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Sample records for herb milk thistle

  1. Milk Thistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Milk Thistle Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about milk thistle—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  2. Allelopathic studies on milk thistle (Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Sultana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Declining crop yield due to weeds and their resistance to herbicides are major constraint for successful crop productions. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum is common weed species in Australian cropping rotation. Allelopathic potentiality of milk thistle on different crops has been documented sporadically, but there is no literature on about ryegrass and canola. Therefore, a laboratory based allelopathic extracts bioassay was conducted. The hot water extracts was prepared from milk thistle plant parts added into water with ration of 1: 10 (plant sample: distilled water where mixture was heated 10 minutes. After heat treatment samples was immediately sieved and centrifuged and the resulted solution was treated as 100% concentration. Separately, to get the fresh water extract plant sample was added into water (1:10 and kept 24 hours in room temperature. After 24 hours, the sample was sieved and centrifuged and collected samples result was treated 100% concentrations. To obtain 50% concentration, both hot and fresh samples were diluted with distilled water. Therefore the experiment was conducted with five different treatment concentrations (0, 50% hot water extracts, 50% fresh water extracts, 100% hot water extracts and 100% fresh water extracts. The experiment was comprised with RCBD design with three replications under control conditions. During experimental period the allelopathic effects of donor species on germination and seedling growth of ryegrass and canola was observed. Results shows, germination and seedling growth of both receiver species are inhibited by milk thistle extracts. Extracts from fresh water at 100% was more toxic to receiver species followed by 50% concentration of fresh and 100% from hot water extracts. This concentration reduced the root, shoot growth of ryegrass and canola 84.971%, 84.269% and 89.898%, 87.394%, respectively. The result also revealed that allelopathic pattern of hot water extracts was same however; it is less

  3. Infusions of artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (milk thistle) are two herbs well-known for their efficiency in the prevention/treatment of liver injuries, among other chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize specific bioactive components, phenolic compounds, in hydromethanolic extracts but also in infusions (the most commonly used preparations) obtained from the whole plant of milk thistle and artichoke. The phenolic profiles were accessed using HPLC-DAD-MS/ESI. Infusions of both species presented higher phenolic contents than the hydromethanolic extracts. Milk thistle presented a similar phenolic composition between the two preparations, revealing only differences in the quantities obtained. Nevertheless, artichoke revealed a slightly different profile considering infusion and hydromethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was the major flavonoid found in milk thistle, while luteolin-7-O-glucuronide was the most abundant in artichoke. Therefore, infusions of both artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic acids and flavonoids.

  4. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Iaquinto, G

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.......Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  5. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.......Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  6. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Bill J; Gardner, Stephanie F; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Gentry, W Brooks; Carrier, Julie; Khan, Ikhlas A; Edwards, David J; Shah, Amit

    2004-11-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of Citrus aurantium , Echinacea purpurea , milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women, 6 men) were randomly assigned to receive C aurantium , E purpurea , milk thistle, or saw palmetto for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 by use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported "active" phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic ratios suggested that these particular supplements had no significant effect on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Phytochemical profiles indicated that C aurantium was devoid of the CYP3A4 inhibitor 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. Quantities of fatty acids, flavonolignans, and cichoric acid were consistent with label claims for saw palmetto, milk thistle, and E purpurea , respectively. Botanical supplements containing C aurantium , milk thistle, or saw palmetto extracts appear to pose a minimal risk for CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans. Although the effects of E purpurea on CYP activity were minor, further

  7. Anti-aging potential of a cream containing milk thistle extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to formulate and evaluate antı-agıng effects of a topical cream (water in oil (w/o) emulsion) containig extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) against its vehicle (Base) as control. Base containing no extract and a formulation containing 4% concentrated extract of Silybum marianum was developed ...

  8. In-vivo Kinetics of Silymarin (Milk Thistle) on Healthy Male Volunteers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-vivo Kinetics of Silymarin (Milk Thistle) on Healthy Male Volunteers. M Usman, M Ahmad, AU Madni, NAW Asghar, M Akhtar, M Atif, M Qamar-uz-zaman. Abstract. Purpose: The study was aimed at evaluating the in vivo kinetics of silymarin tablets, a product with antihepatotoxic and free radical scavenging activities.

  9. Changes in the sterol compositions of milk thistle oil (Silybium marianum L.) during seed maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrabi, S.; Curtis, S.; Hayet, F.; Mayer, P.M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the total lipid content and sterol compositions were determined during the development of milk thistle seeds. The oil content increased to a maximum value of 36±1.7% and then declined to reach a value of 30.5±0.9% at full maturity. The sterol content of milk thistle seeds was affected by the ripening degree of the seeds. At the early stages of seed maturation, Δ7 -stigmastenol was the most abundant sterol followed by β-sitosterol. However, at full maturity, β-sitosterol was the most predominant sterol (46.50±0.8%). As the seed developed, campesterol and stigmasterol amounts increased, while Δ7 -avenasterol content decreased. It can be concluded that milk thistle seed oil has a characteristic sterol pattern comparable to the ones elucidated for olive oil and corn oil. The extracted oil from milk thistle seeds is rich in phytosterols and could be used in foodpreparation and human nutrition. (Author)

  10. Tunisian Milk Thistle: An Investigation of the Chemical Composition and the Characterization of Its Cold-Pressed Seed Oils

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    Wiem Meddeb

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, milk thistle seeds growing in different areas in Tunisia were cold pressed and the extracted oils were examined for their chemical and antioxidant properties. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid (C18:2 (57.0%, 60.0%, and 60.3% for the milk thistle seed oils native to Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively and oleic acid (C18:1 (15.5%, 21.5%, and 22.4% for the milk thistle seed oils originating from Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed the richness of the milk thistle seed oils (MTSO in α-tocopherol. The highest content was recorded for that of the region of Zaghouan (286.22 mg/kg. The total phenolic contents (TPC of Zaghouan, Bizerte, and Sousse were 1.59, 8.12, and 4.73 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE mg/g, respectively. Three phenolic acids were also identified (vanillic, p-coumaric, and silybine, with a predominance of the vanillic acid. The highest value was recorded for the Zaghouan milk thistle seed oil (83 mg/100 g. Differences in outcomes between regions may be due to climatic differences in areas. Zaghouan’s cold-pressed milk thistle seed oil had a better quality than those of Bizerte and Sousse, and can be considered as a valuable source for new multi-purpose products or by-products for industrial, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical utilization.

  11. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product-Drug Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gufford, Brandon T; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-09-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4'- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27-66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2-8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19-73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65-120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20-310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product-drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental

  12. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product–Drug Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gufford, Brandon T.; CHEN, Gang; Vergara, Ana G.; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Paine, Mary F.

    2015-01-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Ke...

  13. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product–Drug Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G.; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4′- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27–66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2–8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19–73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65–120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20–310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product–drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention. PMID:26070840

  14. Enzymatic milk clotting activity in artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves and alpine thistle (Carduus defloratus) flowers. Immobilization of alpine thistle aspartic protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marilena; Di Pierro, Prospero; Dejonghe, Winnie; Mariniello, Loredana; Porta, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    Two different milk clotting enzymes, belonging to the aspartic protease family, were extracted from both artichoke leaves and alpine thistle flowers, and the latter was covalently immobilized by using a polyacrylic support containing polar epoxy groups. Our findings showed that the alpine thistle aspartic protease was successfully immobilized at pH 7.0 on Immobeads IB-150P beads and that, under these experimental conditions, an immobilization yield of about 68% and a recovery of about 54% were obtained. Since the enzyme showed an optimal pH of 5.0, a value very similar to the one generally used for milk clotting during cheese making, and exhibited a satisfactory stability over time, the use of such immobilized vegetable rennet for the production of novel dairy products is suggested. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effect of Milk thistle plant, Vitis vinifera extract on immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss challenge by diazinon

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    Mina Rabie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollutants due to effect on the immune system of fish increase fish sensitivity to pathogens. Diazinon is one of the most used organophosphates pesticide in many agricultural areas. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diazinon on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and application of Milk thistle plant, Vitis vinifera extract to reduce the adverse effects of this pesticide on its immune system. The reduction in the level of plasma peroxides, IgM, total complement and lysozyme were observed in fish exposed to diazinon showing its effect on the fish’s immune system. No significant difference between control group and fish fed by Milk thistle plant extract and exposed to diazinon can reflect protective impact of Milk thistle plant extract on the immune system of rainbow trout by eliminating the free radicals and boosting the immune system.

  16. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of milk thistle extract (CAS No. 84604-20-6) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Milk thistle extracts have been used as medicinal herbs in the treatment of liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis (liver inflammation), and gallbladder disorders. Treatment claims also include lowering cholesterol levels; reducing insulin resistance; reducing the growth of cancer cells in breast, cervical, and prostate gland cancers; and antiviral activity. Other reported uses of milk thistle in folk medicine include as a treatment for malarial fever, bronchitis, gallstones, jaundice, peritonitis, uterine congestion, varicose veins, and as a milk production stimulant for nursing mothers. The roots soaked in water overnight are used in food, and the despined leaves are added to salads. Roasted milk thistle fruit has been used as a coffee substitute. Milk thistle extract was nominated for study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences because it is one of the most widely used herbs in the United States. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to an ethanol/water extract of milk thistle fruit (milk thistle extract) containing approximately 65% silymarin in feed for 3 months or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were fed diets containing 0, 3,125, 6,250, 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm milk thistle extract (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 260, 525, 1,050, 2,180, or 4,500 mg milk thistle extract/kilogram body weight to males and 260, 510, 1,050, 2,150, or 4,550 mg/kg to females) for 14 weeks. All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of exposed groups were within 10% of those of the controls. Feed consumption by exposed and control groups was similar. The sperm motility in 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm males was decreased by 5%, 11%, and 9%, respectively, relative to that of the controls; the total number of spermatid heads per testis

  17. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity.

  18. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum Seed Extract

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    R. Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles from aqueous solutions using milk thistle (Silybum marianum seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent has been reported. Formation and stabilization of nanoparticles were monitored using surface plasmon resonance (SPR bands of UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphology of gold and silver nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction analysis, and dynamic light scattering. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy was employed to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles.

  19. The Impact of Multifunctional Crop Rotation on the Yield of Milk Thistle Fruits in the Years 2012 – 2015

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    Miroslav HABÁN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle can be an annual, rarely a biennial medicinal plant. Polyfactorial field experiment was established during the vegetation period of the years 2012–2015. Three evaluated factors were as follows: crop residues – intercrop – fertilization. Milk thistle was integrated to four crop rotation design with following order of crops: 1. common pea 2. winter wheat 3. milk thistle 4. maize. Milk thistle was subjected to the experimental treatments as follows: 1. K – straw of forecrop removed from the field, R – straw incorporated into soil, 2. M – white mustard as a freezing-out intercrop, B – no intercrop, 3. O – no fertilization, F – with fertilization, 4. experimental year (2012, 2013, 2014, 2015. The recalculated yield of Silybi mariani fructus ranged in the amount from 297 kg*ha-1 (RMO treatment – with crop residues, with intercrop and without the use of fertilizers, year 2015 to 745 kg*ha-1 (KMF treatment – without crop residues, with intercrop and the use of fertilizers, year 2013. Statistical testing of individual factors found highly significant effect of year and highly significant effect of fertilization, and statistically inconclusive effect of sowing intercrop and ploughing crop residues. In the experiment was found a statistically significant difference between yield on the treatments without fertilization and the use of mineral fertilizers.

  20. Experimental Paper. The effect of colour grading of milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn. seeds on their quality for sowing

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    Rosińska Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn. is a medicinal plant belonging to Asteraceae family. Extract from milk thistle achenes (termed in practice as seeds contains sylimarin, which protects liver cells against inorganic and organic toxic compounds. Objective: The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of colour grading on the quality of milk thistle seeds. Methods: Seeds were graded manually by colour according to the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart, issued in Great Britain. In three samples two fractions of seeds were separated: beige and brown, whereas seeds of the fourth sample were graded into three fractions: yellow, beige and brown. The 1000-seed weight and germination of graded and non-graded seeds were evaluated. Infestation of graded seeds with fungi was assessed. Results: Brown seeds had a higher 1000-seed weight than beige or yellow ones. Germination at the final count of beige seeds did not differ as compared to that of brown seeds or was even better. Milk thistle seeds were infested with numerous fungi, however Alternaria alternata and Ulocladium consortiale predominated. Conclusions: Less mature beige seeds can be used as sowing material because their germination at the final count did not differ as compared to that of fully mature brown seeds or was even better. Infestation of these seeds with some of the fungi was lower than brown seeds.

  1. Hepatoprotective Role of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum in Meat Type Chicken Fed Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Feed

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    Din Muhammad, Naila Chand, Sarzamin Khan*, Asad Sultan, Mohammad Mushtaq and Rafiullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle was added in aflatoxin B1 contaminated poultry feed to investigate and compare its hepatoprotective effects with a commercial toxin binder. Two hundred and forty, day-old broilers were randomly allocated into four major groups A, B, C and D. Group A was kept as control, having aflatoxin free feed, while group B was fed aflatoxin contaminated feed, group C was raised on aflatoxin contaminated feed with toxin binder “Mycoad” @ 3g/kg of feed, while group D was provided aflatoxin contaminated feed along with milk thistle @10g/kg of feed. Aflatoxin B1 was present at the level of 80 µg/kg feed during the first week and 520 µg/kg feed in the remaining experimental period. Serum total protein was significantly (P<0.05 higher in group D, followed by group A, C and B. Serum enzymes including, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were significantly (P<0.05 lower in group D, followed by C, A and B, which are indicative of hepatoprotective role of milk thistle. Body weight gain and feed intake was decreased by aflatoxin contaminated feed (group B in comparison with group A and group D. Milk thistle supplementation improved body weight gain and feed intake and was similar to toxin binder treated birds. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly (P<0.05 higher (poor in group B and were the same in all other groups. Present study demonstrated that milk thistle can potentially be used as mycotoxin binder and to minimize the adverse effects of toxin contaminated feed in broilers production.

  2. Antioxidant and Anti-Hepatitis C Viral Activities of Commercial Milk Thistle Food Supplements

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    Kevin Anthony

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle dietary supplements that contain silymarin are widely marketed and used in the USA and other countries for liver enhancement and recovery. More recently, silymarin has also been identified as a possible antiviral for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. To assess different brands of commercially sold silymarin, 45 products were collected from local stores and analyzed for their silymarin content, antioxidant activities, and antiviral activity against HCV. Antioxidant activity was measured as radical scavenging activity using DPPH and by estimating their antioxidant capacity as trolox equivalent. Anti-HCV activity was measured in an HCV genotype 1b replication inhibition assay. Samples were found to vary widely in their silymarin content, with some samples having none or very low concentrations while silymarin represented higher than 80% of other samples. Both antioxidant and anti-HCV activity correlated with the overall level of silymarin.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

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    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  4. A Validated UHPLC-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Quantitative Analysis of Flavonolignans in Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Tyler N.; Cech., Nadja B.; Polyak, Stephen J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    Validated methods are needed for the analysis of natural product secondary metabolites. These methods are particularly important to translate in vitro observations to in vivo studies. Herein, a method is reported for the analysis of the key secondary metabolites, a series of flavonolignans and a flavonoid, from an extract prepared from the seeds of milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae)]. This report represents the first UHPLC MS-MS method validated for quantitative analysis...

  5. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

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    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  6. Antiosteoclastic Activity of Milk Thistle Extract after Ovariectomy to Suppress Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Osteoporosis

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    Jung-Lye Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone integrity abnormality and imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts are known to result in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Silymarin-rich milk thistle extract (MTE and its component silibinin enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts but reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity of osteoclasts. The osteoprotective effects of MTE were comparable to those of estrogenic isoflavone. Low-dose combination of MTE and isoflavone had a pharmacological synergy that may be useful for osteogenic activity. This study attempted to reveal the suppressive effects of MTE on bone loss. C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized (OVX as a model for postmenopausal osteopenia and orally administered 10 mg/kg MTE or silibinin for 8 weeks. The sham-operated mice served as estrogen controls. The treatment of ovariectomized mice with nontoxic MTE and silibinin improved femoral bone mineral density and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio, an index of osteoclastogenic stimulus. In addition, the administration of MTE or silibinin inhibited femoral bone loss induced by ovariectomy and suppressed femoral TRAP activity and cathepsin K induction responsible for osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Collectively, oral dosage of MTE containing silibinin in the preclinical setting is effective in preventing estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.

  7. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system

    OpenAIRE

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R. R. B.; Arora, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sen...

  8. Effects of Animal Manures and Chemical Fertilizer on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Milk Thistle Plant (Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yazdani Biuki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum is one of the medicinal plants that has many drug properties. In order to evaluate effects of animal manures and chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of Milk Thistle plant, an experiment was conducted in the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2008 based on completely randomized block design with three replications and four treatments. The treatments included: control (without any manure or fertilizer, chemical NPK fertilizer, cattle and sheep manures. The characteristics such as number of lateral stem per plant, height of plant, number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescence diameter, number of seeds per capitol, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil percentage, silymarin percentage (active ingredient, silybin percentage, oil yield and silymarin yield were recorded. The results showed that different treatments had no effect on yield components, but had significant effect on oil percentage, silymarin and silybin content of seeds. Cattle manure had more oil (21% and silybin (21.7% compared with other treatments. There was no significant difference in oil and silymarin percentage between control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Cattle manure and sheep manure had minimum percentage of silybin (16.4 and maximum percentage of silymarin (3.1 Compared with other treatments. There were positive correlation between height of plant with seed yield (r=0.86** and inflorescence diameter (r=0.6*, which represents importance of these traits for final yield assessment. There were no positive correlation between seed yield and other yields components. Keywords: Milk Thistle, Quantitative and qualitative characteristics, Animal manures, Medicinal plants

  9. Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Reisinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control, MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application.

  10. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Scale-Up of Milk Thistle Flavonolignan Glucuronides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Graf, Tyler N.; Paguigan, Noemi D.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based therapeutics, including herbal products, continue to represent a growing facet of the contemporary health care market. Mechanistic descriptions of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of constituents composing these products remain nascent, particularly for metabolites produced following herbal product ingestion. Generation and characterization of authentic metabolite standards are essential to improve the quantitative mechanistic understanding of herbal product disposition in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Using the model herbal product, milk thistle, the objective of this work was to biosynthesize multimilligram quantities of glucuronides of select constituents (flavonolignans) to fill multiple knowledge gaps in the understanding of herbal product disposition and action. A partnership between clinical pharmacology and natural products chemistry expertise was leveraged to optimize reaction conditions for efficient glucuronide formation and evaluate alternate enzyme and reagent sources to improve cost effectiveness. Optimized reaction conditions used at least one-fourth the amount of microsomal protein (from bovine liver) and cofactor (UDP glucuronic acid) compared with typical conditions using human-derived subcellular fractions, providing substantial cost savings. Glucuronidation was flavonolignan-dependent. Silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B generated five, four, four, and three monoglucuronides, respectively. Large-scale synthesis (40 mg of starting material) generated three glucuronides of silybin A: silybin A-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (15.7 mg), silybin A-5-O-β-d-glucuronide (1.6 mg), and silybin A-4´´-O-β-d-glucuronide (11.1 mg). This optimized, cost-efficient method lays the foundation for a systematic approach to synthesize and characterize herbal product constituent glucuronides, enabling an improved understanding of mechanisms underlying herbal product disposition and action. PMID:26316643

  11. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R. B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols...

  12. The active natural anti-oxidant properties of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacterial components in human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalis, Andrew; Nguyen, Duc-Huy; Brody, Neil; Jagdeo, Jared

    2013-07-01

    The number of skin cancers continues to rise, accounting for approximately 40% of all cancers reported in the United States and approximately 9,500 deaths per year. Studies have shown reactive oxygen species (ROS) type free radicals are linked to skin cancer and aging. Therefore, it is important for us to identify agents that have anti-oxidant properties to protect skin against free radical damage. The purpose of this research is to investigate the anti-oxidant properties of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin that are components from chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria, respectively. We measured the ability of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin to modulate the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced upregulation of ROS free radicals in normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Using a flow cytometry-based assay, we demonstrated that varying concentrations of these natural components were able to inhibit upregulation of H2O2-generated free radicals in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Our results indicate components of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria exhibit anti-oxidant capabilities and warrant further study in clinical trials to characterize their anti-cancer and anti-aging capabilities.

  13. Effects of milk thistle seed against aflatoxin B 1 in broiler model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Amiridumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 contaminated products can pose a risk of development of various diseases in human and animals due to radical production. The scope of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of milk thistle seed (MTS, as a radical scavenger, on serum biochemistry, lipid profile and liver enzymes against AFB 1 in broiler chickens contaminated with AFB 1 . Materials and Methods: The effect of nine experimental treatments (3 × 3 factorial design was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with four replicates of six birds for each dietary treatments: Control (T1, 250 ppb AFB 1 (T2, 500 ppb AFB 1 (T3, 0.5% MTS (T4, 0.5% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB 1 (T5, 0.5% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T6, 1.0% MTS (T7, 1.0% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB 1 (T8, and 1.0% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB 1 (T9. The individual and combined effects of dietary AFB 1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors (Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Creatinine, and Uric acid, lipid profile (Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, and High density lipoprotein (HDL and liver enzymes aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transaminase (ALT in broilers were evaluated at 21 days of age. Also, statistical packages Macros-1.002 (2010 were used to perform the above analysis on computer. Results: Consumption of 500 ppb AFB 1 in to the diet significantly decreased HDL (58.13 ± 2.65, Calcium (7.11 ± 0.13, and Glucose (197.1 ± 7.42 compared to the control group (85.12 ± 1.95, 9.45 ± 0.17 and 223.1 ± 6.61, respectively, (P < 0.05. In contrast, it significantly increased creatinine (2.25 ± 0.011 and AST (244.51 ± 4.91. Using MTS together with AFB 1 significantly reduced the effect of AFB 1 on the above parameters. Conclusion: MTS can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB 1 on broiler chicks.

  14. Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops II. Effect at milk thistle (Silybum Marianum Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delchev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type was conducted a field experiment. Under investigation was Bulgarian milk thistle cultivar Silmar (Silybum marianum Gaertn.. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Sharpen 33 EC, Merlin flex 480 SC, Smerch 24 ЕC, Raft 400 SC, Eagle 75 DF and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Kalin flo, Eclipse 70 DWG, Sultan 500 SC, Granstar super 50 SG, Starane 250 EK. Factor C included no treated check and 1 antigraminaceous herbicide – Tiger platinium 5 EC. All herbicides, herbicide combinations and herbicide tank-mixtures were applied in a working solution of 200 l/ha. Mixing of foliar-applied herbicides was done in the tank on the sprayer. Soil-applied herbicides were treated during the period after sowing before emergence. Foliar-applied herbicides were treated during rosette stage of the milk thistle. Tank mixtures of antigraminaceous herbicide Tiger platinum with foliar herbicides Kalin flo, Eclipse, Sultan, Granstar super and Starane leads to obtaining high seed yields of milk thistle. High yields seeds are also obtained by foliar treatment with Tiger platinum after soil-applied herbicides Raft, Sharpen and Eagle. The use of the soil-applied herbicides Smerch, Merlin flex and Tendar does not increase the seed yield due to its higher phytotoxicity against milk thistle. Herbicide Tendar and herbicide combination Tendar + Tiger platinum are the most unstable, followed by herbicide Merlin flex. Herbicide tank-mixtures Kalin flo + Tiger platinum and Eclipse + Tiger platinum and herbicide combination Raft + Tiger platinum are technologically the most valuable. They combine high seed yield with high stability with relation to different years. Single application of soil-applied or foliar-applied herbicides have low estimate; due to that they must be combined for full control of weeds in milk thistle crops.

  15. Impact of thistle rennet from Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia on bacterial diversity and dynamics of a specialty Italian raw ewes' milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Federica; Osimani, Andrea; Taccari, Manuela; Milanović, Vesna; Garofalo, Cristiana; Clementi, Francesca; Polverigiani, Serena; Zitti, Silvia; Raffaelli, Nadia; Mozzon, Massimo; Foligni, Roberta; Franciosi, Elena; Tuohy, Kieran; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2017-08-16

    Caciofiore della Sibilla is an Italian specialty soft cheese manufactured with Sopravissana raw ewes' milk and thistle rennet prepared with young fresh leaves and stems of Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia, according to an ancient tradition deeply rooted in the territory of origin (mountainous hinterland of the Marche region, Central Italy). In this study, the impact of thistle rennet on the bacterial dynamics and diversity of Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese was investigated by applying a polyphasic approach based on culture and DNA-based techniques (Illumina sequencing and PCR-DGGE). A control cheese manufactured with the same batch of ewes' raw milk and commercial animal rennet was analyzed in parallel. Overall, a large number of bacterial taxa were identified, including spoilage, environmental and pro-technological bacteria, primarily ascribed to Lactobacillales. Thistle rennet was observed clearly to affect the early bacterial dynamics of Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese with Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius and Lactobacillus plantarum/paraplantarum/pentosus being detected in the phyllosphere of C. acanthifolia All., thistle rennet and curd obtained with thistle rennet. Other bacterial taxa, hypothetically originating from the vegetable coagulant (Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides/pseudomesenteroides), were exclusively found in Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese by PCR-DGGE. At the end of the maturation period, Illumina sequencing demonstrated that both cheeses were dominated by Lactobacillales; however curd and cheese produced with thistle rennet were co-dominated by Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc, whereas Lactoccous prevailed in curd and cheese produced with commercial animal rennet followed by Lactobacillus. Differences in the bacterial composition between the two cheeses at the end of their maturation period were confirmed by PCR-DGGE analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  16. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C liver diseases--a systematic Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group review with meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Jacobs, Bradly P; Iaquinto, Gaetano

    2005-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of milk thistle (MT) or MT constituents versus placebo or no intervention in patients with alcoholic liver disease and/or hepatitis B and/or C liver diseases.......Our objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of milk thistle (MT) or MT constituents versus placebo or no intervention in patients with alcoholic liver disease and/or hepatitis B and/or C liver diseases....

  17. The Effect of Seed Priming and Accelerated Aging on Germination and Physiochemical Changes in Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem PARMOON

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of seed priming and aging on some physiological characteristics of Milk thistle was studied in a factoral experiment based on Complete Randomized Design (CRD. Tratments were included hydro priming (using distilled water, halo priming (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6% KNO3 and accelerated aging (0, 2, 4 and 6 days under 45°C and 95% humidity in three replications. Determined parameters were germination charactristics including germination percentage, daily germination speed, mean time of germination, seed vigor index, hypocutile length and hypocutile dry weight. Activity of catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were determined at 12 hours after imbibition and seedling stage. According to results of this experiment, germination percentage, seed vigor and seedling growth of seeds were increased under all priming treatments. Improving the catalase and peroxidase activity led to decrease the aging damages. Germination characteristics were improved under both priming treatments at the beginning of germination as well as seedling growth. Polyphenol oxidase activity was increased in the pre-treated seeds but decreased in seedling growth stage. Aging treatments led to reduce the germination percentage, daily germination speed, seed vigor and seedling growth while the germination time was increased. Accelerated aging caused to reduce the germination rate and seedling growth of milk thistle that is probably due to increasing the lipid peroxidation, free radical increment and decreasing the antioxidants activity. The greatest and lowest antioxidants activity, the germination percentage, germination speed and seed vigor were respectively observed under priming using 3% KNO3 concentration and control seeds.

  18. Angiopreventive efficacy of pure flavonolignans from milk thistle extract against prostate cancer: targeting VEGF-VEGFR signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Deep

    Full Text Available The role of neo-angiogenesis in prostate cancer (PCA growth and metastasis is well established, but the development of effective and non-toxic pharmacological inhibitors of angiogenesis remains an unaccomplished goal. In this regard, targeting aberrant angiogenesis through non-toxic phytochemicals could be an attractive angiopreventive strategy against PCA. The rationale of the present study was to compare the anti-angiogenic potential of four pure diastereoisomeric flavonolignans, namely silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, which we established previously as biologically active constituents in Milk Thistle extract. Results showed that oral feeding of these flavonolignans (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight effectively inhibit the growth of advanced human PCA DU145 xenografts. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that these flavonolignans inhibit tumor angiogenesis biomarkers (CD31 and nestin and signaling molecules regulating angiogenesis (VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, phospho-Akt and HIF-1α without adversely affecting the vessel-count in normal tissues (liver, lung, and kidney of tumor bearing mice. These flavonolignans also inhibited the microvessel sprouting from mouse dorsal aortas ex vivo, and the VEGF-induced cell proliferation, capillary-like tube formation and invasiveness of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC in vitro. Further studies in HUVEC showed that these diastereoisomers target cell cycle, apoptosis and VEGF-induced signaling cascade. Three dimensional growth assay as well as co-culture invasion and in vitro angiogenesis studies (with HUVEC and DU145 cells suggested the differential effectiveness of the diastereoisomers toward PCA and endothelial cells. Overall, these studies elucidated the comparative anti-angiogenic efficacy of pure flavonolignans from Milk Thistle and suggest their usefulness in PCA angioprevention.

  19. THE EFFICIENCY OF USING MILK THISTLE (Silybum marianum FOR ADJUSTING THE INTENSITY OF OXIDATIVE PROCESSES IN CARP IN THE CONDITIONS OF LEAD CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Opalynskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effect of milk thistle on the intensity of oxidative processes in carp under the conditions of experimental toxic contamination with lead. Methodology. Experimental works were conducted in laboratory conditions. The object of the study was age-1+ carp, which were divided into three groups of 12–15 fish in each. Carp of the group 1 (intact, which received 3% starch paste through a probe, were used as a control. Carp of the group 2 were kept during a month in water, in which lead salts (PbNO3 were introduced at quantities corresponding to 10 maximum allowable levels calculated as metal ions. Carp of the group 3 during a month were kept in the same environment of dissolved lead salts and received 3% starch paste through a probe together with ground seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum at a quantity of 80 mg/kg of fish body weight. We examined the effect of milk thistle on lipid peroxidation (LPO and enzyme activity of antioxidant defense system (ADS in carp organism under conditions of lead contamination. TBA-active products were assessed baed on the content of products which reacted with 2-thiobarbituric acid (malondialdehyde. The level of oxidative damage to lipids was also evaluated based on the content of accumulated lipid hydroperoxide. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was determined in the reaction of quercetine oxidation. Catalase activity was assessed in the reaction with ammonium molybdate. Numeric data were processed by biometric method of variation nonparametric analysis using Microsoft Excel and Statistica 6.0. Differences between the values were considered statistically significant: p <0.05; 0.01 and 0.001. Findings. Toxic contamination with heavy metals in conjunction with the physiological stress are the most significant factors, which stimulate the peroxidation and oxidative disorders in the body. This fact was proved in the study using the salts of lead that increased the intensity of the

  20. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rahal, Naila; Barba, Francisco J; Barth, Danielle; Chevalot, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The optimal conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) (160-220 bars, 40-80 °C) technology combined with co-solvent (ethanol), to recover oil, flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin and silybinin) and fatty acids from milk thistle seeds, to be used as food additives and/or nutraceuticals, were studied. Moreover, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the SC-CO2 oil seeds extracts were evaluated in Caco-2 carcinoma cells. Pressure and temperature had a significant effect on oil and flavonolignans recovery, although there was not observed a clear trend. SC-CO2 with co-solvent extraction at 220 bars, 40 °C was the optimum treatment to recover oil (30.8%) and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds. Moreover, linoleic (47.64-66.70%), and oleic (19.68-24.83%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the oil extracts recovered from milk thistle under SC-CO2. In addition, SC-CO2 extract showed a high antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS tests. Cytotoxic activities of silychristin, silydianin and silybinin and the obtained SC-CO2 extract (220 bars, 40 °C) were evaluated against Caco-2 cells. The SC-CO2 extract inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-responsive manner and induced the highest percentage of mortality of Caco-2 cells (from 43 to 71% for concentrations from 10 up to 100 μg/ml of SC-CO2 oil seeds). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Semisynthesis, cytotoxicity, antiviral activity, and drug interaction liability of 7-O-methylated analogues of flavonolignans from milk thistle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althagafy, Hanan S; Graf, Tyler N; Sy-Cordero, Arlene A; Gufford, Brandon T; Paine, Mary F; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Stephen J; Croatt, Mitchell P; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-07-01

    Silymarin, an extract of the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is used as an herbal remedy, particularly for hepatoprotection. The main chemical constituents in silymarin are seven flavonolignans. Recent studies explored the non-selective methylation of one flavonolignan, silybin B, and then tested those analogues for cytotoxicity and inhibition of both cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 activity in human liver microsomes and hepatitis C virus infection in a human hepatoma (Huh7.5.1) cell line. In general, enhanced bioactivity was observed with the analogues. To further probe the biological consequences of methylation of the seven major flavonolignans, a series of 7-O-methylflavonolignans were generated. Optimization of the reaction conditions permitted selective methylation at the phenol in the 7-position in the presence of each metabolite's 4-5 other phenolic and/or alcoholic positions without the use of protecting groups. These 7-O-methylated analogues, in parallel with the corresponding parent compounds, were evaluated for cytotoxicity against Huh7.5.1 cells; in all cases the monomethylated analogues were more cytotoxic than the parent compounds. Moreover, parent compounds that were relatively non-toxic and inactive or weak inhibitors of hepatitis C virus infection had enhanced cytotoxicity and anti-HCV activity upon 7-O-methylation. Also, the compounds were tested for inhibition of major drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP2C9, CYP3A4/5, UDP-glucuronsyltransferases) in pooled human liver or intestinal microsomes. Methylation of flavonolignans differentially modified inhibitory potency, with compounds demonstrating both increased and decreased potency depending upon the compound tested and the enzyme system investigated. In total, these data indicated that monomethylation modulates the cytotoxic, antiviral, and drug interaction potential of silymarin flavonolignans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Hydro and Hormonal Seed Priming on Seed Germination of Milk Thistle under Saline Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef NASIRI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an abiotic stress which has harmful effects on germination of many plants. Therefore, high germination rate and vigorous early growth under salty soils is preferred. Seed priming is a way to increase salt tolerance of plants. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of seed priming on germination of milk thistle under salinity condition. The treatments were 4 levels of seed priming (no priming, distilled water as hydro priming and 0.5 and 1.0 mM salicylic acid and 5 levels of salinity (0, 40 and 80 mM NaCl and 40 and 80 mM CaCl2. The experiment arranged as a factorial in a completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Results showed that salinity decreased germination percentage and germination rate to about 16 and 32% in 80 mM CaCl2 level compared to control, respectively. The highest mean germination time (5.7 day were belonged to 80 mM CaCl2. Radicle and plumule length significantly decreased by 80 mM NaCl and 40 and 80 mM CaCl2. The lowest seedling weight and seed stamina observed in 80 mM CaCl2. 0.5 mM salicylic acid improved all traits except mean germination time as compared to control.  Salicylic acid (0.5 mM improved radicle length under 0, 40 and 80 mM NaCl salinity levels as well as increased plumule length at the 0 and 40 mM NaCl salinity conditions.

  3. Solid-state fermentation of industrial solid wastes from the fruits of milk thistle Silybum marianum for feed quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Li, Feng; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Zou, Ye; Zheng, Daheng; Takase, Mohammed; Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2013-08-01

    The industrial solid wastes generated during the production of silymarin from the fruits of milk thistle Silybum marianum was used as the substrate. Preparation and evaluation of the feeds produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of the industrial solid wastes was carried out. The protein content of the fermented feed (FF) from a combination of Aspergillus niger and Candida tropicalis was the highest among the examined strains. The optimal process parameters for protein enrichment with SSF using A. niger and C. tropicalis included incubation temperature of 30.8 °C, fermentation time of 87.0 h, and initial moisture content of 59.7 %. Under these conditions, the value additions of FF occurred. The fiber of FF was decreased by 25.07 %, while the digestibility of protein, protein content, and the ratio of total essential amino acids to total amino acids were increased by 79.85, 16.22, and 8.21 %, respectively. The analysis indicated that FF contained 1.44 mg/kg flavonoids and 0.5 mg/kg silybin, which significantly increased by 2.42 and 1.63 times, respectively than those in unfermented substrates. FF recorded reduced molecular weight of proteins from 20.1 to 44.3 kDa to below 14.3 kDa. The results of feeding trial of FF replacement with soybean meal in broilers diets for 8 weeks showed that FF significantly improved carcass characteristics including abdominal fat rate, serum biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and immune responses of broilers. A potential feed quality improvement was achieved through mixed strains SSF of industrial solid wastes of S. marianum fruits.

  4. Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. on Biochemical Parameters and Immunity of Broiler Chicks Fed Aflatoxin B1 after Three Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Amiri Dumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of milk thistle seeds (MTSs in counteracting the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in a contaminated diet fed to broilers. Methods: Two dietary inclusion rates of AFB1 (0, 0.250 and 500 ppb and MTS (0, 0.5 and 1% were tested in a 3×3 factorial manner. The effect of nine experimental treatments was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with 4 replicates of 6 birds each from one to 21 days of age. The effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors, antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND and influenza disease (ID in broilers were evaluated at the end of this period. Results: Statistical analysis of the main effects of diets indicated no significant changes in uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, ID, and phosphorus compared to the control (P>0.01. Also, addition of 500 ppb of dietary AFB1 into the diet was associated with significant decreases in serum glucose, calcium, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and ND compared to the control group (P<0.01. The contaminated diet significantly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Milk thistle showed protective effects and resulted in some serum enzyme activities and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity.

  5. The Use of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. in Alloxan Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Muselin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study emphasize the effect of H. rhamnoides and S. marianum 6% aqueous extract on blood sugar level in Alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats. The rats (200g and 3 months age were divided in five groups: one non-diabetic control and four experimental groups with induced diabetes mellitus after 40 mg/kg b.w. intravenous administration of 2% Alloxan. One group was kept as diabetic control and in the other three groups was administered 6% aqueous extracts of H. rhamnoides, S. marianum or a combination of the extracts during seven weeks. The stronger effect was obtained in case of H. rhamnoides (Sea buckthorn extract administration followed by the S. marianum (Milk thistle extract. The combination of the two extracts proven to have a stronger effect than the extracts given separately.

  6. Single and integrated effects of biological, organic and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative traits of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Eskandari Nasrabadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study individual and integrated effects of biological, organic and chemical fertilizers on milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. quantitative and qualitative traits, a field experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2010-2011. A complete randomized block design with twelve treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were: control, vermicompost (V, poultry manure (H, chemical fertilizer (CH, mycorrhiza (M (Glomus mosseae, biosulfur (B (Thiobacillus sp., M+V, M+CH, M+H, B+V, B+CH, B+H. The results indicated that the all treatments affected the number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescences diameter and grain yield significantly and other traits weren’t affected by treatments. However, mean comparisons proved promising results for reduction in application of chemical fertilizer and its replacement with biological and organic fertilizers. Application of biosulfur increased the number of seeds per capitula in comparison with control up to 73%. The maximum and the minimum amounts of yield were obtained in M and M+CH, respectively. Other factors affected the yield approximately in the same rate. There was a significant enhancement (26% in seed oil percentage by using M+H compared to poultry manure. The highest silymarin related to the use of Mycorrhiza and the lowest was obtained in M+CH. The maximum silybin was observed in Mycorrhiza treatment. The application of simple and integrated fertilization systems of organic and biological fertilizers can be effective to achieve a balance in applying chemical fertilizers in order to improve soil fertility, increase soil organic matter and also approach sustainable agriculture in farming milk Thistle.

  7. Milk Thistle (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy- ... citations. As a subset of the NLM's PubMed bibliographic database, CAM on PubMed features more than 230, ...

  8. Effect of milk thistle, Silybium marianum, extract on toxicity, development, nutrition, and enzyme activities of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminia, Seyedeh M; Sendi, Jalal J; Jahromi, Khalil T; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract of milk thistle, Silybium marianum L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), was investigated for its effects on the mortality, growth, feeding indices, enzymatic activity, and levels of non-enzymatic molecules of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), a pest of cruciferous plants. Feeding indices including approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), relative growth rate (RGR), and relative consumption rate (RCR) were measured. These indices were variously affected: the RGR, RCR, and AD decreased, but the ECD and ECI increased. The LC50 and LC25 values were estimated as 2.94% and 1.20%, respectively. At the lowest concentration of S. marianum extract (0.625%), the feeding deterrence index was 40.48%. The duration of the pupal stage and the rate of larval growth decreased. These changes may be due to alterations in metabolic activity, such as the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, which is likely involved in detoxification. Additionally, the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, which are key components of amino acid catabolism, decreased. The amount of glucose (an energy source) and uric acid (the excreted end product) increased, while total protein (another energy source) and cholesterol decreased. These results indicate that this plant possesses potential secondary metabolites that may be useful for the future study of the control of insect pests.

  9. Evaluation of blood chemical, lipids profile and immune response on broiler chicks fed with milk thistle (Silybum mari- anum L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. seeds in south-eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ansari Nik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of milk thistle seeds (MTS and thyme seeds (TS on blood chemical, lipid profile and immune response in broiler chicks. In this study, 160 one-day-old chicks (Ross 308 were allocated to four treatments with four replicates based on a completely randomized design in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The treatment groups were (A basal control diet, (B basal diet with 0.2 g/kg of MTS, (C basal diet with 0.2 g/kg of TS and (D basal diet with 0.2 g/kg of MTS and 0.2 g/kg of TS. Birds fed the (D supplemented treatment (MTS plus TS had the greatest levels of total protein, 4.26±0.27 g/L; albumin, 2.21±0.02 g/L; globulin 2.28±0.23 g/L; and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity, 152.18±4.46 U/L than the control birds [group (A] (P<0.05. MTS alone or in combination with TS reduced the cholesterol in the serum of the broilers (P<0.05, and this effect was more pronounced for the (C treatment (TS alone (P<0.05. Treatment consumption with MTS plus TS [group (D] significantly increased the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 90.32±2.28 mmol/L, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, 10.44±0.07 mmol/L, and triglyceride concentrations, 60.75±2.65 mmol/L, were decreased compared to control (P<0.05. However, none of the immunity parameters and liver enzymes differed significantly in MTS or TS groups. The present research indicated that supplements of MTS and TS have a protective influence on the lipids profile, total protein, globulin, albumin and AST levels in broiler chicks.

  10. Effect of adding herbs (Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium in milk on performance, blood metabolites and fecal microbial population on Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    narges ghahhari

    2016-08-01

    chemical composition of plants used for food such as dry matter, crude protein and ether extracts, from conventional laboratory methods AOAC (2005 were used. sixteen Holstein calves with mean of 42.18± 0.71 Kg birth weight, aged 5± 3 day allocated to treats: 1 control (milk without additive, 2 milk contains powder Ziziphora clinipodioides, 3 milk contains powder Mentha spicata, 4 milk contains powder Mentha pulegium. The herbs added to milk in each treatment was 20 g daily. Duration the experimental period was 25 days. Dry matter intake, water intake and fecal score measured daily. Body weight monitored every 5 days, and blood sampling conducted twice, once one day before the start of the period (day zero and once final day. Samples for culture prepared in three phases beginning, middle and end of the period. Results and Discussion The major component in Ziziphora clinopodioies was pulegone (38.34%, major component in Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium was carvone (61.93% and piperitone oxide (43.09%, respectively. The dry matter of three plant, Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium were 92.70, 93.25 and 94.01, crude protein were 8.57, 20.47 and 17.32, and also ether extracts were 3.20, 2.15 and 2.50 percent, respectively. Based on the obtained results, adding of Mentha pulegium to milk reduces dry matter intake during starter period and total dry matter intake in treatment Ziziphora clinopodioides was significantly higher than treatment control. Calves treated with Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha pulegium and Mentha spicata consumed statistically more water than control group. Dry matter digestibility significantly decreased in treatments Ziziphora clinopodioides and Menthe spicata compared to control. Daily gain, feed conversion ratio, blood parameter and immune respones were not affected by treatment trials. There were no significant differences between treatments for fecal score and day of diarrhea. Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and

  11. Environ: E00822 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00822 Milk thistle Medicinal herb Silymarin [CPD:C07610] [DR:D08515], Flavonoid [C...icinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) E00822 Milk thistle ... ...02331], Phytosterol Silybum marianum [TAX:92921] Asteraceae Milk thistle seed Major component: Silymarin [CPD:C07610] [DR:D08515] Med

  12. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE KINETICS OF DRYING SEEDS THISTLE IN VORTEX CHAMBER WITH MICROWAVE ENERGY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kazartsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of the current state of the theory, techniques and technologies for processing of milk thistle showed up a number of problems. One of those moments - the need to promptly provide quality and efficient process for drying seeds, but Russia has not produced special equipment for postharvest processing of seeds of milk thistle, and used for drying grain domestic appliances, represented mainly by mining and drum dryers, it is not suitable for thistle. This is due to the fact that, firstly, in the dewatering process is necessary to provide a relatively low final moisture drying product (5-6 %, and, secondly, to keep their beneficial substance in full, which imposes additional restrictions on the conditions of drying. One way of creating a new drying technology development and implementation in the industry of high-intensive devices with active hydrodynamic regimes with microwave energy supply, providing in many cases, higher technical and economic indicators. Therefore, the use of devices with swirling flow of heat-carrier for the intensification of the process of drying of dispersed materials is both theoretical interest and practical value. Microwave drying is based on the fact that the dielectric properties of water and dry food substances are different: the wet material is heated much faster than dry. During the microwave drying temperature wetter internal layers higher than the exterior more dehydrated (which creates a "right" - from the inner to the outer layers of the product - the gradient of moisture mass transfer is not realizable in any of the other known methods of drying. Milk thistle seeds have a unique composition: 25-32 % fatty oil, 15-17 % protein, 26 % fat, in the-soluble (B group and fat-soluble (A, D, E, K, F vitamins, mono- and disaccharides, macro- and trace elements (copper, zinc, selenium, dietary fiber and enzymes, mucus, up to 5 % (glucose, etc., phenolic compounds including flaviolignans 2-3% (silibinin

  14. Anti-obesity effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum NCDC 625 alone and in combination with herbs on high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothuraju, R; Sharma, R K; Kavadi, P K; Chagalamarri, J; Jangra, S; Bhakri, G; De, S

    2016-06-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation of milk fermented with indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum (LP625) alone and in combination with herbs (Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre) was investigated on high fat diet (HFD, 60 kcal% fat) fed mice for 12 weeks. Administration of LP625 alone or in combination with both herbs lowered the final body weight, however, a significant difference was observed with LP625 supplemented Gymnema sylvestre only as compared to the HFD fed group (25.06±0.18 vs 27.29±0.72 g, Pherbs. Furthermore, the HFD fed mice showed a remarkable increase in the epididymal fat cell size, whereas administration of LP625 alone or in combination with herbs exhibited a significant decrease in the size. Finally, a significant increase in the relative mRNA expression of thermogenic proteins, i.e. uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2, 1.16±0.25 fold change, Pherbs seems to protect against diet induced obesity by decreasing the body and epididymal fat weight through upregulation of UCP-2 expression and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  15. Herbs at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Herbs at a Glance Share: © Steven Foster Herbs at ... Thunder God Vine Turmeric Valerian Yohimbe How might herbs interact with medicines? Learn about herb-drug interactions. ...

  16. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leyva et al. 1995), UV treatments and blue light (Hartmann et al. 1998; Wade et al. 2001; Zhou et al. 2007), elicitor treatments such as salicylic acid and. Keywords. chalcone synthase; real-time PCR; silymarin; anthocyanin; Silybum marianum.

  17. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of products from two phenylpropanoid branch pathways, monolignol and flavonoid biosynthesis. The monolignol component, coniferyl alcohol, derives from the two-step side-chain reduction of feruloyl-CoA, itself formed from the hydroxylation and O-methylation of p- coumaroyl-CoA. The flavonoid component, taxifolin ...

  18. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of the resultant nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences led to the identification of two different members of gene family, 1 and 2. Third member, full-length cDNA (3) was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), whose open reading frame contained 1239 bp ...

  19. The Herb Garden Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each…

  20. Lead concentrations of herbs used in Van Herby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncturk, Murat; Tuncturk, Ruveyde; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Ertus, Mehmet M; Ozgokce, Fevzi

    2011-10-01

    Van Herby Cheese is a traditional milk product including local herb species in eastern Turkey. This special milk product was previously produced only for the local market, but industrial scale production and marketing have recently started in the region. However, some quality characteristics such as microbial flora and heavy metal concentrations of this novel product need to be investigated. In this study, lead concentrations of 28 different herbs mostly used in Van Herby Cheese were analyzed by AAS. The highest lead concentration of 1.69 mg kg(-1) of the analyzed herbs was found in Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia.

  1. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2009-03-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically

  2. Herbs in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan

    2011-12-01

    Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PhD Education High School & College Programs Our Research Advantage About Our Research Researcher Interviews Core Facilities Research ... Herbs Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products: FAQs About Herbs App Email Us About Mind-Body Therapies Our Research & ...

  4. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  5. Detecting creeping thistle in sugar beet fields using vegetation indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Syed Wajahat Ali Shah; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Nielsen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address the problem of thistle detection in sugar beet fields under natural, outdoor conditions. In our experiments, we used a commercial color camera and extracted vegetation indices from the images. A total of 474 field images of sugar beet and thistles were collected...... and divided into six different groups based on illumination, scale and age. The feature set was made up of 14 indices. Mahalanobis Distance (MD) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were used to classify the species. Among the features, excess green (ExG), green minus blue (GB) and color index...... for vegetation extraction (CIVE) offered the highest average accuracy, above 90%. The feature set was reduced to four important indices following a PCA analysis, but the classification accuracy was similar to that obtained by only combining ExG and GB which was around 95%, still better than an individual index...

  6. Characterisation of phenolics in Flor-Essence--a compound herbal product and its contributing herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ammar; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Harris, Cory; Asim, Muhammad; Tamayo, Carmen; Sit, Summer; Arnason, John Thor

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available herbal mixture FE, a proprietary natural health product manufactured by Flora Manufacturing and Distributing Ltd (Flora), is a unique North American traditional herbal product. FE is a chemically complex mixture of eight herbs and has not been subjected to phytochemical analysis. To develop analytical methods to undertake detailed phytochemical analyses of FE, and its eight contributing herbs, including burdock (Arctium lappa L.), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.), Turkish rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), slippery elm Muhl. (Ulmus rubra), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus L.) and kelp (Laminaria digitata Lmx.). The identification was undertaken by a combination of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass selective detection (RP-HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSD) analysis and phenolics metabolomic library matching. New separation methods facilitated the identification of 43 markers in the individual herbs which constitute FE. Sixteen markers could be identified in FE originating from four contributing herbs including four caffeoyl quinic acids, three dicaffeoyl quinic acids and two caffeic acid derivatives from A. lappa, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, five apigenin glycosides and apigenin from R. acetocella and N. officinale and sissostrin from T. pretense. A validated method for quantitative determination of three markers is reported with good intraday, interday and interoperator repeatability using a reliable alcohol based extraction technique. FE and its contributing herbs predominantly contain phenolics. This methodology can be applied to further develop full-scale validation of this product.

  7. Herbs: Bridging the Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Deborah J.

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the challenge for caregivers in developing intergenerational programs is to engage both groups with the materials and with each other while taking into consideration each group's needs and interests. Offers tips for planning any intergenerational activity. Explains how to plan activities using herbs, presents instructions for three…

  8. Hepatoprotective Herbs, Avicenna Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi-Baghbanan, Hamid; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Minaei, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liver injury or dysfunction is considered as a serious health problem. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders are expensive and cause further damage. Hence, hepatoprotective effects of some herbal drugs have been investigated, and one of the methods to choose herbs in order to study their biological effects is to search in ancient medical texts. Avicenna who is known as the prince of physicians had collected and classified Greek, Persian and Islamic medicine in the...

  9. Hepatoprotective herbs, avicenna viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi-Baghbanan, Hamid; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Minaei, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Liver injury or dysfunction is considered as a serious health problem. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders are expensive and cause further damage. Hence, hepatoprotective effects of some herbal drugs have been investigated, and one of the methods to choose herbs in order to study their biological effects is to search in ancient medical texts. Avicenna who is known as the prince of physicians had collected and classified Greek, Persian and Islamic medicine in the best possible way in the book of Canon in Arabic. Avicenna's book of The Canon of Medicine was reviewed to find the hepatoprotective herbs. Three different versions of the Canon were prepared and utilized. To find scientific names of plants we took advantage of three botany references. All of the herbs were investigated on the basis of scientific data from hepatoprotective effects point of view. The searched term was "hepatoprotective" without narrowing and limiting. The searched databases included Cochrane library, Web of science, SID, Irandoc and IranMedex. 18 plants were found. 85% of the presented species, genus or families of plants were reported to have hepatoprotective properties and in the remaining 15% there were no reports of hepatoprotective effect. Flowers and fruits were the most used part of the plants. Most of the plants had simultaneous protective effects on multiple organs but the protective effect on the liver was mostly accompanied by protective effect on the stomach (83%). The average temperament of these herbs is "hot" in the 2nd phase of the 2nd grade, and "dry" in the 3rd phase of the 2nd grade. Hepatoprotective herbs mostly prescribed as a part of hepatoprotective compound drugs formula or other formula for liver diseases are Crocus sativus, Pistacia lentiscus, and Cinnamomum spp. Maybe there is common mechanism for protecting both liver and stomach. Aquilaria agallocha, Aquilaria malaccensis, and Ruscus aculeatus whose hepatoprotective effects have not yet been

  10. Consequences of artichoke thistle invasion and removal on carbon and water cycling in a Mediterranean grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, D. L.; Harpole, W. S.; Suding, K. N.; Goulden, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in vegetation structure and composition may interact with management activities to influence biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy in unforeseen ways. Increases in the distribution and density of artichoke thistle (Cynara cardunculus), a perennial, non-native forb in Californian coastal grasslands, may alter seasonal dynamics of ecosystem C-assimilation and evapotranspiration (ET). During spring and summer 2006, we compared midday net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and ET among adjacent grassland plots where thistle was present and where it was absent. Estimates of NEE supported the prediction that deeply-rooted thistles increase ecosystem C-assimilation. Measurements of midday ecosystem respiration demonstrated that increases in ecosystem C-assimilation were associated with increased ecosystem photosynthesis rather than declines in respiration. Furthermore, the presence of C. cardunculus increased midday ET but did not influence shallow soil moisture or ecosystem water use efficiency. Following the initial sampling in late April, we removed C. cardunculus from half the thistle- containing plots with spot applications of herbicide. Three weeks later, fluxes in thistle-removal plots were indistinguishable from those in plots where thistles were never present, suggesting additive rather than interactive effects of thistles on grassland CO2 exchange and ET. Similar to woody-encroachment in some semi-arid ecosystems, C. cardunculus invasion in Californian grasslands increases ecosystem CO2 assimilation. Moreover, our results suggest that herbicide removal of C. cardunculus may be accompanied by few legacy effects. Future research should focus on the effects of C. cardunculus on early-growing season fluxes and belowground C-storage, and the interaction between the spread of non-native species and climate variability on biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of carbon and water.

  11. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ~65% of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 d p...

  12. Herbs in exercise and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra', ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

  13. Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Natasa; Milosević, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozić, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients.

  14. Effective landscape scale management of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) utilizing biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Markin; D. Larson

    2013-01-01

    The stem mining weevil, Ceutorhynchus litura Fabricius, the gall forming fly, Urophora cardui L., and the seedhead weevil, Larinus planus Fabricius, were established as biological control agents on an 1800 hectare multiple-habitat wildlife refuge in northwestern Oregon in the mid-1990s. At the time, Canada thistle was the most wide spread, aggressive, and difficult...

  15. What controls the population dynamics of the invasive thistle Carduus nutans in its native range?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejans, E.; Sheppard, A.W.; Shea, K.

    2006-01-01

    1. The invasive thistle Carduus nutans causes major economic losses in the Americas, Australia and New Zealand. For the first time, we have modelled its population dynamics in its native range, Eurasia, where it rarely reaches problematic densities, in order to identify ways to improve management

  16. Floral scent of Canada thistle and its potential as a generic insect attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, A M; Byers, J A; Manning, L M; Jürgens, A; Mitchell, V J; Suckling, D M

    2008-06-01

    The flowers of Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.), attract a wide range of insects, including pollinators and herbivorous species. This attraction is primarily mediated by floral odor, which offers potential for developing generic insect attractants based on odor. In this study, we have analyzed the chemical composition of the volatiles produced by Canada thistle flowers. Nineteen floral compounds were identified in the headspace, including phenylacetaldehyde (55%), methyl salicylate (14%), dimethyl salicylate (8%), pyranoid linalool oxide (4.5%), and benzaldehyde (3.5%). Other minor compounds include benzyl alcohol, methylbenzoate, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol, furanoid linalool oxide, p-anisaldehyde, 2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene, benzylacetate, benzyl tiglate, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, benzyl benzoate, isopropyl myristate, and 2-phenylethyl ester benzoic acid. The relative attractiveness of various doses of the main floral volatile compound phenylacetaldehyde (i.e., 10, 100, 200, and 400 mg) was tested for insect attraction. Both the total catch and the biodiversity of insect species trapped increased as the loading of phenylacetaldehyde increased. Volatiles were chosen from the odors from the flowers of Canada thistle and formulated and tested in the field. An 11-component blend was the most attractive of several floral blends tested. These findings indicate that chemical components of flower odors of Canada thistle can serve as a generic insect attractant for monitoring of invasive pest species.

  17. In-vivo Kinetics of Silymarin (Milk Thistle) on Healthy Male Volunteers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Madaus R, Halbach G, Trost W. Salt of the silymarin group with aminopolyhydroxy alcohols. U.S, Patent 30 November, 1976; 3: 994-925. 4. Gabetta B, Bombardelli E, Pifferi G. Complexes of flavanolignans with phospholipids, preparation thereof and associated pharmaceutical compositions. U.S. Patent 16 August, 1988; 4.

  18. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Scale-Up of Milk Thistle Flavonolignan Glucuronides

    OpenAIRE

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Graf, Tyler N.; PAGUIGAN,Noemi D.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Paine, Mary F.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based therapeutics, including herbal products, continue to represent a growing facet of the contemporary health care market. Mechanistic descriptions of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of constituents composing these products remain nascent, particularly for metabolites produced following herbal product ingestion. Generation and characterization of authentic metabolite standards are essential to improve the quantitative mechanistic understanding of herbal product disposition i...

  19. The role of milk thistle extract in breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7 apoptosis with doxorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Rastegar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive malignancy and first leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Iranian women. Based on silymarin's unique characteristics, its application in chemotherapy combined with doxorubicin can be effective to enhance the efficacy together with a reduced toxicity on normal tissues. The present study focus on evaluate the efficacy of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin, on viability and apoptosis of estrogen-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7. After being cultured, MCF-7 cells were divided into 8 groups and treated as follows: 1st group received 75 μg silymarin, groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated with 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin, respectively, and groups 5, 6, and 7 respectively received 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin as well as 75 μg silymarin. Viability percentage and apoptosis of the cells were assessed with Trypan Blue staining after 16, 24, and 48 hours. Silymarin has a synergistic effect on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin. Use of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin can be more effective on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin and decreases its dose-limiting side effects.

  20. Fertility Herbs: Do They Enhance Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get pregnant. I've seen many ads for fertility herbs and supplements. Do they work? Answers from ... for infertility. Unfortunately, the research on so-called fertility herbs and supplements is inconclusive and based on ...

  1. Aconite: a lethal Chinese herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatovich, D M

    1992-03-01

    Physicians and the public often assume that herbal preparations are harmless. Aconite is a Chinese herb used as an analgesic by homeopaths; its chief effects are on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. The first two reported cases of aconite poisoning in Australia are described.

  2. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs; Eignung von Thermolumineszenz-, Chemilumineszenz-, ESR- und Viskositaetsmessungen zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Arzneidrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-12-31

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary`s thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Eignung von Chemilumineszenz-, ESR-, Thermolumineszenz- und Viskositaetsmessungen als Nachweismethode fuer die Behandlung von Arzneidrogen mit ionisierenden Strahlen wurde an Anis, Baldrianwurzel, Baerentraubenblaettern, Birkenblaettern, Bockshornsamen, Cayennepfeffer, Faulbaumrinde, Fenchel, Hagebuttenschalen, Huflattichblaettern

  3. Study of various herbicides effect on two Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eskandar zand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of two varieties of Canada thistle (Horridum, and Integrifolium to 14 herbicides was examined under controlled environment conditions in 2000, at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Each herbicide constituted a separate experiment. Each experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications (one pot per replicate. Each herbicide was applied at 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 times the recommended rate (in g a.i. ha-1: metsulfuron, 4.44; 2,4-D, 876; 2,4-DB, 1400; clopyralid, 152; dicamba, 128; MCPA, 876; MCPB, 1700; MCPB+MCPA (15:1, respectively, by volume, 1700; mecoprop, 926; hexazinone, 1008; bentazon, 840; bromoxynil, 336; glyphosate, 880; glufosinate, 500. Twenty-one days after treatment, shoots were cut at soil level, and dry matter was determined. For statistical analysis of the dose-response data were fitted to a log-logistic model. Shoot dry matter responses of the Canada thistle varieties to the herbicides were described well by log-logistsic model. Results indicated that bromoxynil, and hexazinone had maximum effect, and metsulfuron minimum effect on Canada thistle (based on control effect index. Varieties horridum and integrifolium responsed differently to increasing rates of hexazinone only. Variety integrifolium was 40% less sensitive to the herbicide than variety horridum. If can not attribute the lack of control to soil properties or environment, it should ascertain the varietal type.

  4. Using prairie restoration to curtail invasion of Canada thistle: the importance of limiting similarity and seed mix richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Bright, J.B.; Drobney, Pauline; Larson, Jennifer L.; Palaia, Nicholas; Rabie, Paul A.; Vacek, Sara; Wells, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Theory has predicted, and many experimental studies have confirmed, that resident plant species richness is inversely related to invisibility. Likewise, potential invaders that are functionally similar to resident plant species are less likely to invade than are those from different functional groups. Neither of these ideas has been tested in the context of an operational prairie restoration. Here, we tested the hypotheses that within tallgrass prairie restorations (1) as seed mix species richness increased, cover of the invasive perennial forb, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) would decline; and (2) guilds (both planted and arising from the seedbank) most similar to Canada thistle would have a larger negative effect on it than less similar guilds. Each hypothesis was tested on six former agricultural fields restored to tallgrass prairie in 2005; all were within the tallgrass prairie biome in Minnesota, USA. A mixed-model with repeated measures (years) in a randomized block (fields) design indicated that seed mix richness had no effect on cover of Canada thistle. Structural equation models assessing effects of cover of each planted and non-planted guild on cover of Canada thistle in 2006, 2007, and 2010 revealed that planted Asteraceae never had a negative effect on Canada thistle. In contrast, planted cool-season grasses and non-Asteraceae forbs, and many non-planted guilds had negative effects on Canada thistle cover. We conclude that early, robust establishment of native species, regardless of guild, is of greater importance in resistance to Canada thistle than is similarity of guilds in new prairie restorations.

  5. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to cow's milk are also allergic to soy milk. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) A food ... formulas are based on soy protein instead of milk. Soy formulas are fortified to be nutritionally complete — but, ...

  6. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A A ... to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, which ...

  7. Role of herbs in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Tewari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and herbs have attracted a lot of attention since the past few years. The market for drugs extracted from these plants and made from herbal extracts has seen a significant rise. India is known for its rich stock of medicinal plants. Among many, some herbs are rich in phytochemical content. These phytochemicals are useful in generating phytomedicines which have effects on the human body. In the field of endodontics, phytomedicines are a boon. They have been popularly used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedatives, and antibiotics. They are most significantly used as endodontic irrigants. Phytotherapy has been a grand entrant in the drug market. The reason why herbal extracts have the potential to be highly popular is due to the side effects of synthetic medicines which alter microbiota.

  8. Characterization of the volatile profile of thistle honey using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Mangia, A; Mattarozzi, M; Musci, M

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a headspace solid-phase microextraction method was developed for the characterization of the volatile fraction of thistle honey and compared with a dynamic headspace extraction method. A DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre was used. The effects of extraction time, equilibration time and salt addition on extraction yield were evaluated. The volatile fraction of seven Italian thistle honey samples was extracted under the optimized conditions and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Characterization of the volatile profile was performed in terms of nature and relative amount of the extracted compounds. A total of 40 compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, were identified. The relative amounts of 16 compounds found in all the analyzed thistle honeys, i.e. nonanal, furfural, decanal, 3,6-dimethyl-2,3,3a,4,5,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran, benzaldehyde, α-linalool, lilac aldehyde (isomer IV), hotrienol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-oxoisophorone, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, a not identified compound, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and methyl anthranilate, were calculated and submitted to statistical analysis, in order to define for each compound a typical range. On the basis of the obtained data, a characteristic set of values was defined for thistle honey volatile fingerprint. The developed model proved to be effective in recognizing the botanical origin of thistle honey. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Theoretical Chemical Reaction for Herb Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Mo Choi; Byeong-U Kim

    2002-01-01

    Objective : This study was designed to show the possible functional groups from the herb medicine in boiling water. Results : The results are summarized as follows: 1. the new functional groups can be synthesized in water solution for herb medicine. 2. The boiling water solution may change the poison materials into harmless materials. 3. The multiplication, the offset, the contradiction, etc. in terms of mixed herb medicine can be explainable by these reactions. 4. After finding the new m...

  10. Do heterotrophic growth factors determine occurrence and distribution of the creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. in the landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heilmann, Hartmut

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixotrophic plants take - aside the sun’s energy - energetic advantage of organic sources which can be described as parasitism, probiosis, symbiosis or saprotrophism. Holoparasites like broomrape (Orobanche minor L. or clover dodder (Cuscuta epithymum ssp. trifolii are limited to their host plants. Orchids live on different probioses and symbioses. Also thistles (Cirsium arvense L occur as mixotroph plants and develop to weeds. Their occurrence shows different nutritional patterns. Aspects of new scientific results are discussed. Hints to regulation of thistles on this basis are given.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Fungi from Thorns and Thistles in Isfahan and Adjacent Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Emami

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most important subcutaneous fungal infections in man are caused by injury due to contaminated thistles and thorns. From an epidemiological point of view , it is important to recognize the fungi as well as their frequency of them in various thistles and thorns Methods: The present research has been conducted on thorns and thistles of 16 regions including cities and villages of Isfahan province. 800 samples have been collected. Specimens were inoculated and incubated at 25◦C in S & SCC medium. In order to isolate and identify the fungi, cultures in specific media, intraperitoneal injections of mice and disc diffusion test have been applied. Results: Over one year of study, 1676 colonies of actinomycetes and fungi were recognized. The most common fungi were as follows: Alternaria (22/4%,Aspergillus(11/8% , Cladosporium (10/8%,Esteril mycellium(10/6% and Penicillium (9/7%. The prevalence was most in Shahreza city(10/2% , while the least was in Ardestan(3%. The most prevalent yeasts were Candida tropicalis (50% , Rodotrula rubra (12/5% , Candida kerusei(11/4%,Trichosporon candida (7/9% , Unknown yeasts (6/8%, Candida gillermondi (5/7%, Saccharomyces cervisia (3/4%, Geotricum candidum and Trichosporon glabrata (Candida glabrata each one (1/1%. The prevalence was most in Khansar city(19/2%. In this study, 4 species similar to Coccidioides immitis, Phialophora verrucosa (4 species and Exophiala jeanselmei (3 species were identified. Conclusion: In this study done for the first time in this area, pathogenic and opportunistic fungi were isolated. Furthermore, Exophiala jeanselmei and Nocardiopsis dassonvillei were isolated for the first time from thorns in the country.

  12. IMPORTANT HERB-DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javor Kac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Herbal medicines have been popular for self-medication for a long time. Patients consider them to be safe because of their natural origin. Concurrent use of herbal medicines with other drugs can lead to interactions that are manifested as amplified or reduced pharmacological or toxic effect of any of the pair. It is worrying that patients use herbal medicines with prescribed or OTC drugs without informing the physician.Conclusions. Many herbal medicines influence the action of numerous drugs. Medicinal plants most often involved in the interactions are St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum, garlic (Allium sativum, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng (Panax ginseng, kava (Piper methysticum, and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi. Dangerous interactions are more likely to occur in perioperative patients as they use many prescribed drugs at the same time. Also sensitive to interactions are transplant patients, patients on anticoagulants and HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Physicians should consider possible interactions with herbal medicines when prescribing drugs and before operations. Patients should be asked if they use any of the above listed herbs. Physicians should warn them about the dangers of simultaneous use of those herbs and prescribed or OTC drugs.

  13. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  14. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  15. The effect of storage on quality of herbs genus Origanum

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Kouřimská; Kateřina Ešlerová; Ynus Khatri

    2016-01-01

    Herbs of Origanum genus are rich in essential oils and contain large amounts of phenols, lipids, fatty acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of these herbs depends on many factors, including the type herbs, post-harvest processing and subsequent processing. The aim of this study was therefore to confirm the hypothesis that the composition of oils of these two herbs of the Origanum genus depends on the post-harvest treatment of herbs and that the dried herb antioxidant activ...

  16. Selected Food/Herb-Drug Interactions: Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Cecilia N; Mgbahurike, Amaka A

    2017-11-22

    Food/Herb-drug interactions have become a major problem in health care. These interactions can lead to loss of therapeutic efficacy or toxic effects of drugs. To probe the clinical relevance of such interactions, the impact of food/herb intake on the clinical effects of drug administration has to be evaluated. Failure to identify and efficiently manage food-drug interactions can lead to serious consequences. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms that underpin variability in disposition will help optimize therapy. Electronic search of literatures from relevant databases were conducted. A total of 58 original scientific reports/review articles were obtained with the search strategy; of which 25 were found eligible to be included in the present review. Required data were extracted from these studies, and their methodologies were assessed. This review updates our knowledge on clinical food-drug interactions with emphasis on mechanism and clinical implications. Results obtained from literature search identified interactions with selected foods/herbs generated from in vivo and in vitro studies. For example, interaction studies in humans revealed a reduction in the bioavailability of mercaptopurine when taken concurrently with substances containing xanthine oxidase (eg, cow milk); a reduction in the bioavailability of quinine with Garcinia kola; increased bioavailability/toxicity of felodipine, nifedipine, saquinavir, sildenafil with grape juice; increased bioavailability of felodipine, cisapride with red wine and diminished bioavailability of fexofenadine with apple. Pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanisms are implicated in many of these interactions. By evaluating the dietary patterns of patients and use of prescribed medications, health professionals will be well informed of potential interactions and associated adverse effects.

  17. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  18. [Milk fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M

    1989-05-01

    Infectious complications following delivery were, in the past, attributed to "milk fever": these were milk congestion, milk deposits, rancid milk, etc., that were held responsible. The milk was reabsorbed into the blood of the patient and settled in the peritoneum ("milk peritonitis"), in the broad ligaments (pelvic abscess), in the thighs (phlebitis) and also in the breasts (breast abscess). This belief, originated by Aristotle, was accepted by excellent authors like Andre Levret (1703-1780), one of the most famous French obstetricians and Nicolas Puzos, at the same time. More recently, authors alluded to it and blamed "milk fever" for being at the origin of dramatic pictures which they described in their novels, like Victor Hugo and Guy de Maupassant, for instance.

  19. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  20. Theoretical Chemical Reaction for Herb Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Mo Choi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to show the possible functional groups from the herb medicine in boiling water. Results : The results are summarized as follows: 1. the new functional groups can be synthesized in water solution for herb medicine. 2. The boiling water solution may change the poison materials into harmless materials. 3. The multiplication, the offset, the contradiction, etc. in terms of mixed herb medicine can be explainable by these reactions. 4. After finding the new medicinal substances for the specific disease, we can synthesize, modify, and mass produce those for that disease.

  1. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Prehidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del Cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Paz Saa, D.; Diaz Palma, A.

    1983-07-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs.

  3. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  4. Indian herb 'Sanjeevani' (Selaginella bryopteris) can promote ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Campisi 2003; Friedlander 2003; Schmitt. 2003; Zender and Kubicka 2004). We, therefore, wanted to use an experimental cell system containing Sf9 insect cell and certain mammalian cells in culture to examine medicinal properties of the herb in ...

  5. [Relationship between chemical constituents and herbs properties of relative plant herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Wang, Yun

    2013-02-01

    The material fundament of Chinese herbs is chemical constituents which represented the properties of herbs, including five fundamental natures (cold, cool, neutral, warm and hot), seven flavors (sour, bitter, sweet, salty, acerbity, mild and pungent) and twelve meridians (liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, Xin Bao, Gall bladder, small intestine, stomach, large intestine, bladder and San Jiao). In this article, authors study the relationship between chemical constituents of plant herbs and their properties. First, authors build a relationship network where the herbs with similar chemical compositions are connected each other. The particular difference of our work is to filter the common chemical constituents that many plants from different families contained. As a result, considering relative plants have similar chemical constituents, the relative plant herbs are clustering closely and the herbs of different family are connected loosely in our network. The results indicates that the method of building the herbs network is correct. The characteristics of herbs' properties in the network are that the same properties are usually connected regardless the plant families. There is "properties hole" phenomenon, that is, the majority of adjacent drugs of a herb have a certain properties, while the drug does not have the properties.

  6. Effects of a non-native biocontrol weevil, Larinus planus, and other emerging threats on populations of the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle, Cirsium pitcheri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Kayri; Jolls, Claudia L.; Marik, Julie E.; Vitt, Pati; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Kind, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Larinus planus Frabicius (Curculionidae), is a seed-eating weevil that was inadvertently introduced into the US and was subsequently distributed in the US and Canada for the control of noxious thistle species of rangelands. It has been detected recently in the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). We assayed weevil damage in a natural population of Pitcher's thistle at Whitefish Dunes State Park, Door County, WI and quantified the impact on fecundity. We then estimated the impact of this introduced weevil and other emerging threats on two natural, uninvaded populations of Pitcher's thistle for which we have long-term demographic data for 16 yr (Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, MI) and 23 yr (Miller High Dunes, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter County, IN). We used transition matrices to determine growth rates and project the potential effects of weevil damage, inbreeding, goldfinch predation, and vegetative succession on Pitcher's thistle population viability. Based on our models, weevil seed predation reduced population growth rate by 10–12%, but this reduction was enough to reduce time to extinction from 24 yr to 13 yr and 8 yr to 5 yr in the MI and IN population, respectively. This impact is particularly severe, given most populations of Pitcher's thistle throughout its range hover near or below replacement. This is the first report of unanticipated ecological impacts from a biocontrol agent on natural populations of Cirsium pitcheri.

  7. Analysis of effects of Herbabolus on milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Alewijn, M.; Driessen-van Lankveld, W.D.M.; Lommen, A.; Stoopen, G.M.; Venema, D.P.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Rijk, de T.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Herbabolus is a mix of plant components for cows to improve their health during the transition period. The bolus contains a mixture of herbs including garlic (Garlicin), oregano and yucca. The effects of the bolus on milk quality is investigated. The results are discussed in this report.

  8. Blessed Thistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others), dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate (Rolaids, others), magaldrate (Riopan), magnesium sulfate (Bilagog), aluminum hydroxide (Amphojel), and others.MinorBe watchful with this combination. ...

  9. Chinese medicinal herbs for acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanhui; Li, Ka; Wu, Taixiang

    2012-02-15

    Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diagnoses made by primary care physicians. It is traditionally treated with antibiotics (although the evidence for their effectiveness is weak, and modest at best) and other even less effective treatments. Chinese medicinal herbs have also been used as a treatment. This review aimed to summarise the existing evidence on the comparative effectiveness and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for treating uncomplicated acute bronchitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4) which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 19 September 19, 2011), EMBASE (1988 to 19 September 2011) and CNKI and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1980 to 19 September, 2011). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Chinese medicinal herbs with placebo, antibiotics or other Western medicines for the treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis. At least two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. In this updated review, 74 studies involving 6877 participants were reported as RCTs by the study authors. None of them met the inclusion criteria for this review. Out of the 74 trials, we identified 39 as non-RCTs and 35 compared different Chinese herbal medicines in the intervention and control groups. There is insufficient quality data to recommend the routine use of Chinese herbs for acute bronchitis. Trial design limitations of the individual studies meant that we could not draw any conclusions about the benefits of Chinese herbs for acute bronchitis. In addition, the safety of Chinese herbs is unknown due to the lack of toxicological evidence for these herbs, although adverse events were reported in some case reports.

  10. Scaling down from species to individuals: a flower-visitation network between individual honeybees and thistle plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Yoko; Nielsen, Kristian T.; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Studies of ecological networks usually focus upon interaction patterns among species. However, linkage among species is mediated by their constituting individuals. Thus, every linked species pair in a network encapsulates a new network of interacting individuals. Very few studies outside...... the sociology of larger animals have investigated networks at the level of the individual. Here, we analyse the structure of a flower–visitation network of individual thistles Cirsium arvense and honeybees Apis mellifera in a small meadow patch in Denmark. We marked and numbered 62 honeybees and 32 thistle...... stems and monitored all floral visits. The constructed bipartite network of individual plants and bees had a high connectance and low nestedness, but it was not significantly modular. Frequency distributions of number of links per species (i.e. linkage level) had their best fit to a truncated power law...

  11. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James V; Doğramacı, Münevver; Horvath, David P; Foley, Michael E; Chao, Wun S; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Ali, Shahjahan; Mikel, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ~65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ~2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth.

  12. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, James V.

    2012-05-13

    Abstract Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ∼65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ∼2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth. ©Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012.

  13. Designer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  14. Potential lipase inhibitors from Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hongqiang; Li, Mengxuan; Liu, Wenjun; Sun, Lin; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Meng, Zhaoqing; Huang, Wenzhe; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Obesity has become a major health concern, and it places both personal and economic burdens on the world's population. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs are rich source of lead compounds and are possible drug candidates, which may be used to treat this condition. This study screened potent pancreatic lipase inhibitors found in traditional Chinese medicinal herbs for ability to treat obesity. A porcine pancreatic lipase inhibition assay was established, and the inhibitory activity of 35 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs was evaluated at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. Two elutions of herbal extracts with strong lipase inhibitory activity were further fractionated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography into 22 sub-fractions each, and these sub-fractions were tested for anti-lipase activity. Sub-fractions, which exhibited strong lipase inhibitory activity, were continuously fractionated into individual compounds. Two active compounds with potent anti-lipase activity were finally isolated and identified from two traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, respectively. Among 35 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, the 95% ethanol elutions of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae) and Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils (Magnoliaceae) showed strong anti-lipase activity. Two compounds, including 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 and honokiol were identified using bioactivity-guided isolation with IC50 = 33.7 and 59.4 μg/mL, respectively. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 and honokiol might be suitable candidates for the treatment of obesity.

  15. Assessment of a dry extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) for interference with human liver cytochrome-P450 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehmer, Johannes; Weiss, Gabriele; McGregor, Gerard P; Appel, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    The effect of a standardised dry extract from Silybum marianum (HEPAR-PASC®) on the enzyme kinetics of cytochrome-P450 isoenzymes (CYP) was investigated with primary human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes in order to assess the potential for drug-drug interactions. A cytotoxic effect on hepatocytes was observed at concentrations at and above 50 μg/ml. The EC(50) value was calculated to be 72.0 μg/ml. Therefore, the chosen test concentrations for CYP induction on human hepatocytes were 50, 10, and 1.5 μg/ml, which allowed for interpretation of the clinical significance of the data with a range of 50-1-fold c(max) at maximal recommended doses. No induction was observed at the lowest concentration of 1.5 μg/ml, which is close to c(max). The extract did not induce CYP 3A4 at any of the tested concentrations. A low or marginal induction of 1A2, 2B6, and 2E1 at the maximum concentration of 50 μg/ml was observed. CYP inhibition on human microsomes was tested at concentrations of 150, 15, and 1.5 μg/ml. No or minor CYP inhibition was observed for all CYPs tested at the lowest concentration of 1.5 μg/ml, i.e. CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. At concentrations of 15 and 150 μg/ml the extract significantly inhibited CYP 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, and 3A4. In these cases, K(i) values were determined. All K(i) values exceeded c(max) by at least a factor of 10-fold. According to FDA regulations 1>c(max)/K(i)>0.1 indicates, that drug-drug interactions are possible for CYPs 2C8, and 2C9, but not likely, and are remote for CYPs 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical and immunological basis of silymarin effect, a milk thistle (Silybum marianum) against ethanol-induced oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subir Kumar; Mukherjee, Sukhes

    2012-06-01

    Ethanol metabolism induces generation of excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which results in immune dysfunction. We examined the efficacy of silymarin on ethanol-induced oxidative stress, immunomodulatory activity, and vascular function in mice blood. Effectiveness of silymarin was compared with potent antioxidant ascorbic acid. In the present study, 8- to 10-week-old male BALB/c mice (20-30 g) were divided into the four groups of six each. One group were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight), while second group were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight) and silybin (250 mg/kg body weight), and the third group were exposed to ethanol (250 mg/kg body weight) and ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg body weight) per day for 12 weeks. The control group was fed with isocaloric glucose solution instead of ethanol. Ethanol exposure significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite levels besides glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in whole blood hemolyzate, while silymarin treatment significantly normalized these altered parameters. Silymarin significantly prevented ethanol-induced, elevated activities of interleukin (IL)-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, γ interferon (IFN-γ), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, as well as decreased IL-4 activity in mice blood. These results were comparable with the activity of ascorbic acid.

  17. Milk thistle natural polyphenols increase systemic as well as hepatic concentrations of bilirubin and decrease hepatic lipoperoxidation in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šuk, J.; Jašprová, J.; Biedermann, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Křen, Vladimír; Muchová, L.; Vítek, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, 1 SI (2017), 231A ISSN 0270-9139. [68th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of- Liver -Diseases (AASLD) / Liver Meeting. 20.10.2017-24.10.2017, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27317A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  18. Rasayans and non-rasayans herbs: Future immunodrug – Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas; Shanbhag, Pradnya Palekar

    2013-01-01

    Ayurvedic therapeutics describes vast number of medicinal herbs used as “Vyadhirodhak Chamatav” that has enlightened the application of herbs used as corner stone in various diseases especially those modulating the immune system. Ayurveda literature comprises of rasayana and non-rasayana herbs. Materia Medica entirely enriched with enormous data of rasayana medicinal herbs acting as immunomodulators in existence. However, as such there is no specific review of literature available for non-Rasayana herbs that have immense potential as immunomodulators. This review article empowers data on non-rasayana medicinal herbs as promising future target for immunotherapy. PMID:24347916

  19. Rasayans and non-rasayans herbs: Future immunodrug - Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas; Shanbhag, Pradnya Palekar

    2013-07-01

    Ayurvedic therapeutics describes vast number of medicinal herbs used as "Vyadhirodhak Chamatav" that has enlightened the application of herbs used as corner stone in various diseases especially those modulating the immune system. Ayurveda literature comprises of rasayana and non-rasayana herbs. Materia Medica entirely enriched with enormous data of rasayana medicinal herbs acting as immunomodulators in existence. However, as such there is no specific review of literature available for non-Rasayana herbs that have immense potential as immunomodulators. This review article empowers data on non-rasayana medicinal herbs as promising future target for immunotherapy.

  20. Hair loss and herbs for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2013-09-01

    or androgenetic alopecia directly distresses self-confidence affecting the individual's quality of life. Hair loss is therefore a significant psychosocial manifestation that worth much expense on treatment. Androgenetic alopecia is noticed as a slow transformation of large scalp terminal hair follicles to shorter, thinner, and less deep vellus hair with a much shorter anagen. Although minoxidil, finasteride, and dutasteride including other synthetic therapeutic agents are mostly used for alopecia treatment, their adverse effects encourage sorting of alternative efficient treatment agent with a limited side effect particularly herbs. Thus, this review briefly summarized causes of hair loss and emphasized on active ingredients for treatment in particular currently used herbs and the potential candidates. Treatment choices will be further wider and conclusively select herbs that fitting the consumers' preference. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Infrared drying of herbs (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PÄÄKKÖNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments on peppermint (Mentha piperita L., anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum L., parsley (Petroselinum crispum L. and garden angelica (Angelica archangelica L. were conducted using near infrared drying, operating at a product temperature of 35-50°C. The oil content, composition and residual water content of the dried herbs were determined. The microbiological quality of the fresh and the dried material was determined for total bacterial count and coliforms, moulds and yeasts. The results indicate that infrared radiation is has potential for drying herbs since it is gentle and shortens the processing time.

  2. Erectile Dysfunction Herbs: A Natural Treatment for ED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... erectile dysfunction: A natural treatment for ED? Some herbs claim to help erectile dysfunction. Find out the ... You've likely seen advertisements for erectile dysfunction herbs or supplements to "increase your sexual performance." Could ...

  3. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research (IJHPR) [ISSN: 2315-537X; E- ISSN: 2384-6836] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the field of Herbal medication in developing countries ...

  4. EFFECTS OF CHINESE HERBS ON THE HEMAGGLUTINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Although UTI is usually treated with common antimicrobial agents, concerns about antibiotic resistance, side effects, and prevention of recurrent UTIs in susceptible populations have led to increased interest in using other remedies to prevent bacterial infections. UTI prevention through the use of the Chinese herbs is being ...

  5. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-31

    Jul 31, 2015 ... International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research. IJHPR ... Inappropriate prescribing will have an important economic and medical impact on health care as it makes treatment ... making previous research works on rational drug prescribing to be restricted to using methods, expressions and.

  6. Micropropagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. is an endangered herb, the tuberous roots of which are source of medicinally important steroidal saponins. In the present study, propagation of C. borivilianum using a bench top stirred bioreactor with liquid medium via multiple shoot culture has been reported. One week old ...

  7. Herbs in orthodox practice: a view by medical students | Enwere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Use and opinion of herbs among medical students of Imo State University Nigeria was assessed. Information on herb use, indication and opinion from returned self-administered questionnaire was analyzed. A total of 114 students (91.2%) of 125 responded. 32 (28.1%) students had used herbs before, a significant ...

  8. Using of the herb in space foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    The astronaut must do much work in a short time. The astronaut is exposed to much stress. For examples; Break of the hormone balance, Inappetence, Sleep shortage. Therefore the role that the meal serves as becomes big. It greatly participates in not only the health maintenance but also the mental health to consume a meal. Most of space foods are freeze dry, and the mineral is abundant, but it is necessary for the vitamins to add it particularly. When I think about it, the cultivation of the fresh vegetables with the spaceship is necessary. The Asian project team suggested cultivation of the herb in the space. The herbs were sweet basil, Dukung Abak, Hempedu Bumi and Chinese holly basil. Each herb has a fragrance ingredient. The fragrance ingredient stimulates human sense of smell. The fragrance ingredient increases an appetite. The good fragrance derives a good sleep. I can feel passage of time by observing a plant being brought up. It helps mental health to bring up a plant. We try that we bring up herb under a condition of the space. Because an experiment on the ground was over, we report it. The sweet basil which a germination rate has good is the first candidate when we think about temperature and light quantity in the space. Three kinds of other herbs are slow-growing and germination-rate is lower than sweet basil. We think that probably we will send a sweet basil to the spaceship in space. After a sweet basil grew up in a spaceship, we analyze a fragrance ingredient. We will cook the sweeter basil and want to eat.

  9. [Research strategies and application of reference Dao-di herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Ti-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Yu-Yang

    2017-07-01

    Establishing evaluation system of Dao-di herbs has been a problem to be solved in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and is also a difficult problem in restricting the realization of TCM quality. On the basis of national drug standard substance requirements, this paper puts forward to set up reference Dao-di herbs in the first step of the evaluation system of Dao-di herbs, and discusses the properties, evaluation index system and its development requirements of reference Dao-di herbs, aiming at supporting the modern research and characteristics identification of Dao-di herbs in the future. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Genetic, ecological, behavioral and geographic differentiation of populations in a thistle weevil: implications for speciation and biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Isabelle; Singer, Michael C; Magalhães, Sara; Courtiol, Alexandre; Dubois, Yvain; Carbonell, David; Justy, Fabienne; Beldade, Patrícia; Parmesan, Camille; Michalakis, Yannis

    2008-02-01

    Because weevils are used as biocontrol agents against thistles, it is important to document and understand host shifts and the evolution of host-specificity in these insects. Furthermore, such host shifts are of fundamental interest to mechanisms of speciation. The mediterranean weevil Larinus cynarae normally parasitizes either one of two thistle genera, Onopordum and Cynara, being locally monophagous. In Sardinia, however, both host genera are used. We used three types of data to help understand this complex host use: (i) weevil attack rates on the two host genera among 53 different populations in Sardinia and nearby Corsica, (ii) host preference in a lab setting, and (iii) genetic (allozyme) differentiation among weevil populations exploiting the same or different hosts. Using a subset of populations from northern Sardinia, we attempted to relate interpopulation differences in host preference to gene flow among populations by comparing pairwise differences in oviposition preference (Qst) and in allozyme frequencies (Fst). Overall, Qst and Fst were positively correlated. Fst was positively correlated with geographic distance among pairs of populations using the same host, but not among different-host population pairs. As mating occurs on the hosts, this result suggests reinforcement. Genetic evidence indicates Cynara as the ancestral host of the weevils from both islands and our current studies suggest repeated attempts to colonize Onopordum, with a successful shift in Corsica and a partial shift in Sardinia. This scenario would explain why in Sardinia the level of attack was higher on Cynara than on Onopordum and why, when given a choice in the laboratory, Sardinian weevils preferred Cynara even when sampled from Onopordum. The lability of host shifts in L. cynarae supports caution in using these or related weevils as biocontrol agents of exotic thistles.

  11. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beikang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John’s wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I, three were estimated as probable (level II, and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III and doubtful (level IV, respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes.

  12. Coleus aromaticus: a therapeutic herb with multiple potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadikar, Dadasaheb D; Patki, Prakash E

    2016-07-01

    The herb Coleus aromaticus belonging to Lamiaceae family and Coleus genus is known by numerous names in different parts of the world and several language specific vernacular names. The herb has been extensively studied as well as reported in several fields of science. The multiple potential of the herb includes allelopathic potential, antibacterial property, antimicrobial activity, insecticidal property; free radical scavenging and radio-protective components from herb extracts and most recently the appetizing potential of the herb have been reported. The herb has carvacrol and thymol as the major components responsible for the flavour; while chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid etc. as the phenolic components. The herb has been used in therapeutic and medicinal applications as well as in culinary preparations.

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santoro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

  14. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cheese products, leading to cross-contact. Margarine Nisin Non-dairy products, as many contain casein Nougat ... unsure about an item’s ingredients. Milk in Kosher Foods Kosher Dairy: A “D” or the word “dairy” ...

  15. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Coagulation properties of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Hallén, Elin

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of the different proteins in milk are important for the outcome of the coagulation processes which yield our dairy products, whereas total milk protein content is a poor indicator of coagulation properties of milk. In order to design the milk protein composition to meet dairy processing requirements, selection for genetic variants of milk proteins have been proposed. This work aimed to study genetic milk protein polymorphism and its association with the detailed milk protein co...

  17. A study on pyrolysis of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) with titania based catalysts for bio-fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik

    2016-11-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Cirsium arvense was performed with titania supported catalysts under the operating conditions of 500°C, 40°C/min heating rate, 100mL/min N2 flow rate in a fixed bed reactor for biofuel production. The effect of catalysts on product yields was investigated. The amount of pyrolysis products (bio-char, bio-oil, gas) and the composition of the produced bio-oils were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and elemental analysis (EA) techniques. Thistle bio-oils had lower O/C and H/C molar ratios compared to feedstock. The highest bio-char and bio-oil yields of 29.32wt% and 36.71wt% were obtained in the presence of Ce/TiO2 and Ni/TiO2 catalysts respectively. GC-MS identified 97 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained from thistle pyrolysis. (1)H NMR analysis showed that the bio-oils contained ∼55-77% aliphatic and ∼6-19% aromatic structural units. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Field assessment, in Greece and Russia, of the facultative saprophytic fungus, Colletotrichum salsolae, for biological control of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian thistle (Salsola tragus, tumbleweed, RT) is a problematic invasive weed in the United States (U.S.) and is a target of biological control efforts. The facultative saprophytic fungus Colletotrichum salsolae (CS) kills RT plants in greenhouse tests and is specific to Salsola spp., which are no...

  19. Advanced Cancer Detection Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    OMB No. 074-0188 Public sporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for...Chaparral Coenzyme Q10 Dandelion Echinacea Essiac and Flor- Essence Garlic Genistein Ginger Resveratrol Ginseng Saw Palmetto Goldenseal...Unsafe Herbs Lycopene Supplements Associated with Illness or Milk Thistle Injury PC-SPES Drug/Nutrient/Supplement Interactions Prickly Ash Herbs

  20. Herbs Recognition Based on Android using OpenCV

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Agus Suryawibawa; I ketut Gede Darma Putra; Ni Kadek Ayu Wirdiani

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are used in traditional medicine. There are so many herbs are spread across the world, it is difficult to memorize it all. This paper describes an android application to recognize herbs by their leaf characteristics (shape, veins, and keypoints). Shape and veins of leaves are recognized by Invariant Moment Method as the feature extraction. City Block Distance used to calculate the distance between the features. Whereas for detection and keypoints extraction using Oriented FAST and Rotat...

  1. Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Chauhan; Km. Ruby; Jaya Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine. It is refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for disease treatment.Herbs have many golden phytochemicals or secondary metabolites to treat disease. They have a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. Hemorrhoids or Piles treatment through Herbs has been effective and a golden treatment without any side-effects. There are some herbs which is useful in piles treatment such as Aesculus hippocastanum,...

  2. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines.

  3. Radioprotective activity in some medicinal herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, Morio (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Center for Radioisotopes)

    1993-09-01

    Water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs of the Araliaceae and other families were tested for their radioprotective activity by either measuring 30 days survival rates (a commonly applied method) or counting the thrombocytes 14 days after irradiation (an improved method) in mice. The extracts were i.p. injected once within 4 min after the whole body X-ray irradiation. Of 12 materials examined, Aralia elata, Angelica acutiloba and Morus bombysis seemed to be good starting materials for preparing radioprotective substance(s) because of their relatively high specific activity and high yields of the extracts. (author).

  4. Sesquiterpenoids from the herb of Leonurus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liang; Zhou, Qin-Mei; Peng, Cheng; Xie, Xiao-Fang; Guo, Li; Li, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Juan; Liu, Zhao-Hua; Dai, Ou

    2013-04-29

    Two new sesquiterpenoids, (-)-(1S*,2S*,3R*)-3-ethoxycupar-5-ene-1,2-diol (1) and (-)-(1S*,4S*,9S*)-1,9-epoxybisabola-2,10-diene-4-ol (2), along with six known compounds 3-8, were isolated from the EtOH extract of the herb of Leonurus japonicus. Their structures were elucidated by physical and spectroscopic analysis. In the in vitro assays, compounds 7 and 8 showed obvious antibacterial activity against several bacteria strains, while compound 3 significantly inhibited abnormal increase of platelet aggregation induced by ADP.

  5. Sesquiterpenoids from the Herb of Leonurus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Xiong; Qin-Mei Zhou; Cheng Peng; Xiao-Fang Xie; Li Guo; Xiao-Hong Li; Juan Liu; Zhao-Hua Liu; Ou Dai

    2013-01-01

    Two new sesquiterpenoids, (−)-(1S*,2S*,3R*)-3-ethoxycupar-5-ene-1,2-diol (1) and (−)-(1S*,4S*,9S*)-1,9-epoxybisabola-2,10-diene-4-ol (2), along with six known compounds 3−8, were isolated from the EtOH extract of the herb of Leonurus japonicus. Their structures were elucidated by physical and spectroscopic analysis. In the in vitro assays, compounds 7 and 8 showed obvious antibacterial activity against several bacteria strains, while compound 3 significantly inhibited abnormal increase of pla...

  6. Sesquiterpenoids from the Herb of Leonurus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenoids, (−-(1S*,2S*,3R*-3-ethoxycupar-5-ene-1,2-diol (1 and (−-(1S*,4S*,9S*-1,9-epoxybisabola-2,10-diene-4-ol (2, along with six known compounds 3−8, were isolated from the EtOH extract of the herb of Leonurus japonicus. Their structures were elucidated by physical and spectroscopic analysis. In the in vitro assays, compounds 7 and 8 showed obvious antibacterial activity against several bacteria strains, while compound 3 significantly inhibited abnormal increase of platelet aggregation induced by ADP.

  7. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which...... differences in milking interval were attributable to individual cows, and how this correlated to individual differences in yield and composition of milk throughout lactation. Data from 288,366 milkings from 664 cow-lactations were used, of which 229,020 milkings had milk composition results. Cows were...... milking was found to be highly repeatable in all breeds, with the highest values occurring by the end of lactation. Fat percentage had only moderate repeatability in early to mid lactation but increased toward the end of lactation. Individual level correlations showed that cows with higher milking...

  8. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... commercial baby formulas). Every time the child has milk, the body thinks these proteins are harmful invaders and works ... thing as lactose intolerance , which is when the body has trouble digesting milk. Some babies with a milk allergy have an ...

  9. Pregnancy test via milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, H.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Determining a pregnancy through the milk. Wageningen University is researching the possibilities. The first steps have been taken. Researchers have identified five milk proteins that release a signal of a pregnancy. A pregnancy test via the milk comes within sight.

  10. Patterns of aphrodisiac herbs usage as expressed by married adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study however, revealed no significant difference in the patterns of aphrodisiac herbs usage as expressed by married adults in Kwara State based on gender and educational attainment. It was thus recommended that due attention be paid to the patterns of aphrodisiac herb usage by the members of the society.

  11. Thermoluminescent (TL) trap characteristics in irradiated oregano herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    The aim of this article is to investigate in a very simple way the trap characteristics of the irradiated oregano herb. The preparation of the polymineral dust obtained from the herb is described and then, through a fading experiment, the characteristics of the trapping levels responsible of the thermoluminescent emission are discussed.

  12. Chinese and related North American herbs: phytopharmacology and therapeutic values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Thomas S. C

    2002-01-01

    ..., most particularly Chinese herbs. Unfortunately, while there is an incredible wealth of knowledge about Chinese herbs, most of this information has been unavailable to Western society, and even the accessible information has often been in obscure sources. The famous 15th century physician Paracelsus taught that the only difference between a medi...

  13. Screening for Anticandidal and Antibiofilm Activity of Some Herbs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anticandidal activity of the ethanol extracts of 12 herbs from Thailand. Methods: The herbs studied were Alpinia galanga, Curcuma longa, Curcuma zedoaria, Mentha cordifolia, Ocimum africanum, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum sanctum, Piper betle, Piper chaba, Piper nigrum, Piper sarmentosum and ...

  14. Genetic diversity analysis and conservation of the Chinese herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an economically important floral herb. However, little work has been conducted to further our understanding of the genetics of this herb. In this study, a representative set of germplasm of. S. miltiorrhiza populations was used to analyze genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  15. Mycotoxins in spices and herbs-An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W

    2017-01-02

    Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature. However, spices and herbs cultivated mainly in tropic and subtropic areas can be exposed to contamination with toxigenic fungi and subsequently mycotoxins. This review provides an overview on the mycotoxin risk in widely consumed spices and aromatic herbs.

  16. Oxalate contents of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, James; Huang, Chris; Liebman, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To assess the total and soluble oxalate contents of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. Twenty-two Chinese medicinal herbs were extracted in both acid and water prior to determination of total and soluble oxalate, respectively. Oxalate was assayed in herbal extracts using a well-established enzymatic procedure. Among the 22 medicinal herbs, there was significant variation in oxalate content; Houttuynia cordata contained the highest amount of soluble oxalate (2146 mg/100 g) and Selaginella doederleinii contained the lowest amount (71 mg/ 100 g). The results indicated that different Chinese medicinal herbs, even from the same family, contain significantly different amounts of oxalate. In susceptible individuals, the use of medicinal herbs with the highest oxalate contents could increase risk of kidney stone formation.

  17. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; Wang, S Y

    2001-11-01

    The antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined. The ORAC values and total phenolic contents for the medicinal herbs ranged from 1.88 to 22.30 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh weight and 0.23 to 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight, respectively. Origanum x majoricum, O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and Poliomintha longiflora have higher ORAC and phenolic contents as compared to other culinary herbs. The ORAC values and total phenolic content for the culinary herbs ranged from 2.35 to 92.18 micromol of TE/g of fresh weight and 0.26 to 17.51 mg of GAE/g of fresh weight, respectively. These also were much higher than values found in the medicinal herbs. The medicinal herbs with the highest ORAC values were Catharanthus roseus, Thymus vulgaris, Hypericum perforatum, and Artemisia annua. A linear relationship existed between ORAC values and total phenolic contents of the medicinal herbs (R = 0.919) and culinary herbs (R = 0.986). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Among the identified phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum x majoricum, and P. longiflora, whereas quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside were predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba leaves.

  18. Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 1: The potential medicinal value of pasture herbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the period April - October 2011 Sibilla Laldi (MSc-student WUR) carried out the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’, a project of the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pastures herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms.

  19. Chinese Herbs Interfering with Cancer Reprogramming Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangfeng Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence promotes a reassessment of metabolic reprogramming regulation in cancer research. Although there exists a long history of Chinese herbs applied in cancer treatment, few reports have addressed the effects of Chinese herbal components on metabolic reprogramming, which is a central cancer hallmark involved in the slowing or prevention of chemoresistance in cancer cells. In this review, we have focused on four core elements altered by metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. These include glucose transport, glycolysis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid synthesis. With this focus, we have summarized recent advances in metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in response to specific Chinese herbal components. We propose that exploring Chinese herbal interference in cancer metabolic reprogramming might identify new therapeutic targets for cancer and more ways in which to approach metabolism-related diseases.

  20. Milk market after abolition of milk quotas

    OpenAIRE

    Iurchevici, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    In the past two years in Romania, it was recorded one of the sharpest decreases in the amount of cow's milk collected by processing units and at the same time a sharp decline in the price of milk, compared with the average price in the European Union. The obvious conclusion is that milk production in Romania is facing serious problems. This indicates that the milk processing industry and Romanian farmers were not prepared to face the barrier removal of milk quotas. Cattle breeders organizatio...

  1. Microencapsulation of Traditional Chinese Herbs-PentaHerbs extracts and potential application in healthcare textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Patrick Chi-Leung; Wang, Wen-Yi; Kan, Chi-Wai; Ng, Frency Sau-Fun; Wat, Elaine; Zhang, Vanilla Xin; Chan, Chung-Lap; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2013-11-01

    In this work, Traditional Chinese Herbs (TCH)-PentaHerbs--was successfully microencapsulated in chitosan-sodium alginate (CSA) blend matrix using emulsion-chemical cross-linking method and the final product was characterised with regard to structure, surface morphology, particle size, in vitro drug release and skin toxicity by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser diffraction particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays respectively. Results showed that the microcapsules were in spherical form with diameter mostly in the range of 3-18 μm and that the release performance of the microcapsules was influenced by pH value of phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The microcapsules had no toxic effects on cells and were successfully grafted onto the surface of cotton fabrics. These results indicated that PentaHerbs loaded CSA microcapsule may possess potential application in clinical treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle; Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la hidrolisis acida de cardo exento de pentosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Paz, M. D.; Diaz, A.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses). At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs.

  3. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pvariables. Milk emission flow variables were similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Milking parameters were adequate in most of the farms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency

  4. Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Reena; Girish, K J; Kumar, Abhimanyu

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs.

  5. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-01-01

    .... Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk...

  6. [Milk and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Christophersen, Olav Albert; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd Magne

    2007-10-04

    Milk has been an important part of Norwegian nutrition for generations. The article is a review of literature concerning research on milk and health. Relevant literature with results that were confirmed by others were chosen from acknowledged journals from Pubmed in the period 1977-2006, by using the search words milk, fat, atherosclerosis, omega-3, omega-6, cancer, allergy, trace elements, iodine and selenium. Milk and milk products contain many essential nutrients. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Certain studies indicate that a moderate intake of milk fat reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly through reduced formation of small dense LDL-particles, despite of its inherent tendency to increase total cholesterol. For individuals with genetic metabolic defects, milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may cause health problems. The low pH in fermented milk and the formation of substances during the fermentation process may have a beneficial effect. Full-fat milk and fermented milk lead to delayed gastric emptying, and thereby to reduced glycaemia and reduced appetite. Harmful substances may be formed when proteins react with sugar, especially at a high temperature; a fact that should be considered with an increasing use of sweetened milk products. The cow's diet affects the milk's content of many nutrients as for example fatty acids, iodine and selenium. The composition of milk for commercial use should be investigated.

  7. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs in MS: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of foods, including fish (especially salmon and tuna fish), pork and chicken, beans, bananas and many vegetables. 11 | Vitamins, Minerals & Herbs in MS Vitamin B6 is needed in amino acid conversions. Sometimes people with MS take a B ...

  9. [Retrospect of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J N; Zhang, X L; Guo, H

    2017-01-28

    Tea and wine are time-honored drinks in China. Along with coffee and cocoa, tea, as one of the non-alcoholic plant beverages, is prevailing the world. Tea and Chinese medicine has a very close relationship. Chinese herbs taken as tea forming the tea-like medicinal tea, can be taken frequently at anytime. The application of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking begins from the Tang Dynasty, flourishes in the Song Dynasty and matures in the Qing Dynasty. The review of its history provides ample evidence of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking in treating and preventing diseases, as well as providing the clues and references of developing new Chinese herbs taking as tea.

  10. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF HERBS AGAINST YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA AND MIXED MICROFLORA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shilpa Sharma; Ravinder Kaushik; Pooja Sharma; Reetika Sharma; Anju Thapa; K P Indumathi

    2016-01-01

      The present study aimed at developing herbal medicine against food borne pathogens, therefore the antimicrobial activity of four herbs viz. Arjuna (bark), Ashwagandha (roots), Puthkanda (leaves) and Shalampanja (roots) was checked...

  12. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part: (1... the United States under this part; (2) Butter; and (3) Butteroil. (b) Milk and milk products...

  13. MEDICINAL HERBS USED BY HIV-POSITIVE PEOPLE IN LESOTHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugomeri, Eltony; Chatanga, Peter; Chakane, Ntema

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal herbs whose efficacy and toxicities are not known by HIV-positive people in Lesotho is a threat to the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment. This study explored some medicinal herbs used by HIV-positive people in Lesotho and the reasons for their use. This was a cross sectional study based on a questionnaire distributed to purposively-sampled HIV-positive people in Leribe and Maseru districts of Lesotho. The participants' socio-demographic and clinical variables were summarized using frequency tables in Stata version 13 statistical software. Data variables for medicinal herbs used, frequency of use, uses by the participants and in the literature, parts of plants used and the method of preparation were also explored. Out of 400 questionnaires distributed to the participants, 389 were returned with data acceptable for analysis. Ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 75 years (Mean=43 + 11.6). Out of the 272 (69.9%) participants who conceded that they had used medicinal herbs at least once, 30 (7.7%) participants used medicinal herbs frequently while 242 (62.2 %) rarely used the herbs. At least 20 plant species belonging to 16 families were reportedly used by the participants. Asteraceae was the most common plant family reportedly used by the participants. Allium sativum and Dicoma anomala, reportedly used by 21.0% and 14.3% respectively, were the most commonly used medicinal herbs in this population. In addition, boosting the immune system and treating gastrointestinal ailments, apparently cited by 32% and 28% participants respectively, were the most commonly reported reasons for using medicinal herbs. A considerable proportion (69.9%) of HIV-positive people use medicinal herbs in this population, and 7.7% use them frequently. At least 20 plant species belonging to 16 families were reportedly used by the participants. HIV counselling protocols in Lesotho should emphasize the dangers of using medicinal herbs whose safety and compatibility

  14. The course of oxidative processes in the hepatopancreas of age-2 carp after supplementing the feeds with thistle (Siliybum marianum seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Korylyak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of thistle seeds introduced into the basic diet of carp, the functional state of antioxidant protection (AOP and the formation of lipid peroxidation products (LPP in fish hepatopancreas. Methodology. The study has been carried out at the Lviv Research Station of the Institute of Fisheries in duplicate. The first replication was done in 2013, the second one in 2014 at industrial conditions of ponds with similar areas and with the same source of water supply. The object of the study were age-2 Lubin scaled carp. The experiment consisted of four variants and lasted 60 days. The control group of carp received a complete combined feed without additives during the entire growing season, while the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received feeds supplemented with 1, 5 and 10% of milled thistle. Thistle was introduced into the feed composition by granulation method. At the end of the experiment, tissue samples of the experimental groups of fish were taken for biochemical analysis. We used 10% tissue homogenates of carp hepatopancreas. We investigated the concentration of diene conjugates using a method based on the reaction of optical density of lipid heptanizopropanol extract. The determination of TBA-active products was carried out spectrophotometrically based on the color reaction with tiobarbitur acid. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was studied by determining the percentage inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction reaction in the presence of fenazynmetasulfate. The activity of catalase was analyzed based on the concentration of H2O2. The determination of protein content was performed by Bradford method. The processing of experimental results was performed by variational statistics. Statistically significant difference was assessed using a Student t-test. Findings. As a result of experimental studies in industrial conditions in duplicate, we detected AOP activation and reduction in LPO process intensity in

  15. Pharmacognostic outlooks on medical herbs of Sasang typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Hye; Jeon, Eun Sang; Lee, Jeongyun; Han, Sang Yun; Chae, Han

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the pharmacognostic characteristics of Sasang type-specific medical herbs and suggest biological mechanisms that might be related to the personalized treatment of the East. Major compounds and their pharmacological activities of medical herbs for each Sasang types were systematically reviewed. The pharmacognostic characteristics of its main compounds were systematically analyzed with previous studies and three web-based databases. Sasang type-specific medical herbs were selected, and biological effects of their phytochemicals were reviewed from the pathophysiological features of each Sasang types. Phenolics were dominant in Tae-Yang type-specific herbs, iridoids and triterpenes with antipyretic and diuretic effects were in So-Yang type-specific, saponins (triterpene saponins and steroidal saponins) with antitussive effects were in Tae-Eum type-specific, and monoterpene and sesquiterpenes with stomachic effect were in So-Eum type-specific herbs. Pharmacognostic understandings on Sasang type-specific medical herbs with consideration of type-specific pathophysiological features were provided for the first time. This study would contribute to in-depth understandings on the pathophysiology of Sasang typology and integration of East-Asian and Western personalized medicine.

  16. [Neuroprotection of herbs promoting EPO on cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Bai, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Fei-yan; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2015-06-01

    Amounts of researches show that EPO is characterized with neurotrophic and neuroprotective manner, especially in brain stroke, which attracts a large numbers of researchers to study it. With the accumulating researches on its neuroprotection, many related mechanisms were revealed, such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, which suggests a multiple targets role of EPO on brain stroke. However, because of the high risk of thromboembolism in clinical administration of rhEPO and its analogs, the herbs are potential to be a replacer for its less side effects. Many researchers suggested that a larger of herbs were founded having the action of increasing the endogenous EPO in the model of anemia and cerebral ischemia. At the same time, there herbs were also proved that they had the action of against cerebral ischemia while some without considering the role of EPO in the reports. Considering of the action of promoting EPO of these herbs and the neural protection of EPO, this essay mainly summarizes the studies of herbs promoting EPO in the cerebral ischemia and discusses the mechanism of regulating the EPO of these herbs, for the aim of finding the potential drugs against cerebral ischemia.

  17. [Strategies of the study on herb genome program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-lin; Sun, Yong-zhen; Xu, Jiang; Luo, Hong-mei; Sun, Chao; He, Liu; Cheng, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Bo-li; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2010-07-01

    Herb Genome Program (HerbGP) includes a series of projects on whole genome sequencing (WGS) and post-genomics research of medicinal plants with unique secondary metabolism pathways or/and those of great medical and pharmaceutical importance. In this paper, we systematically discussed the strategy of HerbGP, from species selection, whole-genome sequencing, assembly and bioinformatics analysis, to postgenomics research. HerbGP will push study on Chinese traditional medicines into the front field of life science, by selecting a series of plants with unique secondary metabolism pathways as models and introducing "omics" methods into the research of these medicinal plants. HerbGP will provide great opportunities for China to be the leader in the basic research field of traditional Chinese medicine. HerbGP shall also have significant impacts on the R&D of natural medicines and the development of medicinal farming by analysis of secondary metabolic pathways and selection of cultivars with good agricultural traits.

  18. The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences. PMID:18499033

  19. HERB PLANT: INVENTORY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING IN SAMPANG, MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Khamsatul Muharrami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, modern medicine has advanced rapidly but habits of drinking herbal medicine are still survived in Madurese society. The local wisdom of drinking herbal medicine in Madurese society, especially in Sampang Regency has been believed to be efficacious for generations. Average medicinal ingredients used are derived from natural ingredients taken from root organs, bark, leaves, fruit or seeds of herbs. This research aims to perform an inventory of herbs that have potential in improving the welfare of Madurese, especially in Sampang Regency. Type of research used is descriptive qualitative research method used is by conducting interviews to the community, IKOT owners, and herbalist. Madurese herbs in Sampang. Based on the results of research, 46 herbs are obtained. Of 46 plants found there are 16 different types of herbs. Herbal plants that many people use (have a percentage of more than 50% are jahe (Indonesian name, kunyit (Indonesian name, kencur (Indonesian name, kayu rapet (Indonesian name and delima (Indonesian name. The results of phytochemical screening of fifth herbs showed that positive herbal plants containing saponins were jahe (Indonesian name, kencur (Indonesian name, kayu rapet (Indonesian name and delima (Indonesian name. And of the five samples, all positively contain secondary metabolites of flavonoids, tannins, and steroids.

  20. Anti-oxidative, physico-chemical and sensory attributes of burfi affected by incorporation of different herbs and its comparison with synthetic anti-oxidant (BHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Writdhama; Khamrui, Kaushik; Mandal, Surajit; Badola, Richa

    2017-11-01

    Six different herbs, viz., turmeric, ginger, clove, curry leaves, basil leaves and small cardamom, were incorporated (@1% of khoa) into burfi, a heat desiccated-sweetened milk product, for their ability to act as natural anti-oxidant and were compared against butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Anti-oxidative potential of burfi significantly increased with herbs incorporation, which was in the order of clove > turmeric > basil leaves > curry leaf > ginger > cardamom. However, it was lower when compared to BHA added samples. Gross compositional attributes of burfi remained unaffected upon herb incorporation, however, significant lowering in water activity was observed upon cardamom and clove addition. Hunter color analysis revealed that cloves decreased lightness and increased redness, turmeric increased yellowness, and basil and curry leaves increased greenness in burfi. Texture attributes viz., hardness, springiness and gumminess were significantly higher for clove and cardamom burfi. Sensory evaluation revealed that among the different herbs, cardamom is highly preferred in burfi followed by ginger, turmeric, clove, curry leaves and basil leaves. However, no significant difference in sensory attributes were observed between control, cardamom and BHA added burfi samples.

  1. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these problems, your health care provider may recommend soy milk. But many children who are allergic to milk are also allergic to soy. Children usually outgrow allergies or intolerances by the ...

  2. Ethnopharmacological and bioactivity guided investigation of five TCM anticancer herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiu-Xia; Roubin, Rebecca H; Hanrahan, Jane R

    2013-06-21

    Five herbs, Curcuma longa L. (CL), Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBC), Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SBB), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (HD) and Solanum nigrum L. (SN), are often prescribed in the polyherbal formulas for cancer treatment by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to identify important anticancer herbs used in TCM and carry out bioactivity-directed fractionation and isolation (BDFI) using six cancer cell lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), to identify constituents with anticancer activity but devoid of toxic effects against healthy immune cells. Of 243 document anticancer TCM treatments, 199 anticancer TCM herbs were ranked by the number of literature reports for each herb. Five herbs were identified from the top 50 ranked herbs by at least two out of three TCM practitioners as frequently used in the TCM treatment of cancer. BDFI using MTS assay was applied to determine the active anticancer extracts, fractions, and finally discrete compounds. Five herbs were selected for study of their anticancer activities. The extracts of Curcuma longa L., Scutellaria barbata D. Don, and Hedyotis diffusa showed antiproliferative activity to various extents, extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Solanum nigrum L. showed little anticancer activity. Seven out of the 21 fractions obtained from Hedyotis diffusa Willd. showed anticancer activity. One new compound, ethyl 13(2) (S)-hydroxy-chlorophyllide a(1), along with 10 known compounds, i.e. 2-methyl-3-methoxyanthraquinone (2), 2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone(3), 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone(4), 2-hydroxymethy-1-hydroxyanthraquinone(5), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone(6), 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-methoxyanthraquinone (7), oleanolic acid (8), ursolic acid (9), stigmasterol (10) and docosanoic acid (11), were isolated and identified. Compounds 2-6, 8 and 9 dose-dependently inhibited the cell viability of cancer cells within a concentration range

  3. Traditional herbs: a remedy for cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Rawat, A K S

    2016-10-15

    potential of these plants. Potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions also need to be studied. These approaches will help in establishing them as remedies for cardiovascular diseases and including them in the mainstream of healthcare system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimutagenic property of a Chinese herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongen Zhang; Te-Hsiu Ma; Byeong-Seon Jeong; Chang-Deok Won [Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong (China)

    1994-12-31

    The root extracts of a Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has been used as internal medicine to improve liver and kidney functions for centuries. The antimutagenic property of this drug was evaluated with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay in this study. The Trad-MCN bioassay is a well-established test for chromosome damage induced by physical or chemical agents in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequency. Inflorescences of the Tradescantia plant cuttings were first exposed to 35 R soft X-rays (80 Kv, 5 ma, 1 mm Al filter, dose rate around 50 R/min) and followed by drug treatments at 1%, 3% and 6% concentrations of the aqueous solution for a total of 24 hr recovery period. The positive (X-rays), negative (nutrient solution) and drug control (3% drug solution) groups were maintained in each of the three series of repeated experiments. Flower buds of the treated and control groups were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 ratio) for preparation of slides to score MCN frequencies in the early tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells. The mean MCN frequencies (MCN/100 tetrads + SD) of the positive control (X-irradiated) was 26.67 + 9.62; the negative control was 2.92 + 1.90; the drug control was 2.06 + 1.50 and the 35 R X-ray/6% drug treated was 18.75 + 6.54. A 30% reduction of chromosome damage was observed. Antimutagenic effects were relatively lower at lower concentrations. This antimutagenic effect could be the results of the meiotic inhibition, DNA repair or radical elimination from the X-irradiation plant cells.

  5. Milk demystified by chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    This article traces the decline of milk from a heavenly elixir to a tradeable food. Early cultures regarded milk not as a simple nutrient, but a living fluid. Heroes and gods were believed to have been nurtured by animals after being abandoned. Character traits were assumed to be transmitted by milk; infantile diseases were attributed to "bad milk", whereas "good milk" was used as a remedy. With chemical methods developed at the end of the 18th century, it became known that human milk was higher in sugar and lower in protein than cow's milk. During the 19th century, "scientific" feeding emerged that meant modifying cow's milk to imitate the proportion of nutrients in human milk. In Boston from 1893, Rotch initiated the "percentage" method, requiring a physician's prescription. In Paris from 1894, Budin sterilized bottled infant milk. In Berlin in 1898, Rubner measured oxygen and energy uptake by calorimetry, prompting feeding by calories, and Czerny introduced regulated feeding by the clock. These activities ignored the emotional dimension of infant nutrition and the anti-infective properties of human milk. They may have also enhanced the decline in breastfeeding, which reached an all-time low in 1971. Milk's demystification made artificial nutrition safer, but paved the way for commercially produced infant formula.

  6. Special Milk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  7. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (pair of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3.2-946.0 mg/m3 (median 18.1 mg/m3), exceeding at 13 out of 14 sampling sites the Polish OEL value of 4 mg/m3. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin ranged within 0.2-2681.0 microg/m3 (median 16.0 microg/m3), exceeding at all sampling sites the suggested OEL value of 0.1 microg/m3. In conclusion

  9. Determination of superoxide dismutase mimetic activity in common culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of oxidative stress, the removal of superoxide, a free radical associated with chronic inflammation, is catalysed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus in addition to acting as an antioxidant, SOD may also be utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent. Some plant derived foods have been shown to have SOD mimetic (SODm) activity however it is not known if this activity is possessed by culinary herbs which have previously been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to ascertain if the culinary herbs rosemary, sage and thyme possess SODm activity, and to investigate the influence of cooking and digestion on this activity. Transition metal ion content was also determined to establish if it could likely contribute to any SODm activity detected. All extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested (C&D) herbs were shown to possess SODm activity, which was significantly correlated with previously determined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these herbs. SODm activity was significantly increased following (C) and (C&D) for rosemary and sage only. The impact of (C) and (C&D) on the SODm for thyme may have been influenced by its transition metal ion content. SODm activity may contribute to the herbs' antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities however the source and significance of this activity need to be established.

  10. Association between milk protein polymorphism and milk production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk production traits were chosen as milk yield, average daily milk yield and lactation length. These traits were associated with milk protein types. Genetic variants of milk protein were identified by starch gel electrophoresis containing mercaptoethanol and urea. The allele gene frequencies of A, B, and C of as1-Cn loci and ...

  11. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonklev, J; Kidmose, U; Jensen, S; Petersen, M A; Helwing, A L F; Mortensen, G; Weisbjerg, M R; Larsen, M K

    2016-10-01

    Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties. Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content of the essential oils used, with the total amount of terpenes increasing when essential oils were added to the diet. Sensory properties of the produced milk were altered as well, and milk samples from animals receiving essential oil treatment were perceived as having a fresher aroma and lower stored aroma and flavor. The levels of essential oils used in this study mimic realistic levels of essential oils in herbs from feed, but were too low to affect milk production and methane emissions, and their inclusion in the animal diet did not adversely affect milk flavor. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Digitalis poisoning from medicinal herbs. Two different mechanisms of production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M D; Anguita, M; López-Granados, A; Vivancos, R; Suárez de Lezo, J; Vallés, F; Bueno, G

    1991-05-01

    Two cases of digitalis toxicity due to uncontrolled ingestion of medicinal herbs are presented. The first of them was caused by oleander (Nerium oleander); digoxinemia levels were very high in this patient (4.44 ng/l), who presented many brady- and tachyarrhythmias. These arrhythmias disappeared when digoxinemia returned to normal values. The second patient had atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular rate, severe hypokalemia (2.1 mEq/l) and normal digoxinemia levels. He was taking medicinal herbs for a cold, with sorbitol between its components. Sorbitol may be similar to mannitol and glycerol (osmotic diuretic drugs) when taken at high doses. Uncontrolled ingestion of medicinal herbs is not safe, and severe poisoning can occur.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of herbs against Yersinia enterocolitica and mixed microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa SHARMA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at developing herbal medicine against food borne pathogens, therefore the antimicrobial activity of four herbs viz. Arjuna (bark, Ashwagandha (roots, Puthkanda (leaves and Shalampanja (roots was checked. Aqueous, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of each herb were extracted and their antimicrobial activity against mixed microflora and against Yersinia enterocolitica was determined. Tetracycline and gentamicin were used as reference antibiotics. Arjuna extracts showed the highest antimicrobial potential against mixed population and Yersinia enterocolitica in comparison to Ashwagandha, Puthkanda and Shalampanja extracts. The antimicrobial activity of Arjuna aqueous extract was lower compared to gentamicin, but comparable to tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of aqueous extract of Arjuna showed the lowest values indicating that it is more effective in lower concentration of use. The antimicrobial activity of herbs showed the following trend Arjuna > Puthkanda > Shalampanja > Ashwagandha.

  14. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2011-01-01

    Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although there is li......Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although...

  15. Cardiotoxicity after accidental herb-induced aconite poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Y T; But, P P; Young, K; Lau, C P

    1992-11-21

    Aconitine and its related alkaloids are known cardiotoxins with no therapeutic role in modern western medicine. The rootstocks of Aconitum plants, which contain aconite alkaloids, have been common components of Chinese herbal recipes. We have documented life-threatening intoxication in 17 Chinese subjects after accidental herb-induced aconite poisoning. All patients developed symptoms of aconite toxicity within 2 h of herb ingestion. Most developed tachyarrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation from which 2 patients died. Toxicological evaluation revealed that aconites from the Aconitum rootstocks were the only plausible casual factor for intoxication. These cases point to the need for strict surveillance of herbal substances with low safety margins.

  16. TRITERPENE GLYCOSIDES OF HERB OF SOLIDAGO CAUCASICA KEM.-NATH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Fedotova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Solidago genus are used to treat diseases of the urinary system but we study Solidago caucasica for the first time. The aim of this work is to study triterpene glycosides of Solidago caucasica. Spectrophotometry revealed that the triterpene glycosides in herb of Solidago caucasica are derivants of oleanolic acid. The quantitative determination of the amount of triterpene glycosides in the Solidago caucasica herb was done by gravimetric method (content is 0,93% and UV spectrophotometry, based on oleanolic acid (content is 1,01 ± 0,03%.

  17. Effects and Tolerance of Silymarin (Milk Thistle in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongguo Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of silymarin on chronic hepatitis C virus- (HCV- infected patients. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of silymarin in chronic HCV-infected patients up to April 1, 2014 were systematically identified in PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Results. A total of 222 and 167 patients in five RCTs were randomly treated with silymarin (or intravenous silibinin and placebo, respectively. Serum HCV RNA relatively decreased in patients treated with silymarin compared with those administered with placebo, but no significance was found (P=0.09. Meta-analysis of patients orally treated with silymarin indicated that the changes of HCV RNA are similar in the two groups (P=0.19. The effect on alanine aminotransferase (ALT of oral silymarin is not different from that of placebo (P=0.45. Improvements in quality-of-life (Short Form-36 in both silymarin and placebo recipients were impressive but relatively identical (P=0.09. Conclusion. Silymarin is well tolerated in chronic HCV-infected patients. However, no evidence of salutary effects of oral silymarin has yet been reported based on intermediate endpoints (ALT and HCV RNA in this population. Moreover, intravenous administration of silymarin should be further studied.

  18. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  19. Time to Talk: What You Should Know about 5 Popular Herbs (Evening Primrose Oil, St. John's Wort, Fenugreek, Echinacea, ....

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Tips: What You Should Know About Popular Herbs Share: Herbal or botanical supplements are widely marketed ... the majority were looking for information on specific herbs and botanicals. The top five searched-for herbs ...

  20. ROMANIAN MILK MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the evolution of Romanian milk market in the European market context: primary production, milk processing, supply and demand, consumption, prices and quality; marketing, the domestic market. Deficiencies in the dairy sector has created conditions for import rising. Last year brought about significant increases in imports of raw milk, decreased milk product supplied by local farmers and keeping the main positions of the processors on the market. Domestic consumption of milk per capita remains low in comparison with the European average. The reduction of milk quotas will be a challenge to domestic producers. Development of associations of producers may be a viable option to ensure the continuity of business for the Romanian farmers.

  1. The inhibitory activity of the extracts of popular medicinal herbs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drug consumption. One of the major clinical risks of such concomitant herb-drug use is pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction (HDI). This is brought about by the ability of phytochemicals to inhibit or induce the activity of metabolic enzymes.

  2. The classification of sri lankan medicinal herbs: an extensive comparison of the antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisundara, Viduranga Y; Watawana, Mindani I

    2014-07-01

    Sri Lanka has variety of herbs whose effectiveness has been proven across many generations. These herbs are classified into two groups - 'heating' and 'cooling', based on the physiological reactions upon consumption. Application-wise, the 'cooling' herbs are administered to patients contracted with diabetes, imbalances in the lipid profile, or even cancer. However, this classification has been misunderstood due to inconsistent interpretations and lack of scientific reasoning. This study systematically determines the rationale behind this classification, by specifically evaluating the antioxidant activity of 18 herbs - nine herbs from each category. The oxygen radical absorbance capacities, DPPH radical scavenging activities, and the total phenolic contents are analyzed here. The 'heating' herbs have a comparatively lower antioxidant potential than the 'cooling' herbs. The total phenolic contents correlate with the antioxidant values. It can be hypothesized that the high antioxidant potential of the 'cooling' herbs may have been responsible for the containment of the diseases mentioned previously.

  3. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M A; M. H. Rashid; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  4. Milk: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulajić, S.; Đorđević, J.; Ledina, T.; Šarčević, D.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Although milk/dairy consumption is part of many cultures and is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of controversy, leading to a highly polarized debate within the scientific community, media and public sector. The present article, at first, describes the evolutionary roots of milk consumption, then reviews the milk-derived bioactive peptides as health-promoting components. The third part of the article, in general, presents the associations between milk nutrients, disease prevention, and health promotion.

  5. Sphingosine basis in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Ribar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are widespread membrane components that are found in all eukaryotic cells. They are defined as compounds having a long-chain sphingoid base as the backbone. The most frequent long-chain bases in most of the mammals are D-erythro-sphinganine and sphingosine. Sphingolipids can be expected in minor quantities in all food products. Milk fat contains a number of different sphingolipid classes. Originally they were presumed to contribute to the structural integrity of membranes, but there nowadays it is confirmed that they have an important physiological role. Dietary sphingolipids have gained attention because of their possibility to inhibit colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of free and total sphinganine and sphingosine in milk (human, cow's, sheep’s, goat’s, soy’s Sphingolipids were extracted from milk. Free and total sphingoid bases were obtained by alkaline and acid hydrolysis respectively. Sphinganin and sphingosine were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of this research illustrate the differences between the concentrations of sphingoid bases in cow’s milk with various content of milk fat. The concentrations of free sphingosine and sphinganine in cow’s milk were lower than in human milk. In sheep’s and goat’s milk, the concentrations of total sphingoid bases were higher than in human and cow’s milk. Quantity of the most sphingoid bases decreased during pasteurization.

  6. Milk and soy allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Jacob D; Cocco, Renata R; Järvinen, Kirsi M

    2011-04-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of IgE and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle effect. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy because soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow's milk. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history, and diagnosis of cow's milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of increased milking frequency and residual milk removal on milk production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Kovac, Lucia; Shingfield, Kevin J; Agenäs, Sigrid

    2017-11-01

    It has been well established that milk yield is affected both by milking frequency and due to the removal of residual milk, but the influence of a combination of these factors is unclear. In this study, four mid-lactation cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the effects of more frequent milking and residual milk removal on milk yield and composition are additive and alter milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised two or four times daily milking in combination with (or without) residual milk removal over a 96 h interval preceded by a 2 d pretreatment period and followed by a 8 d washout in each 14 d experimental period. Milk was sampled at each milking for the analysis of gross composition and SCC. Samples of available and residual milk collected on the last milking during each treatment period were collected and submitted for fatty acid composition analysis. Increases in milking frequency and residual milk removal alone or in combination had no effect on milk yield or on the secretion of lactose and protein in milk. However, residual milk removal during more frequent milking increased milk fat yield. Milking treatments had no major influence on the fatty acid composition of available milk, but resulted in rather small changes in the relative abundance of specific fatty acids, with no evidence that the additive effects of treatments were due to higher utilisation of preformed fatty acids relative to fatty acid synthesis de novo. For all treatments, fat composition of available and residual milk was rather similar indicating a highly uniform fatty acid composition of milk fat within the mammary gland.

  8. Milk-borne campylobacter infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D A; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk s...

  9. Clinically relevant pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions in antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In t...

  10. [Mutual information-based correlation analysis of herbs against insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin; Liu, Ren-quan

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to analyze Professor Guo Rongjuan's medication experience on insomnia therapy based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Inheritance Support Plat. First, TCM formulae prescribed by Professor Guo for insomnia therapy were collected from the TCM Inheritance Support Plat. Next, unsupervised data mining algorithms, including apriori, modified mutual-information, and entropy clustering of complex system were applied to obtain the frequencies for different herbs and identify the association rules among the herbs. Accordingly, we can gain new insights into Professor Guo's medication experience on insomnia therapy. Based on analysis of 3 084 formulae, we determined the frequencies for herbs in the formulae and identified the association rules among these herbs. At last, 41 core combinations and 7 new formulae were obtained. The identified medication experience conform with Professor Guo's views on the etiology and pathogenesis of insomnia: "pathogenic fire derived from stagnation of liver-QI (Gan Yu Hua Huo)" is the core pathogenesis of insomnia; "liver stagnation and spleen deficiency" and "chronic illness transferred to kidney" are the main features for insomnia. The TCM Inheritance Support Plat is of great practical value for mining clinical experience of famous TCM doctors.

  11. Formulation and Sensory Evaluation of Herb Tea from Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensory appeal of tea, like all food products, is an important consideration in new product de-velopment. Tea in general and herb tea in particular are gaining increasing consumer attention due to a growing awareness of health benefits derived from their consumption. Even though sev-eral underutilized plants exist with ...

  12. Protection of Chinese herbs against Adenine-induced chronic renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbs (Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum wallichii, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Rhodiola crenilata, Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis) on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. 30 age-matched male Wistar rats were divided into three ...

  13. Clinically Relevant Pharmacokinetic Herb-drug Interactions in Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasinu, Pius S; Gurley, Bill J; Walker, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In this review, the bases for potential interaction of medicinal herbs with specific antiretroviral drugs are presented, and several botanicals are discussed for which clinically relevant interactions in humans are established. Such studies have provided, in most cases, sufficient ground to warrant the avoidance of concurrent administration of antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs with St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), black pepper (Piper species) and grapefruit juice. Other botanicals that require caution in the use with antiretrovirals include African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), ginseng (Panax species), garlic (Allium sativum), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and kava kava (Piper methysticum). The knowledge of clinically significant herb-drug interaction will be important in order to avoid herb-induced risk of sub-therapeutic exposure to ARVs (which can lead to viral resistance) or the precipitation of toxicity (which may lead to poor compliance and/or discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy).

  14. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Brito, M.S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.brlenach@usp.br; Freitas, Paulo C.D

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total {beta}-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  15. Effects Of Chinese Herbs On The Hemagglutination And Adhesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate Chinese herbs' efficacy on adhesive properties of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The effects of Chinese herbal solution on the hemagglutination and adhesion by E. coli strain were studied. E. coli C16 was isolated from a patient with urinary tract infection. The MIC value of herbal solution for the ...

  16. Pharmacognostic outlooks on medical herbs of Sasang typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hye Lim

    2017-09-01

    Pharmacognostic understandings on Sasang type-specific medical herbs with consideration of type-specific pathophysiological features were provided for the first time. This study would contribute to in-depth understandings on the pathophysiology of Sasang typology and integration of East-Asian and Western personalized medicine.

  17. Effect of traditional herbs on immunological and virological markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant changes in the amount of virus in blood of patients on PT or CMC. The findings suggest that traditional herbs improve clinical and immunological status and hence they have a role to play in the management of HIV/AIDS patients and add value to standard CMC. The Zimbabwe Science News ...

  18. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of serum salvianolic acid Group C was significantly higher than Group B, indicating that acupuncture might improve the absorption of salvianolic acid B from the extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in the Chinese medicine formula. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs significantly ...

  19. Plants: Partners in Health? Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... April 2016 Print this issue Plants: Partners in Health? Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You En español Send us ... and calcium.” The many nutrients in fruits and vegetables are essential to good health. If you’re taking certain medications, though, you ...

  20. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a Newly Naturalized Herb in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Huai Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a newly naturalized fleshy herb in Taiwan, is reported here. The taxonomic description, line drawing, and photographs are provided. The population is colonized on Mt. Tatun, Yangmingshan National Park, north Taiwan. Since this species was reported being invasive, its impacts on the local ecosystem should be concerned.

  1. Antibacterial activity of the endophytic fungi from medicinal herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 48 endophytic fungal isolates were separated from the healthy roots of Macleaya cordata R. Br. (Papaveraceae), a traditional medicinal herb mainly distributed in China. Nine distinct isolates (Macof01 to Macof09) were selected for further taxonomical identification by morphological traits and internal transcribed ...

  2. Therapeutic Effects of Phytochemicals and Medicinal Herbs on Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2017-01-01

    Background . Depression is a recurrent, common, and potentially life-threatening psychiatric disease related to multiple assignable causes. Although conventional antidepressant therapy can help relieve symptoms of depression and prevent relapse of the illness, complementary therapies are required due to disadvantage of the current therapy such as adverse effects. Moreover, a number of studies have researched adjunctive therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for depression patients. Purpose . One potential complementary method with conventional antidepressants involves the use of medicinal herbs and phytochemicals that provide therapeutic benefits. Studies have revealed beneficial effects of medical herbs and phytochemicals on depression and their central nervous system mechanism. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the therapeutic benefits of phytochemicals and medicinal herbs against depression and describe their detailed mechanisms. Sections . There are two sections, phytochemicals against depression and medical herbs against depression, in this review. Conclusion . Use of phytomedicine may be an alternative option for the treatment of depression in case conventional drugs are not applicable due to their side effects, low effectiveness, or inaccessibility. However, the efficacy and safety of these phytomedicine treatments for depression have to be supported by clinical studies.

  3. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  4. Radical scavenging activity of volatile oils of herbs traditionally used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since time immemorial food preservation has been a common practice. Most of these preservatives come form natural sources such as herbs and spices. Currently, synthetic antioxidants are extensively incorporated in foods and cosmetics for the prevention of lipid peroxidation. Some of these synthetic antioxidants, ...

  5. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the New…

  6. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total β-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  7. Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

  8. Medicinal herbs used by HIV-positive people in Lesotho | Mugomeri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... profiles of the medicinal plants identified in this study need to be investigated. Furthermore, the effects of these plants on antiretroviral treatment outcomes including herb-drug interactions need to be explored. Key words: Allium sativum; Anti-retroviral treatment; Dicoma anomala; Herb-drug interaction; HIV; Medicinal herb ...

  9. Prevalent use of herbs for reduction of labour duration in Mwanza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of herbs during pregnancy and labour is rapidly increasing because the herbs are considered to be natural and therefore free of risks. Despite of this perception, a number of herbs have been reported to have negative effects to the new-borns and the mothers. Therefore, this study aimed to determine ...

  10. Detection of Herb-Symptom Associations from Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an individualized medicine by observing the symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief of patients. We aim to extract the meaningful herb-symptom relationships from large scale TCM clinical data. Methods. To investigate the correlations between symptoms and herbs held for patients, we use four clinical data sets collected from TCM outpatient clinical settings and calculate the similarities between patient pairs in terms of the herb constituents of their prescriptions and their manifesting symptoms by cosine measure. To address the large-scale multiple testing problems for the detection of herb-symptom associations and the dependence between herbs involving similar efficacies, we propose a network-based correlation analysis (NetCorrA method to detect the herb-symptom associations. Results. The results show that there are strong positive correlations between symptom similarity and herb similarity, which indicates that herb-symptom correspondence is a clinical principle adhered to by most TCM physicians. Furthermore, the NetCorrA method obtains meaningful herb-symptom associations and performs better than the chi-square correlation method by filtering the false positive associations. Conclusions. Symptoms play significant roles for the prescriptions of herb treatment. The herb-symptom correspondence principle indicates that clinical phenotypic targets (i.e., symptoms of herbs exist and would be valuable for further investigations.

  11. Effect of essential oils against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer awareness of fresh herbs and demand has increased in recent years due to health benefits and distinct aroma in prepared food. There are specific markets for local growers, especially for organically grown herbs. Fresh herbs have been implicated in illnesses associated with Salmonella, E. co...

  12. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In multispecies grasslands the proportion of different herb species may vary considerably due to low competitiveness of some herbs. To examine the possibility for increasing the competitiveness, an experiment with three factors was set up: 1) amount of herb seed (5, 50 or 100%) in a mixture...

  13. THE APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF SILIBININ ON TCC-SUB AND RT-4 HUMAN BLADDER CANCER CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAM, Dilek; özgöçmen, meltem; Armağan, İlkay; Güneş, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the mostfrequent malignancies around the world. Bladder cancer has high rate ofrecurrence. Silibinin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from seedextracts of the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with antioxidant and anticancer properties. Silibinin was reported todepress cell growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study,we aimed to investigate the inhibition of proliferation and induction ofapoptosis by silibinin with the TUNEL method in hum...

  14. Mammary hypoplasia: not every breast can produce sufficient milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Megan W; Kessler, Julia Lange

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk is considered the optimal form of nutrition for newborn infants. Current recommendations are to breastfeed for 6 months. Not all women are able to breastfeed. Mammary hypoplasia is a primary cause of failed lactogenesis II, whereby the mother is unable to produce an adequate milk volume. Women with mammary hypoplasia often have normal hormone levels and innervation but lack sufficient glandular tissue to produce an adequate milk supply to sustain their infant. The etiology of this rare condition is unclear, although there are theories that refer to genetic predisposition and estrogenic environmental exposures in select agricultural environments. Women with mammary hypoplasia may not exhibit the typical breast changes associated with pregnancy and may fail to lactate postpartum. Breasts of women with mammary hypoplasia may be widely spaced (1.5 inches or greater), asymmetric, or tuberous in nature. Awareness of the history and clinical signs of mammary hypoplasia during the prenatal period and immediate postpartum increases the likelihood that women will receive the needed education and physical and emotional support and encouragement. Several medications and herbs demonstrate some efficacy in increasing breast milk production in women with mammary hypoplasia. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. Greater therapeutic efficacy of prednisolone plus medicinal herbs than prednisolone or medicinal herbs alone in patients with oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ta Chiu

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that treatment consisting of prednisolone plus traditional medicinal herbs can improve OLP symptoms, relieve pain, reduce recurrent severity, and increase the disease-free period. The benefits of combined therapy for OLP should be investigated by conducting a prospective randomized clinical trial in the future.

  16. Herpesviruses and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasanta, C; Ghirardi, B; Manca, M F; Uccella, S; Gualdi, C; Tota, E; Pugni, L; Mosca, F

    2014-06-30

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  17. Transglutaminase inhibitor from milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A.H. de; Wijngaards, G.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cross-linking experiments of skimmed bovine milk with bacterial transglutaminase isolated from Streptoverticillium mobaraense showed only some degree of formation of high-molecular-weight casein polymers. Studies on the nature of this phenomenon revealed that bovine milk contains an inhibitor of

  18. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  19. Urea in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Projectsatbangalore

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, portable instrument using CO2 and NH3 gas sensor technology to quantify and differentiate milk samples containing excess urea. Milk containing urea, in presence of urease enzyme hydrolyses urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide.

  20. Preliminary studies on the effect of herbs on the growth and health of suckling piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova-Peneva, Sonya G.; Nedeva, Radka D.; Kirov, Marincho S.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of some herbs with strengthening immune system and antiphlogistic action from Bulgaria has been studied in two pilot trials, first with 8 litters (4 control and 4 with herbs in the water) and second with 15 litters (5 control, 5 with herbs in the water and 5 with herbs in the fodder). The growth and health status (score of diarrhoea) during the suckling period has been recorded. Treatment of diarrhoea with herbs has been applied to litters with manifestation of diarrhoea in second ...

  1. An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwa, Parul; Sharma, Bhawna; Fatima, Amreen; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and

  2. An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Agarwa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb

  3. Drug discovery of neurodegenerative disease through network pharmacology approach in herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhipeng; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Cao, Zeyu; Ding, Yue; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Wang, Tuanjie; Zhang, Chenfeng; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Xiaojie; Xiao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, referring to as the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, constitute one of the major challenges of modern medicine. Traditional Chinese herbs have been used as a major preventive and therapeutic strategy against disease for thousands years. The numerous species of medicinal herbs and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) compound formulas in nervous system disease therapy make it a large chemical resource library for drug discovery. In this work, we collected 7362 kinds of herbs and 58,147 Traditional Chinese medicinal compounds (Tcmcs). The predicted active compounds in herbs have good oral bioavailability and central nervous system (CNS) permeability. The molecular docking and network analysis were employed to analyze the effects of herbs on neurodegenerative diseases. In order to evaluate the predicted efficacy of herbs, automated text mining was utilized to exhaustively search in PubMed by some related keywords. After that, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves was used to estimate the accuracy of predictions. Our study suggested that most herbs were distributed in family of Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Apocynaceae. The predictive model yielded good sensitivity and specificity with the AUC values above 0.800. At last, 504 kinds of herbs were obtained by using the optimal cutoff values in ROC curves. These 504 herbs would be the most potential herb resources for neurodegenerative diseases treatment. This study would give us an opportunity to use these herbs as a chemical resource library for drug discovery of anti-neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Herbs Used for the Treatment of Hypertension and their Mechanism of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G; Chrysant, George S

    2017-09-18

    There is great interest lately, in the use of herbs for the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Herbs and plants contain many phytochemicals that have been effective in the treatment of CVD and hypertension. Accumulating scientific evidence provides a reason for the use of herbs by health practitioners for treating their patients. The rationale for this expanding use of herbs is the belief of patients in a "holistic medicine" and that herbs are natural, safe, and effective. However, there are reasons of concern with the use of herbs, because they are not regulated or supervised carefully and their use could lead to serious complications or interactions with their combination with traditional medicines. In addition, their use is associated with significant out of pocket expenses, because their use is not compensated by health insurance providers. In this review, we present the scientific evidence for the use of herbs.

  5. Traditional and Commercial Herb Use in Health Self-Management among Rural Multiethnic Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Kathryn; Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bell, Ronny A.; Sandberg, Joanne; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the role of traditional and commercial herbs in older adults’ health self-management based on Leventhal’s Self-Regulatory Model conceptual framework. Sixty-two African American and white adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing the forms of herbs currently being used, sources of information about them, interpretations of health (acute symptoms or chronic conditions) that lead to their use, and the initiation and suspension of use. Traditional herbs are native to the region or have been traditionally cultivated; usually taken raw or boiled to produce tea; and used for treating mild symptoms. Commercial herbs are prepared as pills, extracts, or teas; they are purchased at local stores or ordered by catalog or internet; and used for health promotion, illness prevention or treatment of chronic conditions. Herbs are widely used among older adults; this analysis differentiates the types of herbs they use and their reasons for herbs use. PMID:24991081

  6. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.; Milanović Spasenija D.; Lončar Eva S.; Malbaša Radomir V.

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v) of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characterist...

  7. In vivo metabolomic interpretation of the anti-obesity effects of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.) administration in high-fat diet mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Ho; Lee, Hye Won; Jung, Eun Sung; Singh, Digar; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2017-08-01

    The esoteric anti-obesity effects of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L) have largely remained unexplored. Herein, we investigated the anti-obesity mechanisms of hyacinth bean compared to milk thistle, a natural herb employed for ameliorating obesity-related diseases, using high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice towards unfolding the perplexing mechanisms. C57BL/6J mice were orally administered hyacinth bean (25 mg/kg/day) and milk thistle (100 mg/kg/day) for 9 weeks along with HFD. Intriguingly, a number of anti-obesity mechanisms indexed through clinical parameters, suppression in weight gains and liver steatosis were found similar to some disparity. Furthermore, the corresponding metabolic implications were studied through MS-based metabolite profiling, and using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes for metabolic pathways revealing that hyacinth bean or milk thistle administration effectively attenuates the HFD-induced lipid, glucose, and bile acid metabolism, with former specifically attenuates pyruvate-derived amino acids metabolism. Among them, valine, asparagine, and lysine displayed high correlation with blood clinical parameters. A lower dose of hyacinth bean resulted in similar anti-obesity effects as milk thistle, as confirmed by both clinical and metabolomics analyses. Equivocally, we conjecture that hyacinth bean could be used as a potent anti-obesity herbal functional food. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Andre, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the

  9. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  11. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  12. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  13. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality...... and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking...... the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive...

  14. TALL-HERB BOREAL FORESTS ON NORTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aleinikov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the pressing aims of today’s natural resource management is its re-orientation to preserving and restoring ecological functions of ecosystems, among which the function of biodiversity maintenance plays an indicator role. The majority of today’s forests have not retained their natural appearance as the result of long-standing human impact. In this connection, refugia studies are becoming particularly interesting, as they give us an insight into the natural appearance of forests. Materials and methods. Studies were performed in dark conifer forests of the Pechora–Ilych reserve, in the lower reaches of the Bol’shaya Porozhnyaya River in 2013 yr. Vegetation data sampling was done at 50 temporary square plots of a fixed size (100 m2 randomly placed within a forest type. A list of plant species with species abundance was made for each forest layer. The overstorey (or tree canopy layer was denoted by the Latin letter A. The understorey layer (indicated by the letter B included tree undergrowth and tall shrubs. Ground vegetation was subdivided into the layers C and D. Layer C (field layer comprised the herbaceous species (herbs, grasses, sedges and dwarf shrubs together with low shrubs, tree and shrub seedlings. The height of the field layer was defined by the maximal height of the herbaceous species, ferns, and dwarf shrubs; the height varied from several cm to more than 200 cm in the ‘tall-herb’ forest types. Layer D (bottom layer included cryptogamic species (bryophytes and lichens. Species abundance in the each layer was usually assessed using the Braun-Blanquet cover scale (Braun-Blanquet 1928. The nomenclature used follows Cherepanov’s (1995 for vascular plants, and Ignatov & Afonina’s (1992. Results. The present article contains descriptions of unique tall-herb boreal forests of European Russia preserved in certain refugia which did not experience prolonged anthropogenic impact or any other catastrophes

  15. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  16. Indian Herbs for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Naidu, Kamalakkannan Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine that is indigenous to India, is believed to be the world's oldest comprehensive health-care system and is now one of the most recognized and widely practiced disciplines of alternative medicine in the world. Medicinal herbs have been in use for treating diseases since ancient times in India. Ayurvedic therapies with medicinal herbs and herbomineral products generally provide relief without much adverse effects even after prolonged administration. Neurodegenerative disorders are a major cause of mortality and disability, and increasing life spans represent one of the key challenges of medical research. Ayurvedic medicine describes most neurodegenerative diseases and has defined a number of plants with therapeutic benefits for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases having antioxidant activities. In this chapter, the role of four important Ayurvedic medicinal plants, viz., Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), Centella asiatica (gotu kola), and Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean), on neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.

  17. Contributory factors in herb-induced fatal aconite poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2012-11-30

    Detailed investigations of all reported cases of herb-induced aconite poisoning are necessary to identify the major contributory causes so that preventive measures can be formulated. In the present review of 12 fatal cases that were published in the medical journals during 1992 and 2011, the available clinical data and forensic toxicological analyses indicated that poor post-harvest processing of aconite roots, use of greater than the recommended doses and inadequate boiling of processed aconite roots during decoction preparation were important contributory factors in herb-induced aconite poisoning. Under such circumstances, the actual amount of Aconitum alkaloids ingested was much larger than intended. Good manufacturing practice to ensure adequate processing of aconite roots, use of the recommended doses, clear instructions for the patients and their compliance during decoction preparation are important preventive measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An update on Murraya koenigii spreng: a multifunctional Ayurvedic herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod K

    2011-08-01

    Murraya koenigii Spreng (Rutaceae), a medicinally important herb of Indian origin, has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Leaves, fruits, roots and bark of this plant are a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. These alkaloids have been reported for their various pharmacological activities such as antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic and antioxidant activities. Apart from these activities, the plant is reported to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant make a demand of an exhaustive review of its potential as a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment and management of various ailments frequently affecting humans. The present review gives a detailed description of the phytochemical, pharmacological, clinical and pre-clinical works carried out on this medicinal herb and also throws light on its therapeutic potential.

  19. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  20. Estimating live fuels for shrubs and herbs with BIOPAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Means; Olga N Krankina; Hao Jiang; Hongyan. Li

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes use of BIOPAK to calculate size classes of live fuels for shrubs and herbs. A library of equations to estimate such fuels in the Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains is presented and used in an example. These methods can be used in other regions if the user first enters fuel size-class equations for a given region into a new library by...

  1. COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS) – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB

    OpenAIRE

    SharmaYashaswini; Vasundhara M

    2011-01-01

    Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq.) is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol) used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer ...

  2. Effects of immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with vaccination against classic swine fever. Serum IgG and IgM levels increased more than the control group on day 30 (P<0.05). B and T lymphocyte proliferation in piglets fed with 1.5 and 2% herbal immune ...

  3. Pharmacological effects of Chinese herb aconite (fuzi) on cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Jie; Cui, Yanjing; Wu, Xinfang

    2012-09-01

    Fuzi (aconite, Radix Aconiti praeparata), a widely used Chinese herb, plays a significant role in the cardiovascular system. This is mainly reflected by Fuzi's cardiotonic effect, its protective effect on myocardial cells, and its effect on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, and hemodynamics. In this article, the pharmacological effects and the corresponding mechanisms of Fuzi (aconite) and its active components on cardiovascular system are reviewed.

  4. Herbs and spices in traditional Portuguese culinary: A preliminary picture

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Dias; Dias, L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic plants of intense smell and taste known as herbs or spices are used worldwide and seem to be present as essential flavouring elements in almost all culinary traditions of settled people and also in nomadic herdsmen cultures. Nowadays the use of aromatic plants in national or regional characteristic culinary becomes in many places an auto-perpetuated traditional trait based on a culturally made taste. The particular traits of the regional traditional culinary can reveal importan...

  5. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, pi...

  6. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Guosheng; Chen Meiwan; Li Yingbo; Huang Mingqing; Lu Jinjian; Tan Wen; Gong Jian; Zhong Zhangfeng; Xu Zengtao; Dang Yuanye; Guo Jiajie; Chen Xiuping; Wang Yitao

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic poten...

  7. Effects of immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with vaccination against classic swine fever. Serum IgG and IgM levels increased more than the control group on day. 30 (P<0.05). B and T lymphocyte proliferation in piglets fed with 1.5 and 2% ...

  8. Pharmacological characterization of Cirsium ligulare Boiss. (Asteraceae herb decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrić Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of genus Cirsium Mill. (Asteraceae are scarce. Some data suggest that decoctions or infusions prepared from these plants are used in folk medicine as tonics, particularly in inflammatory, liver and stomach diseases. So far there have been no pharmacological investigations related to Cirsium ligulare (C. ligulare Boiss. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb prepared as 5% and 10% decoctions. Methods. Antioxidative activity was determined using the method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging. Investigations of anti-inflammatory (a model of systemic inflammatory response induced by endotoxin of Escherichia coli and carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model for local inflammatory response, as well as gastroprotective effects (a model of stress-ulcer induced by absolute ethanol, were conducted in adult female Wistar rats that were given the aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb per os. Indomethacin and ranitidine were used as reference drugs for evaluation of local anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects, respectively. Results. The results demonstrated that aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb produced strong antioxidative activity, diminished body weight loss induced by endotoxin, significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and prevented the ulcerogenic action of absolute ethanol. Both anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of the extract tested were comparable to those of the reference drugs. Conclusion. Presented results justify the traditional use of C. ligulare herb decoctions and further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations are warranted. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173021

  9. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  10. Correlation between whole and partial milk yields of dairy cows milked using the automatic milking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to quantify the correlations between milk indicators of partial milk yields and whole milk output; we analysed 576 milk samples taken from 2 to 4 partial milk yields of 156 Holstein dairy cows milked using the automatic milking system (AMS. In the accredited (EN ISO 17025 milk laboratory in Brno–Tuřany the samples were analysed for the content of fat (T; g . 100g−1, crude protein (B; g . 100g−1, lactose (L; lactose monohydrate; g . 100g−1 and somatic cell count (SCC; 103.ml−1. The average values in the whole milk output were as follows: T = 3.69 g . 100g−1, B = 3.39 g . 100g−1, L = 4.92 g . 100g−1, PSB = 345.103 ml−1 and log SCC = 1.9695, at a whole milk output of 29.88 kg.day1 of milk. The correlation coefficients between the milk indicators (T, B, L, PSB and log PSB of partial milk yields and whole milk output ranged from the minimum r = 0.786 (between the content of T in the whole and 3rd milk yield to the maximum r = 0.979 (between the content of B in the whole milk output and identically in the 1st, 3rd and 4th milk yields and in all cases they were statistically highly significant (P ≤ 0.001. Next we calculated the regression equations for the estimation of milk indicators of the whole milk output from milk indicators of the 1st to 4th partial milk yields.

  11. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Soy formulas and nonbovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Maria Antonella; Giampietro, Paolo G; Galli, Elena

    2002-12-01

    Cow's milk allergy is frequently observed during the first year of life when nutritional requirements are critical. In those cases where breast-feeding is not available, a safe and adequate substitute to cow's milk should be offered. The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of milk derived from vegetable proteins, such as soy, or from animals such as goat, mare, or donkey, or elemental diet in children with cow's milk allergy. MEDLINE searches were conducted with key words such as soy, goat's milk, donkey's milk, mare's milk, and elemental diet. Additional articles were identified from references in books or articles. Original research papers and review articles from peer-reviewed journals were chosen. Soy formulas are nutritionally adequate and can be used in children with immunoglobulin E-mediated nongastrointestinal manifestations of cow's milk allergy. Goat's milk is as allergenic as cow's milk. Mare's milk and donkey's milk may be used in selected cases of cow's milk allergy after appropriate modification to make them suitable for human infants. Elemental diets are usually restricted to the most severe cases of cow's milk allergy (ie, sensitivity to extensively hydrolyzed protein formulas). Vegetable formulas obtained from soy and milk derived from other mammals, such as mare or donkey, homemade preparations, and elemental diet may represent valid alternatives for children with cow's milk allergy. Extensive clinical trials are needed on the safety profile of any alternative mammal-derived milk. The choice of alternative milk should take into account the clinical profile of the child allergic to cow's milk, particularly as concerns age, severity of symptoms, degree of sensitivity to cow's milk proteins, and any multiple food allergies.

  13. Antibacterial activity of medicinal herb extracts against Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwon, Hyun Ae; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Park, Hyun; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Youn-Chul; Eo, Seong-Kug; Kang, Ho-Young; Kim, Sam-Woong; Lee, John Hwa

    2006-10-01

    The therapeutic potentials of twenty-two medicinal herb species traditionally used in Korea to treat gastrointestinal infections were evaluated for the treatment of salmonellosis. Candidates were primarily screened using the disk-agar method for antibacterial activity against three different Salmonella serotypes. Of the herbs tested, the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Schizandrae Fructus exhibited antibacterial activity against all three Salmonella. The extracts of this herb were further tested against 13 additional Salmonella strains of 6 different serotypes. All of these strains were also affected by these extracts, though the methanolic extract had slightly higher activity. The MIC values of this extract against the 16 Salmonella strains varied from 15.6 to 125 microg/ml. Nine of the 16 strains tested had MIC values of damages were rarely observed in the treated mice, whereas the untreated controls showed clinical signs, e.g., lethargy, and histological damage in the kidney, liver, intestine, and spleen. We conclude that Schizandrae Fructus has the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis.

  14. Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemet Nevena T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

  15. Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermaier, Barbara; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and its secondary metabolites in food. The objective of the present study was to examine selected dried culinary herbs for the presence of S. chartarum chemotype S, to assess the potential risk of a contamination of foods with macrocyclic trichothecenes. In total, 50 Stachybotrys isolates from different types of culinary herbs (n=100) such as marjoram (Origanum majorana Linné (L.)), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja hortensis L.) were examined by MTT-cell culture test (effect-based bioassay), ELISA, and by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selected toxic and non-toxic isolates (n=15) were genetically characterized by PCR and sequencing. Five isolates (10%) were highly toxic in the MTT-cell culture test, and the production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was proven by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. These five isolates were genetically confirmed as S. chartarum chemotype S. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a contamination of dried culinary herbs with toxigenic S. chartarum.

  16. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj P Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.

  17. Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 2: Using free-lists to explore farmers’ knowledge about herbs and cows health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the period April - October 2011 the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’ was carried out by the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pasture herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms. Participating farmers expressed a

  18. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time...... for daily fat and protein corrected yield. Both traits were moderate to highly heritable and closely correlated (ra = 0.85). The two traits differed by milking efficiency being correlated to yield (ra = 0.48). Residual box time was closely correlated to milking time (ra = 0.93) compared to milking...... efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis...

  19. Breast milk jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies who show signs of hunger are given pacifiers. Breast milk jaundice may run in families. It ... look at blood cell shapes and sizes Blood type Complete blood count Reticulocyte count (number of slightly ...

  20. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    with CMP. Milk from other mammals such as mare and donkey may be tolerated by some children with CMPA. Soy protein is as allergenic as CMP and soy formula is not recommended for young children with CMPA because of a great risk of development of allergy to soy, whereas soymilk is normally tolerated in older......Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...

  1. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium-alkali syndrome; Cope syndrome; Burnett syndrome; Hypercalcemia; Calcium metabolism disorder ... Milk-alkali syndrome is almost always caused by taking too many calcium supplements, usually in the form of calcium carbonate. Calcium ...

  2. [Research on quality standards of herbs of Peganum harmala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fang-fang; Zheng, Li-ming; Li, Xiao-jing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Xue-mei; Wang, Chang-hong; Wang, Zheng-taou

    2012-10-01

    To establish the quality standards of the herbs of Peganum harmala. According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 version, volume 1) and its appendix method, the water, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble extractives, and heavy metal were analyzed for herbs of P. harmala. TLC method was used to separate harmaline, harmine and vasicine from the herb samples by mixture of ethyl acetate-methanol-ammonia (10: 1.5: 0.5) as a developing solvent on high performance silica gel precoated plate (HSGF254) and to identify them inspected under UV 366 nm, visualized by spraying with both Dragendorff reagent, and by bioautographic assay. In the HPLC method, vasicine was separated on a C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with metnanol-0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (15:85) as the mobile phase and detected at at 280 nm. In the TLC procedures, 254 nm fluorescent and bioautographic assay for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor can be used for the qualitative identification of the active ingredients. For the HPLC quantitation method, the calibration curve of vasicine displayed ideal linearity over the range of 0.7923-792.3 mg x L(-1) with the regression equation of Y = 18,227X - 24.879 (r = 0.9999). The average recovery of vasicine was 101.6% with a RSD of 1.9%. The RSD values of intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 2%. The content of vasicine in 10 batches of herbs of P. harmala fluctuates between 0.23% and 1.47%. The results indicated that the limit of vasicine was not lower than 0.6%, and the water, total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water-soluble extractives were not more than 10.0%, 20.0%, 1.7%, and 30.0%, respectively. The heavy metal of plumbum, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, and copper were not more than 5, 3, 2, 2, and 20 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The qualitative and quantitative method established was suitable for the quality evaluation and assessment of herbs of P. harmala.

  3. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn. Fortified Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  4. Human milk banking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadva, Ketan; Tiwari, Satish; Mishra, Sudhir; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Yadav, Balraj; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Vishesh

    2014-06-01

    WHO and UNICEF state that the use of human milk from other sources should be the first alternative when it is not possible for the mother to breastfeed. Human milk banks should be made available in appropriate situations. The IYCF Chapter is actively concerned about the compelling use of formula feeds in the infants because of the non availability of human breast milk banks. A National Consultative Meet for framing guidelines was summoned by the IYCF Chapter and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on 30th June, 2013, with representations from various stakeholders. The guidelines were drafted after an extensive literature review and discussions. Though these guidelines are based on the experiences and guidelines from other countries, changes have been made to suit the Indian setup, culture and needs, without compromising scientific evidence. To ensure quality of donated breast milk as a safe end product. Human Milk Banking Association should be constituted, and human milk banks should be established across the country. National coordination mechanism should be developed with a secretariat and technical support to follow-up on action in States. Budgetary provisions should be made available for the activities.

  5. Fatty acid composition of caprine milk and milk products

    OpenAIRE

    PECOVÁ, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Changes occur in milk during the technological processing of raw milk, which also affect the properties of milk fat. Dairy products may have different properties compared to the raw milk. Chemical and microbial processes can alter the presence and distribution of individual fatty acids and thus influence the nutritional value of the product. The aim of this thesis was to assess the presence of fatty acids in milk fat of goat milk and to evaluate differences in the spectrum of fatty acids in g...

  6. Consumer acceptance of model soup system with varying levels of herbs and salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Youngsoo; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-10-01

    Although herbs have been reported as one of the most common saltiness enhancers, few studies have focused on the effect of herbs on reducing added sodium as well as the impact of herbs on consumers' overall liking of foods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of varying levels of herbs on reducing added sodium and consumers' overall liking of soups and identify the impact of salt levels on consumers' overall liking of soups. Overall liking of freshly prepared and retorted canned soups with varying levels of herbs was evaluated before and after adding salt by consumers ad libitum until the saltiness of the soup was just about right for them. The results of the study demonstrated that when the perceived herb flavor increased, the amount of salt consumers added to fresh soups decreased (P ≤ 0.006); however, consumers' overall liking decreased (P ≤ 0.013) as well for the highest level of herb tested in the study. Although overall liking of all canned soups was not significantly decreased by herbs, the amount of salt consumers added was also not significantly decreased when herbs were used. Overall liking of all soups significantly increased after more salt was added (P ≤ 0.001), which indicates that salt level was a dominant factor in affecting consumers' overall liking of soups with varying levels of herbs. These findings imply the role of herbs in decreasing salt intake, and the adequate amount of herbs to be added in soup systems. It is challenging for the food industry to reduce sodium in foods without fully understanding the impact of sodium reduction on sensory properties of foods. Herbs are recommended to use in reducing sodium; however, little has been reported regarding the effect of herbs on sodium reduction and how herbs influence consumers’ acceptance of foods. This study provides findings that herbs may aid in decreasing the amount of salt consumers need to add for freshly prepared soups. It was also found that high

  7. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  9. Organic Milk Quality in the Netherlands : Distinguishable from conventional milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M.; Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated possible positive interactions between organic animal production and, particularly, and various vitamins. As possible distinguishing quality parameters for organic milk, the differences between organic and conventional milk in Netherlands for fatty acid composition and

  10. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v of milk-based kombucha inoculum.

  11. Association of Genetic Variants of Milk Proteins with Milk Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Aschaffenburg & Drewry,. 1955; 1957) researchers have become interested in the genetic polymorphism of milk proteins. It is known today that there are at least 39 genetic variants of six milk protein fractions (Eigel et al., 1984; Bouniol et al.,.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of 45 Chinese Herbs and the Relationship with their TCM Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm, flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood. These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 40–1990 µmol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 µmol TE/g, Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 µmol TE/g, Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 µmol TE/g, Artemisia anomala herb (1400 µmol TE/g, Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 µmol TE/g and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 µmol TE/g. Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action.

  13. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2011-01-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are frequently used to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foen...

  14. Chinese herbs combined with Western medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Zhang, Mingming; He, Lin; Li, Youping

    2012-10-17

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, which first appeared in Foshan City, China on 22 December 2002. Chinese herbs were used in its treatment. To evaluate the possible effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines versus Western medicines alone for SARS patients. We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 3, MEDLINE (1966 to February Week 4, 2012), EMBASE (1990 to March 2012) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature (Issue 3, 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines versus Western medicines alone for patients diagnosed with SARS. Two review authors (XL, MZ) independently extracted trial data. We extracted dichotomous and continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For dichotomous data, we used risk ratio (RR). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). We calculated overall results based on the random-effects model if heterogeneity existed between studies. If no heterogeneity was detected between the studies, we used the fixed-effect model. We used the Z score and the Chi(2) test with significance being set at P herbs were identified. We did not find Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines decreased mortality versus Western medicines alone. Two herbs may improve symptoms. Five herbs may improve lung infiltrate absorption. Four herbs may decrease the dosage of corticosteroids. Three herbs may improve the quality of life of SARS patients. One herb may shorten the length of hospital stay. Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines made no difference in decreasing mortality versus Western medicines alone. It is possible that Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines may improve symptoms, quality of life and absorption of pulmonary infiltration, and decrease the corticosteroid dosage for SARS patients. The evidence is weak because of the poor quality of the included trials. Long-term follow

  15. Chemical research of lipophilic fractions of sickle alfalfa herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kovalev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic fraction (LF of known medicinal plants are still less studied, despite the fact that they have a unique group of biological active compounds (BAC. The main active substances of LF are chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and other bioactive substances that exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological action. In this regard, a comprehensive study of advanced plant of flora of Ukraine to increase the assortments of herbal remedies is an urgent problem. The aim of this work was to obtain and chemical research of lipophilic fractions of sickle alfalfa herbs. The alfalfa herb harvested throughout the growing season in Kharkov and Poltava regions in 2011-2012. Lipophilic fraction was obtained by extraction with chloroform in a Soxhlet apparatus. Detection of carotenoids and chlorophylls by thin layer chromatography (TLC on plates of "Silufol" in one-dimensional and two-dimensional variants, the solvent system were: hexane: acetone (6:2 - I way, hexane-acetone (6:4 - II way. Assay of the lipophilic fraction by three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (3DF-spectroscopy was used for the analysis of mixtures containing fluorescent components. 3DF-spectres, that have the appearance of the surface, are characterized by a functions I = f (λexc, λem, recorded in the ultraviolet and visible ranges. Assay of the carotenoids and chlorophylls carried out by spectrophotometry. The reference solution was chloroform. Assay of fatty acids was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC of methyl esters of fatty acids via chromatograph with flame ionization detector "Shimadzu GC-14B". 20.0 g crushed sickle alfalfa herbs were exhaustively extracted with chloroform in a Soxhlet apparatus for produce a lipophilic fractions. The chloroform extract was evaporated in order to remove the extractant. The percentage of lipophilic fraction in the herbs was 7.5%. Quantity of the carotenoids and chlorophylls

  16. IS SOY MILK? THE ECONOMICS OF THE SOY MILK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Tirtha Pratim; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2004-01-01

    This study uses revealed preferences of consumers to study the consumer benefits from soy milk. The study specifies and estimates structural demand and reduced form models of competition for different milk types using US supermarket scanner data. The introduction of soy milk is used to estimate consumer benefits and valuations. We decompose benefits into two components, competitive and variety effects. Results show relatively small consumer benefits from soy milk.

  17. Herbs and herbal combinations used to treat suspected malaria in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Shamika; Ansumana, Rashid; Lamin, Joseph M; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Buanie, Jacob A G; Stenger, David A; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2015-05-26

    Most adults in West Africa treat acute febrile illnesses with local herbs, but the patterns of herbs used for malaria have not been recently described in Sierra Leone. We used a population-based cross-sectional approach to interview 810 randomly-sampled rural and urban adult residents of Bo, Sierra Leone, in December 2013 and January 2014 about their use of herbal remedies when they suspect they have malaria. In total, 55% of the participants reported taking one or more of seven herbs to treat symptoms of malaria. Among herb users, the most commonly used anti-malarial herbs were Moringa oleifera (moringa, 52%) and Sarcocephalus latifolius (yumbuyambay, 50%). The other herbs used included Senna siamea (shekutoure, 18%), Cassia sieberiana (gbangba, 18%), Uvaria afzelii (gone-botai, 14%), Morinda chrysorhiza (njasui, 14%), and Craterispermum laurinum (nyelleh, 7%). Combination herbal therapy was common, with 37% of herb users taking two or more herbs together when ill with suspected malaria. Indigenous medical knowledge about herbal remedies and combinations of local herbs remains an integral part of malaria case management in Sierra Leone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-pathway cellular analysis on crude natural drugs/herbs from Japanese Kampo formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshima, Shizuka; Yokoyama, Satoru; Abe, Takashi; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Kampo formulations comprise a number of crude natural drugs/herbs as constituents. The crude drugs/herbs have been traditionally classified by their traditional classifications or efficacies in Kampo medicines; however, it has been difficult to establish the scientific link between experimental evidence and traditional classifications in Kampo medicine. To clarify such traditional conceptions, we tested 112 crude drugs/herbs that are major components of Kampo formulations, in the multi-pathway analysis of 10 well-studied transcriptional activities including CREB, ERSF, HIF-1α, IRFs, MYC, NF-κB, p53, SMAD, SOX2, and TCF/LEF in A549 human lung cancer cells. By clustering the results of multi-pathway analysis with the Spearman rank-correlation coefficient and Ward linkage, three distinct traditional categories were significantly enriched in the major groupings, which are heat-clearing and dampness-drying herbs, acrid and warm exterior-resolving herbs, and acrid and cool exterior-resolving herbs. These results indicate that these crude drugs/herbs have similar effects on intracellular signaling and further imply that the traditional classifications of those enriched crude drugs/herbs can be supported by such experimental evidence. Collectively, our new in vitro multi-pathway analysis may be useful to clarify the mechanism of action of crude drugs/herbs and Kampo formulations.

  19. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei; Li, Bao-cai; Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2012-01-15

    Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  1. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  2. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  3. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  4. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  5. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  6. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Antioxidants from Plantago Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morio Yoshimura

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seven phenolic compounds, including a new phenylethanoid glycoside, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of an aqueous ethanol extract of Plantago Herb (whole part of Plantago asiatica L., which showed significant antioxidative activity. The new compound was characterized as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl 3-O-β-D-allopyranosyl-6-O-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence, and its antioxidant activity was comparable to that of tea catechins.

  8. Microbiological survey of retail herbs and spices from Mexican markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, S; Iracheta, F; Galván, F; Heredia, N

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, 304 samples of herbs and spices (garlic powder, cumin seeds, black pepper, oregano, and bay leaves) widely used in Mexico were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, total mesophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were nonpackaged or packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers. High levels (10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g) of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples of garlic powder, cumin seed, and black pepper. Lower levels (Penicillum sp. and Cunninghamella in 8%.

  9. Milk and Soy Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  10. Microbiological Quality of Raw Cow Milk across the Milk Supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The milk samples were subjected to laboratory analyses to evaluate total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count (TAMBC), total coliform count (TCC), yeast count (YC) and mold count (MC) in the laboratory to determine the microbiological quality of the milk. Mean TAMBC, TCC, YC and MC for raw cow milk samples collected ...

  11. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-01-01

    .... Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk...

  12. Ameliorative effect of two Ayurvedic herbs on experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Suman; Maji, Chinmoy; Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar; Sarkar, Samar; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2017-02-02

    Chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is a threat to society in West Bengal, India and in Bangladesh. The human being may also be affected by the exposed cattle from the affected area by consuming milk, egg, meat and others. In Ayurveda, several herbs like Haridra (turmeric), Shunthi (dried ginger root) and others are used for the management of arsenic poisoning. The study was conducted to find out the ameliorative effect of turmeric and ginger powder against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in calves. Twenty four calves were divided into four groups (group I, II, III and IV) having six animals in each group. Animals of group I, II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite at 1mg/kg body weight for 90 days and in addition group II and group III animals were treated orally with turmeric and ginger powder respectively at 10mg/kg body weight from 46th day onwards. Group IV animals were given food and water without drug and served as control. Arsenic content was estimated in faeces, hair, urine and plasma in every 15 days. Bio-chemical, haematological and anti-oxidant parameters were also assessed. Turmeric and ginger powder significantly (Parsenic levels through increased excretion via faeces and urine. Haemoglobin level, TEC and TLC were decreased in groups I, II and III, however these were improved significantly (Parsenic from the body but also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure, it may be concluded from the present study that turmeric and ginger can be helpful in the therapy of chronic arsenic toxicity in calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on the cheese-making properties of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pirlo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic milking systems (RMS modify dairy herd management and therefore some aspects of production. The mainresults from scientific literature on RMS and cheese-making properties have been reported. The decrease in fat content,as a consequence of the increased milking frequency, is generally confirmed. The lack of specific studies on creamingproperties of milk from robotic milking experiences and with different milking frequencies has been highlighted.Indications on clotting features were obtained with a different milking frequency in a traditional milking parlour; theseresults showed an improvement in the casein index of milk from three daily milkings. A reduction of casein exposure tothe plasminogen-plasmin complex activity in the mammary gland between two consecutive milkings seems to explainthis result. The effect of RMS on milk quality for cheese-making purposes was first evaluated in a two-year monitoringstudy in a herd representative of Po Valley dairy farms. Preliminary results from laboratory tests on bulk milk samplesindicate that milk from RMS seems suitable for cheese-making processes.

  14. The influence of milking procedures on cow’s teat tissue, milk yield and milking time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Špoljar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different milking procedures on teat length and diameter, milk yield and milking time. During the first milking procedure the milker decides when to remove the milking cluster from the udder, while in the second an automatic cluster removal, when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min, was performed. Measurements were made on two commercial farms B and A on 15 randomly chosen cows without any clinical sign of mastitis. There were no significant differencesbetween those farms in teat length and diameter differences before and after the milking. Average milking time on farm A was 6 min and 58 s, while on farm B was 5 min and 3 s. Average milk yield was 12.9 kg on farm B and 13.4 kg on farm A. Milking time was considerably shorter on farm B compared to farm A, while milk yield was almost equal on both farms. Automatic cluster weighting 2 kg removal was performed when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min in order to shorten the time needed to milk the cow, ensuring good udder health.

  15. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic tests. IgE-mediated CMA. Skin-prick testing (with fresh milk or commercial reagents) and ImmunoCAP-. RAST (for determining specific IgE against cow's milk protein) are the currently available tests. In children older than 2 years a skin-prick test (SPT) reaction with a wheal diameter ≥8 mm (Table II)5 or milk- ...

  16. Lactoferrin concentration in buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Giacinti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify lactoferrin (Lfe in buffalo milk and to examine the factors affecting milk Lfe, such as the lactation stage, daily milk yield, parity, and milk somatic cells count (SCC. Milk Lfe concentration was detected by the SDS-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The overall mean of Lfe concentration was 0.332±0.165 g/L and ranged from 0.030 to 0.813 g/L. Milk Lfe concentrations increased (P<0.01 with the increase of days in milk, but it was not affected by parity. It was estimated an increase of 0.0015 g/L daily of Lfe in milk during lactation. Milk Lfe concentration was significantly affected by SCC. The differences became significant when the levels of SCC increased up to 200.000/mL. This is the first investigation on the levels of Lfe in buffalo milk in reference to daily milk production, lactation stage, parity and SCC. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between Lfe and SCC in buffalo milk.

  17. Milking procedures, milk flow curves and somatic cell count in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zanini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent availability of electronic mobile milk flow meters allows to study in details milk flow patterns during milking. A normal milk flow profile is characterized by an incline phase, with increasing milk flow, a plateau phase, with steady milk flow, and a decline phase. In these phases milk flow is influenced by many factors: genetic characteristics of the cows, regulation of milking machine and milking routine.

  18. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  20. Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

    1999-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

  1. CancerHSP: anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiyang; Li, Bohui; Gao, Shuo; Bai, Yaofei; Shar, Piar Ali; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Zihu; Sun, Ke; Fu, Yingxue; Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Mu, Jiexin; Pei, Tianli; Wang, Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-06-01

    The numerous natural products and their bioactivity potentially afford an extraordinary resource for new drug discovery and have been employed in cancer treatment. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of most natural anticancer compounds remain elusive, which has become one of the major obstacles in developing novel effective anticancer agents. Here, to address these unmet needs, we developed an anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology (CancerHSP), which records anticancer herbs related information through manual curation. Currently, CancerHSP contains 2439 anticancer herbal medicines with 3575 anticancer ingredients. For each ingredient, the molecular structure and nine key ADME parameters are provided. Moreover, we also provide the anticancer activities of these compounds based on 492 different cancer cell lines. Further, the protein targets of the compounds are predicted by state-of-art methods or collected from literatures. CancerHSP will help reveal the molecular mechanisms of natural anticancer products and accelerate anticancer drug development, especially facilitate future investigations on drug repositioning and drug discovery. CancerHSP is freely available on the web at http://lsp.nwsuaf.edu.cn/CancerHSP.php.

  2. Climate change - Bad news for montane forest herb layer species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

    2013-07-01

    Global warming presents a threat to plant species distributed at montane or alpine altitudes if the topography does not allow upward shifts in distribution ranges. Nevertheless, the species might also benefit from increasing temperatures and secondary effects on dominant species (e.g. bark beetle outbreaks or summer drought affecting the canopy species). As a consequence, disturbance frequency in montane forests might increase and light availability for herb layer species will increase. We addressed these interactions in a common garden experiment in Central Germany at different altitudes, representing cold and moist vs. warm and dry conditions. We investigated three montane species with different life forms, including a herb (Trientalis europaea), a grass (Calamagrostis villosa) and a dwarf shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) under three shading treatments (3%, 28% and 86% of full sunlight). We hypothesized that montane species are at a disadvantage in the lowland, with the dwarf shrub suffering more than the grass. Furthermore, we hypothesized an antagonistic interaction of increased temperature and increased light conditions. While T. europaea and V. myrtillus showed only slightly responses to low altitude conditions, C. villosa displayed a nearly fifteen fold increase in biomass production, despite higher observed herbivory levels in the lowland. We failed to show an antagonistic effect of increased temperature and increased light availability, as all study species suffered from deep shade conditions and grew best under full light conditions at both sites. In conclusion, both improved temperature and light conditions might be principally beneficial for the investigated boreal species, in particular for the grass species C. villosa.

  3. An update on cutaneous aging treatment using herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging is caused by several factors. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure as well as oxidative stress elevates inflammatory mediators causing degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is regarded as the major cause of skin wrinkles, one of the signs of aging. Topical applications of active ingredients protect against dermal photodamage and scavenge radicals that can delay skin aging. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors against degradation of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronan are the key strategy to combat cutaneous aging. In addition, active ingredients with the efficacy to enhance extracellular matrix production, including those with UV protection efficacy, play an important role in protecting the skin from aging. Naturally derived compounds for combating skin wrinkles are gaining more interest among the consumers as they are perceived to be milder, safer, and healthier. This article, therefore, briefly addresses the causes of skin aging and extensively summarizes on herbs appraisal for skin wrinkles treatment. Therefore, delaying aging of skin using the functional herbs would maintain the individual's appearance with high esthetic and psychosocial impacts.

  4. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs – a preliminary report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Malm; Anna Glowniak-Lipa; Izabela Korona-Glowniak; Tomasz Baj

    2015-01-01

    .... Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504...

  5. Camel milk: an alternative for cow's milk allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlayel, Mohammad S; Hazeima, Khalid Abu; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima; Bener, Abdulbari

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in children includes avoidance of cow's milk and providing a milk substitute. This study was designed to determine whether CMA children could safely consume camel's milk as an alternative, and skin-prick test (SPT) to camel's milk could be a reliable tool in selecting them. Between April 2007 and February 2010, children with confirmed CMA seen at the Allergy-Immunology Clinic, Hamad Medical Corp., were enrolled into this prospective cohort study. Subjects had a detailed history and medical examination, complete blood count with differential count, total serum IgE, and specific IgE test and SPT to cow's milk. Patients with positive SPT and an elevated cow's milk-specific IgE had negative SPT to camel's milk. Of 35 children (23 male and 12 female children) aged 4-126 months (median, 21 months), 23 patients (65.7%) presented with acute urticaria, 17 (48.6%) with atopic dermatitis, 9 (25.7%) with anaphylaxis, 8 (22.9%) with failure to thrive, and 5 (14.3%) with chronic vomiting. Twenty-eight patients (80%) had family history of allergy. Twenty-six patients (74.3%) were breast-fed for ≤18 months. Mean white blood cell count was 9860.5 cells/μL, absolute eosinophil count was 1219 cells/μL, IgE was 682 IU/mL, and cow's milk-specific IgE was 22.01 kU/L. Only 7 patients (20%) had positive SPT to camel's milk and 28 (80%) were negative to camel's milk. All patients with negative SPT took camel's milk without any reactions. In children with CMA, SPT is a reliable clinical test in ruling out reactivity to camel's milk so these children could safely take camel's milk as an alternative nutrient.

  6. Effect of some herbs as alternative for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study describes the effects of three individual herbs for the prevention and control of a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. In our study, feed (a commercial organic starter diet) was supplemented with 1% of one of the three herbs (Papaya, Boldo leaf and

  7. Natural swine health : a guide to keeping your herd healthy with herbs and other natural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Kleijer-Ligtenberg, G.; Asseldonk, van T.

    2010-01-01

    This booklet is intended to guide pig farmers through the ever increasing supply of herbs and other natural products that can be purchased nowadays. Herbs and other natural products can support healthy animals in stressful situations or enhance treatment with conventional medication. The greatest

  8. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection. Protokol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Manheimer, E; Tsutani, K

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem world-wide. Medicinal herbs are increasingly being used for hepatitis C.......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem world-wide. Medicinal herbs are increasingly being used for hepatitis C....

  9. Quality Evaluation of Herbs and Spices in The Military Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    contaminated by pathogens . In this regard many spices reportedly contain natural inhibitors which not only control the development of pathogens in the spice ...NUMBER TR 76-52 FEL 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtl tie) "Quality Evaluation of Herbs and Spices in...HERBS PACKAGING VOLATILITY SPICES SEALED SYSTEMS VOLATILE LOSS

  10. Accumulation of phenolic compounds in the purple betony herb (Stachys officinalis L. originated from cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bączek Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Purple betony (Stachys officinalis L., Lamiaceae is a perennial of versatile medicinal usage. Nowadays, in Poland betony herb is collected exclusively from wild growing plants. Decreasing number of its natural sites results in lack of the herb supply and thus, in its limited usage.

  11. Accumulation of phenolic compounds in the purple betony herb (Stachys officinalis L.) originated from cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bączek Katarzyna; Kosakowska Olga; Przybył Jarosław L.; Węglarz Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Purple betony (Stachys officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a perennial of versatile medicinal usage. Nowadays, in Poland betony herb is collected exclusively from wild growing plants. Decreasing number of its natural sites results in lack of the herb supply and thus, in its limited usage.

  12. Prevalent use of herbs for reduction of labour duration in Mwanza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewer

    determine the prevalence and factors associated with the use of herbs during labour among women in. Mwanza, Tanzania. ... linked to new-borns cardiorespiratory depression and poor APGAR score (Ernst, 2002). The use of herbs with ..... sector response in the Chiapas Highlands of Mexico. International Journal for Equity ...

  13. The Classification of Sri Lankan Medicinal Herbs: An Extensive Comparison of the Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viduranga Y. Waisundara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka has variety of herbs whose effectiveness has been proven across many generations. These herbs are classified into two groups — ‘heating’ and ‘cooling’, based on the physiological reactions upon consumption. Application-wise, the ‘cooling’ herbs are administered to patients contracted with diabetes, imbalances in the lipid profile, or even cancer. However, this classification has been misunderstood due to inconsistent interpretations and lack of scientific reasoning. This study systematically determines the rationale behind this classification, by specifically evaluating the antioxidant activity of 18 herbs — nine herbs from each category. The oxygen radical absorbance capacities, DPPH radical scavenging activities, and the total phenolic contents are analyzed here. The ‘heating’ herbs have a comparatively lower antioxidant potential than the ‘cooling’ herbs. The total phenolic contents correlate with the antioxidant values. It can be hypothesized that the high antioxidant potential of the ‘cooling’ herbs may have been responsible for the containment of the diseases mentioned previously.

  14. Prevalent use of herbs for reduction of labour duration in Mwanza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewer

    castor oil during pregnancy or labour has been associated with passage of meconium and respiratory distress (Mitri et al., 1987). The use of Montana tomentosa .... History of use of herbs during previous deliveries was an indicator for recurrent use of herbs in subsequent pregnancies as we observed that, out of 26 women ...

  15. THISTLE: trial of hands-on Interprofessional simulation training for local emergencies: a research protocol for a stepped-wedge clustered randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenguerrand, Erik; Winter, Catherine; Innes, Karen; MacLennan, Graeme; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Lynch, Pauline; Cameron, Alan; Crofts, Joanna; McDonald, Alison; McCormack, Kirsty; Forrest, Mark; Norrie, John; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Draycott, Tim

    2017-09-07

    Many adverse pregnancy outcomes in the UK could be prevented with better intrapartum care. Training for intrapartum emergencies has been widely recommended but there are conflicting data about their effectiveness. Observational studies have shown sustained local improvements in perinatal outcomes associated with the use of the PRactical Obstetric Multi-Professional Training - (PROMPT) training package. However this effect needs to be investigated in the context of randomised study design in settings other than enthusiastic early adopter single-centres. The main aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of PROMPT to reduce the rate of term infants born with low APGAR scores. THISTLE (Trial of Hands-on Interprofessional Simulation Training for Local Emergencies) is a multi-centre stepped-wedge clustered randomised controlled superiority trial conducted across 12 large Maternity Units in Scotland. On the basis of prior observational findings all Units have been offered the intervention and have been randomly allocated in groups of four Units, to one of three intervention time periods, each six months apart. Teams of four multi-professional clinicians from each participating Unit attended a two-day PROMPT Train the Trainers (T3) programme prior to the start of their allocated intervention step. Following the T3 training, the teams commenced the implementation of local intrapartum emergency training in their own Units by the start of their allocated intervention period. Blinding has not been possible due to the nature of the intervention. The aim of the study is to follow up each Unit for at least 12-months after they have commenced their local courses. The primary outcome for the study is the proportion of Apgar scores study Units. These data will be extracted from the Information Services Division Scottish Morbidity Record 02, a national routine data collection on pregnancy and births. Mixed or marginal logistic regression will be employed for the main

  16. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  17. Residual contaminants in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as detergents or disinfections. The residuals of cleaning agents might remain in milk if the cleaning agents and its dosage are not performed adequately. Besides already mentioned agents, a great influence in milk production can bee seen through veterinary drugs usage, particularly antibacterial drugs (mastitis. Proper application of drugs and by following legal recommendation, a by-reactions can be avoided such as allergic reaction in humans, development of resisting bacteria or even undesirable influence on starter cultures in dairy products manufacture. The maximum residue limits, monitoring plan as well as sampling procedures are set up within the harmonization of Croatian and European legislation, in order to provide official control of residues in foodstuffs of animal origin.

  18. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  19. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cow's milk. To provide the best diet and nutrition for your infant, the AAP recommends: If possible, you should feed ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Infant and Newborn Nutrition Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  20. Whole cow's milk in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander Kc; Sauve, Reginald S

    2003-09-01

    Early introduction of whole cow's milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia. From a nutritional point of view, it is best to delay the introduction of whole cow's milk until the infant is one year old. While there is no evidence to suggest adverse clinical sequelae associated with the increased renal solute load in healthy infants, feeding with whole cow's milk would narrow the margin of safety in situations that may lead to dehydration. Early exposure to cow's milk proteins increases the risk of developing allergy to milk proteins. Because of the possible association between early exposure to cow's milk proteins and risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus, breast-feeding and avoidance of commercially available cow's milk and products containing intact cow's milk protein during the first year of life are strongly encouraged in families with a strong history of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The authors suggest that the optimal food in infancy is human breast milk. If human milk is not available, it is preferred that iron-fortified formulas rather than whole cow's milk be used during the first year of life.

  1. Breast milk jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jaundice is the most common clinical symptom in the neonatal period. Free serum bilirubin levels during the first days after birth are higher than at any point later in life. Breastfeeding is associated with both increased risk and severity of jaundice. Early-onset breastfeeding jaundice is primarily a result of insufficient caloric supply and resolves gradually with the normalisation of lactation. Late-onset type, i.e. breast milk jaundice, develops after 4–7 days of life in otherwise healthy neonates and is mainly associated with the presence of an unknown factor in breast milk, which increases the enterohepatic reabsorption of bilirubin. Breast milk (late-onset jaundice is the most common cause of persistent jaundice due to increased unconjugated bilirubin. Elevated conjugated bilirubin always indicates a pathological process and requires urgent diagnosis extension. It was believed until recently that breast milk jaundice is a mild condition, which never leads to central nervous system damage. This, however, is not entirely certain in the light of currently available scientific research; therefore it is necessary to monitor bilirubin levels. Since breast milk jaundice is a diagnosis of exclusion, it is usually preceded by differential diagnosis. In the case of breast milk jaundice, serum bilirubin levels will return to normal by 12–14 weeks of life. In the case of newborns/infants in good condition, who develop properly and gain weight systematically, supporting parents in effective breastfeeding, monitoring and regular check-ups of the child are recommended. Breast milk jaundice is not a contraindication to prophylactic vaccination.

  2. Cow's milk challenge through human milk evokes immune responses in infants with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, K M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Suomalainen, H

    1999-10-01

    In order to measure the immune response evoked in breast-fed infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) by cow's milk challenge through human milk, mothers were given increasing doses of cow's milk after they had been on a cow's milk elimination diet. Another objective was to study the secretion of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) into human milk before and during milk challenge in relation to the appearance of symptoms in infants. Seventeen asymptomatic mothers who had infants with challenge-proven CMA and 10 asymptomatic mothers who had healthy infants were recruited. Infants ranged in age from 1.8 to 9.4 months. A solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISPOT) was used to assess the total number of immunoglobulin-secreting and specific antibody-secreting cells. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate different lymphocyte subpopulations among peripheral blood lymphocytes primed during provocation by cow's milk antigens. BLG levels were assessed in human milk before the challenge and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after the commencement of the challenge. All but one of the infants with CMA showed symptoms of CMA during cow's milk challenge through human milk. There was a significant rise in the total number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the IgA and IgG classes associated with a positive cow's milk challenge response, but the proportions of peripheral blood B cells bearing CD19, CD23, CD19 and 23, CD5, or CD19 and CD5 were comparable. BLG levels were comparable in both study groups. Most of the infants with CMA reacted to cow's milk challenge through human milk. Hypersensitivity reactions to food antigens through human milk may be more common than previously thought.

  3. Pharmacogenomics and Herb-Drug Interactions: Merge of Future and Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou-Ze Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide using of herb products and the increasing potential herb-drug interaction issue has raised enthusiasm on discovering the underlying mechanisms. Previous review indicated that the interactions may be mediated by metabolism enzymes and transporters in pharmacokinetic pathways. On the other hand, an increasing number of studies found that genetic variations showed some influence on herb-drug interaction effects whereas these genetic factors did not draw much attention in history. We highlight that pharmacogenomics may involve the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic pathways to affect herb-drug interaction. We are here to make an updated review focused on some common herb-drug interactions in association with genetic variations, with the aim to help safe use of herbal medicines in different individuals in the clinic.

  4. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...... herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns...... related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste...

  5. Bioactive Compounds in Some Culinary Aromatic Herbs and Their Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Gonçalves, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Culinary herbs are herbaceous (leafy) plants that add flavour and colour to all types of meals. There is a wide variety of herbs that are used for culinary purposes worldwide, which are also recognized for their beneficial health effects, and thus have also been used in folk medicine. Besides their nutritional value herbs are rich in many phytochemical components with bioactive effects, thus improving human health. The aim of the present work was to make a general overview of some of these herbs, including their gastronomic usage, their chemical composition in bioactive components and their reported health effects. This work showed that the health effects are very diverse and differ according to the herb in question. However, some of the most frequently citted biological activities include antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects.

  6. [Trends of genome evolution in land and secondary-water herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaleĭ, Iu V; Sheremet'ev, S N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genome sizes in two groups of herbs, land and secondary-water, has been released. It is shown that their genomes are changed to opposite topics in cenozoic. The genome of land herbs is increased, and it is decreased in secondary water herbs. Genome growth in land herbs is analyzed as the result of unfavourable changes in global climate: cooling, aridization and atmospheric CO2 deficit. Genome minimization in secondary-water herbs is interpreted as the sequence of united effect of two groups of factors: returning to more stable water environment and breakdown of symbiotic relations with fungi partner. The influence of environmental discomfort and development of symbiotic or parasitic relations on genome size is discussed in association with established differences.

  7. Camel Milk Is a Safer Choice than Goat Milk for Feeding Children with Cow Milk Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ehlayel; Abdulbari Bener; Khalid Abu Hazeima; Fatima Al-Mesaifri

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticari...

  8. Pesticides Residue in Milk and Milk Products: Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Akhtar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock is an important sub-sector of agriculture that plays a key role in economy of a country by contributing to GDP (Gross Domestic Product and in total export. Pakistan is the 5th largest milk producer in the world with a total milk production of about 46.44 billion liters per anum. Almost 68% milk is produced by buffalo and 27% by cow. Pesticides used in agriculture sector may transfer to animal bodies through feed and fodder. A pesticide found in water is another source of residues in milk through drinking water. External control of parasites on animal body, insect control in cattle yard and sheds are direct sources of pesticides exposure for dairy animals. Due to its nutritional and supplementary value, milk is being consumed by people of different age groups therefore, issue of pesticide residues attain the immediate attention of researcher. Pesticide residues levels in raw dairy milk are discussed here in few selected developing and developed countries. It is concluded that human health is associated with exposure to organo phosphorus (OPPs, organo chlorine (OCPs, pyrethroids and carbamate (CB pesticides via milk or milk products and this issue deserve more attention. Different classes of pesticides OPPs, OCPs, pyrethroids and CBs etc. were reported in raw dairy milk in different countries and also in Pakistan. The results of this review demonstrate the need to establish pesticide residue monitoring programs for milk analysis for human consumption to improve food safety and decrease exposure risks to consumers.

  9. Human milk donation is an alternative to human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ho-Torng; Fong, Tze-Vun; Hassan, Nurulhuda Mat; Wong, Hoi-Ling; Rai, Jasminder Kaur; Khalid, Zorina

    2012-04-01

    Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community. We introduced human milk donation as an alternative to human milk banking based on Islamic principles. The suitable donor is a healthy rooming-in mother whose expressed breastmilk is in excess of her baby's demand. The milk is used after 72 hours of freezing at -20°C. The donor must fulfill the criteria for selection of donors and be nonreactive to human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis. Once the recipient's family and the donor state their desire for the human milk donation, a meeting with both parties is made. Unpasteurized frozen-thawed donor's milk will be provided to the recipient after written consents are obtained from both parties. This study was carried out in the Duchess of Kent Hospital (Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia) between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 48 babies received donated breastmilk. Forty-two infants were from the special care nursery, and the remaining six were from the pediatric ward. Eighty-eight percent of the donors and 77% of the recipients were Muslims. Sixty percent of the infants who received donated human milk were premature. Two infants died because of the underlying nature of their disease. Human milk donation is an option for hospitals without a human milk bank or in the Muslim community.

  10. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk

  11. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  12. Changes of vitamin C content in celery and parsley herb after processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Valšíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other primates have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C and therefore the only source is diet. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid has labile nature, it is removed or destroyed in specific degree immediately after harvest, but storage and post - harvest processing also contribute to its degradation. The aim of work was to determine the vitamin C content in the herb of selected celery and parsley varieties in dependence on chosen postharvest processing and to compare it with fresh herb. There were chosen five bulb forms varieties of celery (Apium graveolens - Makara, Ilonaa, Hegy Köi, Talar and Diamant. In case of parsley (Petroselinum crispum there were evaluated one variety of curly parsley, one variety of herb parsley - Petra, and five varieties of root parsley - Lenka, Eagle, Ginate D´Italia, Titana and Arat. Every variety was harvested in three terms, followed by vitamin C content estimation in fresh herb, after drying and after freezing. The content of vitamin C was estimated by HPLC method by the help of liquid chromatograph with UV detector. There was found the significant difference in content of vitamin C in parsley as well as in celery when comparing the fresh herb with herbs after post - harvest processes - drying (by air circulation in laboratory hall and freezing. After processing of herbs in both observed species the vitamin C content decreased, in case of freezing it was about 65% (celery and 61% (parsley, after drying about 86% (celery and 82% (parsley in comparison with fresh herb. The effect of processing played more important role in influencing of vitamin C content than variety in case of both selected species. For using of celery and parsley not only as culinary herb, but as a notable source of ascorbic acid it is the most important fresh herb intake.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  13. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Różańska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached <10(4) CFU/g. Results achieved in the study indicate good hygienic conditions in the production process of spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control, lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L, lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP, and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG, respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency.

  15. Consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs: An application of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Nargesh Khatun; Noorhosseini, Seyyed Ali; Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh; Damalas, Christos A

    2017-07-31

    The shift in consumers' preferences from synthetic to 'natural' products has led to a resurgence of interest in medicinal plants, particularly in developing countries. However, research data about consumers' preferences for particular products is hard to find. The main objective of this study was to contribute to the general understanding of consumers' intention for selecting medicinal herbs for consumption. Factors underpinning consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs were studied with the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Rasht City of Iran using a structured questionnaire. Most respondents had low to moderate familiarity with consumption of medicinal herbs. However, about half of the respondents (47.5%) showed a high level of acceptance of medicinal herbs. Herbs like spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Damask rose (Rosa × damascena Herrm.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J.Presl), flixweed [Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl], red feathers (Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.), and green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] had the highest consumption rate among the majority (over 75%) of citizens of Rasht. The highest rate of perceived usefulness of medicinal herbs was related to their perceived role in healing diseases. The variable of importance of use of medicinal herbs had the strongest direct effect and the variables of perceived usefulness and attitude towards use had the second and third strongest direct effect on the acceptance of medicinal herbs' use at p < 0.01. Findings provide a useful evaluation of the acceptance of medicinal herbs and may serve as a benchmark for future research and evaluation concerning the use of medicinal herbs over time. For plant producers, more effective and targeted crop development should be encouraged, whereas for retailers better marketing and delivery strategies should be sought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  16. Herbalist-Customer Profile in Medicinal and Aromatic Herbs Trade: A Case Study of Kahramanmaraş, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Sefa; Özkan, Zafer Cemal

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted with nine herb firms and 99 customers shopping at those herb stores. A questionnaire consisting of two separate sections was given to the herbalists and their customers, and face-to-face interviews were conducted. The study revealed that the top three most frequently purchased and sold herbs were Mentha x piperita, Thymbra spicata subsp. spicata, and Tilia tomentosa. Thus, the first ranking of the causes for buying and selling these herbs are digestive system disorder...

  17. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune; Andersen, Lene F

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessmen...

  18. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa...

  19. The effect of prestimulation on milking characteristics during machine milking of goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bašić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Goat milking is optimal if maximum milk yield is obtained in the minimum time frame. Prestimulation influences milk yield and other milking characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine optimal milking characteristics for different times spent on prestimulation during machine milking of goats. Prestimulation of 30 s was optimal to achieve maximum milk yield and flow in the shortest time. Longer milking interval resulted in higher milk yield, milk flow, but also in the longest milking time. Milking goats in 4th parity had higher average and peak flow rate, while goats in third parity had longer milking time, with higher milk yield. The results of this study show that prestimulation time longer than 30 s is not necessary to obtain optimum milking characteristics during machine milking of goats.

  20. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: a medicinal herb with promising health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-11-05

    Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory), a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  1. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction of essential oils from herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Ugarte, Gabriel Abraham; Juárez-Becerra, Gladys Paola; Sosa-Morales, María Elena; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) has been recognized as a technique with several advantages over other extraction methods, such as reduction of costs, extraction time, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions. In this study, MAE was performed to obtain essential oils from two different herbs (basil and epazote). A factorial design was conducted in order to determine the effect of solvent quantity, power, and heating time on essential oil yields. Chemical composition, physical properties and yield percentage of essential oils from MAE were compared with essential oils obtained by steam distillation (SD). Amount of solvent and heating time significantly affected the yields (p essential oils from basil and epazote were not affected by the extraction method (MAE or SD), with similar yielding obtained by both methods (p < 0.05).

  3. Economic evaluation of herb extraction using supercritical fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shariaty-Niassar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the climate diversity in different parts of Iran, a variety of plants grow across the country, many of them having pharmaceutical applications. At present, only a few companies are producing herbal essence, all of them are technically based on conventional methods of extraction such as steam distillation and others. Because of the current serious concern with respect to the environmental conservation law the use of green technology seems imperative. The supercritical fluid extraction is considered as a practical and procedural method which has become under serious consideration in recent years. For this, an economical analysis is made of herb extractions using a supercritical fluid. The results of such a survey can clarify the new methods to be of great concern. The aim of this paper is to present the feasibility studies of supercritical fluid extraction units used for producing a different plant extract and especially that of rosemary.

  4. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS OF HERB OF THYMUS CRETACEUS KLOK. ET SCHOST

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    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied carboxylic acids of the herb of Thymus cretaceus Klok. et Schost which is widespread on a territory of some regions (Belgorod, Voronezh. The study was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography at Agilent Technologies 6890 chromatographer with massspectrometric detector 5973 N. Acids concentration was calculated by means of inner standard.We have established that carboxylic acids of Thymus cretaceus are represented by 34 compounds. Palmitic (1779.02 mg/kg, behenic (1084.15 mg/kg, levulinic (986.24 mg/kg and linoleic acids (678.82 mg/kg predominate among fatty acids; citric (9835.14 mg/kg, malonic (447.91 mg/kg and oxalic acids (388.32 mg/kg predominate among organic acids; andferulic acid predominate amongphenolcarbonic acids.

  5. Nutritional composition of selected green leafy vegetables, herbs and carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kawatra, A; Sehgal, S

    2001-01-01

    Six green leafy vegetables and herbs - spinach, amaranth, bengal gram, cauliflower, mint, coriander and carrots - were analyzed for moisture, protein, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, total iron, ionizable iron (as % of total iron) in vitro iron (% of total iron), copper, manganese and zinc. Moisture content of the leaves and carrots varied from 75.1 percent (bengal gram) to 95.4 percent (carrot) and protein from 9.83 percent (carrots) to 30.9 (mint) percent. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, total iron and ionizable iron contents were at a maximum in case of bengal gram leaves whereas level of ionizable iron and in vitro iron as a percent of total iron was highest in carrots. Copper, manganese and zinc contents were maximum in spinach.

  6. Skin hyperpigmentation treatment using herbs: A review of clinical evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya

    2017-08-30

    Hyperpigmentation of skin is caused by several factors. UV exposure, in addition to oxidative stress, elevates inflammatory mediators stimulating melanogenesis. Herbal-derived compounds for improving skin lightness are gaining interest as they are perceived to be milder, safer, and healthier than fully synthetic products. This review briefly addresses the causes of skin hyperpigmentation and extensively summarizes the status of herbs currently used in skin-lightening cosmetics. The properties of active compounds and their dose rate information are summarized where available, along with human or animal relevant models for activity testing. This review will be of value to cosmetic formulators and dermatologists who are searching for naturally derived ingredients for improving skin lightness, in line with consumer preference and expectations.

  7. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jian Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made.

  8. SOILS AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION UNDER MEDICINAL HERBS ECOLOGICAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out with medicinal herbs in the frame of a National project financed by CNCSIS through the Partnership Program. Ecologic and conventional technologies were applied. The project aimed to implement a standardization system of the vegetal raw materials which can be used in the cosmetic industry. Sage, basilicum, and savory were subject of the experiments, at Jucu, Cluj County, Ungureni – Butimanu, Dâmboviţa County, and Secuieni, Neamţ County. The dominant soils in these areas are Fluvisols and Haplic Chernozems in the Jucu area, Chromic Luvisol in the Ungureni – Butimanu area, and Calcic Chernozem in the Secuieni area. The agrochemical analysis of the soils from the experimental fields highlighted soil fertility properties conservation both under ecologic and conventional growing technologies.

  9. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  10. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi′s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler′s health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  11. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  12. Genetic and morphological studies of Trichosirocalus species introduced to North America, Australia and New Zealand for the biological control of thistles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biase, A; Colonnelli, E; Belvedere, S; La Marca, A; Cristofaro, M; Smith, L

    2016-02-01

    Trichosirocalus horridus sensu lato has been used as a biological control agent of several invasive thistles (Carduus spp., Cirsium spp. and Onopordum spp.) since 1974. It has been recognized as a single species until 2002, when it was split into three species based on morphological characters: T. horridus, Trichosirocalus briesei and Trichosirocalus mortadelo, each purported to have different host plants. Because of this taxonomic change, uncertainty exists as to which species were released in various countries; furthermore, there appears to be some exceptions to the purported host plants of some of these species. To resolve these questions, we conducted an integrative taxonomic study of the T. horridus species complex using molecular genetic and morphological analyses of specimens from three continents. Both mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and nuclear elongation factor 1α markers clearly indicate that there are only two distinct species, T. horridus and T. briesei. Molecular evidence, morphological analysis and host plant associations support the synonymy of T. horridus (Panzer, 1801) and T. mortadelo Alonso-Zarazaga & Sánchez-Ruiz, 2002. We determine that T. horridus has been established in Canada, USA, New Zealand and Australia and that T. briesei is established in Australia. The former species was collected from Carduus, Cirsium and Onopordum spp. in the field, whereas the latter appears to be specific to Onopordum.

  13. Raw milk consumption and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  14. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  15. Acidogenic Potential of Plain Milk, Milk with Sugar, Milk with Cornflakes and Milk Cornflakes with Sugar: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sham S; Hegde, Sundeep K; Bhat, Vidya S; Ramya, K M; Jodalli, Praveen S

    2016-01-01

    To compare the acidogenic potential of plain milk, milk with sugar, milk with cornflakes, and milk cornflakes with sugar by assessing the salivary pH. The study was carried out on 40 school children of 8 to 12 years; 20 boys and 20 girls were randomly selected. The salivary pH was assessed before and after the consumption of milk; milk and sugar; milk and cornflakes; and milk, sugar, and cornflakes. Baseline unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile plastic tube and the pH was recorded. The change in the salivary pH from the respective groups after consuming the test meal was recorded as follows: (1) after 5 minutes; (2) after 10 minutes; (3) after 15 minutes; (4) after 30 minutes; (5) 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 18.0 (SPSS). The average baseline salivary pH among all the groups was 7.26. A fall in pH at 5 minutes was seen in all the four groups. However, at different time intervals 5, 10, 15, 30, and 120 minutes, the pH values between the groups showed a significant difference at p < 00.7, 0.005, 0.001, 0.010, and 0.028 respectively. The fall in pH in all the groups was not significant to a limit of critical pH. Milk when added with sugar and/or cornflakes as a meal did not pose a threat as there was not significant decrease in pH. Bhat SS, Hegde SK, Bhat VS, Ramya KM, Jodalli PS. Acidogenic Potential of Plain Milk, Milk with Sugar, Milk with Cornflakes, and Milk Cornflakes with Sugar: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):218-221.

  16. Comparative analysis of web search trends between experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yea, Sang-Jun; Jang, Yunji; Seong, BoSeok; Kim, Chul

    2015-12-24

    The information and knowledge about ethno-medicinal herbs are getting stronger interest in Global and Korea after the agreement of the Nagoya Protocol. However, it is known that there is a serious asymmetry of ethno-medicinal information between experts and public, thus this study aimed to analyze the similarities and differences in interest between experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea through big data analysis. The medicinal herbs selected in this study were the top 10 herbs in terms of the amounts purchased by TKM centers. And two representative web search engines were selected to collect the web search logs, i.e. big data, of experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea. Comparative analysis was accomplished through descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and time-series graph analysis. The web search traffic logs were collected for the past three years (2012-2014) from OASIS and NAVER, which are the representative web search engines of experts and public respectively in Korea. First, regarding OASIS, the most searched medicinal herb was Angelicae Gigantis Radix while the least searched was Alismatis Rhizoma; for NAVER, the most searched medicinal herb was Paeoniae Radix, unlike OASIS, and the least searched was Alismatis Rhizoma, as with OASIS. The coefficient between rank of herbs and OASIS was -0.401, and that between rank of herbs and NAVER was -0.387, and the correlational coefficient for web search trends of OASIS and NAVER during the past three years was 0.438. Also the correlation of interest between experts and public for each herb on monthly web trends basis was similar with regard to Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Angelicae Gigantis Radix, but different with regard to the other 8 medicinal herbs. Finally, significant outcomes or suggestions were figured out through time-series graph analysis. This study presents meaningful results concerning the similarities and differences in interest between experts and

  17. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  18. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  19. IMPACT OF MILK COOPERATIVES ON MARKETED SURPLUS OF MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Deepak

    2007-01-01

    The study conducted during 1994-95 in Jalgaon and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra showed two differing scenarios insofar as the impact of milk cooperatives on production and marketed surplus is concerned. While milk cooperatives had positive and significant impact on both production and marketed surplus of milk in Kolhapur district, such impact could not be ascertained in Jalgaon district. The study also showed lower production and marketed surplus during summer season followed by rainy and...

  20. 75 FR 1027 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...-0037] Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products AGENCY... positions that will be discussed at the 9th Session of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products (CCMMP... standards for milk and milk products. The CCMMP is hosted by the Government of New Zealand. Issues To Be...

  1. THE USE OF THE MEDICINAL HERBS IN THE CITY OF VELENJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalika Klemenc Ketiš

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data about the use of medicinal herbs for selftreatment in our population is sparse. Therefore the aim of our survey was to investigate the measures taken by patients with four most frequent symptoms, which medicinal herbs they used and where they got them.Methods. In the streets of the city of Velenje 184 randomly chosen adults were asked about the measures to cope with their four most common symptoms: abdominal pain, headache, diarrhoea and raised body temperature.Results. 72 percent of people surveyed use medicinal herbs. The use increases with advancing age. There are no differences regarding their education. It has been found that the pill is mostly used while the medicinal herbs take the third place. The most frequently used herb is camomile (Matricaria chamomilla. The herbs are mainly provided by the users themselves.Conclusions. Medicinal herbs are often used in combination with conventional therapy, without proper knowledge of their side effects and the harm of potentional misuse. The physicians are mainly not aware of their use among the patients. The importance of this problem for the public health service is thus essential.

  2. Physicochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Bee Honey Enriched With Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dżugan, Małgorzata; Sowa, Patrycja; Kwaśniewska, Monika; Wesołowska, Monika; Czernicka, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Three groups of products enriched with herbs were studied: (1) commercial herb honeys (n = 5) produced by bees fed a syrup with an herbal extract, (2) natural herbal honey (n = 3) produced by bees from the nectar of herbs, and (3) creamed multifloral honey with added dried herbs (n = 5). As a control, multifloral honey (n = 5) was used. The physicochemical parameters (i.e., sugar extract, water content, specific rotation, conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, pH and acidity), sugar profiles (HPLC analysis), antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds content of the studied samples were compared. Although great diversity in the basic properties of the studied products was observed, they were comparable to multifloral honey and complied with honey regulations. Significant differences in sugar composition were observed, and adversely positive rotation (excluding nettle herb honey) was detected in group 1, likely resulting from the change in bee feeding. The best antioxidant activity for creamed honeys with dried herbs (group 2) was investigated, whereas herb honeys (group 1) exhibited similar antioxidant properties as multifloral honey. The use of controlled feeding of bees appears to be an effective method of enriching honey with desirable plant bioactive components to create innovative bee products.

  3. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents.

  4. Effects of five Ayurvedic herbs on locomotor behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, R L M; Brogan, B; Whitworth, A J; Okello, E J

    2014-12-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B. monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. [Investigation on Wild Original Plant Species of Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiu-zhen; Zou, Xiu-hong

    2014-12-01

    To explore the original plants of wild medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province and find out the species of these plants. Based on the field investigation, specimen collection and literature reference, inductive analysis of the wild original plants of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City had been carried out. After investigation, it was discovered that there were 84 families 155 genera 184 species of original plants of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, of which 6 families 7 genera 9 species belonged to pteridophytes; 2 families 2 genera 2 species belonged to gymnosperms; and the rest were angio-sperms. Among the angiosperms, dicotyledons accounted for 62 families 117 genera 139 species; monocotyledons took up 14 families 29 genera 34 species. The plants mentioned above were the original plants of the 186 Chinese medicinal herbs and decoction pieces in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). This paper has explored the wild original plant species of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province to provide not only the basis for the local government's development and utilization of wild Chinese medicinal herbs but also the data for the fourth national survey of Chinese medicinal herb resources.

  6. The Quantitative Ideas and Methods in Assessment of Four Properties of Chinese Medicinal Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jialei; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Xiaolei; Han, Jinxiang

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize and reflect on the current status and problems of the research on the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. Hot, warm, cold, and cool are the four properties/natures of Chinese medicinal herbs. They are defined based on the interaction between the herbs with human body. How to quantitatively assess the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbs based on the theoretical system of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remains to be a challenge. Previous studies on the topic from several perspectives have been presented. Results and problems were discussed. New ideas based on the technology of biophoton radiation detection are proposed. With the development of biophoton detection technology, detection and characterization of human biophoton emission has led to its potential applications in TCM. The possibility of using the biophoton analysis system to study the interaction of Chinese medicinal herbs with human body and to quantitatively determine the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbal is entirely consistent with the holistic concept of TCM theory. The statistical entropy of electromagnetic radiations from the biological systems can characterize the four properties of Chinese medicinal herbs, and the spectrum can characterize the meridian tropism of it. Therefore, we hypothesize that by the use of biophoton analysis system, the four properties and meridian tropism of Chinese medicinal herbs can be quantitatively expressed.

  7. Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. herb depending on the development stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemical composition – using GC-MS method. The examined material contained 0.17–0.29 ml × 100g-1 of essential oil, depending on the stage of plant development when the harvest was done. 61 (generative phase and 65 (vegetative phase compounds were found in the examined coriander oil. The essential oil from the coriander herb contained the highest amount of aliphatic aldehydes, among which was decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenol had the highest percentages. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent harvest of the herb. In addition to the above-mentioned aliphatic aldehydes, the presence of linalool, phytol, and oleic acid was found in the essential oil extracted from the coriander herb.

  8. Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Grażyna; Zawiślak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality.

  9. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  10. The effect of drying on antioxidant activity of selected lamiaceae herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity and total phenolics content of selected fresh and dried herbs from the Lamiaceae family were compared. The analysed herbs included Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Satureja hortensis, Origanum majorana, and Origanum heracleoticum from the 1st and the 2nd harvests. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method and the total content of phenols was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Ascorbic and gallic acids were used as reference standards. All the analysed herbs had the reasonable potential to reduce the DPPH radical. The dried herbs from the 2nd harvest had the highest antioxidant activity. Oregano exhibited the highest antioxidant activity from the analyzed samples of both harvests together. The descending order of the samples was oregano ˃ Greek oregano ˃ marjoram ˃ summer savory ˃ thyme. Marjoram from the 2nd harvest had the highest antioxidant activity from the fresh samples. The lowest activity was observed in thyme from the 2nd harvest. In case of dried samples, the highest antioxidant activity was measured in sample of Greek oregano from the 2nd harwest. The lowest activity was observed in thyme from the 1st and 2nd harvest again. The descending order of total phenolics content for both harvests together was oregano ˃ Greek oregano ˃ marjoram ˃ summer savory ˃ thyme. In case of fresh herbs the highest total phenolics content was measured in oregano from the 1st harvest, the lowest content was measured in summer savory from the 2nd harvest. Greek oregano from the 2nd harvest had the highest values from dried herbs. Dried thyme from the second harvest had the lowest total phenolics content. The correlation between the DPPH values and the total content of phenols was determined (for fresh herbs: 0.4917; for dried herbs: 0.8698. According to the total content of phenols a statistically significant difference between the fresh and dried herbs from the 2nd harvest (p = 0.0185 was found.

  11. Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Kiran S

    2013-03-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies.

  12. Prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections by traditional Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Zejing

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on current knowledge of traditional Chinese herbs on prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections, especially caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (SARS) virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza viruses. The data used in this review were obtained from PubMed and CNKI up to May 2013. Terms of Chinese herbs and infections of respiratory tract were used in the search. Articles related that Chinese herbs preventing and treating infections in respiratory tract were retrieved and reviewed. The risk of bias of included studies was assessed by the method in the "Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reveiws of Interventionsand studies" with high risk of bias were excluded. Four criteria for selections were set as following: randomized controlled trial, particular effective compound or derivative, reproducible result and animal test. Infectious respiratory tract diseases cause most mortality among infectious illnesses around the world. As traditional medicines, Chinese herbs have been widely used to deal with diseases for centuries and have been proved effective in practice. The administration of some Chinese herbs stimulates, suppresses or regulates the activity of immune system, thus protecting the respiratory tract or relieving infections of pathogens. Many herbs have remarkable antiviral effects, therefore they are used as substitutes of antimicrobial drugs. Based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, mix-using herbs provide a synergistic benefit on preventing and healing respiratory tract infections. Many commercial herbal medicines containing one or more compounds have been successfully applied to prevent and treat viral infections of respiratory tract clinically. Traditional Chinese herbs could directly inhibit pathogens infecting respiratory tract, or coordinate the activity of immune system to avoid or relieve infections. With the emergence of antidrug pathogens or new variants, Chinese herbs give strong

  13. [Numerical analysis on network characteristics of communities in herb-pairs network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Xin, Juan-juan; Wang, Yun

    2015-06-01

    To interpret the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory by the network technology, in order to promote the modernization and programming of studies on compatibility of TCMs. In this paper, efforts were made to express the direct interactions between drugs through the herb-pair network, analyze the community characteristics of the network and its relations with blood-Qi theory, and study the expression of blood-Qi theory on the herb-pair network through prescriptions. According to the findings, the herb-pairs network showed a strong community structure characteristics; Each community is composed of a series of herb pairs with close correlations, and either blood efficacy or Qi efficacy but not both of them. Based on that, the 386 single TCM ingredients involved by the herb-pair network were divided into three types of communities: Blood (B) community, Qi (Q) community and uncertain community. According to the statistical results of 262 prescriptions mapped onto the three types of communities, if a prescription contains single herbs of the Q community, the probability that it contains single herbs o the B community is 99.84%; Meanwhile, there are 140 prescriptions containing single herbs of both the Q community and the B community. The result is completely coincident with the TCM Blood-Qi theory that single herbs belong to both Q and B communities or the B community, because Qi regulation leads to blood regulation, but not vice versa. For example, a patient with hemorrhage due to trauma or blood-heat, Qi tonifying prescriptions may aggravate hemorrhage. In this paper, authors found high-recognition macroscopic network numerical characteristics to network data reference for judging rationality of new prescriptions, and proved human blood and Qi relations from the perspective of data analysis.

  14. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing

  16. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Theresa Cacho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system

  17. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra- Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-hao Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6 rats/group were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg, and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination.

  18. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  19. Breast milk: immunosurveillance in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachita Nanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is unique and a natural source of nutrition. However, it also helps to protect against various types of disease, not only infective but also immunological diseases. The wide variety of molecules in milk is responsible for its varied role for the newborn infant. Various breast milk proteins, contribute for its immunological, nutritional as well as its antimicrobial role. The naive immune system, intestinal mucosa and other organs of the neonate are also developed by various cellular factors. Breast milk protects not only during the neonatal period but also beyond it. By educating the neonatal immune system it also protects against the development of diseases later in life.

  20. Energy Efficient Solar Milk Chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Bin Muzzamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Life stock is the major sector of agriculture which is of great importance for Pakistan. It has a major contribution towards the economy of Pakistan with a 55.9 participation in agriculture sector. Pakistan is fourth largest country in milk production with 50.9 Billion tons per annum out of which only 5 is processed and pasteurized hardly and remaining milk is handled by milk men under non-hygienic conditions which causes milk borne diseases. Milk is perishable food having shelf life of few hours therefore milk processing is done to deactivate the microorganisms in the milk and increase its shelf life for future use. It is an energy intensive process and mostly conventional form of energy is used for this purpose. Solar power is the sustainable source of energy and there is an average solar global radiation of 5.3kWhm2day persist in the country with more than 300 sunny days in a year. The objective of the study was to design and develop a solar assisted milk pasteurizer and to evaluate its performance. The developed solar assisted milk pasteurizer consisted of heating and cooling unit. Heating unit made of shell and tube type coil to heat up the milk up-to 730C for 15 seconds. Cooling unit has a chiller for sudden cool down the milk from 350C to 40C within 2 hours. Solar milk chiller had capacity of 200 liters chiller semicircular pug mill type SS-304 a 2kWp PV system having eight PV modules each of 250Wp a hybrid inverter 3kVA that convert 24V DC current into 220V AC current and two batteries 150Ah each as a backup source to meet weather fluctuations. One ton of vapor compression refrigeration system was filled with R410a refrigerant with inlet pressure of 118psi and the outlet pressure of 300psi was coupled with the chiller through coils at bottom side of the vessel. An agitator was installed with a lid on the tank to stir the milk continuously inside the chiller to make sure that homogeneous milk cooling to avoid freezing of the milk in the

  1. Barriers to organic milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes barriers to production of the organic milk. There was conducted a survey among conventional producers of cow’s milk. Based on the identified barriers to organic milk production and farmers’ opinions on them there were identified the most important barriers. The most important barrier to the production of organic milk in Vysočina region is considered to be the lack of price premiums for organic milk produced. The price premium is currently around 0.40 CZK per litre of organic milk. Farmers require a minimum price premium 1 CZK per litre, respectively 30 % increase of the price of milk. The higher price premium may serve as a motivation, which could eliminate the second major barrier - satisfaction with the current production. Problematic contact with suppliers has been identified as the third most important barrier by surveyed firms. Buyers do not respect the agreed purchase price (premium price. Partial barrier to organic milk production, according to surveyed farmers is the lack of the necessary amount of concentrated feed in the quality of organic milk.

  2. Milk metabolites and neurodegeneration: Is there crosstalk?

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Keshav; Anand, Akshay

    2015-01-01

    Milk has been considered as a natural source of nutrition for decades. Milk is known to be nutrient-rich which aids the growth and development of the human body. Milk contains both macro- and micronutrients. Breast milk is widely regarded as the optimal source of neonatal nutrition due to its composition of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and antibodies. However, despite the wide use of milk products, investigations into the role of milk in degenerative diseases have been limited. This revi...

  3. Milk, milk products, and disease free health: an updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, R; Behare, P V; Kumar, M; Mohania, D; Yadav, M; Jain, S; Menon, S; Parkash, O; Marotta, F; Minelli, E; Henry, C J K; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    The cow and its milk have been held sacred in the world since the dawn of human civilization. Indian ancient Vedic texts describe the virtues of milk and dairy products, as is authenticated by modern scientific principles and proofs. Therefore, milk has been considered as one of the most natural and highly nutritive part of a daily balanced diet. Currently, the integration of advanced scientific knowledge with traditional information is gaining incredible momentum toward developing the concept of potential therapeutic foods. Furthermore, new advances toward understanding the therapeutic roles of milk and milk products have also given a new impetus for unraveling the age old secrets of milk. At present, the best-known examples of therapeutic foods are fermented milk products containing health promoting probiotic bacteria. In the present article, we have tried to review the various aspects of the therapeutic nature of milk and fermented dairy products in a highly up-dated manner, and offer an in-depth insight into the development of targeted therapeutic future foods as per the requirements of consumers.

  4. Association of Genetic Variants of Milk Proteins with Milk Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Lodes, A., Krause, I., Buchberger, J., Aumann, J. & Klostermeyer, H., 1997. The influence of genetic variants of milk proteins on the compositional and technological properties of milk. 3. Content of protein, casein, whey protein and casein number. Milchwissenschaft 52, 3-8. The South African Journal of Animal Science is ...

  5. Concentrate composition for automatic milking systems - effect on milking frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of affecting milking frequency in an Automatic Milking System (AMS) by changing ingredient composition of the concentrate fed in the AMS. In six experiments, six experimental concentrates were tested against a Standard concentrate all...

  6. The Milk and Milk Products Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the milk and milk products value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to

  7. Modulation of Cytochrome P450, P-glycoprotein and Pregnane X Receptor by Selected Antimalarial Herbs-Implication for Herb-Drug Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasinu, Pius S; Manda, Vamshi K; Dale, Olivia R; Egiebor, Nosa O; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2017-11-23

    Seven medicinal plants popularly used for treating malaria in West Africa were selected to assess herb-drug interaction potential through a series of in vitro methods. Fluorescent cytochrome P450 (CYP) assays were conducted using the recombinant CYP enzymes for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to assess the effect of the methanolic extracts on the metabolic activity of CYPs. Secondly, the inhibitory effect of the extracts was evaluated on P-glycoproteins (P-gp) using calcein-AM, a fluorescent substrate, in MDCK-II and hMDR1-MDCK-II cells. The inhibition of P-gp activity was determined as a reflection of increase in calcein-AM uptake. Additionally, the enzyme induction potential of the extracts was assessed through the modulation of PXR activity in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with pSG5-PXR and PCR5 plasmid DNA. Significant inhibition of CYP activity (IC50 herbs: A. muricata [CYP2C9, 3A4 and CYP2D6]; M. indica [CYP2C9]; M. charantia [CYP2C9 and CYP2C19]; P. amarus [CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4]; T. diversifolia [CYP2C19 and CYP3A4]. Extracts of four herbs (P. amarus, M. charantia, T. diversifolia and A. muricata) exhibited significant inhibition of P-gp with IC50 values (µg/mL) of 17 ± 1, 16 ± 0.4, 26 ± 1, and 24 ± 1, respectively. In addition, four herbs (A. mexicana, M. charantia, P. amarus and T. diversifolia) showed a >two-fold increase in induction in PXR activity. These findings suggest that these herbs may be capable of eliciting herb-drug interactions if consumed in high quantities with concomitant use of conventional therapies.

  8. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malm Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been undertaken so as to develop more effective therapeutic approaches towards eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504. Among these are thyme herbs, chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves and coneflower herbs. Herein, it was found that the MIC values of the assayed extracts were as follows: the extracts from coneflower herbs showed anti-H. pylori activity with MIC = 31.3-125 μg/ml; the extracts from chamomile flowers demonstrated MIC = 31.3-62.5 μg/ ml; the extracts from peppermint leaves had MIC = 15.6-250 μg/ml; and the extracts from thyme herbs revealed MIC = 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, depending on the solvent used. The most active were the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate or ethanol alcohol absolute 99.8%. These showing MIC within the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, while the lowest activity was observed in case of the extract obtained with 70% aqueous ethanol. This last showing MIC within the range of 62.5-250 μg/ml. The MIC values of essential oil components were 15.6 μg/ml for bisabolol and menthol or 31.3 μg/ml for thymol. The obtained data indicate that the assayed herbs possessed promising anti-H. pylori bioactivity.

  9. Cleistogamy as a Bet-Hedging Strategy in Oxalis acetosella, a Perennial Herb

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henrik Berg; Peter Redbo-Torstensson

    1998-01-01

    1 Phenology and reproduction were studied in three populations of the cleistogamous herb Oxalis acetosella during three growing seasons, in order to see how the balance between chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL...

  10. Screening for hemostatic activities of popular Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Ohkura

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion Some popular Chinese medicinal herbs have potential as hemostatic agents and could thus be developed as new strategies for the treatment and prevention of bleeding. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 19-23

  11. Correlation between the different therapeutic properties of Chinese medicinal herbs and delayed luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jingxiang; Fu, Jialei; Yang, Meina; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Fan, Hua; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-03-01

    In the practice and principle of Chinese medicine, herbal materials are classified according to their therapeutic properties. 'Cold' and 'heat' are the most important classes of Chinese medicinal herbs according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this work, delayed luminescence (DL) was measured for different samples of Chinese medicinal herbs using a sensitive photon multiplier detection system. A comparison of DL parameters, including mean intensity and statistic entropy, was undertaken to discriminate between the 'cold' and 'heat' properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. The results suggest that there are significant differences in mean intensity and statistic entropy and using this method combined with statistical analysis may provide novel parameters for the characterization of Chinese medicinal herbs in relation to their energetic properties. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. In silico method for studying property combination of traditional Chinese herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Hu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In silico methods can then be used to create new prescriptions or modify existing ones depending on need. This type of automated approach may increase efficiency in designing new drugs based on Chinese herbs.

  13. Effect of essential oils prepared from Thai culinary herbs on sessile Candida albicans cultures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hovijitra, Ray S; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2016-01-01

    ... elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized...

  14. Evaluation of "Dream Herb," Calea zacatechichi, for Nephrotoxicity Using Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miriam E. Mossoba; Thomas J. Flynn; Sanah Vohra; Paddy Wiesenfeld; Robert L. Sprando

    2016-01-01

    .... "Dream herb," Calea zacatechichi, has long been used in traditional folk medicine for a variety of purposes and is currently being marketed in the US for medicinal purposes, including diabetes treatment...

  15. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.

  16. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yanli; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Nie, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL). A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views. PMID:27478482

  17. Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research.

  18. Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chuan; Chan, Thomas Y K; Deng, Jou-Fang

    2004-05-01

    We define the potential sources, clinical manifestations, and treatment of aconitine poisoning. The database of the National Poison Center in Taiwan was retrospectively searched for the diagnosis of aconitine poisoning for 1990 to 1999. The reasons for taking the aconite roots, the clinical features, management, and possible predisposing factors were noted. A total of 17 cases occurred and consisted of 9 men and 8 women aged 30 to 70 years. Thirteen patients ingested aconite roots as treatment for rheumatism and wounds. Two patients volunteered to test the effects of aconite roots in a drug study. Two patients accidentally ingested the aconite roots. After a latent period of 10 to 90 minutes, patients developed a combination of neurologic (n=17), cardiovascular (n=14), gastrointestinal (n=9), and other (n=5) features typical of aconitine poisoning. Four patients developed ventricular tachycardia. All patients received supportive treatment. Patients with ventricular tachycardia were also treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. All patients made a complete recovery. Life-threatening ventricular tachycardia can occur after the consumption of aconite roots. The risk is higher with inadequately processed aconite roots, large doses, or tincture preparations. With increasing popularity of herbal medicines, herb-induced aconitine poisoning may also be seen in Western countries.

  19. Modern European monographs for quality control of Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rudolf; Franz, Gerhard

    2010-12-01

    The actual concern about the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on observations that these medicinal plants may have a high risk potential due to insufficient definitions, problems with identity, purity and falsifications. No uniform legal status for these groups of herbal drugs currently exists in the European Union. For quality control, monographs for TCM herbs can mainly be found in the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China. Based on these facts the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia decided in 2005 to establish TCM-herbal drug monographs for the most important medicinal plants imported from Far East. These new monographs had to be established and evaluated on the basis of existing monographs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP), English edition 2005. Due to important differences in the overall features of EP and ChP, a simple adapt/adopt procedure was not feasible. Therefore, specialist groups were mandated with a corresponding working programme. Some results and actual problems related to this working programme will be presented and discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Herbs as an antioxidant arsenal for periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have long been used as a traditional mode of therapy for various ailments in India. They are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to ward off common diseases. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the world population. Gingivitis is the mild form whereas periodontitis results in an irreversible loss of supporting structures of the teeth. Even though periodontal pathogens form a crucial component in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the disease initiation and progression. Studies have shown a direct correlation between increased levels of biomarkers for tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS to the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the focus of attention has revolved back to herbal medicines due to their wide spectrum of biological and medicinal activities, lower costs, and higher safety margin. Internet databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched, and the most relevant articles were considered for review. This review briefly describes the various herbs with antioxidant capacity and their potency in the treating periodontal disease. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 92-96

  1. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Corrine Hanson; Elizabeth Lyden; Jeremy Furtado; Matthew Van Ormer; Ann Anderson-Berry

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12...

  2. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  3. Heat recovery with milk cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindt, P.

    1980-01-01

    Considerable enregy costs in the milk industry come from hot water preparation. Simultaneously, surplus heat results from the milk cooling process. Heat recovery systems are described, and cost benefits will be compared with investment costs. Such systems work economically for operations with more than 25 cows; the amortization period here is between four and five years.

  4. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  5. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  6. Milk allergy prevention and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides a new strategy for achieving desensitisation or induction of tolerance to milk protein allergens, e.g. BLG, in humans or animals, comprising formulating and using a composition comprising a purified intact expressed milk protein together with one or more purified peptides f...

  7. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    His academic work focuses principally on allergy diagnosis, food allergy, skin allergy, drug allergy and asthma. Correspondence to: Cassim Motala ... related to lower levels of CMP in breast milk compared with cow's milk, immunomodulators in .... following organ systems: gastrointestinal. (50 - 60%), skin (50 - 50%) and ...

  8. Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Chinese herbs in prevention of nosocomial infection in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident

    OpenAIRE

    Fiser, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nosocomial infection is a current medical issue, particularly in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident. The present study purpose is toevaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture, Chinese herbs and moxibustion in prophylaxis of nosocomial infections in patients with acute cerebrovasculardisease. Material and methods: The study was carried out on a group of 100 patients. Valuing the efficiency of acupuncture, moxibustion and Chinese herbs inthe prevention of nosocomial inf...

  9. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.......Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy....

  10. Macro- and Trace metals in three Medicinal Herbs Collected from Baghdad, Iraq Market.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Latif Mohammed Raouf; Kafa Khalaf Hammud; Saad Kareem Zamil

    2014-01-01

    Several metals (Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Co) were determined in three medicinal herbs (Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Chamomile or camomile (Matricaria chamomilla)) by applying Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The obtained results showed that Calcium content in tested herb was ranged (1-3.675) ppm. Magnesium maximum content (4247.5) ppm presented in rosemary was higher and with this content kidney stone may be formed easily with...

  11. Decreased Levels of Fenol in the Case of Traditional Herb Industry Using Anaerobic Activated Sludge Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyani, Sukma Budi

    2011-01-01

    Fenol is a hazardous substance that can pollute the environment. Traditional herb Industry is one of industries produces liquid waste with high pollution level, the fenol content more than 9 mg/L. Biological treatment with anaerobic activated sludge method is one effective way of processing waste.This research was aimed to study the effect of MLSS variable and fenol load, the efficiency of fenol decrease in anaerobic waste processing system. The experiment is conducted by synthetic herbs wa...

  12. Decreased Levels of Fenol in the Case of Traditional Herb Industry using Anaerobic Activated Sludge Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sukma Budi Ariyani

    2011-01-01

    Fenol is a hazardous substance that can pollute the environment. Traditional herb Industry is one of industries produces liquid waste with high pollution level, the fenol content more than 9 mg/L.  Biological treatment  with anaerobic activated sludge method is one effective way of processing waste.This research was aimed to study the effect of MLSS variable and fenol load, the efficiency of fenol decrease in anaerobic waste processing system. The experiment is conducted by synthetic herbs wa...

  13. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A F; Gandolfi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.

  14. Tolkien’s sonic trees and perfumed herbs: plant intelligence in Middle-earth

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, John Charles

    2015-01-01

    Plant life is an integral part of J.R.R. Tolkien’s fictional writings. Percipient trees, exemplified by Old Man Willow, possess the capacity to vocalise and approximate human speech, whereas herbaceous plants tend to be silent and aromatic. While Tolkien attributes qualities of consciousness and memory to sonic trees, he denies similar intelligent qualities to herbs, such as athelas or kingsfoil. This paper will compare the representation of the sonic trees and perfumed herbs of Middle-earth ...

  15. Evaluation of ?Dream Herb,? Calea zacatechichi, for Nephrotoxicity Using Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mossoba, Miriam E.; Flynn, Thomas J.; Vohra, Sanah; Wiesenfeld, Paddy; Sprando, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    A recent surge in the use of dietary supplements, including herbal remedies, necessitates investigations into their safety profiles. “Dream herb,” Calea zacatechichi, has long been used in traditional folk medicine for a variety of purposes and is currently being marketed in the US for medicinal purposes, including diabetes treatment. Despite the inherent vulnerability of the renal system to xenobiotic toxicity, there is a lack of safety studies on the nephrotoxic potential of this herb. Addi...

  16. Implementation of a human milk management center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Diane L; Schmidt, Katherine J; Kinzler, Sue

    2014-08-01

    Current hospital practices surrounding the use of human milk and fortification are suboptimal. Safety of milk preparation should be a priority, as should optimization of the milk to meet the nutritional needs of hospitalized infants. This article describes the implementation of a human milk management center (HMMC) at a children's hospital. This centralized center allows for milk to be safely prepared under aseptic technique. In addition, the HMMC staff can analyze milk composition. The widely variable nutrient composition of human milk has been well established and, therefore, should be considered when fortifying human milk. The HMMC staff have the ability to perform creamatocrits on milk, conduct human milk nutrient analysis, and make skim milk for infants. The processes for developing an HMMC are also detailed in this article.

  17. Threat Coming with Milk: Aflatoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efsun Deligöz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though dairy products play an important role in infant and human nutrition, they may also cause food borne diseases. Milk toxin AFM1 is one of the most important public health hazards. This toxin is produced by animals after consuming contaminated feed with AFB1 which is known for its carsinogenic effects and then excreted in milk. Same as AFB1, AFM1 is also carsinogenic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and immunsupressive for humans and cannot be destroyed by sterilization or pasteurization. For that reason, studies on cost effective and rapid methods for detection and detoxification of AFM1 in milk are quite popular among researchers. In this review, the worldwide prevalence of AFM1 in milk and milk products has been presented as well as the developments in techniques to detect and detoxify.

  18. Vitamin Fortification of Fluid Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Eileen B; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin concentrates with vitamins A and D are used for fortification of fluid milk. Although many of the degradation components of vitamins A and D have an important role in flavor/fragrance applications, they may also be source(s) of off-flavor(s) in vitamin fortified milk due to their heat, oxygen, and the light sensitivity. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how vitamin concentrates can impact flavor and flavor stability of fluid milk. Currently, little research on vitamin degradation products can be found with respect to flavor contributions. In this review, the history, regulations, processing, and storage stability of vitamins in fluid milk are addressed along with some hypotheses for the role of vitamin A and D fortification on flavor and stability of fluid milk. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120 days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the β-carotene - linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. An overview of important ethnomedicinal herbs of Phyllanthus species: present status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Bharti; Verma, Nidhi; Martín, Juan Pedro; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius.

  1. Stabilizing the bactericidal activity of hydrogen peroxide: a brand new function of certain Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-zhen; Tan, Ling-ling; Li, Qi-jie; Zhou, Bang-jing; Gao, Yong-xiang; Ding, Wei-jun

    2014-06-01

    To explore natural herbs to maintain the bactericidal activity of hydrogen peroxide (H). Eighteen extracts of Chinese herbs were prepared complying with the standard protocol. Each of the solutions was then mixed with 1% H2O2. The mixtures were handled with two approaches: autoclaved daily for one, two or three times; stored at room temperature from one through five years. Then the bactericidal activity were evaluated by assaying the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, ATCC25923) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, ATCC12421) bacteria. While mixed with 1% H2O2, 10 out of 18 kinds of assessed Chinese herbs displayed MBC values at 1:12800 or higher after three times of autoclaving, and 8 of them preserved such level of MBC value after stored at room temperature for three years. Some Chinese herbs, i.e. R. Scutellariae, R. Coptidis, R. Bupleuri, H. Epimedii, C. Phelledendri and F. Chrysanthemi, can significantly maintain the bactericidal activity of diluted H2O2. Certain Chinese herbs can effectively stabilize the bactericidal activity of H2O2 undergoing autoclave or long-term storage. This paper reported a brandnew pharmaceutical function of Chinese herbs and provided experimental data for the potential enhancement of H2O2 usage while its stability level is promoted.

  2. Inhibitory effects of Chinese nutritional herbs in isogenic breast carcinoma cells with modulated estrogen receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Nitin; Li, Guo; Katdare, Meena; Sepkovic, Daniel; Bradlow, Leon; Wong, George

    2016-11-01

    In estrogen receptor (ER)+ MCF-7 cells, ER represents a ligand-activated transcription factor, and 17β-estradiol (E2) represents its physiological ligand. Maintenance of the human breast carcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells with 0.7% serum selected a proliferative sub-population of E2-responsive cells with transiently non-functional ER due to limited availability of E2. Culture of MCF-7 cells in the presence of either 0.7% serum, herbs on ER-NF and ER-F cells identified the inhibitory concentration (IC)50 values for these herbs, while the IC50 ratios for the ER-NF:ER-F phenotypes facilitated their rank ordering in terms of efficacy. Out of the 11 efficacious herbs tested, five herbs exhibited ER-F > ER-NF inhibitory activity, four exhibited ER-F = ER-NF inhibitory activity and two exhibited ER-NF > ER-F inhibitory activity. Extracts from representative herbs, Lycium barbarum bark, Epimedium grandiflorum and Cornus officinalis, from each of the three groups inhibited anchorage-independent growth, induced G1 or G2/M arrest and/or apoptosis, and generated anti-proliferative E2 metabolites. The differential growth inhibition in ER-NF and ER-F phenotypes, together with the mechanistic efficacy of representative herbs, identified potential leads for their efficacy on ER+ and/or ER- breast cancer.

  3. Molecular targets of Chinese herbs: a clinical study of hepatoma based on network pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Yang-Yang; Duan, Dan-Dan; Yang, Xue; Hao, Jian; Zhu, Cui-Hong; Chen, Dan; Wang, Ke-Xin; Qin, Xue-Mei; Wu, Xiong-Zhi

    2016-05-04

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat tumors for years and has been demonstrated to be effective. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of herbs remain unclear. This study aims to ascertain molecular targets of herbs prolonging survival time of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on network pharmacology, and to establish a research method for accurate treatment of TCM. The survival benefit of TCM treatment with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) was proved by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis among 288 patients. The correlation between herbs and survival time was performed by bivariate correlation analysis. Network pharmacology method was utilized to construct the active ingredient-target networks of herbs that were responsible for the beneficial effects against HCC. Cox regression analysis showed CHM was an independent favorable prognostic factor. The median survival time was 13 months and the 5-year overall survival rates were 2.61% in the TCM group, while there were 6 months, 0 in the non-TCM group. Correlation analysis demonstrated that 8 herbs closely associated with prognosis. Network pharmacology analysis revealed that the 8 herbs regulated multiple HCC relative genes, among which the genes affected proliferation (KRAS, AKT2, MAPK), metastasis (SRC, MMP), angiogenesis (PTGS2) and apoptosis (CASP3) etc.

  4. [Case of law-evading herbs poisoning that induced shock and myocardial damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Minoru; Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Miyazaki, Dai; Okamori, Satoshi; Akuzawa, Hisashi; Yuasa, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Law-evading herbs may induce poisoning symptoms, especially when they contain synthetic cannabinoids. However, their detailed pharmacological effects have not yet been clarified. Some reports have previously described symptoms of poisoning, but only a few reports have so far described shock and myocardial damage (MD). We experienced a case of shock and MD in a patient who had smoked law-evading herbs. A 61-year-old male presented at an emergency department 8 hours after smoking law-evading herbs (Rush Trip, High Men Monster) with chest pain. A vasopressor agent was administered to treat shock and antiarrhythmic drugs were administered due to ventricular arrhythmia. The contents of the law-evading herbs were unknown, so an in-hospital follow-up was conducted to treat the patient's symptoms. The follow-up blood test showed an increased level of cardiac enzymes, which thereafter demonstrated a spontaneous remission. The systemic conditions tended to improve and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the 5th hospital day. The contents of the law-evading herbs in question were thereafter,analyzed, and synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-210, JWH-081 and JWH-122) as well as caffeine were detected. The cause for the poisoning symptoms were suspected to be the presence of synthetic cannabinoids and caffeine. Such law-evading herbs may contain synthetic cannabinoids and caffeine which both may induce shock and MD.

  5. An Overview of Important Ethnomedicinal Herbs of Phyllanthus Species: Present Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Sarin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius.

  6. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaka Ezuruike

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. 50% of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified herb-drug interactions. The pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for their disease management was obtained through a literature analysis. These were then compared against those of their prescription drugs. Several scenarios of potential herb-drug interactions were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points towards cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential herb-drug interactions. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines.

  7. Post-fire uptake of nutrients by diverse ephemeral herbs in chamise chaparral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundel, P W; Parsons, D J

    1984-02-01

    Diverse populations of ephemeral herbs form the dominant element of community biomass in the first year of growth following a fall burn in chamise chaparral. Ephemeral herbs constituted 337 kg ha-1 of above-ground biomass after the first season of post-fire growth. This was 64% of the total, with the majority of the remaining biomass being in resprouts of Adenostoma fasciculatum. Ephemeral herb biomass following fire in other stands was as high as 1117 kg ha-1. Nutrient contents of ephemeral herbs were 6.68 kg N ha-1, 0.71 kg P ha-1, 10.05 kg K ha-1, 4.75 kg Ca ha-1 and 0.91 kg Mg ha-1. These were 55, 54, 81, 71 and 70% respectively of the above-ground totals. In the second year following fire, the total herb biomass was 40% higher, but the nutrient pool in above-ground biomass of these herbs was only 30-60% of what it had been the first year. Resprouts of A. fasciculatum and short-lived wood shrubs constituted more than 90% of above-ground biomass at this stage of postfire succession.

  8. Reclamation of Chinese herb residues using probiotics and evaluation of their beneficial effect on pathogen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Wang, Xin; Chen, Tingtao; Wang, Xiaolei; Tang, Xianyao; Zhang, Rongji; Shen, Liang

    Environmental pollution caused by herb residues and the huge waste of medicinal ingredients contained in herb residues hinder the development of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises. To solve this problem, several probiotics were tested, and Lactobacillus plantarum (HM218749) was finally selected for the reuse of herb residues of Jianweixiaoshi tablets. A mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection was developed to evaluate the anti-H. pylori infection activity of the herb residue fermentation supernatant using a urease activity test, histological imaging, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results demonstrated that the herb residue fermentation supernatant successfully inhibited urease activity, slowed cell infiltration in the gastric area and significantly reduced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and TNF-α in the treatment group (pherb residue fermentation supernatant was beneficial for the recovery of the disturbed microbiota in the infected model to the normal condition, in which L. gasseri (GU417842.1) and L. johnsonii (HQ828141.1) were dominant in all groups. Therefore, the probiotics exhibited strong potential for the development of herb residues in this study, and the products showed strong potential in curing H. pylori infections. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A Systematic Review of Single Chinese Herbs for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Fu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore herbal medicine. In particular, many Chinese herbs have demonstrated some interesting therapeutic properties. The following databases were searched from their inception: MEDLINE (PUBMED, ALT HEALTH WATCH (EBSCO, CINAH and Cochrane Central. Only single Chinese herbs are included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and performed quality assessment. The quality assessment of a clinical trial is based on the Jadad criteria. Seven Chinese herbs and six randomized controlled clinical trials were identified under the predefined criteria. Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A (Lycopodium serratum and Ginseng have been assessed for their clinical efficacy with limited favorable evidence. No serious adverse events were reported. Chinese herbs show promise in the treatment of AD in terms of their cognitive benefits and more importantly, their mechanisms of action that deal with the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease. However, the current evidence in support of their use is inconclusive or inadequate. Future research should place emphasis on herbs that can treat the root of the disease.

  10. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K. E-mail: skjo@kaeri.re.kr

    2004-10-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with {gamma}-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  11. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  12. Effects of once versus twice daily milking throughout lactation on milk yield and milk composition in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, A A K; Such, X; Caja, G; Rovai, M; Casals, R; Albanell, E; Marín, M P; Martí, A

    2003-05-01

    The effects of once (1X) vs. twice (2X) daily milking throughout lactation on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC), and udder health were studied in 32 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats. Goats were assigned at wk 2 of lactation to two treatment groups; once daily milking at 0900 (1X, n = 17), or twice daily milking at 0900 and 1700 (2X, n = 15). Milk yield was recorded weekly until wk 28, and milk composition and SCC were evaluated for each individual udder half at each milking at wk 2 and 4 of lactation and then, monthly until the end of the experiment. Once daily milking resulted in an 18% reduction in the yield of 4% fat-corrected milk compared to twice daily milking (1.61 vs. 1.95 L/d, respectively). This reduction was more marked from wk 2 to 12 than in mid and late lactation. Response to milking frequency also varied according to parity number where goats of less than four parities suffered more milk yield losses during 1X than older goats. Milk of 1X goats contained higher percentages of total solids (13.6 vs. 12.9%), fat (5.10 vs. 4.62%) and casein (2.57 vs. 2.35%) than milk of 2X goats, but milk protein percentage did not differ between treatments (3.28 vs. 3.20%). Yields of total solids, fat, protein and casein tended to be higher for 2X than 1X. Milk SCC did not differ between treatments. We conclude that application of once daily milking in Murciano-Granadina dairy goats moderately reduced milk yield without negative effects on milk composition and udder health. Losses in milk yield would be reduced if 1X is practiced during mid- or late lactation and in older goats. An increase in labor productivity and a higher farmer's standard of living is also expected.

  13. Could the gut microbiota reconcile the oral bioavailability conundrum of traditional herbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Wen, Qi; Jiang, Jun; Li, Hai-Long; Tan, Yin-Feng; Li, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Nian-Kai

    2016-02-17

    A wealth of information is emerging about the impact of gut microbiota on human health and diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes. As we learn more, we find out the gut microbiota has the potential as new territory for drug targeting. Some novel therapeutic approaches could be developed through reshaping the commensal microbial structure using combinations of different agents. The gut microbiota also affects drug metabolism, directly and indirectly, particularly towards the orally administered drugs. Herbal products have become the basis of traditional medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine and also been being considered valuable materials in modern drug discovery. Of note, low oral bioavailability but high bioactivity is a conundrum not yet solved for some herbs. Since most of herbal products are orally administered, the herbs' constituents are inevitably exposed to the intestinal microbiota and the interplays between herbal constituents and gut microbiota are expected. Emerging explorations of herb-microbiota interactions have an opportunity to revolutionize the way we view herbal therapeutics. The present review aims to provide information regarding the health promotion and/or disease prevention by the interplay between traditional herbs with low bioavailability and gut microbiota through gut microbiota via two different types of mechanisms: (1) influencing the composition of gut microbiota by herbs and (2) metabolic reactions of herbal constituents by gut microbiota. The major data bases (PubMed and Web of Science) were searched using "gut microbiota", "intestinal microbiota", "gut flora", "intestinal flora", "gut microflora", "intestinal microflora", "herb", "Chinese medicine", "traditional medicine", or "herbal medicine" as keywords to find out studies regarding herb-microbiota interactions. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition, Volume I) was also used to collect the data of commonly used medicinal herbs and their quality

  14. Replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of traditional chinese medicine formulae based on attribute similarities and pathway enrichment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Qian, Min; Shi, Tieliu

    2013-01-01

    A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is a collection of several herbs. TCM formulae have been used to treat various diseases for several thousand years. However, wide usage of TCM formulae has results in rapid decline of some rare herbs. So it is urgent to find common available replacements for those rare herbs with the similar effects. In addition, a formula can be simplified by reducing herbs with unchanged effects. Based on this consideration, we propose a method, called "formula pair," to replace the rare herbs and simplify TCM formulae. We show its reasonableness from a perspective of pathway enrichment analysis. Both the replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of formulae provide new approaches for a new formula discovery. We demonstrate our approach by replacing a rare herb "Forsythia suspensa" in the formula "the seventh of Sang Ju Yin plus/minus herbs (SSJY)" with a common herb "Thunberg Fritillary Bulb" and simplifying two formulae, "the fifth of Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang plus/minus herbs (FDHJST)" and "Fang Feng Tang" (FFT) to a new formula "Fang Feng Du Huo Tang" (FFDHT).

  15. Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage) modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattem, D A; Lester, Ce; Deleon, Rc; Jamison, By; Maitin, V

    2013-01-01

    Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage) modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Animals were fed (ad libitum) on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v)] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW) induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation.

  16. Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage) modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbricus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattem, DA; Lester, CE; DeLeon, RC; Jamison, BY; Maitin, V

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. Objective: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage) modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed (ad libitum) on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v)] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW) induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Results: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation. PMID:23598918

  17. Milk Oligosaccharide Variation in Sow Milk and Milk Oligosaccharide Fermentation in Piglet Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk Arie; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) were analyzed in six colostrum and two mature milk samples from Dutch Landrace sows. In total, 35 PMOs were recognized of which 13 were new for the PMO literature: Neutral HexNAc-Hex, β4′-galactosyllactose, putative GalNAc(α/β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc,

  18. Milk Oligosaccharide Variation in Sow Milk and Milk Oligosaccharide Fermentation in Piglet Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk Arie; Gruppen, Harry

    Porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) were analyzed in six colostrum and two mature milk samples from Dutch Landrace sows. In total, 35 PMOs were recognized of which 13 were new for the PMO literature: neutral HexNAc-Hex, β4'-galactosyllactose, putative GalNAc(α/β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc,

  19. Amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ragona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1. In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis- causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/ allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Amiata Donkey Milk Chain: Animal Health Evaluation and Milk Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragona, Giuseppe; Corrias, Franco; Benedetti, Martina; Paladini, Maria; Salari, Federica; Altomonte, Lolanda; Martini, Mina

    2016-06-03

    This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1). In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis-causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow's milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  1. The Application Concentration Addition of Skim Milk to Soy Milk Kefir

    OpenAIRE

    Mandang, Filan O; Dien, Henny; Yelnetty, Afriza

    2016-01-01

    Soy milk is a product processed soybean extract that resembles cow's milk. High protein content makes soy milk as highly nutritious vegetable milk. But the beany flavor of the resulting lead soy milk consumption levels are relatively low. One way of improving the quality of soy milk with a probiotic drink that process into soy milk kefir. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of the concentration of skim milk to soy milk kefir quality, namely in terms of the physical and chemical ...

  2. Within day variation in fatty acid composition of milk from cows in an automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Kristensen, Camilla Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    Milk fatty acid composition is influenced by a range of conditions such as breed, feeding, and stage of lactation. Knowledge of milk fatty acid composition of individual cows would make it possible to sort milk at farm level according to certain fatty acid specifications. In the present study, 225...... milk samples were taken from 84 cows in a herd equipped with an automatic milking system. Milk fat content varied depending on yield and time since last milking, whereas the milk fatty acid composition did not vary significantly within cow. It was concluded that random milk samples may be used...... for analysis of fatty acid composition....

  3. Peer-to-peer milk donors' and recipients' experiences and perceptions of donor milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2013-07-01

    To explore the intersection of peer-to-peer milk sharing and donor milk banks. A descriptive survey design containing closed and open-ended questions was used to examine women's perceptions of peer-to-peer milk sharing and milk banking. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. Participants were recruited via the Facebook sites of two online milk-sharing networks (Human Milk 4 Human Babies and Eats on Feet). Ninety-eight milk donors and 41 milk recipients who had donated or received breast milk in an arrangement that was facilitated via the Internet. One half of donor recipients could not donate to a milk bank because there were no banks local to them or they did not qualify as donors. Other respondents did not donate to a milk bank because they viewed the process as difficult, had philosophical objections to milk banking, or had a philosophical attraction to peer sharing. Most donor respondents felt it was important to know the circumstances of their milk recipients. No recipient respondents had obtained milk from a milk bank; it was recognized that they would not qualify for banked milk or that banked milk was cost prohibitive. Peer-to-peer milk donors and recipients may differ from milk bank donors and recipients in significant ways. Cooperation between milk banks and peer sharing networks could benefit both groups. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  4. Inhibition of the interactions between eosinophil cationic protein and airway epithelial cells by traditional Chinese herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is cytotoxic to bacteria, viruses, parasites and mammalian cells. Cells are damaged via processes of pore formation, permeability alteration and membrane leaking. Some clinical studies indicate that ECP gathers in the bronchial tract of asthma sufferers, damages bronchial and airway epithelial cells, and leads to in breathing tract inflammation; therefore, prevention of the cytotoxicity caused by ECP may serve as an approach to treat airway inflammation. To achieve the purpose, reduction of the ECP-cell interactions is rational. In this work, the Chinese herbal combinative network was generated to predict and identify the functional herbs from the pools of prescriptions. It was useful to select the node herbs and to demonstrate the relative binding ability between ECP and Beas-2B cells with or withour herb treatments. Results Eighty three Chinese herbs and prescriptions were tested and five effective herbs and six prescription candidates were selected. On the basis of effective single-herbal drugs and prescriptions, a combinative network was generated. We found that a single herb, Gan-cao, served as a node connecting five prescriptions. In addition, Sheng-di-huang, Dang-guei and Mu-tong also appeared in five, four and three kinds of prescriptions, respectively. The extracts of these three herbs indeed effectively inhibited the interactions between ECP and Beas-2B cells. According to the Chinese herbal combinative network, eight of the effective herbal extracts showed inhibitory effects for ECP internalizing into Beas-2B cells. The major components of Gang-cao and Sheng-di-huang, glycyrrhizic acid and verbascose, respectively, reduced the binding affinity between ECP and cells effectively. Conclusions Since these Chinese herbs reduced the binding affinity between ECP and cells and inhibited subsequent ECP entrance into cells, they were potential for mitigating the airway inflammation symptoms. Additionally, we

  5. Herb-Drug Interactions in Neurological Disorders: A Critical Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Vinu; Maulik, Subir Kumar

    2017-10-31

    Herbal drugs are being used worldwide in a variety of disorders with the misguided belief that they are absolutely safe compared to drugs of modern medicine. This trend is also evident in debilitating neurological and psychiatric disorders such as cerebrovascular accident, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. However, unlike drugs of modern medicine, herbal drugs are complex products containing multiple pharmacologically active constituents. The nature and relative amounts of these constituents vary due to diverse factors such as but not limited to source of the plant(s), local environmental conditions, parts of the plant used, storage, method of extract preparation, accidental contamination or intentional adulteration. Further, they are handled by the human body like modern drugs and subjected to the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. In each of these processes, they can potentially interact with modern drugs due to sharing of similar transport proteins, metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes and uptake / efflux pumps. Moreover, herbal drugs can also inhibit or induce CYP450 enzymes or inactivate transporters leading to Herb-Drug interactions (HDIs). Though reported scarcely, many pharmacodynamic HDIs are also being unraveled. In this review, we have analyzed the clinically reported as well as potential HDIs between 10 common herbal drugs and modern medicines used in neurological and psychiatric disorders with their proven or postulated underlying mechanism(s). Physicians and patients should exercise caution when using herbal drugs and modern medicines concomitantly so that the recognized serious HDIs can be avoided. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Comparative life history and physiology of two understory Neotropical herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Stephen S; Smith, Alan P; Wright, S Joseph

    1991-10-01

    Demography and physiology of two broad-leaved understory tropical herbs (Marantaceae) were studied in gaps and shaded understory in large-scale irrigated and control treatments during the dry season at Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Because photosynthetic acclimation potential may not predict light environments where tropical species are found, we studied a suite of physiological features to determine if they uniquely reflect the distribution of each species. Calathea inocephala and Pleiostachya pruinosa grow and reproduce in gaps, persist in shade, and have equivalent rates of leaf production. Calathea leaves survived 2 to 3 times as long as leaves of Pleiostachya and plants of Pleiostachya were 6 to 8 times more likely to die as plants of Calathea during 3.5 years of study. Pleiostachya had lowest survival in shade and when not irrigated during the dry season, while Calathea survived well in both habitats and both treatments. Pleiostachya had higher photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance than Calathea and acclimated to gaps by producing leaves with higher photosynthetic capacity. Calathea had lower mesophyll CO 2 concentrations than Pleiostachya. Both species had similar dark respiration rates and light compensation points, and water-use and nitrogen-use efficiencies were inversely related between species. Species showed no differences in leaf osmotic potentials at full turgor. Calathea roots were deeper and had tuberous swellings.Leaf-level assimilation and potential water loss are consistent with where these species are found, but photosynthetic acclimation to high light does not reflect both species' abilities to grow and reproduce in gaps. Pleiostachya's gap-dependent, rapid growth and reproduction require high rates of carbon gain in short-lived leaves, which can amortize their cost quickly. High rates of water loss are associated with reduced longevity during drought. Calathea's roots may confer greater capacitance, while its leaves are

  7. THE EFFECT OF BORON DOSES ON PARICA (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Ferreira de Lima

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in order to evaluate the effects of boron on parica growth and on concentration and contents of macro and micronutrients indry matter of shoots and roots. Six treatments constituted by boron doses of 0.0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.9;1.5 and 2.1 mg/dm3 in four replications were used. It was evaluated the characteristics:visual diagnostic, plants height and diameter, dry matter production of shoots and roots,concentration and contents of nutrients in dry matter of shoots and roots. The symptoms ofdeficiency can be observed in new leaves and roots and the toxicity in older leaves. Bothboron deficiency and excess inhibits plants growth, but toxicity is more damaging. The Comportamento do paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. submetido ...193approximate dose of 0 Estimate of average equilibrium moisture content of wood for 26Brazilian states, by Hailwood and Harrobin one hydrate sorption theory equation.15mg/dm3 was the best for plants growth in MSPA and MSRA. The concentration of boronincreased in MSPA and MSRA with application of increasing concentration of B, with a smallreduction in concentration of MSRA from the concentration 1.9 mg/dm3. The toxicity of boronbegins when concentration reaches 36.06 mg/dm3 in shoots and 32.38 in roots. The contentsof all nutrients, except Mn and Fe in MSPA and Cu, Fe and B in MSRA, followed its own drymatter production curves.

  8. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  9. of antimicrobial residues in Kenyan milk.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. The sensitivity of the improved two-tube test for detection of antimicrobial residues in Kenyan milk was investigated by ... milk collection centers, were analyzed with the improved two-tube and the commercial Delvo SP test as per manufacturer, weekly ..... contaminants in milk and milk products. International Dairy ...

  10. Foaming behaviour of organic and regular milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenburg, J.; Sala, G.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Organic milk is used more and more by consumers to froth milk that is used e.g. for the preparation of a capuccino. Frequently, organic milk turns out not to foam properly. This report describes a study to find the main couse of this bad foamability of organic milk. The focus of the research was to

  11. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  12. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skim milk. 58.233 Section 58.233 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements as...

  13. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  14. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of this...

  15. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  16. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136. Unless...

  17. Storage of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Can

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Storage of human breast milk by freezing or refrigeration of milk has been recommended especially at some social circumstances of most mothers who are regularly separated from their infants because of work. The greatest fear that has hindered the prospects of in - vitro storage of breast milk for any considerable period of time is the possibility of bacterial contamination and growth of infectious pathogens in the stored milk, there by rendering them unsafe for human consumption. The storage container can influence the cell content of milk, as the cells adhere to the walls of a glass container but not to polyethylene or polypropylene containers. Bacteriological examination of refrigerated milks has proven their safety for human consumption for even up to 72 h. For a storage over longer periods up to 1 month, freezing at - 20 0C could be recommended, but the most preferred method, especially for longer storage would be fresh freezing at - 70 0C, if affordable or available. The nutrient value of human milk is essentially unchanged, but the immunological properties are reduced by various storage techniques. Boiling and microwave radiation have not been recommended. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 375-379

  18. Aflatoxins in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, J B; Lamplugh, S M; Suliman, G I; Omer, M I; Hendrickse, R G

    1984-06-01

    Breast milk from 99 Sudanese mothers was analysed for aflatoxins. Aflatoxins M1 and/or M2 were detected in 37 of the milks. No other aflatoxin was detected. M1 occurred alone in 13 milks, (mean 19.0 pg/ml), M2 in 11 milks (mean 12.2 pg/ml), and in 13 samples both M1 and M2 were detected. There appeared to be a linear relationship between M1 and M2 where both were excreted. No aflatoxin was detected in subcutaneous abdominal wall fat removed during Caesarian section from 15 women, but was present in three out of 14 bloods taken during anaesthesia. The presence of aflatoxins in mothers' milk showed no correlation with duration of lactation, the infants' nutrition, presence of aflatoxin in mothers' blood, or the infant's blood and urine. It is concluded that some Sudanese women excrete aflatoxins in breast-milk at levels similar to or higher than those considered safe in animal milk, for human consumption.

  19. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the

  20. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted

  1. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune; Andersen, Lene F

    2011-05-16

    Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the intakes of culinary spices and herbs.

  2. Technical note: variation in daily milk yield calculations for dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, P P; Pettersson, G; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K M; Norell, L

    2010-03-01

    An accurate estimation of the daily milk yield of dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system is not obvious because of variations in milking intervals and frequencies. Daily harvested milk varies substantially, and developing a method to be used for estimating daily milk production is of great importance. Three calculation methods (simple, semiadvanced, and advanced) were used. The simple method calculated rough daily milk production by summing up the yield per day. The semiadvanced used yield in combination with time since last milking to calculate the milk production per hour between milking; an average of the milk production per hour over the day was calculated and multiplied by 24. The advanced method calculated the milk production from midnight to midnight by using information about yield and time since last milking to calculate the exact milk production. The results show a clear preference for the advanced calculation method because the variation [variation for the advanced method=ln(1.79) for first lactation and ln(2.28) for later lactations] between days was reduced significantly (3 to 4 times lower compared with the simple method). Variation in daily harvested milk can be used as a management tool.

  3. [Relationship between geopolitical political structure and distribution of dao-di herbs in frontier provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-09-01

    Dao-di herbs have both natural and humanistic attribute. Geopolitical political structure of Northeast, Mongolian, Xinjiang, Tibet, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces form frontier inland of China were summarized in this paper. The relationship between distribution of the Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure in above-mentioned provinces were described. In a strict sense, humanistic attribute of Dao-di herbs belonged to medical culture of Han Nationality. Distribution range of Dao-di herbs was determined by sphere of influence of central plains dynasty. Development of Dao-di herbs in the frontier inland area was unbalanced. The relationship between distribution of Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure proofed that natural attribute and humanistic attribute were inseparable. Recognition of this relationship is helpful to understand and develop genuine medicinal materials in frontier provinces.

  4. Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Yuri N; Williams, Arlene F; Aranda, Derick; Chase, Ronald; Watson, Nadya; Mohammed, Rochelle; Stubbs, Odia; Williamson, Deneil

    2005-02-15

    There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4%) reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6%) obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1%) obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%), and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments.

  5. Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad

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    Mohammed Rochelle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4% reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6% obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1% obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%, and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments.

  6. An innovative example of herb residues recycling by gasification in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feiqiang; Dong, Yuping; Dong, Lei; Jing, Yuanzhuo

    2013-04-01

    A utilization way of herb residues is designed to convert herb residues to gas fuel in industrial-scale by a circulating fluidized bed gasifier in this paper. The product gas is used in the production of Chinese medicine, and the heat of the flue gas from the boiler can be used in herb residues drying to realize the energy recycling and no herb residues discharge. The gasification characteristics of herb residues in the circulating fluidized bed of 300 kg/h were investigated for about 200 h. The results indicated that the gas composition and tar yield were affected by biomass flow rate, equivalence ratio (ER), moisture content and char circulating. The lower heating value of product gas was 4-5 MJ/m(3) using herb residues as feedstock. When mean biomass flow rate was at 5.5 kg m(-2)s(-1) and ER at 0.35, the product gas reached a good condition with lower heating value of 4.89 MJ/m(3) and cold gas efficiency of 62.36%. When the moisture content changed from 12.5% to 18.7%, the concentrations of H2, CO and CO2 changed from 4.66% to 6.92%, 11.23% to 10.15%, and 16.55% to 17.82% respectively, and the tar content in gas decreased from 15.1g/m(3) to 14.4 g/m(3) when the moisture content increased from 12.5% to 15.4%. There are metal oxides in the ash of herb residues, especially CaO, MgO, K2O, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 which have obvious function on tar catalytic decomposition. The ash that attaches to the char particles can decrease the tar yield and improve the quality of gas after returning to the gasifier. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs.

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    Ch'ng, Yung Sing; Tan, Chu Shan; Loh, Yean Chun; Ahmad, Mariam; Zaini Asmawi, Mohd; Yam, Mun Fei

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King) for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR) macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR), second-derivative IR (SD-IR), and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR) analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect.

  8. Mare’s milk: composition and protein fraction in comparison with different milk species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Kuterovac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the mare’s milk as functional food especial for children intolerant to cow’s milk, with neurodermitis, allergies and similar disorders desiring to improve the quality of life is fiercely debated for last decades but there were no scientific studies to suggest such use of mare’s milk based on scientific research. The objectives of this study were to determine similarities of mare’s milk in comparison with milk of ruminants (cattle, sheep and goat and human milk in terms of milk composition and protein fraction as whey proteins, caseins and micelles size. All differences were discussed regarding usage of mare’s milk in human diet and compared to milk which is usually used in human nutrition. Regarding composition, the mare’s milk is similar to human milk in of crude protein, salt and lactose content, but it has significantly lower content of fat. Fractions of main proteins are similar between human and mare’s milk, except nitrogen casein (casein N which has twice lower content in human than in mare’s milk. Content of casein N from all ruminants’ milk differ much more. Just for true whey N and non-protein nitrogen (NPN similar content as human and mare’s milk has also goat milk. The casein content is the lowest in human milk; this content is three times greater in mare’s milk and six to seven times greater in goat’s and cow’s milk, while in sheep’s milk it is more than 10 times grater. In many components and fractions mare’s milk is more similar to human milk than milk of ruminants. A detail comparison of protein fraction shows quite large differences between milk of different species. More study and clinical research are needed that can recommend usage of mare’s milk in human diet as functional food on scientific bases.

  9. Effects of Five Ayurvedic Herbs on Locomotor Behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson’s Disease Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, R. L. M.; Brogan, B.; Whitworth, A. J.; Okello, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential abilit...

  10. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

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    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  11. Economic viability of the third milking in systems of production using closed-circuit mechanical milking

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    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic viability of the third milking in production systems using mechanical milking in a closed circuit, aiming to provide technicians and farmers with information to assist them in decision-making. Specifically, it intended: (a to estimate the cost of one milking; (b to estimate the cost of the third milking; (c to develop a mathematical equation to estimate the minimum amount of milk produced with two milkings, from which it would be economically feasible to do the third milking. Data were collected from three dairy farms, from November 2010 to March 2011, keeping a twice-a-day milking frequency, with three data collections in each farm, totalizing nine collections. Considering the average data, it would be feasible to do the third milking if the average milk yield per day of lactating cows in a twice-a-day milking frequency was greater than or equal to 24.43 kg of milk.

  12. Occurrence of multidrug resistance shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli from milk and milk products

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    Javeed Ahmad Sheikh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the hygienic quality of milk and milk products in respect of shiga toxin producingEscherichia coli (STEC.Materials and Methods: 205 samples of raw milk and milk products were processed for isolation of E. coli. The isolates werescreened by mPCR for detection of virulence gene. 52 E. coli isolates were tested against 15 commonly used antibiotics in thefield.Results: Of the 205 samples of milk and milk products 52 (25.36% were positive for E. coli. Out of which 4% samples werepositive for STEC from raw milk and 3.64% from milk products. Also, 25 of 52 (48% of E. coli isolates were multidrugresistance whereas 62.5% of STEC from milk and milk products were multidrug resistance.Conclusions: The milk and milk products production is of poor hygienic quality in and around Jammu region which needsimprovement.

  13. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  14. NONNUTRITIVE SWEETENERS IN BREAST MILK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C.; Gardner, Alexandra L.; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Walter, Peter J.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants’ milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  15. Antimicrobial factors in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V; Bhaskaram, C; Raghuramulu, N; Jagadeesan, V

    1977-03-01

    Levels of immunoglobulins, lactoferrin and lysozyme were determined in milk samples obtained from well-nourished and under-nourished Indian women at different stages of lactation. The concentration of immunoglobulins and lactoferrin was higher in colostrum than in mature milk while the lysozyme levels showed a progressive increase with the period of lactation. There were no significant differences in the levels between the two groups of women. Administration of iron did not alter either the total or percentage saturation of lactoferrin in milk. These results indicate that antibacterial factors in milk are not influenced by the nutritional status of the mother and that iron supplementation does not interfere with the bacteriostatic function of lactoferrin.

  16. Determination of Heavy Metals Concentration in Traditional Herbs Commonly Consumed in the United Arab Emirates

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    Rania Dghaim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, basil (Ocimum basilicum, sage (Salvia officinalis, oregano (Origanum vulgare, mint (Mentha spicata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, were purchased from the local market in Dubai and analyzed for their cadmium, lead, copper, iron, and zinc contents. Microwave-assisted digestion was applied for the dissolution of the samples and heavy metals concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Metals were found to be present in varied concentrations in the herb samples. The concentration ranges were found as follows: less than 0.1–1.11 mg·kg−1 for cadmium, less than 1.0–23.52 mg·kg−1 for lead, 1.44–156.24 mg·kg−1 for copper, 12.65–146.67 mg·kg−1 for zinc, and 81.25–1101.22 mg·kg−1 for iron. The findings of the study suggest that most of the analyzed herbs contained unsafe levels of heavy metals that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO permissible limits (PL.

  17. Interventional mechanisms of herbs or herbal extracts on renal interstitial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jia; He, Li-qun; Su, Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is a common development in chronic renal diseases that can lead to uremia and be life-threatening. The RIF pathology has complicated extracellular and intercellular mechanisms, involving many cells and cytokines, resulting in an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the disease. Finding effective herbs or herbal extracts for prevention and treatment of RIF is crucial because current medical approaches do not reliably slow or reverse RIF. In recent years, many experts have worked to identify herbs or herbal extracts to combat RIF both in vivo and in vitro, with some success. This review attempts to summarize the possible interventional mechanisms of herbs or herbal extracts involved in protecting and reversing RIF. The authors found some herbs and their extracts that may ameliorate renal impairments through anti-inflammation, anti-fibrogenesis and stabilization of extra cellular matrix. Among them, tetramethylpyrazine/ligustrazine, curcumin and polyglucoside of Tripterygium have experimentally shown good potential for improving RIF. However, conclusive evidence is still needed, especially in randomized controlled clinical trials. We expect that herbs or herbal extracts will play an important role in RIF treatment and reversal in the future.

  18. Anti-Hypertensive Herbs and Their Mechanisms of Action: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. Akhtar; Al Disi, Sara S.; Eid, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine has a history extending back to thousands of years, and during the intervening time, man has identified the healing properties of a very broad range of plants. Globally, the use of herbal therapies to treat and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the rise. This is the second part of our comprehensive review where we discuss the mechanisms of plants and herbs used for the treatment and management of high blood pressure. Similar to the first part, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were utilized, and the following keywords and phrases were used as inclusion criteria: hypertension, high blood pressure, herbal medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, endothelial cells, nitric oxide (NO), vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, hydrogen sulfide, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), oxidative stress, and epigenetics/epigenomics. Each of the aforementioned keywords was co-joined with plant or herb in question, and where possible with its constituent molecule(s). This part deals in particular with plants that are used, albeit less frequently, for the treatment and management of hypertension. We then discuss the interplay between herbs/prescription drugs and herbs/epigenetics in the context of this disease. The review then concludes with a recommendation for more rigorous, well-developed clinical trials to concretely determine the beneficial impact of herbs and plants on hypertension and a disease-free living. PMID:27014064

  19. Anticancer effects of traditional Chinese herbs with phlegm-eliminating properties - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Li-Juan; Sun, Da-Zhi; Jiao, Jian-Peng; Yan, Bing; Qin, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Xuan; Wei, Pin-Kang; Yue, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-08-22

    Cancer is considered to be the second leading cause of human death. It is unsatisfactory that in the past decades, the treatment for cancer has not progressed as fast as it was expected, as only 50% of newly diagnosed patients could be cured even today. The development of cancer is a multifactorial process, involving tumor cells themselves, the interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironments, as well as the interactions between tumor cells and the host's immunity. Focusing on any single goal may bring limited benefits. Phlegm-eliminating herbs, which can reduce phlegm and eliminate pathological metabolites, are commonly used to treat cancer in China. However, the underlying molecular targets and efficacy of herbal medicines in cancer treatment still remain unclear. In this study, we reviewed the potential anticancer mechanisms of some phlegm-eliminating herbs and their active ingredients from the articles through such scientific databases as MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar. We found that the anticancer mechanisms of phlegm-eliminating herbs and ingredients include inducing apoptosis, anti-proliferation, preventing tumor invasion and metastasis, and reducing resistance to chemotherapy. In addition, some phlegm-eliminating herbs and their ingredients have anti-inflammatory and anti-metabolic syndrome effects. We suggest that the phlegm-eliminating herbs and ingredients are potential candidates for anticancer treatment and cancer prevention by playing a comprehensive role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of potential anti-toxoplasmosis efficiency of combined traditional herbs in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Xun-Hui; Sun, Hong-Chao; Huang, Bin; Yu, Hai-Jie; Shan, Ying; Du, Ai-Fang

    2017-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide spread protozoan and is able to infect almost all warm-blood animals. No effective drugs are available clinically on toxoplasmosis. Chinese traditional herbal medicines have provided remedies for many health problems. There exists a possibility that Chinese herbs may provide protection against T. gondii. This work aims to assess the protective efficacy of combined Chinese herbs against T. gondii. We screened five herbal medicines that have different pharmacological effects and combined them into a prescription according to the traditional Chinese medicine compatibility principle. The drug potential and protective efficacy were evaluated through a mouse model by determining the survival time, the parasite load in blood and tissues, the change of cell proportions in blood and histological detection. The results showed that the survival time of mice in the 500 mg Chinese herbs group and sulfadiazine group was significantly longer than that of the PBS control group. Also the parasite load in blood and tissues of 500 mg Chinese herbs and sulfadiazine groups was significantly lower than that of PBS group at 7 days post infection (dpi), which was in accordance with the result of histological detection. Monocyte and neutrophil of infected mice were remarkably increased while lymphocyte was dramatically decreased compared to that of blank group at 7 dpi. The results demonstrated that the 500 mg dosage of our Chinese herbs could slow down the replication of T. gondii and prolong the survival time of mice and could be considered as possible candidate drug against toxoplasmosis.