. Evaluation of Embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae Based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the potential embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae (RS) extract using an embryonic stem cell test (EST) and to evaluate its effect on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Methods: All the test samples were obtained by water extraction method. The embryotoxicity of RS was assessed ...

  19. Herbs in exercise and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra', ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

  20. Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Natasa; Milosević, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozić, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients.

  1. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  2. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schröder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan, Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto, Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto, and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto. The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN.

  3. Can medical herbs stimulate regeneration or neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Different Developmental Stages of Paeonia lactiflora Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglei Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paeonia lactiflora is a herbaceous flower in the family Paeoniaceae with both hypocotyl and epicotyl dormant seeds. We used high-throughput transcriptome sequencing on two different developmental stages of P. lactiflora seeds to identify seed dormancy and germination-related genes. We performed de novo assembly and annotated a total of 123,577 unigenes, which encoded 24,688 putative proteins with 47 GO categories. A total of 10,714 unigenes were annotated in the KEGG database, and 258 pathways were involved in the annotations. A total of 1795 genes were differentially expressed in the functional enrichment analysis. The key genes for seed germination and dormancy, such as GAI1 and ARF, were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. This is the first report of sequencing the P. lactiflora seed transcriptome. Our results provide fundamental frame work and technical support for further selective breeding and cultivation of Paeonia. Our transcriptomic data also serves as the basis for future genetics and genomics research on Paeonia and its closely related species.

  5. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Baysak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient’s knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported.

  6. [Grades evaluation of Scutellariae Radix slices based on quality constant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Zhang, Jun; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhong, Wen; Cui, Wen-Jin; Cheng, Jin-Tang; Chen, Sha; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Liu, An

    2017-05-01

    By measuring the morphological indexes and the marker components content of 22 batches of Scutellariae Radix slices as well as calculating the quality constant, this research was aimed to establish a new method of evaluating the specifications and grades of Scutellariae Radix slices. The quality constants of these samples were in the range of 0.04-0.49, which can be divided into several grades based on the real requirement. If they were divided into three grades, the quality constant was ≥0.39 for the first grade, grade, and grade. This work indicated that the quality constants characterizing both apparent parameters and intrinsic quality can be used as a comprehensive evaluation index to classify the grades of traditional Chinese medicine quantitatively, clearly and objectively. The research results in this paper would provide new ideas and references for evaluating the specifications and grades of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. [Study on attenuate and synergistic mechanism between aconiti lateralis praeparata radix and glycyrrhizae radix for toxicity reduction based on metabonomic of MI-RI mouse cardiomyocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Fu, Chao-Mei; Ren, Bo; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Fei; Yang, Huan; Peng, Wei; Gan, Yan-Xiong

    2014-08-01

    Sini decoction (SND), a classical traditional Chinese medicine emergency formula recorded in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases), which is composed of Aconiti Lateralis Preparata Radix, Glycyrrhizae Preparata Radix and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Modern clinical and pharmacological researches have shown that SND can protect the myocardium effectively during myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MI-RI). A myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury model of H9c2 cardiomyocytes in vitro has been established. Four groups, control group, MI-RI Model group, SND group and SND without Glycyrrhizae Radix group, were arranged. The livability, the level of LDH and CK activity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in different groups were tested. By combining with principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), orthogonal partial least squares projection of latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), 17 biomarkers in extracellular fluid were identified and 15 of them were related to the pathway of biological processes. The results showed that the attenuate and synergistic mechanism between Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix for toxicity reduction was related with the glycolysis, lipid metabolism, citrate cycle and nitrogen metabolism of amino acids metabolism. The study proved the effect on H9c2 cardiomyocyte treated by MI-RI injury both SND group and SND without Glycyrrhizae Radix group, and compared with the SND without Glycyrrhizae Radix, the protective effect of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury model of H9c2 cardiomyocyte from SND was stronger.

  8. Antiaging and Anxiolytic Effects of Combinatory Formulas Based on Four Medicinal Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to search for medicinal-herb combinations based on Radix Bupleurum chinense DC (“B”, Rhizoma Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang (“Y”, Caulis Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (“P”, and Flos Albizia julibrissin Durazz (“A” for antiaging, anxiolytic, and sedative effects. Application of the D-galactose induced accelerated-aging model employing male ICR mice showed that oral administration of some combinations of B, Y, P, and A significantly improved spatial memory in Y-maze test and reduced brain levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 based on immunoassays and oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde, based on the thiobarbituric acid test, and the loss of whiskers, indicating antiaging and antineurodegeneration effects. In addition, some of the combinatory formulas induced anxiolysis measured using the elevated plus-maze test and/or sedative effects measured using the hole-board test. Over the range of dosages examined, all possible combinations of the four herbs were devoid of any significant side effects in the form of altered locomotor activity, decreased muscle coordination, or anterograde amnesia assessed using the photobeam and rotarod and step-through passive avoidance methods, respectively. The results suggest that various combinations of the B, Y, P, and A herbs could be useful as nonsedative, antiaging and/or antineurodegenerative agents, or anxiolytic agents.

  9. Molecular authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii by ITS and 5S rRNA spacer sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Fung, Kwok-Pui

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined nuclear DNA sequences in an attempt to reveal the relationships between Pueraria lobata (Willd). Ohwi, P. thomsonii Benth., and P. montana (Lour.) Merr. We found that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA are highly divergent in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, and four types of ITS with different length are found in the two species. On the other hand, DNA sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer are highly conserved across multiple copies in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, they could be used to identify P. lobata, P. thomsonii, and P. montana of this complex, and may serve as a useful tool in medical authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii.

  10. Combination treatment with Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Puerariae radix offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Cao, Si-Si; Gao, Quan-Gui; Feng, Hao-Tian; Wong, Man-Sau; Denney, Liya

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) and Puerariae radix (PR) combination treatment in bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats in our search for an alternative regimen for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old OVX rats were used as postmenopausal osteoporotic models, and PR water extract (PR) and FLL water extract (WE) were added to commercial diets individually or in combination and administered to OVX rats for 12 weeks. Bone properties, calcium and phosphorus absorption, and bone biochemical markers were measured to investigate the potential interactions between the actions of PR and the actions of WE on bone and mineral metabolism in OVX rats. Long-term treatment with PR did not significantly improve bone properties but greatly ameliorated the secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by ovariectomy in the animals. WE significantly enhanced the intestinal calcium absorption rate and decreased the enlarged trabecular bone surface at the site of metaphysic tibia in OVX rats. However, the positive effects of WE or PR alone on bone and mineral metabolism were diminished when OVX rats were cotreated with WE and PR. The combination of these two herbs offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in vivo. The results of the present study could provide insights to medical professionals to further their understanding of the potential negative impact of herb-herb interactions when a combination of herbal mixtures is used for the management of osteoporosis.

  11. Identification of Chemical Composition of Leaves and Flowers from Paeonia rockii by UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap HRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paeonia genus, an important source of crude drugs, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to treat cardiovascular and female-related diseases. Although many peony species have been investigated, the study of Paeonia rockii is still quite limited, especially its chemical composition. Here, an advanced ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC analytical technique combined with Q-Exactive Orbitrap hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry utilizing high-resolution full MS and MS/MS scan modes was applied to screen and identify the chemical constituents of this species. As a result, a total of 46 compounds were characterized, including 11 monoterpene glycosides, five phenolic acids, six tannins and 24 flavonoids. Among them, 16 compounds were reported for the first time in Paeonia rockii.

  12. Antiosteoporosis Effect of Radix Scutellariae Extract on Density and Microstructure of Long Bones in Tail-Suspended Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Rui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Scutellariae (RS, a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50 mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE at 2 mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis.

  13. Onjisaponin B Derived from Radix Polygalae Enhances Autophagy and Accelerates the Degradation of Mutant α-Synuclein and Huntingtin in PC-12 Cells

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    An-Guo Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates important protective roles being played by autophagy in neurodegenerative disorders through clearance of aggregate-prone or mutant proteins. In the current study, we aimed to identify autophagy inducers from Chinese medicinal herbs as a potential neuroprotective agent that enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin and α-synuclein in PC-12 cells. Through intensive screening using the green fluorescent protein-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3 autophagy detection platform, we found that the ethanol extracts of Radix Polygalae (Yuan Zhi were capable of inducing autophagy. Further investigation showed that among three single components derived from Radix Polygalae—i.e., polygalacic acid, senegenin and onjisaponin B—onjisaponin B was able to induce autophagy and accelerate both the removal of mutant huntingtin and A53T α-synuclein, which are highly associated with Huntington disease and Parkinson disease, respectively. Our study further demonstrated that onjisaponin B induces autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, findings in the current study provide detailed insights into the protective mechanism of a novel autophagy inducer, which is valuable for further investigation as a new candidate agent for modulating neurodegenerative disorders through the reduction of toxicity and clearance of mutant proteins in the cellular level.

  14. Elucidation of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Bupleuri and Scutellariae Radix Using System Pharmacological Analyses

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    Xia Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of the combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and explored the potential therapeutic efficacy of these two drugs on inflammation-related diseases. Methods. After searching the databases, we collected the active ingredients of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and calculated their oral bioavailability (OB and drug-likeness (DL based on the absorption-distribution-metabolism-elimination (ADME model. In addition, we predicted the drug targets of the selected active components based on weighted ensemble similarity (WES and used them to construct a drug-target network. Gene ontology (GO analysis and KEGG mapper tools were performed on these predicted target genes. Results. We obtained 30 compounds from Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix of good quality as indicated by ADME assays, which possess potential pharmacological activity. These 30 ingredients have a total of 121 potential target genes, which are involved in 24 biological processes related to inflammation. Conclusions. Combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix was found not only to directly inhibit the synthesis and release of inflammatory cytokines, but also to have potential therapeutic effects against inflammation-induced pain. In addition, a combination therapy of these two drugs exhibited systemic treatment efficacy and provided a theoretical basis for the development of drugs against inflammatory diseases.

  15. Protective effect of Radix Bupleuri extract against liver cirrhosis in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the effect of Radix Bupleuri extract (RBE) on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods: Rats were injected with DEN once a week for 8 weeks to induce liver cirrhosis. Some DENinduced rats were also treated with RBE, which was obtained by extracting dried Radix Bupleuri in ...

  16. A Radix-10 Digit-Recurrence Division Unit: Algorithm and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm. The previous decimal division designs do not include recent developments in the theory and practice of this type of algorithm, which were developed for radix-2^k dividers. In addition...

  17. Can highly cited herbs in ancient Traditional Chinese medicine formulas and modern publications predict therapeutic targets for diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Shunchun

    2017-11-02

    The prevalence of diabetes among all age groups worldwide was estimated to be more than 382 million in 2013. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, and substantial valuable experience and prescriptions have been accumulated in the TCM system for the treatment of diabetes. In recent decades, a large amount of experimental and clinical data has been published on the use of herbal medicines related to these ancient TCM prescriptions. This study aimed to discover a method for the investigation of potential antidiabetic herbs from the large amount of data in ancient TCM formulas and modern publications and to verify this method through an in vitro bioactivity study. In our review, the most frequently cited TCM herbs were selected as potential antidiabetic herb candidates on the basis of TCM philosophical theory (ancient TCM formulas) and Western medicine philosophical theory (modern publications). The ethanol and aqueous extracts of the selected herbs were screened for their α-glucosidase inhibitory, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and intestinal glucose transport inhibitory effects. Twelve herbs [Terminalia chebula Retz., fructus immaturus, dried; Poria cocos (Schw) Wolf., sclerotium, dried; Zea mays L., stigma, dried; Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, radix, dried; Cucurbita moschata (Duch. ex Lam.) Duch. ex Poiret, fructus, dried; Lycium barbarum L., fructus, dried; Glycine max (L.) Merr., semen, fermented; Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., radix and rhizoma, dried; Dioscorea opposita Thunb., rhizoma, dried; Morus alba L., folium, dried, Morus alba L., fructus, dried; and Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce, rhizoma, dried] were finally selected as candidates with potential glucose-lowering effects after a review was performed of herbs that are frequently cited in ancient TCM formulas and modern publications. The bioactive study results demonstrated that both the ethanol extracts and crude polysaccharides of M. alba L

  18. Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fude Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Bupleuri (Chaihu has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that this plant contains essential oils, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, lignans, fatty acids, and sterols. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Radix Bupleuri exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Radix Bupleuri could also lead to hepatotoxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive compounds (saikosaponins a, b2, c, and d were absorbed rapidly in rats after oral administration of the extract of Radix Bupleuri. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics of Radix Bupleuri reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  19. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: ), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: ), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory.

  20. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: 莪术, and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: 郁金, are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory.

  1. Fertility Herbs: Do They Enhance Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get pregnant. I've seen many ads for fertility herbs and supplements. Do they work? Answers from ... for infertility. Unfortunately, the research on so-called fertility herbs and supplements is inconclusive and based on ...

  2. Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( Jīn Yín Hūa), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Qīn Yè), Radix Isatidis ( Bǎn Lán Gēn), Viola yedoensis ( Zǐ Huā Dì Dīn), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu Wēn), Andrographis paniculata ( Chuān Xīn Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú Xīng Cǎo), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn Cǎo), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug.

  3. Aconite: a lethal Chinese herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatovich, D M

    1992-03-01

    Physicians and the public often assume that herbal preparations are harmless. Aconite is a Chinese herb used as an analgesic by homeopaths; its chief effects are on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. The first two reported cases of aconite poisoning in Australia are described.

  4. Pollination ecology and floral function of Brown's peony (Paeonia brownii) in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Bernhardt; Retha Meier; Nan. Vance

    2013-01-01

    Brown’s peony, Paeonia brownie (Paeoniaceae), is one of only two peony species native to the Western Hemisphere, yet its pollination ecology and breeding system have never been documented. Using flowering individuals of an endemic colony in the Blue Mountains of Oregon, U.S., we investigated the peony’s pollination system and floral function. We...

  5. Morphometric features of the genus Paeonia L. in the introduction conditions of the Botanical Garden-Institute, Ufa Research Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina A. Reut

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Botanical Garden-Institute, Ufa Research Center conducted the study of morphometric features of four alien species PaeoniaL. Revealed that the most of labile symptoms observed in labile P. anomalaand P. lactiflora, the lowest – in P. hybridaand P. tenuifolia.

  6. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  7. Role of herbs in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Tewari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and herbs have attracted a lot of attention since the past few years. The market for drugs extracted from these plants and made from herbal extracts has seen a significant rise. India is known for its rich stock of medicinal plants. Among many, some herbs are rich in phytochemical content. These phytochemicals are useful in generating phytomedicines which have effects on the human body. In the field of endodontics, phytomedicines are a boon. They have been popularly used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedatives, and antibiotics. They are most significantly used as endodontic irrigants. Phytotherapy has been a grand entrant in the drug market. The reason why herbal extracts have the potential to be highly popular is due to the side effects of synthetic medicines which alter microbiota.

  8. Prediction of Radix Astragali Immunomodulatory Effect of CD80 Expression from Chromatograms by Quantitative Pattern-Activity Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Chun-har Ng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current use of a single chemical component as the representative quality control marker of herbal food supplement is inadequate. In this CD80-Quantitative-Pattern-Activity-Relationship (QPAR study, we built a bioactivity predictive model that can be applicable for complex mixtures. Through integrating the chemical fingerprinting profiles of the immunomodulating herb Radix Astragali (RA extracts, and their related biological data of immunological marker CD80 expression on dendritic cells, a chemometric model using the Elastic Net Partial Least Square (EN-PLS algorithm was established. The EN-PLS algorithm increased the biological predictive capability with lower value of RMSEP (11.66 and higher values of Rp2 (0.55 when compared to the standard PLS model. This CD80-QPAR platform provides a useful predictive model for unknown RA extract’s bioactivities using the chemical fingerprint inputs. Furthermore, this bioactivity prediction platform facilitates identification of key bioactivity-related chemical components within complex mixtures for future drug discovery and understanding of the batch-to-batch consistency for quality clinical trials.

  9. Reduced Consolidation, Reinstatement, and Renewal of Conditioned Fear Memory by Repetitive Treatment of Radix Polygalae in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Won; Park, Hyunwoo; Cho, Yoonju; Lee, Suck; Yoon, Jiwon; Maeng, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    The therapeutic goal for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is to promote extinction and to prevent the relapse of fearful memories. Research has identified pharmacological treatments that may regulate the formation and extinction of fear memories, but not many reagents that block the relapse of extinguished fear are known. Radix Polygalae (RP) is an Asian herb used for sedation, and its ingredients have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. As various neurological effects have been identified, we tested whether RP affects the relapse of fear. Freezing in response to a conditioned context and cues was used to measure the effects of RP in mice. In cohort 1 (n = 30), consolidation, extinction, and reinstatement were tested during the course of 18 days of treatment. In cohort 2 (n = 30), consolidation, extinction, and renewal were tested during 10 days of treatment. The consolidation, extinction, reinstatement, and possibly the renewal of context-induced freezing were inhibited due to the administration of RP in animal subjects. However, the effects of RP on the freezing responses of subjects elicited by conditioned auditory cues were less obvious. Because it effectively suppresses the consolidation of fear memories, RP may be used for primary and secondary prevention of symptoms in PTSD patients. Additionally, because it effectively suppresses the reinstatement and renewal of fear memories, RP may be applied for the prevention of fear relapse in PTSD patients who have undergone exposure therapy. PMID:28620325

  10. Theoretical Chemical Reaction for Herb Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Mo Choi; Byeong-U Kim

    2002-01-01

    Objective : This study was designed to show the possible functional groups from the herb medicine in boiling water. Results : The results are summarized as follows: 1. the new functional groups can be synthesized in water solution for herb medicine. 2. The boiling water solution may change the poison materials into harmless materials. 3. The multiplication, the offset, the contradiction, etc. in terms of mixed herb medicine can be explainable by these reactions. 4. After finding the new m...

  11. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs; Eignung von Thermolumineszenz-, Chemilumineszenz-, ESR- und Viskositaetsmessungen zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Arzneidrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-12-31

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary`s thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Eignung von Chemilumineszenz-, ESR-, Thermolumineszenz- und Viskositaetsmessungen als Nachweismethode fuer die Behandlung von Arzneidrogen mit ionisierenden Strahlen wurde an Anis, Baldrianwurzel, Baerentraubenblaettern, Birkenblaettern, Bockshornsamen, Cayennepfeffer, Faulbaumrinde, Fenchel, Hagebuttenschalen, Huflattichblaettern

  12. Characterization of the Principal Constituents of Danning Tablets, a Chinese Formula Consisting of Seven Herbs, by an UPLC-DAD-MS/MS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsen Zhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Danning Tablets are a traditional Chinese formula showing broad clinical applications in hepatobiliary diseases and containing a diversity of bioactive chemicals. However, the chemical profiling of the formula, which serves as the material foundation of its efficacy, is really a big challenge as Danning Tablets consist of seven herbs from different origins. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS approach was developed to characterize the principal polyphenol constituents in the formula. As a result, a total of 32 constituents, including 14 anthraquinones and their glucosides, four anthrones, two naphthalene glycosides, two stilbenes and 10 flavonoids were identified based on their retention time, UV absorption and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. The sources of these compounds were also illustrated. Most of the bioactive anthraquinone derivatives were found in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma or Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix, which are the Emperor drugs in the formula for its clinic usage. These findings indicate the merit of using this integrated UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS approach to rapidly illustrate the chemical foundation of complex formulas. The present study will facilitate the quality control of Danning Tablet formulas as well as the individual herbs.

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy study of radix astragali based on soxhlet extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nengrong; Shao, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Shi, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Due to its high sensitivity, flexibility, and "fingerprints" sensing capability, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a very powerful method for characterization of substances. In this paper, two kinds of Radix Astragali with different quality were firstly extracted through continuous circumfluence extraction method and then mixed with silver nanoparticles for SERS detection. Most Raman bands obtained in Radix Astragali extraction solution are found at 300-7000cm-1 and 900-1390 cm-1. Although, major peak positions at 470, 556, 949, 1178 and 1286 cm-1 found in these two kinds of Radix Astragali appear nearly the same, Raman bands of 556 and 1178 cm-1 are different in intensity, thus may be used as a characteristic marker of Radix Astragali quality. In detail, we can make full use of the different intensity of two different kinds but the same state at 556 cm-1 to describe the quality standard of Radix Astragali. Our preliminary results show that SERS combining with continuous circumfluence extraction method may provide a direct, accurate and rapid detection method of Radix Astragali.

  14. Simultaneous, Simple and Rapid Determination of Five Bioactive Free Anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei by Quantitative 1H NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Dong,Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Fang, Yun-Shan; Duan,Wei-He; Li, Zhen-Jie; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Radix et Rhizoma Rhei has been recognized for centuries in traditional medicine for its multiple pharmacological actions. The free anthraquinones including physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, and aloe-emodin are the main bioactive components in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. In the present study, a fast quantitative 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (q-HNMR) method for the determination and quantitation of five free anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei was developed. Validation of the quantitative ...

  15. IMPORTANT HERB-DRUG INTERACTIONS

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    Javor Kac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Herbal medicines have been popular for self-medication for a long time. Patients consider them to be safe because of their natural origin. Concurrent use of herbal medicines with other drugs can lead to interactions that are manifested as amplified or reduced pharmacological or toxic effect of any of the pair. It is worrying that patients use herbal medicines with prescribed or OTC drugs without informing the physician.Conclusions. Many herbal medicines influence the action of numerous drugs. Medicinal plants most often involved in the interactions are St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum, garlic (Allium sativum, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng (Panax ginseng, kava (Piper methysticum, and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi. Dangerous interactions are more likely to occur in perioperative patients as they use many prescribed drugs at the same time. Also sensitive to interactions are transplant patients, patients on anticoagulants and HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Physicians should consider possible interactions with herbal medicines when prescribing drugs and before operations. Patients should be asked if they use any of the above listed herbs. Physicians should warn them about the dangers of simultaneous use of those herbs and prescribed or OTC drugs.

  16. A Chinese Herbal Preparation Containing Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum Reduces Circulating Adhesion Molecules

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    Kylie A. O’Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating adhesion molecules (CAMs, surface proteins expressed in the vascular endothelium, have emerged as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. CAMs are involved in intercellular communication that are believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. A Chinese medicine, the “Dantonic Pill” (DP (also known as the “Cardiotonic Pill”, containing three Chinese herbal material medica, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been used in China for the prevention and management of CVD. Previous laboratory and animal studies have suggested that this preparation reduces both atherogenesis and adhesion molecule expression. A parallel double blind randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the DP on three species of CAM (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin in participants with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia. Secondary endpoints included biochemical and hematological variables and clinical effects. Forty participants were randomized to either treatment or control for 12 weeks. Treatment with DP was associated with a statistically significant decrease in ICAM-1 (9% decrease, P = .03 and E-Selectin (15% decrease, P = .004. There was no significant change in renal function tests, liver function tests, glucose, lipids or C-reactive protein levels and clinical adverse effects did not differ between the active and the control groups. There were no relevant changes in participants receiving placebo. These results suggest that this herbal medicine may contribute to the development of a novel approach to cardiovascular risk reduction.

  17. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  18. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  19. An epidemiological study of concomitant use of Chinese medicine and antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients: implication for herb-drug interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herb-drug interactions are an important issue in drug safety and clinical practice. The aim of this epidemiological study was to characterize associations of clinical outcomes with concomitant herbal and antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 1795 patients with schizophrenia who were randomly selected from 17 psychiatric hospitals in China were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Association analyses were conducted to examine correlates between Chinese medicine (CM use and demographic, clinical variables, antipsychotic medication mode, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of concomitant CM and antipsychotic treatment was 36.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI 34.2%-38.6%]. Patients using concomitant CM had a significantly greater chance of improved outcomes than non-CM use (61.1% vs. 34.3%, OR = 3.44, 95% CI 2.80-4.24. However, a small but significant number of patients treated concomitantly with CM had a greater risk of developing worse outcomes (7.2% vs. 4.4%, OR = 2.06, 95% CI 2.06-4.83. Significant predictors for concomitant CM treatment-associated outcomes were residence in urban areas, paranoid psychosis, and exceeding 3 months of CM use. Herbal medicine regimens containing Radix Bupleuri, Fructus Gardenia, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Rehmanniae, Akebia Caulis, and Semen Plantaginis in concomitant use with quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzepine were associated with nearly 60% of the risk of adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant herbal and antipsychotic treatment could produce either beneficial or adverse clinical effects in schizophrenic population. Potential herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions need to be further evaluated.

  20. The effect of storage on quality of herbs genus Origanum

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Kouřimská; Kateřina Ešlerová; Ynus Khatri

    2016-01-01

    Herbs of Origanum genus are rich in essential oils and contain large amounts of phenols, lipids, fatty acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of these herbs depends on many factors, including the type herbs, post-harvest processing and subsequent processing. The aim of this study was therefore to confirm the hypothesis that the composition of oils of these two herbs of the Origanum genus depends on the post-harvest treatment of herbs and that the dried herb antioxidant activ...

  1. Studiul comunitatilor vegetale de pe dealul Borz (judetul Bihor in care se intalneste Paeonia officinalis var. Banatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela TUDUCE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Paeonia officinalis var. banatica [Roch][Soó] est une espèce endémique pannonic qui a été signalé dans le ouest et sud-ouest de la Roumanie.Dans cet ouvrage nous avons etudié l’ambiance cenotique des communautés végétaux situé sur Dealul Borz (département Bihor, Roumanie dans laquelles se retrouve l’espèce Paeonia officinalis var. banatica. Nous avons aussi etudié quelques paramètres du populations de cet espèce.La présence de Paeonia officinalis var. banatica a été signalé dans deux associations végétaux: Cytiso nigricantis-Quercetum cerris, Boşcaiu et al. 1966 et Agrostio-Festucetum rupicolae, Csűrös 1964, associations qui sont caracterisé de point de vue écologique, de leurs structure en biophormes et en éléments géographiques.

  2. Pollination ecology and floral function of Brown’s peony (Paeonia brownii in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Vance

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown’s peony, Paeonia brownii (Paeoniaceae, is one of only two peony species native to the Western Hemisphere, yet its pollination ecology and breeding system have never been documented. Using flowering individuals of an endemic colony in the Blue Mountains of Oregon, U.S., we investigated the peony’s pollination system and floral function. We also examined pollen/carpel interactions through experimental pollinations aided by fluorescence microscopy. Paeonia brownii appears to be self compatible and mostly protogynous with floral traits of a generalist pollination system. The flowers appear to attract insects by producing abundant floral nectar secreted from lobes of a perigynous disc throughout their 9-15-days of anthesis. The most common pollen vectors were wasp queens (Vespidae, the large flower fly Criorhina caudata (Syrphidae, and females of Lasioglossum spp. (Halictidae, all of which foraged exclusively for nectar. Whether collected from foraging wasps and flies, anthers, or stigmas, about half the pollen grains appeared fertile. The number of ovules per carpel was about 19. Seed set (seeds/ovule of naturally pollinated flowers was about 20% with about 4 viable seeds per follicle. The number of fertile pollen grains transferred to the stigma under natural conditions was highly variable but generally low, which may have contributed in part to the low rate of seed set. This study raises further questions about the role of pollen sterility, floral nectar and vespid wasps in shaping a pollinator system that is unusual in Paeonia.

  3. Mixed-radix Algorithm for the Computation of Forward and Inverse MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong; Senhadji, Lotfi; Luo, Limin

    2008-08-12

    The modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) and inverse MDCT (IMDCT) are two of the most computational intensive operations in MPEG audio coding standards. A new mixed-radix algorithm for efficient computing the MDCT/IMDCT is presented. The proposed mixed-radix MDCT algorithm is composed of two recursive algorithms. The first algorithm, called the radix-2 decimation in frequency (DIF) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into two MDCTs with the length N/2. The second algorithm, called the radix-3 decimation in time (DIT) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into three MDCTs with the length N/3. Since the proposed MDCT algorithm is also expressed in the form of a simple sparse matrix factorization, the corresponding IMDCT algorithm can be easily derived by simply transposing the matrix factorization. Comparison of the proposed algorithm with some existing ones shows that our proposed algorithm is more suitable for parallel implementation and especially suitable for the layer III of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 audio encoding and decoding. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can be easily extended to the multidimensional case by using the vector-radix method.

  4. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  5. Theoretical Chemical Reaction for Herb Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Mo Choi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to show the possible functional groups from the herb medicine in boiling water. Results : The results are summarized as follows: 1. the new functional groups can be synthesized in water solution for herb medicine. 2. The boiling water solution may change the poison materials into harmless materials. 3. The multiplication, the offset, the contradiction, etc. in terms of mixed herb medicine can be explainable by these reactions. 4. After finding the new medicinal substances for the specific disease, we can synthesize, modify, and mass produce those for that disease.

  6. Post-marketing safety monitoring of shenqifuzheng injection: a solution made of dangshen (Radix Codonopsis) and huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Qinghua; Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yanming; Huang, Wenhua; Liang, Hong; Cao, Hui

    2014-08-01

    To identify the potential risk factors associated with Shenqifuzheng injection (SFI), a solution made of Dangshen (Radix Codonopsis) and Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici), for the timely provision of information to regulatory authorities. A comprehensive analysis of the production process, quality standards, pharmacology, post-marketing clinical studies, and safety evaluation using the primary literature of adverse reactions (ADR), case analyses, and systematic reviews, intensive hospital safety monitoring of post-marketing drugs, and data provided by the hospital information system (HIS). Sub-acute toxicity tests suggesting that a dose of 15 mL/kg (concentrated solution) had specific biological effects, whereas a smaller dose engendered no observable effects. Long-term toxicity testing in domestic rabbits showed that after SFI was administered for 90 days, the animals in each dosing group showed no chronic toxic reactions. Among 20 100 cases observed, the incidence of an ADR was 1.85 per thousand. From March to November 2013, of the leading institutions and 22 sub-centers involved in the post-marketing clinical safety intensive hospital monitoring, 21 units completed 8484 cases of monitoring, and reported 23 cases of adverse reactions. No damage to renal function was found using SFI at a dosage and a treatment course larger and longer than that recommended for the adjuvant treatment of tumors. This could reduce the mortality rate of admitted patients based on the analysis of the data provided by the HIS. A total of 16 clinical case reports of adverse reactions related to SFI in 1999-2012 were obtained through literature retrieval. These reports contained information concerning 17 cases, with adverse reaction symptoms including thrombocytopenia, rash, chills, feeling cold, palpitation, dyspnea, edema of a lower extremity, palpebral edema, and superficial vein inflammation, among others. This study introduces "get full access" to the flow of information on

  7. Vector Radix 2 × 2 Sliding Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Yung Byun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional (2D discrete Fourier transform (DFT in the sliding window scenario has been successfully used for numerous applications requiring consecutive spectrum analysis of input signals. However, the results of conventional sliding DFT algorithms are potentially unstable because of the accumulated numerical errors caused by recursive strategy. In this letter, a stable 2D sliding fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm based on the vector radix (VR 2 × 2 FFT is presented. In the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, each 2D DFT bin is hierarchically decomposed into four sub-DFT bins until the size of the sub-DFT bins is reduced to 2 × 2; the output DFT bins are calculated using the linear combination of the sub-DFT bins. Because the sub-DFT bins for the overlapped input signals between the previous and current window are the same, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational complexity of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm by reusing previously calculated sub-DFT bins in the sliding window scenario. Moreover, because the resultant DFT bins are identical to those of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, numerical errors do not arise; therefore, unconditional stability is guaranteed. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed algorithm has the lowest computational requirements among the existing stable sliding DFT algorithms.

  8. Neuroprotective and Cytotoxic Phthalides from Angelicae Sinensis Radix

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    Wenxia Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7, were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, HCT-8, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Riligustilide (4 showed cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 13.82, 6.79, and 7.92 μM, respectively. Tokinolide A (6 and tokinolide C (6 exerted low cytotoxicity in these cancer cell lines, while the remaining compounds were inactive. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to evaluate the possible mechanism of cytotoxic action of riligustilide (4. We observed that compound 4 was able to arrest the cell cycle in the G1, S phases and induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in HCT-8 cell lines. In addition, these compounds were evaluated for neuroprotective effect against SH-SY5Y cells injured by glutamate. The result showed that ligustilide (1, Z-butylidenephthalide (3 and tokinolide A (6 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects.

  9. Enhancement of antioxidant activity of Radix Puerariae and red yeast rice by mixed fermentation with Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qin; Zhang, Hao; Xue, Dan

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a new functional food combined Radix Puerariae and red yeast rice was explored. The pigment intensity, antioxidant activities and the main isoflavones of it were evaluated and compared with traditional red yeast rice and Radix Puerariae. The fermented mixture showed higher contents of isoflavones and pigment intensities than red yeast rice and Radix Puerariae. The DPPH, OH, FRAP and total antioxidant activity results of fermented mixture also showed higher antioxidant potential than those of Radix Puerariae and red yeast rice, owing to the higher pigment intensity and total phenolic contents. It is concluded that the fermented mixture of Radix Puerariae and rice could be widely used as a source of polyphenols with high antioxidative potential, thus introducing numerous health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Indian herb 'Sanjeevani' (Selaginella bryopteris) can promote ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Campisi 2003; Friedlander 2003; Schmitt. 2003; Zender and Kubicka 2004). We, therefore, wanted to use an experimental cell system containing Sf9 insect cell and certain mammalian cells in culture to examine medicinal properties of the herb in ...

  11. [Relationship between chemical constituents and herbs properties of relative plant herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Wang, Yun

    2013-02-01

    The material fundament of Chinese herbs is chemical constituents which represented the properties of herbs, including five fundamental natures (cold, cool, neutral, warm and hot), seven flavors (sour, bitter, sweet, salty, acerbity, mild and pungent) and twelve meridians (liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, Xin Bao, Gall bladder, small intestine, stomach, large intestine, bladder and San Jiao). In this article, authors study the relationship between chemical constituents of plant herbs and their properties. First, authors build a relationship network where the herbs with similar chemical compositions are connected each other. The particular difference of our work is to filter the common chemical constituents that many plants from different families contained. As a result, considering relative plants have similar chemical constituents, the relative plant herbs are clustering closely and the herbs of different family are connected loosely in our network. The results indicates that the method of building the herbs network is correct. The characteristics of herbs' properties in the network are that the same properties are usually connected regardless the plant families. There is "properties hole" phenomenon, that is, the majority of adjacent drugs of a herb have a certain properties, while the drug does not have the properties.

  12. The Effects of Cervus elaphus Aquapuncture and Ginseng Radix Aquapuncture on the Growth of Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Jin-Man

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cervus elaphus aquapuncuture and Ginseng Radix aquapuncuture on the growth, protein efficiency ratio, contents of total protein, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in serum were studied for thirty four days. The results were summarized as follows. 1. Weight significantly increased in 0.3% Cervus elaphus aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci and in 0.2% Ginseng Radix aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci compared to normal saline aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci. 2. Protein efficiency ratio significantly increased in 0.2% and 0.3% of Cervus elaphus aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci and 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% of Ginseng Radix aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci compared to nonnal saline aquapuncture on Chunchu loci. 3. Total protein significantly increased in 0.2% and 0.3% of Cervus elaphus aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci compared to nonnal saline aqriapuncture On Chunchu loci. whereas it had a tendency to increase in 0.2% Ginseng Radix aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci compared to normal saline aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci. 4. Total cholesterol increased a little in 0.3% Cervus elaphus aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci compared to normal saline aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci. 5. Triglyceride significantly increased in 0.2% Ginseng Radix aqua puncture group on Chunchu loci compared to normal saline aquapuncture group on Chunchu loci. Significance was acknowledged in the effect by density difference of medicines. In the Cervus elaphus group, there was the most significant increase in density of 0.3% aquapuncture, whereas in Ginseng Radix group, there was the most significant increase in density of 0.2% aquapuncture. So setting up density of medicines is important and many various studies for clinical application are required.

  13. Antioxidant Activities and Chemical Constituents of Flavonoids from the Flower of Paeonia ostii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huifang; Li, Xiaofang; Wu, Ke; Wang, Mengke; Liu, Pu; Wang, Xinsheng; Deng, Ruixue

    2016-12-23

    Paeonia ostii is a traditional medicinal plant popularly used in China. This study intended to evaluate the antioxidant properties and the chemical components of the flavonoid-rich extracts from the flowers of P. ostii. The results showed that the flavonoid-rich extracts from the flowers of P. ostii had strong scavenging capacities on 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS), hydroxyls, superoxide anions, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Five flavonoids, dihydrokaempferol (1), apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (2), apigenin-7-O-β-d-neohesperidoside (3), kaempferol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), were isolated from the flavonoid-rich extracts of the flowers of P. ostii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that compounds 3 and 4 were abundant in the P. ostii flower and in flavonoid-rich extracts. The main components of the flower of P. ostii are flavonoids. The high antioxidant activity of the flavonoid-rich extracts may be attributed to the high content of flavonoids. The five isolated flavonoids were the primary antioxidant ingredients, and may play important roles in the strong antioxidant activities of this flower. Based on the obtained results, the flower of P. ostii could be a potential source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  14. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of the Oil from Peony Seeds (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhang, Di; Song, Li-Min; Xu, Qian; Li, Hong; Xu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Peony seed oil (PSO) is a novel vegetable oil developed from the seeds of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. The present study aimed to make an overall investigation on the chemical profile and antioxidant activities of PSO for reasonable development and utilization of this new resource food. Chemical analysis revealed that PSO was characterized by an uncommon high portion of α-linolenic acid (>38%), fairly low ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (0.69), and much higher content of γ-tocopherol than various conventional seed oils. In vitro assay indicated that PSO is a more potent scavenger of free radicals than extra virgin olive oil. Moderate intake of PSO exhibited obvious protection against various oxidative damages such as tetrachloromethane-induced acute liver injury in mice and diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The changes in the key indicators of oxidative injury and fatty acid composition in the liver caused by PSO administration were measured, and the results demonstrated that antioxidant properties of PSO are closely related to their characteristic chemical composition. Consequently, the present study provided new evidence for the health implications of PSO, which deserves further development for medical and nutritional use against oxidative damages that are associated with various diseases.

  15. Evaluation of ITS2 for intraspecific identification of Paeonia lactiflora cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is an important ornamental and medicinal plant. DNA barcodes can reveal species identity via the nucleotide diversity of short DNA segments. In this study, two main candidate DNA barcodes (ITS2 and psbA-trnH were tested to identify twenty-one cutting cultivars of P. lactiflora and their wild species. The efficacy of the candidate DNA barcodes was assessed by PCR amplification, sequence quality, sequence diversity, rate of correct identification, and phylogenetic analysis. ITS2 was easy to be amplified and sequenced among the samples. The identification by Blastn and phylogenetic analysis was 95.4% and 63.6%, respectively. For psbA-trnH, the presence of poly A-T led to sequencing failure which limited its use as DNA barcode candidate. Moreover, the authentic efficiency of psbA-trnH was lower than ITS2. The results showed that ITS2 is suitable as a candidate DNA barcode for the intraspecific identification of P. lactiflora cultivars.

  16. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of the Oil from Peony Seeds (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peony seed oil (PSO is a novel vegetable oil developed from the seeds of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. The present study aimed to make an overall investigation on the chemical profile and antioxidant activities of PSO for reasonable development and utilization of this new resource food. Chemical analysis revealed that PSO was characterized by an uncommon high portion of α-linolenic acid (>38%, fairly low ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (0.69, and much higher content of γ-tocopherol than various conventional seed oils. In vitro assay indicated that PSO is a more potent scavenger of free radicals than extra virgin olive oil. Moderate intake of PSO exhibited obvious protection against various oxidative damages such as tetrachloromethane-induced acute liver injury in mice and diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The changes in the key indicators of oxidative injury and fatty acid composition in the liver caused by PSO administration were measured, and the results demonstrated that antioxidant properties of PSO are closely related to their characteristic chemical composition. Consequently, the present study provided new evidence for the health implications of PSO, which deserves further development for medical and nutritional use against oxidative damages that are associated with various diseases.

  17. Chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing for exploring chemical mechanisms in traditional processing of herbal medicines, a continuous study on Rehmanniae Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Kong, Ming; Zou, Ye-Ting; Xu, Ya-Yun; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-12-29

    Exploring processing chemistry, in particular the chemical transformation mechanisms involved, is a key step to elucidate the scientific basis in traditional processing of herbal medicines. Previously, taking Rehmanniae Radix (RR) as a case study, the holistic chemome (secondary metabolome and glycome) difference between raw and processed RR was revealed by integrating hyphenated chromatographic techniques-based targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics. Nevertheless, the complex chemical transformation mechanisms underpinning the holistic chemome variation in RR processing remain to be extensively clarified. As a continuous study, here a novel strategy by combining chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing is proposed for further exploring the chemical mechanisms involved in herbal processing. First, the differential marker compounds between raw and processed herbs were rapidly discovered by untargeted chemomics-based mining approach through multivariate statistical analysis of the chemome data obtained by integrated metabolomics and glycomics analysis. Second, the marker compounds were mimetically processed under the simulated physicochemical conditions as in the herb processing, and the final reaction products were chemically characterized by targeted chemomics-based mining approach. Third, the main chemical transformation mechanisms involved were clarified by linking up the original marker compounds and their mimetic processing products. Using this strategy, a set of differential marker compounds including saccharides, glycosides and furfurals in raw and processed RR was rapidly found, and the major chemical mechanisms involved in RR processing were elucidated as stepwise transformations of saccharides (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides) and glycosides (iridoid glycosides and phenethylalcohol glycosides) into furfurals (glycosylated/non-glycosylated hydroxymethylfurfurals) by deglycosylation and/or dehydration. The

  18. Chinese medicinal herbs for acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanhui; Li, Ka; Wu, Taixiang

    2012-02-15

    Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diagnoses made by primary care physicians. It is traditionally treated with antibiotics (although the evidence for their effectiveness is weak, and modest at best) and other even less effective treatments. Chinese medicinal herbs have also been used as a treatment. This review aimed to summarise the existing evidence on the comparative effectiveness and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for treating uncomplicated acute bronchitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4) which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 19 September 19, 2011), EMBASE (1988 to 19 September 2011) and CNKI and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1980 to 19 September, 2011). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Chinese medicinal herbs with placebo, antibiotics or other Western medicines for the treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis. At least two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. In this updated review, 74 studies involving 6877 participants were reported as RCTs by the study authors. None of them met the inclusion criteria for this review. Out of the 74 trials, we identified 39 as non-RCTs and 35 compared different Chinese herbal medicines in the intervention and control groups. There is insufficient quality data to recommend the routine use of Chinese herbs for acute bronchitis. Trial design limitations of the individual studies meant that we could not draw any conclusions about the benefits of Chinese herbs for acute bronchitis. In addition, the safety of Chinese herbs is unknown due to the lack of toxicological evidence for these herbs, although adverse events were reported in some case reports.

  19. Extraction, separation and quantitative structure-retention relationship modeling of essential oils in three herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuhui; Xi, Lili; Chen, Dongxia; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-07-01

    The essential oils extracted from three kinds of herbs were separated by a 5% phenylmethyl silicone (DB-5MS) bonded phase fused-silica capillary column and identified by MS. Seventy-four of the compounds identified were selected as origin data, and their chemical structure and gas chromatographic retention times (RT) were performed to build a quantitative structure-retention relationship model by genetic algorithm and multiple linear regressions analysis. The predictive ability of the model was verified by internal validation (leave-one-out, fivefold, cross-validation and Y-scrambling). As for external validation, the model was also applied to predict the gas chromatographic RT of the 14 volatile compounds not used for model development from essential oil of Radix angelicae sinensis. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validations indicated that the best quantitative structure-retention relationship model was robust and satisfactory, could provide a feasible and effective tool for predicting the gas chromatographic RT of volatile compounds and could be also applied to help in identifying the compound with the same gas chromatographic RT.

  20. Effects of Radix Astragali and Its Split Components on Gene Expression Profiles Related to Water Metabolism in Rats with the Dampness Stagnancy due to Spleen Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiao Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Astragali (RA with slight sweet and warm property is a significant “qi tonifying” herb; it is indicated for the syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency (DSSD. The purpose of this research was to explore effects of RA and its split components on gene expression profiles related to water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome for identifying components representing property and flavor of RA. The results indicated that RA and its split components, especially polysaccharides component, significantly increased the body weight and the urine volume and decreased the water load index of model rats. Our data also indicated differentially expressed genes (DEGs related to water metabolism involved secretion, ion transport, water homeostasis, regulation of body fluid levels, and water channel activity; the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, and AQP8 was improved; calcium, cAMP, MAPK, PPAR, AMPK, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway may be related to water metabolism. In general, results indicate that RA and its split components could promote water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome via regulating the expression of AQPs, which reflected sweet-warm properties of RA. Effects of the polysaccharides component are better than others.

  1. Spectrum Effect Relationship and Component Knock-Out in Angelica Dahurica Radix by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Q Exactive Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of Angelica dahuricae were available for whitening or treating vitiligo clinically. They showed inhibitory or activating effects on tyrosinase, a rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis. This study aimed to identify active compounds on tyrosinase in water extract of Angelica dahurica Radix. We applied spectrum-effect relationship and component knock-out methods to make it clear. HPLC was used to obtain the specific chromatograms. The effects on tyrosinase activity were examined by measuring the oxidation rate of levodopa in vitro. Partial least squares method was used to examine the spectrum-effect relationships. The knocked-out samples were prepared by HPLC method, and the identification of knocked-out compounds was conducted by the high performance liquid chromatography-four stage rod-electrostatic field orbit trap high resolution mass spectrometry. Results showed that S6, S14, S18, S21, S35, S36, S37, S40, and S41 were positively correlated to inhibitory activity of Angelica dahuricae on tyrosinase whereas S9, S11, S8, S12, S22, and S30 were negatively correlated. When the concentration of each sample was 1 g·mL−1, equal to the amount of raw medicinal herbs, oxypeucedanin hydrate, imperatorin, cnidilin, and isoimperatorin had inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity whereas byakangelicin and bergapten had activating effects.

  2. [Influence of different original processing methods on quality of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Shu-Rui; Hou, Jun-Ling; Wang, Wen-Quan; Xu, Zhen-Guang; Song, Yan; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Li, Jun

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the contents of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, crytotanshinone, tanshinone II(A) in samples of different original processed Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were determined by HPLC. Different processing methods have varied influences on four active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Sun-drying reduced the content of crytotanshinone, tanshi-none II(A) and rosmarinic acid, integralsamples were better than those cut into segments. Oven dry method had great influence on water--soluble ingredients, high temperature (80-100 degrees C) could easily cause big loss of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. The role of traditional processing method "fahan: was complicated, the content of rosmarinic acid decreased, crytotanshinone and tanshinone II(A) increased, and salvianolic acid B showed no difference after "fahan". Drying in the shade and oven dry under low temperatrure (40-60 degrees C) were all effective to keep active ingredients of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and, there was no difference between integral samples and samples cut into segments. Therefore, considering comprehensively the content of active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and processing costing etc., shade-drying or oven dry underlow temperature (40-60 degrees C) should be the most suitable original processing method.

  3. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...

  4. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of r.a.p . ( Radix Angelicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (R.A.P) ethanol extracts. Three classic anti-inflammatory models and two analgesic models were used in this research. In anti-inflammatory tests, all the extracts have a certain inhibition on the acute ...

  5. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publi...

  6. Potential lipase inhibitors from Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hongqiang; Li, Mengxuan; Liu, Wenjun; Sun, Lin; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Meng, Zhaoqing; Huang, Wenzhe; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Obesity has become a major health concern, and it places both personal and economic burdens on the world's population. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs are rich source of lead compounds and are possible drug candidates, which may be used to treat this condition. This study screened potent pancreatic lipase inhibitors found in traditional Chinese medicinal herbs for ability to treat obesity. A porcine pancreatic lipase inhibition assay was established, and the inhibitory activity of 35 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs was evaluated at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. Two elutions of herbal extracts with strong lipase inhibitory activity were further fractionated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography into 22 sub-fractions each, and these sub-fractions were tested for anti-lipase activity. Sub-fractions, which exhibited strong lipase inhibitory activity, were continuously fractionated into individual compounds. Two active compounds with potent anti-lipase activity were finally isolated and identified from two traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, respectively. Among 35 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, the 95% ethanol elutions of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae) and Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils (Magnoliaceae) showed strong anti-lipase activity. Two compounds, including 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 and honokiol were identified using bioactivity-guided isolation with IC50 = 33.7 and 59.4 μg/mL, respectively. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 and honokiol might be suitable candidates for the treatment of obesity.

  7. Rasayans and non-rasayans herbs: Future immunodrug – Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas; Shanbhag, Pradnya Palekar

    2013-01-01

    Ayurvedic therapeutics describes vast number of medicinal herbs used as “Vyadhirodhak Chamatav” that has enlightened the application of herbs used as corner stone in various diseases especially those modulating the immune system. Ayurveda literature comprises of rasayana and non-rasayana herbs. Materia Medica entirely enriched with enormous data of rasayana medicinal herbs acting as immunomodulators in existence. However, as such there is no specific review of literature available for non-Rasayana herbs that have immense potential as immunomodulators. This review article empowers data on non-rasayana medicinal herbs as promising future target for immunotherapy. PMID:24347916

  8. Rasayans and non-rasayans herbs: Future immunodrug - Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas; Shanbhag, Pradnya Palekar

    2013-07-01

    Ayurvedic therapeutics describes vast number of medicinal herbs used as "Vyadhirodhak Chamatav" that has enlightened the application of herbs used as corner stone in various diseases especially those modulating the immune system. Ayurveda literature comprises of rasayana and non-rasayana herbs. Materia Medica entirely enriched with enormous data of rasayana medicinal herbs acting as immunomodulators in existence. However, as such there is no specific review of literature available for non-Rasayana herbs that have immense potential as immunomodulators. This review article empowers data on non-rasayana medicinal herbs as promising future target for immunotherapy.

  9. Process optimisation of microwave-assisted extraction of peony ( Paeonia suffruticosa Andr .) seed oil using hexane-ethanol mixture and its characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoli Sun; Wengang Li; Jian Li; Yuangang Zu; Chung-Yun Hse; Jiulong Xie; Xiuhua Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and hexane mixture agent microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was conducted to extract peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) seed oil (PSO). The aim of the study was to optimise the extraction for both yield and energy consumption in mixture agent MAE. The highest oil yield (34.49%) and lowest unit energy consumption (14 125.4 J g

  10. Hair loss and herbs for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2013-09-01

    or androgenetic alopecia directly distresses self-confidence affecting the individual's quality of life. Hair loss is therefore a significant psychosocial manifestation that worth much expense on treatment. Androgenetic alopecia is noticed as a slow transformation of large scalp terminal hair follicles to shorter, thinner, and less deep vellus hair with a much shorter anagen. Although minoxidil, finasteride, and dutasteride including other synthetic therapeutic agents are mostly used for alopecia treatment, their adverse effects encourage sorting of alternative efficient treatment agent with a limited side effect particularly herbs. Thus, this review briefly summarized causes of hair loss and emphasized on active ingredients for treatment in particular currently used herbs and the potential candidates. Treatment choices will be further wider and conclusively select herbs that fitting the consumers' preference. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Infrared drying of herbs (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PÄÄKKÖNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments on peppermint (Mentha piperita L., anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum L., parsley (Petroselinum crispum L. and garden angelica (Angelica archangelica L. were conducted using near infrared drying, operating at a product temperature of 35-50°C. The oil content, composition and residual water content of the dried herbs were determined. The microbiological quality of the fresh and the dried material was determined for total bacterial count and coliforms, moulds and yeasts. The results indicate that infrared radiation is has potential for drying herbs since it is gentle and shortens the processing time.

  12. A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, HongJuan; Ji, BaoPing; Cai, ShengBao; Wang, RuoJun; Zhou, Feng; Yang, JunSi; Liu, HuiJun

    2014-05-01

    According to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal and edible herbs exhibit holistic effects through their actions on multiple target organs. Four herbs, Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma, were selected and combined to create a new herbal formula (PLCP). The protective effects of both the aqueous extract (AE) and ethanol extract (EE) of PLCP against insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated in both high fat and high fructose diet-fed mice. Active fractions and constituents were screened in HepG2 cells with IR or an over-accumulation of triglycerides, and were further identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the AE did not improve (p > 0.05) glucose tolerance after three weeks, whereas EE showed a promising effect throughout the experiment. Medium and high doses of EE were found to reduce fasting blood glucose at week 9 by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively. In addition, their efficacies for alleviating IR were comparable with that of metformin. Compared with AE, EE effectively improved hyperlipidemia, antioxidant status, and NAFLD. In contrast, metformin did not alleviate hyperlipidemia (p > 0.05) or NAFLD in the mice model. Results from the cell-based study indicate that the protective effects of EE were possibly due to the actions from puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin.

  13. Paeonia lactiflora Inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis and Triggers Membrane Depolarization in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Shick; Kim, Younhee

    2017-02-28

    Fungal cell walls and cell membranes are the main targets of antifungals. In this study, we report on the antifungal activity of an ethanol extract from Paeonia lactiflora against Candida albicans, showing that the antifungal activity is associated with the synergistic actions of preventing cell wall synthesis, enabling membrane depolarization, and compromising permeability. First, it was shown that the ethanol extract from P. lactiflora was involved in damaging the integrity of cell walls in C. albicans. In isotonic media, cell bursts of C. albicans by the P. lactiflora ethanol extract could be restored, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the P. lactiflora ethanol extract against C. albicans cells increased 4-fold. In addition, synthesis of (1,3)-β-D-glucan polymer was inhibited by 87% and 83% following treatment of C. albicans microsomes with the P. lactiflora ethanol extract at their 1× MIC and 2× MIC, respectively. Second, the ethanol extract from P. lactiflora influenced the function of C. albicans cell membranes. C. albicans cells treated with the P. lactiflora ethanol extract formed red aggregates by staining with a membrane-impermeable dye, propidium iodide. Membrane depolarization manifested as increased fluorescence intensity by staining P. lactiflora-treated C. albicans cells with a membrane-potential marker, DiBAC4(3) ((bis-1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol). Membrane permeability was assessed by crystal violet assay, and C. albicans cells treated with the P. lactiflora ethanol extract exhibited significant uptake of crystal violet in a concentration-dependent manner. The findings suggest that P. lactiflora ethanol extract is a viable and effective candidate for the development of new antifungal agents to treat Candida-associated diseases.

  14. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of a Gene Encoding a Putative Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Seeds of Paeonia rockii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Yu; Niu, Li-Xin; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Bai, Zhang-Zhen; Duan, Ke; Gao, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yan-Long

    2017-06-01

    Tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) is an excellent woody oil crop, and the cloning and functional analysis of genes related to fatty acid (FA) metabolism from this organism has not been reported. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. This project reports a putative lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase gene PrLPAAT1 isolated from Paeonia rockii. Our data indicated that PrLPAAT1 has 1047 nucleotides and encodes a putative 38.8 kDa protein with 348 amino acid residues. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that PrLPAAT1 contains two transmembrane domains (TMDs). Subcellular localization analysis confirmed that PrLPAAT1 is a plasma membrane protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PrLPAAT1 shared 74.3 and 65.5% amino acid sequence identities with the LPAAT1 sequences from columbine and grape, respectively. PrLPAAT1 belongs to AGPAT family, and may have acyltransferase activity. PrLPAAT1 was ubiquitously expressed in diverse tissues, and PrLPAAT1 expression was higher in the flower and developing seed. PrLPAAT1 is probably an important component in the FA accumulation process, especially during the early stages of seed development. PrLPAAT1 overexpression using a seed-specific promoter increased total FA content and the main FA accumulation in Arabidopsis transgenic plants.

  15. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR using single reference standard.

  16. Erectile Dysfunction Herbs: A Natural Treatment for ED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... erectile dysfunction: A natural treatment for ED? Some herbs claim to help erectile dysfunction. Find out the ... You've likely seen advertisements for erectile dysfunction herbs or supplements to "increase your sexual performance." Could ...

  17. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research (IJHPR) [ISSN: 2315-537X; E- ISSN: 2384-6836] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the field of Herbal medication in developing countries ...

  18. EFFECTS OF CHINESE HERBS ON THE HEMAGGLUTINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Although UTI is usually treated with common antimicrobial agents, concerns about antibiotic resistance, side effects, and prevention of recurrent UTIs in susceptible populations have led to increased interest in using other remedies to prevent bacterial infections. UTI prevention through the use of the Chinese herbs is being ...

  19. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-31

    Jul 31, 2015 ... International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research. IJHPR ... Inappropriate prescribing will have an important economic and medical impact on health care as it makes treatment ... making previous research works on rational drug prescribing to be restricted to using methods, expressions and.

  20. Micropropagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. is an endangered herb, the tuberous roots of which are source of medicinally important steroidal saponins. In the present study, propagation of C. borivilianum using a bench top stirred bioreactor with liquid medium via multiple shoot culture has been reported. One week old ...

  1. Herbs in orthodox practice: a view by medical students | Enwere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Use and opinion of herbs among medical students of Imo State University Nigeria was assessed. Information on herb use, indication and opinion from returned self-administered questionnaire was analyzed. A total of 114 students (91.2%) of 125 responded. 32 (28.1%) students had used herbs before, a significant ...

  2. Chemical and Genetic Assessment of Variability in Commercial Radix Astragali (Astragalus spp.) by Ion Trap LC-MS and Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Barcoding Sequence Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, WEI-LIE; Motley, Timothy J.; Unachukwu, Uchenna J.; Lau, Clara Bik San; Jiang, Bei; Hong, Feng; LEUNG, PING-CHUNG; Wang, Qing-Feng; Livingston, Philip O.; Cassileth, Barrie R; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Radix Astragali (Huangqi) has been demonstrated to have a wide range of immunopotentiating effects and has been used as an adjuvant medicine during cancer therapy. Identity issues in the collection of Radix Astragali exist because many sympatric species of Astragalus occur in the northern regions of China. In order to assess the quality, purity, and uniformity of commercial Radix Astragali, 44 samples were purchased from herbal stores in Hong Kong and New York City. The main constituents, inc...

  3. Using of the herb in space foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    The astronaut must do much work in a short time. The astronaut is exposed to much stress. For examples; Break of the hormone balance, Inappetence, Sleep shortage. Therefore the role that the meal serves as becomes big. It greatly participates in not only the health maintenance but also the mental health to consume a meal. Most of space foods are freeze dry, and the mineral is abundant, but it is necessary for the vitamins to add it particularly. When I think about it, the cultivation of the fresh vegetables with the spaceship is necessary. The Asian project team suggested cultivation of the herb in the space. The herbs were sweet basil, Dukung Abak, Hempedu Bumi and Chinese holly basil. Each herb has a fragrance ingredient. The fragrance ingredient stimulates human sense of smell. The fragrance ingredient increases an appetite. The good fragrance derives a good sleep. I can feel passage of time by observing a plant being brought up. It helps mental health to bring up a plant. We try that we bring up herb under a condition of the space. Because an experiment on the ground was over, we report it. The sweet basil which a germination rate has good is the first candidate when we think about temperature and light quantity in the space. Three kinds of other herbs are slow-growing and germination-rate is lower than sweet basil. We think that probably we will send a sweet basil to the spaceship in space. After a sweet basil grew up in a spaceship, we analyze a fragrance ingredient. We will cook the sweeter basil and want to eat.

  4. Discrete Fourier transformation processor based on complex radix (−1 + j number system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anidaphi Shadap

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex radix (−1 + j allows the arithmetic operations of complex numbers to be done without treating the divide and conquer rules, which offers the significant speed improvement of complex numbers computation circuitry. Design and hardware implementation of complex radix (−1 + j converter has been introduced in this paper. Extensive simulation results have been incorporated and an application of this converter towards the implementation of discrete Fourier transformation (DFT processor has been presented. The functionality of the DFT processor have been verified in Xilinx ISE design suite version 14.7 and performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic switching power consumption have been calculated by Virtuoso platform in Cadence. The proposed DFT processor has been implemented through conversion, multiplication and addition. The performance parameter matrix in terms of delay and power consumption offered a significant improvement over other traditional implementation of DFT processor.

  5. High-resolution 1 MS/s sub-2 radix split-capacitor SAR ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chao; Zhu, Zhangming

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a high-resolution successive-approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with sub-2 radix split-capacitor array architecture. The built-in redundancy of sub-2 radix architecture provides additional information in the digital calibration based on offset double injection. The calibration method is simple in structure and fast in convergence. The correction of errors in each bit is independent of those in the previous bit. A split-capacitor array is used to reduce the total capacitance especially in a high-resolution SAR ADC. An offset signal is injected by the switching scheme of capacitor array to minimize the hardware overhead. The prototype of 0.18 μm CMOS process obtains 14.46 bit ENOB and 95.65 dB SFDR after calibration. With calibration, the INL and DNL are ‑0.813/0.938 and ‑0.625/0.688, respectively.

  6. Mandibular second molar with 3 mesial canals and a radix paramolaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ragavendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular first molar commonly has two roots, the mesial and the distal root. Surprisingly in some mandibular first molar has an unusual extra third root in between mesial and distal root. This extra root is the most commonly seen in lingual side and is called as radix entomolaris. If this extra root is seen on the buccal side, it is termed as radix paramolaris (RP, which is a very rare phenomenon. Recently, various case report studies has shown the presence of third canal in the mesial and distal roots of mandibular molars. They are named as middle mesial and middle distal canal, respectively. Here, we present a case report of mandibular second molar showing three canals in the mesial root and a RP.

  7. Detection and endodontic management of radix entomolaris: Report of case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vivekananda Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix entomolaris (RE is considered to be an Asiatic trait. However, its prevalence in Indian population is found to be lower than in other Asian races. Nevertheless, its awareness and identification is vital to achieve endodontic success. This article presents a review on clinical approach and a case series on the detection and endodontic management of RE in mandibular first molars. Radix entomolaris was detected by identifying the presence of a double or extra root outline in the preoperative radiograph, modifying the access opening and closely inspecting the pulp chamber and was endodontically treated following cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the canals. Achieving the endodontic success in the presence of an RE requires knowledge about its prevalence, diagnosis, morphology, canal configuration, and clinical approach.

  8. Influence of solvent on antimicrobial activity of Carlinae radix essential oil and decoct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the family Asteraceae are known for their use in ethnopharmacology, available as commercial drugs. In this study, antimicrobial activity of Carlinae radix commercial drug’s vinegar decoction and essential oil, dissolved in various solvents (ETOH- ethanol, DMSO- dimethyl sulfoxide and Tween 80- polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate was tested to investigate the effect of solvents on activity and to compare the results with previous researches. The microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. The results showed that antimicrobial activity of the Carlinae radix oil significantly depends on the solvent and that most efficient antimicrobial effect had the essential oil dissolved in 7% ethanol, which points to significant synergistic effect of the oil with this solvent.

  9. Improved 64-bit Radix-16 Booth Multiplier Based on Partial Product Array Height Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antelo, Elisardo; Montuschi, Paolo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an optimization for binary radix-16 (modified) Booth recoded multipliers to reduce the maximum height of the partial product columns to n/4 for [Formula: see text] unsigned operands. This is in contrast to the conventional maximum height of (n+1)/4. Therefore......, a reduction of one unit in the maximum height is achieved. This reduction may add flexibility during the design of the pipelined multiplier to meet the design goals, it may allow further optimizations of the partial product array reduction stage in terms of area/delay/power and/or may allow additional addends...... to be included in the partial product array without increasing the delay. The method can be extended to Booth recoded radix-8 multipliers, signed multipliers, combined signed/unsigned multipliers, and other values of n....

  10. Analysis of isoflavone daidzein in Puerariae radix with micelle-mediated extraction and preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiantao; Zhao, Ziwei; Shi, Zhihong; Zhao, Meiping; Li, Yuanzong; Chang, Wenbao

    2005-02-09

    Nonionic surfactant oligo(ethylene glycol) monoalkyl ether (Genapol X-080) was employed as an alternative and effective solvent for the extraction of daidzein from Puerariae radix for the first time. Optimum experimental conditions were established. With 5% Genapol X-080 (w/v), liquid/solid ratio of 25:1 (mL/g), and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for 45 min, the extraction percentage of daidzein reached the highest value. For the preconcentration of daidzein by cloud-point extraction (CPE), sodium chloride was added to the solution to facilitate the phase separation and increase the preconcentration factor by reducing the volume of the surfactant-rich phase. The preconcentration factor for daidzein was about 13. Satisfactory results were obtained for the analysis of daidzein from P. radix with this established method.

  11. [Research strategies and application of reference Dao-di herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Ti-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Yu-Yang

    2017-07-01

    Establishing evaluation system of Dao-di herbs has been a problem to be solved in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and is also a difficult problem in restricting the realization of TCM quality. On the basis of national drug standard substance requirements, this paper puts forward to set up reference Dao-di herbs in the first step of the evaluation system of Dao-di herbs, and discusses the properties, evaluation index system and its development requirements of reference Dao-di herbs, aiming at supporting the modern research and characteristics identification of Dao-di herbs in the future. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beikang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John’s wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I, three were estimated as probable (level II, and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III and doubtful (level IV, respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes.

  13. Coleus aromaticus: a therapeutic herb with multiple potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadikar, Dadasaheb D; Patki, Prakash E

    2016-07-01

    The herb Coleus aromaticus belonging to Lamiaceae family and Coleus genus is known by numerous names in different parts of the world and several language specific vernacular names. The herb has been extensively studied as well as reported in several fields of science. The multiple potential of the herb includes allelopathic potential, antibacterial property, antimicrobial activity, insecticidal property; free radical scavenging and radio-protective components from herb extracts and most recently the appetizing potential of the herb have been reported. The herb has carvacrol and thymol as the major components responsible for the flavour; while chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid etc. as the phenolic components. The herb has been used in therapeutic and medicinal applications as well as in culinary preparations.

  14. [Application of relative quality constant in grades evaluation of Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhang, Jun; Xian, Jing; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Chang; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Liu, An

    2017-07-01

    Quality constant evaluation is a comprehensive method for grades evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine pieces, but when it comes to Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces, grades evaluation is diverged due to significant difference in contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid and unreasonable weight of index. To solve this problem, we have established a relative quality constant method in this paper to evaluate grades of Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces. Twenty-nine batches of different quality samples were collected and tested, and finally, 17 batches of them were chosen as researcher objects. The results revealed that the range of the relative quality constant of these samples was from 1.78 to 11.49. When Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces are divided into three grades: the relative quality constant of first grade is greater than or equal to 9.19; the second grade is greater than or equal to 5.75 but less than 9.19; while the third grade is less than 5.75. This research indicates that relative quality constant can divide the grades of herbal pieces in a scientific, reasonable, objective and specific way and remedy the shortage of quality constant perfectly. It provides a novel mode for grading pieces of Chinese medicine that contains multi-target ingredients. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Microscopic research on a multi-source traditional Chinese medicine, Astragali Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Zi; Liu, Jing; Guo, Bao-Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Hong, Hao; Chen, Hu-Biao; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-04-01

    Astragali Radix is a widely and commonly used Chinese herbal medicine, which is derived from roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Astragalus membranaceus. To find a quick and reliable method of distinguishing these two species of Astragali Radix and of determining the age of a sample, microscopic characteristics of the two species were compared using light microscopy. The results showed that the microscopic characteristics, such as number of layers of phellem, continuing lignified xylem bundles within spring wood and lignified parenchyma cells in the central part of the xylem could be used for the differentiation of the root of A. membranaceus from the root of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus. Growth rings (annual rings) were found for the first time in the roots of both species, and could determine the age of a sample. For the first time, radial fibers in both species of Astragali Radix and pipette-shaped fibers in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus were found. The structure of "rotten heart" cork tissue (decayed central xylem) and tubular cork tissue was carefully studied, and the arranged order of tissues in both "rotten heart" and tubular cork tissues is phelloderm and phellem from outside to inside, which is contrary to that in the periderm.

  16. Ethanolic extract of Astragali radix and Salviae radix prohibits oxidative brain injury by psycho-emotional stress in whisker removal rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Geug Kim

    Full Text Available Myelophil, an ethanolic extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, has been clinically used to treat chronic fatigue and stress related disorders in South Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Myelophil on a whisker removal-induced psycho-emotional stress model. SD rats were subjected to whisker removal after oral administration of Myelophil or ascorbic acid for consecutive 4 days. Whisker removal considerably increased total reactive oxygen species in serum levels as well as cerebral cortex and hippocampal regions in brain tissues. Lipidperoxidation levels were also increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus regions, and brain tissue injuries as shown in histopathology and immunohistochemistry. However, Myelophil significantly ameliorated these alterations, and depletion of glutathione contents in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions respectively. Serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably altered after whisker removal stress, whereas these abnormalities were significantly normalized by pre-treatment with Myelophil. The NF-κB was notably activated in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus after whisker removal stress, while it was efficiently blocked by pre-treatment with Myelophil. Myelophil also significantly normalizes alterations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and interferon-γ in both gene expressions and protein levels. These results suggest that Myelophil has protective effects on brain damages in psycho-emotional stress, and the underlying mechanisms involve regulation of inflammatory proteins, especially NF-κB modulation.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santoro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

  18. Dynamic changes in enzyme activities and phenolic content during in vitro rooting of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin He

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic changes of phenolic content and peroxidase (POD, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, indole-3-acetic acid oxidase (IAAO and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activities were assessed during the in vitro rooting process of three cultivars of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.. These changes in enzyme-related activity and phenolic content__observed at the level of the whole plant__differed during the first 20 days of the rooting process in easy-to-root ‘Feng Dan Bai’ cultivar and difficult-to-root ‘Wu Long Peng Sheng’ and ‘Tai Ping Hong’ cultivars, and in most cases they were actually opposite. The ease with which ‘Feng Dan Bai’ was able to root was closely related to the activity of all four enzymes (POD, PPO, IAAO, PAL as well as to the phenolic content.

  19. Effects of aqueous extracts of Paeonia decomposita seeds on germination and some metabolic activities associated with growth of wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui-Xing; Liu, Guang-Li; Chen, Qi-Bing

    2012-09-01

    Paeonia decomposita is a perennial deciduous shrub with great ornamental and medicinal values. Unfortunately, the distribution region, population size and individual numbers of P. decomposita rapidly decrease in the wild. It is a particularly rare, highly endangered, protective plant endemic to Southwest China. To understand the causes of seed dormancy of P. decomposita, the effects of aqueous extracts of the seed coat, endosperm of P. decomposita on germination, seedling growth and amylases activities of wheat seeds were examined in this paper. The results showed that the seed, especially the endosperm tissue of P. decomposita contained substances that strongly suppressed seed germination. The crude extract of endosperm of P. decomposita, which significantly reduced the activities of α and β-amylase, showed a more significant inhibition than that of seed coat at the same dose. It was concluded that the presence of inhibitory substances in seed, especially in endosperm tissue, seem to be responsible for P. decomposita seed dormancy.

  20. An integrated analysis for determining the geographical origin of medicinal herbs using ICP-AES/ICP-MS and (1)H NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Kook; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2014-10-15

    ICP-MS and (1)H NMR are commonly used to determine the geographical origin of food and crops. In this study, data from multielemental analysis performed by ICP-AES/ICP-MS and metabolomic data obtained from (1)H NMR were integrated to improve the reliability of determining the geographical origin of medicinal herbs. Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia albiflora with different origins in Korea and China were analysed by (1)H NMR and ICP-AES/ICP-MS, and an integrated multivariate analysis was performed to characterise the differences between their origins. Four classification methods were applied: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour classification (KNN), support vector machines (SVM), and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Results were compared using leave-one-out cross-validation and external validation. The integration of multielemental and metabolomic data was more suitable for determining geographical origin than the use of each individual data set alone. The integration of the two analytical techniques allowed diverse environmental factors such as climate and geology, to be considered. Our study suggests that an appropriate integration of different types of analytical data is useful for determining the geographical origin of food and crops with a high degree of reliability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-Term Consumption of Platycodi Radix Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance via the Activation of AMPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Eun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Platycodi radix, having white balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum for. albiflorum (Honda H. Hara on obesity and insulin resistance. The extracts of Platycodi radix with white balloon flower were tested in cultured cells and administered into mice on a high-fat diet. The Platycodi radix activated the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and also suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In experimental animal, it suppressed the weight gain of obese mice and ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also reduced the elevated circulating mediators, including triglyceride (TG, T-CHO, leptin, resistin, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 in obesity. As shown in C2C12 myotubes, the administration of Platycodi radix extracts also recovered the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in the muscle of obese mice. These results suggest that Platycodi radix with white balloon flower ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of AMPK/ACC pathways and reductions of adipocyte differentiation.

  2. Unravelling the riddle of Radix: DNA barcoding for species identification of freshwater snail intermediate hosts of zoonotic digeneans and estimating their inter-population evolutionary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Scott P; Lim, Rivka M; Dukes, Juliet P; Kett, Stephen M; Cook, Richard T; Walker, Anthony J; Kirk, Ruth S

    2015-10-01

    Radix spp. are intermediate host snails for digenean parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Within this genus, species differentiation using shell and internal organ morphology can result in erroneous species identification, causing problems when trying to understand the population biology of Radix. In the present study, DNA barcoding, using cox1 and ITS2 sequences, identified populations of Radix auricularia and Radix balthica from specimens originally morphologically identified as Radix peregra from the UK. Assessment of cox1 and ITS2 as species identification markers showed that, although both markers differentiated species, cox1 possessed greater molecular diversity and higher phylogenetic resolution. Cox1 also proved useful for gaining insights into the evolutionary relationships of Radix species populations. Phylogenetic analysis and haplotype networks of cox1 indicated that R. auricularia appeared to have invaded the UK several times; some haplotypes forming a distinct UK specific clade, whilst others are more akin to those found on mainland Europe. This was in contrast to relationships between R. balthica populations, which had low molecular diversity and no distinct UK specific haplotypes, suggesting recent and multiple invasions from mainland Europe. Molecular techniques therefore appear to be crucial for distinguishing Radix spp., particularly using cox1. This barcoding marker also enables the population biology of Radix spp. to be explored, and is invaluable for monitoring the epidemiology of fluke diseases especially in the light of emerging diseases and food security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Astralagus radix on proliferation and nitric oxide production of head kidney macrophages in Cyprinus carpio: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo-Jun, Y.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Yue-Ming, L.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Pao, X.; Hong-qi, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro effect of Astragalus radix water extract onthe non-specific immune responses of macrophages isolated from the head kidney of Cyprinus carpio was evaluated. Astragalus radix extract stimulated the proliferation of the head kidney macrophages, and it alone had no effect on nitrogen burst

  4. Survey of Glycyrrhizae Radix resources in Mongolia: chemical assessment of the underground part of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and comparison with Chinese Glycyrrhizea Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Sugiyama, Reiko; Batkhuu, Javzan; Sanchir, Chinbat; Zou, Kun; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2009-04-01

    In order to reveal the chemical characteristics of Glycyrrhiza uralensis growing in Mongolia and to clarify whether it can be the source of Glycyrrhizae Radix used in Japan, eight major bioactive constituents in the underground parts of G. uralensis collected in Mongolia were quantitatively analyzed and compared with Glycyrrhizae Radix produced in China. Most of the 15 samples from eastern, southern and western parts of Mongolia contained 26.95-58.55 mg/g of glycyrrhizin, exceeding the criterion (25 mg/g) assigned in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. The sample collected in Tamsagiyn hooly, Dornod province, in eastern Mongolia was of the highest content 58.55 mg/g. The contents of three flavanone constituents (liquiritin apioside, liquiritin and liquiritigenin) and three chalcones (isoliquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin and isoliquiritigenin) varied significantly according to collection places; the subtotal of the three flavanones ranged from 3.00 to 26.35 mg/g, and the subtotal of the three chalcones ranged from 1.13 to 10.50 mg/g. The content of glycyrrhizin and subtotal contents of flavanones and chalcones in the underground parts of G. uralensis from Mongolia were obviously lower than wild samples, but higher than cultivated samples derived from the same species produced in China. Glycycoumarin, a species-specific constituent of G. uralensis, was detected in all Mongolian samples. Its contents in samples from eastern Mongolia, Sergelen and Tamsagiyn hooly of Dornod province were very high and were compatible with Tohoku-kanzo derived from wild Chinese G. uralensis. The present study suggested that Mongolian G. uralensis could be a source of Glycyrrhizae Radix, mostly of Japanese Pharmacopoeia grade. However, the producing area should be taken into consideration to ensure relatively high quality. In addition, planned use and promotion of cultivation must be advocated to avoid confronting Mongolian Glycyrrhiza with the same threat as its congener in China. Our study

  5. Herbs Recognition Based on Android using OpenCV

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Agus Suryawibawa; I ketut Gede Darma Putra; Ni Kadek Ayu Wirdiani

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are used in traditional medicine. There are so many herbs are spread across the world, it is difficult to memorize it all. This paper describes an android application to recognize herbs by their leaf characteristics (shape, veins, and keypoints). Shape and veins of leaves are recognized by Invariant Moment Method as the feature extraction. City Block Distance used to calculate the distance between the features. Whereas for detection and keypoints extraction using Oriented FAST and Rotat...

  6. Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Chauhan; Km. Ruby; Jaya Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine. It is refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for disease treatment.Herbs have many golden phytochemicals or secondary metabolites to treat disease. They have a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. Hemorrhoids or Piles treatment through Herbs has been effective and a golden treatment without any side-effects. There are some herbs which is useful in piles treatment such as Aesculus hippocastanum,...

  7. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines.

  8. Radioprotective activity in some medicinal herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, Morio (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Center for Radioisotopes)

    1993-09-01

    Water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs of the Araliaceae and other families were tested for their radioprotective activity by either measuring 30 days survival rates (a commonly applied method) or counting the thrombocytes 14 days after irradiation (an improved method) in mice. The extracts were i.p. injected once within 4 min after the whole body X-ray irradiation. Of 12 materials examined, Aralia elata, Angelica acutiloba and Morus bombysis seemed to be good starting materials for preparing radioprotective substance(s) because of their relatively high specific activity and high yields of the extracts. (author).

  9. Sesquiterpenoids from the herb of Leonurus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liang; Zhou, Qin-Mei; Peng, Cheng; Xie, Xiao-Fang; Guo, Li; Li, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Juan; Liu, Zhao-Hua; Dai, Ou

    2013-04-29

    Two new sesquiterpenoids, (-)-(1S*,2S*,3R*)-3-ethoxycupar-5-ene-1,2-diol (1) and (-)-(1S*,4S*,9S*)-1,9-epoxybisabola-2,10-diene-4-ol (2), along with six known compounds 3-8, were isolated from the EtOH extract of the herb of Leonurus japonicus. Their structures were elucidated by physical and spectroscopic analysis. In the in vitro assays, compounds 7 and 8 showed obvious antibacterial activity against several bacteria strains, while compound 3 significantly inhibited abnormal increase of platelet aggregation induced by ADP.

  10. Sesquiterpenoids from the Herb of Leonurus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Xiong; Qin-Mei Zhou; Cheng Peng; Xiao-Fang Xie; Li Guo; Xiao-Hong Li; Juan Liu; Zhao-Hua Liu; Ou Dai

    2013-01-01

    Two new sesquiterpenoids, (−)-(1S*,2S*,3R*)-3-ethoxycupar-5-ene-1,2-diol (1) and (−)-(1S*,4S*,9S*)-1,9-epoxybisabola-2,10-diene-4-ol (2), along with six known compounds 3−8, were isolated from the EtOH extract of the herb of Leonurus japonicus. Their structures were elucidated by physical and spectroscopic analysis. In the in vitro assays, compounds 7 and 8 showed obvious antibacterial activity against several bacteria strains, while compound 3 significantly inhibited abnormal increase of pla...

  11. Sesquiterpenoids from the Herb of Leonurus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenoids, (−-(1S*,2S*,3R*-3-ethoxycupar-5-ene-1,2-diol (1 and (−-(1S*,4S*,9S*-1,9-epoxybisabola-2,10-diene-4-ol (2, along with six known compounds 3−8, were isolated from the EtOH extract of the herb of Leonurus japonicus. Their structures were elucidated by physical and spectroscopic analysis. In the in vitro assays, compounds 7 and 8 showed obvious antibacterial activity against several bacteria strains, while compound 3 significantly inhibited abnormal increase of platelet aggregation induced by ADP.

  12. [Differences in shapes and properties and microscopic frameworks of wild and cultivated Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae from different regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guifang; Feng, Xuefeng; Ge, Xiaoguang; He, Xirong; Wu, Zhigang; Yang, Jingyu; Wang, Jin'e; Li, Xiaoming; Yuan, Yuan

    2010-05-01

    To compare the differences in shapes and properties and the microscopic frameworks of the wild and cultivated Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae from different regions. The differences in the shapes and properties, the characters of transverse sections, the powder and disintegrated tissue of roots were compared using microscopic measurement and statistics analysis. The wild Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae had several long cylinder roots with rough flaky squama skin and brown red or wine culour, the cultivated had root of many branch with cling skin and brick-red or chestnut culour. The difference of microscopic histological structure was that the xylem vessel of wild Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae had bunched vessel with the rank form of big diameter alternating with small diameter, and had stone cell on samples from some producing region, the xylem vessel of the cultivated had no bunched vessel and no stone cell with the rank form of tangential radial. Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae cultivated in Sichuan Province is called original-region medicinal materials and named Chuandanshen. Chuandanshen had the differences with the Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix cultivated in other region. The root of Chuandanshen had 1.2 cm diameter, and was bulky and fat with solid fabric and the fracture with brownish yellow color and cutin-alikeness, its xylem vessel of transverse section of root was thin with the rank form of tangential radial, and 19-24 vascular bundle and a few wood fiber. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix of the wild and the cultivated, of the original-region (Chuandanshen) and the other-region, have the differences in the shapes and properties, and the microscopic frameworks. The character can be identified by the differences in the shapes of medicinal materials, and the rank form of vascular bundle of transverse section of root.

  13. Suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by a herbal extract of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Johnny C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a major cause of death in developed world. Atherosclerosis is characterized by low-density lipoprotein deposition in the arterial wall which ultimately begets the formation of lesions. Rupture of lesions finally leads to clinical events such as heart attack and stroke. Atherosclerosis is a complication associated with diabetes. In patients with diabetes, the risk of atherosclerosis is three to five folds greater than in non-diabetics. Our previous study showed that a herbal extract of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii, namely SR10, could improve glucose homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we want to further investigate the efficacy of SR10 in treating atherosclerosis. Method The inhibitory effect of SR10 on low-density lipoprotein oxidation was investigated using free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis model and copper ion-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation model. Since vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration are important processes in atherogenesis, we also examined the effect of SR10 in inhibiting these events. Results Our results showed that SR10 inhibited erythrocyte hemolysis with IC50 value at 0.25 mg/ml and significantly prolonged low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. SR10 attenuated platelet derived growth factor-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase as well as inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration. Conclusion The potential application of SR10 in treating atherosclerosis has been implied in this study. Animal model will be needed to further verify the efficacy of SR10 in future.

  14. M input radix p optical logic operations in a photorefractive BaTiO(3) crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Kwon, W H; Lee, K Y; Eom, S Y

    1990-09-10

    A generalized coding algorithm for multiple inputs multiple-valued logic operations is proposed. This algorithm can reduce the unused pixels generated in the encoding process of the odd number of inputs. Using circle-type coded patterns and the correlation property in a photorefractive BaTiO(3) crystal, m input radix p logic operations are made possible. Detailed descriptions and advantages of the proposed method are presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated in the case of a three-input binary system. Uses for the proposed method, including binary half-adder/subtractor and binary multiplier, are given.

  15. Patterns of aphrodisiac herbs usage as expressed by married adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study however, revealed no significant difference in the patterns of aphrodisiac herbs usage as expressed by married adults in Kwara State based on gender and educational attainment. It was thus recommended that due attention be paid to the patterns of aphrodisiac herb usage by the members of the society.

  16. Thermoluminescent (TL) trap characteristics in irradiated oregano herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    The aim of this article is to investigate in a very simple way the trap characteristics of the irradiated oregano herb. The preparation of the polymineral dust obtained from the herb is described and then, through a fading experiment, the characteristics of the trapping levels responsible of the thermoluminescent emission are discussed.

  17. Chinese and related North American herbs: phytopharmacology and therapeutic values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Thomas S. C

    2002-01-01

    ..., most particularly Chinese herbs. Unfortunately, while there is an incredible wealth of knowledge about Chinese herbs, most of this information has been unavailable to Western society, and even the accessible information has often been in obscure sources. The famous 15th century physician Paracelsus taught that the only difference between a medi...

  18. Screening for Anticandidal and Antibiofilm Activity of Some Herbs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anticandidal activity of the ethanol extracts of 12 herbs from Thailand. Methods: The herbs studied were Alpinia galanga, Curcuma longa, Curcuma zedoaria, Mentha cordifolia, Ocimum africanum, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum sanctum, Piper betle, Piper chaba, Piper nigrum, Piper sarmentosum and ...

  19. Genetic diversity analysis and conservation of the Chinese herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an economically important floral herb. However, little work has been conducted to further our understanding of the genetics of this herb. In this study, a representative set of germplasm of. S. miltiorrhiza populations was used to analyze genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  20. Chemical and genetic assessment of variability in commercial Radix Astragali (Astragalus spp.) by ion trap LC-MS and nuclear ribosomal DNA barcoding sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-Lie; Motley, Timothy J; Unachukwu, Uchenna J; Lau, Clara Bik San; Jiang, Bei; Hong, Feng; Leung, Ping-Chung; Wang, Qing-Feng; Livingston, Philip O; Cassileth, Barrie R; Kennelly, Edward J

    2011-03-09

    Radix Astragali (Huangqi) has been demonstrated to have a wide range of immunopotentiating effects and has been used as an adjuvant medicine during cancer therapy. Identity issues in the collection of Radix Astragali exist because many sympatric species of Astragalus occur in the northern regions of China. In order to assess the quality, purity, and uniformity of commercial Radix Astragali, 44 samples were purchased from herbal stores in Hong Kong and New York City. The main constituents, including four isoflavonoids and three saponins, were quantitatively determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). There was significant sample-to-sample variability in the amounts of the saponins and isoflavonoids measured. Furthermore, DNA barcoding utilizing the variable nuclear ITS spacer regions of the 44 purchased Radix Astragali samples were sequenced, aligned and compared. Eight polymorphic point mutations were identified which separated the Radix Astragali samples into three groups. These results indicate that the chemical and genetic variability that exists among Radix Astragali medicinal products is still a consistency and quality issue for this herbal. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed significant effects on the contents of the seven tested compounds when both phylogenetic and geographic (i.e., point of purchase) factors were considered. Therefore, chemical profiles determined by LC-MS and DNA profiles in ITS spacer domains could serve as barcode markers for quality control of Radix Astragali.

  1. Danggui Buxue Tang, Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Induces Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells: Signaling Mediated by Phosphorylation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Amy G W; Lau, K M; Zhang, Laura M L; Lin, H Q; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2016-03-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix at the weight ratio of 5:1, is used to mitigate menopausal syndromes in women. The pharmacological properties of Danggui Buxue Tang have been illustrated in bone development, blood enhancement, and immune stimulation. Here, we extended the possible pharmacological role of Danggui Buxue Tang in cardiovascular function. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the application of Danggui Buxue Tang induced the release of nitric oxide and the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt kinase in time- and dose-dependent manners. The robust activation of nitric oxide signaling, however, required the boiling of Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix together, i.e., as Danggui Buxue Tang instead of other herbal extracts. The Danggui Buxue Tang-induced phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt kinase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were fully blocked by treatment with an endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), a PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002), and a Ca(2+) chelator (BAPTA-AM). In parallel, the blockage of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt activation subsequently fully abolished the Danggui Buxue Tang-induced nitric oxide production. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Mycotoxins in spices and herbs-An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W

    2017-01-02

    Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature. However, spices and herbs cultivated mainly in tropic and subtropic areas can be exposed to contamination with toxigenic fungi and subsequently mycotoxins. This review provides an overview on the mycotoxin risk in widely consumed spices and aromatic herbs.

  3. Oxalate contents of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, James; Huang, Chris; Liebman, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To assess the total and soluble oxalate contents of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. Twenty-two Chinese medicinal herbs were extracted in both acid and water prior to determination of total and soluble oxalate, respectively. Oxalate was assayed in herbal extracts using a well-established enzymatic procedure. Among the 22 medicinal herbs, there was significant variation in oxalate content; Houttuynia cordata contained the highest amount of soluble oxalate (2146 mg/100 g) and Selaginella doederleinii contained the lowest amount (71 mg/ 100 g). The results indicated that different Chinese medicinal herbs, even from the same family, contain significantly different amounts of oxalate. In susceptible individuals, the use of medicinal herbs with the highest oxalate contents could increase risk of kidney stone formation.

  4. Fermentation effects of oligosaccharides of Radix Ophiopogonis on alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Su, Wei-Wei; Cai, Xue-Ying; Luo, Lv-Keng; Li, Pei-Bo; Wang, Yong-Gang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, oligosaccharides extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus vinegar (OOV) by alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation with water extracts from Radix Ophiopogon and oligosaccharides extracted from Radix Ophiopogonis (OOJ) were investigated. Characterization of the extracts indicated that OOV are proteoglycans, whereas OOJ are not. Moreover, compared with OOJ, monosaccharide compositions of OOV only include fructose and galactose and not glucose. MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometric results showed that the molecular weight of OOV was smaller after fermentation. Changes in the characteristics of OOV would inevitably lead to changes in its hypoglycemic properties. The OOV inhibition activity against α-glucosidase was stronger than that of OOJ. The inhibition activity became stronger with higher dosages of OOV. The hypoglycemic effect of OOV on alloxan-induced diabetic mice was stronger than that of OOJ. More important, the ability of OOV to reduce damage on islets in diabetic mice was stronger than that of OOJ. Overall, alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation improved the hypoglycemic activity of OOJ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radix entomolaris and paramolaris in children: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B Nagaveni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric dentistry in the current scenario is not just about teeth and gums that are easily visible in children′s mouth anymore. It is all about those structures that are hidden, difficult to identify, and often remain undiagnosed. Dentist can come across various anomalies pertaining to the crown structure during the clinical practice. Although supernumerary tooth is the most commonly seen anomaly, the presence of extra roots in molars is an interesting example of anatomic root variation. It is well known that both primary and permanent mandibular first molars usually have roots, one mesial, and the other distal root. Very rarely an additional third root (supernumerary root is seen and when it is located distolingually to the main distal root is called "radix entomolaris (RE" and when it is placed mesiobuccaly to the mesial root is called "radix paramolaris (RP." The purpose of this article is to discuss the prevalence, morphology, classification, clinical diagnosis, and significance of supernumerary roots in contemporary clinical pediatric dentistry.

  6. Performance of Point and Range Queries for In-memory Databases using Radix Trees on GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Maksudul [ORNL; Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In in-memory database systems augmented by hardware accelerators, accelerating the index searching operations can greatly increase the runtime performance of database queries. Recently, adaptive radix trees (ART) have been shown to provide very fast index search implementation on the CPU. Here, we focus on an accelerator-based implementation of ART. We present a detailed performance study of our GPU-based adaptive radix tree (GRT) implementation over a variety of key distributions, synthetic benchmarks, and actual keys from music and book data sets. The performance is also compared with other index-searching schemes on the GPU. GRT on modern GPUs achieves some of the highest rates of index searches reported in the literature. For point queries, a throughput of up to 106 million and 130 million lookups per second is achieved for sparse and dense keys, respectively. For range queries, GRT yields 600 million and 1000 million lookups per second for sparse and dense keys, respectively, on a large dataset of 64 million 32-bit keys.

  7. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiu Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India, is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  8. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-12-20

    Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  9. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; Wang, S Y

    2001-11-01

    The antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined. The ORAC values and total phenolic contents for the medicinal herbs ranged from 1.88 to 22.30 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh weight and 0.23 to 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight, respectively. Origanum x majoricum, O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and Poliomintha longiflora have higher ORAC and phenolic contents as compared to other culinary herbs. The ORAC values and total phenolic content for the culinary herbs ranged from 2.35 to 92.18 micromol of TE/g of fresh weight and 0.26 to 17.51 mg of GAE/g of fresh weight, respectively. These also were much higher than values found in the medicinal herbs. The medicinal herbs with the highest ORAC values were Catharanthus roseus, Thymus vulgaris, Hypericum perforatum, and Artemisia annua. A linear relationship existed between ORAC values and total phenolic contents of the medicinal herbs (R = 0.919) and culinary herbs (R = 0.986). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Among the identified phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum x majoricum, and P. longiflora, whereas quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside were predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba leaves.

  10. Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 1: The potential medicinal value of pasture herbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the period April - October 2011 Sibilla Laldi (MSc-student WUR) carried out the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’, a project of the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pastures herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms.

  11. The effect of cynanchi wilfordii radix ethanol extracts upon irradiated rat's blood and organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Oh; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The development of radioprotector is being actively conducted in order to reduce the damage from over radiation exposure at radiation accident or radiation therapy. So this study was confirmed for radiation protective effects using the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix that has been known to be effective for antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, immune enhancing effects. The method of this study was administered orally Cynanchi wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts to Sprague Dawley Rat(SD Rat) for 14 days once a day, while measuring changed blood cell, spleen index, liver and uterus tissue along the change in time of 1, 4, 7 and 21 days after X-ray beam of 7 Gy irradiation. As the result of the experiment, the experimental group's rats which are administered with Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts showed a rapid recovery in white blood cell count(p < 0.05) and spleen index(p < 0.05). In addition, condensation of nuclei, cytoplasmic swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration in experimental group's liver cell was decreased more than in irradiation group's component. Further, experimental group's Uterine gland decreased the apoptosis more than irradiation group's components did. It is expected that Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix extracts will be useful as a new radioprotector. With above in mind, this paper may provide appropriate implications with the field of emergency management such as radiation accident.

  12. Simultaneous Quantification of Nine New Furanocoumarins in Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of new furanocoumarins with long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely andafocoumarins A–H and J, have been isolated from the dried roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi (Angelicae Dahuricae radix in our previous study, among which andafocoumarins A and B were demonstrated to have better anti-inflammatory activity than the positive controls. In this work, a sensitive, accurate, and efficient ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UFLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of above-mentioned nine compounds in four cultivars of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex 2.6u C18 100 Å column (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm. The mobile phases were comprised of acetonitrile and water with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Using the established method, all components could be easily separated within 12 min. With the multiple reaction monitor mode, all components were detected in positive electrospray ionization. The method was validated with injection precision, linearity, lower limit of detection, lower limit of quantification, precision, recovery, and stability, respectively. The final results demonstrated that the method was accurate and efficient, which could be used to simultaneously quantify the nine andafocoumarins in Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. The results also indicated that in different batches of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, some of the andafocoumarins were significantly different in terms of content.

  13. Intraspecific morphological and genetic variability in the European freshwater snail Radix labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) (Gastropoda: Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schniebs, K.; Glöer, P.; Vinarski, M.V.; Hundsdoerfer, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Radix labiata is a widely distributed Palaearctic freshwater snail. This work aims to improve the knowledge of the intraspecific variability in the most important characters used for its determination. To find out which characters are really suitable to distinguish this species from other similar

  14. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.

  15. Comparison of raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhitao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Polygoni Multiflori is the dried root tuber of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Fam. Polygonaceae. According to Chinese medicine theory, raw (R-RPM and processed (P-RPM Radix Polygoni Multiflori possess different properties. The present study investigates the differences in chemistry between raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori. Methods Five pairs of R-RPM and P-RPM as well as 15 commercial decoction pieces were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS. Results Two anthraquinones, namely emodin-8-O-(6'-O-malonyl-glucoside and physcion-8-O-(6'-O-malonyl-glucoside disappeared or decreased significantly and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and physcion-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside decreased after the R-RPM samples being processed. On the other hand, the contents of emodin and physcion generally increased after processing. Conclusion The present study indicates that processing Radix Polygoni Multiflori may change the contents and types of chemicals in it. These changes are probably responsible for the various pharmacological effects of R-RPM and P-RPM as well as hepatotoxicity.

  16. Effects of lipid regulation using raw and processed radix polygoni multiflori in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Chen, Zhen; Mao, Xiaojian; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2012-01-01

    Raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori have been used in the prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hyperlipidemia, and related diseases in Asian counties for centuries. The lipid regulation ability of raw and processed Poligoni Multiflori Radix were compared in high-fat diet fed rats in this research. Total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in blood and liver tissue were all significantly higher in model rats. However, triglyceride (TG) contents increased only in liver tissue, not in the blood samples. The rats fed the high-fat diets were considered the model of type IIa hyperlipidemia and early-stage nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Both Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM) and Radix Polygoni Multiflori Praeparata (RPMP) revealed TC-lowing effects, and middling doses of RPMP displayed the most significant TC-lowing effects, as indicated by blood samples. Neither RPM nor RPMP was found to reduce LDL-C in rats' blood. Nevertheless, RPM showed dose-dependent TC- and TG-lowing effects in the liver tissue samples. In conclusion, RPM showed more pronounced effects on lipid regulation in liver samples in the treatment of early-stage NAFLD. RPMP, however, displayed better effects in regulating lipids in circulating blood for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  17. Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract protects human foreskin melanocytes from oxidative stress in vitro and potentiates hair follicle pigmentation ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sextius, P; Betts, R; Benkhalifa, I; Commo, S; Eilstein, J; Massironi, M; Wang, P; Michelet, J-F; Qiu, J; Tan, X; Jeulin, S

    2017-08-01

    To examine the ability of an extract from traditional Chinese medicine, Polygonum multiflorum Radix, to protect melanocyte viability from oxidative stress, a key mechanism in the initiation and progression of hair greying. To assess the antioxidant capacity of Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract, primary human foreskin melanocytes were treated with a commercially available Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract added to culture medium and exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), using intracellular reactive oxygen species concentrations and glutathione/protein ratios as endpoints. To improve solubility for cosmetic uses, a new Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract was derived. As hair greying is the consequence of melanocyte disappearance in an oxidative stress environment, we checked whether the antioxidant capacity of the new Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract could preserve melanocyte viability in response to H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress, and preserve pigmentation within ex vivo human hair follicles. In vitro treatment of primary human foreskin melanocytes with traditional available Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract resulted in decreased intracellular ROS accumulation in response to H 2 O 2 exposure with a concomitant preservation of glutathione-to-protein ratio, consistent with a protective response against H 2 O 2 exposure and demonstrating the promise of this extract for protecting melanocytes against oxidative stress. Melanocytes treated with the improved Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract exhibited attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced cell death, demonstrating a clear cytoprotective effect. Treatment of ex vivo human hair follicles with the improved Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract resulted in a higher level of melanin compared to vehicle-treated controls, demonstrating an ex vivo protective effect on hair pigmentation. Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract protects in vitro primary human foreskin melanocytes from the deleterious effects of H 2 O 2

  18. Chinese Herbs Interfering with Cancer Reprogramming Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangfeng Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence promotes a reassessment of metabolic reprogramming regulation in cancer research. Although there exists a long history of Chinese herbs applied in cancer treatment, few reports have addressed the effects of Chinese herbal components on metabolic reprogramming, which is a central cancer hallmark involved in the slowing or prevention of chemoresistance in cancer cells. In this review, we have focused on four core elements altered by metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. These include glucose transport, glycolysis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid synthesis. With this focus, we have summarized recent advances in metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in response to specific Chinese herbal components. We propose that exploring Chinese herbal interference in cancer metabolic reprogramming might identify new therapeutic targets for cancer and more ways in which to approach metabolism-related diseases.

  19. Microencapsulation of Traditional Chinese Herbs-PentaHerbs extracts and potential application in healthcare textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Patrick Chi-Leung; Wang, Wen-Yi; Kan, Chi-Wai; Ng, Frency Sau-Fun; Wat, Elaine; Zhang, Vanilla Xin; Chan, Chung-Lap; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2013-11-01

    In this work, Traditional Chinese Herbs (TCH)-PentaHerbs--was successfully microencapsulated in chitosan-sodium alginate (CSA) blend matrix using emulsion-chemical cross-linking method and the final product was characterised with regard to structure, surface morphology, particle size, in vitro drug release and skin toxicity by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser diffraction particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays respectively. Results showed that the microcapsules were in spherical form with diameter mostly in the range of 3-18 μm and that the release performance of the microcapsules was influenced by pH value of phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The microcapsules had no toxic effects on cells and were successfully grafted onto the surface of cotton fabrics. These results indicated that PentaHerbs loaded CSA microcapsule may possess potential application in clinical treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Illumina-based analysis of endophytic bacterial diversity of tree peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan) roots and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruixian; Liu, Ping; Ye, Wenyu

    Diverse communities of bacteria inhabit plant tissues and those bacteria play a crucial role for plant health and growth. Tree peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan) is known for its excellent ornamental and medicinal values as Chinese traditional plant, but little is known about its associated bacterial community under natural conditions. To examine how endophytic bacteria in tree peony vary across tissues and cultivars, PCR-based Illumina was applied to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in tree peony. A total of 149,842 sequences and 21,463 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained. The OTU abundance of roots was higher than leaves across other three cultivars except for 'Kinkaku' and 'Luoyanghong'. The community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria) in all samples. Endophytic bacteria community structures had changed in leaves and roots. Sequences of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae were prevalent in root samples, whereas Succinivibrio and Acinetobacter were the dominant genus in leaf samples. Otherwise, the distribution of each dominant genus among the 5 cultivars was either varied. These findings suggested that both plant genotype and tissues contribute to the shaping of the bacterial communities associated with tree peony. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Probing the Molecular Mechanisms Governing the Oncolytic Activity of Paeonia suffruticosa on Triple-negative Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongyeon; Radin, Daniel; Leonardi, Donna

    2017-09-01

    Extracts of Paeonia suffruticosa are traditionally used in Chinese medicine to increase blood flow. Recently, this extract has been shown to possess anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties, though this mechanism remains unknown. In the current work, we prepared extracts of P. suffruticosa and analyzed their effects on MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells. Varying concentrations of an aqueous extract of P. suffruticosa was administered to MDA-MB-231. An MTS assay was used to determine the cell viability. Cytokine production was investigated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Caspase-Glo assays were performed to measure caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 to analyze anti-apoptotic effects. MTS assay for cell viability revealed that the extract increased viability at low concentrations (0.6 mg/ml) and decreased viability observed at concentrations ≥2.5 mg/ml (ppppP. suffruticosa extract reduced MDA-MB-231 viability by >60% (pp>0.05), suggesting a selective oncolytic effect. P. suffruticosa extract has the ability to modulate the production of several tumor suppressive cytokines, induce intrinsic apoptosis and has the capability of reducing cancer burden while sparing healthy tissue. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. A metabolic profiling analysis of the acute toxicological effects of the realgar (As₂S₂) combined with other herbs in Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet using ¹H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenfeng; Wang, Haifeng; Chen, Gang; Li, Wen; Xiang, Rongwu; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pei, Yuehu

    2014-05-14

    Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet (NJT), composed of Realgar (As₂S₂), Bovis Calculus Artificialis, Borneolum Synthcticum, Gypsum Fibrosum, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (RR), Scutellariae Radix (SR), Platycodonis Radix (PR) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GR), is an effective formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used in treating acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, periodontitis and mouth ulcer. In the formula, significant level of realgar (As₂S₂) as a potentially toxic element is contained. In our pervious experiments, NJT was significantly less toxic than realgar (As₂S₂), and the material bases of toxicity alleviation effect to realgar (As₂S₂) were RR, SR, PR and GR. However, the toxicity alleviation effect of each above mentioned four herbs to realgar (As₂S₂) and their synergistic detoxification effects to realgar (As₂S₂) were still obscure. Male Wistar rats were divided into 11 groups: control, group R (treated with Realgar), group RRSPG (treated with Realgar, RR, SR, PR and GR), group RRSP (treated with Realgar, RR, SR and PR), group RRSG (treated with Realgar, RR, SR and GR), group RRPG (treated with Realgar, RR, PR and GR), group RSPG (treated with Realgar, SR, PR and GR), group RR (treated with Realgar and RR), group RS (treated with Realgar and SR), group RP (treated with Realgar and PR) and group RG (treated with Realgar and GR). Based on (1)H NMR spectra of urine and serum from rats, PCA and PLS-DA were performed to identify different metabolic profiles. Liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analysis were also performed. The metabolic profiles of groups RR, RS, RP and RG were similar to those of group R, while the metabolic profiles of groups RRSPG, RRSP, RRSG, RRPG and RSPG were almost in line with those of control group. Statistics results were confirmed by the histopathological examination and biochemical assay. The present work suggested that the toxicity alleviation effects of RR, SR, PR and GR to

  3. Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Reena; Girish, K J; Kumar, Abhimanyu

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs.

  4. Lead concentrations of herbs used in Van Herby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncturk, Murat; Tuncturk, Ruveyde; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Ertus, Mehmet M; Ozgokce, Fevzi

    2011-10-01

    Van Herby Cheese is a traditional milk product including local herb species in eastern Turkey. This special milk product was previously produced only for the local market, but industrial scale production and marketing have recently started in the region. However, some quality characteristics such as microbial flora and heavy metal concentrations of this novel product need to be investigated. In this study, lead concentrations of 28 different herbs mostly used in Van Herby Cheese were analyzed by AAS. The highest lead concentration of 1.69 mg kg(-1) of the analyzed herbs was found in Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia.

  5. Acetonitrile extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix exhibits growth-inhibitory effects on prostate cancer cells through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June; Choi, Bu Young; Keum, Young-Sam

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the effects of the acetonitrile or water extracts from 400 selected traditional medicinal plants on the growth of PC-3 cells were investigated, and it was demonstrated that an acetonitrile extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix exhibited the most marked cytotoxic effects on PC-3 cells. It was observed that the acetonitrile extract of S. miltiorrhiza Radix induced marked cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PC-3 cells through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It was also demonstrated that oral administration of the acetonitrile extract of S. miltiorrhiza Radix decreased the incidence and growth of PC-3 tumor xenografts in nude mice. The results of the present study suggest that the acetonitrile extract of S. miltiorrhiza Radix exhibits marked inhibitory effects on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Radix entomolaris: A case report with cone-beam computed tomography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafia Sarfi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to draw the correlation between the morphology of the right and left radix entomoralis (RE in a bilateral case using CBCT. In this report a case involving root canal treatment of both the mandibular molars (36 & 46 is presented. A correlation between the morphology of the two is drawn using CBCT. During root canal treatment of 46 the presence of RE was identified clinically and then radiographically. Following which, 36 was treated and similar morphologic variation was seen. A CBCT was performed after obturation of both the teeth was completed in order to analyse and compare the morphologic variation and similarity. The morphology of both the radices was found to be similar. Anatomic variations can occur in any tooth, therefore careful clinical and radiographic examination is compulsory for successful outcome. This report describes the similarity of tooth root anatomy in a patient with bilateral RE and hence its clinical implication.

  7. Aquatic Macrophytes as Microhabitats of Radix auricularia (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: A Case Study from Southeast Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Y. Vasileva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to investigate the abundance of thefreshwater pulmonate snail Radix auricularia among different aquatic plants communities, with the view of understanding if there is any particular habitat preference, comparing two freshwater basins having similar environmental conditions. The freshwater plant species were collected by net from two ponds at the end of May 2009 - 650 g wet plant mass, micro dam at Chernoochene Village, East Rhodopes Mts.; 138 g wet plant mass, small flood pond near the Maritza River, Plovdiv City, Upper Thracian Lowland. The plant mass was weighted in the laboratory after the alive snails were collected from the plant surface. Totally three species of freshwater plants were inhabited by R. auricularia, but its abundance and possible preference was highest on the Rigid Hornworth (Ceratophyllum demersum.

  8. Chromatographic Fingerprints Combined with Chemometric Methods Reveal the Chemical Features of Authentic Radix Polygalae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhongquan; Ren, Dabing; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yi, Zhibiao; Yi, Lunzhao

    2017-01-01

    GC-MS fingerprints of Radix Polygalae (RP) were measured for deliberately collected samples. A total of 88 volatile components were identified and quantified by subwindow factor analysis, heuristic evolving latent projection, and retention index. Next, an efficient discrimination model based on partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis (DA) was developed to distinguish the superior RP samples from the inferior ones, and the reliability and predictive ability of the model was evaluated by cross-validation and permutation tests. Furthermore, four components (1-octanol, shyobunone, isobornyl acetate, and α-asarone) were screened by coefficient β of PLS-DA. They represented the important chemical features of authentic RP and could be applied to the accurate discrimination and QC of RP in the future. Our results suggest that chromatographic fingerprints coupled with chemometric methods provide an effective and convenient strategy for QC of RP and are helpful for revealing the chemical features of a complex analytical sample.

  9. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqing Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  10. Radix Entomolaris in Mandibular First Molars in Indian Population: A Review and Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Attam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this paper is to present cases of mandibular first molars with an additional distolingual root and their management using appropriate instruments and techniques. Basic Procedures and Main Findings. Mandibular molars can sometimes present a variation called radix entomolaris, wherein the tooth has an extra root attached to its lingual aspect. This additional root may complicate the endodontic management of the tooth if it is misdiagnosed or maltreated. This paper reviews the prevalence of such cases in Indian population and reports the management of 6 such teeth. Principal Conclusions. (1 It is crucial to be familiar with variations in tooth/canal anatomy and characteristic features since such knowledge can aid location and negotiation of canals, as well as their subsequent management. (2 Accurate diagnosis and careful application of clinical endodontic skill can favorably alter the prognosis of mandibular molars with this root morphology.

  11. [Textual research on the origin and producing area of Baitouweng (Radix Pulsatillae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W H; Zhan, Z L; Peng, H S; Yang, J; Qian, J P

    2017-01-28

    Baitouweng (Pulsatilla Root), a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, was first recorded in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) . Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel from Ranunculaceae had become the authentic source for the Baitouweng since the Song Dynasty, which was consistent with the Radix Pulsatillae collected in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Chuzhou, Anhui province, being regarded as the main producing area in ancient times, had been its genuine producing area since the period of Republic of China. From the Tang Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, the origin of Baitouweng recorded in the works of Chinese materia medica could also include P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua. Therefore, P. chinensis in Chuzhou, with large quantity and high quality, is a superior resource that need to increase its protection and further studies, whereas P. cernua, P. dahurica and P. ambigua have better to be used as local drugs.

  12. Processing of waste material of radix physochlainae for preparation of fine chemicals after extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A.; Yohannes, A.; Feng, X. T.; Yao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Waste residues of Chinese traditional medicine radix physochlainae (Huashanshen) contain a large amount of hemicelluloses after extraction. After the removal of the cellulose and lignin, main components of the solution are different degree of hydrolysis products of hemicelluloses. In the degradation process, hemicelluloses firstly become pentose, and then pentose loses 3 molecules of water and turns into furfural. This study explored a series of conditions of the method; finally the yield of furfural can reach 8.5% (calculated with the weight of raw residues) under the condition of pH of 0.2-0.3, temperature of 104-106°C, hydrolysis duration for 10 minutes. Furfural can be further processed to be resin materials.

  13. Protective Effect of Salidroside from Rhodiolae Radix on Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Peng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been confirmed that diabetes mellitus (DM carries increased oxidative stress. This study evaluated the effects of salidroside from Rhodiolae Radix on diabetes-induced oxidative stress in mice. After induction of diabetes, diabetic mice were administered daily doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg salidroside for 28 days. Body weights, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum insulin, TC (total cholesterol, TG (triglyceride, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT were measured. Results showed that salidroside possessed hypoglycemic activity and protective effects against diabetes-induced oxidative stress, which could significantly reduce FBG, TC, TG and MDA levels, and at same time increase serum insulin levels, SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Therefore, salidroside should be considered as a candidate for future studies on diabetes.

  14. Furocoumarin Derivatives from Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Their Effects on RXRα Transcriptional Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel furocoumarin derivative named oxyalloimperatorin (1, together with seventeen furocoumarins 2–18 were isolated from the radix of Angelica dahurica. The chemical structure of new metabolite was characterized by analysis of IR, NMR, and HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic data. Among the isolated compounds, 13, 16, and 18 (each at 20 μM could significantly promote the gene transcriptional function of nuclear receptor RXRα. While 7–9, 13, 14, and the new structure 1 (each at 20 μM showed significant reduction in RXRα gene transcriptional activities induced by 9-cis-retinoid acid. The findings indicated that these furocoumarin skeleton derivatives might hold beneficial effects on many intractable diseases, such as cancer and metabolic diseases, due to their potential activities on regulating the transcriptional activation function of RXRα.

  15. Study of the Volatile Constituents in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and a Substitute by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Fang Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined approach of subwindow factor analysis and spectral correlative chromatography was used to analyze the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth, one of its substitutes. After extraction by a water distillation method, the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. Sixty five of 82 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.79% of the total content. Then, spectral correlative chromatography was used to extract correlative constituents in Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. Fifty one correlative components were recognized in essential oil of Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. The result proves the combined approach is powerful in the analysis of complex herbal samples. The developed method can be used to compare the sameness and differences of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and its substitutes and it can also be used for quality control of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae.

  16. Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs in MS: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of foods, including fish (especially salmon and tuna fish), pork and chicken, beans, bananas and many vegetables. 11 | Vitamins, Minerals & Herbs in MS Vitamin B6 is needed in amino acid conversions. Sometimes people with MS take a B ...

  17. [Retrospect of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J N; Zhang, X L; Guo, H

    2017-01-28

    Tea and wine are time-honored drinks in China. Along with coffee and cocoa, tea, as one of the non-alcoholic plant beverages, is prevailing the world. Tea and Chinese medicine has a very close relationship. Chinese herbs taken as tea forming the tea-like medicinal tea, can be taken frequently at anytime. The application of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking begins from the Tang Dynasty, flourishes in the Song Dynasty and matures in the Qing Dynasty. The review of its history provides ample evidence of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking in treating and preventing diseases, as well as providing the clues and references of developing new Chinese herbs taking as tea.

  18. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF HERBS AGAINST YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA AND MIXED MICROFLORA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shilpa Sharma; Ravinder Kaushik; Pooja Sharma; Reetika Sharma; Anju Thapa; K P Indumathi

    2016-01-01

      The present study aimed at developing herbal medicine against food borne pathogens, therefore the antimicrobial activity of four herbs viz. Arjuna (bark), Ashwagandha (roots), Puthkanda (leaves) and Shalampanja (roots) was checked...

  20. Effect of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on cerebral ischemia reperfusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the effects of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on mouse model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Mice were orally given different doses of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis 10 d, and were administered once daily. On the tenth day after the administration of 1 h in mice after anesthesia, we used needle to hook the bilateral common carotid artery (CCA for 10 min, with 10 min ischemia reperfusion, 10 min ischemia. Then we restored their blood supply, copy the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion; We then had all mice reperfused for 24 h, and then took their orbital blood samples and measured blood rheology. We quickly removed the brain, with half of the brain having sagittal incision. Then we fixed the brains and sectioned them to observe the pathological changes of brain cells in the hippocampus and cortex. We also measured the other half sample which was made of brain homogenate of NO, NOS, Na+-K+-, ATP enzyme Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Acupuncture needle hook occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries can successfully establish the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. After comparing with the model mice, we concluded that Ilex pubescens flavonoids not only reduce damage to the brain nerve cells in the hippocampus and cortex, but also significantly reduce the content of NO in brain homogenate, the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and increases ATP enzyme activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01. In this way, cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is improved. Different dosages of Ilex pubescens flavonoids on mouse cerebral ischemia reperfusion model have good effects.

  1. MEDICINAL HERBS USED BY HIV-POSITIVE PEOPLE IN LESOTHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugomeri, Eltony; Chatanga, Peter; Chakane, Ntema

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal herbs whose efficacy and toxicities are not known by HIV-positive people in Lesotho is a threat to the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment. This study explored some medicinal herbs used by HIV-positive people in Lesotho and the reasons for their use. This was a cross sectional study based on a questionnaire distributed to purposively-sampled HIV-positive people in Leribe and Maseru districts of Lesotho. The participants' socio-demographic and clinical variables were summarized using frequency tables in Stata version 13 statistical software. Data variables for medicinal herbs used, frequency of use, uses by the participants and in the literature, parts of plants used and the method of preparation were also explored. Out of 400 questionnaires distributed to the participants, 389 were returned with data acceptable for analysis. Ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 75 years (Mean=43 + 11.6). Out of the 272 (69.9%) participants who conceded that they had used medicinal herbs at least once, 30 (7.7%) participants used medicinal herbs frequently while 242 (62.2 %) rarely used the herbs. At least 20 plant species belonging to 16 families were reportedly used by the participants. Asteraceae was the most common plant family reportedly used by the participants. Allium sativum and Dicoma anomala, reportedly used by 21.0% and 14.3% respectively, were the most commonly used medicinal herbs in this population. In addition, boosting the immune system and treating gastrointestinal ailments, apparently cited by 32% and 28% participants respectively, were the most commonly reported reasons for using medicinal herbs. A considerable proportion (69.9%) of HIV-positive people use medicinal herbs in this population, and 7.7% use them frequently. At least 20 plant species belonging to 16 families were reportedly used by the participants. HIV counselling protocols in Lesotho should emphasize the dangers of using medicinal herbs whose safety and compatibility

  2. Pharmacognostic outlooks on medical herbs of Sasang typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Hye; Jeon, Eun Sang; Lee, Jeongyun; Han, Sang Yun; Chae, Han

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the pharmacognostic characteristics of Sasang type-specific medical herbs and suggest biological mechanisms that might be related to the personalized treatment of the East. Major compounds and their pharmacological activities of medical herbs for each Sasang types were systematically reviewed. The pharmacognostic characteristics of its main compounds were systematically analyzed with previous studies and three web-based databases. Sasang type-specific medical herbs were selected, and biological effects of their phytochemicals were reviewed from the pathophysiological features of each Sasang types. Phenolics were dominant in Tae-Yang type-specific herbs, iridoids and triterpenes with antipyretic and diuretic effects were in So-Yang type-specific, saponins (triterpene saponins and steroidal saponins) with antitussive effects were in Tae-Eum type-specific, and monoterpene and sesquiterpenes with stomachic effect were in So-Eum type-specific herbs. Pharmacognostic understandings on Sasang type-specific medical herbs with consideration of type-specific pathophysiological features were provided for the first time. This study would contribute to in-depth understandings on the pathophysiology of Sasang typology and integration of East-Asian and Western personalized medicine.

  3. [Neuroprotection of herbs promoting EPO on cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Bai, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Fei-yan; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2015-06-01

    Amounts of researches show that EPO is characterized with neurotrophic and neuroprotective manner, especially in brain stroke, which attracts a large numbers of researchers to study it. With the accumulating researches on its neuroprotection, many related mechanisms were revealed, such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, which suggests a multiple targets role of EPO on brain stroke. However, because of the high risk of thromboembolism in clinical administration of rhEPO and its analogs, the herbs are potential to be a replacer for its less side effects. Many researchers suggested that a larger of herbs were founded having the action of increasing the endogenous EPO in the model of anemia and cerebral ischemia. At the same time, there herbs were also proved that they had the action of against cerebral ischemia while some without considering the role of EPO in the reports. Considering of the action of promoting EPO of these herbs and the neural protection of EPO, this essay mainly summarizes the studies of herbs promoting EPO in the cerebral ischemia and discusses the mechanism of regulating the EPO of these herbs, for the aim of finding the potential drugs against cerebral ischemia.

  4. [Strategies of the study on herb genome program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-lin; Sun, Yong-zhen; Xu, Jiang; Luo, Hong-mei; Sun, Chao; He, Liu; Cheng, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Bo-li; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2010-07-01

    Herb Genome Program (HerbGP) includes a series of projects on whole genome sequencing (WGS) and post-genomics research of medicinal plants with unique secondary metabolism pathways or/and those of great medical and pharmaceutical importance. In this paper, we systematically discussed the strategy of HerbGP, from species selection, whole-genome sequencing, assembly and bioinformatics analysis, to postgenomics research. HerbGP will push study on Chinese traditional medicines into the front field of life science, by selecting a series of plants with unique secondary metabolism pathways as models and introducing "omics" methods into the research of these medicinal plants. HerbGP will provide great opportunities for China to be the leader in the basic research field of traditional Chinese medicine. HerbGP shall also have significant impacts on the R&D of natural medicines and the development of medicinal farming by analysis of secondary metabolic pathways and selection of cultivars with good agricultural traits.

  5. The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences. PMID:18499033

  6. HERB PLANT: INVENTORY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING IN SAMPANG, MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Khamsatul Muharrami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, modern medicine has advanced rapidly but habits of drinking herbal medicine are still survived in Madurese society. The local wisdom of drinking herbal medicine in Madurese society, especially in Sampang Regency has been believed to be efficacious for generations. Average medicinal ingredients used are derived from natural ingredients taken from root organs, bark, leaves, fruit or seeds of herbs. This research aims to perform an inventory of herbs that have potential in improving the welfare of Madurese, especially in Sampang Regency. Type of research used is descriptive qualitative research method used is by conducting interviews to the community, IKOT owners, and herbalist. Madurese herbs in Sampang. Based on the results of research, 46 herbs are obtained. Of 46 plants found there are 16 different types of herbs. Herbal plants that many people use (have a percentage of more than 50% are jahe (Indonesian name, kunyit (Indonesian name, kencur (Indonesian name, kayu rapet (Indonesian name and delima (Indonesian name. The results of phytochemical screening of fifth herbs showed that positive herbal plants containing saponins were jahe (Indonesian name, kencur (Indonesian name, kayu rapet (Indonesian name and delima (Indonesian name. And of the five samples, all positively contain secondary metabolites of flavonoids, tannins, and steroids.

  7. Fatty acid composition of developing tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) seeds and transcriptome analysis during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Liang-Sheng; Shu, Qing-Yan; Wu, Jie; Chen, Li-Guang; Shao, Shuai; Yin, Dan-Dan

    2015-03-18

    Tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) is known for its excellent ornamental and medicinal values. In 2011, seeds from P. ostii have been identified as novel resource of α-linolenic acid (ALA) for seed oil production and development in China. However, the molecular mechanism on biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in tree peony seeds remains unknown. Therefore, transcriptome data is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms. In this study, lipid accumulation contents were measured using GC-MS methods across developing tree peony seeds, which exhibited an extraordinary ALA content (49.3%) in P. ostii mature seeds. Transcriptome analysis was performed using Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 144 million 100-bp paired-end reads were generated from six libraries, which identified 175,874 contigs. In the KEGG Orthology enrichment of differentially expressed genes, lipid metabolism pathways were highly represented categories. Using this data we identified 388 unigenes that may be involved in de novo fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthesis. In particular, three unigenes (SAD, FAD2 and FAD8) encoding fatty acid desaturase with high expression levels in the fast oil accumulation stage compared with the initial stage of seed development were identified. This study provides the first comprehensive genomic resources characterizing tree peony seeds gene expression at the transcriptional level. These data lay the foundation for further understanding of molecular mechanism responsible for lipid biosynthesis and the high unsaturated fatty acids (especially ALA) accumulation. Meanwhile, it provides theoretical base for potential oilseed application in the respect of n-6 to n-3 ratio for human diets and future regulation of target healthy components of oils.

  8. Identification of miRNAs Responsive to Botrytis cinerea in Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiu Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall., one of the world’s most important ornamental plants, is highly susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, and improving resistance to this pathogenic fungus is a problem yet to be solved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an essential role in resistance to B. cinerea, but until now, no studies have been reported concerning miRNAs induction in P. lactiflora. Here, we constructed and sequenced two small RNA (sRNA libraries from two B. cinerea-infected P. lactiflora cultivars (“Zifengyu” and “Dafugui” with significantly different levels of resistance to B. cinerea, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. From the raw reads generated, 4,592,881 and 5,809,796 sRNAs were obtained, and 280 and 306 miRNAs were identified from “Zifengyu” and “Dafugui”, respectively. A total of 237 conserved and 7 novel sequences of miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two cultivars, and we predicted and annotated their potential target genes. Subsequently, 7 differentially expressed candidate miRNAs were screened according to their target genes annotated in KEGG pathways, and the expression patterns of miRNAs and corresponding target genes were elucidated. We found that miR5254, miR165a-3p, miR3897-3p and miR6450a might be involved in the P. lactiflora response to B. cinerea infection. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for resistance to B. cinerea in P. lactiflora.

  9. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Paeonia emodi (Wall.) rhizome methanol extract and its phenolic compounds rich fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilahi, Ikram; Khan, Jahangir; Ghaffar, Rukhsana; Hussain, Akhtar; Rahman, Kausar; Wahab, Sara; Begum, Razia; Hidayatullah, Maryum; Amin, Asma; Sobia, -; Shoaib, Muhammad; Ahmad, Izhar; Ali, Dawood; Zeb, Liaqat

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the total phenolic content in Paeonia emodi rhizome methanol extract and its fractions and then evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of fractions rich in phenolic compounds. Maximum quantity of total phenolic content was observed in butanol (112.08±5.5 mg GAE/g dw) and chloroform fraction (107.0±3.5 mg GAE/g dw) followed by methanol extract (94.2±4.4 mg GAE/g dw), aqueous fraction (92.9±2.5 mg GAE/g dw), ethyl acetate (62.3±8.3 mg GAE/g dw) and n-hexane fraction (51.6±7.2 mg GAE/g dw). The fractions rich in total phenolic content were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The butanol and chloroform fraction showed significantly (Pphenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity. The fractions rich in phenolic compounds were also evaluated for their hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol intoxicated mice. Five days oral administration of these fractions at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight restored the serum ALT, AST and ALP levels of paracetamol intoxicated mice to normal level. From the results of the present research it was concluded that the butanol and chloroform fractions of P. emodi rhizome methanol extract are rich in phenolic compounds and strong antioxidant and effective in attenuation of hepatotoxicity.

  10. [Professor Ling Changquan's experience in treating primary liver cancer: an analysis of herbal medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen; Su, Yong-hua; Yue, Xiao-qiang

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of outpatients' medical records concerning primary liver cancer (PLC), data of 552 patients (with 2020 effective prescriptions) from the Outpatient Department of Changhai Hospital treated by Professor Ling Changquan were collected. The nature, flavor and meridian distribution of the herbs used in the prescriptions were summarized by frequency method, and the features of the herbs used according to syndrome differentiation were analyzed by logistic regression. The couple herbs used were analyzed by cluster analysis. All the data were analyzed in combination with the experience of the specialist. It showed that most of the frequently used herbs were herbs for invigorating the spleen to promote appetite, removing toxic materials to inhibit tumor growth, and activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis. These herbs are mostly of plain or cool nature, and mainly of sweet, bitter, or acrid taste. It also showed that the most frequently used herbs for qi deficiency were Astragalus membranaceus, Atractylodes macrocephala, and Pseudostellariae; Caulis Spatholobi and Chinese jujube for blood asthenia; Fructus Corni and Ophiopogon japonicus for yin deficiency; Agastache rugosa, Semen Plantaginis and Poria for water-dampness; cape jasmine fruit and baikal skullcap root for heat excess; peach seed and Radix Paeoniae Rubra for blood stasis; Curcuma wenyujin, Akebia trifoliata and Bupleurum chinese for qi stagnation. A total of 19 pairs of couple herbs were summarized by the cluster analysis.

  11. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Seven Major Bio-Active Components in Normal and Blood Stasis Rats after Oral Administration of Herb Pair Danggui-Honghua by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Shang, Er-Xin; Pang, Han-Qing; Shi, Xu-Qin; Chen, Yan-Yan; Wang, Jin; Chang, Xing; Kang, An; Zhou, Gui-Sheng; Shi, Ya-Jun; Sun, Jin; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Li, Shao-Ping; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-10-17

    The compatibility between Danggui (Angelicae Sinensis Radix) and Honghua (Carthami Flos) is a known herb pair, which could activate blood circulation and dissipate blood stasis effects. In this paper, we quantified seven main bio-active components (hydroxysafflor yellow A, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, ferulic acid, 3-n-butylphthalide, and ligustilide) in plasma samples in vivo by UPLC-TQ/MS method and investigatedwhether the pharmacokinetic (PK) behaviors of the seven components could be altered in blood stasis rats after oral administration of the Gui-Hong extracts. It was found that the Cmax and AUC0-t of these components in blood stasis rats had increasing tendency compared with normal rats. Most components in model and normal rats had significant difference in some pharmacokinetic parameters, which indicated that the metabolism enzymes and transporters involved in the metabolism and disposition of these bio-active componentsmay bealtered in blood stasis rats. This study was the first report about the pharmacokinetic investigation between normal and blood stasis rats after oral administrationof Gui-Hong extracts, and these results are important and valuable for better clinical applications of Gui-Hong herb pair and relatedTCM formulae.

  12. Ethnopharmacological and bioactivity guided investigation of five TCM anticancer herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiu-Xia; Roubin, Rebecca H; Hanrahan, Jane R

    2013-06-21

    Five herbs, Curcuma longa L. (CL), Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBC), Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SBB), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (HD) and Solanum nigrum L. (SN), are often prescribed in the polyherbal formulas for cancer treatment by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to identify important anticancer herbs used in TCM and carry out bioactivity-directed fractionation and isolation (BDFI) using six cancer cell lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), to identify constituents with anticancer activity but devoid of toxic effects against healthy immune cells. Of 243 document anticancer TCM treatments, 199 anticancer TCM herbs were ranked by the number of literature reports for each herb. Five herbs were identified from the top 50 ranked herbs by at least two out of three TCM practitioners as frequently used in the TCM treatment of cancer. BDFI using MTS assay was applied to determine the active anticancer extracts, fractions, and finally discrete compounds. Five herbs were selected for study of their anticancer activities. The extracts of Curcuma longa L., Scutellaria barbata D. Don, and Hedyotis diffusa showed antiproliferative activity to various extents, extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Solanum nigrum L. showed little anticancer activity. Seven out of the 21 fractions obtained from Hedyotis diffusa Willd. showed anticancer activity. One new compound, ethyl 13(2) (S)-hydroxy-chlorophyllide a(1), along with 10 known compounds, i.e. 2-methyl-3-methoxyanthraquinone (2), 2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone(3), 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone(4), 2-hydroxymethy-1-hydroxyanthraquinone(5), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone(6), 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-methoxyanthraquinone (7), oleanolic acid (8), ursolic acid (9), stigmasterol (10) and docosanoic acid (11), were isolated and identified. Compounds 2-6, 8 and 9 dose-dependently inhibited the cell viability of cancer cells within a concentration range

  13. Survey of traditional Dai medicine reveals species confusion and potential safety concerns: a case study on Radix Clerodendri Japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bao-Zhong; Fang, Hai-Lan; Li, Xi-Wen; Huang, Lin-Fang; Ping, Wang; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2017-06-01

    The adulteration of herbal products is a threat to consumer safety. In the present study, we surveyed the species composition of commercial Radix Clerodendri Japonicum products using DNA barcoding as a supervisory method. A reference database for plant-material DNA-barcode was successfully constructed with 48 voucher samples from 12 Clerodendrum species. The database was used to identify 27 Radix Clerodendri Japonicum decoction piece samples purchased from drug stores and hospitals. The DNA sequencing results revealed that only 1 decoction piece (3.70%) was authentic C. japonicum, as recorded in the Dai Pharmacopeia, whereas the other samples were all adulterants, indicating a potential safety issue. The results indicate that decoction pieces that are available in the market have complex origins and that DNA barcoding is a suitable tool for regulation of Dai medicines. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Traditional herbs: a remedy for cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Rawat, A K S

    2016-10-15

    potential of these plants. Potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions also need to be studied. These approaches will help in establishing them as remedies for cardiovascular diseases and including them in the mainstream of healthcare system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimutagenic property of a Chinese herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongen Zhang; Te-Hsiu Ma; Byeong-Seon Jeong; Chang-Deok Won [Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong (China)

    1994-12-31

    The root extracts of a Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has been used as internal medicine to improve liver and kidney functions for centuries. The antimutagenic property of this drug was evaluated with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay in this study. The Trad-MCN bioassay is a well-established test for chromosome damage induced by physical or chemical agents in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequency. Inflorescences of the Tradescantia plant cuttings were first exposed to 35 R soft X-rays (80 Kv, 5 ma, 1 mm Al filter, dose rate around 50 R/min) and followed by drug treatments at 1%, 3% and 6% concentrations of the aqueous solution for a total of 24 hr recovery period. The positive (X-rays), negative (nutrient solution) and drug control (3% drug solution) groups were maintained in each of the three series of repeated experiments. Flower buds of the treated and control groups were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 ratio) for preparation of slides to score MCN frequencies in the early tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells. The mean MCN frequencies (MCN/100 tetrads + SD) of the positive control (X-irradiated) was 26.67 + 9.62; the negative control was 2.92 + 1.90; the drug control was 2.06 + 1.50 and the 35 R X-ray/6% drug treated was 18.75 + 6.54. A 30% reduction of chromosome damage was observed. Antimutagenic effects were relatively lower at lower concentrations. This antimutagenic effect could be the results of the meiotic inhibition, DNA repair or radical elimination from the X-irradiation plant cells.

  16. The role of organic acids on microbial deterioration in the Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere under continuous monoculture regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Zhu, Quan; Wang, Juanying; Qin, Xianjin; Xu, Jiahui; Kong, Lufei; Chen, Jun; Lin, Sheng; Umar Khan, Muhammad; Amjad, Hira; Lin, Wenxiong

    2017-01-01

    A three-year field monoculture trial of Radix pseudostellariae and complementary laboratory studies were conducted to further elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for significant decreases in the biomass yield and quality of R. pseudostellariae under continuous monoculture regimes. HPLC analysis indicated that continuous monoculture soil was rich in organic acids, which had cumulative effects over time. Further analysis suggested that the application of a mixture of organic acids si...

  17. Blockade of nicotine sensitization by methanol extracts of Glycyrrhizae radix mediated via antagonism of accumbal oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zheng Lin; Kim, Sang Chan; Liu, Hong Feng; Wu, Yi Yan; Li, Li Bo; Wang, Yu Hua; Jiao, Yu; Fan, Yu; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Bong Hyeo; Cho, Il Je; Yang, Chae Ha; Zhao, Rong Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background We previously reported that a methanol extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (MEGR) blocked methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference in rats. In the present study, the effects of MEGR on repeated nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and enhanced extracellular dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) were evaluated. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats received repeated administrations of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneous) or saline twice...

  18. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S.; Tsai, Chin-En; Yu, Bi; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR) and Gardeniae fructus (GF) showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding...

  19. Applied Orthogonal Experiment Design for the Optimum Microwave-Assisted Extraction Conditions of Polysaccharides from Rhodiolae Radix

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fenglin; Xiao, Furen; Gong, Jingli; Yu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    An experiment on polysaccharides from Rhodiolae Radix (PRR) extraction was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method with an objective to establishing the optimum MAE conditions of PRR. Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions, and the optimum conditions were obtained using orthogonal experiment design. The results showed that the optimum MAE conditions of PRR were as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:45 g/mL, irrad...

  20. Molecularly imprinted layer-coated monodisperse spherical silica microparticles toward affinity-enrichment of isoflavonoid glycosides from Radix puerariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Zhang, Liying; Chen, Danjun; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Jiawei; Peng, Yan; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Zhongping

    2012-06-21

    This paper reports the preparation of puerarin (PR) imprinted layer-coated silica microparticles toward selective recognition of PR and fast affinity-enrichment of the main isoflavonoid glycosides from the crude extract of Radix puerariae. Before the preparation, quantum mechanics (QM) method was applied to identify three kinds of common functional monomers capable of interaction with PR and then predicted optimal functional monomer (acrylamide, AA) and the relative molar ratio of template to functional monomer (PR/AA, 1:4). The obtained PR-imprinted silica microparticles were evaluated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and rebinding experiments, exhibiting good morphology and high binding affinity to PR. Meanwhile, the rebinding amount of the imprinted microparticles to PR was nearly 2.1-folds that of non-imprinted microparticles. When the PR-imprinted microspheres were used as packing materials for solid-phase extraction, the recovery yields of PR, daidzin (DD) and genistin (GS) were simultaneously up to 90% by one-step extraction from the crude extract of Radix puerariae. Additionally, the PR-imprinted microparticles could be re-used for at least 5 times without losing any extraction efficiency. These results indicate that the PR-imprinted microparticles have highly selective adsorption capabilities to PR, DD and GS from the crude extract of Radix puerariae. The method of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) provides a good solution of the enrichment and separation of active extracts from complicated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with certain structures.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of glucosinolates and nucleosides in Radix Isatidis by HPLC and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuming Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component fingerprinting and quantitation of the glucosinolates and nucleosides in samples of Radix Isatidis have been carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS. Five nucleosides together with one glucosinolate were identified by comparing retention times, ultraviolet spectra, mass spectra and/or empirical molecular formulae of reference compounds. Quantitation of these six compounds was carried out simultaneously by HPLC on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column using gradient elution with methanol and water and detection at 254 nm. All calibration curves were linear (r>0.9994 within test ranges. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.33 ng and 2.50 ng on column, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision (as relative standard deviation for all analytes was <2.19% with recoveries in the range 99.6%–101.8% at three concentration levels. The validated method was successfully applied to fingerprinting and assay of 25 batches of Radix Isatidis sourced from different geographical regions of China. The method is simple and reliable and has potential value in the quality control of Radix Isatidis.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Excretion of Isoalantolactone and Alantolactone in Rats after Oral Administration of Radix Inulae Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Radix Inulae is endemic to China and has been used in traditional medicine to treat upper body pain, emesis and diarrhoea, and to eliminate parasites. Here, an UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and applied to study the pharmacokinetics, distribution and excretion of isoalantolactone and alantolactone, which are two main active sesquiterpene lactones in Radix Inulae, in Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration of total Radix Inulae extract. Isoalantolactone, alantolactone and osthole (internal standard were prepared using acetonitrile precipitation, and the separation of isoalantolactone and alantolactone was achieved by isocratic elution using water (containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase using a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column. The total run time was 6.4 min. The present study showed poor absorption of isoalantolactone and alantolactone in vivo. The apparent Cmax, Tmax, T1/2 and total exposure (AUC0–12h in rat plasma were 37.8 ng/mL, 120 min, 351.7 min and 6112.3 ng-min/mL for isoalantolactone and 25.9 ng/mL, 90 min, 321.0 min and 4918.9 ng-min/mL for alantolactone, respectively. It was shown that the highest concentration was achieved in the small intestine and feces clearance was shown to be the dominant elimination pathway of the lactones.

  3. [Nasal submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract preparation technology research based on phase transfer of solute technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-jun; Shi, Jun-hui; Chen, Shi-bin; Yang, Ming

    2015-07-01

    Based on the demand of nasal drug delivery high drug loadings, using the unique phase transfer of solute, integrating the phospholipid complex preparation and submicron emulsion molding process of Scutellariae Radix extract, the study obtained the preparation of the high drug loadings submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract. In the study of drug solution dispersion method, the uniformity of drug dispersed as the evaluation index, the traditional mixing method, grinding, homogenate and solute phase transfer technology were investigated, and the solute phase transfer technology was adopted in the last. With the adoption of new technology, the drug loading capacity reached 1.33% (phospholipid complex was 4%). The drug loading capacity was improved significantly. The transfer of solute method and timing were studied as follows,join the oil phase when the volume of phospholipid complex anhydrous ethanol solution remaining 30%, the solute phase transfer was completed with the continued recycling of anhydrous ethanol. After drug dissolved away to oil phase, the preparation technology of colostrum was determined with the evaluation index of emulsion droplet form. The particle size of submicron emulsion, PDI and stability parameters were used as evaluation index, orthogonal methodology were adopted to optimize the submicron emulsion ingredient and main influential factors of high pressure homogenization technology. The optimized preparation technology of Scutellariae Radix extract nasal submicron emulsion is practical and stable.

  4. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (pair of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3.2-946.0 mg/m3 (median 18.1 mg/m3), exceeding at 13 out of 14 sampling sites the Polish OEL value of 4 mg/m3. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin ranged within 0.2-2681.0 microg/m3 (median 16.0 microg/m3), exceeding at all sampling sites the suggested OEL value of 0.1 microg/m3. In conclusion

  5. Determination of superoxide dismutase mimetic activity in common culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of oxidative stress, the removal of superoxide, a free radical associated with chronic inflammation, is catalysed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus in addition to acting as an antioxidant, SOD may also be utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent. Some plant derived foods have been shown to have SOD mimetic (SODm) activity however it is not known if this activity is possessed by culinary herbs which have previously been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to ascertain if the culinary herbs rosemary, sage and thyme possess SODm activity, and to investigate the influence of cooking and digestion on this activity. Transition metal ion content was also determined to establish if it could likely contribute to any SODm activity detected. All extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested (C&D) herbs were shown to possess SODm activity, which was significantly correlated with previously determined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these herbs. SODm activity was significantly increased following (C) and (C&D) for rosemary and sage only. The impact of (C) and (C&D) on the SODm for thyme may have been influenced by its transition metal ion content. SODm activity may contribute to the herbs' antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities however the source and significance of this activity need to be established.

  6. Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonho; Kang, Sehyeon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Song, Kwangho; Lee, You Jeong; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2018-01-17

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of -OH, aromatic C=C, C-O, and C-H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy

  7. Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix ( Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonho; Kang, Sehyeon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Song, Kwangho; Lee, You Jeong; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2018-01-01

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix ( Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of -OH, aromatic C=C, C-O, and C-H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy reported in this

  8. Radix Puerariae modulates glutamatergic synaptic architecture and potentiates functional synaptic plasticity in primary hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque; Haque, Md Nazmul; Mohibbullah, Md; Kim, Yung Kyu; Moon, Il Soo

    2017-09-14

    Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology. Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria monatana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa&Pradeep, is a Chinese ethnomedicine, traditionally used for the treatment of memory-related nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. In the previous study, we showed that the ethanolic extracts of Radix Puerariae (RPE) and its prime constituent, puerarin induced neuritogenesis and synapse formation in cultured hippocampal neurons, and thus could improve memory functions. In the present study, we specifically investigated the abilities of RPE and puerarin to improve memory-related brain disorders through modulating synaptic maturation and functional potentiation. Rat embryonic (E19) brain neurons were cultured in the absence or presence of RPE or puerarin. At predetermined times, cells were live-stained with DiO or fixed and immunostained to visualize neuronal morphologies, or lysed for protein harvesting. Morphometric analyses of dendritic spines and synaptogenesis were performed using Image J software. Functional pre- and postsynaptic plasticity was measured by FM1-43 staining and whole-cell patch clamping, respectively. RPE or puerarin-mediated changes in actin-related protein 2 were assessed by Western blotting. Neuronal survivals were measured using propidium iodide exclusion assay. RPE and puerarin both: (1) promoted a significant increase in the numbers, and maturation, of dendritic spines; (2) modulated the formation of glutamatergic synapses; (3) potentiated synaptic transmission by increasing the sizes of

  9. Antiviral activity and possible mechanism of action of constituents identified in Paeonia lactiflora root toward human rhinoviruses.

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    Luong Thi My Ngan

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cost billions of USD annually in medical visits and missed school and work. An assessment was made of the antiviral activities and mechanisms of action of paeonol (PA and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (PGG from Paeonia lactiflora root toward HRV-2 and HRV-4 in MRC5 cells using a tetrazolium method and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results were compared with those of a reference control ribavirin. Based on 50% inhibitory concentration values, PGG was 13.4 and 18.0 times more active toward HRV-2 (17.89 μM and HRV-4 (17.33 μM in MRC5 cells, respectively, than ribavirin. The constituents had relatively high selective index values (3.3->8.5. The 100 μg/mL PA and 20 μg/mL PGG did not interact with the HRV-4 particles. These constituents inhibited HRV-4 infection only when they were added during the virus inoculation (0 h, the adsorption period of HRVs, but not after 1 h or later. Moreover, the RNA replication levels of HRVs were remarkably reduced in the MRC5 cultures treated with these constituents. These findings suggest that PGG and PA may block or reduce the entry of the viruses into the cells to protect the cells from the virus destruction and abate virus replication, which may play an important role in interfering with expressions of rhinovirus receptors (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor, inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor, interferon beta, and IL-1β, and Toll-like receptor, which resulted in diminishing symptoms induced by HRV. Global efforts to reduce the level of synthetic drugs justify further studies on P. lactiflora root-derived materials as potential anti-HRV products or lead molecules for the prevention or treatment of HRV.

  10. Antiviral activity and possible mechanism of action of constituents identified in Paeonia lactiflora root toward human rhinoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Luong Thi My; Jang, Myeong Jin; Kwon, Min Jung; Ahn, Young Joon

    2015-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cost billions of USD annually in medical visits and missed school and work. An assessment was made of the antiviral activities and mechanisms of action of paeonol (PA) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (PGG) from Paeonia lactiflora root toward HRV-2 and HRV-4 in MRC5 cells using a tetrazolium method and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results were compared with those of a reference control ribavirin. Based on 50% inhibitory concentration values, PGG was 13.4 and 18.0 times more active toward HRV-2 (17.89 μM) and HRV-4 (17.33 μM) in MRC5 cells, respectively, than ribavirin. The constituents had relatively high selective index values (3.3->8.5). The 100 μg/mL PA and 20 μg/mL PGG did not interact with the HRV-4 particles. These constituents inhibited HRV-4 infection only when they were added during the virus inoculation (0 h), the adsorption period of HRVs, but not after 1 h or later. Moreover, the RNA replication levels of HRVs were remarkably reduced in the MRC5 cultures treated with these constituents. These findings suggest that PGG and PA may block or reduce the entry of the viruses into the cells to protect the cells from the virus destruction and abate virus replication, which may play an important role in interfering with expressions of rhinovirus receptors (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor), inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor, interferon beta, and IL-1β), and Toll-like receptor, which resulted in diminishing symptoms induced by HRV. Global efforts to reduce the level of synthetic drugs justify further studies on P. lactiflora root-derived materials as potential anti-HRV products or lead molecules for the prevention or treatment of HRV.

  11. [Digitalis poisoning from medicinal herbs. Two different mechanisms of production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M D; Anguita, M; López-Granados, A; Vivancos, R; Suárez de Lezo, J; Vallés, F; Bueno, G

    1991-05-01

    Two cases of digitalis toxicity due to uncontrolled ingestion of medicinal herbs are presented. The first of them was caused by oleander (Nerium oleander); digoxinemia levels were very high in this patient (4.44 ng/l), who presented many brady- and tachyarrhythmias. These arrhythmias disappeared when digoxinemia returned to normal values. The second patient had atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular rate, severe hypokalemia (2.1 mEq/l) and normal digoxinemia levels. He was taking medicinal herbs for a cold, with sorbitol between its components. Sorbitol may be similar to mannitol and glycerol (osmotic diuretic drugs) when taken at high doses. Uncontrolled ingestion of medicinal herbs is not safe, and severe poisoning can occur.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of herbs against Yersinia enterocolitica and mixed microflora

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    Shilpa SHARMA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at developing herbal medicine against food borne pathogens, therefore the antimicrobial activity of four herbs viz. Arjuna (bark, Ashwagandha (roots, Puthkanda (leaves and Shalampanja (roots was checked. Aqueous, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of each herb were extracted and their antimicrobial activity against mixed microflora and against Yersinia enterocolitica was determined. Tetracycline and gentamicin were used as reference antibiotics. Arjuna extracts showed the highest antimicrobial potential against mixed population and Yersinia enterocolitica in comparison to Ashwagandha, Puthkanda and Shalampanja extracts. The antimicrobial activity of Arjuna aqueous extract was lower compared to gentamicin, but comparable to tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of aqueous extract of Arjuna showed the lowest values indicating that it is more effective in lower concentration of use. The antimicrobial activity of herbs showed the following trend Arjuna > Puthkanda > Shalampanja > Ashwagandha.

  13. Heat-Processed Scutellariae Radix Enhances Anti-Inflammatory Effect against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via NF-κB Signaling

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    Yu Ock Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to examine whether heat-processed Scutellariae Radix has an ameliorative effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury in mice. The effects of Scutellariae Radix heat-processed at 160°C (HSR were compared with those of nonheat-processed Scutellariae Radix (NSR. The LPS-treated group displayed a markedly decreased body weight and significantly increased lung weight; however, the administration of NSR or HSR improved both the body and lung weights. The increased oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarker levels in the serum and lung were reduced significantly with HSR. The reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly by both NSR and HSR. Also, the dysregulated oxidative stress and inflammation were significantly ameliorated by NSR and HSR. The expression of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by nuclear factor-kappa B activation was modulated through inhibition of a nuclear factor kappa Bα degradation. Also, lung histological change was markedly suppressed by HSR rather than NSR. Overall, the ameliorative effects of HSR were superior to those when being nonheat-processed. The representative flavonoid contents of Scutellariae Radix that include baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin were greater by heat process. These data reveal heat-processed Scutellariae Radix may be a critical factor involved in the improvement of lung disorders caused by LPS.

  14. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2011-01-01

    Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although there is li......Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although...

  15. Cardiotoxicity after accidental herb-induced aconite poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Y T; But, P P; Young, K; Lau, C P

    1992-11-21

    Aconitine and its related alkaloids are known cardiotoxins with no therapeutic role in modern western medicine. The rootstocks of Aconitum plants, which contain aconite alkaloids, have been common components of Chinese herbal recipes. We have documented life-threatening intoxication in 17 Chinese subjects after accidental herb-induced aconite poisoning. All patients developed symptoms of aconite toxicity within 2 h of herb ingestion. Most developed tachyarrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation from which 2 patients died. Toxicological evaluation revealed that aconites from the Aconitum rootstocks were the only plausible casual factor for intoxication. These cases point to the need for strict surveillance of herbal substances with low safety margins.

  16. TRITERPENE GLYCOSIDES OF HERB OF SOLIDAGO CAUCASICA KEM.-NATH.

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    V. V. Fedotova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Solidago genus are used to treat diseases of the urinary system but we study Solidago caucasica for the first time. The aim of this work is to study triterpene glycosides of Solidago caucasica. Spectrophotometry revealed that the triterpene glycosides in herb of Solidago caucasica are derivants of oleanolic acid. The quantitative determination of the amount of triterpene glycosides in the Solidago caucasica herb was done by gravimetric method (content is 0,93% and UV spectrophotometry, based on oleanolic acid (content is 1,01 ± 0,03%.

  17. Systems Pharmacological Approach of Pulsatillae Radix on Treating Crohn’s Disease

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    Su Yeon Suh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Asian traditional medicine, Pulsatillae Radix (PR is widely used to treat amoebic dysentery and renowned for its anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to confirm evidence regarding the potential therapeutic effect of PR on Crohn’s disease using a system network level based in silico approach. Study results showed that the compounds in PR are highly connected to Crohn’s disease related pathways, biological processes, and organs, and these findings were confirmed by compound-target network, target-pathway network, and gene ontology analysis. Most compounds in PR have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant effects, and we found that these compounds interact with multiple targets in a synergetic way. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of genes targeted by PR are elevated significantly in immunity-related organ tissues, small intestine, and colon. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and repair and immune system enhancing effects of PR might have therapeutic impact on Crohn’s disease.

  18. Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1-mediated interaction of metformin and Scutellariae radix in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Sreymom; You, Byoung Hoon; Chae, Hee-Sung; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Hojun; Choi, Han Seok; Choi, Young Hee

    2017-11-01

    1. The metformin and Scutellariae radix extract (SB) combination has been previously reported to enhance anti-diabetic activity. Considering that organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multi-drug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) in the liver and kidney are determinant factors on hepatic distribution and renal clearance of metformin, the effects of SB on OCT or MATE-mediated systemic exposure of metformin as well as on glucose tolerance and hypoglycemia were examined. 2. Although SB inhibited metformin uptake through human transporters OCT1 and MATE1 in vitro, the systemic exposures of metformin in vivo rats were not altered after metformin treatment with and without SB due to unchanged renal excretion of metformin. 3. However, 28-day metformin treatment with SB decreased the mRNA level of hepatic MATE1 in rats, resulting in reduced biliary excretion of metformin and thereby higher concentration of metformin in the liver. In addition, in rats with 28-day metformin treatment with SB, glucose tolerance and plasma lactate level were enhanced, while hypoglycemia was not detected. 4. Thus in rats, intervention of SB on transporter-mediated metformin transportation partially improves glucose tolerance without hypoglycemia and increases hepatic distribution of metformin. Also the further investigations in humans are required to clarify the relevance of these findings to the clinical significance.

  19. Phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Polysaccharides Act as Adjuvant via Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation

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    Haibo Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan polysaccharides (pRCPS used as adjuvant with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (FMDV can stimulate specific humoral and cellular immune responses in ICR mice. The results demonstrated that pRCPS significantly up-regulated FMDV-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2b and IgG2a antibody levels and splenocyte proliferation. pRCPS also promoted the killing activities of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and natural killer cells (NK. In addition, pRCPS enhanced the expression levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ in CD4+ T cells and the level of IFN-γ in CD8+ T cells. Importantly, pRCPS enhanced the expression of MHCII, CD40+, CD86+, and CD80+ in dendritic cells (DCs. This study indicated that phosphorylation modification could increase immune-enhancing activities of RCPS, and pRCPS could promote humoral and cellular immune responses through facilitating DC maturation.

  20. Chemical composition of the leaf and stem essential oil of Adenophorae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weijie; Lin, Shang; Li, Xindan; Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen

    2017-03-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from leaves and stems of Adenophorae Radix was determined for the first time in this study. Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). n-Hexadecanoic acid (29.14%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (17.22%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester(8.98%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (7.03%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (5.93%), phytol (5.50%), and estradiol (4.43%) were measured as the major compounds in stem oil. The leaf essential oil was dominated by n-hexadecanoic acid (50.78%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (9.04%), phytol (8.47%), d-mannitol (5.81%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (4.31%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.19%) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(1.7%). The leaves yield was 0.12% (v/w) and the stems yield showed only 0.073% (v/w). The results might provide reference basis for further exploration of its application value.

  1. Rapid analysis of constituents of Radix Cyathulae using hydrophilic interaction-reverse phase LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Mei-Ting; Li, Hui-Jun; Sheng, Long-Sheng; Liu, Peng; Li, Ping

    2009-11-01

    A hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with electrospray TOF MS method was developed for the analysis and characterization of constituents in the radix of Cyathula officinalis Kuan. Separation parameters of HILIC such as buffer pH, mobile phase strength, and organic modifier were evaluated. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were identified by HILIC-ESI/TOF MS. Reverse-phase liquid chromatography-ESI/TOF MS were applied for quick and sensitive identification of major saponins in Cyathula officinalis. In-source collision-induced dissociation has been performed to elucidate the fragmentation pathways of oleanane-, hederagenin-, and gypsogmin-type saponins. Twelve saponins were characterized in this plant for the first time, and four of them were presumed to be new compounds. In addition, one phytoecdysteroid (cyasterone) and one coumarin (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) were detected at the same time. The present method was capable of rapid characterizing and providing structure information of constituents from herbal drugs.

  2. In Vivo Lipid Regulation Mechanism of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

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    Pei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the water extracts of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR and its processed products (PMRP on liver lipid metabolism were observed in this paper. Aqueous extract of PMR and PMRP was given to nonalcoholic fatty liver model rats, respectively. PMR was better in reducing the contents of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL than PMRP and the positive control groups. In the aspect of regulating TG, medium dose PMR reduced the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT to 1536±47.69 pg/mL (P<0.001 and promoted the expression of hepatic lipase (HL to 23.59±0.2758 U/mL (P<0.05. HL promotion ability of medium dose PMR was similar with the simvastatin positive control. Both medium and high dose of PMR showed significant alterations in TC, which were related to the downregulation effects on hydroxyl methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR and upregulation effects on cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase or cytochrome P450 7A (CYP7A. Quantitative relationships research indicated that the prominent effect on inhibiting the content of HMGCR (r=0.756, P<0.05 was strongly positive correlated with to the TC regulation effects. Effects of PMR on enhancing decomposition rate or reducing de novo synthesis rate of TG and TC were better than PMRP.

  3. Effect of Modified Formula Radix Hedysari on the Amplification Effect during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

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    Zhi Yong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated a compensatory amplification phenomenon during nerve regeneration. When a relatively fine nerve is used as a donor to connect to a distal nerve after transection, the donor nerve regenerates more collaterals than its own fibers, which extend to the distal stump, grow into distal endoneurial tubes, and finally reach and dominate the target organs. This is known as the amplification phenomenon. In this study, we investigated the amplification phenomenon in rats treated with Modified Formula Radix Hedysari (MFRH as adjuvant therapy for 12 weeks. The rats were divided into three groups at random (six animals in each group. In the model group and the treatment group, the proximal common peroneal nerve was used as a donor nerve to connect to the distal tibial nerve. Rats in the normal group did not undergo surgery. After surgery, the treatment group was administered MFRH as systemic therapy, while the model group and the normal group were not given treatment. The results demonstrated that the nerve conduction velocity, the fiber diameter, the axon diameter, the number of regenerating nerve fibers, and the amplification ratio were better in the treatment group than in the model group, suggesting that MFRH promoted the nerve amplification effect.

  4. Dynamic of population-dynamics in a medically important snail species Lymnaea (Radix Luteola (Lamarck

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    T. K. Misra

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The life-cycle parameters of the snail Lymnaea (Radix luteola and the factors influencing the same have been studied under laboratory conditions. Ins each month, from July 1990 to June 1991, a batch of 100 zero-day old individual were considered for studies. The snails of April batch survived for 19.42 days while those in December batch survived for 87.45 days. The May batch individual though survived for 65.67 days gained maximum shell size (15.84 mm in length and body weight (419.87 mg. All individuals of April batch died prior to attainment of sexual maturity. In the remaining 11 batches the snails became sexually mature between 32 and 53 days. At this stage, they were with varying shell lengths, 9.3 mm to 13,11 mm in respect to batches. The reproduction period varied from 1-67 days. An individual laid, on an average, 0,25 (March batch to 443.67 (May batch eggs in its life-span. A batch of such snails would leave 24312, 22520, 720268, 80408, 76067, 418165, 214, 9202, 0, 0, 2459386 and 127894 individuals at the end of 352nd day. Since the environmental conditions were almost similar the 'dynamic' of population dynamics seems to be involved with the 'strain' of the snail individuals of the batches concerned.

  5. Intestinal Transportations of Main Chemical Compositions of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in Caco-2 Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lin, Pei; Li, Yunfei; Mao, Xiaojian; Bao, Getuzhaori; Zhao, Ronghua

    2014-01-01

    Context. Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) is originated from the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and used in oriental countries for centuries. However, little researches pay close attention to the absorption of its major constituents. Objective. Transepithelial transport of TSG, RL, PL, and four anthraquinones is carried out. Materials and Methods. Caco-2 cell monolayer, which represented a well-established model for the study of intestinal transport of nutrients and xenobiotics, was used in this paper. Results. The apparent permeability coefficients (P app) in the Caco-2 cell monolayers were TSG (2.372 × 10−9) < EG (2.391 × 10−9) < EN (2.483 × 10−9) < PL (4.917 × 10−9) < RN (1.707 × 10−8) < RL (1.778 × 10−8) < AE (1.952 × 10−8). Thus, RN, RL, and AE were considered partly absorbed, while other constituents were hardly absorbed. Discussion and Conclusion. Glycosides showed poor permeabilities than aglycones. In the meantime, TSG and EN gave out poor recovery rates in this assay, which indicated that TSG and EN may accumulate or metabolise in the Caco-2 cells. In silico prediction indicated that Gibbs energy (r = 0.751, p < 0.05) and heat of form (r = 0.701, p < 0.05) were strongly positively correlated with P app. PMID:24693324

  6. Intestinal Transportations of Main Chemical Compositions of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in Caco-2 Cell Model

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    Jie Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR is originated from the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and used in oriental countries for centuries. However, little researches pay close attention to the absorption of its major constituents. Objective. Transepithelial transport of TSG, RL, PL, and four anthraquinones is carried out. Materials and Methods. Caco-2 cell monolayer, which represented a well-established model for the study of intestinal transport of nutrients and xenobiotics, was used in this paper. Results. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp in the Caco-2 cell monolayers were TSG (2.372 × 10−9 < EG (2.391 × 10−9 < EN (2.483 × 10−9 < PL (4.917 × 10−9 < RN (1.707 × 10−8 < RL (1.778 × 10−8 < AE (1.952 × 10−8. Thus, RN, RL, and AE were considered partly absorbed, while other constituents were hardly absorbed. Discussion and Conclusion. Glycosides showed poor permeabilities than aglycones. In the meantime, TSG and EN gave out poor recovery rates in this assay, which indicated that TSG and EN may accumulate or metabolise in the Caco-2 cells. In silico prediction indicated that Gibbs energy (r=0.751, p<0.05 and heat of form (r=0.701, p<0.05 were strongly positively correlated with Papp.

  7. Scutellaria radix Extract as a Natural UV Protectant for Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Choi, Go Woon; An, Sang Mi; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Hyeong-Ho; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces oxidative injury and inflammation in human skin. Scutellaria radix (SR, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) contains flavonoids with high UV absorptivity and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential use of SR extract as an additive in cosmetic products for UV protection. SR extract and its butanol (BuOH) fraction strongly absorbed UV radiation and displayed free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radials and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. They also attenuated the UV-induced death of HaCaT cells. Sunscreen creams, with or without supplementation of SR extract BuOH fraction, were tested in vivo in human trials to evaluate potential skin irritation and determine the sun protection factor (SPF). Both sunscreen creams induced no skin irritation. A sunscreen cream containing 24% ZnO showed an SPF value of 17.8, and it increased to 22.7 when supplemented with 5% SR extract BuOH fraction. This study suggests that SR-derived materials are useful as safe cosmetic additives that provide UV protection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Biotransformation of glucosinolates epiprogoitrin and progoitrin to (R)- and (S)-Goitrin in Radix isatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiyong; Shi, Yanhong; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Rui; Li, Yiming

    2011-12-14

    Radix isatidis is an important traditional Chinese medicine with antiviral efficacy. (R)- and (S)-Goitrin are its main bioactive constituents in the 2010 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. (R)- and (S)-Goitrin are the breakdown products of epiprogoitrin and progoitrin from R. isatidis. The biotransformation of glucosinolates epiprogoitrin and progoitrin to (R)- and (S)-goitrin, however, is still unclear. In the current paper, the biotransformation of glucosinolates was studied. First, the high-performance liquid chromatography methods to analyze glucosinolates and their breakdown products were developed. Then, the biotransformation of individual glucosinolates such as epiprogoitrin and progoitrin was investigated under different pH conditions. Lastly, their biotransformation under five extraction environments was studied. The results showed that (R)- and (S)-goitrin were the most noteworthy breakdown products. Their relative transformation rates were about 70-80%, and the influence of different extraction environments on the transformation rate was not significant. These results would serve as a theoretical basis for industrial production and quality control and would be helpful for further studies on the biotransformation of glucosinolates.

  9. Correlation between Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Contents of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui

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    Ling Huang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Radix Angelicae Sinensisis (RAS is one of the most popular traditional Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, six RAS extracts (i.e., phenolic extract PE, petroleum ether extract PEE, ethyl acetate extract EAE, absolute ethanol extract AEE, 95% ethanol extract 95 EE, and water extract WE were prepared and their antioxidant activities measured by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt], Reducing power, •O2– and lipid peroxidation assays. In general, PE, PEE and EAE had relatively high antioxidant activity, followed by AEE with moderate activity, as compared with 95 EE and WE that had low activity. Their phenolic contents (including total phenolic, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, same as below were then determined by HPLC or spectrophotometry. The sequence of phenolic contents was roughly identical with that of antioxidant activity. When the values of 1/IC50 of various antioxidant assays were used to evaluate the level of antioxidant of the RAS extracts, (plot between 1/IC50 values and phenolic contents, the correlation coefficient (R ranged from 0.642 to 0.941, with an average value of 0.839. Significant positive correlations demonstrated that the antioxidant effects of RAS might generally be considered a result of the presence of the phenolic compounds, especially ferulic acid and caffeic acid.

  10. Time to Talk: What You Should Know about 5 Popular Herbs (Evening Primrose Oil, St. John's Wort, Fenugreek, Echinacea, ....

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Tips: What You Should Know About Popular Herbs Share: Herbal or botanical supplements are widely marketed ... the majority were looking for information on specific herbs and botanicals. The top five searched-for herbs ...

  11. [Interspecific hybridization in the genus Paeonia (Paeoniaceae): polymorphic sites in transcribed spacers of the 45S rRNA genes as indicators of natural and artificial peony hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punina, E O; Machs, E M; Krapivskaia, E E; Kim, E S; Mordak, E V; Miakoshina, Iu A; Rodionov, A V

    2012-07-01

    The ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 regions of 33 accessions belonging to 16 species and five natural and garden interspecific hybrids of the genus Paeonia L. were sequenced. Chromatograms of the peony hybrids demonstrated the presence of the signals, corresponding to two different nucleotides at the positions differing in the parents, indicating that in the hybrids, no rDNA isogenization usually occurred, and they preserved rDNA of both parents. Analysis of these polymorphic sites (PS) showed that P. x majkoae was interspecific hybrid between P. tenuifolia and P. caucasica. The ITS of P. hybrida differs from ITS of P. x majkoae in 19 mutations. Because of this, P. x majkoae is definitely not synonymous to P. hybrida. Comparative analysis of ITS 1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 showed that species diversity in section Paeonia was based on recombination as a result of intraspecific hybridization of three haplotype families. Specifically, haplotypes A, typical of the P. tenuifolia and P. anomala genomes, haplotypes B, typical of P. mlokosewitschii and P. obovata, and haplotypes of family C, currently represented in rDNA of diploid and tetraploid forms of some Caucasian and Mediterranean species. The ITS regions many diploid peonies contain no dimorphic sites, while P. oreogeton, P. cambessedesii, P. rhodia, and P. daurica carry from ten to 17 PS, and supposed to be the interspecific hybrids. Most of the tetraploid peonies contain from six to 18 PS in the ITS regions. These are alloploids with one of the parental genomes similar to that of P. mlokosewitschii (B1), or P. obovata (B3). The second parental genome in P. banatica, P. peregrina, and P. russii is represented by the genome, close to that of P. tenuifolia (A). P. macrophylla, P. mascula, P. coriacea, P. wittmanniana, and P. tomentosa carry genome of series B and genome of series C, which slightly resembles genome A.

  12. Duplication and Whorl-Specific Down-Regulation of the Obligate AP3-PI Heterodimer Genes Explain the Origin of Paeonia lactiflora Plants with Spontaneous Corolla Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pichang; Ao, Xiang; Liu, Gaixiu; Cheng, Fangyun; He, Chaoying

    2017-03-01

    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora) is a globally important ornamental plant. Spontaneous floral mutations occur frequently during cultivation, and are selected as a way to release new cultivars, but the underlying evolutionary developmental genetics remain largely elusive. Here, we investigated a collection of spontaneous corolla mutational plants (SCMPs) whose other floral organs were virtually unaffected. Unlike the corolla in normal plants (NPs) that withered soon after fertilization, the transformed corolla (petals) in SCMPs was greenish and persistent similar to the calyx (sepals). Epidermal cellular morphology of the SCMP corolla was also similar to that of calyx cells, further suggesting a sepaloid corolla in SCMPs. Ten floral MADS-box genes from these Paeonia plants were comparatively characterized with respect to sequence and expression. Codogenic sequence variation of these MADS-box genes was not linked to corolla changes in SCMPs. However, we found that both APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) lineages of B-class MADS-box genes were duplicated, and subsequent selective expression alterations of these genes were closely associated with the origin of SCMPs. AP3-PI obligate heterodimerization, essential for organ identity of corolla and stamens, was robustly detected. However, selective down-regulation of these duplicated genes might result in a reduction of this obligate heterodimer concentration in a corolla-specific manner, leading to the sepaloid corolla in SCMPs, thus representing a new sepaloid corolla model taking advantage of gene duplication. Our work suggests that modifying floral MADS-box genes could facilitate the breeding of novel cultivars with distinct floral morphology in ornamental plants, and also provides new insights into the functional evolution of the MADS-box genes in plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please

  13. The inhibitory activity of the extracts of popular medicinal herbs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drug consumption. One of the major clinical risks of such concomitant herb-drug use is pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction (HDI). This is brought about by the ability of phytochemicals to inhibit or induce the activity of metabolic enzymes.

  14. The classification of sri lankan medicinal herbs: an extensive comparison of the antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisundara, Viduranga Y; Watawana, Mindani I

    2014-07-01

    Sri Lanka has variety of herbs whose effectiveness has been proven across many generations. These herbs are classified into two groups - 'heating' and 'cooling', based on the physiological reactions upon consumption. Application-wise, the 'cooling' herbs are administered to patients contracted with diabetes, imbalances in the lipid profile, or even cancer. However, this classification has been misunderstood due to inconsistent interpretations and lack of scientific reasoning. This study systematically determines the rationale behind this classification, by specifically evaluating the antioxidant activity of 18 herbs - nine herbs from each category. The oxygen radical absorbance capacities, DPPH radical scavenging activities, and the total phenolic contents are analyzed here. The 'heating' herbs have a comparatively lower antioxidant potential than the 'cooling' herbs. The total phenolic contents correlate with the antioxidant values. It can be hypothesized that the high antioxidant potential of the 'cooling' herbs may have been responsible for the containment of the diseases mentioned previously.

  15. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R. B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols...

  16. Response surface optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for HPLC-fluorescence determination of puerarin and daidzein in Radix Puerariae thomsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Kun Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction was optimized with response surface methodology for HPLC-fluorescence determination of puerarin and daidzein in Radix Puerariae thomsonii. The optimized extraction procedure was achieved by soaking the sample with 70% methanol (1:15, v/v for 30 min, and then microwave irradiation for 11 min at a power of 600 W. Coupling the extraction process with HPLC-fluorescence presented good recovery, satisfactory precision, and good linear relation. Compared with a method from the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the proposed method enables higher extraction efficiency and more aecurate analytical results. It can be of Potential value in quality assessment of Radix Puerariae thomsonii medicinal materials. Keywords: microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, response surface methodology (RSM, puerarin, daidzein, HPLC-fluorescence detection, Radix Puerariae thomsonii

  17. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system

    OpenAIRE

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R. R. B.; Arora, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sen...

  18. Clinically relevant pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions in antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In t...

  19. [Mutual information-based correlation analysis of herbs against insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin; Liu, Ren-quan

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to analyze Professor Guo Rongjuan's medication experience on insomnia therapy based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Inheritance Support Plat. First, TCM formulae prescribed by Professor Guo for insomnia therapy were collected from the TCM Inheritance Support Plat. Next, unsupervised data mining algorithms, including apriori, modified mutual-information, and entropy clustering of complex system were applied to obtain the frequencies for different herbs and identify the association rules among the herbs. Accordingly, we can gain new insights into Professor Guo's medication experience on insomnia therapy. Based on analysis of 3 084 formulae, we determined the frequencies for herbs in the formulae and identified the association rules among these herbs. At last, 41 core combinations and 7 new formulae were obtained. The identified medication experience conform with Professor Guo's views on the etiology and pathogenesis of insomnia: "pathogenic fire derived from stagnation of liver-QI (Gan Yu Hua Huo)" is the core pathogenesis of insomnia; "liver stagnation and spleen deficiency" and "chronic illness transferred to kidney" are the main features for insomnia. The TCM Inheritance Support Plat is of great practical value for mining clinical experience of famous TCM doctors.

  20. Formulation and Sensory Evaluation of Herb Tea from Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensory appeal of tea, like all food products, is an important consideration in new product de-velopment. Tea in general and herb tea in particular are gaining increasing consumer attention due to a growing awareness of health benefits derived from their consumption. Even though sev-eral underutilized plants exist with ...

  1. Protection of Chinese herbs against Adenine-induced chronic renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbs (Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum wallichii, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Rhodiola crenilata, Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis) on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. 30 age-matched male Wistar rats were divided into three ...

  2. Clinically Relevant Pharmacokinetic Herb-drug Interactions in Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasinu, Pius S; Gurley, Bill J; Walker, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In this review, the bases for potential interaction of medicinal herbs with specific antiretroviral drugs are presented, and several botanicals are discussed for which clinically relevant interactions in humans are established. Such studies have provided, in most cases, sufficient ground to warrant the avoidance of concurrent administration of antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs with St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), black pepper (Piper species) and grapefruit juice. Other botanicals that require caution in the use with antiretrovirals include African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), ginseng (Panax species), garlic (Allium sativum), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and kava kava (Piper methysticum). The knowledge of clinically significant herb-drug interaction will be important in order to avoid herb-induced risk of sub-therapeutic exposure to ARVs (which can lead to viral resistance) or the precipitation of toxicity (which may lead to poor compliance and/or discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy).

  3. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Brito, M.S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.brlenach@usp.br; Freitas, Paulo C.D

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total {beta}-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  4. Effects Of Chinese Herbs On The Hemagglutination And Adhesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate Chinese herbs' efficacy on adhesive properties of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The effects of Chinese herbal solution on the hemagglutination and adhesion by E. coli strain were studied. E. coli C16 was isolated from a patient with urinary tract infection. The MIC value of herbal solution for the ...

  5. Pharmacognostic outlooks on medical herbs of Sasang typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hye Lim

    2017-09-01

    Pharmacognostic understandings on Sasang type-specific medical herbs with consideration of type-specific pathophysiological features were provided for the first time. This study would contribute to in-depth understandings on the pathophysiology of Sasang typology and integration of East-Asian and Western personalized medicine.

  6. Effect of traditional herbs on immunological and virological markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant changes in the amount of virus in blood of patients on PT or CMC. The findings suggest that traditional herbs improve clinical and immunological status and hence they have a role to play in the management of HIV/AIDS patients and add value to standard CMC. The Zimbabwe Science News ...

  7. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of serum salvianolic acid Group C was significantly higher than Group B, indicating that acupuncture might improve the absorption of salvianolic acid B from the extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in the Chinese medicine formula. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs significantly ...

  8. Plants: Partners in Health? Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... April 2016 Print this issue Plants: Partners in Health? Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You En español Send us ... and calcium.” The many nutrients in fruits and vegetables are essential to good health. If you’re taking certain medications, though, you ...

  9. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a Newly Naturalized Herb in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Huai Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a newly naturalized fleshy herb in Taiwan, is reported here. The taxonomic description, line drawing, and photographs are provided. The population is colonized on Mt. Tatun, Yangmingshan National Park, north Taiwan. Since this species was reported being invasive, its impacts on the local ecosystem should be concerned.

  10. Antibacterial activity of the endophytic fungi from medicinal herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 48 endophytic fungal isolates were separated from the healthy roots of Macleaya cordata R. Br. (Papaveraceae), a traditional medicinal herb mainly distributed in China. Nine distinct isolates (Macof01 to Macof09) were selected for further taxonomical identification by morphological traits and internal transcribed ...

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Phytochemicals and Medicinal Herbs on Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2017-01-01

    Background . Depression is a recurrent, common, and potentially life-threatening psychiatric disease related to multiple assignable causes. Although conventional antidepressant therapy can help relieve symptoms of depression and prevent relapse of the illness, complementary therapies are required due to disadvantage of the current therapy such as adverse effects. Moreover, a number of studies have researched adjunctive therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for depression patients. Purpose . One potential complementary method with conventional antidepressants involves the use of medicinal herbs and phytochemicals that provide therapeutic benefits. Studies have revealed beneficial effects of medical herbs and phytochemicals on depression and their central nervous system mechanism. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the therapeutic benefits of phytochemicals and medicinal herbs against depression and describe their detailed mechanisms. Sections . There are two sections, phytochemicals against depression and medical herbs against depression, in this review. Conclusion . Use of phytomedicine may be an alternative option for the treatment of depression in case conventional drugs are not applicable due to their side effects, low effectiveness, or inaccessibility. However, the efficacy and safety of these phytomedicine treatments for depression have to be supported by clinical studies.

  12. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  13. Radical scavenging activity of volatile oils of herbs traditionally used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since time immemorial food preservation has been a common practice. Most of these preservatives come form natural sources such as herbs and spices. Currently, synthetic antioxidants are extensively incorporated in foods and cosmetics for the prevention of lipid peroxidation. Some of these synthetic antioxidants, ...

  14. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the New…

  15. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total β-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  16. Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

  17. Medicinal herbs used by HIV-positive people in Lesotho | Mugomeri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... profiles of the medicinal plants identified in this study need to be investigated. Furthermore, the effects of these plants on antiretroviral treatment outcomes including herb-drug interactions need to be explored. Key words: Allium sativum; Anti-retroviral treatment; Dicoma anomala; Herb-drug interaction; HIV; Medicinal herb ...

  18. Prevalent use of herbs for reduction of labour duration in Mwanza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of herbs during pregnancy and labour is rapidly increasing because the herbs are considered to be natural and therefore free of risks. Despite of this perception, a number of herbs have been reported to have negative effects to the new-borns and the mothers. Therefore, this study aimed to determine ...

  19. Detection of Herb-Symptom Associations from Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an individualized medicine by observing the symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief of patients. We aim to extract the meaningful herb-symptom relationships from large scale TCM clinical data. Methods. To investigate the correlations between symptoms and herbs held for patients, we use four clinical data sets collected from TCM outpatient clinical settings and calculate the similarities between patient pairs in terms of the herb constituents of their prescriptions and their manifesting symptoms by cosine measure. To address the large-scale multiple testing problems for the detection of herb-symptom associations and the dependence between herbs involving similar efficacies, we propose a network-based correlation analysis (NetCorrA method to detect the herb-symptom associations. Results. The results show that there are strong positive correlations between symptom similarity and herb similarity, which indicates that herb-symptom correspondence is a clinical principle adhered to by most TCM physicians. Furthermore, the NetCorrA method obtains meaningful herb-symptom associations and performs better than the chi-square correlation method by filtering the false positive associations. Conclusions. Symptoms play significant roles for the prescriptions of herb treatment. The herb-symptom correspondence principle indicates that clinical phenotypic targets (i.e., symptoms of herbs exist and would be valuable for further investigations.

  20. Effect of essential oils against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer awareness of fresh herbs and demand has increased in recent years due to health benefits and distinct aroma in prepared food. There are specific markets for local growers, especially for organically grown herbs. Fresh herbs have been implicated in illnesses associated with Salmonella, E. co...

  1. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In multispecies grasslands the proportion of different herb species may vary considerably due to low competitiveness of some herbs. To examine the possibility for increasing the competitiveness, an experiment with three factors was set up: 1) amount of herb seed (5, 50 or 100%) in a mixture...

  2. Influence of processing procedure on the quality of Radix Scrophulariae: a quantitative evaluation of the main compounds obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Zhu, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with accelerated solvent extraction method was used to simultaneously determine six compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae samples. Accelerated solvent extraction parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, number of cycles, and analysis procedure were systematically optimized. The results indicated that compared with crude Radix Scrophulariae samples, the processed samples had lower contents of harpagide and harpagoside but higher contents of catalpol, acteoside, angoroside C, and cinnamic acid. The established method was sufficiently rapid and reliable for the global quality evaluation of crude and processed herbal medicines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Application of bioassay in quality control of Chinese materia medica-taking Radix Isatidis as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Ren, Yongshen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Li, Hanbing; Feng, Xue; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay, which construct the characteristics consistents with Chinese medical science, is the core mode and methods for the quality control of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Radix Isatidis as an example, the contribution, status and application of bioassay in the quality control of Chinese materia medica were introduced in this article, and two key issue (the selection of reference and measurement methods) in the process of establishing bioassay were also explained. This article expects to provide a reference for the development and improvement of the bioassay of Chinese materia medica in a practical manipulation level.

  5. Greater therapeutic efficacy of prednisolone plus medicinal herbs than prednisolone or medicinal herbs alone in patients with oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ta Chiu

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that treatment consisting of prednisolone plus traditional medicinal herbs can improve OLP symptoms, relieve pain, reduce recurrent severity, and increase the disease-free period. The benefits of combined therapy for OLP should be investigated by conducting a prospective randomized clinical trial in the future.

  6. Extraction matrine from Radix Sopheorae Tonkinensis by non-supported liquid membrane extraction technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (NSLME is a new development extraction technology based on Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (SLME. Sample extraction assembly is composed of three phases: an acceptor phase: phosphate–sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution at the bottom; an organic phase: chloroform applied as the non-supported liquid membrane in the middle layer; and a donor phase: aqueous solution samples containing alkaloids in the upper layer. The whole system is maintained stable by density difference among the three layers that avoided the mutual interferences. The alkaloid in the donor phase can spread to the underlying acidic acceptor phase, where it is able to form water soluble salt in the acid environment, and thus cannot return to the middle organic phase. Therefore, the transmission of alkaloid is a one-way path, and the extraction of alkaloids can be achieved and enriched. In this study, the extraction of alkaloid was carried out by using matrine aqueous solution as the donor phase, and the extraction quantity and efficiency were investigated by GC/MS. This study evaluated the relationship between extracted quantity and extraction time. The effects of extraction temperature, membrane thickness, pH value of acceptor phase on extraction quantity and efficiency were also studied, and the optimal extraction condition was found. The extracted quantity achieved the largest amount at 45 °C when pure phosphoric acid was applied as the acceptor phase; the organic solvent volume was 0.2 mL. The extraction of alkaloid from Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis was performed under the optimized condition. The extraction rate of matrine was up to 54% after a four-hour extraction. A huge advantage of NSLME technology is that the extracted alkaloid enjoyed high purity compared with that extracted by the traditional Liquid–Liquid Extraction (LLE.

  7. Radix natalensis: the effect of Fasciola hepatica infection on the reproductive activity of the snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Yasser; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Experimental infections of Egyptian Radix natalensis (shell height at miracidial exposure: 4 mm) with a French isolate of Fasciola hepatica were carried out under laboratory conditions at 22 °C to specify the characteristics and follow the dynamics of their egg-laying. Controls constituted unexposed R. natalensis of the same size. No significant difference between controls and the uninfected snails of the exposed group was noted, whatever the parameter considered. In controls and exposed snails, the dates of the first egg masses were close to each other (56.4–65.3 days). In contrast, the life span of snails and the length of the egg-laying period were significantly shorter and egg production was significantly lower in infected R. natalensis than in controls and uninfected snails. In infected R. natalensis, but without cercarial shedding (NCS snails), egg production was irregular throughout the egg-laying period. In cercarial-shedding (CS) snails, the first egg masses were laid before the first cercarial emergence (at a mean of 56 days and 67 days, respectively). Thereafter, egg mass production of CS snails was irregular up to day 72 of the experiment, stopped during the following two weeks and started again after day 88 for a single snail. In conclusion, the F. hepatica infection of R. natalensis reduced the reproductive activity in both NCS and CS snails. The pattern noted for egg production in infected R. natalensis seems to be species-specific because of the high shell size of this lymnaeid and its role as an atypical intermediate host in the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:24871866

  8. Integrated work-flow for quantitative metabolome profiling of plants, Peucedani Radix as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Liu, Yao; Li, Jun; Wan, Jian-Bo; Wang, Yitao; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-02-08

    Universal acquisition of reliable information regarding the qualitative and quantitative properties of complicated matrices is the premise for the success of metabolomics study. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is now serving as a workhorse for metabolomics; however, LC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomics is suffering from some shortcomings, even some cutting-edge techniques have been introduced. Aiming to tackle, to some extent, the drawbacks of the conventional approaches, such as redundant information, detector saturation, low sensitivity, and inconstant signal number among different runs, herein, a novel and flexible work-flow consisting of three progressive steps was proposed to profile in depth the quantitative metabolome of plants. The roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn (Peucedani Radix, PR) that are rich in various coumarin isomers, were employed as a case study to verify the applicability. First, offline two dimensional LC-MS was utilized for in-depth detection of metabolites in a pooled PR extract namely universal metabolome standard (UMS). Second, mass fragmentation rules, notably concerning angular-type pyranocoumarins that are the primary chemical homologues in PR, and available databases were integrated for signal assignment and structural annotation. Third, optimum collision energy (OCE) as well as ion transition for multiple monitoring reaction measurement was online optimized with a reference compound-free strategy for each annotated component and large-scale relative quantification of all annotated components was accomplished by plotting calibration curves via serially diluting UMS. It is worthwhile to highlight that the potential of OCE for isomer discrimination was described and the linearity ranges of those primary ingredients were extended by suppressing their responses. The integrated workflow is expected to be qualified as a promising pipeline to clarify the quantitative metabolome of plants because it could not only

  9. Isolation and characterization of bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix

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    Jyotchna Gogoi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to isolate and characterize bioactive components from Mirabilis jalapa L. radix (紫茉莉根 zǐ mò lì gēn. Thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of spots from fractions of the crude extract. Separated spots were collected for identification of their activities. Free-radical scavenging activity was evaluated by spraying thin-layer chromatography plates (spotted with fractions with 0.2% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl solution. Activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were determined using the agar diffusion method. Potential spots were subjected to infrared (IR analysis and gas chromatography for characterization. Two spots (5F1 and 1F3 showed free-radical scavenging activity. The 1F3 spot was active against both S. aureus and C. albicans, whereas the 5F1 spot was active against S. aureus only. IR spectral analysis indicated that 5F1 spot to be a triterpenoid. Using IR spectral analysis and an IR library search, the 1F3 spot was identified to be a flavone, which may have a hydroxyl group in ring “A” of the flavone nucleus. Our results indicated that the 1F3 and 5F1 spots are potential free-radical scavengers. Both 1F3 and 5F1 exhibited antimicrobial activity. IR spectral analysis coupled with an IR library search indicated 1F3 and 5F1 to be a flavone and a triterpenoid, respectively.

  10. Quality Control of Valerianae Radix by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad-Langerodi, Ramin; Arth, Katharina; Klatte-Asselmeyer, Valerie; Bressler, Sabine; Saukel, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dobeš, Christoph

    2017-11-09

    (Acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content are important quality attributes of pharmacy grade valerian root (Valerianae radix). Traditional analysis of these quantities is time-consuming and necessitates (harmful) solvents. Here we investigated an application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for extractionless analysis of these quality attributes on a representative sample comprising 260 wild-crafted individuals covering the Central European taxonomic diversity of the Valeriana officinalis L. s. l. species aggregate with its three major ploidy cytotypes (i.e., di-, tetra- and octoploid). Calibration models were built by orthogonal partial least squares regression for quantitative analysis of (acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content. For the latter, we propose a simplistic protocol involving apolar extraction followed by gas chromatography as a reference method for multivariate calibration in order to handle the analysis of samples taken from individual plants. We found good predictive ability of chemometric models for quantification of valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid, total sesquiterpenoid acid, and essential oil content with a root mean squared error of cross-validation of 0.064, 0.043, and 0.09 and root mean squared error of prediction of 0.066, 0.057, and 0.09 (% content), respectively. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed good discriminability between the most productive phenotype (i.e., the octoploid cytotype) in terms of sesquiterpenoid acids, and the less productive ones (i.e., di- and tetraploid). All in all, our results demonstrate the application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for rapid, extractionless estimation of the most important quality attributes of valerian root and minimally invasive identification of the most productive phenotype in terms of sesquiterpenoid acids. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New

  11. Preliminary studies on the effect of herbs on the growth and health of suckling piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova-Peneva, Sonya G.; Nedeva, Radka D.; Kirov, Marincho S.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of some herbs with strengthening immune system and antiphlogistic action from Bulgaria has been studied in two pilot trials, first with 8 litters (4 control and 4 with herbs in the water) and second with 15 litters (5 control, 5 with herbs in the water and 5 with herbs in the fodder). The growth and health status (score of diarrhoea) during the suckling period has been recorded. Treatment of diarrhoea with herbs has been applied to litters with manifestation of diarrhoea in second ...

  12. Rapid Determination of 30 Polyphenols in Tongmai Formula, a Combination of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma, via Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Xin-Bao; Liu, Chun-Xu; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Xu, Wei; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2017-03-29

    Tongmai formula (TMF) is a herbal preparation composed of three traditional Chinese medicinal materials: Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong). It has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases for decades. To develop a reliable and convenient analytical method for a comprehensive determination of polyphenols in TMF and the ascertainment of their chemical correlations with its herbal components, a method combining high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated for rapid determination of 30 polyphenols in TMF and its three herbal components. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Chromolith Fastgradient RP-18 endcapped 50-2 column using an optimized gradient elution. Statistical analysis of obtained data demonstrated that the method had a desirable linearity, precision, and accuracy, as well as excellent sensitivity. The obtained results indicated that, among the 30 polyphenols in TMF, 22 originated from Gegen, 6 originated from Danshen, and 2 originated from Chuanxiong. The major polyphenols in TMF have been identified as puerarin, mirificin, salvianolic acid B, salvianic acid A, 3'-hydroxypuerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, and salvianolic acid A, with a combined contribution of 19.2% of the preparation. The development and validation of this method will greatly facilitate future pharmacological studies of TMF and its herbal components, as well as polyphenols in cardiovascular therapies.

  13. An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwa, Parul; Sharma, Bhawna; Fatima, Amreen; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and

  14. An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Agarwa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb

  15. Drug discovery of neurodegenerative disease through network pharmacology approach in herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhipeng; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Cao, Zeyu; Ding, Yue; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Wang, Tuanjie; Zhang, Chenfeng; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Xiaojie; Xiao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, referring to as the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, constitute one of the major challenges of modern medicine. Traditional Chinese herbs have been used as a major preventive and therapeutic strategy against disease for thousands years. The numerous species of medicinal herbs and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) compound formulas in nervous system disease therapy make it a large chemical resource library for drug discovery. In this work, we collected 7362 kinds of herbs and 58,147 Traditional Chinese medicinal compounds (Tcmcs). The predicted active compounds in herbs have good oral bioavailability and central nervous system (CNS) permeability. The molecular docking and network analysis were employed to analyze the effects of herbs on neurodegenerative diseases. In order to evaluate the predicted efficacy of herbs, automated text mining was utilized to exhaustively search in PubMed by some related keywords. After that, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves was used to estimate the accuracy of predictions. Our study suggested that most herbs were distributed in family of Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Apocynaceae. The predictive model yielded good sensitivity and specificity with the AUC values above 0.800. At last, 504 kinds of herbs were obtained by using the optimal cutoff values in ROC curves. These 504 herbs would be the most potential herb resources for neurodegenerative diseases treatment. This study would give us an opportunity to use these herbs as a chemical resource library for drug discovery of anti-neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Herbs Used for the Treatment of Hypertension and their Mechanism of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G; Chrysant, George S

    2017-09-18

    There is great interest lately, in the use of herbs for the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Herbs and plants contain many phytochemicals that have been effective in the treatment of CVD and hypertension. Accumulating scientific evidence provides a reason for the use of herbs by health practitioners for treating their patients. The rationale for this expanding use of herbs is the belief of patients in a "holistic medicine" and that herbs are natural, safe, and effective. However, there are reasons of concern with the use of herbs, because they are not regulated or supervised carefully and their use could lead to serious complications or interactions with their combination with traditional medicines. In addition, their use is associated with significant out of pocket expenses, because their use is not compensated by health insurance providers. In this review, we present the scientific evidence for the use of herbs.

  17. Traditional and Commercial Herb Use in Health Self-Management among Rural Multiethnic Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Kathryn; Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bell, Ronny A.; Sandberg, Joanne; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the role of traditional and commercial herbs in older adults’ health self-management based on Leventhal’s Self-Regulatory Model conceptual framework. Sixty-two African American and white adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing the forms of herbs currently being used, sources of information about them, interpretations of health (acute symptoms or chronic conditions) that lead to their use, and the initiation and suspension of use. Traditional herbs are native to the region or have been traditionally cultivated; usually taken raw or boiled to produce tea; and used for treating mild symptoms. Commercial herbs are prepared as pills, extracts, or teas; they are purchased at local stores or ordered by catalog or internet; and used for health promotion, illness prevention or treatment of chronic conditions. Herbs are widely used among older adults; this analysis differentiates the types of herbs they use and their reasons for herbs use. PMID:24991081

  18. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Bupleuri (RB, also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic.

  19. [Quantitative analysis of eight polyacetylenes derived from Bupleuri Radix by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Fang, Yuan; Zhou, Yu-Zhi; Tian, Jun-Sheng; Qin, Xue-Mei; Gao, Xiao-Xia

    2017-05-01

    To establish quantitative methods for determination of polyacetylenes in Bupleuri Radix, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PDA) was developed. The analysis was performed on a Waters BEH C₁₈ column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) using a gradient system of methanol and water. The flow rate was 0.3 mL•min⁻¹ and the detection wavelength was 315 nm. Eight polyacetylenes were prepared using traditional extraction and isolation method, of which compounds 7 and 8 were two new polyacetylenes. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.999 0) within the concentration range. Both the intra- and inter-day precisions for eight analytes were less than 1.9%, respectively, with the mean recovery at the range of 93.21%-108.4%. Meanwhile, 17 bupleurum samples were examined with this process. The results showed a variety either the chemotaxonomic or content of polyacetylenes. The method indicated good linearity, limit of detection and quantification, precision, accuracy and recovery. The developed method allows quantitative assessment and quality control of polyacetylenes, and might be a good alternative according to detection levels in polyacetylenes from Bupleurum Radix. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Ultrasonic cell grinder extraction of anthraquinones from radix et rhizoma Rhei and determination by ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Ying; Qi, Huan-Yang; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2010-06-01

    An ultrasonic cell grinder extraction (UCGE) method has been developed and applied to extract five anthraquinones (physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, and aloe-emodin) from radix et rhizoma Rhei. Several parameters of UCGE procedure, including ultrasonic cell grinder running mode, type and volume of extraction solvent and extraction time, were optimized. The determination was preformed on a Waters ultra-performance LC BEH C(18) column using gradient elution system. A baseline separation could be achieved in less than 7.5 min with high resolution. Under the optimized conditions, contents of physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein and aloe-emodin in radix et rhizoma Rhei collected from different cultivated areas were 0-4.22, 0.11-27.64, 0.09-3.49, 0.31-3.31 and 0.13-2.93 mg/g, respectively. Compared with reflux, maceration and ultrasonic bath extractions, the UCGE method was more efficient, faster and easier to be operated, and required lower extraction temperature and less solvent. The results indicated that UCGE was a novel and ideal method for extracting bioactive constituents from plant samples.

  1. TALL-HERB BOREAL FORESTS ON NORTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aleinikov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the pressing aims of today’s natural resource management is its re-orientation to preserving and restoring ecological functions of ecosystems, among which the function of biodiversity maintenance plays an indicator role. The majority of today’s forests have not retained their natural appearance as the result of long-standing human impact. In this connection, refugia studies are becoming particularly interesting, as they give us an insight into the natural appearance of forests. Materials and methods. Studies were performed in dark conifer forests of the Pechora–Ilych reserve, in the lower reaches of the Bol’shaya Porozhnyaya River in 2013 yr. Vegetation data sampling was done at 50 temporary square plots of a fixed size (100 m2 randomly placed within a forest type. A list of plant species with species abundance was made for each forest layer. The overstorey (or tree canopy layer was denoted by the Latin letter A. The understorey layer (indicated by the letter B included tree undergrowth and tall shrubs. Ground vegetation was subdivided into the layers C and D. Layer C (field layer comprised the herbaceous species (herbs, grasses, sedges and dwarf shrubs together with low shrubs, tree and shrub seedlings. The height of the field layer was defined by the maximal height of the herbaceous species, ferns, and dwarf shrubs; the height varied from several cm to more than 200 cm in the ‘tall-herb’ forest types. Layer D (bottom layer included cryptogamic species (bryophytes and lichens. Species abundance in the each layer was usually assessed using the Braun-Blanquet cover scale (Braun-Blanquet 1928. The nomenclature used follows Cherepanov’s (1995 for vascular plants, and Ignatov & Afonina’s (1992. Results. The present article contains descriptions of unique tall-herb boreal forests of European Russia preserved in certain refugia which did not experience prolonged anthropogenic impact or any other catastrophes

  2. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

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    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  3. Indian Herbs for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Naidu, Kamalakkannan Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine that is indigenous to India, is believed to be the world's oldest comprehensive health-care system and is now one of the most recognized and widely practiced disciplines of alternative medicine in the world. Medicinal herbs have been in use for treating diseases since ancient times in India. Ayurvedic therapies with medicinal herbs and herbomineral products generally provide relief without much adverse effects even after prolonged administration. Neurodegenerative disorders are a major cause of mortality and disability, and increasing life spans represent one of the key challenges of medical research. Ayurvedic medicine describes most neurodegenerative diseases and has defined a number of plants with therapeutic benefits for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases having antioxidant activities. In this chapter, the role of four important Ayurvedic medicinal plants, viz., Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), Centella asiatica (gotu kola), and Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean), on neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.

  4. Contributory factors in herb-induced fatal aconite poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2012-11-30

    Detailed investigations of all reported cases of herb-induced aconite poisoning are necessary to identify the major contributory causes so that preventive measures can be formulated. In the present review of 12 fatal cases that were published in the medical journals during 1992 and 2011, the available clinical data and forensic toxicological analyses indicated that poor post-harvest processing of aconite roots, use of greater than the recommended doses and inadequate boiling of processed aconite roots during decoction preparation were important contributory factors in herb-induced aconite poisoning. Under such circumstances, the actual amount of Aconitum alkaloids ingested was much larger than intended. Good manufacturing practice to ensure adequate processing of aconite roots, use of the recommended doses, clear instructions for the patients and their compliance during decoction preparation are important preventive measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An update on Murraya koenigii spreng: a multifunctional Ayurvedic herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod K

    2011-08-01

    Murraya koenigii Spreng (Rutaceae), a medicinally important herb of Indian origin, has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Leaves, fruits, roots and bark of this plant are a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. These alkaloids have been reported for their various pharmacological activities such as antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic and antioxidant activities. Apart from these activities, the plant is reported to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant make a demand of an exhaustive review of its potential as a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment and management of various ailments frequently affecting humans. The present review gives a detailed description of the phytochemical, pharmacological, clinical and pre-clinical works carried out on this medicinal herb and also throws light on its therapeutic potential.

  6. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  7. Deciphering the Differential Effective and Toxic Responses of Bupleuri Radix following the Induction of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress and in Healthy Rats Based on Serum Metabolic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxia; Liang, Meili; Fang, Yuan; Zhao, Fang; Tian, Junsheng; Zhang, Xiang; Qin, Xuemei

    2018-01-01

    The petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix which is contained in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription of Xiaoyaosan (XYS) may have a therapeutic effect in depressed subjects based on the results of our previous study. It has been reported that Bupleuri Radix can cause liver toxicity following overdosing or long-term use. Therefore, this study aimed to decipher the differential effective and toxic responses of Bupleuri Radix in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) (with depression) and healthy rats based on serum metabolic profiles. Serum metabolic profiles were obtained using the UHPLC- Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS technique. Our results demonstrated that the petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix (PBR) produces an antidepressant effect through regulating glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. It also induces more severe toxic reactions in the liver or kidney in healthy rats than in CUMS rats, which exhibited a comparatively mild drug-induced toxic reaction. The altered lysine degradation, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism could be at least partly responsible for the PBR toxic responses in healthy rats. The differential effective and toxic response of PBR in CUMS rats and healthy rats provide a new standard for the more rational and safer application of clinical drugs in the future. PMID:29379441

  8. Deciphering the Differential Effective and Toxic Responses of Bupleuri Radix following the Induction of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress and in Healthy Rats Based on Serum Metabolic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix which is contained in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription of Xiaoyaosan (XYS may have a therapeutic effect in depressed subjects based on the results of our previous study. It has been reported that Bupleuri Radix can cause liver toxicity following overdosing or long-term use. Therefore, this study aimed to decipher the differential effective and toxic responses of Bupleuri Radix in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS (with depression and healthy rats based on serum metabolic profiles. Serum metabolic profiles were obtained using the UHPLC- Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS technique. Our results demonstrated that the petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix (PBR produces an antidepressant effect through regulating glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. It also induces more severe toxic reactions in the liver or kidney in healthy rats than in CUMS rats, which exhibited a comparatively mild drug-induced toxic reaction. The altered lysine degradation, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism could be at least partly responsible for the PBR toxic responses in healthy rats. The differential effective and toxic response of PBR in CUMS rats and healthy rats provide a new standard for the more rational and safer application of clinical drugs in the future.

  9. Estimating live fuels for shrubs and herbs with BIOPAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Means; Olga N Krankina; Hao Jiang; Hongyan. Li

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes use of BIOPAK to calculate size classes of live fuels for shrubs and herbs. A library of equations to estimate such fuels in the Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains is presented and used in an example. These methods can be used in other regions if the user first enters fuel size-class equations for a given region into a new library by...

  10. COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS) – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB

    OpenAIRE

    SharmaYashaswini; Vasundhara M

    2011-01-01

    Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq.) is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol) used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer ...

  11. Effects of immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with vaccination against classic swine fever. Serum IgG and IgM levels increased more than the control group on day 30 (P<0.05). B and T lymphocyte proliferation in piglets fed with 1.5 and 2% herbal immune ...

  12. Herbs and spices in traditional Portuguese culinary: A preliminary picture

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Dias; Dias, L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic plants of intense smell and taste known as herbs or spices are used worldwide and seem to be present as essential flavouring elements in almost all culinary traditions of settled people and also in nomadic herdsmen cultures. Nowadays the use of aromatic plants in national or regional characteristic culinary becomes in many places an auto-perpetuated traditional trait based on a culturally made taste. The particular traits of the regional traditional culinary can reveal importan...

  13. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, pi...

  14. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Guosheng; Chen Meiwan; Li Yingbo; Huang Mingqing; Lu Jinjian; Tan Wen; Gong Jian; Zhong Zhangfeng; Xu Zengtao; Dang Yuanye; Guo Jiajie; Chen Xiuping; Wang Yitao

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic poten...

  15. Effects of immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with vaccination against classic swine fever. Serum IgG and IgM levels increased more than the control group on day. 30 (P<0.05). B and T lymphocyte proliferation in piglets fed with 1.5 and 2% ...

  16. Pharmacological characterization of Cirsium ligulare Boiss. (Asteraceae herb decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrić Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of genus Cirsium Mill. (Asteraceae are scarce. Some data suggest that decoctions or infusions prepared from these plants are used in folk medicine as tonics, particularly in inflammatory, liver and stomach diseases. So far there have been no pharmacological investigations related to Cirsium ligulare (C. ligulare Boiss. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb prepared as 5% and 10% decoctions. Methods. Antioxidative activity was determined using the method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging. Investigations of anti-inflammatory (a model of systemic inflammatory response induced by endotoxin of Escherichia coli and carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model for local inflammatory response, as well as gastroprotective effects (a model of stress-ulcer induced by absolute ethanol, were conducted in adult female Wistar rats that were given the aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb per os. Indomethacin and ranitidine were used as reference drugs for evaluation of local anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects, respectively. Results. The results demonstrated that aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb produced strong antioxidative activity, diminished body weight loss induced by endotoxin, significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and prevented the ulcerogenic action of absolute ethanol. Both anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of the extract tested were comparable to those of the reference drugs. Conclusion. Presented results justify the traditional use of C. ligulare herb decoctions and further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations are warranted. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173021

  17. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  18. Antibacterial activity of medicinal herb extracts against Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwon, Hyun Ae; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Park, Hyun; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Youn-Chul; Eo, Seong-Kug; Kang, Ho-Young; Kim, Sam-Woong; Lee, John Hwa

    2006-10-01

    The therapeutic potentials of twenty-two medicinal herb species traditionally used in Korea to treat gastrointestinal infections were evaluated for the treatment of salmonellosis. Candidates were primarily screened using the disk-agar method for antibacterial activity against three different Salmonella serotypes. Of the herbs tested, the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Schizandrae Fructus exhibited antibacterial activity against all three Salmonella. The extracts of this herb were further tested against 13 additional Salmonella strains of 6 different serotypes. All of these strains were also affected by these extracts, though the methanolic extract had slightly higher activity. The MIC values of this extract against the 16 Salmonella strains varied from 15.6 to 125 microg/ml. Nine of the 16 strains tested had MIC values of damages were rarely observed in the treated mice, whereas the untreated controls showed clinical signs, e.g., lethargy, and histological damage in the kidney, liver, intestine, and spleen. We conclude that Schizandrae Fructus has the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis.

  19. Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemet Nevena T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

  20. Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermaier, Barbara; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and its secondary metabolites in food. The objective of the present study was to examine selected dried culinary herbs for the presence of S. chartarum chemotype S, to assess the potential risk of a contamination of foods with macrocyclic trichothecenes. In total, 50 Stachybotrys isolates from different types of culinary herbs (n=100) such as marjoram (Origanum majorana Linné (L.)), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja hortensis L.) were examined by MTT-cell culture test (effect-based bioassay), ELISA, and by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selected toxic and non-toxic isolates (n=15) were genetically characterized by PCR and sequencing. Five isolates (10%) were highly toxic in the MTT-cell culture test, and the production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was proven by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. These five isolates were genetically confirmed as S. chartarum chemotype S. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a contamination of dried culinary herbs with toxigenic S. chartarum.

  1. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj P Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.

  2. Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 2: Using free-lists to explore farmers’ knowledge about herbs and cows health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the period April - October 2011 the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’ was carried out by the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pasture herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms. Participating farmers expressed a

  3. [Research on quality standards of herbs of Peganum harmala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fang-fang; Zheng, Li-ming; Li, Xiao-jing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Xue-mei; Wang, Chang-hong; Wang, Zheng-taou

    2012-10-01

    To establish the quality standards of the herbs of Peganum harmala. According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 version, volume 1) and its appendix method, the water, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble extractives, and heavy metal were analyzed for herbs of P. harmala. TLC method was used to separate harmaline, harmine and vasicine from the herb samples by mixture of ethyl acetate-methanol-ammonia (10: 1.5: 0.5) as a developing solvent on high performance silica gel precoated plate (HSGF254) and to identify them inspected under UV 366 nm, visualized by spraying with both Dragendorff reagent, and by bioautographic assay. In the HPLC method, vasicine was separated on a C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with metnanol-0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (15:85) as the mobile phase and detected at at 280 nm. In the TLC procedures, 254 nm fluorescent and bioautographic assay for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor can be used for the qualitative identification of the active ingredients. For the HPLC quantitation method, the calibration curve of vasicine displayed ideal linearity over the range of 0.7923-792.3 mg x L(-1) with the regression equation of Y = 18,227X - 24.879 (r = 0.9999). The average recovery of vasicine was 101.6% with a RSD of 1.9%. The RSD values of intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 2%. The content of vasicine in 10 batches of herbs of P. harmala fluctuates between 0.23% and 1.47%. The results indicated that the limit of vasicine was not lower than 0.6%, and the water, total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water-soluble extractives were not more than 10.0%, 20.0%, 1.7%, and 30.0%, respectively. The heavy metal of plumbum, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, and copper were not more than 5, 3, 2, 2, and 20 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The qualitative and quantitative method established was suitable for the quality evaluation and assessment of herbs of P. harmala.

  4. Consumer acceptance of model soup system with varying levels of herbs and salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Youngsoo; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-10-01

    Although herbs have been reported as one of the most common saltiness enhancers, few studies have focused on the effect of herbs on reducing added sodium as well as the impact of herbs on consumers' overall liking of foods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of varying levels of herbs on reducing added sodium and consumers' overall liking of soups and identify the impact of salt levels on consumers' overall liking of soups. Overall liking of freshly prepared and retorted canned soups with varying levels of herbs was evaluated before and after adding salt by consumers ad libitum until the saltiness of the soup was just about right for them. The results of the study demonstrated that when the perceived herb flavor increased, the amount of salt consumers added to fresh soups decreased (P ≤ 0.006); however, consumers' overall liking decreased (P ≤ 0.013) as well for the highest level of herb tested in the study. Although overall liking of all canned soups was not significantly decreased by herbs, the amount of salt consumers added was also not significantly decreased when herbs were used. Overall liking of all soups significantly increased after more salt was added (P ≤ 0.001), which indicates that salt level was a dominant factor in affecting consumers' overall liking of soups with varying levels of herbs. These findings imply the role of herbs in decreasing salt intake, and the adequate amount of herbs to be added in soup systems. It is challenging for the food industry to reduce sodium in foods without fully understanding the impact of sodium reduction on sensory properties of foods. Herbs are recommended to use in reducing sodium; however, little has been reported regarding the effect of herbs on sodium reduction and how herbs influence consumers’ acceptance of foods. This study provides findings that herbs may aid in decreasing the amount of salt consumers need to add for freshly prepared soups. It was also found that high

  5. Nephroprotective effect of Paeonia emodi via inhibition of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kishore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of alcohol (PA and hydroalcohol (PHA extract of Paeonia emodi Royale roots in treatment of streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg intraperitoneally 15 minutes after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, intraperitoneally administration and diabetic nephropathy was assessed by measuring serum glucose, renal parameters (urea, uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen level and lipid profile. The rats were treated with different doses of extracts (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg for 45 days. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring tissue antioxidant enzymes level along with the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs in kidney. PA and PHA (400 mg/kg produced significant attenuation in the serum glucose level (165.08 ± 3.353 mg/dL and 154.27 ± 2.209 mg/dL, respectively as compared to control. Elevated renal parameters, lipid levels, tissue antioxidant enzymes and AGE formation were also restored in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that by amelioration of oxidative stress and formation of AGEs, PA and PHA significantly inhibited the progression diabetic nephropathy in rats.

  6. Antioxidant Activity of 45 Chinese Herbs and the Relationship with their TCM Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm, flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood. These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 40–1990 µmol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 µmol TE/g, Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 µmol TE/g, Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 µmol TE/g, Artemisia anomala herb (1400 µmol TE/g, Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 µmol TE/g and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 µmol TE/g. Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action.

  7. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2011-01-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are frequently used to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foen...

  8. Chinese herbs combined with Western medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Zhang, Mingming; He, Lin; Li, Youping

    2012-10-17

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, which first appeared in Foshan City, China on 22 December 2002. Chinese herbs were used in its treatment. To evaluate the possible effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines versus Western medicines alone for SARS patients. We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 3, MEDLINE (1966 to February Week 4, 2012), EMBASE (1990 to March 2012) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature (Issue 3, 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines versus Western medicines alone for patients diagnosed with SARS. Two review authors (XL, MZ) independently extracted trial data. We extracted dichotomous and continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For dichotomous data, we used risk ratio (RR). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). We calculated overall results based on the random-effects model if heterogeneity existed between studies. If no heterogeneity was detected between the studies, we used the fixed-effect model. We used the Z score and the Chi(2) test with significance being set at P herbs were identified. We did not find Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines decreased mortality versus Western medicines alone. Two herbs may improve symptoms. Five herbs may improve lung infiltrate absorption. Four herbs may decrease the dosage of corticosteroids. Three herbs may improve the quality of life of SARS patients. One herb may shorten the length of hospital stay. Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines made no difference in decreasing mortality versus Western medicines alone. It is possible that Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines may improve symptoms, quality of life and absorption of pulmonary infiltration, and decrease the corticosteroid dosage for SARS patients. The evidence is weak because of the poor quality of the included trials. Long-term follow

  9. Chemical research of lipophilic fractions of sickle alfalfa herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kovalev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic fraction (LF of known medicinal plants are still less studied, despite the fact that they have a unique group of biological active compounds (BAC. The main active substances of LF are chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and other bioactive substances that exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological action. In this regard, a comprehensive study of advanced plant of flora of Ukraine to increase the assortments of herbal remedies is an urgent problem. The aim of this work was to obtain and chemical research of lipophilic fractions of sickle alfalfa herbs. The alfalfa herb harvested throughout the growing season in Kharkov and Poltava regions in 2011-2012. Lipophilic fraction was obtained by extraction with chloroform in a Soxhlet apparatus. Detection of carotenoids and chlorophylls by thin layer chromatography (TLC on plates of "Silufol" in one-dimensional and two-dimensional variants, the solvent system were: hexane: acetone (6:2 - I way, hexane-acetone (6:4 - II way. Assay of the lipophilic fraction by three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (3DF-spectroscopy was used for the analysis of mixtures containing fluorescent components. 3DF-spectres, that have the appearance of the surface, are characterized by a functions I = f (λexc, λem, recorded in the ultraviolet and visible ranges. Assay of the carotenoids and chlorophylls carried out by spectrophotometry. The reference solution was chloroform. Assay of fatty acids was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC of methyl esters of fatty acids via chromatograph with flame ionization detector "Shimadzu GC-14B". 20.0 g crushed sickle alfalfa herbs were exhaustively extracted with chloroform in a Soxhlet apparatus for produce a lipophilic fractions. The chloroform extract was evaporated in order to remove the extractant. The percentage of lipophilic fraction in the herbs was 7.5%. Quantity of the carotenoids and chlorophylls

  10. Radix Stellariae extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by accelerating energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stellaria dichotoma L. is widely distributed in Ningxia and surrounding areas in northwestern China. Its root, Radix Stellariae (RS, has been used in herbal formulae for treating asthenic-fever, infection, malaria, dyspepsia in children and several other symptoms. This study investigated whether the RS extract (RSE alleviates metabolic disorders. The results indicated that RSE significantly inhibited body weight gain in high-fat (HF-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice, reduced fasting glucose levels, and improved insulin tolerance. Moreover, RSE increased the body temperature of the mice and the expression of uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the white adipose tissue. Thus, RSE alleviated metabolic disorders in HF-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice by potentially activating UCP and PPAR signaling.

  11. Protective effect of polysaccharide fractions from Radix A. sinensis against tert-butylhydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingbin; Zhao, Yan; Lv, You; Yang, Ying; Ruan, Yun

    2007-11-30

    Three Angelica sinensis polysaccharide fractions (APFs), named APF1, APF2 and APF3, were isolated and purified from Radix A. sinensis and their antioxidant activities were evaluated in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages by pretreatment with APFs before exposure to 0.2 mM tertbutylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). The results showed that pretreatment of the macrophages with APFs as low as 10 microg/ml could significantly enhance t-BHP-decreased cell survival, intracellular glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and also inhibited t-BHP-increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation (p APF3 was the most active fraction, followed by APF2 and APF1 in decreasing order. Furthermore, we found for the first time that the bound-protein in APF3 was associated closely with the protective effects and the polysaccharide inhibited the excess NO release from t-BHP-activated macrophages to protect host cells.

  12. Selected Food/Herb-Drug Interactions: Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Cecilia N; Mgbahurike, Amaka A

    2017-11-22

    Food/Herb-drug interactions have become a major problem in health care. These interactions can lead to loss of therapeutic efficacy or toxic effects of drugs. To probe the clinical relevance of such interactions, the impact of food/herb intake on the clinical effects of drug administration has to be evaluated. Failure to identify and efficiently manage food-drug interactions can lead to serious consequences. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms that underpin variability in disposition will help optimize therapy. Electronic search of literatures from relevant databases were conducted. A total of 58 original scientific reports/review articles were obtained with the search strategy; of which 25 were found eligible to be included in the present review. Required data were extracted from these studies, and their methodologies were assessed. This review updates our knowledge on clinical food-drug interactions with emphasis on mechanism and clinical implications. Results obtained from literature search identified interactions with selected foods/herbs generated from in vivo and in vitro studies. For example, interaction studies in humans revealed a reduction in the bioavailability of mercaptopurine when taken concurrently with substances containing xanthine oxidase (eg, cow milk); a reduction in the bioavailability of quinine with Garcinia kola; increased bioavailability/toxicity of felodipine, nifedipine, saquinavir, sildenafil with grape juice; increased bioavailability of felodipine, cisapride with red wine and diminished bioavailability of fexofenadine with apple. Pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanisms are implicated in many of these interactions. By evaluating the dietary patterns of patients and use of prescribed medications, health professionals will be well informed of potential interactions and associated adverse effects.

  13. Herbs and herbal combinations used to treat suspected malaria in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Shamika; Ansumana, Rashid; Lamin, Joseph M; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Buanie, Jacob A G; Stenger, David A; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2015-05-26

    Most adults in West Africa treat acute febrile illnesses with local herbs, but the patterns of herbs used for malaria have not been recently described in Sierra Leone. We used a population-based cross-sectional approach to interview 810 randomly-sampled rural and urban adult residents of Bo, Sierra Leone, in December 2013 and January 2014 about their use of herbal remedies when they suspect they have malaria. In total, 55% of the participants reported taking one or more of seven herbs to treat symptoms of malaria. Among herb users, the most commonly used anti-malarial herbs were Moringa oleifera (moringa, 52%) and Sarcocephalus latifolius (yumbuyambay, 50%). The other herbs used included Senna siamea (shekutoure, 18%), Cassia sieberiana (gbangba, 18%), Uvaria afzelii (gone-botai, 14%), Morinda chrysorhiza (njasui, 14%), and Craterispermum laurinum (nyelleh, 7%). Combination herbal therapy was common, with 37% of herb users taking two or more herbs together when ill with suspected malaria. Indigenous medical knowledge about herbal remedies and combinations of local herbs remains an integral part of malaria case management in Sierra Leone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-pathway cellular analysis on crude natural drugs/herbs from Japanese Kampo formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshima, Shizuka; Yokoyama, Satoru; Abe, Takashi; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Kampo formulations comprise a number of crude natural drugs/herbs as constituents. The crude drugs/herbs have been traditionally classified by their traditional classifications or efficacies in Kampo medicines; however, it has been difficult to establish the scientific link between experimental evidence and traditional classifications in Kampo medicine. To clarify such traditional conceptions, we tested 112 crude drugs/herbs that are major components of Kampo formulations, in the multi-pathway analysis of 10 well-studied transcriptional activities including CREB, ERSF, HIF-1α, IRFs, MYC, NF-κB, p53, SMAD, SOX2, and TCF/LEF in A549 human lung cancer cells. By clustering the results of multi-pathway analysis with the Spearman rank-correlation coefficient and Ward linkage, three distinct traditional categories were significantly enriched in the major groupings, which are heat-clearing and dampness-drying herbs, acrid and warm exterior-resolving herbs, and acrid and cool exterior-resolving herbs. These results indicate that these crude drugs/herbs have similar effects on intracellular signaling and further imply that the traditional classifications of those enriched crude drugs/herbs can be supported by such experimental evidence. Collectively, our new in vitro multi-pathway analysis may be useful to clarify the mechanism of action of crude drugs/herbs and Kampo formulations.

  15. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei; Li, Bao-cai; Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2012-01-15

    Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Antioxidants from Plantago Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morio Yoshimura

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seven phenolic compounds, including a new phenylethanoid glycoside, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of an aqueous ethanol extract of Plantago Herb (whole part of Plantago asiatica L., which showed significant antioxidative activity. The new compound was characterized as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl 3-O-β-D-allopyranosyl-6-O-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence, and its antioxidant activity was comparable to that of tea catechins.

  17. Microbiological survey of retail herbs and spices from Mexican markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, S; Iracheta, F; Galván, F; Heredia, N

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, 304 samples of herbs and spices (garlic powder, cumin seeds, black pepper, oregano, and bay leaves) widely used in Mexico were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, total mesophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were nonpackaged or packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers. High levels (10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g) of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples of garlic powder, cumin seed, and black pepper. Lower levels (Penicillum sp. and Cunninghamella in 8%.

  18. Ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix attenuates nociceptive pain probably via inhibition of voltage-dependent Na⁺ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Yuan, Lin; Li, Jun; Huang, Xian-Ju; Chen, Su; Zou, Da-Jiang; Liu, Xiangming; Yang, Xin-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Aconiti Brachypodi Radix, belonging to the genus of Aconitum (Family Ranunculaceae), are used clinically as anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive in traditional medicine of China. However, its mechanism and influence on nociceptive threshold are unknown and need further investigation. The analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix (EABR) were thus studied in vivo and in vitro. Three pain models in mice were used to assess the effect of EABR on nociceptive threshold. In vitro study was conducted to clarify the modulation of the extract on the tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium currents in rat's dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that EABR (5-20 mg/kg, i.g.) could produce dose-dependent analgesic effect on hot-plate tests as well as writhing response induced by acetic acid. In addition, administration of 2.5-10 mg/kg EABR (i.g.) caused significant decrease in pain responses in the first and second phases of formalin test without altering the PGE₂ production in the hind paw of the mice. Moreover, EABR (10 µg/ml -1 mg/ml) could suppress TTX-S voltage-gated sodium currents in a dose-dependent way, indicating the underlying electrophysiological mechanism of the analgesic effect of the folk plant medicine. Collectively, our results indicated that EABR has analgesic property in three pain models and useful influence on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurons, suggesting that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of EABR on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurones may explain some of its analgesic effect.

  19. The neuritogenic and synaptogenic effects of the ethanolic extract of radix Puerariae in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul; Mohibbullah, Md; Hannan, Md Abdul; Hong, Yong-Ki; Han, Chang-Ho; Kim, Yung Kyu; Moon, Il Soo

    2015-09-15

    Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep, is used in Korean traditional medicine to treat neuronal disorders including Parkinson's disease, and its active constituent, puerarin has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect in experimental models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the neurotrophic effects of these ethnomedicines on the development of central nervous system neurons and the molecular bases of these activities. Rat embryonic (E19) brain neurons were cultured in the absence or presence of the ethanolic extract of Radix Puerariae (RPE) or puerarin. At predetermined times, cells were fixed and immunostained to visualize neuronal morphologies, or lysed for protein harvesting. Morphometric analyses of neurite outgrowths and synaptogenesis were performed using Image J software. RPE or puerarin-mediated changes in the protein profiles of cultured neurons were assessed by MALDI-TOF-MS/PMF and measuring immunofluorescent intensities. RPE and puerarin alone promoted maximum neurite outgrowths at concentrations of 1µg/ml and 5µM, respectively. At these optimal concentrations, RPE and puerarin provided neurotrophic support by promoting axo-dendritic arbors and synapse formation in cultured neurons. Proteomic study revealed that RPE and puerarin both up-regulated a number of proteins, including dynein light chain 2 (DLC2) and elongation factor 2 (EF2), which are associated with neuritogenesis and synaptic potentiation, respectively. Immunofluorescence intensity measurements confirmed the expressions of the DLC2 and Dync1h1 subunits of dynein in RPE or puerarin treated hippocampal neurons were up-regulated when RPE or puerarin induced changes in neuronal cytoarchitecture. Our study demonstrates that RPE and puerarin should be considered potentially valuable preventative therapeutics for brain disorders due to their abilities to promote the neuronal cytoarchitecture and the synaptic functionality

  20. The volatile oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma inhibits the oxidative stress-induced cell injury via reactive oxygen species scavenging and Akt activation in H9c2 cardiomyocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Chen, Jianping; Xin, Guizhong; Gong, Amy G W; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Du, Crystal Y Q; Lau, Kei M; Lee, Pinky S C; Chen, Jihang; Dong, Tina T X; Aisa, Haji A; Tsim, Karl W K

    2014-04-28

    Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a well-known medicinal herb widely used in Chinese, Uyghur and Ayurvedic medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte loss is the major pathogenesis of heart disorders. Here, the total volatile oil of NRR was isolated, and its function in preventing the cell death of cardiomyocyte was demonstrated. The cyto-protective effect of volatile oil of NRR against tBHP-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury was measured by MTT assay. A promoter-report construct (pARE-Luc) containing four repeats of antioxidant response element (ARE) was applied to study the transcriptional activation of ARE. The amounts of phase ΙΙ antioxidant enzymes were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymer chain reaction (qPCR) upon the volatile oil treatment at 30 μg/mL for 24 h. The activation of Akt pathway was analyzed by western blot. In cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes, application of NRR volatile oil exhibited strong potency in preventing tBHP-induced cell death and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the application of NRR volatile oil in cultures stimulated the gene expressions of self-defense antioxidant enzymes, which was mediated by the transcriptional activation of antioxidant response element (ARE). The induced genes were glutathione S-transferase, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic and modulatory subunits. In addition, the volatile oil of NRR activated the phosphorylation of Akt in cultured H9c2 cells. The treatment of LY294002, an Akt inhibitor, significantly inhibited the volatile oil-mediated ARE transcriptional activity, as well as the cell protective effect of NRR oil. These results demonstrated that NRR volatile oil prevented the oxidative stress-induced cell death in H9c2 cells by (i) reducing intracellular ROS production, (ii

  1. Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

    1999-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

  2. CancerHSP: anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiyang; Li, Bohui; Gao, Shuo; Bai, Yaofei; Shar, Piar Ali; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Zihu; Sun, Ke; Fu, Yingxue; Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Mu, Jiexin; Pei, Tianli; Wang, Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-06-01

    The numerous natural products and their bioactivity potentially afford an extraordinary resource for new drug discovery and have been employed in cancer treatment. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of most natural anticancer compounds remain elusive, which has become one of the major obstacles in developing novel effective anticancer agents. Here, to address these unmet needs, we developed an anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology (CancerHSP), which records anticancer herbs related information through manual curation. Currently, CancerHSP contains 2439 anticancer herbal medicines with 3575 anticancer ingredients. For each ingredient, the molecular structure and nine key ADME parameters are provided. Moreover, we also provide the anticancer activities of these compounds based on 492 different cancer cell lines. Further, the protein targets of the compounds are predicted by state-of-art methods or collected from literatures. CancerHSP will help reveal the molecular mechanisms of natural anticancer products and accelerate anticancer drug development, especially facilitate future investigations on drug repositioning and drug discovery. CancerHSP is freely available on the web at http://lsp.nwsuaf.edu.cn/CancerHSP.php.

  3. Climate change - Bad news for montane forest herb layer species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

    2013-07-01

    Global warming presents a threat to plant species distributed at montane or alpine altitudes if the topography does not allow upward shifts in distribution ranges. Nevertheless, the species might also benefit from increasing temperatures and secondary effects on dominant species (e.g. bark beetle outbreaks or summer drought affecting the canopy species). As a consequence, disturbance frequency in montane forests might increase and light availability for herb layer species will increase. We addressed these interactions in a common garden experiment in Central Germany at different altitudes, representing cold and moist vs. warm and dry conditions. We investigated three montane species with different life forms, including a herb (Trientalis europaea), a grass (Calamagrostis villosa) and a dwarf shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) under three shading treatments (3%, 28% and 86% of full sunlight). We hypothesized that montane species are at a disadvantage in the lowland, with the dwarf shrub suffering more than the grass. Furthermore, we hypothesized an antagonistic interaction of increased temperature and increased light conditions. While T. europaea and V. myrtillus showed only slightly responses to low altitude conditions, C. villosa displayed a nearly fifteen fold increase in biomass production, despite higher observed herbivory levels in the lowland. We failed to show an antagonistic effect of increased temperature and increased light availability, as all study species suffered from deep shade conditions and grew best under full light conditions at both sites. In conclusion, both improved temperature and light conditions might be principally beneficial for the investigated boreal species, in particular for the grass species C. villosa.

  4. An update on cutaneous aging treatment using herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging is caused by several factors. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure as well as oxidative stress elevates inflammatory mediators causing degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is regarded as the major cause of skin wrinkles, one of the signs of aging. Topical applications of active ingredients protect against dermal photodamage and scavenge radicals that can delay skin aging. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors against degradation of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronan are the key strategy to combat cutaneous aging. In addition, active ingredients with the efficacy to enhance extracellular matrix production, including those with UV protection efficacy, play an important role in protecting the skin from aging. Naturally derived compounds for combating skin wrinkles are gaining more interest among the consumers as they are perceived to be milder, safer, and healthier. This article, therefore, briefly addresses the causes of skin aging and extensively summarizes on herbs appraisal for skin wrinkles treatment. Therefore, delaying aging of skin using the functional herbs would maintain the individual's appearance with high esthetic and psychosocial impacts.

  5. Comparative analysis of essential oils found in Rhizomes Curcumae and Radix Curcumae by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-Ya Lü

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the volatile compounds in Rhizomes Curcumae (Ezhu and Radix Curcumae (Yujin was undertaken using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Ultrasonic extraction and GC–MS methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of five sesquiterpenes, namely, α-pinene, β-elemene, curcumol, germacrone and curdione, in Ezhu and Yunjin. Good linearity (r>0.999 and high inter-day precision were observed over the investigated concentration ranges. The validated method was successfully used for the simultaneous determination of five sesquiterpenes in Ezhu and Yujin. The quantitative method can be effectively used to evaluate and monitor the quality of Chinese curcuma in clinical use. Keywords: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Rhizomes Curcumae, Radix Curcumae, Volatile compounds, Quality control

  6. Simultaneous determination of iridoid glycosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides and furfural derivatives in Rehmanniae Radix by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Jie; Zhu, Ling-Ying

    2012-01-01

    spectrometry (HPLC–TQ-MS) was developed. The sample preparation was executed using an optimised ultrasonic method with complete extraction efficiencies of eight analytes. For mass spectrometry, selected ion recording (SIR) scan mode was used to improve the sensitivity and selectivity. The established method......In this study, a sensitive and selective method for simultaneously quantifying eight major components (four iridoid glycosides, three phenethylalcohol glycosides and one furfural derivative) of Rehmanniae Radix by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass...... was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and successfully applied to determine the contents of the eight analytes in different batches of raw and processed Rehmanniae Radix, which confirmed that the established method was reliable and useful for “holistic” quality...

  7. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs – a preliminary report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Malm; Anna Glowniak-Lipa; Izabela Korona-Glowniak; Tomasz Baj

    2015-01-01

    .... Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504...

  8. Endodontic Management of a Mandibular First Molar with Radix Entomolaris and Conservative Post-endodontic Restoration with CAD/CAM Onlay: A Novel Clinical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kanika; De Ataide, Ida De Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan; Alreja, Dalip

    2016-11-01

    This case report describes a novel technique of restoring endodontically treated teeth. Hidden caries causing irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular molar with Radix Entomolaris (RE) was evident. The intact occlusal surface anatomy was duplicated before preparing an access cavity to replicate the original occlusal surface in the post endodontic restoration using (Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing) CAD/CAM technique. This report highlights uniquely designed onlay utilizing the benefits of contemporary materials and advanced technology.

  9. Effect of some herbs as alternative for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study describes the effects of three individual herbs for the prevention and control of a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. In our study, feed (a commercial organic starter diet) was supplemented with 1% of one of the three herbs (Papaya, Boldo leaf and

  10. Natural swine health : a guide to keeping your herd healthy with herbs and other natural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Kleijer-Ligtenberg, G.; Asseldonk, van T.

    2010-01-01

    This booklet is intended to guide pig farmers through the ever increasing supply of herbs and other natural products that can be purchased nowadays. Herbs and other natural products can support healthy animals in stressful situations or enhance treatment with conventional medication. The greatest

  11. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection. Protokol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Manheimer, E; Tsutani, K

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem world-wide. Medicinal herbs are increasingly being used for hepatitis C.......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem world-wide. Medicinal herbs are increasingly being used for hepatitis C....

  12. Quality Evaluation of Herbs and Spices in The Military Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    contaminated by pathogens . In this regard many spices reportedly contain natural inhibitors which not only control the development of pathogens in the spice ...NUMBER TR 76-52 FEL 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtl tie) "Quality Evaluation of Herbs and Spices in...HERBS PACKAGING VOLATILITY SPICES SEALED SYSTEMS VOLATILE LOSS

  13. Accumulation of phenolic compounds in the purple betony herb (Stachys officinalis L. originated from cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bączek Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Purple betony (Stachys officinalis L., Lamiaceae is a perennial of versatile medicinal usage. Nowadays, in Poland betony herb is collected exclusively from wild growing plants. Decreasing number of its natural sites results in lack of the herb supply and thus, in its limited usage.

  14. Accumulation of phenolic compounds in the purple betony herb (Stachys officinalis L.) originated from cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bączek Katarzyna; Kosakowska Olga; Przybył Jarosław L.; Węglarz Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Purple betony (Stachys officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a perennial of versatile medicinal usage. Nowadays, in Poland betony herb is collected exclusively from wild growing plants. Decreasing number of its natural sites results in lack of the herb supply and thus, in its limited usage.

  15. Prevalent use of herbs for reduction of labour duration in Mwanza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewer

    determine the prevalence and factors associated with the use of herbs during labour among women in. Mwanza, Tanzania. ... linked to new-borns cardiorespiratory depression and poor APGAR score (Ernst, 2002). The use of herbs with ..... sector response in the Chiapas Highlands of Mexico. International Journal for Equity ...

  16. The Classification of Sri Lankan Medicinal Herbs: An Extensive Comparison of the Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viduranga Y. Waisundara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka has variety of herbs whose effectiveness has been proven across many generations. These herbs are classified into two groups — ‘heating’ and ‘cooling’, based on the physiological reactions upon consumption. Application-wise, the ‘cooling’ herbs are administered to patients contracted with diabetes, imbalances in the lipid profile, or even cancer. However, this classification has been misunderstood due to inconsistent interpretations and lack of scientific reasoning. This study systematically determines the rationale behind this classification, by specifically evaluating the antioxidant activity of 18 herbs — nine herbs from each category. The oxygen radical absorbance capacities, DPPH radical scavenging activities, and the total phenolic contents are analyzed here. The ‘heating’ herbs have a comparatively lower antioxidant potential than the ‘cooling’ herbs. The total phenolic contents correlate with the antioxidant values. It can be hypothesized that the high antioxidant potential of the ‘cooling’ herbs may have been responsible for the containment of the diseases mentioned previously.

  17. Prevalent use of herbs for reduction of labour duration in Mwanza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewer

    castor oil during pregnancy or labour has been associated with passage of meconium and respiratory distress (Mitri et al., 1987). The use of Montana tomentosa .... History of use of herbs during previous deliveries was an indicator for recurrent use of herbs in subsequent pregnancies as we observed that, out of 26 women ...

  18. A genetically distinct Schistosoma from Radix luteola from Nepal related to Schistosoma turkestanicum: A phylogenetic study of schistosome and snail host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Ramesh; Brant, Sara V; Loker, Eric S

    2016-12-01

    During a survey of freshwater snails in the Terai region of southern Nepal, 16 of 2588 specimens of Radix luteola from 4 different habitats were found to be shedding schistosome cercariae. None of the 1411 specimens of Radix acuminata we collected were positive for schistosomes. Analysis of 28S, cox1, 16S and 12S sequences indicated that all the R. luteola-derived schistosomes were genetically very similar to one another and, although unambiguously grouping most closely to the widespread Asian species Schistosoma turkestanicum, were clearly genetically distinct from it. We lack information from other life cycle stages to verify the specific identity of these cercariae, but it is possible they are of Schistosoma bomfordi or Schistosoma dattai, both species previously known only from northern India, the latter species known to infect R. luteola. This study provides sequence evidence for a third genetically distinct lymnaeid-transmitted Schistosoma lineage in Asia (to go along with S. turkestanicum and S. incognitum). As a close relative of S. turkestanicum, it provides the first direct molecular evidence to accompany morphological results from earlier studies for the presence of a S. turkestanicum species group in Asia. It increases to five the number of known or suspected mammalian schistosome species to be present in the Terai region of Nepal. Radix luteola and R. acuminata were identified and differentiated using conchological features and by molecular phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and 16S genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A practical strategy for the characterization of coumarins in Radix Glehniae by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Ye, Min; Liu, Man; Kong, Dezhi; Shi, Rui; Shi, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kerong; Wang, Qiao; Lantong, Zhang

    2010-07-02

    The aim of the present study was to develop a practical method for the characterization of coumarins in Radix Glehniae by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). First, 10 coumarin standards (including two pairs of isomers) were studied, and mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns and elution time rules for the coumarins were found. Then, an extract of Radix Glehniae was analyzed by the combination of two scan modes, i.e., multiple ion monitoring-information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion mode (MIM-IDA-EPI) and precursor scan information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion mode (PREC-IDA-EPI) on a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. A total of 41 coumarins were identified on the basis of their mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns. This is the first time that these two scan modes have been combined to characterize chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine. This new method allowed the identification of coumarins in Radix Glehniae in trace amounts. The methodology proposed in this study could be valuable for the structural characterization of coumarins from complex natural and synthetic sources. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of the Effect of the Degree of Processing of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Dihuang on Shu Dihuangtan Carbonization Preparation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Meng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Dihuangtan via stir-frying could increase its homeostasis maintaining and antidiarrheal effects. To ensure these pharmacological functions, the quality of the raw material (processed Rehmanniae Radix must be well controlled. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different degrees of processing and adjuvants on processed Rehmanniae Radix (Shu Dihuang by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC chromatographic fingerprints, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Based on the results from HPLC fingerprints combined with similarity analysis (SA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA the optimum processing method for Shu Dihuang was five cycles of steaming and polishing, which follows the ancient processing theory. The intensity of thermal weight loss rate peaked near 210.33 ± 4.32 °C or 211.33 ± 2.62 °C, which was an important indicator for the degree of processing of Shu Dihuang. A temperature near 290.89 ± 2.51 °C was the upper limit for carbonizing Shu Dihuangtan. FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed that the overall chemical composition of Shu Dihuangtan was affected by both the degree of processing and adjuvant, which are very important for its quality.

  1. Unusual root morphology in second mandibular molar with a radix entomolaris, and comparison between cone-beam computed tomography and digital periapical radiography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, Elisardo; Castelo-Baz, Pablo; De Moor, Roland; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín; Varela-Patiño, Purificación

    2015-09-22

    Radix entomolaris presents with an unusual morphology and is a rare occurrence. It is mainly observed in mandibular first molars. The incidence varies in different populations but it is far from common. This is especially true for mandibular second molars which possess the lowest prevalence. Some case reports have shown the presence of this finding in mandibular second molars; however, cases of patients of a white background have not been reported. The diagnosis and treatment of an infected radix entomolaris in a mandibular second molar in a 45-year-old white man is presented. The diagnosis was made with standard endodontic techniques. Conventional radiographic imaging was augmented with cone-beam computed tomography scans and three-dimensional images which were constructed with dedicated software. The endodontic treatment was done using accepted endodontic procedures. Clinical and radiographic evidence of healing was seen after a 14-month follow-up. The implications of complex and unpredictable root anatomy are discussed in this report. The clinician should consider the possibility of encountering a mandibular second molar with a radix entomolaris. Cone-beam computed tomography is a useful tool in the diagnosis and improvement of root canal therapy.

  2. Stereospecific Assay of (R- and (S-Goitrin in Commercial Formulation of Radix Isatidis by Reversed Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix isatidis (Banlangen is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for treating fever and removing toxic heat. Pharmacological studies have indicated that (R-goitrin (epigoitrin is one of the main constituents accounting for its antiviral activity, while (S-goitrin (goitrin is known as an antithyroid factor. To better control the quality of radix isatidis and its formulations, it is imperative to enantiomerically determine the contents of R- and S-goitrin. In this study, an enantioselective method based on reversed phase chromatography was developed for the assay of (R, S-goitrin enantiomers. Optimum separation was obtained on an S-Chiral A column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm using methanol/water (30 : 70, v/v as the mobile phase. After validation, the method was applied to quantify the enantiomers in Banlangen granules, which is the most prescribed commercial formulation of radix isatidis. Compared to enantioselective resolution approaches based on normal phase chromatography, the new method could be conveniently performed using regular reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC equipment and was found to be more suitable for the enantioselective quality control of water-extracted and soluble medicines.

  3. Aesthetic comparison of the ideal nasal radix height in brazilians Comparação estética da altura ideal do radix nasal em uma população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Augusto Gomes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The harmony of the facial profile is widely influenced by the height and form of the nasal dorsum. A few millimeters can make the lateral view aesthetically more or less pleasing and adequate in a subject's face. Professionals working with facial aesthetics should focus not only on the surgical techniques for proposed outcomes, but also with the subtleties and subjectivity that characterize aesthetic concepts and judgment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective survey to evaluate the preferences of a group of healthcare professionals working with facial aesthetics, a group of fine artists, and lay people about the best nasal radix height; the survey involved comparing 3 different nasal radix heights using computer-altered photographs of women with measurements close to the Caucasian standard. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The lowest position of the nasal radix - close to the height of the pupil - was preferred (53%, followed by the middle position (superior crease of the eye. The highest position, resembling classic Greek statues, was considered the worst. The authors aos evaluated the effect of age, gender, and educational level on the choice of the best and worst female profiles.A harmonia facial da visão de perfil é muito influenciada pela altura e forma do dorso nasal. Poucos milímetros podem determinar as diferenças que tornam o perfil esteticamente agradável e adequado a uma determinada face. Além da discussão a respeito de técnicas cirúrgicas para obter determinados objetivos, os profissionais também precisam se aprofundar nas sutilezas e subjetividades que envolvem o julgamento estético. Com forma de estudo tipo inquérito, o objetivo foi pesquisar a preferência de um grupo de profissionais de saúde que lidam com estética facial, um grupo de artistas e outro de leigos sobre três possíveis variações da altura da raiz do nariz. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Fotografias de mulheres, com medidas muito próximas do modelo caucasiano, foram

  4. Paeonia lactiflora Pall. protects against ANIT-induced cholestasis by activating Nrf2 via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma X

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Ma,1,2 Yan-ling Zhao,2 Yun Zhu,3 Zhe Chen,1,2 Jia-bo Wang,4 Rui-yu Li,1,4 Chang Chen,1,2 Shi-zhang Wei,1,2 Jian-yu Li,3 Bing Liu,5 Rui-lin Wang,3 Yong-gang Li,3 Li-fu Wang,3 Xiao-he Xiao4 1Pharmacy College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, 302 Military Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Integrative Medical Center, 302 Military Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4China Military Institute of Chinese Medicine, 302 Military Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Background: Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (PLP, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for hepatic disease treatment over thousands of years. In our previous study, PLP was shown to demonstrate therapeutic effect on hepatitis with severe cholestasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of PLP on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT-induced cholestasis by activating NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Materials and methods: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to identify the main compounds present in PLP. The mechanism of action of PLP and its therapeutic effect on cholestasis, induced by ANIT, were further investigated. Serum indices such as total bilirubin (TBIL, direct bilirubin (DBIL, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT, and total bile acid (TBA were measured, and histopathology of liver was also performed to determine the efficacy of treatment with PLP. Moreover, in order to illustrate the underlying signaling pathway, liver glutathione (GSH content and mRNA or protein levels of glutamate

  5. Pharmacogenomics and Herb-Drug Interactions: Merge of Future and Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou-Ze Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide using of herb products and the increasing potential herb-drug interaction issue has raised enthusiasm on discovering the underlying mechanisms. Previous review indicated that the interactions may be mediated by metabolism enzymes and transporters in pharmacokinetic pathways. On the other hand, an increasing number of studies found that genetic variations showed some influence on herb-drug interaction effects whereas these genetic factors did not draw much attention in history. We highlight that pharmacogenomics may involve the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic pathways to affect herb-drug interaction. We are here to make an updated review focused on some common herb-drug interactions in association with genetic variations, with the aim to help safe use of herbal medicines in different individuals in the clinic.

  6. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...... herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns...... related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste...

  7. Bioactive Compounds in Some Culinary Aromatic Herbs and Their Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Gonçalves, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Culinary herbs are herbaceous (leafy) plants that add flavour and colour to all types of meals. There is a wide variety of herbs that are used for culinary purposes worldwide, which are also recognized for their beneficial health effects, and thus have also been used in folk medicine. Besides their nutritional value herbs are rich in many phytochemical components with bioactive effects, thus improving human health. The aim of the present work was to make a general overview of some of these herbs, including their gastronomic usage, their chemical composition in bioactive components and their reported health effects. This work showed that the health effects are very diverse and differ according to the herb in question. However, some of the most frequently citted biological activities include antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects.

  8. [Trends of genome evolution in land and secondary-water herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaleĭ, Iu V; Sheremet'ev, S N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genome sizes in two groups of herbs, land and secondary-water, has been released. It is shown that their genomes are changed to opposite topics in cenozoic. The genome of land herbs is increased, and it is decreased in secondary water herbs. Genome growth in land herbs is analyzed as the result of unfavourable changes in global climate: cooling, aridization and atmospheric CO2 deficit. Genome minimization in secondary-water herbs is interpreted as the sequence of united effect of two groups of factors: returning to more stable water environment and breakdown of symbiotic relations with fungi partner. The influence of environmental discomfort and development of symbiotic or parasitic relations on genome size is discussed in association with established differences.

  9. Identification of anti-HBV activities in Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. using GRP78 as a drug target on Herbochip(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Iao-Fai; Huang, Min; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tysr; Yao, Pei-Wun; Chou, Yu-Ting; Ng, Sim-Kun; Tsai, Ying-Lin; Lin, Yu-Chang; Zhang, Yun-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Yuan; Lai, Yiu-Kay

    2017-01-01

    Herbochip(®) technology is a high throughput drug screening platform in a reverse screening manner, in which potential chemical leads in herbal extracts are immobilized and drug target proteins can be used as probes for screening process [BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2015) 15:146]. While herbal medicines represent an ideal reservoir for drug screenings, here a molecular chaperone GRP78 is demonstrated to serve as a potential target for antiviral drug discovery. We cloned and expressed a truncated but fully functional form of human GRP78 (hGRP78(1-508)) and used it as a probe for anti-HBV drug screening on herbochips. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-HBV activity of the herbal extracts were evaluated by MTT and ELISA assays, respectively. Finally, anti-HBV activity was confirmed by in vivo assay using DHBV DNA levels in DHBV-infected ducklings as a model. Primary screenings using GRP78 on 40 herbochips revealed 11 positives. Four of the positives, namely Dioscorea bulbifera, Lasiosphaera fenzlii, Paeonia suffruticosa and Polygonum cuspidatum were subjected to subsequent assays. None of the above extracts was cytotoxic to AML12 cells, but P. cuspidatum extract (PCE) was found to be cytotoxic to HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Both PCE and P. suffruticosa extract (PSE) suppressed secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. The anti-HBV activity of PSE was further confirmed in vivo. We have demonstrated that GRP78 is a valid probe for anti-HBV drug screening on herbochips. We have also shown that PSE, while being non-cytotoxic, possesses in vitro and in vivo anti-HBV activities. Taken together, our data suggest that PSE may be a potential anti-HBV agent for therapeutic use.

  10. Digital Gene Expression Analysis to Screen Disease Resistance-Relevant Genes from Leaves of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Infected by Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saijie Gong

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a well-known traditional flower in China and is widely used for landscaping and garden greening due to its high ornamental value. However, disease spots usually appear after the flowering of the plant and may result in the withering of the plant in severe cases. This study examined the disease incidence in an herbaceous peony field in the Yangzhou region, Jiangsu Province. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular data, the disease in this area was identified as a gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Based on previously obtained transcriptome data, eight libraries generated from two herbaceous peony cultivars 'Zifengyu' and 'Dafugui' with different susceptibilities to the disease were then analyzed using digital gene expression profiling (DGE. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened by comparing the eight samples, and these genes were annotated using the Gene ontology (GO and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG database. The pathways related to plant-pathogen interaction, secondary metabolism synthesis and antioxidant system were concentrated, and 51, 76, and 13 disease resistance-relevant candidate genes were identified, respectively. The expression patterns of these candidate genes differed between the two cultivars: their expression of the disease-resistant cultivar 'Zifengyu' sharply increased during the early stages of infection, while it was relatively subdued in the disease-sensitive cultivar 'Dafugui'. A selection of ten candidate genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to validate the DGE data. These results revealed the transcriptional changes that took place during the interaction of herbaceous peony with B. cinerea, providing insight into the molecular mechanisms of host resistance to gray mold.

  11. Heavy metals translocation and accumulation from the rhizosphere soils to the edible parts of the medicinal plant Fengdan (Paeonia ostii) grown on a metal mining area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhang Jun; Xu, De Cong; Chen, Yan Song; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Fengdan (Paeonia ostii) is one of Chinese 34 famous medicinal materials. This study investigated the concentrations of Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), and Zinc (Zn) in rhizosphere soils, cortex mouton and seeds of Fengdan planted in a metal mining area, China. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Zn in the rhizosphere soils were above the limits set by the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995). The contamination factor (CF) of Cd was >5, while it was >2for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in all the soils. The integrated pollution index for all the soils was >3 and ˂ 5. Metal concentrations in the edible parts of Fengdan were in the following decreasing order: Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Cr≥Cd. The transfer factor mean values for As, Cu, Cd and Fe in the cortex moutan of old Fengdan (over 6 years) were significantly higher than in young Fengdan. Available metal concentrations, pH and soil organic matter content influenced the metal concentrations of the cortex moutan. The results indicated that mining and smelting operations have led to heavy metals contamination of soils and medicinal parts of Fengdan. The major metal pollutants were elemental Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Heavy metals mainly accumulated in the cortex moutan of Fengdan. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Pb in the old cortex moutan (over 6 years) were above those of the Chinese Green Trade Standards for Medicinal Plants and Preparations in Foreign Trade (WM/T2-2004). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Changes of vitamin C content in celery and parsley herb after processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Valšíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other primates have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C and therefore the only source is diet. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid has labile nature, it is removed or destroyed in specific degree immediately after harvest, but storage and post - harvest processing also contribute to its degradation. The aim of work was to determine the vitamin C content in the herb of selected celery and parsley varieties in dependence on chosen postharvest processing and to compare it with fresh herb. There were chosen five bulb forms varieties of celery (Apium graveolens - Makara, Ilonaa, Hegy Köi, Talar and Diamant. In case of parsley (Petroselinum crispum there were evaluated one variety of curly parsley, one variety of herb parsley - Petra, and five varieties of root parsley - Lenka, Eagle, Ginate D´Italia, Titana and Arat. Every variety was harvested in three terms, followed by vitamin C content estimation in fresh herb, after drying and after freezing. The content of vitamin C was estimated by HPLC method by the help of liquid chromatograph with UV detector. There was found the significant difference in content of vitamin C in parsley as well as in celery when comparing the fresh herb with herbs after post - harvest processes - drying (by air circulation in laboratory hall and freezing. After processing of herbs in both observed species the vitamin C content decreased, in case of freezing it was about 65% (celery and 61% (parsley, after drying about 86% (celery and 82% (parsley in comparison with fresh herb. The effect of processing played more important role in influencing of vitamin C content than variety in case of both selected species. For using of celery and parsley not only as culinary herb, but as a notable source of ascorbic acid it is the most important fresh herb intake.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  13. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Różańska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached <10(4) CFU/g. Results achieved in the study indicate good hygienic conditions in the production process of spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control, lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L, lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP, and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG, respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency.

  15. Consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs: An application of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Nargesh Khatun; Noorhosseini, Seyyed Ali; Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh; Damalas, Christos A

    2017-07-31

    The shift in consumers' preferences from synthetic to 'natural' products has led to a resurgence of interest in medicinal plants, particularly in developing countries. However, research data about consumers' preferences for particular products is hard to find. The main objective of this study was to contribute to the general understanding of consumers' intention for selecting medicinal herbs for consumption. Factors underpinning consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs were studied with the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Rasht City of Iran using a structured questionnaire. Most respondents had low to moderate familiarity with consumption of medicinal herbs. However, about half of the respondents (47.5%) showed a high level of acceptance of medicinal herbs. Herbs like spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Damask rose (Rosa × damascena Herrm.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J.Presl), flixweed [Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl], red feathers (Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.), and green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] had the highest consumption rate among the majority (over 75%) of citizens of Rasht. The highest rate of perceived usefulness of medicinal herbs was related to their perceived role in healing diseases. The variable of importance of use of medicinal herbs had the strongest direct effect and the variables of perceived usefulness and attitude towards use had the second and third strongest direct effect on the acceptance of medicinal herbs' use at p < 0.01. Findings provide a useful evaluation of the acceptance of medicinal herbs and may serve as a benchmark for future research and evaluation concerning the use of medicinal herbs over time. For plant producers, more effective and targeted crop development should be encouraged, whereas for retailers better marketing and delivery strategies should be sought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  16. Herbalist-Customer Profile in Medicinal and Aromatic Herbs Trade: A Case Study of Kahramanmaraş, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Sefa; Özkan, Zafer Cemal

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted with nine herb firms and 99 customers shopping at those herb stores. A questionnaire consisting of two separate sections was given to the herbalists and their customers, and face-to-face interviews were conducted. The study revealed that the top three most frequently purchased and sold herbs were Mentha x piperita, Thymbra spicata subsp. spicata, and Tilia tomentosa. Thus, the first ranking of the causes for buying and selling these herbs are digestive system disorder...

  17. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune; Andersen, Lene F

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessmen...

  18. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa...

  19. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: a medicinal herb with promising health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-11-05

    Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory), a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  20. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  1. Microwave-assisted extraction of essential oils from herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Ugarte, Gabriel Abraham; Juárez-Becerra, Gladys Paola; Sosa-Morales, María Elena; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) has been recognized as a technique with several advantages over other extraction methods, such as reduction of costs, extraction time, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions. In this study, MAE was performed to obtain essential oils from two different herbs (basil and epazote). A factorial design was conducted in order to determine the effect of solvent quantity, power, and heating time on essential oil yields. Chemical composition, physical properties and yield percentage of essential oils from MAE were compared with essential oils obtained by steam distillation (SD). Amount of solvent and heating time significantly affected the yields (p essential oils from basil and epazote were not affected by the extraction method (MAE or SD), with similar yielding obtained by both methods (p < 0.05).

  2. Economic evaluation of herb extraction using supercritical fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shariaty-Niassar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the climate diversity in different parts of Iran, a variety of plants grow across the country, many of them having pharmaceutical applications. At present, only a few companies are producing herbal essence, all of them are technically based on conventional methods of extraction such as steam distillation and others. Because of the current serious concern with respect to the environmental conservation law the use of green technology seems imperative. The supercritical fluid extraction is considered as a practical and procedural method which has become under serious consideration in recent years. For this, an economical analysis is made of herb extractions using a supercritical fluid. The results of such a survey can clarify the new methods to be of great concern. The aim of this paper is to present the feasibility studies of supercritical fluid extraction units used for producing a different plant extract and especially that of rosemary.

  3. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS OF HERB OF THYMUS CRETACEUS KLOK. ET SCHOST

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    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied carboxylic acids of the herb of Thymus cretaceus Klok. et Schost which is widespread on a territory of some regions (Belgorod, Voronezh. The study was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography at Agilent Technologies 6890 chromatographer with massspectrometric detector 5973 N. Acids concentration was calculated by means of inner standard.We have established that carboxylic acids of Thymus cretaceus are represented by 34 compounds. Palmitic (1779.02 mg/kg, behenic (1084.15 mg/kg, levulinic (986.24 mg/kg and linoleic acids (678.82 mg/kg predominate among fatty acids; citric (9835.14 mg/kg, malonic (447.91 mg/kg and oxalic acids (388.32 mg/kg predominate among organic acids; andferulic acid predominate amongphenolcarbonic acids.

  4. Nutritional composition of selected green leafy vegetables, herbs and carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kawatra, A; Sehgal, S

    2001-01-01

    Six green leafy vegetables and herbs - spinach, amaranth, bengal gram, cauliflower, mint, coriander and carrots - were analyzed for moisture, protein, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, total iron, ionizable iron (as % of total iron) in vitro iron (% of total iron), copper, manganese and zinc. Moisture content of the leaves and carrots varied from 75.1 percent (bengal gram) to 95.4 percent (carrot) and protein from 9.83 percent (carrots) to 30.9 (mint) percent. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, total iron and ionizable iron contents were at a maximum in case of bengal gram leaves whereas level of ionizable iron and in vitro iron as a percent of total iron was highest in carrots. Copper, manganese and zinc contents were maximum in spinach.

  5. Skin hyperpigmentation treatment using herbs: A review of clinical evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya

    2017-08-30

    Hyperpigmentation of skin is caused by several factors. UV exposure, in addition to oxidative stress, elevates inflammatory mediators stimulating melanogenesis. Herbal-derived compounds for improving skin lightness are gaining interest as they are perceived to be milder, safer, and healthier than fully synthetic products. This review briefly addresses the causes of skin hyperpigmentation and extensively summarizes the status of herbs currently used in skin-lightening cosmetics. The properties of active compounds and their dose rate information are summarized where available, along with human or animal relevant models for activity testing. This review will be of value to cosmetic formulators and dermatologists who are searching for naturally derived ingredients for improving skin lightness, in line with consumer preference and expectations.

  6. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jian Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made.

  7. SOILS AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION UNDER MEDICINAL HERBS ECOLOGICAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out with medicinal herbs in the frame of a National project financed by CNCSIS through the Partnership Program. Ecologic and conventional technologies were applied. The project aimed to implement a standardization system of the vegetal raw materials which can be used in the cosmetic industry. Sage, basilicum, and savory were subject of the experiments, at Jucu, Cluj County, Ungureni – Butimanu, Dâmboviţa County, and Secuieni, Neamţ County. The dominant soils in these areas are Fluvisols and Haplic Chernozems in the Jucu area, Chromic Luvisol in the Ungureni – Butimanu area, and Calcic Chernozem in the Secuieni area. The agrochemical analysis of the soils from the experimental fields highlighted soil fertility properties conservation both under ecologic and conventional growing technologies.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  9. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi′s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler′s health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  10. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  11. Larval trematode communities in Radix auricularia and Lymnaea stagnalis in a reservoir system of the Ruhr River

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    Pérez-del-Olmo Ana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of the data available from traditional faunistic approaches to mollusc-trematode systems covering large spatial and/or temporal scales in Europe convinced us that a parasite community approach in well-defined aquatic ecosystems is essential for the substantial advancement of our understanding of the parasite response to anthropogenic pressures in urbanised areas which are typical on a European scale. Here we describe communities of larval trematodes in two lymnaeid species, Radix auricularia and Lymnaea stagnalis in four man-made interconnected reservoirs of the Ruhr River (Germany focusing on among- and within-reservoir variations in parasite prevalence and component community composition and structure. Results The mature reservoir system on the Ruhr River provides an excellent environment for the development of species-rich and abundant trematode communities in Radix auricularia (12 species and Lymnaea stagnalis (6 species. The lake-adapted R. auricularia dominated numerically over L. stagnalis and played a major role in the trematode transmission in the reservoir system. Both host-parasite systems were dominated by bird parasites (13 out of 15 species characteristic for eutrophic water bodies. In addition to snail size, two environmental variables, the oxygen content and pH of the water, were identified as important determinants of the probability of infection. Between-reservoir comparisons indicated an advanced eutrophication at Baldeneysee and Hengsteysee and the small-scale within-reservoir variations of component communities provided evidence that larval trematodes may have reflected spatial bird aggregations (infection 'hot spots'. Two life history groupings of dominant species, the 'cyprinid' and 'anatid' parasites, that depict two aspects of progressive eutrophication in this mature reservoir system, were identified. Conclusions We conclude that trematode communities in the lake-adapted R. auricularia are

  12. THE USE OF THE MEDICINAL HERBS IN THE CITY OF VELENJE

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    Zalika Klemenc Ketiš

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data about the use of medicinal herbs for selftreatment in our population is sparse. Therefore the aim of our survey was to investigate the measures taken by patients with four most frequent symptoms, which medicinal herbs they used and where they got them.Methods. In the streets of the city of Velenje 184 randomly chosen adults were asked about the measures to cope with their four most common symptoms: abdominal pain, headache, diarrhoea and raised body temperature.Results. 72 percent of people surveyed use medicinal herbs. The use increases with advancing age. There are no differences regarding their education. It has been found that the pill is mostly used while the medicinal herbs take the third place. The most frequently used herb is camomile (Matricaria chamomilla. The herbs are mainly provided by the users themselves.Conclusions. Medicinal herbs are often used in combination with conventional therapy, without proper knowledge of their side effects and the harm of potentional misuse. The physicians are mainly not aware of their use among the patients. The importance of this problem for the public health service is thus essential.

  13. Physicochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Bee Honey Enriched With Herbs.

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    Dżugan, Małgorzata; Sowa, Patrycja; Kwaśniewska, Monika; Wesołowska, Monika; Czernicka, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Three groups of products enriched with herbs were studied: (1) commercial herb honeys (n = 5) produced by bees fed a syrup with an herbal extract, (2) natural herbal honey (n = 3) produced by bees from the nectar of herbs, and (3) creamed multifloral honey with added dried herbs (n = 5). As a control, multifloral honey (n = 5) was used. The physicochemical parameters (i.e., sugar extract, water content, specific rotation, conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, pH and acidity), sugar profiles (HPLC analysis), antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds content of the studied samples were compared. Although great diversity in the basic properties of the studied products was observed, they were comparable to multifloral honey and complied with honey regulations. Significant differences in sugar composition were observed, and adversely positive rotation (excluding nettle herb honey) was detected in group 1, likely resulting from the change in bee feeding. The best antioxidant activity for creamed honeys with dried herbs (group 2) was investigated, whereas herb honeys (group 1) exhibited similar antioxidant properties as multifloral honey. The use of controlled feeding of bees appears to be an effective method of enriching honey with desirable plant bioactive components to create innovative bee products.

  14. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

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    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents.

  15. Effects of five Ayurvedic herbs on locomotor behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson's disease model.

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    Jansen, R L M; Brogan, B; Whitworth, A J; Okello, E J

    2014-12-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B. monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Investigation on Wild Original Plant Species of Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province].

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    Huang, Xiu-zhen; Zou, Xiu-hong

    2014-12-01

    To explore the original plants of wild medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province and find out the species of these plants. Based on the field investigation, specimen collection and literature reference, inductive analysis of the wild original plants of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City had been carried out. After investigation, it was discovered that there were 84 families 155 genera 184 species of original plants of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, of which 6 families 7 genera 9 species belonged to pteridophytes; 2 families 2 genera 2 species belonged to gymnosperms; and the rest were angio-sperms. Among the angiosperms, dicotyledons accounted for 62 families 117 genera 139 species; monocotyledons took up 14 families 29 genera 34 species. The plants mentioned above were the original plants of the 186 Chinese medicinal herbs and decoction pieces in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). This paper has explored the wild original plant species of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province to provide not only the basis for the local government's development and utilization of wild Chinese medicinal herbs but also the data for the fourth national survey of Chinese medicinal herb resources.

  17. The Quantitative Ideas and Methods in Assessment of Four Properties of Chinese Medicinal Herbs.

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    Fu, Jialei; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Xiaolei; Han, Jinxiang

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize and reflect on the current status and problems of the research on the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. Hot, warm, cold, and cool are the four properties/natures of Chinese medicinal herbs. They are defined based on the interaction between the herbs with human body. How to quantitatively assess the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbs based on the theoretical system of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remains to be a challenge. Previous studies on the topic from several perspectives have been presented. Results and problems were discussed. New ideas based on the technology of biophoton radiation detection are proposed. With the development of biophoton detection technology, detection and characterization of human biophoton emission has led to its potential applications in TCM. The possibility of using the biophoton analysis system to study the interaction of Chinese medicinal herbs with human body and to quantitatively determine the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbal is entirely consistent with the holistic concept of TCM theory. The statistical entropy of electromagnetic radiations from the biological systems can characterize the four properties of Chinese medicinal herbs, and the spectrum can characterize the meridian tropism of it. Therefore, we hypothesize that by the use of biophoton analysis system, the four properties and meridian tropism of Chinese medicinal herbs can be quantitatively expressed.

  18. Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. herb depending on the development stage

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    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemical composition – using GC-MS method. The examined material contained 0.17–0.29 ml × 100g-1 of essential oil, depending on the stage of plant development when the harvest was done. 61 (generative phase and 65 (vegetative phase compounds were found in the examined coriander oil. The essential oil from the coriander herb contained the highest amount of aliphatic aldehydes, among which was decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenol had the highest percentages. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent harvest of the herb. In addition to the above-mentioned aliphatic aldehydes, the presence of linalool, phytol, and oleic acid was found in the essential oil extracted from the coriander herb.

  19. Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.

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    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Grażyna; Zawiślak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality.

  20. The effect of drying on antioxidant activity of selected lamiaceae herbs

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    Anna Adámková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity and total phenolics content of selected fresh and dried herbs from the Lamiaceae family were compared. The analysed herbs included Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Satureja hortensis, Origanum majorana, and Origanum heracleoticum from the 1st and the 2nd harvests. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method and the total content of phenols was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Ascorbic and gallic acids were used as reference standards. All the analysed herbs had the reasonable potential to reduce the DPPH radical. The dried herbs from the 2nd harvest had the highest antioxidant activity. Oregano exhibited the highest antioxidant activity from the analyzed samples of both harvests together. The descending order of the samples was oregano ˃ Greek oregano ˃ marjoram ˃ summer savory ˃ thyme. Marjoram from the 2nd harvest had the highest antioxidant activity from the fresh samples. The lowest activity was observed in thyme from the 2nd harvest. In case of dried samples, the highest antioxidant activity was measured in sample of Greek oregano from the 2nd harwest. The lowest activity was observed in thyme from the 1st and 2nd harvest again. The descending order of total phenolics content for both harvests together was oregano ˃ Greek oregano ˃ marjoram ˃ summer savory ˃ thyme. In case of fresh herbs the highest total phenolics content was measured in oregano from the 1st harvest, the lowest content was measured in summer savory from the 2nd harvest. Greek oregano from the 2nd harvest had the highest values from dried herbs. Dried thyme from the second harvest had the lowest total phenolics content. The correlation between the DPPH values and the total content of phenols was determined (for fresh herbs: 0.4917; for dried herbs: 0.8698. According to the total content of phenols a statistically significant difference between the fresh and dried herbs from the 2nd harvest (p = 0.0185 was found.

  1. Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function.

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    Panickar, Kiran S

    2013-03-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies.

  2. Prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections by traditional Chinese herbs.

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    Wang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Zejing

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on current knowledge of traditional Chinese herbs on prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections, especially caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (SARS) virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza viruses. The data used in this review were obtained from PubMed and CNKI up to May 2013. Terms of Chinese herbs and infections of respiratory tract were used in the search. Articles related that Chinese herbs preventing and treating infections in respiratory tract were retrieved and reviewed. The risk of bias of included studies was assessed by the method in the "Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reveiws of Interventionsand studies" with high risk of bias were excluded. Four criteria for selections were set as following: randomized controlled trial, particular effective compound or derivative, reproducible result and animal test. Infectious respiratory tract diseases cause most mortality among infectious illnesses around the world. As traditional medicines, Chinese herbs have been widely used to deal with diseases for centuries and have been proved effective in practice. The administration of some Chinese herbs stimulates, suppresses or regulates the activity of immune system, thus protecting the respiratory tract or relieving infections of pathogens. Many herbs have remarkable antiviral effects, therefore they are used as substitutes of antimicrobial drugs. Based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, mix-using herbs provide a synergistic benefit on preventing and healing respiratory tract infections. Many commercial herbal medicines containing one or more compounds have been successfully applied to prevent and treat viral infections of respiratory tract clinically. Traditional Chinese herbs could directly inhibit pathogens infecting respiratory tract, or coordinate the activity of immune system to avoid or relieve infections. With the emergence of antidrug pathogens or new variants, Chinese herbs give strong

  3. [Numerical analysis on network characteristics of communities in herb-pairs network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Xin, Juan-juan; Wang, Yun

    2015-06-01

    To interpret the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory by the network technology, in order to promote the modernization and programming of studies on compatibility of TCMs. In this paper, efforts were made to express the direct interactions between drugs through the herb-pair network, analyze the community characteristics of the network and its relations with blood-Qi theory, and study the expression of blood-Qi theory on the herb-pair network through prescriptions. According to the findings, the herb-pairs network showed a strong community structure characteristics; Each community is composed of a series of herb pairs with close correlations, and either blood efficacy or Qi efficacy but not both of them. Based on that, the 386 single TCM ingredients involved by the herb-pair network were divided into three types of communities: Blood (B) community, Qi (Q) community and uncertain community. According to the statistical results of 262 prescriptions mapped onto the three types of communities, if a prescription contains single herbs of the Q community, the probability that it contains single herbs o the B community is 99.84%; Meanwhile, there are 140 prescriptions containing single herbs of both the Q community and the B community. The result is completely coincident with the TCM Blood-Qi theory that single herbs belong to both Q and B communities or the B community, because Qi regulation leads to blood regulation, but not vice versa. For example, a patient with hemorrhage due to trauma or blood-heat, Qi tonifying prescriptions may aggravate hemorrhage. In this paper, authors found high-recognition macroscopic network numerical characteristics to network data reference for judging rationality of new prescriptions, and proved human blood and Qi relations from the perspective of data analysis.

  4. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

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    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

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    Yujiao Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  6. The role of organic acids on microbial deterioration in the Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere under continuous monoculture regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Zhu, Quan; Wang, Juanying; Qin, Xianjin; Xu, Jiahui; Kong, Lufei; Chen, Jun; Lin, Sheng; Umar Khan, Muhammad; Amjad, Hira; Lin, Wenxiong

    2017-06-14

    A three-year field monoculture trial of Radix pseudostellariae and complementary laboratory studies were conducted to further elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for significant decreases in the biomass yield and quality of R. pseudostellariae under continuous monoculture regimes. HPLC analysis indicated that continuous monoculture soil was rich in organic acids, which had cumulative effects over time. Further analysis suggested that the application of a mixture of organic acids significantly promoted growth of pathogenic fungi, and increased the expression of chemotaxis-related gene (cheA) and biofilm formation of the specific pathogenic Kosakonia sacchari. However, opposite reactions were observed in the case of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus. Concurrently, the present results revealed that the mixed organic acids stimulated the production of toxins, as well as H2O2 in the pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the presence of organic acids reflecting environmental conditions under monocropping had negative effects on the expression of the biocontrol-related genes, which resulted in attenuated antagonistic activities of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to suppress mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi. These results help to unveil the mechanisms associated with how accumulated organic acids differentially mediate deterioration of soil microbial composition and structure in monocropping system.

  7. Endodontic treatment of the permanent mandibular first molar with a radix entomolaris: A case report and literature review

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    Štamfelj Iztok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The success of endodontic treatment is based on correct determination of the number of roots and root canals. Therefore, variants in root number and root canal number are a constant therapeutic challenge. The permanent mandibular first molar (PMFM usually has a mesial root with two canals and a distal root with one or two canals, but may also have a supernumerary root located distolingually - a radix entomolaris (RE. Case report: Recent studies have shown that RE invariably contains a single root canal. Although RE occurs with a relatively low prevalence in Caucasian patients, it may be the cause of endodontic failure if not identified before or during the treatment. The knowledge about the location of the additional root canal orifice will result in a modified access cavity design. Moreover, morphological features of the RE in terms of root inclination and curvature must be taken into account during root canal preparation to avoid procedural errors, such as straightening and ledging of the root canal, perforation or instrument fracture. Conclusion: This paper presents the endodontic retreatment of a PMFM with RE in a Caucasian patient and highlights the importance of a thorough radiographic and clinical examination.

  8. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S; Tsai, Chin-En; Yu, Bi; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR) and Gardeniae fructus (GF) showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding and suppressing serum level of TNF- α induced by infection in swine. Bioactivities of SR and GF were enhanced by combining with LAB strains, which alone could speed up the bacteria elimination time in feces and boost immunity of infected pigs. Baicalein and genipin exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than baicalin and geniposide did, as well as prevent Salmonella from invading macrophages. Our study suggests LAB strains as exhibiting multiple functions: preventing infection, enhancing immunity to prepare host defenses against further infection, and adjusting intestinal microbes' enzymatic activity in order to convert herbal compounds to active compounds. The SR/GF-LAB strain mixture holds potential infection-prevention agents supplied as feed additives.

  9. Application of Scutellariae radix, Gardeniae fructus, and Probiotics to Prevent Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis Infection in Swine

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    Chiung-Hung Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a host-adapted pathogen of swine, usually causes septicemia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains have been widely studied in recent years for their probiotic properties. In this study, a mouse infection model first screened for potential agents against infection, then a pig infection model evaluated effects of LAB strains and herbal plants against infection. Scutellariae radix (SR and Gardeniae fructus (GF showed abilities to reduce bacteria shedding and suppressing serum level of TNF-α induced by infection in swine. Bioactivities of SR and GF were enhanced by combining with LAB strains, which alone could speed up the bacteria elimination time in feces and boost immunity of infected pigs. Baicalein and genipin exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than baicalin and geniposide did, as well as prevent Salmonella from invading macrophages. Our study suggests LAB strains as exhibiting multiple functions: preventing infection, enhancing immunity to prepare host defenses against further infection, and adjusting intestinal microbes’ enzymatic activity in order to convert herbal compounds to active compounds. The SR/GF-LAB strain mixture holds potential infection-prevention agents supplied as feed additives.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution Study of Praeruptorin D from Radix Peucedani in Rats by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC

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    Xue Du

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Praeruptorin D (PD, a major pyranocoumarin isolated from Radix Peucedani, exhibited antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PD in rats following intravenous (i.v. administration. The levels of PD in plasma and tissues were measured by a simple and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. The biosamples were treated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and osthole was used as the internal standard (IS. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a reversed-phase C18 column using methanol-water (75:25, v/v as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and ultraviolet detection wave length was set at 323 nm. The results demonstrate that this method has excellent specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery. The pharmacokinetic study found that PD fitted well into a two-compartment model with a fast distribution phase and a relative slow elimination phase. Tissue distribution showed that the highest concentration was observed in the lung, followed by heart, liver and kidney. Furthermore, PD can also be detected in the brain, which indicated that PD could cross the blood-brain barrier after i.v. administration.

  11. A rapid discrimination of authentic and unauthentic Radix Angelicae Sinensis growth regions by electronic nose coupled with multivariate statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Weixin; Yang, Yaojun; Yan, Yuning; Wang, Wenyi; Wu, Haozhong; Ren, Zihe

    2014-10-27

    Radix Angelicae Sinensis, known as Danggui in China, is an effective and wide applied material in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and it is used in more than 80 composite formulae. Danggui from Minxian County, Gansu Province is the best in quality. To rapidly and nondestructively discriminate Danggui from the authentic region of origin from that from an unauthentic region, an electronic nose coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was developed. Two different feature extraction methods were used to ensure the authentic region and unauthentic region of Danggui origin could be discriminated. One feature extraction method is to capture the average value of the maximum response of the electronic nose sensors (feature extraction method 1). The other one is to combine the maximum response of the sensors with their inter-ratios (feature extraction method 2). Multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were employed. Nineteen samples were analyzed by PCA, SIMCA and HCA. Then the remaining samples (GZM1, SH) were projected onto the SIMCA model to validate the models. The results indicated that, in the use of feature extraction method 2, Danggui from Yunnan Province and Danggui from Gansu Province could be successfully discriminated using the electronic nose coupled with PCA, SIMCA and HCA, which suggested that the electronic-nose system could be used as a simple and rapid technique for the discrimination of Danggui between authentic and unauthentic region of origin.

  12. Radix Astragali-Based Chinese Herbal Medicine for Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN remains a big challenge for oncologists. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Radix Astragali- (RA- based Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy, including the incidence and grading of neurotoxicity, effective percentage, and nerve conduction velocity. Methods. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs were found using PubMed, Cochrane, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and Wanfang Database of China Science Periodical Database (CSPD by keyword search. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.0. Results. A total of 1552 participants were included in 24 trials. Meta-analysis showed the incidence of all-grade neurotoxicity was significantly lower in experimental groups and high-grade neurotoxicity was also significantly less. Effective percentage was significantly higher and sensory nerve conduction velocity was improved significantly, but changes in motor nerve conduction velocity were not statistically significant. No adverse events associated with RA-based intervention were reported. Conclusion. RA-based intervention may be beneficial in relieving oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. However, more double-blind, multicenter, large-scale RCTs are needed to support this theory. Trial Registration. PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews has registration number  CRD42015019903.

  13. Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Microwave-Assisted Method for Extraction of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep eutectic solvents (DESs have attracted significant attention as a promising green media. In this work, twenty-five kinds of benign choline chloride-based DESs with microwave-assisted methods were applied to quickly extract active components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae. The extraction factors, including temperature, time, power of microwave, and solid/liquid ratio, were investigated systematically by response surface methodology. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients were extracted simultaneously under the optimized conditions: 20 vol% of water in choline chloride/1,2-propanediol (1:1, molar ratio as solvent, microwave power of 800 W, temperature at 70 °C, time at 11.11 min, and solid/liquid ratio of 0.007 g·mL−1. The extraction yield was comparable to, or even better than, conventional methods with organic solvents. The microstructure alteration of samples before and after extraction was also investigated. The method validation was tested as the linearity of analytes (r2 > 0.9997 over two orders of magnitude, precision (intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD < 2.49 and inter-day RSD < 2.96, and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 95.04% to 99.93%. The proposed DESs combined with the microwave-assisted method provided a prominent advantage for fast and efficient extraction of active components, and DESs could be extended as solvents to extract and analyze complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples.

  14. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujiao; Hou, Ya; Wang, Shengnan; Ma, Yang; Liu, Zixiu; Zou, Lisi; Liu, Xunhong; Luo, Yiyuan; Liu, Juanxiu

    2016-11-15

    Pseudostellariae Radix (PR) is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc) cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR) and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR). A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on ¹H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  15. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P Mas receptor expressions (all P Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  16. Separation and determination of two sesquiterpene lactones in Radix inulae and Liuwei Anxian San by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenhua, Gao; Yaowen, Chen; Yegao, Yin; Xingguo, Chen; Zhide, Hu

    2004-12-01

    A novel microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) method for separating and determining two sesquoterpene lactones, alantolactone (AL) and isoalantolactone (IAL), in Radix inulae and Liuwei Anxian San has been developed. The effects of several important factors such as internal organic phases, concentration of microemulsion, concentration of acetonitrile, injection time and running voltage were systematically investigated to determine the optimum conditions. The optimum microemulsion system was composed of n-hexane (0.32% w/w), SDS (1.24% w/w), 1-butanol (2.64% w/w), acetonitrile (10% w/w) and 10 mm sodium tetraborate buffer (85.80% w/w, pH 9.2). The applied voltage was 20 kV. The analytes were detected at 214 nm. Regression equations revealed linear relationships (correlation coefficients 0.9950 for AL and 0.9946 for IAL) between the peak area of each analyte and the concentration. The limits of detection (defined as a signal-to-noise ratio of about 3) were approximately 0.45 microg/mL for AL and 0.56 microg/mL for IAL. The levels of the analytes were successfully determined with recoveries ranging from 98.2 to 104.3%. Furthermore, a simple and effective extraction method, with methanol in an ultrasonic water bath for 60 min, was used for sample preparing. Also, MEEKC was compared with micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and shown better separation results. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra- Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-hao Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6 rats/group were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg, and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination.

  18. The First High-Density Genetic Map Construction in Tree Peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan) using Genotyping by Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Changfu; Cheng, Fang-Yun; Wu, Jing; Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Gaixiu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps, permitting the elucidation of genome structure, are one of most powerful genomic tools to accelerate marker-assisted breeding. However, due to a lack of sufficient user-friendly molecular markers, no genetic linkage map has been developed for tree peonies (Paeonia Sect. Moutan), a group of important horticultural plants worldwide. Specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a recent molecular marker development technology that enable the large-scale discovery and genotyping of sequence-based marker in genome-wide. In this study, we performed SLAF sequencing of an F1 population, derived from the cross P. ostti 'FenDanBai' × P. × suffruticosa 'HongQiao', to identify sufficient high-quality markers for the construction of high-density genetic linkage map in tree peonies. After SLAF sequencing, a total of 78 Gb sequencing data and 285,403,225 pair-end reads were generated. We detected 309,198 high-quality SLAFs from these data, of which 85,124 (27.5%) were polymorphic. Subsequently, 3518 of the polymorphic markers, which were successfully encoded in to Mendelian segregation types, and were in conformity with the criteria of high-quality markers, were defined as effective markers and used for genetic linkage mapping. Finally, we constructed an integrated genetic map, which comprised 1189 markers on the five linkage groups, and spanned 920.699 centiMorgans (cM) with an average inter-marker distance of 0.774 cM. There were 1115 'SNP-only' markers, 18 'InDel-only' markers, and 56 'SNP&InDel' markers on the map. Among these markers, 450 (37.85%) showed significant segregation distortion (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this investigation reported the first large-scale marker development and high-density linkage map construction for tree peony. The results of this study will serve as a solid foundation not only for marker-assisted breeding, but also for genome sequence assembly for tree peony.

  19. Modulation of Cytochrome P450, P-glycoprotein and Pregnane X Receptor by Selected Antimalarial Herbs-Implication for Herb-Drug Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasinu, Pius S; Manda, Vamshi K; Dale, Olivia R; Egiebor, Nosa O; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2017-11-23

    Seven medicinal plants popularly used for treating malaria in West Africa were selected to assess herb-drug interaction potential through a series of in vitro methods. Fluorescent cytochrome P450 (CYP) assays were conducted using the recombinant CYP enzymes for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to assess the effect of the methanolic extracts on the metabolic activity of CYPs. Secondly, the inhibitory effect of the extracts was evaluated on P-glycoproteins (P-gp) using calcein-AM, a fluorescent substrate, in MDCK-II and hMDR1-MDCK-II cells. The inhibition of P-gp activity was determined as a reflection of increase in calcein-AM uptake. Additionally, the enzyme induction potential of the extracts was assessed through the modulation of PXR activity in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with pSG5-PXR and PCR5 plasmid DNA. Significant inhibition of CYP activity (IC50 herbs: A. muricata [CYP2C9, 3A4 and CYP2D6]; M. indica [CYP2C9]; M. charantia [CYP2C9 and CYP2C19]; P. amarus [CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4]; T. diversifolia [CYP2C19 and CYP3A4]. Extracts of four herbs (P. amarus, M. charantia, T. diversifolia and A. muricata) exhibited significant inhibition of P-gp with IC50 values (µg/mL) of 17 ± 1, 16 ± 0.4, 26 ± 1, and 24 ± 1, respectively. In addition, four herbs (A. mexicana, M. charantia, P. amarus and T. diversifolia) showed a >two-fold increase in induction in PXR activity. These findings suggest that these herbs may be capable of eliciting herb-drug interactions if consumed in high quantities with concomitant use of conventional therapies.

  20. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malm Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been undertaken so as to develop more effective therapeutic approaches towards eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504. Among these are thyme herbs, chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves and coneflower herbs. Herein, it was found that the MIC values of the assayed extracts were as follows: the extracts from coneflower herbs showed anti-H. pylori activity with MIC = 31.3-125 μg/ml; the extracts from chamomile flowers demonstrated MIC = 31.3-62.5 μg/ ml; the extracts from peppermint leaves had MIC = 15.6-250 μg/ml; and the extracts from thyme herbs revealed MIC = 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, depending on the solvent used. The most active were the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate or ethanol alcohol absolute 99.8%. These showing MIC within the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, while the lowest activity was observed in case of the extract obtained with 70% aqueous ethanol. This last showing MIC within the range of 62.5-250 μg/ml. The MIC values of essential oil components were 15.6 μg/ml for bisabolol and menthol or 31.3 μg/ml for thymol. The obtained data indicate that the assayed herbs possessed promising anti-H. pylori bioactivity.

  1. Cleistogamy as a Bet-Hedging Strategy in Oxalis acetosella, a Perennial Herb

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henrik Berg; Peter Redbo-Torstensson

    1998-01-01

    1 Phenology and reproduction were studied in three populations of the cleistogamous herb Oxalis acetosella during three growing seasons, in order to see how the balance between chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL...

  2. Screening for hemostatic activities of popular Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Ohkura

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion Some popular Chinese medicinal herbs have potential as hemostatic agents and could thus be developed as new strategies for the treatment and prevention of bleeding. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 19-23

  3. Correlation between the different therapeutic properties of Chinese medicinal herbs and delayed luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jingxiang; Fu, Jialei; Yang, Meina; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Fan, Hua; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-03-01

    In the practice and principle of Chinese medicine, herbal materials are classified according to their therapeutic properties. 'Cold' and 'heat' are the most important classes of Chinese medicinal herbs according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this work, delayed luminescence (DL) was measured for different samples of Chinese medicinal herbs using a sensitive photon multiplier detection system. A comparison of DL parameters, including mean intensity and statistic entropy, was undertaken to discriminate between the 'cold' and 'heat' properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. The results suggest that there are significant differences in mean intensity and statistic entropy and using this method combined with statistical analysis may provide novel parameters for the characterization of Chinese medicinal herbs in relation to their energetic properties. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. In silico method for studying property combination of traditional Chinese herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Hu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In silico methods can then be used to create new prescriptions or modify existing ones depending on need. This type of automated approach may increase efficiency in designing new drugs based on Chinese herbs.

  5. Effect of essential oils prepared from Thai culinary herbs on sessile Candida albicans cultures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hovijitra, Ray S; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2016-01-01

    ... elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized...

  6. Evaluation of "Dream Herb," Calea zacatechichi, for Nephrotoxicity Using Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miriam E. Mossoba; Thomas J. Flynn; Sanah Vohra; Paddy Wiesenfeld; Robert L. Sprando

    2016-01-01

    .... "Dream herb," Calea zacatechichi, has long been used in traditional folk medicine for a variety of purposes and is currently being marketed in the US for medicinal purposes, including diabetes treatment...

  7. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.

  8. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yanli; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Nie, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL). A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views. PMID:27478482

  9. Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research.

  10. Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chuan; Chan, Thomas Y K; Deng, Jou-Fang

    2004-05-01

    We define the potential sources, clinical manifestations, and treatment of aconitine poisoning. The database of the National Poison Center in Taiwan was retrospectively searched for the diagnosis of aconitine poisoning for 1990 to 1999. The reasons for taking the aconite roots, the clinical features, management, and possible predisposing factors were noted. A total of 17 cases occurred and consisted of 9 men and 8 women aged 30 to 70 years. Thirteen patients ingested aconite roots as treatment for rheumatism and wounds. Two patients volunteered to test the effects of aconite roots in a drug study. Two patients accidentally ingested the aconite roots. After a latent period of 10 to 90 minutes, patients developed a combination of neurologic (n=17), cardiovascular (n=14), gastrointestinal (n=9), and other (n=5) features typical of aconitine poisoning. Four patients developed ventricular tachycardia. All patients received supportive treatment. Patients with ventricular tachycardia were also treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. All patients made a complete recovery. Life-threatening ventricular tachycardia can occur after the consumption of aconite roots. The risk is higher with inadequately processed aconite roots, large doses, or tincture preparations. With increasing popularity of herbal medicines, herb-induced aconitine poisoning may also be seen in Western countries.

  11. Modern European monographs for quality control of Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rudolf; Franz, Gerhard

    2010-12-01

    The actual concern about the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on observations that these medicinal plants may have a high risk potential due to insufficient definitions, problems with identity, purity and falsifications. No uniform legal status for these groups of herbal drugs currently exists in the European Union. For quality control, monographs for TCM herbs can mainly be found in the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China. Based on these facts the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia decided in 2005 to establish TCM-herbal drug monographs for the most important medicinal plants imported from Far East. These new monographs had to be established and evaluated on the basis of existing monographs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP), English edition 2005. Due to important differences in the overall features of EP and ChP, a simple adapt/adopt procedure was not feasible. Therefore, specialist groups were mandated with a corresponding working programme. Some results and actual problems related to this working programme will be presented and discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Herbs as an antioxidant arsenal for periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have long been used as a traditional mode of therapy for various ailments in India. They are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to ward off common diseases. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the world population. Gingivitis is the mild form whereas periodontitis results in an irreversible loss of supporting structures of the teeth. Even though periodontal pathogens form a crucial component in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the disease initiation and progression. Studies have shown a direct correlation between increased levels of biomarkers for tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS to the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the focus of attention has revolved back to herbal medicines due to their wide spectrum of biological and medicinal activities, lower costs, and higher safety margin. Internet databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched, and the most relevant articles were considered for review. This review briefly describes the various herbs with antioxidant capacity and their potency in the treating periodontal disease. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 92-96

  13. Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Chinese herbs in prevention of nosocomial infection in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident

    OpenAIRE

    Fiser, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nosocomial infection is a current medical issue, particularly in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident. The present study purpose is toevaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture, Chinese herbs and moxibustion in prophylaxis of nosocomial infections in patients with acute cerebrovasculardisease. Material and methods: The study was carried out on a group of 100 patients. Valuing the efficiency of acupuncture, moxibustion and Chinese herbs inthe prevention of nosocomial inf...

  14. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.......Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy....

  15. Macro- and Trace metals in three Medicinal Herbs Collected from Baghdad, Iraq Market.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Latif Mohammed Raouf; Kafa Khalaf Hammud; Saad Kareem Zamil

    2014-01-01

    Several metals (Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Co) were determined in three medicinal herbs (Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Chamomile or camomile (Matricaria chamomilla)) by applying Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The obtained results showed that Calcium content in tested herb was ranged (1-3.675) ppm. Magnesium maximum content (4247.5) ppm presented in rosemary was higher and with this content kidney stone may be formed easily with...

  16. Decreased Levels of Fenol in the Case of Traditional Herb Industry Using Anaerobic Activated Sludge Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyani, Sukma Budi

    2011-01-01

    Fenol is a hazardous substance that can pollute the environment. Traditional herb Industry is one of industries produces liquid waste with high pollution level, the fenol content more than 9 mg/L. Biological treatment with anaerobic activated sludge method is one effective way of processing waste.This research was aimed to study the effect of MLSS variable and fenol load, the efficiency of fenol decrease in anaerobic waste processing system. The experiment is conducted by synthetic herbs wa...

  17. Decreased Levels of Fenol in the Case of Traditional Herb Industry using Anaerobic Activated Sludge Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sukma Budi Ariyani

    2011-01-01

    Fenol is a hazardous substance that can pollute the environment. Traditional herb Industry is one of industries produces liquid waste with high pollution level, the fenol content more than 9 mg/L.  Biological treatment  with anaerobic activated sludge method is one effective way of processing waste.This research was aimed to study the effect of MLSS variable and fenol load, the efficiency of fenol decrease in anaerobic waste processing system. The experiment is conducted by synthetic herbs wa...

  18. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A F; Gandolfi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.

  19. Tolkien’s sonic trees and perfumed herbs: plant intelligence in Middle-earth

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, John Charles

    2015-01-01

    Plant life is an integral part of J.R.R. Tolkien’s fictional writings. Percipient trees, exemplified by Old Man Willow, possess the capacity to vocalise and approximate human speech, whereas herbaceous plants tend to be silent and aromatic. While Tolkien attributes qualities of consciousness and memory to sonic trees, he denies similar intelligent qualities to herbs, such as athelas or kingsfoil. This paper will compare the representation of the sonic trees and perfumed herbs of Middle-earth ...

  20. Evaluation of ?Dream Herb,? Calea zacatechichi, for Nephrotoxicity Using Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mossoba, Miriam E.; Flynn, Thomas J.; Vohra, Sanah; Wiesenfeld, Paddy; Sprando, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    A recent surge in the use of dietary supplements, including herbal remedies, necessitates investigations into their safety profiles. “Dream herb,” Calea zacatechichi, has long been used in traditional folk medicine for a variety of purposes and is currently being marketed in the US for medicinal purposes, including diabetes treatment. Despite the inherent vulnerability of the renal system to xenobiotic toxicity, there is a lack of safety studies on the nephrotoxic potential of this herb. Addi...