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Sample records for herb extract mixture

  1. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shirzadegan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15. A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05. Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05. Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05. According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities at week 6 (P<0.05, but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels.

  2. Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young

    2002-06-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. An interlaboratory trial on the identification of irradiated spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures by thermoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    Thermoluminescence analysis was used in an interlaboratory study to detect irradiation treatment of spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures in the dose range used for the reduction of microbial counts. About 3 and 9 months after irradiation, 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence of mineral contaminants that had been isolated from coded samples. A total of 18 different products (6 spices, 6 herbs, and 6 spice-herb mixtures) were examined. The method gave correct identifications as irradiated or nonirradiated in 99.1% of 317 samples. Only 3 irradiated samples were not correctly identified. This result was achieved by integration of whole glow curves. By glow curve analysis, a temperature range could be determined in which differentiation between irradiated and nonirradiated samples was even better than on the basis of the total integral values

  4. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens), 2) cutting frequency, and 3) slurry application. The experiment was carried out over three years. The herb mixture contained salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), chicory (Cichcorium intybus), caraway...

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese herb medicine mixture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... These results indicated that the dietary supplementation of the CHM mixture exerted some positive regulating effects on the nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system of goats, thus improving the functions of immunity and antioxidation, as well as the digestion ...

  6. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang

    2009-01-01

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with γ-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent

  7. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  8. Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Wagner, U.; Leffke, A.; Helle, N.; Ammon, J.; Buchholtz, H.V.; Delincee, H.; Estendorfer, S.; Fuchs, K.; Grabowski, H.U. von; Kruspe, W.; Mainczyk, K.; Muenz, H.; Nootenboom, H.; Schleich, C.; Vreden, N.; Wiezorek, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE)

  9. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Denev, P.; Kratchanova, M.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín; Vašíček, Ondřej; Blazheva, D.; Nedelcheva, P.; Vojtek, L.; Hyršl, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2014), s. 359-367 ISSN 0001-527X Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : herbs * polyphenols * antioxidant activity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.153, year: 2014

  10. Protective effects of a preparation(hemoHIM) of herb mixture on self-renewal tissues and immune system in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jo, Sung-Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung-Tae [Sunchon National Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    A preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. The mixture of 3 edible medicinal herbs (Angelica gagantis Radix, etc.) was decocted with hot water and the extract was fractionated with ethanol. The preparation HemoHIM was made up with addition of ethanol- insoluble fraction yielded from one half of the total water extract to the other half of the total water extract. In vitro, lymphocytes were protected by HemoHIM, its polysaccharide and ethanol fractions against radiation. The proliferation of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells by HemoHIM was due to its polysaccharide fraction. In mice administered with the preparation (HemoHIM) before gamma- irradiation, the jejunal crypt survival was increased and the apoptosis of crypt cells was decreased. HemoHIM administration increased the survival of bone marrow stem cells and promoted the repopulation of blood cells following irradiation. In the analysis of the repopulated lymphocyte subsets, B cells were firstly regenerated and then T cells were recovered in mice administrated with HemoHIM. The antibody production against T-dependent antigen DNP-KLH was augmented by HemoHIM in irradiated mice. These results indicated that HemoHIM, a preparation of the herb mixture, protected the stem cells of self-renewal tissues and hematopoietic organs and promoted recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. Since the preparation of herb mixture is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful modifier for prevention and control of radiation damages.

  11. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture on self-renewal tissues and immune system in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Oh, Heon [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    A preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. The mixture of 3 edible medicinal herbs was decocted with hot water and the extract was fractionated with ethanol. The preparation HemoHIM was made up with addition of ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract. In vitro, HemoHIM, its polysaccharide and ethanol fractions protected lymphocytes against radiation and scavenged hydroxyl radicals. The proliferation of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells by HemoHIM was due to its polysaccharide fraction. In mice administered with the preparation (HemoHIM) before gamma-irradiation the jejunal crypt survival was increased and the apoptosis of crypt cells was decreased. HemoHIM administration increased the survival of bone marrow stem cells and promoted the repopulation of blood cells following irradiation. In the analysis of the repopulated lymphocyte subsets, B cells were firstly regenerated and then T cells were recovered in mice administrated with HemoHIM. The antibody production against T-dependent antigen DNP-KLH was augmented by HemoHIM in irradiated mice. Finally, oral or intraperitoneal administration of HemoHIM augmented the 30 day survival rate after irradiation. These results indicated that HemoHIM, a preparation of the herb mixture, protected the stem cells of self-renewal tissues and hematopoietic organs and promoted recovery of the immune system against radiation damage, thus increasing the survival following lethal irradiation. Since the preparation of herb mixture is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful modifier for prevention and control of radiation damages.

  12. Inhibition of urease by extracts derived from 15 Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Da-Hua; Liu, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Gu, Zhi-Feng

    2011-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major causative factor in gastritis-like disorders, and urease plays a key role in Helicobacter pylori colonizing and persisting in the mucous layer of the human stomach. In China, a variety of Chinese medicinal herbs have been prescribed to attenuate or eradicate gastritis-like disorders. However, little is known about the urease inhibition of Chinese medicinal herbs. The present study was conducted to investigate the urease inhibition activities of the ethanol and water extracts of 15 Chinese medicinal herbs. The ethanol and water extracts derived from 15 medicinal herbs, traditionally used for the treatment of gastritis-like disorders in China, were tested for urease-inhibition activity using the phenol red method. Screened at 10 µg/mL, 14 ethanol extracts and 10 water extracts showed urease inhibition. The ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. (Magnoliaceae) and Cassia obtusifolia L. (Leguminosae) possessed inhibition rates higher than 50% with IC₅₀ values of 6.5 and 12.3 µg/mL, respectively. After fractionating successively, the petroleum ether fraction of the ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis showed the best activity with 90.8% urease inhibition at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. The bioautography of the petroleum ether fraction indicated the existence of the urease inhibitors in the herb. The present results indicated that some Chinese medicinal herbs might treat gastritis-like disorders via the inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease and the further possibility for discovering useful novel urease inhibitors from the Chinese medicinal herbs.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of several herb and spice extracts in culture medium and in vacuum-packaged pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Baohua; Wang, Jinzhi; Xiong, Youling L

    2007-03-01

    Extracts prepared from honeysuckle, Scutellaria, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb), cinnamon, and rosemary with 75% ethanol and from clove oil dissolved in 75% ethanol were applied to inoculated agar media to observe their inhibitory effects on the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Lactobacillus plantarum. All the extracts suppressed the growth of these bacteria; Scutellaria exhibited the strongest effect against E. coli. An orthogonal test revealed that the most effective antimicrobial composite extracts were equal-volume mixtures of 0.125 g/ml Scutellaria + 0.5 g/ml honeysuckle + 0.125 g/ml Forsythia + 0.25 g/ml cinnamon and 0.25 g/ml cinnamon + 0.125 g/ml rosemary + 0.25% clove oil. These mixed extracts also produced strong antimicrobial effects in vacuum-packaged fresh pork, with 1.81- to 2.32-log reductions in microbial counts compared with the control when stored for up to 28 days. The sensory panel detected minimal differences in surface color and off-odors between meat samples treated with herb-spice extracts and the control. These results indicate that combined herb and spice extracts can be used as natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

  14. The impact of size and shape of particles of undergrowth and herbs mixtures on aerodynamic properties

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    Marian Panasiewicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the size and shape of a selected group of herbs (dried juniper berries Juniperus communis, dry blueberries Vaccinium myrtillus, petals of cornflower Centaurea cyanus on the value of the volatility coefficient, the coefficient of sphericity and the critical speed was analysed in the presented research. A laboratory anemometer to measure the speed of air was used. The determination of the volatility coefficient of particular size fractions was conducted on the basis of critical speed values, calculated as an average established after five measurements. The established aerodynamic properties of particular mixtures allow the determination and the assessment of differences among fractions of valuable resources and different impurities. The presented data might constitute a basis to determine the scope of differences among them and establish interrelations which allow the application of proper parameters for the pneumatic separation process in practice.

  15. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of a herb mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, U Hee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The proliferation of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, scientific and medical research, the military, and as a source of energy has increased the likelihood of an accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Synthetic radioprotective agents have been studied for decades but their application was limited due to their toxicity. Thus, the radioprotective agent to protect individuals against severe radiation damage is required. A preparation (HemoHIM) of a mixture of 3 edible herbs was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. In this study, we evaluated its radioprotective effects with regards to reduction of DNA damage, immune cell repopulation, intestinal crypt survival, and 30-day survival rate.

  16. An overview of herbs, spices and plant extracts used as seasonings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonings include Spices such as pepper, herbs such as the leaves of cloves and bay, vegetable bulbs such as garlic and onions, sweeteners such as sugar and monosodium glutamate, and plant extracts such as that of Ocimum grattisimum or 'scent leaf'. Spices are the bark, roots, seeds, buds or berries of plants, most ...

  17. Catalytic Therapy of Cancer with Ascorbate and Extracts of Medicinal Herbs

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    Nadejda Rozanova (Torshina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic therapy (CT is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo. In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer side effects. The present studies demonstrate that a combined use of ascorbate and herbal extracts results in ROS production and a significant decrease in the number of cancer cells after a single in vitro treatment. Treatment with ascorbate in conjunction with extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs stimulated apoptosis and disrupted the cell cycle. The number of cells accumulating in the sub-G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle was increased 2- to 7-fold, and cells in G2/M increased 1.5- to 20-fold, indicating that the treatment protocol was highly effective in suppressing DNA synthesis and potentially reflecting DNA damage in the tumor cells. In addition, 20–40% of the cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of completing treatment. Our results suggest that herbal extracts can function as CT catalysts in the treatment of cancer.

  18. Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

    2012-03-01

    The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche.

  19. Exploring optimal supplement strategy of medicinal herbs and tea extracts for bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Liao, Jia-Hui; Hsu, An-Wei; Tsai, Po-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2018-05-01

    This first-attempt study used extracts of appropriate antioxidant abundant Camellia and non-Camellia tea and medicinal herbs as model ESs to stably intensify bioelectricity generation performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). As electron shuttles (ESs) could stimulate electron transport phenomena by significant reduction of electron transfer resistance, the efficiency of power generation for energy extraction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be appreciably augmented. Using environmentally friendly natural bioresource as green bioresource of ESs is the most promising to sustainable practicability. As comparison of power-density profiles indicated, supplement of Camellia tea extracts would be the most appropriate, then followed non-Camellia Chrysanthemum tea and medicinal herbs. Antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and power stimulating activities were all electrochemically associated. In particular, the extract of unfermented Camellia tea (i.e., green tea) was the most promising ESs to augment bioenergy extraction compared to other refreshing medicinal herb extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protection of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by a preparation of herb mixture (hemoHIM) against whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W. H.; Park, H. R.; Oh, H.; Jung, I. Y.; Cho, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    A preparation of herb mixture (HemoHIM) was designed from three medicinal herbs including Angelica gigantis Radix to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of HemoHIM on hematopoietic stem cells in γ-irradiated mice and the underlying mechanisms. The administration of HemoHIM significantly increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony and reduced apoptosis of bone marrow cells in γ-irradiated mice. These results showed that HemoHIM protected hematopoietic stem cells from irradiation. To investigate the mechanism of the protection, the effects of HemoHIM on expression of radioprotective cytokines was examined. HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, SCF and IL-6 in bone marrow cells and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In vivo administration of HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α in spleen. The examination of radical scavenging activity of HemoHIM as another mechanism revealed that HemoHIM was effective at scavenging DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals. From these results, it is suggested that HemoHIM exerts these radioprotective effects through the induction of radioprotective cytokines and/or through directly scavenging radicals produced by γ-irradiation

  1. Protection of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by a preparation of herb mixture (hemoHIM) against whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W. H.; Park, H. R.; Oh, H.; Jung, I. Y.; Cho, S. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    A preparation of herb mixture (HemoHIM) was designed from three medicinal herbs including Angelica gigantis Radix to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of HemoHIM on hematopoietic stem cells in {gamma}-irradiated mice and the underlying mechanisms. The administration of HemoHIM significantly increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony and reduced apoptosis of bone marrow cells in {gamma}-irradiated mice. These results showed that HemoHIM protected hematopoietic stem cells from irradiation. To investigate the mechanism of the protection, the effects of HemoHIM on expression of radioprotective cytokines was examined. HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha}, SCF and IL-6 in bone marrow cells and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In vivo administration of HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha} in spleen. The examination of radical scavenging activity of HemoHIM as another mechanism revealed that HemoHIM was effective at scavenging DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals. From these results, it is suggested that HemoHIM exerts these radioprotective effects through the induction of radioprotective cytokines and/or through directly scavenging radicals produced by {gamma}-irradiation.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  3. In Vitro Anti-Cariogenic Plaque Effects of Essential Oils Extracted from Culinary Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwattanarattanabut, Kornsit; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2017-09-01

    Cariogenic bacteria including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are partly but significantly involved in dental caries development. An effective prevention strategy against dental caries is to decrease the accumulation of this microbiota either in planktonic or in biofilm form. To examine the antimicrobial and anti-plaque effects of some culinary herbs (spices), so the herbs are plausibly used as alternative and effective herbal plaque control supplements to promote good oral health. Essential oils extracted from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) , cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) , sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) , kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) , black pepper (Piper nigrum) , peppermint (Mentha piperita) , and spearmint (Mentha spicata) were primarily examined for their antimicrobial activities against the cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans KPSK2 and Lactobacillus casei) using the agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. These essential oils were then analysed for anti-plaque effects (retardation of S. mutans biofilm formation and reduction of the in vitro established biofilm). This experimental study was performed at the Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University during June 2015 till August 2016. All selected essential oils showed different degrees of antimicrobial activity against the planktonic form of both cariogenic bacteria. Cinnamon bark essential oil expressed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. mutans {MIC of 0.08% (v/v)} and L. casei {MIC of 0.16% (v/v)}, whereas the weakest effect was found in kaffir lime essential oil {MIC values of 2.5% and 5.0% (v/v) for S. mutans and L. casei , respectively}. Up to 80% of S. mutans biofilm was retarded to form on the substratum primed with these spice essential oils, especially cinnamon oil. The preventive effect of these oils was in dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. For reductive effect against the 24-hour pre-established S

  4. Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Scipioni,Griselda Patricia; Ferreyra,Darío Jorge; Schmalko,Miguel Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of ...

  5. Modulation of cell surface hydrophobicity and attachment of bacteria to abiotic surfaces and shrimp by Malaysian herb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yew Woh; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-08-01

    The use of simple crude water extracts of common herbs to reduce bacterial attachment may be a cost-effective way to control bacterial foodborne pathogens, particularly in developing countries. The ability of water extracts of three common Malaysian herbs (Andrographis paniculata, Eurycoma longifolia, and Garcinia atroviridis) to modulate hydrophobicity and attachment to surfaces of five food-related bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus ATCC 14576, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) were determined. The bacterial attachment to hydrocarbon assay was used to determine bacterial hydrophobicity. Staining and direct microscopic counts were used to determine attachment of bacteria to glass and stainless steel. Plating on selective media was used to determine attachment of bacteria to shrimp. All extracts were capable of either significantly ( P 0.05) to bacterial attachment. For specific combinations of bacteria, surface material, and plant extract, significant correlations (R > 0.80) between hydrophobicity and attachment were observed. The highest of these was observed for S. aureus attachment to stainless steel and glass after treatment with the E. longifolia extract (R = 0.99, P < 0.01). The crude water herb extracts in this study were shown to have the potential to modulate specific bacterial and surface interactions and may, with further work, be useful for the simple and practical control of foodborne pathogens.

  6. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Tae Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA, total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05 difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants.

  7. Matching Index-of-Refraction for 3D Printing Model Using Mixture of Herb Essential Oil and Light Mineral Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Kim, Eung Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study has extensively investigated the emerging 3-D printing technologies for use of MIR-based flow field visualization methods such as PIV and LDV. As a result, mixture of Herb essential oil and light mineral oil has been evaluated to be great working fluid due to its adequate properties. Using this combination, the RIs between 1.45 and 1.55 can be accurately matched, and most of the transparent materials are found to be ranged in here. Conclusively, the proposed MIR method are expected to provide large flexibility of model materials and geometries for laser based optical measurements. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) are the two major optical technologies used for flow field visualization in the latest fundamental thermal-hydraulics researches. Those techniques seriously require minimizing optical distortions for enabling high quality data. Therefore, matching index of refraction (MIR) between model materials and working fluids are an essential part of minimizing measurement uncertainty. This paper proposes to use 3-D Printing technology for manufacturing models for the MIR-based optical measurements. Because of the large flexibility in geometries and materials of the 3-D Printing, its application is obviously expected to provide tremendous advantages over the traditional MIR-based optical measurements. This study focuses on the 3-D printing models and investigates their optical properties, transparent printing techniques, and index-matching fluids

  8. Matching Index-of-Refraction for 3D Printing Model Using Mixture of Herb Essential Oil and Light Mineral Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This study has extensively investigated the emerging 3-D printing technologies for use of MIR-based flow field visualization methods such as PIV and LDV. As a result, mixture of Herb essential oil and light mineral oil has been evaluated to be great working fluid due to its adequate properties. Using this combination, the RIs between 1.45 and 1.55 can be accurately matched, and most of the transparent materials are found to be ranged in here. Conclusively, the proposed MIR method are expected to provide large flexibility of model materials and geometries for laser based optical measurements. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) are the two major optical technologies used for flow field visualization in the latest fundamental thermal-hydraulics researches. Those techniques seriously require minimizing optical distortions for enabling high quality data. Therefore, matching index of refraction (MIR) between model materials and working fluids are an essential part of minimizing measurement uncertainty. This paper proposes to use 3-D Printing technology for manufacturing models for the MIR-based optical measurements. Because of the large flexibility in geometries and materials of the 3-D Printing, its application is obviously expected to provide tremendous advantages over the traditional MIR-based optical measurements. This study focuses on the 3-D printing models and investigates their optical properties, transparent printing techniques, and index-matching fluids.

  9. The inhibitory activity of the extracts of popular medicinal herbs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major clinical risks of such concomitant herb-drug use is pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction (HDI). ... (HLM) to monitor the phenacetin O-deethylation, diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation and testosterone 6 β-hydroxylation as respective probe reactions for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 ...

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity from Different Plant Parts of Senduduk Herb: Extraction Conditions Optimization of Selected Plant Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaludin Nor Helya Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study on evaluation of antioxidant properties from flower of Senduduk herb. Natural occurring antioxidant was mostly preferred due to their little or no toxicity compared to the synthetic antioxidants which posses carcinogenic effects. Extraction was done on selected plant parts of Sendududk herb including leaves, stem, flower and berry parts to evaluate their antioxidant potentiality. Flower part of Sendudk herb extracted using acetonic solvent promotes highest antioxidant activity which is 93.97 ± 1.38 % as compared to leaves (92.20 ± 0.20 %, stem (47.94 ± 1.42% and berry (92.88 ± 0.63% using the same extracting solvent. Thus, Senduduk flower was chosen to be continued with screening and optimization process. Single factor experiment using the one factor at a time (OFAT method was done to study the effect of each extraction parameter that was solid to solvent ratio, temperature and solvent concentration. The extraction condition in each parametric study which results in highest antioxidant activity was used as the middle level of optimization process using Response Surface Methodology (RSM coupled with Central Composite Design (CCD. The optimum condition was at 1:20 solid to solvent ratio, 64.61°C temperature and 80.24% acetone concentration which result in antioxidant activity of 96.53%. The verification of RSM showed that the model used to predict the antioxidant activity was valid and adequate with the experimental parameters.

  11. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from 23 different dried herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil were investigated for their free radical scavenging properties using the stable free radicals 2,2'-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, and Trolox as reference (TEAC for both radicals. The kinetic curves for both radicals showed to follow the first order kinetics model and the decay rate constant (k obs was calculated. For all the samples, the two methods showed a good linear TEAC correlation, indicating that the average reactivity of the compounds present in the ethanolic extracts was similar. Sage and rosemary extracts showed the highest free radical scavenging capacities, while onion showed negligible activity and colorifico, one of the most consumed spices in Brazil, showed low ABTS•+ scavenging activity. Three distinct situations were found for the extracts concerning the DPPH• scavenging capacities: (1 extracts, like rosemary and laurel, that presented the same efficient concentrations (EC50 but differed in the TEAC values and velocities of action (k obs, (2 extracts, such as garlic and basil, that showed similar EC50 and TEAC values, but different k obs values and (3 extracts that reacted at the same velocities but completely differed in the free radical scavenging capacities, like black pepper, savory, nutmeg, rosemary and sage. Similar considerations could be done for the ABTS•+ results. For the first time the ABTS•+ scavenging activity for allspice, basil, cardamom, chives, colorifico, cumin, dill, laurel, marjoram, parsley and tarragon was reported.Extratos etanólicos de 23 ervas e condimentos desidratados comercializados no Brasil foram analisados quanto as suas propriedades antioxidantes utilizando os radicais 2,2'-difenil-β-picrilhidrazil (DPPH• e ácido 2,2'-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico (ABTS•+, Trolox foi usado como referência para ambos radicais

  12. Volatilization of multicomponent mixtures in soil vapor extraction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    In soil vapor extraction (SVE) applications involving multicomponent mixtures, prediction of mass removal by volatilization as a function remediation extent is required to estimate remediation time and to size offgas treatment equipment. SVE is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination adsorbed to vadose zone soils. SVE is often applied at sites contaminated with petroleum products, which are usually mixtures of many different compounds with vapor pressures spanning several orders of magnitude. The most volatile components are removed first, so the vapor pressure of the remaining contaminant continually decreases over the course of the remediation. A method for assessing how vapor pressure, and hence the rate of volatilization, of a multicomponent mixture changes over the course of a vapor extraction remedy has been developed. Each component is listed, alone, with its mass fraction in the mixture, in decreasing order of pure component vapor pressure (where component analyses are unavailable, model compounds can be used), For most petroleum distillates, the vapor pressure for each component plotted against the cumulative mass fraction of the component in the mixture on semilog coordinates will produce a straight line with a high correlation coefficient. This regression can be integrated to produce an expression for vapor pressure of the overall mixture as a function of extent or remediation

  13. Herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) extract and andrographolide on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of naproxen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balap, Aishwarya; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Sinnathambi, Arulmozhi; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2017-01-04

    Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthacae) have broad range of pharmacological effects such as hepatoprotective, antifertility, antimalarial, antidiabetic, suppression of various cancer cells and anti-inflammatory properties and is widely used medicinal plant in the traditional Unani and Ayurvedic medicinal systems. Andrographolide (AN) is one of the active constituent of the A. paniculata Nees extract (APE). They have been found in many traditional herbal formulations in India and proven to be effective as anti-inflammatory drug. To evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (anti arthritic) herb-drug interactions of A. paniculata Nees extract (APE) and pure andrographolide (AN) with naproxen (NP) after oral co-administration in wistar rats. After oral co-administration of APE (200mg/Kg) and AN (60mg/kg) with NP (7.5mg/kg) in rats, drug concentrations in plasma were determined using HPLC method. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of C max , t max , t 1/2 , MRT, Vd, CL, and AUC were calculated by non-compartment model. Change in paw volume, mechanical nociceptive threshold, mechanical hyperalgesia, histopathology and hematological parameters were evaluated to study antiarthritic activity. Co-administration of NP with APE and pure AN decreased systemic exposure level of NP in vivo. The C max , t max, AUC 0-t of NP was decreased. In pharmacodynamic study, NP (10mg/kg) alone and NP+AN (10+60mg/kg) groups exhibited significant synergistic anti-arthritic activity as compared to groups NP+APE, APE and AN alone. The results obtained from this study suggested that NP, APE and pure AN existed pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions in rat which is correlated with anti-arthritic study. The knowledge regarding possible herb-drug interaction of NP might be helpful for physicians as well as patients using AP. So further studies should be done to understand the effect of other herbal ingredients of APE on NP as well as to predict the herb-drug interaction in humans

  14. Phytochemical profiles and antimicrobial activity of aromatic Malaysian herb extracts against food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziman, Nurain; Abdullah, Noriham; Noor, Zainon Mohd; Kamarudin, Wan Saidatul Syida Wan; Zulkifli, Khairusy Syakirah

    2014-04-01

    Preliminary phytochemical and flavonoid compounds of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 6 aromatic Malaysian herbs were screened and quantified using Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). The herbal extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 10 food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms using disk diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of herbal extracts were determined. In the phytochemical screening process, both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. hydropiper exhibited presence of all 7 tested phytochemical compounds. Among all herbal extracts, the aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against 7 tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with diameter ranging from 7.0 to 18.5 mm and 6.5 to 19 mm, respectively. The MIC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 18.75 to 175 mg/mL and 0.391 to 200 mg/mL, respectively while the MBC/MFC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 25 to 200 mg/mL and 3.125 to 50 mg/mL, respectively. Major types of bioactive compounds in aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts were identified using RP-HPLC instrument. Flavonoids found in these plants were epi-catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The ability of aqueous Persicaria hydropiper (L.) H. Gross and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm. extracts to inhibit the growth of bacteria is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential. Hence these herbal extracts may be used as natural preservative to improve the safety and shelf-life of food and pharmaceutical products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uraisakul, Kanok [Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi Phranakhonsiayathaya, Hantra Campus, Phranakhonsiayathaya (Thailand); Piadang, Nattaya [Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2006-09-15

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  16. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uraisakul, Kanok; Piadang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  17. Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of extracts from the culinary herbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study demonstrates anti-herpes simplex virus activity of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Ocimum sanctum L., Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum americanum L. Green monkey kidney cells were protected from HSV-2 infection by the dichloromethane extract of O. americanum L. and the methanol extract of O.

  18. Dosimetry of irradiated foods and extraction of polyminerals from herbs and seasonings (Guajillo chili, oregano, jamaica, arnica, and camomile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda C, S.; Gomez B, C.; Calderon, T.; Cruz Z, E.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries the irradiation technology is a process used in food treatments for sterilization and diminishing of the microbiological charge, as well as to extend the storage life. In Mexico, the food irradiation, spices and seasonings has been officially approved since 1995, recognizing as an adequate technological process for foods. Taking advantage of knowledge about solids and due to the natural growth of the spices, herbs, etc. these contain minerals which can providing important information of its radiological history, moreover these type of materials do not degrade them preserving by long time periods. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of poly minerals in foods, such as oregano, guajillo chili, jamaica, arnica and camomile is presented. For obtaining the poly mineral, the samples were treated with an ethanol-water solution, in constant stirring during 12 hours at room temperature depending on the sample under treatment. It was used oxygenated water and distilled for washing and acetone for achieving a good drying. The minerals were processed by gamma radiation in the Nuclear Sciences Institute of the UNAM. The brilliance curves of spices and herbs, using a Tl reader of Harshaw 3500 were obtained, the emissions are located between 60 and 350 Centigrade. Previously the extraction of poly mineral was realized and they were divided in same parts for doses between 2 and 10 KGy, this last value according to the Mexican Official Standard considering a fraction without irradiating as reference. The identification of the mineral fraction by diffraction will complement the composition information. We are grateful to the donation of seasonings samples provided by the Tres Villas Natural Seasonings enterprise, Toluca plant, State of Mexico and the Academic Exchange Office at UNAM. (Author)

  19. Optimization of soy isoflavone extraction with different solvents using the simplex-centroid mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiara, Luciane Yuri; Madeira, Tiago Bervelieri; Delaroza, Fernanda; da Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of different isoflavone forms (glycosidic, malonyl-glycosidic, aglycone and total) from defatted cotyledon soy flour using the simplex-centroid experimental design with four solvents of varying polarity (water, acetone, ethanol and acetonitrile). The obtained extracts were then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profile of the different soy isoflavones forms varied with different extractions solvents. Varying the solvent or mixture used, the extraction of different isoflavones was optimized using the centroid-simplex mixture design. The special cubic model best fitted to the four solvents and its combination for soy isoflavones extraction. For glycosidic isoflavones extraction, the polar ternary mixture (water, acetone and acetonitrile) achieved the best extraction; malonyl-glycosidic forms were better extracted with mixtures of water, acetone and ethanol. Aglycone isoflavones, water and acetone mixture were best extracted and total isoflavones, the best solvents were ternary mixture of water, acetone and ethanol.

  20. Effect of anti-inflamentation extracts from Korean traditional medicinal herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Mix Plant Extracts according to different extraction solvents were assessed for its cell viability and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods. The single plant extract was extracted with 70% ethanol(EtOH and the mix plants(C.kousa, R.multiflora, T.nucifera, M.basjoo and S.glabra were extracted with EtOH 30%, 70%; Butylene Glycol(BG 30%, 70%; Propylene Glycol(PG 30%, 70%; Distilled Water(D.W. Cell viability was measured using the Micro culture tetrazolium (MTT assay method and Human fibroblast cells, CCD 1102 KERTr were used. The plant extracts with the maximum concentration that none toxic to the cells were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using lipoxygenase inhibition assay method. A dose response curve was plotted to determine the IC50 values. Results showed that, at the 5 kinds of single plant extracts by 70% EtOH extraction solvent, it showed the IC50 was 280ug/ml of S1, 370ug/ml of S2, 380ug/ml of S3, 170ug/ml of S4 and 190ug/ml of S5. At the mix plant extracts by 7 kinds of extraction solvents (70%, 30% EtOH; 70%, 30% BG; 70%, 30% PG; D.W, it showed the IC50 was 140ug/ml of M E70, 140ug/ml of M E30, 120ug/ml of M BG70, 110ug/ml of M BG30, 120ug/ml of M PG70, 136ug/ml of M PG30 and 120ug/ml of M D.W. From the results, it is concluded that when these five plants mixed before extraction, it will extract more active ingredients with anti-inflammatory effects. Further study we will analyzing plants effective single compound using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC profiling and progressing the experiments in vivo.

  1. The effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees extract and diterpenoids on the CYP450 isoforms' activities, a review of possible herb-drug interaction risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei Lan; Lim, Lin Ee

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees is a popular medicinal plant and its components are used in various traditional product preparations. However, its herb-drug interactions risks remain unclear. This review specifically discusses the various published studies carried out to evaluate the effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees plant extracts and diterpenoids on the CYP450 metabolic enzyme and if the plant components pose a possible herb-drug interaction risk. Unfortunately, the current data are insufficient to indicate if the extracts or diterpenoids can be labeled as in vitro CYP1A2, CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 inhibitors. A complete CYP inhibition assay utilizing human liver microsomes and the derivation of relevant parameters to predict herb-drug interaction risks may be necessary for these isoforms. However, based on the current studies, none of the extracts and diterpenoids exhibited CYP450 induction activity in human hepatocytes or human-derived cell lines. It is crucial that a well-defined experimental design is needed to make a meaningful herb-drug interaction prediction.

  2. New opportunities of the application of natural herb and spice extracts in plant oils: application of electron paramagnetic resonance in examining the oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Zawada, Katarzyna; Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the applicability of natural water-ethanol extracts of herbs and spices in increasing the oxidative stability of plant oils and in the production of novel food. Different concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, and 700 ppm) of spice extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (100 ppm) were added to the studied oils. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts was determined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The study showed that the extracts significantly increased the oxidative stability of the examined oils when compared to one of the strongest synthetic antioxidants--BHA. The applied simple production technology and addition of herb and spice extracts to plant oils enabled enhancement of their oxidative stability. The extracts are an alternative to the oils aromatized with an addition of fresh herbs, spices, and vegetables because it did not generate additional flavors thus enabling the maintenance of the characteristic ones. Moreover, it will increase the intake of natural substances in human diet, which are known to possess anticarcinogenic properties. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism(s) of action remain incompletely understood. To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli. Methods Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays. Results Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli in the disc diffusion assay. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Conclusions Many of the essential oils

  4. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Volatile Thymoquinone from Monarda didyma and M. fistulosa Herbs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Topiař, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 105, OCT (2015), s. 29-34 ISSN 0896-8446. [European Meeting on Supercritical Fluids /14./. Marseille, 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * kinetics * volatile oil Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2015

  5. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of the extracts from herbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-06-14

    Jun 14, 2012 ... Thailand registered PN in the list of herbal medical ... Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand. The ... automated blood analyzer (Hitachi Science Systems Ltd., Ibaraki, ..... toxic effects of the extracts in both concurrent control and ..... uric acid levels might be necessary when patients are.

  6. Holistic Healing Through Herbs: Effectiveness of Aloe Vera on Post Extraction Socket Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimma, Vijaya Lakshmi; Talla, Harsha Vardhan; Bairi, Jaya Krishna; Gopaldas, Madhulatha; Bathula, Haritha; Vangdoth, Sandeep

    2017-03-01

    Advances in the field of alternative medicine has encouraged the use of various natural products for multiple uses in the field of dentistry for treatment of various oral diseases. A natural herbal product is Aloe vera, which has number of benefits with no reported side effects and gaining considerable importance in clinical research. The aim of this cross-sectional randomized interventional study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Aloe vera in the healing of post extraction sockets. A sample size of 40 patients undergoing atraumatic extraction was divided into two groups. Group A-patients were prescribed only analgesics and followed for seven consecutive days and socket healing assessment was done. Group B-Patients were given Aloe vera soaked gel foams, followed up to the third and seventh day by two observers and the socket healing was assessed using the standardized index by Landry, Turnbull and Howley. In addition to healing the common complaint associated with extraction wound, the pain was assessed using numerical rating scale. Data obtained was statistically analysed using Mann-whitney U test, Wilcoxon Signed ranks test and Spearman's rank correlation method. Control group on the third and the seventh day showed healing of 60% and 70% respectively and the Aloe vera group showed a better result having a healing potential of 70% on the third day and 90% on the seventh day which was statistically significant with a (p-valueAloe vera group showed a significant decrease in pain after two hours on the day of extraction followed by second, third and seventh day which was statistically significant (p-valueAloe vera has been proved to have a unique property that is implicated in better healing than other group without any side effects. Aloe vera is economical, effective, powerful nutritional supplement and antioxidant that protects and promotes wound healing.

  7. Holistic Healing Through Herbs: Effectiveness of Aloe Vera on Post Extraction Socket Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Harsha Vardhan; Bairi, Jaya Krishna; Gopaldas, Madhulatha; Bathula, Haritha; Vangdoth, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Advances in the field of alternative medicine has encouraged the use of various natural products for multiple uses in the field of dentistry for treatment of various oral diseases. A natural herbal product is Aloe vera, which has number of benefits with no reported side effects and gaining considerable importance in clinical research. Aim The aim of this cross-sectional randomized interventional study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Aloe vera in the healing of post extraction sockets. Materials and Methods A sample size of 40 patients undergoing atraumatic extraction was divided into two groups. Group A-patients were prescribed only analgesics and followed for seven consecutive days and socket healing assessment was done. Group B-Patients were given Aloe vera soaked gel foams, followed up to the third and seventh day by two observers and the socket healing was assessed using the standardized index by Landry, Turnbull and Howley. In addition to healing the common complaint associated with extraction wound, the pain was assessed using numerical rating scale. Data obtained was statistically analysed using Mann-whitney U test, Wilcoxon Signed ranks test and Spearman’s rank correlation method. Results Control group on the third and the seventh day showed healing of 60% and 70% respectively and the Aloe vera group showed a better result having a healing potential of 70% on the third day and 90% on the seventh day which was statistically significant with a (p-valueAloe vera group showed a significant decrease in pain after two hours on the day of extraction followed by second, third and seventh day which was statistically significant (p-valueAloe vera has been proved to have a unique property that is implicated in better healing than other group without any side effects. Aloe vera is economical, effective, powerful nutritional supplement and antioxidant that protects and promotes wound healing. PMID:28511517

  8. Sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS quantitation and pharmacokinetic comparisons of multiple alkaloids from Fuzi- Beimu and single herb aqueous extracts following oral delivery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanyan; Li, Yamei; Zhang, Pengjie; Yang, Bin; Wu, Huanyu; Guo, Xuejun; Li, Yubo; Zhang, Yanjun

    2017-07-15

    Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata- Fritillariae Thunbergii bulbus, namely Fuzi- Beimu in Chinese, is a classic herb pair whose combined administration was prohibited according to the rule of "Eighteen antagonisms". However, incompatibility of Fuzi and Beimu has become controversial because of the application supported by many recorded ancient prescriptions and increasing modern researches and clinical practice. The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic differences of multiple alkaloids from Fuzi- Beimu and the single herb aqueous extracts following oral delivery in rats. Twelve alkaloids including aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, benzoylhypacoitine, neoline, fuziline, talatisamine, chasmanine, peimine and peimisine in rat plasma were simultaneously quantitated by using sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), with the method developed and fully validated. Plasma concentrations of the twelve alkaloids after administration were determined and pharmacokinetic parameters were compared. Significant differences were observed for all alkaloids except aconitine, mesaconitine and benzoylaconitine for Fuzi- Beimu group in comparison with the single herb group. AUC 0-t and T 1/2 of hypaconitine were increased significantly. AUC 0-t and C max were increased and T max decreased significantly for benzoylmesaconitine and benzoylhypacoitine. Fuziline showed significantly increased AUC 0-t , C max and T max . T 1/2 of neoline was notably increased. T 1/2 and T max were significantly elevated for talatisamine while C max decreased. T max of chasmanine was significantly increased and C max decreased. Extremely significant increase of T max was found for peimisine, and significant increase of T 1/2 for peimine. Results revealed that combined use of Fuzi and Beimu significantly influenced the system exposure and pharmacokinetic behaviors of multiple alkaloids from both

  9. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correction to: Ephedra Herb extract activates/desensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and reduces capsaicin-induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Jun; Hyuga, Sumiko; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto; Hyuga, Masashi; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Goda, Yukihiro; Hanawa, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2018-03-01

    The article Ephedra Herb extract activates/desensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and reduces capsaicin-induced pain, written by Shunsuke Nakamori, Jun Takahashi, Sumiko Hyuga, Toshiko Tanaka-Kagawa, Hideto Jinno, Masashi Hyuga, Takashi Hakamatsuka, Hiroshi Odaguchi, Yukihiro Goda, Toshihiko Hanawa and Yoshinori Kobayashi, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 71, issue 1, page 105-113 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to © The Author(s) 2018 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

  11. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Agent Isolated from Medicinal Herb and Inhibition Kinetics of Extracts from Eleusine indica (L. Gaertner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleusine indica (Linnaeus Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica, hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01±5.68% at 100 μg/mL. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded three compounds from the hexane fraction of E. indica, namely, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lutein. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral techniques. Lutein showed an outstanding inhibitory activity against PPL (55.98±1.04%, with activity 60% higher than that of the reference drug Orlistat. The other compounds isolated and identified were β-sitosterol (2.99±0.80% and stigmasterol (2.68±0.38%. The enzyme kinetics of E. indica crude methanolic extract on PPL showed mixed inhibition mechanism.

  12. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Agent Isolated from Medicinal Herb and Inhibition Kinetics of Extracts from Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Siew Ling; Mah, Siau Hui; Lai, How Yee

    2016-01-01

    Eleusine indica (Linnaeus) Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica , hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01 ± 5.68% at 100  μ g/mL. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded three compounds from the hexane fraction of E. indica , namely,  β -sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lutein. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral techniques. Lutein showed an outstanding inhibitory activity against PPL (55.98 ± 1.04%), with activity 60% higher than that of the reference drug Orlistat. The other compounds isolated and identified were  β -sitosterol (2.99 ± 0.80%) and stigmasterol (2.68 ± 0.38%). The enzyme kinetics of E. indica crude methanolic extract on PPL showed mixed inhibition mechanism.

  13. Crude Flavonoid Extract of Medicinal Herb Zingibar officinale Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ayman I; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid

    2017-07-05

    There is an urgent need to improve the clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common causes of global cancer-related deaths. Zingibar officinale is a medicinal herb used throughout history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. It has antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and free radical scavenging properties. Previously, we proved that the crude flavonoid extract of Z. officinale (CFEZO) inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. However, the effect of the CFEZO on an HCC cell line has not yet been evaluated. In this study, we explored the anticancer activity of CFEZO against an HCC cell line, HepG2. CFEZO significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Typical apoptotic morphological and biochemical changes, including cell shrinkage and detachment, nuclear condensation and fragmentation, DNA degradation, and comet tail formation, were observed after treatments with CFEZO. The apoptogenic activity of CFEZO involved induction of ROS, depletion of GSH, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase 3/9, and an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. CFEZO treatments induced upregulation of p53 and p21 expression and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 expression, which were accompanied by G2/M phase arrest. These findings suggest that CFEZO provides a useful foundation for studying and developing novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of HCC.

  14. [Antimutagenic activity of Armoracia rusticana, Zea mays and Ficus carica plant extracts and their mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E

    2005-01-01

    Antimutagenic action of plant extracts of Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica, Zea mays and their mixture on environmental xenobiotics has been investigated. The plant extracts and their mixture decreased the level of mutations induced by N-metil-N'-nitro-N-nitrozoguanidin (MNNG) in Vicia faba cells, chlorophyll mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana and NaF induced mutability in rat marrow cells. The studied plant extracts and their mixture demonstrate the ability to decrease the genotoxicity of environmental mutagens.

  15. Extraction and Separation of Cobalt and Nickel with Extractants Cyanex 302, Cyanex 272 and Their Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard, Z.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and separation of cobalt(II and nickel(II from sulphate solutions with different initial volume fractions of commercial organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 302, Cyanex 272 and their mixture, in kerosene as diluent, were investigated. Prepared samples contained the mixture of cobalt(II and nickel(II in mass concentrations chosen to approximate the mass concentrations of the two metals in solutions obtained by leaching typical low-grade ores or waste materials with sulphuric acid. The experiments were carried out at two concentration ratios of nickel to cobalt(ζNi/Co, 25 and 125. The latter ratio was chosen as model for the solutions of naturally occurring ores and other materials in which the concentration of nickel is much higher than that of cobalt. In all cases, the concentration of cobalt was approximately y= 0.15 g L–1, and the concentration of nickel was approximately g= 3.80 g L–1 (at ζNi/Co = 25 and 18.80 g L–1 (at ζNi/Co = 125. Other initial values were based on conditions found to be optimal in previous investigations, and kept constant in all experiments: pH0= 8, θ0 = 25 °C, phase volume ratio organic to aqueous ψ = 1 and 0.5, contact time 2 minutes.The tested fractions of extractants (Cyanex 302 or Cyanex 272, diluted in kerosene, were j = 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and φ = 10 %. The studies of the mixture of extractants were carried out at two sets of fractions. In the first set, the fraction of Cyanex 302 was kept at φ = 10 %, and Cyanex 272 was varied in the range φ = 2.5 –10 %. In the second set, the mass concentration of each of the two extractants was varied in the range φ = 2.5–10 % so that the total fraction of the two extractants always added up to φ= 10 %.The obtained results describe the influences of type and initial volume fraction of extractant on the separation and extraction of cobalt and nickel. Under the investigated range of conditions, Cyanex 302 outperformed Cyanex 272 in cobalt

  16. Anti-tumorigenic activity of five culinary and medicinal herbs grown under greenhouse conditions and their combination effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weiguang; Wetzstein, Hazel Y

    2011-08-15

    Herbs and spices have been used as food preservatives, flavorings, and in traditional medicines for thousands of years. More and more scientific evidence supports the medicinal properties of culinary herbs. Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the USA, and the fourth most common form of cancer worldwide. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antitumor activity of five selected herbs grown under greenhouse conditions, and to study the potential synergistic effects among different herbal extract combinations. Thyme, rosemary, sage, spearmint, and peppermint extracts significantly inhibited SW-480 colon cancer cell growth, with sage extracts exhibiting the highest bioactivity, with 50% inhibition at 35.9 µg mL⁻¹, which was equivalent to 93.9 µg dried leaves mL⁻¹ of culture medium. Some mixtures of different herbal extracts had combination effects on cancer cell growth. The inhibitory effects of peppermint + sage combinations at a 1:1 ratio were significantly higher than rosemary + sage combinations at 1:1 ratio, although peppermint extracts showed lower inhibition than rosemary extracts. Extracts from herb species (thyme, rosemary, sage, spearmint and peppermint) can significantly inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells. Mixtures of herb extracts can have combination effects on cancer cell growth. The study suggests that these five herbs may have potential health benefits to suppress colon cancer. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Mechanism of extraction of uranium (6) by mixtures of phosphororganic extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorovarov, D.I.; Ul'yanov, V.S.; Meshcheryakov, N.M.; Lagutenkov, V.A.; Mikheev, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction of uranium (6) from sulfuric acid solutions by solution of D2EHPA-TBP(TOPO) mixture in CCl 4 was studied by NMR method (D2HPA-di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid, TBP-tributylphosphate, TOPO-trioctylphosphine oxide). It is shown that stability and stoichiometry of formed solvates depends largely on electron-donor ability of organophosphoric base (TBP or TOPO). The presence of neutral base in extractive system leads to blocking of the coordination center of free D2EHPA molecules, growth of the active acid concentration, assisting in additional solvation of uranyl D2EHP molecules and formation of UO 2 (D2EHP) 2 ·nS type complexes. This results in extraction of additional U(6) quantities to organic phase

  18. Mixture-mixture design for the fingerprint optimization of chromatographic mobile phases and extraction solutions for Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cleber N; Bruns, Roy E; Almeida, Aline A; Scarminio, Ieda S

    2007-07-09

    A composite simplex centroid-simplex centroid mixture design is proposed for simultaneously optimizing two mixture systems. The complementary model is formed by multiplying special cubic models for the two systems. The design was applied to the simultaneous optimization of both mobile phase chromatographic mixtures and extraction mixtures for the Camellia sinensis Chinese tea plant. The extraction mixtures investigated contained varying proportions of ethyl acetate, ethanol and dichloromethane while the mobile phase was made up of varying proportions of methanol, acetonitrile and a methanol-acetonitrile-water (MAW) 15%:15%:70% mixture. The experiments were block randomized corresponding to a split-plot error structure to minimize laboratory work and reduce environmental impact. Coefficients of an initial saturated model were obtained using Scheffe-type equations. A cumulative probability graph was used to determine an approximate reduced model. The split-plot error structure was then introduced into the reduced model by applying generalized least square equations with variance components calculated using the restricted maximum likelihood approach. A model was developed to calculate the number of peaks observed with the chromatographic detector at 210 nm. A 20-term model contained essentially all the statistical information of the initial model and had a root mean square calibration error of 1.38. The model was used to predict the number of peaks eluted in chromatograms obtained from extraction solutions that correspond to axial points of the simplex centroid design. The significant model coefficients are interpreted in terms of interacting linear, quadratic and cubic effects of the mobile phase and extraction solution components.

  19. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QFB ALE

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Plant extracts are an important part in agroecology, as they benefit environment in combating ... to public health and a major concern for infection control ..... extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and Allium sativum against food.

  20. Extractability of Thevetia peruviana glycosides with alcohol mixture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Nitrogen extraction of defatted rapeseed with particular reference to United Kingdom rapeseed meal. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36: 520–530. Finnigan TJA, Lewis MJ (1988). Ethanolic Extraction of Commercial. Rapeseed Meal in the Production of Protein Concentrate of Reduced. Glucosinolate Content. J. Sci.

  1. Kynurenic acid content in anti-rheumatic herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgrajka, Wojciech; Turska, Monika; Rajtar, Grażyna; Majdan, Maria; Parada-Turska, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines is common among people living in rural areas and increasingly popular in urbanized countries. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a metabolite of kynurenine possessing anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and pain reliving properties. Previous data indicated that the content of KYNA in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is lower than in patients with osteoarthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder affecting about 1% of the world's population. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the content of KYNA in 11 herbal preparations used in rheumatic diseases. The following herbs were studied: bean pericarp, birch leaf, dandelion root, elder flower, horsetail herb, nettle leaf, peppermint leaf and willow bark. An anti-rheumatic mixture of the herbs Reumatefix and Reumaflos tea were also investigated. The herbs were prepared according to producers' directions. In addition, the herbal supplement Devil's Claw containing root of Harpagophytum was used. KYNA content was measured using the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and KYNA was detected fluorometrically. KYNA was found in all studied herbal preparations. The highest content of KYNA was found in peppermint, nettle, birch leaf and the horsetail herb. The lowest content of KYNA was found in willow bark, dandelion root and in the extract from the root of Harpagophytum. These findings indicate that the use of herbal preparations containing a high level of KYNA can be considered as a supplementary measure in rheumatoid arthritis therapy, as well as in rheumatic diseases prevention.

  2. Study of extraction of rare earths by oil sulfoxides and their mixtures with tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhlin, E.B.; Vol'dman, G.M.; Zelikman, A.N.; Novikova, N.N.

    1977-01-01

    Neodymium distribution is studied during its extraction from nitrate solutions with oil sulphoxides (OSO) and their mixtures with TBP in a wide range of neodymium and desalting agent (aluminium nitrate) concentrations. The extraction capacity of OSO is shown to considerably exceed that of TBP. A synergic effect due to formation of mixed solvates is observed at extraction with an OSO-TBP mixture. The separation coefficients (β) of the pairs Ce-La, Pr-Ce and Nd-Pr are determined. OSO and, especially, the OSO-TBP mixture are shown to be applicable for separating cerium and lanthanum, since the βsub(Ge/La) value for these extraction agents is higher than that for TBP, the extraction agent capacity attaining values that are acceptable for practival purposes

  3. Liquid-liquid extraction of Th4+ and UO22+ by LIX-26 and its mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Panda, C.R.; Chakravortty, V.; Dash, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Solvent extractions of thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) by a commercially available chelating extractant LIX-26 (an alkylated 8-hydroxyquinoline) of 8-hydroxyquinoline, benzoic or salicylic acid, dipentyl sulfoxide (DPSO) and their mixtures with butanol as modifier in benzene/methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK) as a diluent were studied. The influence of concentration of various anions on the extraction of Th 4+ by mixtures of LIX-26 and benzoic acid was studied. Studies on extraction of thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) by mixtures of LIX-26 (HQ) and DPSO show that the extracted species are possibly of the type [(ThQ 2 (DPSO) 2 (SCN) 2 )] and [(UO 2 Q 2 (DPSO)]), respectively. (author) 22 refs.; 8 figs

  4. The Activity Test of Ethanol Extract Tea Parasite Herb (Scurrulla Artopurpurea) as an Immunostimulator on Wistar Strain Rat Sensititized with Sheep Red Blood Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Retno; Dimas A, M.; Hafiz, Aldi; Amalia, Muttia

    2018-03-01

    Tea parasite (Scurrulla artropurpurea) is one of the hemiparasite plants suspected as an imustimulator agent. The aims of this study was to prove the activity of tea parasite herb extract as immunostimulator in Wistar strain rats that are sensitized by sheep red blood cell suspension (SRBC). Twenty eight Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. The control group was given CMC 1%, the treatment group was given the tea parasite herb extract at doses of 750 mg, 1.5g and 3 g/kgBW/day, each group was sensitized by SRBC 10% as much 0.5 ml intraperitoneally on the 0th and 9th days and 0.1 ml intraplantar on 12th days. The total number of leukocyte and lymphocyte cells was performed using blood smear and analyzed by GLMRM. test. The macrophage cell activity and the capacity of the peritoneal fluid preparation on day 14 and analyzed by ANOVA test. The histopathological features are demonstrated after 48 hours of intraplantar injection, quantitatively perceived perivascular and periadnexal infiltrates. The results showed that there were average differences on leukocyte cell counts (F = 46.249) and total lymphocyte cells (F = 58.144) on each calculation (day), but there were no average differences between each treatment group. The highest activity of phagocytosis is 78% and continues to increase along with the additional dose of extract, without the increased capacity of macrophage phagocytosis. Histopathological features of slow-type IV reaction shows mild severity. It can be concluded that the active compound of the extract tea parasite herbare able to improve immune system.

  5. Use of technical mixtures of carboxylic acids to the extraction of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smulek, W.

    1983-01-01

    The application of technical mixtures of carboxylic acids, obtained from a Polish oil mill, to the extraction of silver, gold, and europium is described. The distribution ratio is given as a function of HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 concentrations, extractant and metal concentrations, and nature of diluent. (author)

  6. Anti-cholesterol activity in vivo test of multifunction herbs extract in the water using in vivo method in mice (Mus musculus L.) DDY-strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristantini, Dewi; Christina, Diana

    2018-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is the hardening of the arteries due to cholesterol accumulation in the blood vessels. The occurrence of cardiovascular disease can be reduced by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. Nevertheless, using some pharmaceutical synthetic medicine for lowering the cholesterol has several side effects that dangerous for human body. There are 3 plants, tanjung leaf (Mimusops elengi L.), star fruit leaf (Averrhoa carambola L.), and curcuma (Curcuma xanthorrhiza L.), which are combined empirically believed would serve as multifunction herbs. Tanjung leaf has been known to have antioxidant, anti-cholesterol, and anti-platelet activity, also star fruit leaf have anti-hyperglycemia activity. Furthermore, curcuma has been known as a hepatoprotection agent. In this study, the combination of all three simplicias were used as anti-cholesterol. Anti-cholesterol activity test by in vivo method using mice (Mus muculus L.) result in decreased cholesterol as much as 47% for 250 mL human dosage in 7 days. This performance equals to 73% of simvastatin activity in decreased cholesterol. In this study, we can conclude the multifunction herbs that were combination of tanjung (M. elengi) leaf, star fruit leaf (Averrhoa carambola L.), and curcuma (Curcuma xanthorrhiza L.) extract can be used as cholesterol decreasing medicine.

  7. High temperature solvent extraction of oil shale and bituminous coal using binary solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A high volatile bituminous coal from the Saar Basin and an oil shale from the Messel deposit, both Germany, were extracted with binary solvent mixtures using the Advanced Solvent Extraction method (ASE). Extraction temperature and pressure were kept at 100 C, respectively 150 C, and 20,7 MPa. After the heating phase (5 min) static extractions were performed with mixtures (v:v, 1:3) of methanol with toluene, respectively trichloromethane, for further 5 min. Extract yields were the same or on a higher level compared to those from classical soxhlet extractions (3 days) using the same solvents at 60 C. Comparing the results from ASE with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) the extract yields were similar. Increasing the temperature in ASE releases more soluble organic matter from geological samples, because compounds with higher molecular weight and especially more polar substances were solubilized. But also an enhanced extraction efficiency resulted for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used as biomarkers in Organic Geochemistry. Application of thermochemolysis with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) on the extraction residues shows clearly that at higher extraction temperatures minor amounts of free fatty acids or their methyl esters (original or produced by ASE) were trapped inside the pore systems of the oil shale or the bituminous coal. ASE offers a rapid and very efficient extraction method for geological samples reducing analysis time and costs for solvents. (orig.)

  8. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  9. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) extract and andrographolide with etoricoxib after oral administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balap, Aishwarya; Atre, Bhagyashri; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Sinnathambi, Arulmozhi; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2016-05-13

    Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthacae) is commonly used medicinal plant in the traditional. Unani and Ayurvedic medicinal systems. It has broad range of pharmacological effects such as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antivenom, antifertility, inhibition of replication of the HIV virus, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, suppression of various cancer cells and anti-inflammatory properties. Andrographolide (AN) is one of the active constituent of the A. paniculata Nees extract (APE). They have been found in many traditional herbal formulations in India and proven to be effective as anti-inflammatory drug To evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (anti-arthritic) herb-drug interactions of A. paniculata Nees extract (APE) and pure andrographolide (AN) with etoricoxib (ETO) after oral co-administration in wistar rats. After oral co-administration of APE (200mg/Kg) and AN (60mg/kg) with ETO (10mg/kg) in rats, drug concentrations in plasma were determined using HPLC method. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, tmax, t1/2, MRT, Vd, CL, and AUC were calculated by non-compartment model. Change in paw volume, mechanical nociceptive threshold, mechanical hyperalgesia, histopathology and hematological parameters were evaluated to study antiarthritic activity. Co-administration of ETO with APE and pure AN decreased systemic exposure level of each compound in vivo. The Cmax, AUC, t1/2 of ETO was decreased whereas Vd and CL of ETO was increased significantly after co-administration of ETO with pure AN and APE. In pharmacodynamic study, ETO alone and ETO+APE (10+200mg/kg) groups exhibited significant synergistic anti-arthritic activity as compared to groups ETO+AN, APE and AN alone. The results obtained from this study suggested that ETO, APE and pure AN existed pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions in rat which is correlated with anti-arthritic study. Physicians and patients using A. paniculata should have the knowledge about its possible

  10. Solvent extraction of thorium from nitrate medium by TBP, Cyanex272 and their mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaan Shaeri; Ahmad Rahbar Kelishami; Meisam Torab-Mostaedi

    2015-01-01

    The extraction behavior of thorium(IV) has been investigated with tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex272) in kerosene from nitrate medium. The effect of operating variables including time, aqueous phase acidity (pH), extractant concentration and temperature were investigated. This study also examined the synergistic enhancement of the extraction of thorium(IV) from nitrate medium by mixtures of TBP and Cyanex272 for the first time. The optimum synergistic enhancement factor of 3.86 was obtained at a Cyanex272/TBP molar ratio of 1:4. (author)

  11. Synergistic solvent extraction of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with mixtures of various organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B.V.; Reddy, L.K.; Reddy, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Synergistic solvent extraction of Eu(III) and Tb(III) from thiocyanate solutions with mixtures of 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA) and di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (DEHPA) or tributyl phosphate (TBP) or trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or triphenylphosphine oxide (TPhPO) in benzene has been studied. The mechanism of extraction can be explained by a simple chemically based model. The equilibrium constants of the mixed-ligand species of the various neutral donors have been determined by non-linear regression analysis. (author) 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Use of solvent mixtures for total lipid extraction of Chlorella vulgaris and gas chromatography FAME analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Kheibari, Narges; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Majid

    2017-09-01

    Lipid extraction is the bottleneck step for algae-based biodiesel production. Herein, 12 solvent mixture systems (mixtures of three non-polar and two polar organic solvents) were examined to evaluate their effects on the total lipid yield from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). Moreover, the extraction yields of three solvent systems with maximum extraction efficiency of esterifiable lipids were determined by acidic transesterification and GC-FID analysis. Three solvent systems, which resulted in a higher extraction yield, were further subjected to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The total lipid extraction yields (based on dry biomass) were (38.57 ± 1.51), (25.33 ± 0.58), and (25.17 ± 1.14) %, for chloroform-methanol (1:2) (C1M2), hexane-methanol (1:2) (H1M2), and chloroform-methanol (2:1) (C2M1), respectively. The extraction efficiency of C1M2 was approximately 1.5 times higher than H1M2 and C2M1, whereas the FAME profile of extracted lipids by H1M2 and C1M2 were almost identical. Moreover, the esterifiable lipid extraction yields of (18.14 ± 2.60), (16.66 ± 0.35), and (13.22 ± 0.31) % (based on dry biomass) were obtained for C1M2, H1M2, and C2M1 solvent mixture systems, respectively. The biodiesel fuel properties produced from C. vulgaris were empirically predicted and compared to that of the EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 standard specifications.

  13. Receptor research on xenohormone effects of human serum extracts containing the actual mixture of perfluorinated alkyl acids: a short review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Olesen, Christian; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    differs between individuals. Hence, the toxicological studies of single PFAAs and simple mixtures might be insufficient to predict how the actual mixtures of PFAAs may affect humans. To get a better evaluation of the actual mixture effects, we developed a method to extract the actual mixture of PFAAs from...... (http://fetotox.au.dk/), we are currently extracting the actual PFAA serum mixture from 700 pregnant women to further elucidate the potential of the serum PFAA mixture to transactivate the ER at the levels found in human serum. We suggest that our method can in the future be used to study the effects...... of the actual serum PFAA mixture on both steroid hormone actions as well as other hormonal systems e.g. thyroid hormone function. In the current review we will discuss how our recently developed PFAA extraction method might be used in future research to assess the endocrine impact of PFAAs on human health....

  14. Characterisation of phenolics in Flor-Essence--a compound herbal product and its contributing herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ammar; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Harris, Cory; Asim, Muhammad; Tamayo, Carmen; Sit, Summer; Arnason, John Thor

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available herbal mixture FE, a proprietary natural health product manufactured by Flora Manufacturing and Distributing Ltd (Flora), is a unique North American traditional herbal product. FE is a chemically complex mixture of eight herbs and has not been subjected to phytochemical analysis. To develop analytical methods to undertake detailed phytochemical analyses of FE, and its eight contributing herbs, including burdock (Arctium lappa L.), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.), Turkish rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), slippery elm Muhl. (Ulmus rubra), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus L.) and kelp (Laminaria digitata Lmx.). The identification was undertaken by a combination of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass selective detection (RP-HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSD) analysis and phenolics metabolomic library matching. New separation methods facilitated the identification of 43 markers in the individual herbs which constitute FE. Sixteen markers could be identified in FE originating from four contributing herbs including four caffeoyl quinic acids, three dicaffeoyl quinic acids and two caffeic acid derivatives from A. lappa, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, five apigenin glycosides and apigenin from R. acetocella and N. officinale and sissostrin from T. pretense. A validated method for quantitative determination of three markers is reported with good intraday, interday and interoperator repeatability using a reliable alcohol based extraction technique. FE and its contributing herbs predominantly contain phenolics. This methodology can be applied to further develop full-scale validation of this product.

  15. Extraction of Betulin, Trimyristin, Eugenol and Carnosic Acid Using Water-Organic Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius N. Lugemwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates the use of water in organic solvents to extract natural products from plants. Measurement of the free-radical scavenging activity using by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH indicated that the extraction of plant material using ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water (4.5:4.5:1, v/v/v was exhaustive when carried out at room temperature for 96 h.

  16. Separation/extraction, detection, and interpretation of DNA mixtures in forensic science (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ruiyang; Wang, Shouyu; Zhang, Jiashuo; Zhang, Jingyi; Yang, Zihao; Sheng, Xiang; Hou, Yiping; Zhang, Suhua; Li, Chengtao

    2018-05-25

    Interpreting mixed DNA samples containing material from multiple contributors has long been considered a major challenge in forensic casework, especially when encountering low-template DNA (LT-DNA) or high-order mixtures that may involve missing alleles (dropout) and unrelated alleles (drop-in), among others. In the last decades, extraordinary progress has been made in the analysis of mixed DNA samples, which has led to increasing attention to this research field. The advent of new methods for the separation and extraction of DNA from mixtures, novel or jointly applied genetic markers for detection and reliable interpretation approaches for estimating the weight of evidence, as well as the powerful massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology, has greatly extended the range of mixed samples that can be correctly analyzed. Here, we summarized the investigative approaches and progress in the field of forensic DNA mixture analysis, hoping to provide some assistance to forensic practitioners and to promote further development involving this issue.

  17. A PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AZEOTROPIC MIXTURES BY EXTRACTIVE AND CONVECTIVE DISTILLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, J.W.

    1961-12-19

    A method is described for separating an azeotrope of carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorodinitroethane boiling at 60 deg C. The ndethod comnprises, specifically, feeding azeotrope vapors admixed with a non- reactive gas into an extractive distillation column heated to a temperature preferably somewhat above the boiling point of the constant boiling mixture. A solvent, di-n-butylphthalate, is metered into the column above the gas inlet and permitted to flow downward, earrying with it the higher bomling fraction, while the constituent having the lower boiling point passes out of the top of the column with the non-reactive gas and is collected in a nitrogen cold trap. Other solvents which alter the vapor pressure relationship may be substituted. The method is generally applicable to azeotropic mixtures. A number of specific mixtures whicb may be separated are disclosed. (AEC)

  18. An effective protein extraction method for two-dimensional electrophoresis in the anticancer herb Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Puad, Mohd Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of plants relies on high yields of pure protein. In plants, protein extraction and purification present a great challenge due to accumulation of a large amount of interfering substances, including polysaccharides, polyphenols, and secondary metabolites. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the extraction protocols. A study was conducted to compare four protein extraction and precipitation methods for proteomic analysis. The results showed significant differences in protein content among the four methods. The chloroform-trichloroacetic acid-acetone method using 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer provided the best results in terms of protein content, pellets, spot resolution, and intensity of unique spots detected. An overall of 83 qualitative or quantitative significant differential spots were found among the four methods. Based on the 2-DE gel map, the method is expected to benefit the development of high-level proteomic and biochemical studies of Andrographis paniculata, which may also be applied to other recalcitrant medicinal plant tissues. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Extraction of oil from pequi fruit (Caryocar Brasiliense, Camb. using several solvents and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniassi, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oil extraction process from pequi pulp using different solvents (hexane, acetone and ethyl alcohol and their mixtures was investigated, using a simplex-centroid design. The extraction occurred at 50°C, under stirring (22 Hz, for 16 hours. The solid-liquid ratio used was 1:10 (w/w. Higher yield values were obtained for extractions with acetone and hexane, especially their mixtures with ethanol. Iodine value, saponification value and refractive index did not differ significantly among the treatments. A higher acid value was obtained for the extraction with ethyl alcohol. Higher carotenoid contents were obtained for the extraction with acetone and ethyl alcohol as pure solvents. The fatty acid profile in the oil fraction of the extracts did not vary among the different types of solvents and their mixtures.En este trabajo fue estudiado el proceso de extracción de aceite de la pulpa de pequi utilizando diferentes disolventes (n-hexano, acetona y etanol y sus mezclas, empleando diseño central simplex. Las extracciones fueron realizadas a 50°C, durante 16 horas de agitación (22 Hz. La proporción sólido:líquido empleada fue 1:10 (p/p. Los mayores rendimientos fueron obtenidos para las extracciones con acetona y con hexano, especialmente cuando fueron mezclados con etanol. El índice de yodo, el índice de saponificación y el índice de refracción no difirieron significativamente entre los tratamientos. Los mayores valores de acidez se obtuvieron en la extracción con etanol. Los mayores contenidos en carotenoides se obtuvieron en las extracciones con acetona y etanol como disolventes puros. El perfil de los ácidos grasos en las fracciones de aceite de los extractos no presentó variación entre los diferentes tipos de disolventes y sus mezclas.

  20. [Determination of seven strobilurin fungicide residues in Chinese herbs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yule; Huang, Chaoqun; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xiaomei; Mo, Weimin

    2013-03-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneously determination of seven strobilurin fungicide residues in Chinese herbs. The strobilurin fungicides include Z-metominostrobin, kresoxim-methyl, dimoxystrobin, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate and cleaned-up by an amino SPE column. The seven strobilurin fungicide residues were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution of 1.0 per thousand formic acid and methanol as mobile phases, and detected by ESI-MS in positive ion and selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. External standard method was used to the quantification with good linear relationships (r > or = 0. 996). The LOQs were 2 micro g/kg for dimoxystrobin, picoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin, 4 mciro g/kg for pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin, 10 micro g/kg for Z-metominostrobin and kresoxim-methyl. The recoveries were from 60.4% to 110% with the RSDs between 1.2% and 17%. The developed method is suitable for the determination and confirmation of the seven strobilurin fungicide residues in the three of Eight Zhes ( Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.), Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. and Corydalis yanhusuo W T Wang).

  1. Extraction solvent’s effect on biogas production from mixtures of date seed and wastewater sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radeef Wameed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of extraction solvent on biogas production from mixtures of date (Phoenix dactylifera seed and wastewater treatment sludge. Date palm seed is a locally produced waste which is used in different useful purposes. Date seed is rich in proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and have the potential for biogas enhancement. In this study, three extraction solvents, hexane, ethyl acetate and Ethanol:water (1:1, were used on two types of date seeds (locally known as Khalas and Khudari. Date seed powder of size 0.425 – 0.6 mm after extraction was mixed with wastewater treatment sludge at dry date seed/dry sludge solids ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%. The study showed a direct relationship between biogas production and ratio of date seeds/wastewater sludge in the mixture. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the quantity of biogas produced from samples containing raw date seed was almost same as the quantity produced from samples containing date seed after extraction. The results revealed that the used extraction solvents had no effect on biogas production

  2. Comparative Fingerprint of Aromatic Herbs and Yeast Alcoholic Extracts used as Ingredients for Promen, a Prostate Preventive Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Csernatoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and identify different bioactive compounds in plant sources and yeast powders  to obtain an original nutraceutical (Promen which has beneficial effects in prostate disease prevention. Seven plant and fruit sources, namely nettle (Urtica dioica, green tea (Camellia sinensis, fluff with small flowers (Epilobium parviplorum, tomato (Solanum licopersicum,  sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, sunflower (Helianthus annus and lyophilized beer yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Methanolic extracts were prepared using 15% plant concentration and the purified fractions were analyzed using high throughput techniques like UV-VIS spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD and mass spectrometry LC-QTOF -MS. The majority of the investigated plants were rich in phenolic derivatives, polyphenols (flavonoid glucosides, while yeast was rich in aminoacids, peptides and vitamins B. The major compounds identified were: Juglone, Resveratrol, Quercetin, Epigallocatechin, Gallocatechin, Biochanin A, Isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside 7-O-rhamnoside, Quercetin 3-O-galactoside 7-O-rhamnoside, Kaempferol 3,7-O-diglucoside and p-Coumaroylquinic acid. The specific biomarkers were identified for both plant extracts used as ingredients to obtain an nutraceutical  Promen. Combined UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC-PDA chromatography and LC-MS spectrometry are recommended as accurate, sensible and reliable tools to investigate the plants and nutraceutical fingerprints and to predict the relation between ingredients composition and their health effects.

  3. Role of herbs in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Tewari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and herbs have attracted a lot of attention since the past few years. The market for drugs extracted from these plants and made from herbal extracts has seen a significant rise. India is known for its rich stock of medicinal plants. Among many, some herbs are rich in phytochemical content. These phytochemicals are useful in generating phytomedicines which have effects on the human body. In the field of endodontics, phytomedicines are a boon. They have been popularly used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, sedatives, and antibiotics. They are most significantly used as endodontic irrigants. Phytotherapy has been a grand entrant in the drug market. The reason why herbal extracts have the potential to be highly popular is due to the side effects of synthetic medicines which alter microbiota.

  4. Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined

  5. A thermoluminescence study of mineral silicates extracted from herbs in the dose range 0.5–5 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Monaca, Sara; Fattibene, Paola; Bortolin, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    The presence of silicates in many personal objects suggests their potential use at low dose as fortuitous dosimeter in an accidental radiological exposure, when conventional dosimetry is not available. The goal of the present work is the dosimetric characterization of mineral silicates extracted from the plant Hibiscus Sabdariffa L, known as Jamaica flower, in the dose range 0.5–5 Gy. By studying the radiation-induced signal in time, the temperature integration region between 210 °C and 250 °C was found to be the most stable and also reduced the effects of thermal fading in the dose reconstruction process; the dose response curve was linear between 0.5 Gy and 5 Gy. By checking the change in sensitivity after repeated exposures to ionizing radiations and to high temperature heating, no variation in the glow curve shape or peak intensities were detected. To eliminate a pre-existing background signal, all the characterization measurements were performed with aliquots “annealed” by a preliminary readout of the TL. - Highlights: • Glow curves change in shape and intensity just in the first 3 days after irradiation. • The dose response is linear in the dose range 0.5–5 Gy. • The curve shape or intensity don't change after repeated exposures and heatings. • Encouraging results were obtained in the dose recovery test

  6. Statistical mixture design selective extraction of compounds with antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content from Trichilia catigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonni, Audrey Alesandra Stinghen Garcia; Longhini, Renata; Lopes, Gisely Cristiny; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2012-03-16

    Statistical design mixtures of water, methanol, acetone and ethanol were used to extract material from Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae) barks to study the effects of different solvents and their mixtures on its yield, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The experimental results and their response surface models showed that quaternary mixtures with approximately equal proportions of all four solvents provided the highest yields, total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of the crude extracts followed by ternary design mixtures. Principal component and hierarchical clustering analysis of the HPLC-DAD spectra of the chromatographic peaks of 1:1:1:1 water-methanol-acetone-ethanol mixture extracts indicate the presence of cinchonains, gallic acid derivatives, natural polyphenols, flavanoids, catechins, and epicatechins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomized double-blind study: wound-healing effects of a Symphytum herb extract cream (Symphytum×uplandicum Nyman) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, M; Kucera, A; Hladíkova, M; Kucera, M

    2012-06-01

    The wound healing effects of the topically applied preparation Traumaplant® containing a concentrate (10% active ingredient) from the aerial parts of medicinal comfrey (Symphytum × uplandicum Nyman) were examined in a randomized, controlled, clinical double-blind study. An otherwise identical low-dose preparation (1% active ingredient) was used as a control. The study population consisted of 108 children aged 3-12 years (n=54/group) with fresh abrasions. A 50% healing rate was reached 0.9 days earlier with the higher than with the lower concentration cream. The difference in the healing rate (0.38±0.18/day [95% CI 0.33-0.4] vs. 0.26±0.14/day [95% CI 0.222-0.297]) was statistically significant (p=0.0002). Physicians and children/parents both rated the efficacy of the 10% cream as significantly better than that of the control preparation (physicians' assessment after 2-3 and 7-9 days for verum vs. control: 90.7 and 92.6% vs. 55.6 and 74.0% of the healing rates were rated as "good" or "very good", respectively; p=0.0004 and 0.01). In subgroup analyses, there was no significant influence on the healing rate of the time elapsed between the accident and the first consultation, the wound surface, the affected body part, the origin of the injury and gender. There were no reported adverse effects or problems with tolerability such as local skin irritations. The results justify application of the Symphytum herb extract cream in children with blunt traumata with or without abrasions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. [Wound healing effects of a Symphytum herb extract cream (Symphytum x uplandicum NYMAN: ): results of a randomized, controlled double-blind study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, Milos; Kucera, Alexander; Hladícova, Marie; Kucera, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Wound healing effects of a topically applied preparation (Traumaplant) containing a concentrate (10 % active ingredient) from the aerial parts of medicinal comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum NYMAN: ) were examined in a randomized clinical double-blind study including 278 patients with fresh abrasions (verum: n = 137), among them 64 patients of up to 20 years of age (verum n = 29, reference product n = 35). An otherwise identical low-dose preparation (1 % active ingredient; n = 141) was used as a reference. After 2-3 days of application of the study medication a highly significantly and clinically relevantly faster initial reduction of wound size of 49 + or - 19 % versus 29 + or - 13 % per day in favour of verum (p < 5x10(-21)) was found. From linear regression time to complete healing was determined to be 2.97 days faster with verum than with reference (4.08 vs. 7.05 days, p = 7.4 x 10(-45) in the t-Test comparison of regression lines). The physicians rated efficacy as good to very good in 93.4 % of cases, as compared to 61.7 % in the group treated with the reference product (p = 2 x 10(-11)). On a scale of 0-100 verum was rated with 84.4 + or - 10.1 points by the patients themselves. The reference product was rated with 65.5 + or - 24.8 points (p = 6.1 x 10(-18)). In subgroup analyses no significant influence of abrasion area, gender and age on healing effects was found, albeit a tendency towards better effects with increasing age was observed. No adverse effects or problems with drug tolerability occurred. Specifically, cutaneous reactions were observed in none of the patients throughout the 10 day observation phase. Symphytum herb extract can be attributed distinct wound healing effects, effects that can explicitly be used in paediatry.

  9. Nature of strontium extraction by synergistic mixtures of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, I.V.; Stoyanov, E.S.; Vorob'eva, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Extraction of strontium by synergistic mixtures of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (DCC) with different polyethers was studied. In the acidic media the distribution coefficients (D(Sr)) decreases in the order 15-crown-5 > PEG-400 > 18-crown-6 and does not correspond to the row of constants stability of the strontium complexes with these polyethers. When passing to the salt media (Li and Na nitrates) the row of D(Sr) is changed: PEG-400 > 18 crown 6 > 15 crown 5. IR-spectroscopy study has shown that in synergistic mixtures the proton forms [H 5O2 + .PEG], [H 5O2 + .(15-crown-5)2] and [H 3 O + .(18 crown 6)] cations, which are exchange on Sr 2+ resulting to formation [Sr 2+ .PEG], [Sr 2+ .(15-crown-5)2] and [Sr 2+ .(18-crown-6)(H 2 O)n] cations correspondingly. The PEG-400 is the best among polyethylene glycols, since its all six COC groups and two even more active OH groups complete the first co-ordination sphere of Sr 2+ . Extremely low extractability of Sr 2+ from acidic media in the presence of 18-crown-6 as compared with 15-crown-5 is mainly caused by the high stability of the [H 3 O + .(18-crown-6)] cation that is responsible for less extractable hydrated Sr complex formation. (author)

  10. Burn drug made from ozonated vegetable oil mixture with white tumeric and cassava leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulydia Farah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to create a burn treatment performed with ozonation process from a mixture of vegetable oil and added extracts of herbal ingredients. Ozonation on vegetable oils proven to kill bacteria and safe for the body. Ozonated vegetable oil produced from the ozone reactor batch process by doing a variety of extraction mixture to Oleozon® and vegetable oils. Then the results of ozonation is added extracts of herbal ingredients that cassava leaves and white turmeric to increase effectiveness in killing bacteria. Cassava leaves have anti-inflammatory agent, namely Vitamin C. While white turmeric Curcuma zedoaria have substance, which of the two compounds can inhibit and kill bacteria. The quality of ozonated oil (Oleozon® analytically were tested by the method of iodine number, acid number, peroxide number, and FTIR. Ozonation increased the peroxide and acid values for both oils, the increase being higher for mixture of coconut oil and soybean oil. The results of such mixing is then tested in bacteria to determine their effectiveness in killing the bacteria. The best ozonation condition is in an increase of 386,85% acid value, peroxide value about 102,91 meq/kg oil, and decrease in iodine number up to 21%. The result showed that under these conditions, ozonized oil has an antiseptic effect against Staphylococcus aureus. The final results of this study are expected to be a new innovation in the healing of skin wounds caused by burns as an anti-inflammatory that is effective, safe, and environmentally friendly.

  11. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  12. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2011-01-01

    there is limited information about mineral concentrations in forage herbs. To determine whether herbs have greater macro- and micromineral concentrations than forage legumes and grasses, we conducted a 2-year experiment on a loamy-sand site in Denmark sown with a multi-species mixture comprised of three functional...

  13. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  14. Effect of dietary natural extracts mixture on rabbit does reproductive performances: preliminary data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Chiapparini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, research has focused the attention on the use of substances able to improve both animal health and meat quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with natural extracts in rabbit does on reproductive parameters. Natural extracts have been widely reported to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobic activities related especially to their phenolic content (Pereira et al., 2009. In rabbit production, does are normally inseminated 11 days after parturition, with kits being weaned at 35 days (Rebollar et al., 2006. The reproductive phase is a critical period because the animals have few days to reconstitute their body reserves (Castellini et al., 2003.  Therefore, the interaction between nutrition and reproduction is crucial in this specie (Butler, 2000; Roche et al., 2000. The trial was performed at the Research Institute for animal production in Nitra (Slovak Republic. Sixty does were randomly selected, artificially inseminated and divided into three experimental groups. The first fed a basal diet (C, the second one (T1 received 0.3% of natural extracts mixture and the third one (T2 an integration of 0.6% of natural extracts mixture for gestation and lactation period (65 days The animals were allocated in individual flat-deck cages with a closeable nest box. At parturition, the total number of kits born and stillborn and litters weights were recorded. The data were analyzed by one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA using SPSS (IBM.-SSPS Statistics 24. Dietary supplementation did not affect (P>0.05 number of kids born (8.0 ± 1.0 C vs 7.3 ± 0.97 T1 and 7.4 ± 1.0 T2 and birth weight (63 ± 2.0 g C vs 60.1 ± 2.3 g T1 and 61.0 ± 2.4 g T2.  The administration of natural extract in does did not improve (P>0.05 the kits average daily gain (20.54 ± 1.3 g/d C vs 21.92 ± 0.5 g/d T1 and 20.93 ± 0.9 g/d T2 and body weight at weaning (829 ± 16.6 g C vs 834 ± 26.6 g

  15. Extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides by a synergistic mixture of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and a linear polyether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensor, D.D.; Shah, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Mixtures of a two component system, a linear polyether, 1,13-bis[8-quinolyl]-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxatridecane, K-5, and thenoyltrifluoroacetone, HTTA, have been shown to exhibit synergistic character in the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The effect of the addition of K-5 to the organic phase on the extractions of Ce(III), Eu(III), Tm(III), Am(III), Cm(III), Bk(III), and Cf(III) by HTTA in chloroform from 0.5M NaNO 3 at 25 0 C has been measured. These results indicate the extraction is enhanced by the formation of M(TTA) 3 K-5 adduct in the organic phase. The organic phase stability constants for the formation of these synergistic species have been calculated for all the metals studied. The magnitude of these organic phase stability constants for K-5 are similar to other common neutral donors. The order of stability does not follow the normal trend based on charge-to-radius ratio, but follows a pattern based on size, with Am(III) being the most stable

  16. Determination of fluorine in herbs and water samples by molecular absorption spectrometry after preconcentration on nano-TiO2 using ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Coda, Magdalena; Stanisz, Ewa

    2017-11-01

    This work presents ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid phase extraction (USA DMSPE) for preconcentration of fluorine (F) in water and herb samples. TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) were used as an adsorbent. The determination with slurry sampling was performed via molecular absorption of calcium monofluoride (CaF) at 606.440 nm using a high-resolution continuum source electrothermal absorption spectrometry (HR-CS ET MAS). Several factors influencing the efficiency of the preconcentration technique, such as the amount of TiO 2 , pH of sample solution, ultrasonication and centrifugation time and TiO 2 slurry solution preparation before injection to HR-CS ET MAS, were investigated in detail. The conditions of detection step (wavelength, calcium amount, pyrolysis and molecule-forming temperatures) were also studied. After extraction, adsorbent with the analyte was mixed with 200 μL of H 2 O to prepare a slurry solution. The concentration limit of detection was 0.13 ng mL -1 . The achieved preconcentration factor was 7. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, %) for F in real samples were 3-15%. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by analyses of certified reference materials after spiking: INCT-MPH-2 (Mixed Polish Herbs), INCT-SBF-4 (Soya Bean Flour), ERM-CAO11b (Hard Drinking Water) and TMDA-54.5 (Lake Ontario Water). The measured F contents in reference materials were in satisfactory agreement with the added amounts, and the recoveries were found to be 97-109%. Under the developed extraction conditions, the proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of F in real water samples (lake, sea, tap water) and herbs.

  17. Separation and recycling of nanoparticles using cloud point extraction with non-ionic surfactant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Shah, Syed Sakhawat; Eastoe, Julian; Khan, Asad Muhammad; Shah, Afzal

    2011-11-15

    A viable cost-effective approach employing mixtures of non-ionic surfactants Triton X-114/Triton X-100 (TX-114/TX-100), and subsequent cloud point extraction (CPE), has been utilized to concentrate and recycle inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous media. Gold Au- and palladium Pd-NPs have been pre-synthesized in aqueous phases and stabilized by sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES) ligands, then dispersed in aqueous non-ionic surfactant mixtures. Heating the NP-micellar systems induced cloud point phase separations, resulting in concentration of the NPs in lower phases after the transition. For the Au-NPs UV/vis absorption has been used to quantify the recovery and recycle efficiency after five repeated CPE cycles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate NP size, shape, and stability. The results showed that NPs are preserved after the recovery processes, but highlight a potential limitation, in that further particle growth can occur in the condensed phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Mixture of Extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora with PPAR α/γ Dual Agonistic Effects Prevents Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyerin; Kim, Dong Hye; Nho, Youn-Hwa; Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Eung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α/γ is known to inhibit the increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by ultraviolet light (UV). Extracts of natural herbs, such as Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora, have a PPAR α/γ dual agonistic effect. Therefore, we investigated whether and how they have an antiaging effect on photoaging skin. Eighteen-week-old hairless mice were irradiated with UVA 14 J/cm2 and UVB 40 mJ/cm2 three times a week for 8 weeks. A mixture of extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora (KR) was topically applied on the dorsal skin of photoaging mice twice a day for 8 weeks. Tesaglitazar, a known PPAR α/γ agonist, and vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol = 7:3, v/v) were applied as positive and negative controls, respectively. Dermal effects (including dermal thickness, collagen density, dermal expression of procollagen 1 and collagenase 13) and epidermal effects (including skin barrier function, epidermal proliferation, epidermal differentiation, and epidermal cytokines) were measured and compared. In photoaging murine skin, KR resulted in a significant recovery of dermal thickness as well as dermal fibroblasts, although it did not change dermal collagen density. KR increased the expression of dermal transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The dermal effects of KR were explained by an increase in procollagen 1 expression, induced by TGF-β, and a decrease in MMP-13 expression. KR did not affect basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) or stratum corneum (SC) integrity, but did decrease SC hydration. It also did not affect epidermal proliferation or epidermal differentiation. KR decreased the expression of epidermal interleukin (IL)-1α. Collectively, KR showed possible utility as a therapeutic agent for photoaging skin, with few epidermal side effects such as epidermal hyperplasia or poor differentiation. PMID:27854351

  19. A Mixture of Extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora with PPAR α/γ Dual Agonistic Effects Prevents Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyerin Jeon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR α/γ is known to inhibit the increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by ultraviolet light (UV. Extracts of natural herbs, such as Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora, have a PPAR α/γ dual agonistic effect. Therefore, we investigated whether and how they have an antiaging effect on photoaging skin. Eighteen-week-old hairless mice were irradiated with UVA 14 J/cm2 and UVB 40 mJ/cm2 three times a week for 8 weeks. A mixture of extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora (KR was topically applied on the dorsal skin of photoaging mice twice a day for 8 weeks. Tesaglitazar, a known PPAR α/γ agonist, and vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol = 7:3, v/v were applied as positive and negative controls, respectively. Dermal effects (including dermal thickness, collagen density, dermal expression of procollagen 1 and collagenase 13 and epidermal effects (including skin barrier function, epidermal proliferation, epidermal differentiation, and epidermal cytokines were measured and compared. In photoaging murine skin, KR resulted in a significant recovery of dermal thickness as well as dermal fibroblasts, although it did not change dermal collagen density. KR increased the expression of dermal transforming growth factor (TGF-β. The dermal effects of KR were explained by an increase in procollagen 1 expression, induced by TGF-β, and a decrease in MMP-13 expression. KR did not affect basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL or stratum corneum (SC integrity, but did decrease SC hydration. It also did not affect epidermal proliferation or epidermal differentiation. KR decreased the expression of epidermal interleukin (IL-1α. Collectively, KR showed possible utility as a therapeutic agent for photoaging skin, with few epidermal side effects such as epidermal hyperplasia or poor differentiation.

  20. Extraction of Americium and Europium by Diphosphine Dioxides and Their Mixtures with Chlorinated Cobalt Dicarbollide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Scott Herbst; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of Am and Eu using mixtures of diphosphine dioxides (DPDO, e.g., (R1)2P(O)(CH2)nP(O)(R2)2 where R1, R2 = Ph, Bu; n = 1,2), with and without chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in the polar diluents 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), meta-nitrobenzotrifluoride (F-3), bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol (F-8) and phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13) from HNO3, HClO4, LiNO3 and LiClO4 solutions has been investigated. The anomalous aryl strengthening (AAS) effect, i.e. the anomalous increase of extraction ability of methylene bridged diphosphine dioxides due to substitution of aromatic (i.e., phenyl) for alkyl (e.g., butyl or octyl) moieties (DAm increases by three to four orders of magnitude), is only observed during the extraction of Am and Eu from acidic media. In salt media the AAS effect is weakly observed, and is practically absent in such diluents as F-3 and FS-13. The extraction isotherm in the case of DPDO with an observed AAS effect indicates the distribution coefficients of Eu decrease by a factor of two to three, even at the concentration ratio of DPDO:Eu = 50:1; however, these values decrease only by 10% for the DPDO that do not indicate an observed AAS effect. It is proposed that the presence of water in the diluent is necessary for manifestation of the AAS effect. The synergistic effects of adding chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) with the DPDO that has been reported for other systems was also found to prevail in several of the systems investigated in this study. On addition of CCD with the DPDO, a considerable synergistic effect is observed (DAm increases by three to four orders of magnitude) during Am and Eu extraction from nitrate media. In perchlorate media the synergistic effect is absent. The most probable reason for synergism in the presence of CCD is the higher hydrophobicity of the CCD anion as compared to the nitrate anion. The results of this work will be of utility in understanding existing and developing new extraction

  1. Efficacy and safety of topically applied Symphytum herb extract cream in the treatment of ankle distortion: results of a randomized controlled clinical double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Miroslav; Barna, Milos; Horácek, Ondrej; Kováriková, Jaroslava; Kucera, Alexander

    2004-11-01

    In a controlled, double blind, randomized multicentre study, the efficacy and safety of the topical comfrey product Traumaplant (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous ethanolic pressed juice of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb (Symphytum x uplandicum NYMAN), corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream; n = 104) was tested against a 1% product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in 100 g of cream; n = 99) in 203 patients with acute ankle distortion. With the high concentration, decrease of the scores for pain on active motion, pain at rest and functional impairment was highly significant and clinically relevant on days T3-4 as well as T7 (p < 0.001). Amelioration of swellings as compared to reference was also significant on day 3-4 (p < 0.01). Efficacy was judged good to excellent in 85.6% of cases with verum and in 65.7% of cases with reference on day 3-4. Overall tolerability was excellent.

  2. Process optimisation of microwave-assisted extraction of peony ( Paeonia suffruticosa Andr .) seed oil using hexane-ethanol mixture and its characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoli Sun; Wengang Li; Jian Li; Yuangang Zu; Chung-Yun Hse; Jiulong Xie; Xiuhua Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and hexane mixture agent microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was conducted to extract peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) seed oil (PSO). The aim of the study was to optimise the extraction for both yield and energy consumption in mixture agent MAE. The highest oil yield (34.49%) and lowest unit energy consumption (14 125.4 J g -1)...

  3. Quantitative Structure-Relative Volatility Relationship Model for Extractive Distillation of Ethylbenzene/p-Xylene Mixtures: Application to Binary and Ternary Mixtures as Extractive Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young-Mook; Oh, Kyunghwan; You, Hwan; No, Kyoung Tai; Jeon, Yukwon; Shul, Yong-Gun; Hwang, Sung Bo; Shin, Hyun Kil; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Namseok; Son, Hyoungjun; Chu, Young Hwan; Cho, Kwang-Hwi

    2016-01-01

    Ethylbenzene (EB) and p-xylene (PX) are important chemicals for the production of industrial materials; accordingly, their efficient separation is desired, even though the difference in their boiling points is very small. This paper describes the efforts toward the identification of high-performance extractive agents for EB and PX separation by distillation. Most high-performance extractive agents contain halogen atoms, which present health hazards and are corrosive to distillation plates. To avoid this disadvantage of extractive agents, we developed a quantitative structure-relative volatility relationship (QSRVR) model for designing safe extractive agents. We have previously developed and reported QSRVR models for single extractive agents. In this study, we introduce extended QSRVR models for binary and ternary extractive agents. The QSRVR models accurately predict the relative volatilities of binary and ternary extractive agents. The service to predict the relative volatility for binary and ternary extractive agents is freely available from the Internet at http://qsrvr.o pengsi.org/.

  4. Quantitative Structure-Relative Volatility Relationship Model for Extractive Distillation of Ethylbenzene/p-Xylene Mixtures: Application to Binary and Ternary Mixtures as Extractive Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young-Mook; Oh, Kyunghwan; You, Hwan; No, Kyoung Tai [Bioinformatics and Molecular Design Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yukwon; Shul, Yong-Gun; Hwang, Sung Bo; Shin, Hyun Kil; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Namseok; Son, Hyoungjun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Young Hwan [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwang-Hwi [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Ethylbenzene (EB) and p-xylene (PX) are important chemicals for the production of industrial materials; accordingly, their efficient separation is desired, even though the difference in their boiling points is very small. This paper describes the efforts toward the identification of high-performance extractive agents for EB and PX separation by distillation. Most high-performance extractive agents contain halogen atoms, which present health hazards and are corrosive to distillation plates. To avoid this disadvantage of extractive agents, we developed a quantitative structure-relative volatility relationship (QSRVR) model for designing safe extractive agents. We have previously developed and reported QSRVR models for single extractive agents. In this study, we introduce extended QSRVR models for binary and ternary extractive agents. The QSRVR models accurately predict the relative volatilities of binary and ternary extractive agents. The service to predict the relative volatility for binary and ternary extractive agents is freely available from the Internet at http://qsrvr.o pengsi.org/.

  5. In vivo and in vitro animal investigation of the effect of a mixture of herbal extracts from Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis on penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Sung Chul; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Jae Hwi; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Roh, Gu Seob; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2012-10-01

    Herbal preparations have long been used as folk remedies for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis extracts on relaxation of the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum (CC), their mechanisms of action, and the effects of oral administration of a mixture of the herbal extracts on penile erection. The relaxation effects and the mechanisms of action of T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts on the rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. To evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in an organ bath occurs in vivo, intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated in rats after oral administration for a month. Additionally, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the CC were measured using immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percent decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. ICP was assessed in rats after the oral administration of a mixture of both extracts for 1 month and changes in cGMP and cAMP concentrations were measured based on the concentration of the mixture of both extracts. T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts showed concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the CC. In both the endothelium-removed group and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester pretreatment group, T. terrestris extract inhibited relaxation. ICP measured after oral administration of the extract mixture for a month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the mixture group. T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation in an organ bath. In the in vivo study of the extract mixture, ICP and cAMP was significantly potentiated. Accordingly, the mixture of T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract may improve erectile function.

  6. Flameless atomic absorption determination of noble metals after extraction by mixture of di-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphoric acid and n-octylaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukhin, Yu.M.; Udalova, T.A.; Tsimbalist, V.G.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Geologii i Geofiziki)

    1985-01-01

    A possibility of using the mixture of di-2-ethylhexyl dithiophosphoric acid (D2EHDTPA) and p-octylaniline (OA) (extractants of acid and basic character) for extraction atomic absorption determination of noble metals is studied. The mixture of D2EHDTPA with OA is shown to extract noble metals from hydrochloric acid solutions with distribution factors > 10 3 . An extraction atomic absorption method for determination of noble metals in copperbearing materials is suggested. The minimum determined contents of noble metals at the initial sample equal to 100 for gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium make up (g/t) 0.0005, 0.0001, 0.015, 0.005, 0.002 and 0.015 respectively. Relative standard deviation constitutes Ssub(r)<0.2

  7. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  8. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordache, A. [' Babes-Bolyai' University, Str. M. Kogalniceanu, Nr. 1, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)], E-mail: andres_iro2002@yahoo.com; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O. [' Babes-Bolyai' University, Str. M. Kogalniceanu, Nr. 1, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)

    2009-01-15

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  9. Pretreatment with Shuanghe-Tang Extract Attenuates Postischemic Brain Injury and Edema in a Mouse Model of Stroke: An Analysis of Medicinal Herbs Listed in Dongui Bogam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Although stroke is among the leading causes of death and long-term disability, there are few effective treatments for limiting the severity of neurological sequelae. We evaluated the effects of 29 medicinal herbs listed in the Pung chapter of the 17th century Korean medical text Dongui Bogam on stroke symptoms in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia. Methods. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced via photothrombosis. Infarct volume, brain edema, and neurological deficits were evaluated. Immunofluorescence staining for tight junction proteins and aquaporin 4 (AQP4 was performed following ischemic injury. Results. Based on our initial findings, we examined the effects of two prescriptions in which the candidate herbs comprised more than 60% of the total formula: Shuanghe-tang and Zengsunsiwu-tang. Pretreatment with Shuanghe-tang significantly reduced infarct volume, decreased blood-brain barrier (BBB breakdown, attenuated edema, and improved neurological and motor functions in a dose-dependent manner (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, while no such effects were observed in mice pretreated with Zengsunsiwu-tang. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant increases in ipsilateral occludin and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1 expression in Shuanghe-tang-pretreated mice, as well as increased AQP4 immunofluorescence. Conclusions. These results indicate that Shuanghe-tang may protect against brain injury and promote recovery of neurological function following ischemia.

  10. Influence of the ammonium salt anion on the synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tridecylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and primary ammonium salt (tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate, TDAH(Cl, ClO 4 )) in C 6 H 6 has been studied. The composition of the extracted species have been determined as Ln(TTA) 3 TDAHA(A - = Cl - or ClO 4 - ). The values of the equilibrium constant K T,S have been calculated. The influence of the ammonium salt anion on the extraction process has been discussed. The separation factors of the pairs Gd/Pr and Yb/Gd have been determined

  11. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity.

  12. Chemical research of lipophilic fractions of sickle alfalfa herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kovalev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic fraction (LF of known medicinal plants are still less studied, despite the fact that they have a unique group of biological active compounds (BAC. The main active substances of LF are chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and other bioactive substances that exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological action. In this regard, a comprehensive study of advanced plant of flora of Ukraine to increase the assortments of herbal remedies is an urgent problem. The aim of this work was to obtain and chemical research of lipophilic fractions of sickle alfalfa herbs. The alfalfa herb harvested throughout the growing season in Kharkov and Poltava regions in 2011-2012. Lipophilic fraction was obtained by extraction with chloroform in a Soxhlet apparatus. Detection of carotenoids and chlorophylls by thin layer chromatography (TLC on plates of "Silufol" in one-dimensional and two-dimensional variants, the solvent system were: hexane: acetone (6:2 - I way, hexane-acetone (6:4 - II way. Assay of the lipophilic fraction by three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (3DF-spectroscopy was used for the analysis of mixtures containing fluorescent components. 3DF-spectres, that have the appearance of the surface, are characterized by a functions I = f (λexc, λem, recorded in the ultraviolet and visible ranges. Assay of the carotenoids and chlorophylls carried out by spectrophotometry. The reference solution was chloroform. Assay of fatty acids was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC of methyl esters of fatty acids via chromatograph with flame ionization detector "Shimadzu GC-14B". 20.0 g crushed sickle alfalfa herbs were exhaustively extracted with chloroform in a Soxhlet apparatus for produce a lipophilic fractions. The chloroform extract was evaporated in order to remove the extractant. The percentage of lipophilic fraction in the herbs was 7.5%. Quantity of the carotenoids and chlorophylls

  13. Fabrication of Natural Sensitizer Extracted from Mixture of Purple Cabbage, Roselle, Wormwood and Seaweed with High Conversion Efficiency for DSSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Lai, Xuan-Rong

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to deal with the influence of different solvent in extraction of natural sensitizer and different thickness of photoelectrode thin film on the photoelectric conversion efficiency and the electron transport properties for the prepared dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The natural dyes of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mixture of purple cabbage and roselle and mixture of wormwood and seaweed, respectively. The experimental results show the cocktail dye extracted with ethanol and rotating speed of spin coating at 1000 rpm can achieve the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency up to 1.85%. Electrochemical impedance result shows that the effective diffusion coefficient for the prepared DSSC with the thickness of photoelectrode thin film at 21 microm are 5.23 x 10(-4) cm2/s.

  14. Ethyl acetate extract of Chinese medicinal herb Sarcandra glabra induces growth inhibition on human leukemic HL-60 cells, associated with cell cycle arrest and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W Y; Chiu, Lawrence C M; Lam, W S; Wong, W Y; Chan, Y T; Ho, Y P; Wong, Elaine Y L; Wong, Y S; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2007-02-01

    Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai, colloquially known as Caoshanhu, is a Chinese medicinal herb with reported anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and non-specific immunoenhancing properties. Although the plant has been clinically used for treating a variety of diseases, its bioactive ingredients are largely unknown and its mode of action has never been investigated. In this study, the anti-tumor property of ethyl acetate (EA) extract of S. glabra was investigated by determining its in vitro growth-inhibitory effects on a panel of human cancer cell lines of different histotypes. Growth inhibition of the EA extract on the cancer cells seemed to be selective, and the leukemic HL-60 was found to be the most responsive after 48 h of treatment (IC50=58 microg/ml). Flow cytometric studies further illustrated that the extract might interfere with DNA replication and thus arrested the cell cycle at S phase in the leukemic cells, followed by DNA fragmentation and loss of phospholipid asymmetry in the plasma membrane after 72 h of treatment. Concurrently, the pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was also up-regulated by more than 178% of the control level. All these findings suggested that the extract had initiated apoptosis to kill the leukemic cells. Results from this pioneer study help to establish a scientific foundation for future research and development of the bioactive ingredients in EA extract of S. glabra as efficacious anti-cancer agents.

  15. Selective recovery of tagatose from mixtures with galactose by direct extraction with supercritical CO2 and different cosolvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañés, Fernando; Fornari, Tiziana; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustin; Ibañez, Elena

    2006-10-18

    A selective fractionation method of carbohydrate mixtures of galactose/tagatose, using supercritical CO(2) and isopropanol as cosolvent, has been evaluated. Optimization was carried out using a central composite face design and considering as factors the extraction pressure (from 100 to 300 bar), the extraction temperature (from 60 to 100 degrees C), and the modifier flow rate (from 0.2 to 0.4 mL/min, which corresponded to a total cosolvent percentage ranging from 4 to 18% vol). The responses evaluated were the amount (milligrams) of tagatose and galactose extracted and their recoveries (percent). The statistical analysis of the results provided mathematical models for each response variable. The corresponding parameters were estimated by multiple linear regression, and high determination coefficients (>0.96) were obtained. The optimum conditions of the extraction process to get the maximum recovery of tagatose (37%) were 300 bar, 60 degrees C, and 0.4 mL/min of cosolvent. The predicted value was 24.37 mg of tagatose, whereas the experimental value was 26.34 mg, which is a 7% error from the predicted value. Cosolvent polarity effects on tagatose extraction from mixtures of galactose/tagatose were also studied using different alcohols and their mixtures with water. Although a remarkable increase of the amount of total carbohydrate extracted with polarity was found, selective extraction of tagatose decreased with increase of polarity of assayed cosolvents. To improve the recovery of extracted tagatose, additional experiments outside the experimental domain were carried out (300 bar, 80 degrees C, and 0.6 mL/min of isopropanol); recoveries >75% of tagatose with purity >90% were obtained.

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium from Egyptian phosphoric acid using a synergistic D2EHPA-DBBP mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalek, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of uranium from Egyptian phosphoric acid with synergistic mixture of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and di-butyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP) is reported in this paper. The influence of various factors such as D2EHPA concentration, DBBP concentration, phosphoric acid concentration, contact time, aqueous: organic phase's ratio (aq:org) and temperature on the degree of extraction has been established. The data on the effect of temperature on the extraction showed that the enthalpy change is -23.12 kJ/mol. Uranium extracted by D2EHPA- DBBP is further subjected to a second cycle of extraction and scrubbing impurities. The uranium is finally converted to a high purity UO 3 product using precipitation with hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment at 375 deg C. (author)

  17. IMMUNOMODULATOR EFFECT OF COMBINATION OF Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. Nees HERB AND GINGER RHIZOME (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. ETHANOLIC EXTRACT ON CELL PROLIFERATION OF Balb/c MICE LYMPHOCYTES IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damriati Azimah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our susceptibility to various infectious diseases can be avoided by increasing the specific immune responses either by the proliferation of lymphocytes. Immunomodulator effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb have been well evaluated. Empirically, the East Borneo’s tribe combined both herbs to treat jaundice disease. However, scientific evidence is still needed in their use as a drug candidate. This study explores further effect of the immunomodulator from 5 ethanol extract groups. Quantitative analysis was also completed using a densitometer to obtain andrographolide and curcumin levels of ethanol extract. Lymphocyte proliferation was tested by using MTT colorimetric method, the results was read by an ELISA reader and statistically analyzed with One-Way ANOVA test with 95 % of confidence level. The maceration yield of sambiloto ethanol extract (EES and temulawak ethanol extract (EET were respectively 5.78 % w / w and 3.92 % w / w. The results of quantitative analysis in 28.6 mg EES contained 11.43 % andrographolide and from the 251.8 mg EET contained 28.79 % curcumin. From the MTT test, all treatment groups were significantly different from the control group. Based on the OD values, the best combination to increase lymphocyte cell proliferation ETS was a group contained 56.25 mg of temulawak and 18.75 mg of sambiloto in 1 ml of solvent. Nonetheless, the value was not higher than the ability of ET in increasing cell proliferation.

  18. Dosimetry of irradiated foods and extraction of polyminerals from herbs and seasonings (Guajillo chili, oregano, jamaica, arnica, and camomile); Dosimetria de alimentos irradiados y extraccion de poliminerales de hierbas y condimentos (Chile guajillo, oregano, jamaica, arnica y manzanilla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda C, S.; Gomez B, C. [Estudiante de la Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico); Calderon, T.; Cruz Z, E. [Depto. de Quimica Agricola-Geologia-Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries the irradiation technology is a process used in food treatments for sterilization and diminishing of the microbiological charge, as well as to extend the storage life. In Mexico, the food irradiation, spices and seasonings has been officially approved since 1995, recognizing as an adequate technological process for foods. Taking advantage of knowledge about solids and due to the natural growth of the spices, herbs, etc. these contain minerals which can providing important information of its radiological history, moreover these type of materials do not degrade them preserving by long time periods. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of poly minerals in foods, such as oregano, guajillo chili, jamaica, arnica and camomile is presented. For obtaining the poly mineral, the samples were treated with an ethanol-water solution, in constant stirring during 12 hours at room temperature depending on the sample under treatment. It was used oxygenated water and distilled for washing and acetone for achieving a good drying. The minerals were processed by gamma radiation in the Nuclear Sciences Institute of the UNAM. The brilliance curves of spices and herbs, using a Tl reader of Harshaw 3500 were obtained, the emissions are located between 60 and 350 Centigrade. Previously the extraction of poly mineral was realized and they were divided in same parts for doses between 2 and 10 KGy, this last value according to the Mexican Official Standard considering a fraction without irradiating as reference. The identification of the mineral fraction by diffraction will complement the composition information. We are grateful to the donation of seasonings samples provided by the Tres Villas Natural Seasonings enterprise, Toluca plant, State of Mexico and the Academic Exchange Office at UNAM. (Author)

  19. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  20. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  1. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kamal A; Nagy, Mohamed A

    2009-10-16

    Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing throughout the world. It is generally recognized that natural products with a long history of safety can modulate obesity. To investigate the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) and to estimate the effect of L-carnitine and an Egyptian Herbal mixture formulation (HMF) (consisting of T. chebula, Senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel and licorice) on bodyweight, food intake, lipid profiles, renal, hepatic, cardiac function markers, lipid Peroxidation, and the glucose and insulin levels in blood and liver tissue in rats. White male albino rats weighing 80-90 gm, 60 days old. 10 rats were fed a normal basal diet (Cr), 30 rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks during the entire study. Rats of the HFD group were equally divided into 3 subgroups each one include 10 rats. The first group received HFD with no supplement (HFD), the 2nd group HFD+L-carnitine and the third group received HFD+HMF. Carnitine and HMF were administered at 10th week (start time for treatments) for 4 weeks.Body weight, lipid profile & renal function (urea, uric acid creatinine) ALT & AST activities, cardiac markers, (LDH, C.K-NAC and MB) the oxidative stress marker reduced glutathione (GSH), and Malondialdehyde (MDA) catalase activity, in addition to glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in serum & tissues were analyzed. Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, & LDL concentration compared with controls, while significantly decreasing HDL; meanwhile treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF significantly normalized the lipid profile.Serum ALT, urea, uric acid, creatinine, LDH, CK-NAC, CK-MB were significantly higher in the high fat group compared with normal controls; and administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly lessened the effect of the HFD. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and high insulin resistance (IR

  2. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing throughout the world. It is generally recognized that natural products with a long history of safety can modulate obesity. Aim To investigate the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet (HFD and to estimate the effect of L-carnitine and an Egyptian Herbal mixture formulation (HMF (consisting of T. chebula, Senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel and licorice on bodyweight, food intake, lipid profiles, renal, hepatic, cardiac function markers, lipid Peroxidation, and the glucose and insulin levels in blood and liver tissue in rats. Method White male albino rats weighing 80-90 gm, 60 days old. 10 rats were fed a normal basal diet (Cr, 30 rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 14 weeks during the entire study. Rats of the HFD group were equally divided into 3 subgroups each one include 10 rats. The first group received HFD with no supplement (HFD, the 2nd group HFD+L-carnitine and the third group received HFD+HMF. Carnitine and HMF were administered at 10th week (start time for treatments for 4 weeks. Body weight, lipid profile & renal function (urea, uric acid creatinine ALT & AST activities, cardiac markers, (LDH, C.K-NAC and MB the oxidative stress marker reduced glutathione (GSH, and Malondialdehyde (MDA catalase activity, in addition to glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in serum & tissues were analyzed. Results Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, & LDL concentration compared with controls, while significantly decreasing HDL; meanwhile treatment with L-carnitine, or HMF significantly normalized the lipid profile. Serum ALT, urea, uric acid, creatinine, LDH, CK-NAC, CK-MB were significantly higher in the high fat group compared with normal controls; and administration of L-carnitine or herbal extract significantly lessened the effect of the HFD. Hyperglycemia

  3. Antagonism in the extraction of uranium(VI) by the binary mixture of PC88A and benzimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Kamila, S.; Chakravortty, V.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction studies of uranium(VI) by the binary mixture of PC88A and benzimidazole show an antagonistic behavior in the concentration range 10 -5 -10 -6 M of PC88A and 0.005M of benzimidazole. Antagonism is observed due to the deprotonation of PC88A by benzimidazole forming an adduct resulting in the virtual removal of PC88A from the system. (author)

  4. IBA and ICP-OES determination of trace elements in indigenous medicinal herbs and their extracts on the infertility in the human male reproductive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Fisher, D.; Henkel, R. [Department of Medical Bioscience, Universily of the Weslern Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Weilz, F. [Department of Biodiversily and Conservation Biology, University of the Weslern Cape, Bellville (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The abnormality of infertility in humans is biologically defined (Mader, 2004; Wood, 1994; Ellison, 2001) as the inability of a species to reproduce its own kind after period of 12 month of unprotected sexual intercourse/copulation. It is however difficult when one wishes to quantify the occurrence of infertility, since it is seldom expressed explicitly, but mostly in conjunction with population growth dynamics which include socio-economic factors. Various plants (herbs) have been used as treatment for infertility. These plants however have not yet been scientifically analysed. In this paper we determined the major and trace element composition of Typha capensis (rhizome and leaves) Cissampe/os capensis (Ieaves) and Hermannia cilliata, which were sourced from the Cape Flats Nature Reserve, Bellville, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The trace element concentration determination are at time cumbersome, especially when destructive analytical methods such as ICP-OES are used. For our determination, the various samples were freeze-dried. Part of the freeze-dried sample was used for ICP-OES and the other for PIXE analysis. For PIXE the dried sample was pressed into a pellet, then coated with a layer of carbon and irradiated with a 3 MeV proton beam. We report on the trace element content of the various parts of the plant and comment on the applicability of the part in male infertility. (author)

  5. IBA and ICP-OES determination of trace elements in indigenous medicinal herbs and their extracts on the infertility in the human male reproductive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, J.A.; Fisher, D.; Henkel, R.; Weilz, F.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The abnormality of infertility in humans is biologically defined (Mader, 2004; Wood, 1994; Ellison, 2001) as the inability of a species to reproduce its own kind after period of 12 month of unprotected sexual intercourse/copulation. It is however difficult when one wishes to quantify the occurrence of infertility, since it is seldom expressed explicitly, but mostly in conjunction with population growth dynamics which include socio-economic factors. Various plants (herbs) have been used as treatment for infertility. These plants however have not yet been scientifically analysed. In this paper we determined the major and trace element composition of Typha capensis (rhizome and leaves) Cissampe/os capensis (Ieaves) and Hermannia cilliata, which were sourced from the Cape Flats Nature Reserve, Bellville, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The trace element concentration determination are at time cumbersome, especially when destructive analytical methods such as ICP-OES are used. For our determination, the various samples were freeze-dried. Part of the freeze-dried sample was used for ICP-OES and the other for PIXE analysis. For PIXE the dried sample was pressed into a pellet, then coated with a layer of carbon and irradiated with a 3 MeV proton beam. We report on the trace element content of the various parts of the plant and comment on the applicability of the part in male infertility. (author)

  6. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Quantitative Characterization of Some Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs and Spices in Different Solvent Extraction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahpour, Shabnam; Selamat, Jinap; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Khatib, Alfi; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2018-02-13

    This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol) and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All the extracts possessed antioxidant activity, however, the different solvents showed different efficiencies in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Turmeric showed the highest DPPH values (67.83-13.78%) and FRAP (84.9-2.3 mg quercetin/g freeze-dried crude extract), followed by curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass. While 80% acetone was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from turmeric, torch ginger and lemon grass (221.68, 98.10 and 28.19 mg GA/g freeze dried crude extract, respectively), for the recovery of phenolic compounds from curry leaf (92.23 mg GA/g freeze-dried crude extract), 80% ethanol was the most appropriate solvent. Results of HPLC revealed that the amount of phenolic compounds varied depending on the types of solvents used.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Quantitative Characterization of Some Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs and Spices in Different Solvent Extraction Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sepahpour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. All the extracts possessed antioxidant activity, however, the different solvents showed different efficiencies in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Turmeric showed the highest DPPH values (67.83–13.78% and FRAP (84.9–2.3 mg quercetin/g freeze-dried crude extract, followed by curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass. While 80% acetone was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from turmeric, torch ginger and lemon grass (221.68, 98.10 and 28.19 mg GA/g freeze dried crude extract, respectively, for the recovery of phenolic compounds from curry leaf (92.23 mg GA/g freeze-dried crude extract, 80% ethanol was the most appropriate solvent. Results of HPLC revealed that the amount of phenolic compounds varied depending on the types of solvents used.

  8. Separation of Pr and Nd from La in chloride solution by extraction with a mixture of Cyanex 272 and Alamine 336

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Jeon, Ho Seok; Lee, Man Seung

    2015-09-01

    The possibility of separation of Pr and Nd from La in a chloride leaching solution of monazite sand has been investigated by using a binary mixture of Cyanex 272 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid) and Alamine 336 (tri-octyl/decyl amine). The binary mixture showed synergism on the extraction of the three metals and led to an increase in the separation factor between Pr/Nd and La compared to Cyanex 272 alone. Although the addition of chloride ion into aqueous increased the extraction of the metals, this addition had negative effect on the separation of Nd/Pr and La. McCabe-Thiele diagrams for the extraction of Pr and Nd with the binary mixture were constructed. Stripping of metals from the loaded organic phase was achieved with 0.7 M HCl. The difference in the solvent extraction of the rare earth elements from chloride solution between the binary mixture and saponified extractants was also discussed.

  9. Synergic effects in the extraction of paracetamol from aqueous NaCl solution by the binary mixtures of diethyl ether and low molecular weight primary alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, G. M.; Živković, J. V.; Atanasković, D. S.; Nikolić, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of paracetamol from aqueous NaCl solutions was performed with diethyl ether, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 1-pentanol, and binary mixtures diethyl ether/1-propanol, diethyl ether/1-butanol, and diethyl ether/isobutanol. Among the pure solvents investigated in this study best extraction efficacy was obtained with 1-butanol. Synergic effects in the extraction with binary mixtures was investigated and compared with some other systems used for the extraction of poorly extractable compounds. Results obtained in this study may be of both fundamental and practical importance.

  10. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MIXTURES FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly contaminated (with PAHs) topsoils were extracted with supercritical CO2 to determine the feasibility and mechanism of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Effect of SCF density, temperature, cosolvent type and amount, and of slurrying the soil with water were ...

  11. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of different extracts of Rumex dentatus L. - A locally used medicinal herb of Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humeera Nisa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Rumex dentatus L. (R. dentatus along with its phytochemical analysis. Methods: Agar disk diffusion method for antimicrobial activity and DPPH, riboflavin photooxidation, deoxyribose and lipid peroxidation assay for antioxidant activity. Results: The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different concentrations of five R. dentatus extracts were tested against different clinical bacterial strains (Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium and fungal strains (Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus flavus, Accremonium spp., Penicillium dimorphosporum, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida kruesie. Among all extracts, the butanol extract showed strong antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (inhibition zone diameter of 20 mm and aqueous extract showed no activity against any of the bacterial strains. While as in case of the fungal strains, the maximum antifungal activity was observed against Aspergillus flavus by aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity revealed that the extracts exhibited scavenging effect in concentration-dependent manner on superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals. The phytochemical tests carried out with the crude extracts of R. dentatus showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides in it. The total phenolic content of these extracts was estimated quantitatively from standard calibration curve of gallic acid and it varied from 145 µg/mg in butanol extract to 45 µg/mg in petroleum ether extract. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the plant has got a broad spectrum antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and could be used as a potential alternative for treating various diseases.

  12. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-11-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Extraction of the mixture 99mTcO4- tributilfosfato- 30% 16% trioctylamine in cyclohexane evaluation of radiotracer obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Pijeira, Martha Sahyli; Dominguez Catasus, Judith; Martinez Baez, Ernesto; Borroto Portela, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Tracer technology plays an important role in industry development and has been widely used to optimize process, solve problems and improve product quality. In the last years Cuban scientific have studied the 99m TcO 4 - , eluted from 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator, extraction with the mixture 30 % tributylphosphate -16 % trioctylamine in cyclohexane, in order to get an organic radiotracer. In this paper, the influence on 99m TcO 4 - extraction of stirring speed, contact time and NaCl concentration were studied. The extractant's role was also studied and, the tracer's homogeneity in diesel, special gasoline and Venezuelan oils was evaluated to normal pressure and temperature. The obtained outcomes showed that the NaCl concentration only influences on the extraction process when it is less than 0.17 %. Furthermore, the employed mixture's synergism was noticed and, could be conclude that, the obtained tracer is a physical radiotracer for the used industrial supports to 95 % trustworthy

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed...... oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety...... in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation....

  15. Influence of the ammonium salt anion on the synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tridecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Univ. of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    1998-08-01

    The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and primary ammonium salt (tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate, TDAH(Cl, ClO{sub 4})) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species have been determined as Ln(TTA){sub 3}TDAHA(A{sup {minus}} = Cl{sup {minus}} or ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}). The values of the equilibrium constant K{sub T,S} have been calculated. The influence of the ammonium salt anion on the extraction process has been discussed. The separation factors of the pairs Gd/Pr and Yb/Gd have been determined.

  16. Am and Eu extraction from acidic media by synergistic mixtures of substituted bis-tetrazolyl pyridines with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, I.V.; Chirkov, A.V.; Babain, V.A.; Pokrovskaya, E.Yu.; Artamonova, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Americium (Am) and europium (Eu) extraction from HNO 3 and HClO 4 media by a synergistic mixture of 2.6-bis(1-aryl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridines (ATP) with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) was studied by using m-nitrobenzotrifluoride, phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone, and 1,2-dichloroethane as diluents. We examined the effects of diluents, of the aqueous phase composition and the nature of substituents in the ATP aryl ring on Am/Eu extraction efficiency and selectivity. The Am/Eu separation factor was found to be close to 100 at the optimal ratio of ATPs: CCD ∝ 1:1. We also studied the extraction of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 133 Ba; a PhATP-CCD mixture provided the separation of the Sr/Ba pair with a factor of 35. A high resistance of 2,6-bis-aryltetrazolyl pyridines to 6 M nitric and perchloric acids at 95 C was demonstrated. (orig.)

  17. Improvement effect of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract mixture against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Che, Denis Nchang; Hwang, Young Min; Lee, Hyun Seo; Choi, Ji Won; Jang, Seon Il; Ryu, Cheol

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic protective effects of mixtures of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract (CPG mixture) against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus in mice. The results showed that treatment with CPG mixture exhibited much stronger suppressive effect on erythema and melanin index as well as melanin formation than treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) in UVB-irradiated mice. Moreover, the treatment with CPG mixture showed ameliorative effect on immune cell infiltration and collagen fiber destruction in UV-irradiated mice. The treatment with CPG mixture inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated mice. Furthermore, the treatment with CPG mixture inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and histological changes in mice. Taken together, these results indicated that CPG mixture has potentials as functional and therapeutic materials against skin damage and itch-related skin diseases

  18. Improvement effect of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract mixture against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Che, Denis Nchang; Hwang, Young Min; Lee, Hyun Seo; Choi, Ji Won; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol [Hyangmiwon Corporation, Gimje (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic protective effects of mixtures of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract (CPG mixture) against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus in mice. The results showed that treatment with CPG mixture exhibited much stronger suppressive effect on erythema and melanin index as well as melanin formation than treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) in UVB-irradiated mice. Moreover, the treatment with CPG mixture showed ameliorative effect on immune cell infiltration and collagen fiber destruction in UV-irradiated mice. The treatment with CPG mixture inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated mice. Furthermore, the treatment with CPG mixture inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and histological changes in mice. Taken together, these results indicated that CPG mixture has potentials as functional and therapeutic materials against skin damage and itch-related skin diseases.

  19. Extraction of the same novel homoglycan mixture from two different strains of Bifidobacterium animalis and three strains of Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhudhud, M; Sadiq, S; Ngo, H N; Hidalgo-Cantabrana, C; Ruas-Madiedo, P; van Sinderen, D; Humphreys, P N; Laws, A P

    2018-04-26

    Three strains of Bifidobacterium breve (JCM 7017, JCM 7019 and JCM 2258) and two strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (AD011 and A1dOxR) were grown in broth cultures or on plates, and a standard exopolysaccharide extraction method was used in an attempt to recover exocellular polysaccharides. When the extracted materials were analysed by NMR it was clear that mixtures of polysaccharides were being isolated including exopolysaccharides (EPS) cell wall polysaccharides and intracellular polysaccharides. Treatment of the cell biomass from the B. breve strains, or the B. animalis subsp. lactis AD011 strain, with aqueous sodium hydroxide provided a very similar mixture of polysaccharides but without the EPS. The different polysaccharides were partially fractionated by selective precipitation from an aqueous solution upon the addition of increasing percentages of ethanol. The polysaccharides extracted from B. breve JCM 7017 grown in HBM media supplemented with glucose (or isotopically labelled D-glucose-1- 13 C) were characterised using 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Addition of one volume of ethanol generated a medium molecular weight glycogen (Mw=1×10 5 Da, yield 200 mg/l). The addition of two volumes of ethanol precipitated an intimate mixture of a low molecular weight β-(1→6)-glucan and a low molecular weight β-(1→6)-galactofuranan which could not be separated (combined yield 46 mg/l). When labelled D-glucose-1- 13 C was used as a carbon supplement, the label was incorporated into >95% of the anomeric carbons of each polysaccharide confirming they were being synthesised in situ. Similar 1 H NMR profiles were obtained for polysaccharides recovered from the cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis AD011and A1dOxR (in combination with an EPS), B. breve JCM 7017, B. breve JCM 7019, B. breve JCM 2258 and from an EPS (-ve) mutant of B. breve 7017 (a non-EPS producer).

  20. Immune responses induced in rabbits after oral administration of bovine serum albumin in combination with different adjuvants (herb extracts, aluminium hydroxide and platinum nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bižanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory activity of 10 different herbal extracts from Vitex agnus-castus, Vinca major, Aloe arborescens and the polyherbal product containing extracts from Sambucus nigra, Primula versis, Pinus alba, Gentiana lutea, Cetraria islandica, Eucaliptus globulus, Citrus limon and aluminium hydroxide, as well as platinum nanoparticles. Rabbits were immunized three times orally with bovine serum albumin (BSA in combination with the components mentioned above. BSA-specific IgA antibodies in saliva and IgG antibodies in serum were examined by ELISA. It was found that the rabbits immunized with BSA in combination with either platinum nanoparticles or aluminium hydroxide had higher titres of BSA-specific IgA antibodies in their saliva at day 56 of observation. Likewise, rabbits treated with BSA and Vinca major or Aloe arborescens extracts showed higher levels of BSA-specific IgG antibodies in the serum at the end of observation. These results suggest that some plant extracts, aluminium hydroxide and platinum nanoparticles components could be used as oral adjuvants or as immunomodulators for rabbits.

  1. Extraction characteristics of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in mixtures of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid and carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.H.

    1983-03-01

    Dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) has been shown to be an effective liquid cation exchanger for the extraction of metal ions. This extractant has proven to be successful in the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in the pH range of 2.0 to 3.0, although it shows little selectivity for individual ions because of its strong acid character. In an effort to improve the selectivity of HDNNS between trivalent lanthanides and actinides, carboxylic acids were added to the organic phase and the effects on the extraction characteristics of HDNNS were investigated. Three carboxylic acids - nonanoic, cyclohexanecarboxylic, and cyclohexanebutyric - were studied with the following metals: Am(III), Cm(III), Ce(III), Eu(III), and Tm(III). The distributions of the metal ions were studied holding the HDNNS concentration constant while varying the carboxylic acid concentrations over a range of 1.0 x 10 -5 M to 1.0 M. Results indicated that the greatest enhancement of the extraction occurred at a carboxylic acid concentration of 1.0 x 10 -2 M with negative effects occurring at 0.5 M and 1.0 M. The effects on the extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides were interpreted in terms of the structural differences of the carboxylic acids, the effect of the carboxylic acids on the HDNNS extraction mechanism, and the ionic properties of the metals studied

  2. A mixture of extracts from Peruvian plants (black maca and yacon) improves sperm count and reduced glycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of two extracts from Peruvian plants given alone or in a mixture on sperm count and glycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Normal or diabetic mice were divided in groups receiving vehicle, black maca (Lepidium meyenii), yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) or three mixtures of extracts black maca/yacon (90/10, 50/50 and 10/90%). Normal or diabetic mice were treated for 7 d with each extract, mixture or vehicle. Glycemia, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal and vas deferens sperm counts in mice and polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity in each extract were assessed. Black maca (BM), yacon and the mixture of extracts reduced glucose levels in diabetic mice. Non-diabetic mice treated with BM and yacon showed higher DSP than those treated with vehicle (p maca/yacon increased DSP, and sperm count in vas deferens and epididymis with respect to non-diabetic and diabetic mice treated with vehicle (p maca, and this was associated with higher antioxidant activity. The combination of two extracts improved glycemic levels and male reproductive function in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin increased 1.43 times the liver weight that was reversed with the assessed plants extracts. In summary, streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in reduction in sperm counts and liver damage. These effects could be reduced with BM, yacon and the BM+yacon mixture.

  3. Classification and prediction of gamma-irradiation of ten commercial herbs and spices by multivariate evaluation of properties of their extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polovka, M.; Suhaj, M.

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant activity, dry matter content, extractability, total phenolic compounds content and CIE L*a*b* colour characteristics of methanolic extracts of 10 spices exposed to γ-irradiation doses from 0 kGy (reference) to 30 kGy were evaluated in different time intervals after the irradiation by means of UV-VIS spectrophotometry in order to assess the influence of γ-irradiation and post-irradiation storage on spices quality. Experimental data revealed that γ-irradiation itself did not cause so dramatic changes as the subsequent post-irradiation storage, or, that the changes were, at least, comparable. Multivariate statistical methods (factor analysis, canonical discriminant analysis and kth-nearest neighbour classification) facilitated differentiation of irradiated spices from the corresponding references and γ-radiation dose prediction on the basis of processing of experimentally determined characteristics of their extracts. In case of samples exposed to 0 kGy, 10 kGy and 30 kGy, differentiation and classification correctness higher than 85% was reached. In case of 0 kGy and 30 kGy samples differentiation, for 8 spices absolutely correct recognition was achieved and, for remaining 2 spices, still sufficient recognition correctness of 75% and 92.8%, respectively, was achieved. By the statistical models used, more than 90% correctness of dose prediction was achieved in the majority of cases. (author)

  4. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability.

  5. The effect of storage on quality of herbs genus Origanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbs of Origanum genus are rich in essential oils and contain large amounts of phenols, lipids, fatty acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of these herbs depends on many factors, including the type herbs, post-harvest processing and subsequent processing. The aim of this study was therefore to confirm the hypothesis that the composition of oils of these two herbs of the Origanum genus depends on the post-harvest treatment of herbs and that the dried herb antioxidant activity is higher for fresh than that of frozen herbs. Lamiaceae family herbs: oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and Greek oregano (Origanum heracleoticum L. were planted and analyzed. Herb samples were extracted by hot demineralised water. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method was used for antioxidant activity assessment. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Steam distillation of essential oils was carried out via Clevenger Apparatus. The obtained essential oils were analysed by GC-MS technique. Results of tested fresh, dried and frozen herbs showed a considerable potential for quenching the free DPPH radical. Significantly higher antioxidant activity was found in dried herbs comparing to fresh and frozen, but only in case of values calculated per 100 g of the sample. However, the differences were not statistically significant after recalculation when expressed on dry matter content. There was no difference between fresh and frozen samples. The content of total phenols was significantly higher in dried than in frozen herbs in values recalculated per 100 g of sample. A strong correlation between the results of DPPH and TPC was found again only for values expressed per 100 g of the sample. Post-harvest treatment of herbs affects the composition of their essential oils. The dominant essential oil component of Greek oregano is carvacrol with a proportion of 60% or more. On the contrary

  6. Differential control of growth, apoptotic activity and gene expression in human colon cancer cells by extracts derived from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2014-11-07

    To investigate the effects of extracts from Rhazya stricta (R. stricta) and Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) on human colorectal cancer cells. Human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) were subjected to increasing doses of crude alkaloid extracts from R. stricta (CAERS) and crude flavonoid extracts from Z. officinale (CFEZO). Cells were then harvested after 24, 48 or 72 h and cell viability was examined by trypan blue exclusion dye test; clonogenicity and soft agar colony-forming assays were also carried out. Nuclear stain (Hoechst 33342), acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and comet assays were performed to assess pro-apoptotic potentiality of the extracts. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), using gene-specific primers and Western blot analyses were performed to assess the impact of CAERS and CFEZO on the expression levels of key regulatory proteins in HCT116 cells. Treatment with a combination of CAERS and CFEZO synergistically suppressed the proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells. Calculated IC50, after 24, 48 and 72 h, were 70, 90 and 130 μg/mL for CAERS, 65, 85 and 120 μg/mL for CFEZO and 20, 25 and 45 μg/mL for both agents, respectively. CAERS- and CFEZO-treated cells exhibited morphologic and biochemical features of apoptotic cell death. The induction of apoptosis was associated with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases 3 and 9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase. CAERS and CFEZO treatments downregulated expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, survivin and XIAP, and upregulated expression levels of proapoptotic proteins such as Bad and Noxa. CAERS and CFEZO treatments elevated expression levels of the oncosuppressor proteins, p53, p21 and p27, and reduced levels of the oncoproteins, cyclin D1, cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and

  7. Liquid-liquid extraction of plutonium(IV) in monoamide - ammonium ionic liquid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Alok; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) can be regarded as a sustainable alternative to the conventional molecular diluent, n-dodecane (n-DD), in solvent extraction process. Replacement of volatile organic solvents by RTILs in solvent extraction could lead to inherently safer processes. As far as the cation is concerned, most of the studies reported in literature are focused on imidazolium-based ionic liquids. In contrast to imiadazolium ionic liquids, quarternary ammonium ionic liquids like trioctylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336), trioctylmethylammonium nitrate etc., do not exhibit any cation exchange with the metal ions from aqueous phase during extraction. However, there is no report available in literature that emphasizes the application of trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide ((N_1_8_8_8)(NTf_2)) ionic liquid, for the extraction of Pu(IV). In this paper, we report the advantages of using the ionic liquid, trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ((N_1_8_8_8)(NTf_2)), as diluent, for the extraction of plutonium(IV) in DHOA/(N_1_8_8_8)(NTf_2)

  8. Extraction of molybdenum with TBP-dodecane mixture in nitric medium. Application to uranium refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnet, Louis

    1993-01-01

    Uranium ores may contain high quantities of molybdenum which represents an undesirable impurity in the uranium conversion process. Thus it is necessary to check carefully its extraction and its stripping during the purification step. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molybdenum behaviour during this step. We have developed a radiochemical method for the determination of the molybdenum concentration in each phase. This method used gamma radiation of technetium 99m issued from molybdenum 99 disintegration. After a systematic study of all the extraction parameters, we have proposed mechanisms accounting for molybdenum extraction and we have calculated the constants for the different equilibria. In particular, we have furnished new data concerning the extraction of polymerised molybdenum species with tri butyl phosphate. We have also determined the polymerization constants of molybdenum in the aqueous phase. The influence of uranium and phosphate ions on the molybdenum behaviour during the extraction and stripping has been investigated. We have shown that the extraction of molybdenum was not modified by uranium but improved in the presence of phosphate ions. In the general case, we have shown that uranium, phosphate ions and the ageing of the solvent have an unfavourable effect on stripping. We have explained this result by the evolution of the complex in the organic phase to an un-stripped polymeric form. In conclusion, our study has allowed to explain the behaviour of molybdenum during the purification process, and the role of impurities present in the industrial solutions. It would serve as a guide to improve the exploitation for a better molybdenum-uranium separation. (author) [fr

  9. Physical properties evaluation of roselle extract-egg white mixture under various drying temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyastuti, M. S.; Kumoro, A. C.; Djaeni, M.

    2017-03-01

    Roselle contains anthocyanin that is potential for food colorant. Occasionally, roselle extract is provided in dry powder prepared under high temperature. In this case, the anthocyanin color degrades due to the intervention of heat. The foammat drying with egg white is a potential method to speed up the drying process as well as minimize color degradation. This research aims to study the physical properties of roselle extract under foam mat drying. As indicators, the powder size and color intensity were observed. The result showed that at high temperatures, roselle powder under foam mat drying has the fine size with porous structure. However, at the higher the drying temperature the color retention decreased.

  10. Pressure-temperature phase behavior of mixtures of natural sphingomyelin and ceramide extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Hanna M G; Parsons, Edward S; McCarthy, Nicola L C; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M; Law, Robert V; Brooks, Nicholas J

    2015-03-31

    Ceramides are a group of sphingolipids that act as highly important signaling molecules in a variety of cellular processes including differentiation and apoptosis. The predominant in vivo synthetic pathway for ceramide formation is via sphingomyelinase catalyzed hydrolysis of sphingomyelin. The biochemistry of this essential pathway has been studied in detail; however, there is currently a lack of information on the structural behavior of sphingomyelin- and ceramide-rich model membrane systems, which is essential for developing a bottom-up understanding of ceramide signaling and platform formation. We have studied the lyotropic phase behavior of sphingomyelin-ceramide mixtures in excess water as a function of temperature (30-70 °C) and pressure (1-200 MPa) by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. At low ceramide concentrations the mixtures form the ripple gel phase (P(β)') below the gel transition temperature for sphingomyelin, and this observation has been confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Formation of the ripple gel phase can also be induced at higher temperatures via the application of hydrostatic pressure. At high ceramide concentration an inverse hexagonal phase (HII) is formed coexisting with a cubic phase.

  11. Assessment of the BCR sequential extraction procedure for thallium fractionation using synthetic mineral mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, A.; Grygar, Tomáš; Chrastný, V.; Tejnecký, V.; Drahota, Petr; Komárek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 176, 1-3 (2010), s. 913-918 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Metal * Sequential extraction * Goethite * Ferrihydrite * Birnessite * Illite Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2010

  12. Serum Biochemical, Histopathology and SEM Analyses of the Effects of the Indian Traditional Herb Wattakaka Volubilis Leaf Extract on Wistar Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Velmani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study investigated the protective effect of Wattakaka (W. volubilis leaf extract against streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (with six rats in each group and were fed ad libitum. The rats were fasted for sixteen hours before diabetes was induced by injecting a single dose of 90 mg/kg body weight of STZ in 0.9-percent normal saline through an intraperitoneal route. The five groups were as follows: Group 1: normal control (saline-treated, Group 2: untreated diabetic rats, Groups 3 and 4: diabetic rats treated orally with petroleum ether cold maceration extract (PEME of W. volubilis (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, and Group 5: diabetic rats treated orally with metformin (250 mg/kg body weight. All rats received treatment for 21 days. For the STZ-induced diabetic rats, the blood-glucose, α-amylase, total protein and alanine transaminase (ALT levels were measured on days 7,14 and 21 of the treatment with PEME of W. volubilis and the treatment with metformin. Histopathological changes in the liver were examined with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Morphological changes in the liver were also examined with glutaraldehyde fixation. Results: The treatments with PEME of W. volubilis and with metformin in experimental rats by oral injections for 21 days produced reductions in the levels of serum biochemical markers. Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the administrations of PEME of W. volubilis and of metformin suppressed the generation of abnormal liver cells in the STZ-treated rats. Conclusion: These results suggest that both PEME of W. volubilis and metformin have a protective effect against STZ-induced diabetes.

  13. EXTRACTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERISATION OF PHYTOSTEROL FROM ETHANOLYSIS REACTION MIXTURE OF OIL DEODERISER DISTILLATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    Various plants and plant products (e.g. vegetable oil) are the major sources of phytosterols. Phytosterols are naturally occurring in either free form, or esters of fatty acids or glycoside forms, depending on their natural sources. As a potential industrial product, the main source is from...... deodoriser distillate (DOD) which is a by-product of oil refinery. Major applications of phystosterols are used as a functional food additive and a building block. Phytosterols are found to have cholesterol lowering effect by the inhibition of cholesterol absorption in the intestine lumen. As a building...... block, phytosteryl derivatives can be developed and introduced to pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, we have successfully converted phytosteryl ester from industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD ethanolysed mixture to free phytosterols by using enzymatic transesterification. This study...

  14. Synergic extraction of some lanthanide and actinide elements by a mixture of bis(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid and dinonylnapthalene - sulfonic acid in aromatic diluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raieh, M.A.; El-Dessouky, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Extraction of lanthanides and actinides were found to be synergetically enhanced by a mixture of bis(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HA) and dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HD) in aromatic diluents covering a wide range of dielectric constants. The main extracted species is found to be MAsub(2)Hsub(m-1)Dsub(m). Experimental results indicate that the extraxtion mechanism is governed by the extraction of HD in the organic phase. (author)

  15. Differential Control of Growth, Apoptotic Activity, and Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Extracts Derived from Medicinal Herbs Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman I. Elkady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative potentiality of an extract derived from the medicinal plant ginger (Zingiber officinale on growth of breast cancer cells. Ginger treatment suppressed the proliferation and colony formation in breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Meanwhile, it did not significantly affect viability of nontumorigenic normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A. Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with ginger resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, accompanied by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase 3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase. At the molecular level, the apoptotic cell death mediated by ginger could be attributed in part to upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. Ginger treatment downregulated expression of prosurvival genes, such as NF-κB, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, and Survivin, and cell cycle-regulating proteins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK-4. On the other hand, it increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21. It also inhibited the expression of the two prominent molecular targets of cancer, c-Myc and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. These findings suggested that the ginger may be a promising candidate for the treatment of breast carcinomas.

  16. Synergistic extraction of tetravalent actinides by mixtures of a β-diketone and a neutral donor : a review [Paper No. : IIIA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.; Ramakrishna, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Synergistic extraction of metal ions by mixtures of a β-diketone and a neutral donor has been studied extensively. Due to large synergistic enhancement of extraction both the formulas of the extractable species and the adduct formation constants with various neutral donors have been ascertained. Relatively few such studies have been devoted to the extraction of tetravalent actinides and these are reviewed critically in the present paper. In addition the work on synergistic extraction of tetravelent actinides by HTTA in admixture with several neutral donors carried out at Radiochemistry Division, BARC, is included. Attempts are made to explain the observed trends in the adduct formation constants. (author)

  17. Herbs in exercise and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra', ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

  18. Extraction of uranium from phosphoric-hydrobromic acid mixture by N-lauryl tri alkyl methylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirguis, L A [Nuclear materials authority, Cairo, (Egypt); Tadros, N A [Hot laboratories center, atomic energy authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    A uranium recovery process from phosphoric acid produced by the dihydrate method was elaborated. Decomposition of phosphate rock containing 0.02% U is carried out with sulphuric acid. Crude phosphoric acid is filtered off, steam concentrated to 45% P{sub 2} O{sub 5} (6.27 M) and then clarified with activated clay and carbon. The clear phosphoric acid is introduced to uranium extraction after the addition of 0.88 M hydrobromic acid by 0.134 M amberlite LA.2 and 5% decanol, as a modifier, in kerosene. While 10% ammonium sulphate solution is used for stripping. Over 90% uranium recovery is obtained. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Extraction of Uranium in The Mixtures of Nitric and Sulfuric Acids With Neutral and Basic Ligands in Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nampira, Y; Rahayu Imam, S; Djoyosubroto, H

    1998-01-01

    The tendency of uranium ion in the mixture of nitric and sulfuric acid's medium is to from uranyl sulphate complex. The compound of uranyl sulphate is containing into the heteropoly compound that has acid property. Regarding to the mentioned property, the U extraction process was carried out using a basic or neutral complexing agent containing a ligand that formed the soluble uranium complex in the organic solvent (kerosene).The use of basic complexing agent such as n,tri-octyl amine is more suitable than that of tri butyl phosphate as a neutral agent. The maximum distribution coefficient of uranium will be reached if the maximum concentration of nitric acid and sulphuric acid can be maintained at 0.3 M and 1.5 M respectively in the organic solvent medium consisted n,tri-octyl amine of 30% volume fraction

  20. Improving toxicity assessment of pesticide mixtures: the use of polar passive sampling devices extracts in microalgae toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra KIM TIAM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of contaminants exposure needs to be taking in account for an appropriate evaluation of risks related to mixtures of pesticides released in the ecosystems. Toxicity assessment of such mixtures can be made through a variety of toxicity tests reflecting different level of biological complexity. This paper reviews the recent developments of passive sampling techniques for polar compounds, especially Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS and Chemcatcher® and the principal assessment techniques using microalgae in laboratory experiments. The progresses permitted by the coupled use of such passive samplers and ecotoxicology testing as well as their limitations are presented. Case studies combining passive sampling devices (PSD extracts and toxicity assessment toward microorganisms at different biological scales from single organisms to communities level are presented. These case studies, respectively aimed i at characterizing the toxic potential of waters using dose-response curves, and ii at performing microcosm experiments with increased environmental realism in the toxicant exposure in term of cocktail composition and concentration. Finally perspectives and limitations of such approaches for future applications in the area of environmental risk assessment are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of the transporter-mediated herb-drug interaction potential of DA-9801, a standardized dioscorea extract for diabetic neuropathy, in human in vitro and rat in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Im-Sook; Kong, Tae Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Eun Nam; Kwon, Soon-Sang; Kang, Hee Eun; Choi, Sang-Zin; Son, Miwon; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-07-17

    Drug transporters play important roles in the absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs and thereby, modulate drug efficacy and toxicity. With a growing use of poly pharmacy, concurrent administration of herbal extracts that modulate transporter activities with drugs can cause serious adverse reactions. Therefore, prediction and evaluation of drug-drug interaction potential is important in the clinic and in the drug development process. DA-9801, comprising a mixed extract of Dioscoreae rhizoma and Dioscorea nipponica Makino, is a new standardized extract currently being evaluated for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a phase II clinical study. The inhibitory effects of DA-9801 on the transport functions of organic cation transporter (OCT)1, OCT2, organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) were investigated in HEK293 or LLC-PK1 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on the pharmacokinetics of relevant substrate drugs of these transporters were also examined in vivo in rats. DA-9801 inhibited the in vitro transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT3, and OATP1B1, with IC50 values of 106, 174, 48.1, and 273 μg/mL, respectively, while the other transporters were not inhibited by 300 μg/mL DA-9801. To investigate whether this inhibitory effect of DA-9801 on OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3 could change the pharmacokinetics of their substrates in vivo, we measured the pharmacokinetics of cimetidine, a substrate for OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3, and of furosemide, a substrate for OAT1 and OAT3, by co-administration of DA-9801 at a single oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg. Pre-dose of DA-9801 5 min or 2 h prior to cimetidine administration decreased the Cmax of cimetidine in rats. However, DA-9801 did not affect the elimination parameters such as half-life, clearance, or amount excreted in the urine, suggesting that it did not inhibit elimination process of cimetidine, which is

  2. Photoelectron extraction efficiency from a CsI photocathode and THGEM operation in He−CF4 and He−CH4 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, A.E.C.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Israelashvili, I.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the experimental measurements obtained for UV-induced photo-electron extraction efficiency from a CsI photocathode into He with CF 4 and CH 4 gas mixtures. A 1000Å CsI photocathode was deposited on a gold plated THGEM for photo-electron conversion. Charge-gain measurements were obtained with a Single-THGEM detector operating in these gas mixtures using a continuous UV lamp for the extraction of photo-electrons. Charge-gains in excess of 10 5 were obtained for gas mixtures containing percentages of quencher higher than 20% while photo-electron extraction efficiency achieved ∼ 50% for He/CF 4 and ∼ 30% for He/CH 4 . Single photon electron measurements were also performed to assess the maximal gains reached in this regime. A discussion for future GPM cryogenic applications is presented

  3. Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Patricia Scipioni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of compound yerba maté. In most cases they complied with the standards of the country with the exception of one trademark from Argentina.A erva-mate composta é um produto que se consome amplamente na região do MERCOSUL. Obtém-se misturando erva-mate com outras ervas aromáticas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o estudo das características físico-químicas das principais ervas usadas na mistura e a caracterização das marcas de erva-mate composta. Determinou-se a umidade, extração de água, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e a concentração de cafeína. Encontraram-se nas ervas, valores padrões diferentes aos da erva-mate tais como valores maiores de conteúdo de umidade, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e menores extratos de água. Fizeram-se determinações em nove marcas de erva-mate composta. Na maioria dos casos, cumpriam com as normas do país, exceto uma marca da Argentina

  4. Detection of irradiated food: Thermoluminescence analysis of spices, herbs, and spice-and-herb products. Thermolumineszenz-Analyse an Gewuerzen, Kraeutern und Gewuerz- und Kraeutermischungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G A [Fachgebiet Lebensmittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany); Helle, N [Fachgebietsgruppe Lebensmittel- und Arzneimittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany); Boegl, K W

    1993-09-01

    About 3 and 9 months after irradiation 14 laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations which were isolated from different coded spice-and-herb products. In both study periods 99% of the 317 samples (total number) were correctly identified as irradiated or non-irradiated on the basis of normalized TL intensities. Only three irradiated samples were not identified as irradiated. The results show that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures can be clearly detected throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored, and that the method is suitable for routine analysis in food control laboratories. (orig.)

  5. About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Pediatrics Follow-Up & Survivorship Care Our Location Inpatient Care Outpatient Care & Day Hospital Directions Parking & Transportation ... can be opened and closed. Overview Individual Therapies Exercise & Mind-Body Classes Mind-Body Workshops About Herbs, ...

  6. Radioprotective effect of edible herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ying; Huang Meiying; Zhu Genbo; Fang Jixi; Fan Xiudi

    1992-08-01

    The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in the plasma also were increased. (4) The activity of SOD (superoxide dimutase) was risen. (5) the edible herbs have the function to protect the structure of organs of thymus and testes

  7. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extracts of the species Macrophylla furcraea Baker (cuban hemp, Cyperus rotundus L (nut sedge, Sorghum bicolor L (johnson grass and Ruta graveolens L (herb of grace on seed germination of two weeds and one crop. The extracts were obtained by the Soxhlet method, using water, ethanol and chloroform as solvents. Each extract was evaluated in three dilutions (0, 5 and 10 % v/v and was applied to Bidens pilosa L (spanish needle, Amaranthus dubius Mart (spleen amaranth and Coriandrum sativum L (coriander seeds. Three replications of 50 seeds each one were used and the control was watered only with destilled water. The results

  8. Extraction of zirconium(IV) and separation of 95Zr-95Nb from acidic thiocyanate media by LIX 54 and its mixtures with TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.; Chakravortty, V.; Dash, K.C.; Das, N.R.; Bhattacharyya, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    Appreciable extraction of 95 Zr- 95 Nb by LIX 54 from aqueous HCl alone is not observed in the concentration range from 0.1 to 2 M HCl. Presence of thiocyanate ions results in appreciable extraction of this pair from such acid medium. Synergism has been observed in the extraction of zirconium(IV) by mixtures of LIX 54 and TBP from thiocyanate media, whereas there has been no appreciable synergism in case of niobium(V) under identical conditions. Slope analyses indicate the species extracted by pure TBP to be disolvate whereas for extraction by the mixtures of LIX 54 and TBP it is found to be monosolvate with respect to TBP. The extraction of both the metal ions have been found to depend on the concentration of acid as well as that of thiocyanate ions. Extraction increases with increase in percentage of either of the extractants. Effective separation of these congeneric pairs has been achieved by suitable choice of above system. Extraction is independent of aq. zirconium concentration up to 0.01 M above which it decreases. (orig.)

  9. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of serum salvianolic acid Group C was significantly higher than Group B, indicating that acupuncture might improve the absorption of salvianolic acid B from the extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in the Chinese medicine formula. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs significantly ...

  10. Emerging Trends in Microwave Processing of Spices and Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahath Kubra, Ismail; Kumar, Devender; Jagan Mohan Rao, Lingamallu

    2016-10-02

    Today, spices are integral part of our food as they provide sensory attributes such as aroma, color, flavour and taste to food. Further their antimicrobial, antioxidant, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties are also well known. Since spices are seasonal so their availability can be extended year round by adopting different preservation techniques. Drying and extraction are most important methods for preservation and value addition to spices. There are different techniques for drying of spices with their own advantages and limitations. A novel, non-conventional technique for drying of spices is use of microwave radiation. This technique proved to be very rapid, and also provide a good quality product. Similarly, there are a number of non-conventional extraction methods in use that are all, in principle, solid-liquid extractions but which introduce some form of additional energy to the process in order to facilitate the transfer of analytes from sample to solvent. This paper reviews latest advances in the use of microwave energy for drying of spices and herbs. Also, the review describes the potential application of microwave energy for extraction of essential oil/bioactive components from spices and herbs and the advantages of microwave-assisted process over the other extraction processes generally employed for extraction. It also showcases some recent research results on microwave drying/extraction from spices and herbs.

  11. Astragalus Extract Mixture HT042 Increases Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate by Upregulating Circulatory IGF-1 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a standardized ingredient of health functional food approved by Korean FDA with a claim of “height growth of children.” HT042 stimulates bone growth rate and increases local IGF-1 expression in growth plate of rats which can be considered as direct stimulation of GH and its paracrine/autocrine actions. However, it remains unclear whether HT042 stimulates circulatory IGF-1 which also plays a major role to stimulate bone growth. To determine the effects on circulatory IGF-1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 expressions and phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5 were evaluated in the liver after 10 days of HT042 administration. HT042 upregulated liver IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 mRNA expression, IGF-1 protein expression, and phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5. HT042 also increased bone growth rate and proliferative zonal height in growth plate. In conclusion, HT042 stimulates bone growth rate via increment of proliferative rate by upregulation of liver IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 mRNA followed by IGF-1 protein expression through phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5, which can be regarded as normal functioning of GH-dependent endocrine pathway.

  12. Aqueous Extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium Enhances the Antimelanogenic and Antioxidative Activities of the Mixture of Soy Peptide and Collagen Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The possible synergistic effect between the aqueous extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium (菊花 Jú Huā (AECM and the peptide mixture (PM containing soy peptide and collagen peptide was investigated in an ultraviolet (UV irradiation–induced skin damage mouse model. The irradiated mice were treated with the PM or PM+AECM (containing PM and AECM, respectively. Both PM and PM+AECM groups displayed an apparent photoprotective effect on the UV-irradiated skin damage of mice. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the epidermal hyperplasia and melanocytes in the basal epidermal layer of the UV-irradiated skin in mice decreased when treated with either PM or PM+AECM. Further study showed that soy peptide, collagen peptide, and AECM also inhibited the activities of mushroom tyrosinase with IC50 values of 82.3, 28.2, and 1.6 μg/ml, respectively. Additionally, PM+AECM reduced melanogenesis by 46.2% at the concentration of 10 mg/ml in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Meanwhile, the UV-induced increase of antioxidative indicators, including glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and malondialdehyde (MDA, was reduced significantly after treatment with 1.83 g/kg/dbw of PM+AECM. This evidence supported the synergistic antioxidative effect of AECM with PM. These results demonstrated that oral intake of PM and AECM had synergistic antimelanogenic and antioxidative effects in UV-irradiated mice.

  13. Monoterpenoids from the whole herb of Veronicastrum axillare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xue-Hong; Fang, Fan-Fu; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Wu, Yu; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2014-05-01

    Veronicastrum axillare (Sieb. et Zucc.) Yamazaki (Scrophulariaceae) embraces varieties of bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-pyresis and detoxification activity, while little is known of the phytochemical components of this medicinal plant. To isolate and identify bioactive constituents from the whole herb of V. axillare. Ethanol extract of the whole herb of V. axillare was subjected to successive column chromatography. Chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses on the basis of NMR, IR and HR-MS data. A new monoterpenoid, axillacetal A (1) and a known analogue, tarumal (2), were isolated from the whole herb of V. axillare. The structure of tarumal (2) was also revised according to our NMR data. This is the first report on the isolation and authentication of novel chemical constituents from V. axillare.

  14. Detection of Poisonous Herbs by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Li, Z.; Chen, T.; Liu, J.-J.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the application of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques to distinguish poisonous and non-poisonous herbs which both have a similar appearance. Spectra of one poisonous and two non-poisonous herbs (Gelsemium elegans, Lonicera japonica Thunb, and Ficus Hirta Vahl) were obtained in the range 0.2-1.4 THz by using a THz time-domain spectroscopy system. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for feature extraction. The prediction accuracy of classification is between 97.78 to 100%. The results demonstrate an efficient and applicative method to distinguish poisonous herbs, and it may be implemented by using THz spectroscopy combined with chemometric algorithms.

  15. Studies on palauan medicinal herbs. II. Activation of mouse macrophages RAW 264.7 by Ongael, leaves of Phaleria cumingii (Meisn.) F. Vill. and its acylglucosylsterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Tokunaga, Masashi; Iwahashi, Hiroyasu; Naruto, Shunsuke; Yagi, Hideki; Masuko, Takashi; Kubo, Michinori

    2005-05-01

    The extract of Ongael [leaves of Phaleria cumingii (MEISN.) F. VILL.], a Palauan medicinal herb, enhanced an in vitro phagocytic activity of mouse macrophages RAW 264.7 cells (RAW 264.7). Activity-guided fractionation of the Ongael extract by the in vitro phagocytosis assay using RAW 264.7 led to the isolation of a mixture of acylglucosylsterols (1) as an active constituent along with other inactive constituents, tetracosanol and mangiferin. On the basis of chemical modifications and spectral analyses, the compound 1 was deduced to be a mixture of the known 3-O-(6-O-acyl-beta-D-glucosyl)-beta-sitosterols, the acyl moiety being mainly palmitoyl (57%), oleoyl (12%) and alpha-linolenoyl (12%) with small amount of stearoyl (7%) and linoleoyl (4%).

  16. Determination of superoxide dismutase mimetic activity in common culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of oxidative stress, the removal of superoxide, a free radical associated with chronic inflammation, is catalysed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus in addition to acting as an antioxidant, SOD may also be utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent. Some plant derived foods have been shown to have SOD mimetic (SODm) activity however it is not known if this activity is possessed by culinary herbs which have previously been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to ascertain if the culinary herbs rosemary, sage and thyme possess SODm activity, and to investigate the influence of cooking and digestion on this activity. Transition metal ion content was also determined to establish if it could likely contribute to any SODm activity detected. All extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested (C&D) herbs were shown to possess SODm activity, which was significantly correlated with previously determined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these herbs. SODm activity was significantly increased following (C) and (C&D) for rosemary and sage only. The impact of (C) and (C&D) on the SODm for thyme may have been influenced by its transition metal ion content. SODm activity may contribute to the herbs' antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities however the source and significance of this activity need to be established.

  17. Repurification and characterization of extractant mixture (isobutyl acetate-methyl isobutyl ketone) used in spectrophotometric analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merey, R.; Al-Hameish, M.

    2001-01-01

    Isobutyl acetate (IBA) -methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) mixture used in analytical laboratories was re-purified by fractional distillation. The used mixture was washed with 0.5 M Na 2 CO 3 solution for the removal of inorganic substances. The range of fractional distillation was between 111-114 Centigrade which gave an azeotropic mixture that consists of 70% of IBA, 20% of MIBK and 10% of isobutanol (IBL). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed that isobutanol was increased by about 10% on the expense of IBA. This study suggests that MIBK could be determined in organic mixture spectrophotometrically. The analytical function of the re-purified mixture is found to be better than the unused mixture. Finally the distillation recovery was 93%. (author)

  18. New approaches in analyzing the pharmacological properties of herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Herbal extracts are widely used and accepted in the population. The pharmacological characterization of such products meets some specific challenges, given the chemical complexity of the active ingredient. An overview is given on modern methods and approaches that can be used for that purpose. In particular, HPLC-based activity profiling is discussed as a means to identify pharmacologically active compounds in an extract, and expression profiling is described as a means for global assessment of effects exerted by multi-component mixtures such as extracts. These methods are illustrated with selected axamples from our labs, including woad (Isatis tinctoria), the traditional Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa).

  19. Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, San San; Than, Mar lar; Thwe, Moe Moe

    2011-12-15

    Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

  20. Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San Win; Mar lar Than; Moe Moe Thwe

    2011-12-01

    Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Endemic Herbs from Tangkahan Conservation Forest North Sumatera to Bacteria and Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIKI NURTJAHJA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tangkahan Conservation Forest in Karo County, North Sumatera has high biodiversity of endemic herbs. Many species of the wild herbs are well known used as traditional medicine not only by local people but also by people out of the area. The methanol extract of the medicinal wild herbs in Tangkahan Conservation Forest, Karo County to relief skin diseases caused by bacteria and fungi never been studied medically. The antimicrobial activity leave extract of the medicinal herbs to pathogenic microorganisms are studied. The leaves extract of kembu-kembu (Callicarpa candicans, rintih bulung (Piper muricatum, cep-cepan (Castanopsis costata, and sereh kayu (Eugenia grandis, has antimicrobial to bacteria (Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast (Candida albicans. Toxicity assay of these plants by brine shrimp method using Artemia salina indicates that cep-cepan dan sereh kayu have lethal concentration higher than kembu-kembu and rintih bulung.

  2. Synergistic extraction and separation of yttrium from heavy rare earths using mixture of sec-octylphenoxy acetic acid and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaobo; Zhao Junmei; Meng Shulan; Li Deqian

    2005-01-01

    Synergistic extraction and separation of yttrium (Y) from heavy rare earths (HRE) in chloride medium using mixture of sec-octylphenoxy acetic acid (CA-12, HA) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (Cyanex272, HL) in n-heptane has been investigated. The synergistic enhancement coefficients, R max , were obtained for Ho 3+ (5.12), Y 3+ (5.34), Er 3+ (7.04), Tm 3+ (7.50), Yb 3+ (13.12) and Lu 3+ (17.58). The separation factors (SF) between Y 3+ and HRE were obtained, and it was found that Er 3+ would form the new complex as ErH 6 A 4 L 5 in the mixture system. A cation exchange mechanism was proposed. The equilibrium constant, formation constant and thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG = -18.48 kJ/mol, ΔH = -1.36 kJ/mol and ΔS = 0.058 kJ/mol were determined. The CA-12 and Cyanex272 mixture system showed higher extraction efficiency, larger separation factors as well as excellent stripping behaviors. The application potential of the mixture system to separate Y from HRE has been discussed

  3. Effect of Dielectric Properties of a Solvent-Water Mixture Used in Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Potato Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were measured at different temperatures from 20 to 80 °C at two frequencies 915 MHz and 2450 MHz. These frequencies are most commonly used on industrial and domestic scales respectively. In this study, the dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were found to be dependent on temperature, solvent concentration, and presence of plant matrix. Linear and quadratic equations were developed to establish the dependency between factors. At 2450 MHz, the dielectric constant of methanol-water mixtures was significantly affected by concentration of methanol rather than by temperature, whereas the dielectric loss factor was significantly affected by temperature rather than by methanol concentration. Introduction of potato peel led to an increase in the effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of the methanol fractions. At 915 MHz, both the dielectric properties were significantly affected by the increase in temperature and solvent concentration, while the presence of potato peel had no significant effect on the dielectric properties. Statistical analysis of the dissipation factor at 915 and 2450 MHz revealed that both temperature and solvent concentration had a significant effect on it, whereas introduction of potato peels at 915 MHz reduced the effect of temperature as compared to 2450 MHz. The total phenolic yield of the microwave-assisted extraction process was significantly affected by the solvent concentration, the dissipation factor of the methanol-water mixture and the extraction time.

  4. Kidney toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 3 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    No tabular summary of potentially life-threatening, kidney-toxic dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) based on PubMed case reports is currently available online and continually updated to forewarn United States consumers, clinicians, and companies manufacturing DS. The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of kidney toxicity case reports related to DS. Documented PubMed case reports (1966 to May 2016, and cross-referencing) of DS appearing to contribute to kidney toxicity were listed in "DS Toxic Tables." Keywords included "herb" or "dietary supplement" combined with "kidney" to generate an overview list, and possibly "toxicity" to narrow the selection. Case reports were excluded if they involved herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm, excessive doses (except vitamins/minerals), legal or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. Since commercial DS often include a combination of ingredients, they were treated separately; so were foods. A few foods with kidney-toxic effects were listed in a fourth table. The spectrum of herbal or DS-induced kidney injuries included kidney stones, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, necrosis, acute kidney injury (AKI; previously known as acute renal failure [ARF]), chronic kidney disease, kidney transplant, and death. Approximately 7 herbs (minus 4 no longer for sale) and 10 dietary supplements (minus 3 excluded due to excessive doses + germanium that is no longer sold) have been related to kidney injury case reports published in PubMed (+crosslisting) in the last 50 + years (1966 to May 2016). The implicated herbs include Chinese yew (Taxus celbica) extract, impila (Callilepis laureola), morning cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), thundergod vine (Tripterygium wilfordii hook F), tribulus (Tribulus terrestris) and wormwood (Artemisia

  5. Therapeutic effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices and their mixture on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2016-07-01

    The protective effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices, garlic, (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and pepper (Capsicum frutescens) singly and combined was investigated using a rat model of chronic alcohol intake. Rats were given 30% ethanol, with or without aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or mixture of the three administered at 200mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 28 days. Lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, oxidative and antioxidative profiles of serum, faecal, liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues of the rats were analyzed. Alcohol treatment significantly elevated liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation, depleted antioxidant system and induced histopathological changes in the liver. These alterations were markedly ameliorated by treatment with aqueous extracts of the three spices singly or mixed at 200mg/kg body weight. These results suggest that aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or a blend of the three protects against alcohol- induced hypercholesterolemia, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and liver damage.

  6. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control, lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L, lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP, and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG, respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency.

  7. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei; Li, Bao-cai; Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. ► Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. ► The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

  8. HERBE final safety report; HERBE Finalni sigurnosni izvestaj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    The Final safety report of HERBE system constructed at the RB reactor consists of 13 chapters, as follows. Chapter 0 includes a summary and the contents of the Final safety report, fundamental characteristics of the system and conclusion remarks, with the license agreement of the Safety Committee of the Boris Kidric Institute. Chapter 1 describes and analyzes the site of the HERBE system, including demography, topography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismicity, ecology. Chapter 3 covers technical characteristics of the system, Chapter 4 deals with safety analysis, Chapter 5 describes organisation of construction and preliminary operational testing of the system. Chapter 6 deals with organisation and program of test and regular operation, relevant procedures. Chapter 7 defines operational conditions and constraints, Chapter 8 and describe methods and means of radiation protection and radioactive materials management respectively. Chapter 10 contains a review of emergency plans, measures and procedures for nuclear accident protection. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with quality assurance program and physical protection of the HERBE system and related nuclear material.

  9. ANTIOXIDATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEVERAGES MADE FROM A MIXTURE OF LEMONGRASS EXTRACT AND GREEN TEA [Studi Karakteristik Antioksidan Minuman Campuran Ekstrak Serai dan Teh Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia Manuel Halim*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combination of lemongrass extract and green tea infusion is expected to produce functional beverage that has potential antioxidant activity as compared to individual materials. This research was aimed to investigate the appropriate solvent type and extraction methods to produce lemongrass extract with highest antioxidant activity and also to investigate the antioxidant characteristic of beverages prepared from a mixture of lemongrass extract and green tea. Lemongrass were subjected to extraction under reflux and maceration using three type of solvents (distilled water, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. The resulting extracts were assessed for their total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. Extraction under reflux and using ethanol as solvent resulted in extract with best antioxidant activity (IC50=158.70±47.88 mg/L for reflux method and 103.73±8.03 mg/L for ethanol. This extract was combined with green tea with several ratios (lemongrass extract to green tea [w/w] = 1:3; 1:2; 1:1; 2:1; 3:1. Four level of stevia were used in the beverages (0, 200, 400, 600 ppm. Beverages made with lomogass: tea ratio of 1:3 and 1:1 (w/w and 600 ppm stevia turned out to be beverages with the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=271.83±44.48 mg/L and 287.15±36.25 mg/L for ratio 1:3 and 1:1 [w/w] consecutively, 301.59±80.89 mg/L for stevia level 600 ppm. Hedonic testing on beverages revealed that beverage made from lemongrass: tea ratio 1:1 [w/w] ratio with addition of stevia at 600 ppm is the most preferred based on colour, aroma, and overall acceptance.

  10. Kinetics of Ultrasound-Assisted Flavonoid Extraction from Agri-Food Solid Wastes Using Water/Glycerol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris P. Makris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red grape pomace (RGP and onion solid wastes (OSW were used as raw material to produce flavonoid-enriched extracts, using ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction. The extraction medium used was composed of water and glycerol and under the conditions used the extraction of flavonoids from both materials was shown to obey first-order kinetics. Maximum diffusivities (De values were 4.01 × 10−11 and 2.35 × 10−11 m2·s−1, for RGP and OSW extraction, respectively, while the corresponding activation energies (Ea were 14.00 and 15.23 kJ·mol−1.

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese herb medicine mixture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    2016-08-06

    Aug 6, 2016 ... combustion method, using EDTA as a standard by a factor of 6.25 (AOAC, 2005). .... the clear supernatant and stored at −20 ºC to determine ammonia N by a ... Enzyme activities were evaluated by determining reducing.

  12. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Paula M; Villavicencio, A L.C.H.; Brito, M S; Nahme, Ligia C; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C D

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total {beta}-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  13. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total β-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  14. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Brito, M.S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C.D.

    2002-01-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total β-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography

  15. Effects of a triplex mixture of Peganum harmala, Rhus coriaria, and Urtica dioica aqueous extracts on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi Gaballu, Fereydoon; Abedi Gaballu, Yousef; Moazenzade Khyavy, Omid; Mardomi, Alireza; Ghahremanzadeh, Kazem; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Mamandy, Himan

    2015-08-01

    Several therapeutic effects such as antioxidant and blood glucose-lowering activities have been reported for Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae) (PH) seeds, Rhus coriaria L (Anacardiaceae) (RC) fruits, and Urtica dioica L (Urticaceae) (UD) leaves. This study investigates the effects of a triplex mixture (1:1:1) of these medicinal plants on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats. Aqueous extracts of PH, RC and UD were administered as either monotherapy or in combination at a final dose of 200 mg/kg to alloxan-induced diabetic rats by daily gavage. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, liver function-related enzymes, lipid profile, and creatinine were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Tissues from the liver and kidney stained with hematoxylin/eosin were histologically examined. The results obtained from the exposure groups were compared to either healthy or diabetic control groups. Compared with the diabetic control rats, all aqueous extracts (ED50 = 11.5 ± 2.57 mg/ml) led to significant decreases in the levels of ALP (1.39-2.23-fold, p < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.79-3.26-fold, p < 0.05), and blood glucose (1.27-4.16-fold, p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of TG was decreased only by treatment with UD and triplex mixture (1.25- and 1.20-fold, respectively, p < 0.05). Among the studied parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), LDL-C, TG, and creatinine recovered to healthy control levels after 4 weeks of treatment with the extract mixture. This study showed that PH, RC, and UD extracts, especially their combination, had significant antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and liver and renal damage recovering effects.

  16. Effect of Antioxidant Mixtures on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species under Different Water Activity Conditions on Peanut Meal Extract Agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barberis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixtures of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA and propyl paraben (PP on lag phase, growth rate and ochratoxin A (OTA production by four Aspergillus section Nigri strains was evaluated on peanut meal extract agar (PMEA under different water activities (aw. The antioxidant mixtures used were: BHA + PP (mM, M1 (0.5 + 0.5, M2 (1.0 + 0.5, M3 (2.5 + 0.5, M4 (0.5 + 1.0, M5 (1.0 + 1.0, M6 (2.5 + 1.0, M7 (5.0 + 2.5 and M8 (10 + 2.5. The mixture M8 completely suppressed mycelial growth for all strains. A significant stimulation in OTA production was observed with mixtures M1 to M5 mainly at the highest aw; whereas M6, M7 and M8 completely inhibited OTA production in all strains assayed; except M6 in A. carbonarius strain (RCP G. These results could enable a future intervention strategy to minimize OTA contamination.

  17. Analytical strategy coupled with response surface methodology to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from ternary mixtures of green, yellow, and red teas (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Daniel; Grevink, Raymond; Zielinski, Acácio A F; Nunes, Domingos S; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2014-10-22

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the extraction of flavan-3-ols, o-diphenols, total phenolic compounds (TPC), free radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), cupric ion reducing antioxidant activity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were significant, and data were fit satisfactorily (R(2) > 80%). A mixture of green and red teas had a synergism in CUPRAC and TPC, whereas a mixture of yellow and red teas had a positive effect on CUPRAC and DPPH. An optimization was performed to maximize the antioxidant activity and flavan-3-ol content and to render a tea with mild bitterness, and results showed that a mixture of 14.81% green, 56.86% yellow, and 28.33% red teas would be the most suitable combination of factors.

  18. Screening for main components associated with the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of a tonic herb, Polygonum multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyu; Niu, Ming; Bai, Zhaofang; Zhang, Congen; Zhao, Yanling; Li, Ruiyu; Tu, Can; Li, Huifang; Jing, Jing; Meng, Yakun; Ma, Zhijie; Feng, Wuwen; Tang, Jinfa; Zhu, Yun; Li, Jinjie; Shang, Xiaoya; Zou, Zhengsheng; Xiao, Xiaohe; Wang, Jiabo

    2017-06-01

    The main constituents of a typical medicinal herb, Polygonum multiflorum (Heshouwu in Chinese), that induces idiosyncratic liver injury remain unclear. Our previous work has shown that cotreatment with a nontoxic dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and therapeutic dose of Heshouwu can induce liver injury in rats, whereas the solo treatment cannot induce observable injury. In the present work, using the constituent "knock-out" and "knock-in" strategy, we found that the ethyl acetate (EA) extract of Heshouwu displayed comparable idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity to the whole extract in LPS-treated rats. Results indicated a significant elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and liver histologic changes, whereas other separated fractions failed to induce liver injury. The mixture of EA extract with other separated fractions induced comparable idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity to the whole extract in LPS-treated rats. Chemical analysis further revealed that 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy trans-stilbene-2-O-β-glucoside (trans-SG) and its cis-isomer were the two major compounds in EA extract. Furthermore, the isolated cis-, and not its trans-isomer, displayed comparable idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity to EA extract in LPS-treated rats. Higher contents of cis-SG were detected in Heshouwu liquor or preparations from actual liver intoxication patients associated with Heshouwu compared with general collected samples. In addition, plasma metabolomics analysis showed that cis-SG-disturbing enriched pathways remarkably differed from trans-SG ones in LPS-treated rats. All these results suggested that cis-SG was closely associated with the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of Heshouwu. Considering that the cis-trans isomerization of trans-SG was mediated by ultraviolet light or sunlight, our findings serve as reference for controlling photoisomerization in drug discovery and for the clinical use of Heshouwu and stilbene-related medications.

  19. In situ liquid-liquid extraction as a sample preparation method for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MS analysis of polypeptide mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellström, Sven; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2003-01-01

    A novel liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure was investigated for preparation of peptide and protein samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). LLE using ethyl acetate as the water-immiscible organic solvent enabled segregation of hydrophobic...... matrix to the organic solvent enhanced the efficiency of the LLE-MALDI MS method for analysis of hydrophobic peptides and proteins. LLE-MALDI MS enabled the detection of the hydrophobic membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin as a component in a simple protein mixture. Peptide mixtures containing...... phosphorylated, glycosylated, or acylated peptides were successfully separated and analyzed by the in situ LLE-MALDI MS technique and demonstrate the potential of this method for enhanced separation and structural analysis of posttranslationally modified peptides in proteomics research....

  20. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K.

    2004-01-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable

  1. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  2. Palatability of water-soluble extracts of protein sources and replacement of fishmeal by a selected mixture of protein sources for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Poor palatability is a limiting factor for replacing fishmeal with other protein sources in aquaculture. The water-soluble molecules with low molecular weights are the major determinants of the palatability of diets. The present study was conducted to investigate the palatability of water-soluble extracts from single protein source (single extract pellets) and the mixture of these extracts with different proportions (blended extract pellets) in juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). Then according to the palatability of blended extract pellets, an optimal mixture proportion was selected, and a new protein source made from raw protein materials with the selected proportion was formulated to replace fishmeal. Summarily, the palatability of single extract pellets for turbot was descendent from fishmeal to pet-food grade poultry by-product meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, meat and bone meal, and corn gluten meal. Subsequently, according to the palatability of single extract pellets, 52 kinds of blended extract pellets were designed to test their palatability. The results showed that the pellets presented remarkably different palatability, and the optimal one was diet 52 (wheat gluten meal: pet-food grade poultry by-product meal: meat and bone meal: corn gluten meal = 1:6:1:2). The highest ingestion ratio (the number of pellets ingested/the number of pellets fed) was 0.73 ± 0.03, which was observed in Diet 52. Then five isonitrogenous (52% crude protein) and isocaloric (20 kJ g-1 gross energy) diets were formulated by replacing 0 (control), 35%, 50%, 65% and 80% of fishmeal with No.52 blending proportion. After a 10-weeks feeding trial, a consistent feed intake was found among all replacement treatments. Replacement level of fishmeal up to 35% did not significantly influence final body weight, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio of turbot. Therefore, the water-soluble extracts of protein sources play an

  3. SOLID PHASE MICRO EXTRACTION (SPME) FLAVOR ANALYSIS OF APPLE JUICE AND COFFEE MIXTURES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC-MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Ja Kim; Jeehyun Lee; Jaeyoung Byun; Sunmi Choi; Wonsik Choi

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the flavor of apple juice and coffee mixtures and the sensory quality of SPME extracts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three samples with different compositions were examined. Sample A1 contained85% apple juiceand 15% coffee, sample A2 had87.5% apple and 12.5% coffee, and sample A3 had90% apple juiceand 10% coffee. The sensory analysis involved 100 panelists and a sequential monadic test. Sample presentation orders were balanced in ...

  4. Reproductive capacity of male mice protected from supralethal effect of gamma-radiation by the administration of a mixture of extracts from Archangelica officinalis and Ledus palustre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narimanov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-day old albino mongrel male mice were exposed to gamma-radiation (LD 90/30 ) after preventive single injection of a mixture of extracts from Archangelica officinalis and Ledum palustre. One month after irradiation, the survivors were mated to nonirradiated females. Healthy offspring were obtained from 11 out 12 experimental males. The number of both sexes in the posterity of nonirradiated parents was equal, whereas in offspring of experimental groups, the number of female pups was 2.3 times larger than that of males. The experimental posterity was found to be resistant to supralethal radiation doses

  5. The endocrine disruption properties of an adipose contaminant mixture extracted from East Greenland polar bears studied in the H295R cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, R.; Letcher, R. J.; Blair, D.

    been well described and especially the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is recognized as being one of the most contaminated species in the Arctic. The present study investigated the in vitro endocrine disruptive effects of the POP mixture found in adipose tissue from 10 East Greenland polar bears collected...... (dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione). These results demonstrated comprehensive in vitro effects of POPs extracted from polar bear adipose tissue on key elements in the steroidogenesis, and identifies disruption of CYP17 activity as a mode of action. A POP-induced interference with CYP17 can potentially explain...... previously observed hormone levels in polar bears and could pose a risk to their reproductive health....

  6. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternative for an antibiotic, on the cecal microbial ecosystem in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Williams, B.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Li, H.S.; Li, X.P.; Luo, J.Y.; Li, W.K.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the potential prebiotic effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharide extracts, Lentinus edodes extract (LenE), Tremella fuciformis extract, and Astragalus membranaceus Radix extract, on chicken growth and the cecal microbial ecosystem, as compared with the

  7. Simulation and thermodynamic modeling of the extraction of tocopherol from a synthetic mixture of tocopherol, squalene and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Mendes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil is the most consumed vegetable oil in the world, representing 54% of the total world production. Brazil is the second country in the world that produces and export soybean seeds, almost 20%. One of the most important by-product of the soybean oil is the deodorizer distillate, commonly known as soybean sludge. This residue is rich in many high value compounds as tocopherols, squalene and sterols. Tocopherols are the major components in the deodorized distillated due to their characteristics as an antioxidant agent. So, the objective of this work is to study the concentration of tocopherols presented in this raw material, using the operational conditions obtained from the equilibrium data and using supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent. The deodorizer distillate is a complex mixture of more than 200 components, so a synthetic mixture was chosen to represent the deodorizer distillate. The synthetic mixture used in this work is composed by tocopherols, fatty acids and squalene. The simulation was carried out using ASPEN+ simulator and the LCVM thermodynamic model was used to correlate the available equilibrium data.

  8. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  9. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj P Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.

  10. Reduction in hypercholesterolemia and risk of cardiovascular diseases by mixtures of plant food extract: a study on plasma lipid profile, oxidative stress and testosterone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed, Doha A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was postulated to prepare and evaluate the influence of two plant food extract mixtures on plasma lipid profile, oxidative stress and testosterone levels in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The safety of the studied extract mixtures was evaluated through the determination of liver and kidney functions. The total phenolic contents, tocopherols, fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP in the extract mixtures were determined. Rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were given a daily oral dose (300 mg/kg rat body weight of either mixture I or II for a month and compared with a control hypercholesterolemic group and a normal control group. Results showed that α-tocopherol was 0.750 and 4.017 mg, γ-tocopherol was 0.564 mg and 0 and δ-tocopherol was 15.23mg and 0.634mg/100g for mixtures I and II, respectively. The phenolic contents in mixtures I and II were 36.74 and 23.72 g gallic acid equivalent/100g mixture, respectively. The GLC investigation of UNSAP revealed that stigmasterol and b-sitosterol were the major phytosterols in mixtures I and II, respectively followed by campesterol in both. The GLC analysis of the fatty acids showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid in both extract mixtures. Results from the animal experiment showed that feeding a hypercholesterolemic diet produced a significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol (T-Ch, triglycerides (TGs, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLCh, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL-Ch and malondialdehyde (MDA and a significant reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, vitamin E, b-carotene and testosterone. Rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet and given mixture I or II showed significant improvements in plasma lipid profile compared to the hypercholesterolemic control group. This improvement was associated with a significant reduction in oxidative stress reflected by an elevation in plasma levels of antioxidants (vitamin E and b-carotene and a

  11. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  12. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  13. Vapor Extraction/Bioventing Sequential Treatment of Soil Contaminated with Volatile and SemiVolatile Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malina, G.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    A cost-effective removal strategy was studied in bench-scale columns that involved vapor extraction and bioventing sequential treatment of toluene- and decane-contaminated soil. The effect of operating mode on treatment performance was examined at a continuous air flow and consecutively at two

  14. Cyano-containing ionic liquids for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from an aromatic/aliphatic mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids can replace conventional solvents in aromatic/aliphatic extractions, if they have higher aromatic distribution coefficients and higher or similar aromatic/aliphatic selectivities. Also physical properties, such as density and viscosity, must be taken into account if a solvent is

  15. Application of numerical modelling to scaling-up of electrically induced extraction from an organic mixture using an ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Kamil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction provides an environmentally friendly process as an alternative to azeotropic distillation, pervaporation and reverse osmosis because these techniques require the use of large amounts of energy, may involve volatile organic compounds, and operation at high pressure.

  16. DNA internal standard for the quantitative determination of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Pino; Bertea, Cinzia M; Temporale, Giovanni; Maffei, Massimo E

    2007-12-01

    Here, we show a new, simple, and rapid SYBR Green-based Real-Time PCR assay for the quantification of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures. As a test plant, Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M., a perennial herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family able to induce hallucinations, changes in perception, or other psychologically induced changes with similar potency as LSD, was used. The method was tested on seven mixtures 100/0%, 80/20%, 60/40%, 40/60%, 20/80%, 10/90%, 0/100% (w/w) S. divinorum versus a non-hallucinogenic plant, Salvia officinalis. Total DNA was extracted from samples and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA was added, as internal standard, at the beginning of each extraction. A new formula for the interpretation of Real-Time PCR data, based on the relative quantification of DNA extracted from mixture versus a reference DNA extracted from a known amount of pure S. divinorum, was developed. The results of this work show an almost perfect correspondence between Real-Time PCR-calculated weight and the weight estimated by an analytical weighted method, proving the effectiveness of this method for the quantitative analysis of a given species in a plant mixture.

  17. Separation of Am(III) from Eu(III) by mixtures of triazynylbipyridine and bis(dicarbollide) extractants. The composition of the metal complexes extracted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbutt, J.; Krejzler, J.

    2006-01-01

    Separation of trivalent actinides, in particular americium and curium, from lanthanides is an important step in an advanced partitioning process for future reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The use of soft donor (N and S) ligands makes it possible to separate the two groups of elements, probably because of the more covalent character in the complexes with actinides compared to the lanthanides. The aim of present work was to study solvent extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) in a similar system with diethylhemi-BTP and COSAN: protonated bis(chlorodicarbollido)cobalt(III) or commo-3,3-cobalta-bis(8,9,12-trichlora-1,2-dicarbaclosododecaborane)ic acid. The present research was focused on both the determination of conditions for the separation of 241 Am(III) from 152 Eu in aqueous nitrate solution by using a synergistic extraction system and on the modelling of the process by slope analysis. Obtained values of the separation factors supported by the computer modelling permitted drawing the conclusions on the mechanism of the process and on the structure of extracted species

  18. Screening for Anti-lipase Properties of 37 Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Dong Zheng

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: The results support the view that herbs represent a rich source of anti-lipase compounds. The screening of the methanolic extracts of 37 Chinese medicinal plants in vitro led to the identification of several extracts with potential activity against PPL, in particular, P. vulgaris and R. palmatum. We also found that several monomeric chemicals in these herbs exhibited good or moderate activity against PPL. To the best of our knowledge, these traditional Chinese herbal medicines or phytochemicals have not been previously screened for their lipase inhibitory activity.

  19. Mixture design and Doehlert matrix for the optimization of the extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Spondias mombin L Apple Bagasse Agro-industrial Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Felix, Antonio C.; Novaes, Cleber G.; Pires Rocha, Maísla; Barreto, George E.; do Nascimento, Baraquizio B.; Giraldez Alvarez, Lisandro D.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we have determined, using RSM (mixture design and Doehlert matrix), the optimum values of the independent variables to achieve the maximum response for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from Spondias mombin L bagasse agroindustrial residues, preserving its antioxidant activity. The assessment with reference to the extraction of phenolic compounds, as well as their capacity to scavenge ABTS and the antioxidant capacity, determined by the modified DPPH method were investigated based on distinct combinations of time, temperature, velocity of rotation and solvents concentration. It was investigated that the optimum condition for the highest antioxidant yield was obtained using water (60.84%), acetone (30.31%) and ethanol (8.85%) at 30 ºC during 20 min at 50 rpm. We have found that the maximum yield of total phenolics was 355.63 ± 9.77 (mg GAE/100 g), showing an EC50 of 3962.24 ± 41.20 (g fruit/g of DPPH) and 8.36 ± 0.30 (µM trolox/g fruit), which were measured using DPPH and ABTS assays. These results suggest that RSM was successfully applied for optimizing the extraction of phenolics compounds preserving its antioxidant activity. This method does not require expensive reagents or high quantities of organic solvents.

  20. Effect of irradiation on total chemical profiles of ten selected local herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Maizatul Akmam Mohd Nasir

    2010-01-01

    As utilisation of medicinal herbs in food and bio industry increases, mass production and the supply of high quality herbs are required. Restriction on the use of fumigants and preservatives on herbs demands safe hygienic technologies such as irradiation. The stability of the active components of ten local herbs after irradiation was studied. The herbs selected were Hempedu Bumi, Mas Cotek, Tongkat Ali, Kacip Fatimah, Misai Kucing, Dukung Anak, Jarum Tujuh Bilah, Kesom, Pegaga and Sambung Nyawa. The herbs were dried, powdered and irradiated at different doses of gamma radiation (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy) at room temperature prior to extraction. The herbs were then extracted either in methanol or chloroform and freeze dried. About 10.0 mg of each extract (in triplicates) were weighed into an Eppendorf vial and solubilised in 700 μl CD 3 OD using sonication in an ultrasound bath to obtain a clear solution. This solution was then transferred to a NMR vial and a 1H-NMR spectrum was acquired according to standard Total Quality Profile (TQP) protocol. The results of the statistical analysis showed clearly that all irradiated plant samples did not exhibit any significant pattern of differences. Using SIMCA analysis, we found that there is no statistical basis for separation of control, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy irradiated samples on a 95 % confidence limit. TQP analysis for the ten selected herbal plant shows that irradiation up to 25 kGy did not cause significant changes to the total chemical profiles and thus the integrity of the herbal material in the analysed plants. (author)

  1. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  2. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Bi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%–80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route.

  3. An Overview of Important Ethnomedicinal Herbs of Phyllanthus Species: Present Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Sarin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius.

  4. Can mixtures of cyanotoxins represent a risk to the zooplankton? The case study of Daphnia magna Straus exposed to hepatotoxic and neurotoxic cyanobacterial extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Emanuela Cristina; Pinheiro, Carlos; Rocha, Odete; Loureiro, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, cyanobacterial blooms have been increasing in intensity and frequency, with toxic cyanobacteria sometimes dominant throughout the year in many freshwater bodies. Since the coexistence of more than one type of cyanotoxins in freshwater environments is a common phenomenon, studies on the joint effects of these toxins would be very useful. In this study, the single and combined effects of two cyanotoxins with different modes of action (hepatotoxic and neurotoxic) on the survival (lethal exposure) and feeding (sublethal exposure) of the cladoceran Daphnia magna were investigated. With the single exposures, it was observed that both the survival and feeding activity of the daphnids were impaired by the hepatotoxic and neurotoxic extracts at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the combined exposures, both survival and feeding rate endpoints showed a good fit to the independent action model. For the acute assay and 24h exposure period in the feeding inhibition test, there was no interaction between components of the hepatotoxic and neurotoxic extracts, although a slight tendency to a synergistic deviation could be seen in the feeding rates. On the other hand, for the 4h post-exposure period, a synergistic deviation was found in feeding rates at all mixture concentrations tested. Hence, the combined exposure of hepatotoxins and neurotoxins should also be taken into account in risk assessments of freshwater bodies, since the mixture of these toxins can result in more severe post-exposure effects on the feeding of daphnids than the sum of those expected for single exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Separation of toluene from n-heptane by liquid–liquid extraction using binary mixtures of [bpy][BF4] and [4bmpy][Tf2N] ionic liquids as solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Silvia; Larriba, Marcos; García, Julián; Torrecilla, José S.; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Binary mixtures of ionic liquids as extraction solvents of aromatics. ► [4bmpy][Tf 2 N] shows higher capacity but lower selectivity than sulfolane. ► [bpy][BF 4 ] shows lower capacity but higher selectivity than sulfolane. ► Mixed {[4bmpy][Tf 2 N] + [bpy][BF 4 ]} improves both extractive properties. - Abstract: The use of binary mixture of ionic liquids N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]), and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([4bmpy][Tf 2 N]) in the liquid–liquid extraction of toluene from n-heptane has been investigated at 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The experimental capacity of extraction and selectivity for this binary mixture has proved to be intermediate to those corresponding to the pure ionic liquids, and they can be predicted using a logarithmic–linear model of solubility. Furthermore, the results showed that the use of binary mixture of {[bpy][BF 4 ] + [4bmpy][Tf 2 N]} at a mole solvent composition around 0.7 for [bpy][BF 4 ] improves both the capacity of extraction of toluene and the selectivity with respect to those of sulfolane, the organic solvent taken as a benchmark. Thus, this mixed ionic liquid could be likely to be used in the extraction of aromatic from aliphatic in replacement to sulfolane.

  6. Spectrophotometric studies on the formation of adducts involved in synergistic extraction of uranium (IV) by mixtures of HTTA and neutral donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.; Ramakrishna, V.V.; Ramanujam, A.

    1979-01-01

    Adduct formation between U(TTA) 4 and several neutral donor (S) was investigated by utilizing the changes in the absorption spectra of U(IV) resulting from the addition of neutral donors to a solution of U(TTA) 4 . All the donors used in the present work from 1:1 adducts with U(TTA) 4 . From the spectral changes, the equilibrium constants βsub(AB) for the adduct formation reaction viz U(TTA) 4 S reversible U(TTA) 4 .S were calculated for a few neutral donors. The log βsub(AB) values obtained in benzene medium, are :TOPO (6.23), TBPO (6.13), TPPO (4.72), DBBP(4.04) TBP(3.04), TIOTP(1.27) and MIBK(-0.10) and a value of 3.98 for TOPO in chloroform medium. The adduct formation was found to result in increasing the coordination number of U(IV) from 8 in U(TTA) 4 to 9 in the adducts it forms with the neutral donors. Similar absorption spectral studies with U(DBM) 4 revealed that it forms much weaker adducts than the corresponding ones with U(TTA) 4 . The absorption spectra of the organic extracts of U(IV) from perchloric acid with mixtures of HTTA and a neutral donor were identical with the spectra of the adduct between U(TTA) 4 and the neutral donor. This suggested that the adduct species viz U(TTA) 4 .S is involved in the synergistic extraction of U(IV). The extraction constants relating to the synergistic extraction of U(IV), from aqueous perchloric acid into benzene solutions of HTTA and some of the neutral donors, were derived. (author)

  7. Thermodynamics of the extraction of Eu(III) and Am(III) with synergistic mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and a linear polyether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensor, D.D.; Shah, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    The extractions of trivalent lanthanides and actinides by synergistic mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and a variety of neutral oxygen donors are well documented. The large increase in the extent of extraction of the metal ion into the organic phase is believed to occur by one of three possible mechanisms. The first involves the direct replacement of residual waters of hydration on the metal by the neutral donor. In the second proposed mechanism, the residual waters remain attached to the metal and the neutral oxygen donor hydrogen bond to the complex through the waters. The final mechanism assumes the complex is not hydrated and the addition of the neutral donor requires the metal to increase its coordination number. A recent review of the synergistic effect showed that the proper interpretation of the mechanism requires the measurement of ΔH and ΔS for the reaction. The synergistic capabilities of a linear polyether, 1,13-bis-[8-quinolyl]-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxotridecane (K-5), in combination with HTTA to extract Am(III) and Eu(III) have been recently reported by the investigators. The presence of the K-5 in the organic phase not only increased the extraction of the trivalent metals, but also showed a preference for Am(III) over Eu(III). This result was surprising since most neutral donors do not alter the selectivity of HTTA. In an effort to better understand the synergistic mechanism of the K-5/HTTA system, the thermodynamic parameters have been measured by a temperature variation method, and results are reported in this paper. 7 references

  8. HERBE- Analysis of test operation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M. et.al.

    1991-01-01

    This document is part of the safety analyses performed for the RB reactor operation with the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE and is part of the final safety report together with the 'Report on test operation of HERBE for the period Dec. 15 1989 - May 15 1990. This report covers the following main topics: determination of reactivity variations dependent on the variations moderator critical level; determination of reactivity for the flooded neutron converter; and the accident analysis of neutron converter flooding

  9. Evaluation of Parasitic Pollution in Fresh Unwashed Herbs Sold in Izeh City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valipour Nouroozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Fresh herbs are a crucial part of a good diet. However, they can easily become contaminated with food-borne pathogens. Eating fresh unwashed or improperly washed herbs has a major role in transmission of some important parasitic diseases. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate parasitic pollution in fresh unwashed herbs sold in Izeh city, Iran. Materials and Methods Four hundred samples of fresh unwashed herbs were purchased from a distributor in Izeh city during January 2014 to April 2015. Detergent solution was added to 240 g of each sample. The mixture was shaken and washed solution was filtered through 0.2 µm bottle-top filter. The filtrate was discarded and filter was placed in a 50 mL conical screw cap tube. Then, the detergent solution was added. Following vortex, filter was discarded. The sediment was examined by light microscope after centrifuge. Finally, data descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Parasitic pollution was detected in 3.5% of the examined samples, including Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst (1.5%, Giardia spp. cyst (1%, Blastocystis spp. cyst (0.5% and Taenia spp. egg (0.5%. Conclusions Parasitic contamination of fresh herbs sold in Izeh may pose a health risk to consumers if eaten as unwashed or improperly washed.

  10. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. The role of chemometrics in single and sequential extraction assays: a review. Part II. Cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, mixture resolution, experimental design and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Agnese; Abollino, Ornella; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-03-04

    Single and sequential extraction procedures are used for studying element mobility and availability in solid matrices, like soils, sediments, sludge, and airborne particulate matter. In the first part of this review we reported an overview on these procedures and described the applications of chemometric uni- and bivariate techniques and of multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on variable reduction to the experimental results obtained. The second part of the review deals with the use of chemometrics not only for the visualization and interpretation of data, but also for the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on the response, the optimization of their values and the calculation of element fractionation. We will describe the principles of the multivariate chemometric techniques considered, the aims for which they were applied and the key findings obtained. The following topics will be critically addressed: pattern recognition by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and other less common techniques; modelling by multiple linear regression (MLR); investigation of spatial distribution of variables by geostatistics; calculation of fractionation patterns by a mixture resolution method (Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions, CISED); optimization and characterization of extraction procedures by experimental design; other multivariate techniques less commonly applied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Uncaria rhynchophylla, a Chinese medicinal herb, has potent antiaggregation effects on Alzheimer's beta-amyloid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hironori; Iwasaki, Koh; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Seki, Takashi; He, Mei; Maruyama, Masahiro; Tomita, Naoki; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Higuchi, Makoto; Saido, Takaomi C; Maeda, Sumihiro; Takashima, Akihiko; Hara, Masahiko; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2006-08-01

    Because the deposition of beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) is a consistent pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, inhibition of Abeta generation, prevention of Abeta fibril formation, or destabilization of preformed Abeta fibrils would be attractive therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AD. We examined the effects of several medicinal herbs used in traditional Chinese medical formulae on the formation and destabilization of Abeta fibrils by using the thioflavin T binding assay, atomic force microscopic imaging, and electrophoresis. Our study demonstrates that several of these herbs have potent inhibitory effects on fibril formation of both Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42) in concentration-dependent manners; in particular, Uncaria rhynchophylla inhibited Abeta aggregation most intensively. Significant destabilization of preformed Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42) fibrils was also induced by Uncaria rhynchophylla as well as some other herb extracts. Three-dimensional HPLC analysis indicated that the water extract of this herb contains several different chemical compounds, including oxindole and indol alkaloids, which have been regarded as neuroprotective. Our results suggest that Uncaria rhynchophylla has remarkably inhibitory effects on the regulation of Abeta fibrils, and we conclude that this medicinal herb could have the potency to be a novel therapeutic agent to prevent and/or cure AD.

  13. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romika Dhiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices.

  14. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  15. A new colorimetric DPPH• scavenging activity method with no need for a spectrophotometer applied on synthetic and natural antioxidants and medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Zeynep; Küçük, Murat; Doğan, Hacer

    2017-12-01

    2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH • ) radical scavenging, the most commonly used antioxidant method with more than seventeen thousand articles cited, is very practical; however, as with most assays, it has the major disadvantage of dependence on a spectrophotometer. To overcome this drawback, the colorimetric determination of the antioxidant activity using a scanner and freely available Image J software was developed. In this new method, the mixtures of solutions of DPPH • and standard antioxidants or extracts of common medicinal herbs were dropped onto TLC plates, after an incubation period. The spot images were evaluated with Image J software to determine CSC 50 values, the sample concentrations providing 50% colour reduction, which were very similar with the SC 50 values obtained with spectrophotometric method. The advantages of the new method are the use of lower amounts of reagents and solvents, no need for costly spectrophotometers, and thus significantly lowered costs, and convenient implementation in any environment and situation.

  16. Heart Toxicity Related to Herbs and Dietary Supplements: Online Table of Case Reports. Part 4 of 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy C

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of heart toxicity case reports related to dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs). Documented PubMed case reports of DS appearing to contribute to heart-related problems were used to create a "Toxic Table" that summarized the research (1966 to April, 2016, and cross-referencing). Keywords included "herb," "dietary supplement," and cardiac terms. Case reports were excluded if they were herb combinations (some exceptions), Chinese herb mixtures, teas of mixed herb contents, mushrooms, poisonous plants, self-harm (e.g. suicide), excess dose (except vitamins/minerals), drugs or illegal drugs, drug-herbal interactions, and confounders of drugs or diseases. The spectrum of heart toxicities included hypertension, hypotension, hypokalemia, bradycardia, tachycardia, arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation, heart attack, cardiac arrest, heart failure, and death. Heart related problems were associated with approximately seven herbs: Four traditional Chinese medicine herbs - Don quai (Angelica sinensis), Jin bu huan (Lycopodium serratum), Thundergod vine or lei gong teng (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F), and Ting kung teng (Erycibe henryi prain); one an Ayruvedic herb - Aswagandha, (Withania somnifera); and two North American herbs - blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), and Yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe). Aconitum and Ephedra species are no longer sold in the United States. The DS included, but are not limited to five DS - bitter orange, caffeine, certain energy drinks, nitric oxide products, and a calming product. Six additional DS are no longer sold. Licorice was the food related to heart problems. The online "Toxic Table" forewarns clinicians, consumers and the DS industry by listing DS with case reports related to heart toxicity. It may also contribute to Phase IV post marketing surveillance to diminish adverse events that Government officials use to regulate DS.

  17. [Preliminary attempt at the speciation of 25-elements in the Chinese medicinal herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Yu; Li, Ouyang; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Huang, Zhuo; Tu, Peng-Fei; Guo, Xu-Lin; Liu, Hu-Sheng

    2004-08-01

    To make an attempt at the multi-element speciation in the Chinese medicinal herbs by determining the concentrations of 25 elements in different extraction solutions. Firstly, five Chinese medicinal herbs (Buddleja officinalis, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Myristica fragrans, Albizia judibrissin and Inula japonica) from the same region of China were treated to obtain water-soluble phase, lipid-soluble phase and non-soluble phase by water extraction, organic solvent extraction and acid digestion, respectively. Secondly, Phytolacca acinosa, a Chinese medicinal herb collected from 9 regions of China, was extracted by 0% EtOH, 50% EtOH, 75% EtOH, 95% EtOH, respectively, referring the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Finally, the concentrations of 25 elements, such as Be, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Tl, Pb and REEs, in the above three phases were determined by ICP-MS. Under the optimal conditions, all the 25 elements could be determined with detection limits ranged from 0.003 to 0.71 ng x g(-1). The average recoveries of the elements in P. acinosa were 88% approximately 119%, with the relative standard deviations 1.7% approximately 13.3%. It was observed that the determined 25 elements distributed in all the water-soluble, lipid-soluble and non-soluble phases, indicating that the inorganic species, organicspecies, as well as the protein bound species were coexisted in the herbs. Big differences of the element extraction rates could be found by using different ethanol solutions. With the aid of the obtained results, we may increase the extraction of necessary elements while decrease that of the toxic elements from the herbs by choosing a suitable solvent during the drug production.

  18. Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa produce nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects in GM - nephrotoxic rats. These herbs may be beneficial for patients who suffer from kidney diseases and those on GM therapy. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 1-8

  19. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Li, W.K.; Li, H.S.; Luo, J.Y.; Li, X.P.; Wei, Y.X.; Yan, Z.T.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    1. This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler

  20. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  1. Systems Biology of Meridians, Acupoints, and Chinese Herbs in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meridians, acupoints, and Chinese herbs are important components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. They have been used for disease treatment and prevention and as alternative and complementary therapies. Systems biology integrates omics data, such as transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolomics data, in order to obtain a more global and complete picture of biological activity. To further understand the existence and functions of the three components above, we reviewed relevant research in the systems biology literature and found many recent studies that indicate the value of acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Acupuncture is useful in pain moderation and relieves various symptoms arising from acute spinal cord injury and acute ischemic stroke. Moreover, Chinese herbal extracts have been linked to wound repair, the alleviation of postmenopausal osteoporosis severity, and anti-tumor effects, among others. Different acupoints, variations in treatment duration, and herbal extracts can be used to alleviate various symptoms and conditions and to regulate biological pathways by altering gene and protein expression. Our paper demonstrates how systems biology has helped to establish a platform for investigating the efficacy of TCM in treating different diseases and improving treatment strategies.

  2. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Sing Ch’ng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR, second-derivative IR (SD-IR, and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. Methods: The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Results: Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. Conclusion: The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect.

  3. [Brief introduction of geo-authentic herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2013-05-01

    The science of geo-authentic herbs is a characteristic discipline of traditional Chinese medicine established during thousands of years of clinical practices. It has a long history under the guidance of profound theories of traditional Chinese medicine. The words of "geo-authentic product" were derived from an administrative division unit in the ancient times, which layed stress on the good quality of products in particular regions. In ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine, the words of "geo-authentic product" were first found in Concise Herbal Foundation Compilation of the Ming dynasty, and the words of "geo-authentic herbs" were first discovered in Peony Pavilion of the late Ming dynasty. After all, clinical effect is the fundamental evaluation standard of geo-authentic herbs.

  4. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the extractive distillation of 2-propanol + water mixtures using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchillés, A. Vicent; Miguel, Pablo J.; González-Alfaro, Vicenta; Llopis, Francisco J.; Vercher, Ernesto; Martínez-Andreu, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • VLE of binary and ternary systems of 2-propanol, water and [emim][DCA] at 100 kPa. • The e-NRTL model fits the VLE data of 2-propanol + water + [emim][DCA] system. • [emim][DCA] breaks the 2-propanol + water azeotrope at an IL mole fraction >0.085. - Abstract: Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibria for the binary systems 2-propanol + water, 2-propanol + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([emim][DCA]), and water + [emim][DCA] as well as the vapor–liquid equilibria for the 2-propanol + water + [emim][DCA] ternary system have been obtained at 100 kPa using a recirculating still. The electrolyte nonrandom two-liquid (e-NRTL) model was used for fitting successfully the experimental data. The effect of [emim][DCA] on the 2-propanol + water system has been compared with that produced by other ionic liquids reported in the literature. From the results, [emim][DCA] appears as a good entrainer for the extractive distillation of this solvent mixture, causing the azeotrope to disappear at 100 kPa when the ionic liquid mole fraction is greater than 0.085.

  5. Selective extraction of high-value phenolic compounds from distillation wastewater of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Imma; Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Campone, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rastrelli, Luca; Ibañez, Elena

    2018-01-31

    During the essential oil steam distillation from aromatic herbs, huge amounts of distillation wastewaters (DWWs) are generated. These by-products represent an exceptionally rich source of phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA). Herein, the alternative use of dried basil DWWs (dDWWs) to perform a selective extraction of RA and CA by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) employing bio-based solvent was studied. To select the most suitable solvent for PLE, the theoretical modelling of Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) was carried out. This approach allows reducing the list of candidate to two solvents: ethanol and ethyl lactate. Due to the composition of the sample, mixtures of water with those solvents were also tested. An enriched PLE extract in RA (23.90 ± 2.06 mg/g extract) with an extraction efficiency of 75.89 ± 16.03% employing a water-ethanol mixture 25:75 (% v/v) at 50°C was obtained. In the case of CA, a PLE extract with 2.42 ± 0.04 mg/g extract, having an extraction efficiency of 13.86 ± 4.96% using ethanol absolute at 50°C was achieved. DWWs are proposed as new promising sources of natural additives and/or functional ingredients for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of essential oils prepared from Thai culinary herbs on sessile Candida albicans cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovijitra, Ray S; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2016-01-01

    Although medicinal herbs with fungicidal effects have been ubiquitously employed in traditional medicine, such effects of culinary herbs and spices still have to be elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized as naturally-derived antifungals. Fourteen essential oils extracted from Thai culinary herbs and spices were tested for their antifungal activity against C. albicans using the agar disk diffusion method followed by broth micro-dilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration. The oils with potent antifungal effects against planktonic fungi were then assessed for their effect against sessile fungus (adherent organisms and established biofilm culture). MIC of the oils against sessile C. albicans was evaluated by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay. All selected culinary herbs and spices, except galangal, garlic, and turmeric, exhibited inhibitory effects on planktonic yeast cells. Cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf essential oils exhibited potent fungicidal effect on planktonic and sessile fungus. Sessile MICs were 8-16 times higher than planktonic MICs. Consequently, both cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf herbal oils seem to be highly effective anti-Candida choices. (J Oral Sci 58, 365-371, 2016).

  7. Drug-Herb Interactions in the Elderly Patient with IBD: a Growing Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Haider; Kim, Marina; Leung, Galen; Green, Jesse A; Katz, Seymour

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions. CAM includes herbal products, diet, dietary supplements, acupuncture, and prayer. In this paper, we will review common CAM, specifically herbs, that are used in patients with IBD including the herb background, suggested use, evidence in IBD, and most importantly, potential interactions with IBD medications used in elderly patients. Most important evidence-based adverse events and drug-herb interactions are summarized. The herbs discussed include Triticum aestivum (wheat grass), Andrographis paniculata (chiretta), Boswellia serrata, tormentil, bilberry, curcumin (turmeric), Plantago ovata (blond psyllium), Oenothera biennis (evening primrose oil), germinated barley foodstuff, an herbal preparation of myrrh, chamomile and coffee extract, chios mastic gum, wormwood (absinthe, thujone), Cannabis sativa (marijuana, THC), tripterygium wilfordii (thunder god vine), Ulmus rubra (slippery elm bark), trigonella foenugraecum (fenugreek), Dioscorea mexicana (wild yam), Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), ginger, cinnamon, licorice, and peppermint.

  8. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Report on analysis of HERBE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The objective of this report is the choice of HERBE system configuration and detailed analysis of neutronic characteristics of the chosen configuration. The system is planned to be built at the RB reactor. Neutronic parameters were calculated by computer code VESNA based on transmission probability method using 44 group nuclear data for 28 nuclides. In the first phase, it has been proposed to achieve HERBE system by using fuel elements existing at the RB reactor. It is suggested to build new hybrid system in the RB reactor using new fuel elements that would be produced

  10. Liver toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 2 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    No online current list of potentially life-threatening, hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements based on PubMed case reports exists in a summarized tabular form. Documented case reports of herbs or dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) appearing to contribute to liver injury were used to create an online "DS Toxic Table" of potentially hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements (PubMed, 1966 to June, 2016, and cross-referencing). The spectrum of DS induced liver injuries (DSILI) included elevated liver enzymes, hepatitis, steatosis, cholestasis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic cirrhosis, veno-occlusive disease, acute liver failure requiring a liver transplant, and death. Over the past 50 years, approximately 21 herbs (minus germander and usnic acid that are no longer sold) and 12 dietary supplements (minus the nine no longer sold and vitamin A & niacin due to excess intake) posed a possible risk for liver injures in certain individuals. The herbs with the most number of reported publications (but not cases studies) in descending order, were germander, black cohosh, kava extract, and green tea extract. These online DS Toxic Tables will contribute to continued Phase IV post marketing surveillance to detect possible liver toxicity cases and serve to forewarn consumers, clinicians, and corporations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniglia, C. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: concetta.boniglia@iss.it; Aureli, P. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, E.; Onori, S. [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  12. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniglia, C.; Aureli, P.; Bortolin, E.; Onori, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  13. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  14. Modelos ridge em planejamentos de misturas: uma aplicação na extração da polpa de pequi Ridge models in mixture planning: an application in the extraction of pequi pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Miranda Nepomucena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixture Models can be used in experimental situations involving areas related to food science and chemistry. Some problems of a statistical nature can be found, such as effects of multicollinearity that result in uncertainty in the optimization of a dependent variable. This study proposes the application of the ridge model adapted for mixture planning considering the Kronecker (K-model and Scheffe (S-Model methods applied to response surfaces. The method determined the proportions of hexane, acetone and alcohol proportions that resulted in the maximum response of percentage of extracted pequi (Caryocar brasiliense pulp oil.

  15. Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination af native herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke; Thiele, Jan; Walker, Emer A.

    2013-01-01

    on invaded soil, in Poa trivialis with H. mantegazzianum seed extract, and negative effects of the essential oil bergapten were found in three species. In P. trivialis the results of the seed extract were not supported by the experiment with added seeds of the invasive plant. Thus, there is limited evidence...... mantegazzianum, a prominent invader in Europe, using seeds of 11 native herbs exposed to soil or soil extracts from invaded stands, moist seeds or seed extracts of H. mantegazzianum. There was no effect of the various treatments on germination of most species, while germination was reduced in Urtica dioica...

  16. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  17. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research (IJHPR) [ISSN: 2315-537X; E- ISSN: 2384-6836] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the field of Herbal medication in developing countries ...

  18. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research: Advanced Search ... either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; ... African Journal of Biomedical Research, African Journal of Biotechnology, African Journal of ...

  19. Effect of Encapsulation on Antimicrobial Activity of Herbal Extracts with Lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Matouskova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics has increased. The use of natural components with antimicrobial properties can be of great significance to reduce this problem. The presented work is focused on the study of the effect of encapsulation of selected plant and animal antimicrobial substances (herbs, spices, lysozyme and nisin on their activity and stability. Antimicrobial components were packaged into liposomes and polysaccharide particles (alginate, chitosan and starch. Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens bacteria. Encapsulation was successful in all types of polysaccharide particles and liposomes. The prepared particles exhibited very good long-term stability, especially in aqueous conditions. Antimicrobial activity was retained in all types of particles. Liposomes with encapsulated herb and spice extracts exhibited very good inhibitory effect against all tested bacterial strains. Most of herbal extracts had very good antimicrobial effect against the tested Gram-negative bacterial strains, while Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to lysozyme particles. Thus, particles with co-encapsulated herbs and lysozyme are more active against different types of bacteria, and more stable and more effective during long-term storage. Particles with encapsulated mixture of selected plant extracts and lysozyme could be used as complex antimicrobial preparation with controlled release in the production of food and food supplements, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  20. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Herb-induced Liver Injury: Comparison with Drug-induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing; Teschke, Rolf

    2018-03-28

    Cases of suspected herb-induced liver injury (HILI) caused by herbal Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) and of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are commonly published in the scientific literature worldwide. As opposed to the multiplicity of botanical chemicals in herbal TCM products, which are often mixtures of several herbs, conventional Western drugs contain only a single synthetic chemical. It is therefore of interest to study how HILI by TCM and DILI compare with each other, and to what extent results from each liver injury type can be transferred to the other. China is among the few countries with a large population using synthetic Western drugs as well as herbal TCM. Therefore, China is well suited to studies of liver injury comparing drugs with TCM herbs. Despite some concordance, recent analyses of liver injury cases with verified causality, using the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, revealed major differences in HILI caused by TCMs as compared to DILI with respect to the following features: HILI cases are less frequently observed as compared to DILI, have a smaller proportion of females and less unintentional rechallenge events, and present a higher rate of hepatocellular injury features. Since many results were obtained among Chinese residents who had access to and had used Western drugs and TCM herbs, such ethnic homogeneity supports the contention that the observed differences of HILI and DILI in the assessed population are well founded.

  1. HERBE- Analysis of test operation results; HERBE - Analiza rezultata probnog rada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M et al [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1991-01-15

    This document is part of the safety analyses performed for the RB reactor operation with the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE and is part of the final safety report together with the 'Report on test operation of HERBE for the period Dec. 15 1989 - May 15 1990. This report covers the following main topics: determination of reactivity variations dependent on the variations moderator critical level; determination of reactivity for the flooded neutron converter; and the accident analysis of neutron converter flooding.

  2. Using of the herb in space foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    The astronaut must do much work in a short time. The astronaut is exposed to much stress. For examples; Break of the hormone balance, Inappetence, Sleep shortage. Therefore the role that the meal serves as becomes big. It greatly participates in not only the health maintenance but also the mental health to consume a meal. Most of space foods are freeze dry, and the mineral is abundant, but it is necessary for the vitamins to add it particularly. When I think about it, the cultivation of the fresh vegetables with the spaceship is necessary. The Asian project team suggested cultivation of the herb in the space. The herbs were sweet basil, Dukung Abak, Hempedu Bumi and Chinese holly basil. Each herb has a fragrance ingredient. The fragrance ingredient stimulates human sense of smell. The fragrance ingredient increases an appetite. The good fragrance derives a good sleep. I can feel passage of time by observing a plant being brought up. It helps mental health to bring up a plant. We try that we bring up herb under a condition of the space. Because an experiment on the ground was over, we report it. The sweet basil which a germination rate has good is the first candidate when we think about temperature and light quantity in the space. Three kinds of other herbs are slow-growing and germination-rate is lower than sweet basil. We think that probably we will send a sweet basil to the spaceship in space. After a sweet basil grew up in a spaceship, we analyze a fragrance ingredient. We will cook the sweeter basil and want to eat.

  3. Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Paula M; Rela, Paulo R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Nowadays the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing; therefore the consumer attention to the medicinal active plants is growing. The rich Brazilian flora, represents more than 20% of the plant species know in the world as raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations. Since the last decade microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out and presented in many scientific articles. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of micro-organisms. One of these techniques is radiation processing by gamma source industrial plants. Other is the utilisation of accelerators. In order to safeguard consumers, treatment by ionizing radiation is allowed now in Brazil to medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical products. The radiation process is known as safe for a large variety of products and applications as well as a effective in the reduction of pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of our study is observe if flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation. Experimental: Samples - Local herbs companies in Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided dehydrated samples of Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth. Irradiation. The powdered samples were irradiated in on plastic package in a electron beam accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA, installed in IPEN Sao Paulo, Brazil. The irradiation doses were 10,20 and 30 kGy at room temperature. The thickness of samples was less than 0,5 cm. Sample analysis -flavonoids and alkaloids analysis was performed in a Thin Layer Chromatography according to Wagner (1995). Results and discussion: No alterations in the flavonoids and alkaloids, after irradiation treatment in that herbs was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the different extracts irradiated at increasing doses indicated that there were no great differences in the chemical

  4. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beikang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John’s wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I, three were estimated as probable (level II, and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III and doubtful (level IV, respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes.

  5. Fanconi's syndrome, interstitial fibrosis and renal failure by aristolochic acid in Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yin-Tai; Fu, Lin-Shien; Chung, Lin-Huei; Hung, Shien-Chung; Huang, Yi-Ting; Chi, Chin-Shiang

    2006-04-01

    Aristolochic acid-associated nephropathy (AAN) has been identified as a separate entity of progressive tubulo-interstitial nephropathy. Its characteristic pathological findings, including hypocellular interstitial fibrosis, intimal thickening of interlobular and afferent arterioles with glomeruli sparing or mild sclerosis, have been identified. Many cases of AAN in adults have been reported in Taiwan as well as throughout the world, but it has seldom been described in children. We report on a 10-year-old boy who presented with severe anemia, Fanconi's syndrome, and progressive renal failure. Renal biopsy revealed typical findings of AAN. Aristolochic acids I and II were identified from a Chinese herb mixture ingested by the boy. AAN was diagnosed after other etiologies had been excluded. The case demonstrates the hazards of Chinese herbs with regard to children's health in Taiwan and suggests that more attention should be paid to this issue.

  6. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santoro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

  7. Herbs drying using a heat pump dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatouh, M.; Metwally, M.N.; Helali, A.B.; Shedid, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering at El Mattaria, Helwan University, P.O. Box 11718, Masaken El-Helmia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    In the present work, a heat pump assisted dryer is designed and constructed to investigate the drying characteristics of various herbs experimentally. R134a is used as a working fluid in the heat pump circuit during the experimental work. Experiments have been conducted on Jew's mallow, spearmint and parsley. The effects of herb size, stem presence, surface load, drying air temperature and air velocity on the drying characteristics of Jew's mallow have been predicted. Experimental results show that a high surface load of 28kg/m{sup 2} yields the smallest drying rate, while the drying air with temperature of 55{sup o}C and velocity of 2.7m/s achieves the largest drying rate. A maximum dryer productivity of about 5.4kg/m{sup 2}h is obtained at the air temperature of 55{sup o}C, air velocity of 2.7m/s and dryer surface load of 28kg/m{sup 2}. It was found that small size herbs without stem need low specific energy consumption and low drying time. Comparison of the drying characteristics of different herbs revealed that parsley requires the lowest specific energy consumption (3684kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}) followed by spearmint (3982kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}) and Jew's mallow (4029kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}). Finally, dryer productivity has been correlated in terms of surface load, drying air velocity and drying air temperature. (author)

  8. Effect of Apacox, a feed additive containing herb extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC

    basal diet but contained an additional 200 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg (TOC), ... of this resistance to humans through the food chain, all antibacterial feed additives will be ... main biologically active constituents of saffron are crocins, a family of ...

  9. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Yu Shenjing; Xiu Zhilong; Ren Chunsheng

    2012-01-01

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (σ bmax ) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  10. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is the major toxic mode of action of an organic extract of a reference urban dust particulate matter mixture: The role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrysik, Zdenek; Vondracek, Jan; Marvanova, Sona; Ciganek, Miroslav; Neca, Jiri; Pencikova, Katerina; Mahadevan, Brinda; Topinka, Jan; Baird, William M.; Kozubik, Alois; Machala, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → SRM1649a extract and its fractions are potent activators of AhR in a model of epithelial cells. → AhR-dependent effects include both induction of CYP1 enzymes and disruption of cell proliferation control. → Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the neutral SRM1649a fraction are major contributors to the AhR-mediated toxic effects. → Activation of AhR and related nongenotoxic effects occur at significantly lower doses than the formation of DNA adducts and activation of DNA damage response. → More attention should be paid to the AhR-dependent nongenotoxic events elicited by urban particulate matter constituents. - Abstract: Many of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of urban air pollution have been linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed to airborne particulate matter (PM). The carcinogenic properties of PAHs in complex organic mixtures derived from PM have been chiefly attributed to their mutagenicity. Nevertheless, PAHs are also potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which may contribute to their nongenotoxic effects, including tumor promotion. As the genotoxicity of carcinogenic PAHs in complex mixtures derived from urban PM is often inhibited by other mixture constituents, the AhR-mediated activity of urban PM extracts might significantly contribute to the carcinogenic activity of such mixtures. In the present study, we used an organic extract of the urban dust standard reference material, SRM1649a, as a model mixture to study a range of toxic effects related to DNA damage and AhR activation. Both the organic extract and its neutral aromatic fraction formed a low number of DNA adducts per nucleotide in the liver epithelial WB-F344 cells model, without inducing DNA damage response, such as tumor suppressor p53 activation and apoptosis. In contrast, we found that this extract, as well as its neutral and polar fractions, were potent inducers of a range of AhR-mediated responses, including induction

  11. The phenomenon of microscale flow and mass transfer in medicinal herb materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.H.; Di, Q.Q.; Sun, M.D. [Tianjin Univ., Tianjin (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Zhang, T.J.; Gong, S.X. [Tianjin Inst. of Pharmaceutical Research, Tianjin (China)

    2008-07-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is a combination of a microwave technique and conventional solvent extraction used in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. The effective component of medicinal herbs is mostly cellular material which can be released via solvent extraction. The material is diffused to solvents via the porous membrane wall. The structure of herb morphology and characteristics of the solute's molecular weight play an important role in the extraction process of target compounds. Astragalus pieces were chosen for this study in which an ultra-filtration membrane method was used to determine the molecular weight distribution characteristics of Astragalus water extraction liquid in the process of MAE. The fine structure of matrix materials was also characterized by scanning election microscopy (SEM). The phenomenon of mass flow and mass transfer in the plant porous media was discussed along with the enhancement mechanism of microwave field on medicinal plant solvent extraction. The results showed that the water-soluble components in the parenchyma cells of Astragalus pieces pass through the plasmodesma with a diameter of 10 nm to adjacent cell, then through an aperture with a diameter of 0.1 {mu}m to 1 {mu}m into a trachea with a diameter of about 10 {mu}m. The water-soluble components then come onto the surface of matrix material and the main solution via the trachea. The main mass transfer occurs by the trachea and its aperture. It was concluded that in order to promote the dissolution of effective components in medicinal herb in the extraction process, a suitable extraction technology is needed to maintain the permeability of transportation tissue and parenchyma in materials. 11 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  12. Determination of 16 insect growth regulators in edible Chinese traditional herbs by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia

    2012-03-01

    A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 μg kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens.

  13. In vitro fermentation characteristics of two mushroom species, an herb, and their polysaccharide fractions, using chicken cecal contents as inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Williams, B.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    In vitro fermentabilities of two mushrooms (Lentinus edodes - LenS; Tremella fuciformis - TreS), an herb (Astragalus membranaceus - AstS), and their polysaccharide fractions (LenE, TreE, and AstE) were investigated using microflora from chicken ceca. Polysaccharides were extracted using the hot

  14. Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses of Eimeria tenella-Infected Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Parmentier, H.K.; Li, W.K.; Yang, Z.Q.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of polysaccharide extracts from 2 mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on cellular and humoral immune responses of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A total of 150 broiler chicks were assigned to 5

  15. Coccidiosis Immunization: Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Immune Responses of Chickens Infected with Eimeria Tenella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Suo, X.; Li, W.K.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of polysaccharide extracts (E) of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on the immune responses of chickens infected with Eimeria tenella. A total of 180 broiler

  16. Grouting mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyusov, A A; Bakshutov, V S; Kulyavtsev, V A

    1980-10-23

    A grouting mixture is proposed for low-temperature boreholes. The mixture contains cement, beta gypsum polyhydrate, and calcium chloride, so as to increase the water resistance and strength properties of expanding brick at conditions from 20 to -5/sup 0/ C, the components are in the following ratios: (by wt.-%): cement, 77.45-88.06; beta gypsum polyhydrate, 9.79-19.36; calcium chloride, 2.15-3.19. Grouting mortar for cold boreholes serves as the cement.

  17. Identification of gamma-irradiated Chinese herbs by thermoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Bai; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun; Jilin Medical College, Jilin; WenYue Jiang; Zhongying Liu; He Lin; Changchun University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changchun; Zhiqiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of thermoluminescence (TL) to differentiate irradiated Chinese medicinal herbs from non-irradiated was investigated. Thirty different dried Chinese herbs were tested, including root, flower, ramulus, rhizome, cortex, and whole plant samples. Irradiation of Chinese herbs was associated with strong TL peaks at ∼150-250 deg C, while TL curves of non-irradiated herbs had very low intensities above 250 deg C, which was also confirmed by the TL ratio (non-irradiated, TL 1 /TL 2 1 /TL 2 > 0.1) except for sterculia lychnophora, semen cassia, flos inulae, and anemone root. TL ratios of some herbs indicated irradiation (TL 1 /TL 2 > 0.1) even if the irradiated components were as low as 0.1 %. Thus we demonstrated that TL analysis had excellent sensitivity and reliability for the identification of irradiated Chinese herbs. (author)

  18. A Comparative Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Commonly Used South Asian Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viduranga Waisundara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS.

  19. Micropropagation of Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Shivanee; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, P. S.

    2013-01-01

    For conservation and genetic transformation, a successful in vitro micropropagation protocol for Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb has been established for the first time. MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/L) and BA (5 mg/L) induced 100 % shoot regeneration with an average of 41.4 shoots of 8.4 cm per culture. Excised in vitro shoots when transferred to MS + IBA (0.5 mg/L) produced 20 roots/shoot of 20.2 cm average length in 100 % cultures. Of the three explants, leaf, petiole and root, l...

  20. Herbs-are they safe enough? an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Divya; Gupta, Rajiv; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2012-01-01

    Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many compounds in common use not only have a significant effect on the body but may also interact with pharmaceuticals and also with other alternative products. Concurrent use of herbs with drugs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs leading to herb-drug interactions. Currently, there is very little information published on herb-herb or herb-drug interactions as compared to the use of herbs which is progressively growing across the world. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs. The article reviews the recent literature on the adverse effects of herbal remedies including the most widely sold herbal medicinal products, like liquorice, garlic, ginger, green tea, and turmeric, etc., and reinforce the safety aspect of herbal products, which are considered to be relatively safe by common people.

  1. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch; Eamsiri, Jarurut; Pongpat, Suchada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  2. Electrotechnologies, microwaves, and ultrasounds combined with binary mixtures of ethanol and water to extract steviol glycosides and antioxidant compounds from Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonell-Capella, Juana M.; Šic Žlabur, Jana; Rimac Brnčić, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    /g) was obtained after ultrasound-assisted extraction, while microwave allowed the highest yields of rebaudioside A (22.7 ± 0.1 mg/g). However, pulsed electric field technology was the most efficient to recover stevioside (44.2 ± 0.1 mg/g) and rebaudioside A (22.4 ± 0.3 mg/g) when using 50% ethanol-water. Results...... leaves in food industry is usually performed using thermal extraction under agitation after drying and grinding. Although efficient, this technique generates an extract not only rich in targeted compounds but also in impurities, which complicates the downstream processing steps. Selective extraction...

  3. Analytical Strategy Coupled with Response Surface Methodology To Maximize the Extraction of Antioxidants from Ternary Mixtures of Green, Yellow, and Red Teas (Camillia sinensis var. Sinensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Grevink, R.; Zielinski, R.; Nunes, D.S.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the

  4. Simultaneous determination of intestinal permeability and potential drug interactions of complex mixtures using Caco-2 cells and high-resolution mass spectrometry: Studies with Rauwolfia serpentina extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Thomas J; Vohra, Sanah N

    2018-06-25

    Caco-2 cells are a commonly used model for estimating the intestinal bioavailability of single chemical entity pharmaceuticals. Caco-2 cells, when induced with calcitriol, also express other biological functions such as phase I (CYP) and phase II (glucuronosyltransferases) drug metabolizing enzymes which are relevant to drug-supplement interactions. Intestinal bioavailability is an important factor in the overall safety assessment of products consumed orally. Foods, including herbal dietary supplements, are complex substances with multiple chemical components. Because of potential interactions between components of complex mixtures, more reliable safety assessments can be obtained by studying the commercial products "as consumed" rather than by testing individual chemical components one at a time. The present study evaluated the apparent intestinal permeability (P app ) of a model herbal extract, Rauwolfia serpentina, using both whole plant extracts and the individual purified Rauwolfia alkaloids. All test compounds, endpoint substrates, and their metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The P app values for individual Rauwolfia alkaloids were comparable whether measured individually or as components of the complete extract. Both Rauwolfia extract and all individual Rauwolfia alkaloids except yohimbine inhibited CYP3A4 activity (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation). Both Rauwolfia extract and all individual Rauwolfia alkaloids except corynanthine and reserpic acid significantly increased glucuronosyltransferase activity (glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone). The positive control, ketoconazole, significantly inhibited both CYP3A4 and glucuronosyltransferase activities. These findings suggest that the Caco-2 assay is capable of simultaneously identifying both bioavailability and potentially hazardous intestinal drug-supplement interactions in complex mixtures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl.) Dans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrin, E.; Winarno, H.; Yulianti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 10 9 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ≥ 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 10 8 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ≥ 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC 50 values of 9 cfu/g and 5.68 x 10 8 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2) in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities. (author)

  6. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schröder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan, Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto, Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto, and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto. The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN.

  7. [Effects of ingredients from Chinese herbs with nature of cold or hot on expression of TRPV1 and TRPM8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Feng; Yang, Na; Zhang, Changbin; Du, Xinliang; Li, Lanfang; Weng, Xiaogang; Guo, Shuying; Huo, Hairu; Jiang, Tingliang

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of the ingredients from Chinese herbs with the nature of cold or hot on the expression of TRPV1 and TRPM8. The effects of ingredients from herbs on primary culture DRG neurons are observed in vitro. The expression quantity of gene is detected by the method of real time PCR. the 2 (-deltadeltaCT) method is applied to analyze the data. Ingredients from herbs with the nature of cold up-regulate the expression level of TRPV1 and down-regulate that of TRPM8, especially under the temperature condition of 39 degrees C; while ingredients from herbs with the nature of hot up-regulate the expression level of TRPM8 and down-regulated that of TRPV1, which is more significant under the temperature condition of 19 degrees C. The regulatory changes of TRPV1 and TRPM8 mRNA expression induced by the chemical ingredients might be related to the cold and hot natures of the herbs from which the ingredients are extracted. And this could be one of the therapeutic mechanisms for the treatment of Chinese herbal medicines to cold- and heat-related diseases.

  8. Antioxidant activity and cholinesterase inhibition studies of four flavouring herbs from Alentejo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Sílvia; Piçarra, Andreia; Candeias, Fátima; Caldeira, A Teresa; Martins, M Rosário; Teixeira, Dora

    2017-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of four aromatic species, Calamintha nepeta, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Thymus mastichina, from southwest of Portugal were characterised chemically and analysed in order to evaluate their antioxidant potential and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. The main components of EOs were oxygenated monoterpenes, and aqueous extracts were rich in phenol and flavonoid compounds. EOs and aqueous extracts presented a high antioxidant potential, with ability to protect the lipid substrate, free radical scavenging and iron reducing power. Furthermore, EOs and extracts showed AChE and BChE inhibitory activities higher than rivastigmine, the standard drug. Results suggested the potential use of EOs and aqueous extracts of these flavouring herbs as nutraceutical or pharmaceutical preparations to minimise the oxidative stress and the progression of degenerative diseases.

  9. Total antioxidant capacity of commonly used fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Sharif, Muhammad Junaid Hassan; Rauf, Khalid; Mahmood, Wajahat; Khan, Ikarmullah; Abbas, Ghulam

    2017-11-01

    The current study was aimed at investigating the total antioxidant activity (TAC) of various fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices habitat in Pakistan. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to measure the TAC of various extracts (aqueous, ethanolic and aqueous-ethanolic). Following is the potency order for fruits (guava >strawberry >Pomegranate >apple >kinnow >melon >lemon >banana), vegetables (spinach >Cabbage (Purple) >Jalapeno >Radish >Brinjal >Bell Pepper >Lettuce >Carrot >Cabbage (White) >Onion >Potato >Tomato >Cucumber) and herbs/spices (clove >Rosemary >Thyme >Oregano >Cinnamon >Cumin >Kalonji >Paprika >Neem (Flower) >Fennel >Black Cardamom >Turmeric >Coriander >Ginger >Garlic). In conclusion, the guava, spinach and clove provide the best natural dietary option for treatment / prevention of oxidative stress and thus could alleviate several associated ailments.

  10. [Effect of the sorghum extraction process on the color of the flour and tortillas made from mixtures with lime-treated cornmeal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, F; Ciacco, C F; Salinas, Y

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of the extrusion process in the color of instant flours and its tortillas prepared with mixtures of commercial instant corn flour. In the extrusion process four flours from two genotypes of sorghum (whole and decorticated sorghum of each genotype) were used. These flours were processed in a single screw Brabender laboratory extruder. In the preparation of sorghum tortillas and sorghum-corn tortillas four flours were selected from the extrusion process. 1) genotype CMSXS 9A: Whole flour extruded with moisture content of 15% and screw rate of 130 rpm, flour from decorticated sorghum with particle size less than 0.420 mm extruded with moisture content of 15% and screw rate of 130 rpm, 2) genotype CMSXS 145: whole flour extruded with moisture content of 18% and screw rate of 170 rpm, decorticated sorghum flour extruded with moisture content of 15% and screw rate of 130 rpm. Also these flours were utilized with mixtures of commercial instant cornflour for the preparation of tortillas. The instant sorghum flours and tortillas from decorticated sorghum (20% = presented whiter color compared to instant whole sorghum flour and its tortillas. The addition of different levels of commercial instant corn flour (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) to the instant sorghum flours improved the color of the mixtures of flour and tortillas. This improvement was more pronounced with instant sorghum flour from whole sorghum grain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Determination of tributyltin (TBT) in marine sediment using pressurised liquid extraction-gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PLE-GC-IDMS) with a hexane-tropolone mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczka, Piotr; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Schimmel, Heinz

    2007-06-01

    Extraction conditions for the determination of tributyltin (TBT) in sediment samples have been developed further. The analytical procedure is based on spiking with isotopically labelled analyte, pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with a hexane/tropolone mixture, Grignard derivatization and quantification by GC-MS. It was applied to two unknown sediment samples as part of an intercomparison exercise of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). The detection limit was approximately 1.5 ng/g TBT as Sn, while the repeatability and intermediate precision (as the coefficient of variation) were 1.9% and 3.2%, respectively. The expanded uncertainty was 6.2% (coverage factor k = 2), and the accuracy was confirmed by measurement of a certified reference material.

  12. Vasodilatory Effects of Combined Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Optimized Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yean Chun; Tan, Chu Shan; Ch'ng, Yung Sing; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Yam, Mun Fei

    2017-03-01

    Recently, a new syndromic disease combination theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for hypertensive treatment has been introduced. In the wake of this new concept, a new science-based TCM formula that counteracts various syndromes is needed. The objective of this study was to develop such a formula. Five of the most clinically prescribed TCM herbs that work on different syndromes, namely Gastrodia elata, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Pueraria thomsonii, Panax notoginseng, and Alisma orientale, were selected for this study. The fingerprints of these five herbs were analyzed by tri-step Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Three different solvents, 95% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and distilled water, were used for the maceration of the herbs and their vasodilatory effects were studied using in vitro precontracted aortic ring model. Among these, the 50% ethanolic extracts of G. elata (GE50) and A. orientale (AO50), and 95% ethanolic extracts of U. rhynchophylla (UR95), P. thomsonii (PT95), and P. notoginseng (PN95) were found to be the most effective for eliciting vasodilation. Thus, these five extracts were used for orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility group studies by using L 25 (5 5 ) formula. The best combination ratio for GE50, UR95, PT95, PN95, and AO50, which was assigned as Formula 1 (F1), was found at EC 0 , EC 25 , EC 20 , EC 20 , and EC 10 , respectively. The vasodilatory effect of the extracts prepared from different extraction methods using F1 ratio was also studied. From the results, the EC 50 and R max of total 50% ethanolic extract of five herbs using F1 ratio (F1-2) were 0.028 ± 0.005 mg/mL and 101.71% ± 3.64%, with better values than F1 (0.104 ± 0.014 mg/mL and 97.80% ± 3.12%, respectively). In conclusion, the optimum ratio and appropriate extraction method (F1-2) for the new TCM formula were revealed.

  13. Genetic diversity analysis and conservation of the Chinese herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Salvia miltiorrhiza is an economically important floral herb. However, little work has been conducted to further our understanding of the genetics of this herb. In this study, a representative set of germplasm of. S. miltiorrhiza populations was used to analyze genetic diversity using amplified fragment length.

  14. Erectile Dysfunction Herbs: A Natural Treatment for ED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dysfunction herbs or supplements to "increase your sexual performance." Could they work for you? Erectile dysfunction supplements and other natural ... results, generally safe Herb or supplement Does it work? Safety ... increases libido in women and helps erectile dysfunction in men. DHEA appears ...

  15. Genetic diversity analysis and conservation of the Chinese herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an economically important floral herb. However, little work has been conducted to further our understanding of the genetics of this herb. In this study, a representative set of germplasm of. S. miltiorrhiza populations was used to analyze genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  16. Assessment of metals pollution in some herbs from Kano metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of metals pollution in some herbs from Kano metropolis. M.I. Mohammed, Y Inuwa. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Herbs, metals, Kano, Nigeria. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  17. Chinese and related North American herbs: phytopharmacology and therapeutic values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Thomas S. C

    2002-01-01

    ..., most particularly Chinese herbs. Unfortunately, while there is an incredible wealth of knowledge about Chinese herbs, most of this information has been unavailable to Western society, and even the accessible information has often been in obscure sources. The famous 15th century physician Paracelsus taught that the only difference between a medi...

  18. Comparison of the protective effects of seven selected herbs against oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Wen Chang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the protective effects of the water extracts of seven herbs, including Solanum indicum L., Mallotus repandus (Wild Muell-Arg. (MRM, Bombax malabarica DC (BMDC, Tadehagi triquetrum (L. Ohashi (TTLO, Clinacanthus nutans (Burm f. Lindau, Salvia plebeia R. Br (SPRB, Ixeris chinensis Mak (ICM, against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP-induced oxidative stress in Clone 9 cells. Methods: To evaluate the antioxidant properties of water extracts from seven herbs, reducing ability, metal-chelating activity and radical-scavenging activity such as 2,2′-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH were determined. In cellular systems, t-BHP was used as a model oxidant to induce oxidative stress. 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate and chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate were used as fluorescence probe to determine reactive oxygen species generation and glutathione level in t-BHP-induced Clone 9 cells, respectively. In addition, total tannins, total anthocyanins, total polyphenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results: According to the data obtained from the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity method, DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing ability determination, MRM, SPRB, and BMDC showed relatively high antioxidant properties while TTLO and ICM were in the middle and Solanum indicum and Clinacanthus nutans had relatively low activity. In cellular model systems, SPRB, BMDC, and TTLO showed higher protective effects against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. BMDC, ICM, and TTLO displayed higher inhibitory effects on reactive oxygen species generation in t-BHP-induced Clone 9 cells. In addition, SPRB, MRM, and BMDC showed significantly positive modulated glutathione levels. Tannins, anthocyanins, flavonoids and polyphenolics were present in the herbs, which may in part contribute to regulating the oxidative stress. Conclusions: These results indicated that the seven

  19. Quantitation of chlorophylls and 22 of their colored degradation products in culinary aromatic herbs by HPLC-DAD-MS and correlation with color changes during the dehydration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefèvre, Stéphane; Lebuhotel, Julie

    2014-02-26

    Chlorophylls and their green and olive-brown derivatives were successfully separated from culinary herb extracts by HPLC with photodiode-array and mass spectrometry detection. The method involved a ternary gradient elution and reverse-phase separation conditions capable of resolving 24 different pigments (2 chlorophylls and 22 of their derivatives) of different polarities within 28 min. The method was applied to monitor color changes in 50 samples of culinary aromatic herbs subjected to five different drying treatments. Of the 24 pigments, 14 were key to understanding the differences between the primary degradation pathways of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in culinary herbs during drying processes. A color degradation ladder based on the total molar percentage of all the remaining green pigments was also proposed as a tool to measure the impact of drying treatments on aromatic herb visual aspects.

  20. Mycotoxins in spices and herbs-An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W

    2017-01-02

    Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature. However, spices and herbs cultivated mainly in tropic and subtropic areas can be exposed to contamination with toxigenic fungi and subsequently mycotoxins. This review provides an overview on the mycotoxin risk in widely consumed spices and aromatic herbs.

  1. Micropropagation of Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Shivanee; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, P S

    2013-04-01

    For conservation and genetic transformation, a successful in vitro micropropagation protocol for Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb has been established for the first time. MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/L) and BA (5 mg/L) induced 100 % shoot regeneration with an average of 41.4 shoots of 8.4 cm per culture. Excised in vitro shoots when transferred to MS + IBA (0.5 mg/L) produced 20 roots/shoot of 20.2 cm average length in 100 % cultures. Of the three explants, leaf, petiole and root, leaf displayed quickest response followed by petiole while root was the slowest. Hardening of plantlets was achieved with 82 % survival. The hardened plants were maintained in pots with garden soil under controlled (Temp. 25 ± 2 °C) conditions. RAPD exhibited genetic fidelity with 100 % monomorphism in regenerants.

  2. Medicinal herbs and phytochitodeztherapy in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskunov, Karp; Treskunova, Olga; Komarov, Boris; Goroshetchenko, Alex; Glebov, Vlad

    2003-01-01

    Application of clinical phytology in treatment of oncology diseases was limited by intensive development of chemical pharmaceuticals and surgery. The authors had set the task to develop the computer database for phytotherapy application. The database included full information on patient's clinical status (identified diseases, symptoms, syndromes) and applied phytotherapy treatment. Special attention was paid to the application of phyto preparations containing chitosan. The computer database contains information on 2335 patients. It supports reliable data on efficiency of phytotherapy in general and allows to evaluate the efficiency of some particular medicinal herbs and to develop efficient complex phyto preparations for treatment of specific diseases. The application of phytotherapy in treatment of oncology patients confirmed the positive effect on patient's quality of life. In conclusion it should be emphasized that the present situation of practical application of phytotherapy could be considered as unacceptable because of absence of necessary knowledge and practical experience in using phytotherapy in outpatient clinics, hospitals and medicinal centers.

  3. Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 1: The potential medicinal value of pasture herbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the period April - October 2011 Sibilla Laldi (MSc-student WUR) carried out the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’, a project of the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pastures herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms.

  4. Larvicidal Activity of A Mixture of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Water-Soluble Extract of Soap Nut Fruit (Sapindus rarak DC. Against 3rd Instar Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glory Resia Raraswati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL which has been known as a waste of processing cashew fruits which is contain phenolic compounds have activity as larvicides. Cashew nut shell liquid is not soluble in the water where the larvae grow. Cashew nut shell liquid mixed with water-soluble extract of soapnut fruit which serves as a natural surfactant that can emulsify oil in water. The test subjects were larvae of Aedes aegypti third instar. Test subjects were divided into treatment group and control group. In the treatment group, test subjects were  the mixture of CNSL and Ethylacetat Soluble Extract (ESE in tap water. The Larvae mortality observations were done 24 hours after the treatment. LC50 and LC90 as final test data were analyzed using probit analysis. Extract constituents   of CNSL and Water Soluble Extract of SoapNut fruit (WSEoSN were  investigated using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC method. The effect of CNSL as larvicides against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with were LC50 of 14,12 ppm, while the LC90 of 24,85 ppm.

  5. Solvent extraction of calcium and strontium into nitrobenzene by using synergistic mixture of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate and diphenyl-N-butylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makrlik, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of microamounts of calcium and strontium by a nitrobenzene solution of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H + B - ) in the presence of diphenyl-N-butylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (DPBCMPO, L) has been investigated. The equilibrium data have been explained assuming that the species HL + , HL 2 + , ML 2 2+ , ML 3 2+ and ML 4 2+ (M 2+ = Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ ) are extracted into the organic phase. The values of extraction and stability constants of the cationic complexes in nitrobenzene saturated with water have been determined. In the considered nitrobenzene medium, it was found that the stability of the SrL 2,org 2+ complex is somewhat higher than that of species CaL 2,org 2+ , while the stability constants of the remaining strontium complexes SrL 3,org 2+ and SrL 4,org 2+ are smaller than those of the corresponding complex species CaL n 2+ (n = 3, 4). (author)

  6. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Functional Foods for Health: The Interrelated Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Fruits, Vegetables, Herbs, Spices and Cocoa in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Peluso, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of plant food-based diets could be related to both integrated antioxidant and antiinflammatory mechanisms exerted by a wide array of phytochemicals present in fruit, vegetables, herbs and spices. Therefore, there is mounting interest in identifying foods, food extracts and phytochemical formulations from plant sources which are able to efficiently modulate oxidative and inflammatory stress to prevent diet-related diseases. This paper reviews available evidence about the effect of supplementation with selected fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and their extracts or galenic formulation on combined markers of redox and inflammatory status in humans. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Extraction of microamounts of calcium and strontium into nitrobenzene using synergistic mixture of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate and 2,3-naphtho-15-crown-5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Vaňura, P.; Selucký, P.; Kašička, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1 (2010), s. 95-100 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : calcium * stroncium * extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2010

  9. In vitro antioxidation activity and genoprotective effect of selected Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Shirley Ching Yee; Wong, Julia Wai Ming; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2011-01-01

    Some traditional Chinese medicinal seeds and fruits are well known for their antioxidant properties. This research aims to investigate whether Fructus Lycii, Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Semen Cuscutae protect DNA from oxidant challenge by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The standard comet assay was used to assess the genoprotective effect of these medicinal herbs. Blood was taken from three healthy adults, aged from 36 to 42. Lymphocytes were isolated and treated with different concentrations of aqueous herbal extracts, while controls were treated with phosphate buffered saline. The lymphocytes were stressed with 50 μM H(2)O(2). Treated cells were embedded in agarose and layered on slides. These sandwiched lymphocytes were lysed and afterwards subjected to an electric field in an alkaline environment. Damaged DNA was pulled out from the nucleus towards the positive electrode as a comet tail; its density was related to the degree of DNA damage. Finally, the slides were stained with fluorescence dye and tails were visually scored for 100 cells. The experiment was repeated three times and DNA damage in treated cells was compared to the controls. There was no statistical difference in DNA damage among the herb treated cells and untreated cells in the comet assay. Our data demonstrated that the selected medicinal herbs did not show in vitro DNA protection in the comet assay against oxidant challenge.

  10. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lycopene beta-carotene concentrations in carotenoid mixtures of the extracts from tomatoes, papaya and orange juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammed, M.A.; Bello, I.A.; Oladoye, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive spectrophotometric equation model for the simultaneous determination of lycopene and Beta-carotene concentrations in a mixture of carotenoids is proposed. Lycopene could be exclusively determined (with the relative accuracy of more than 95%) using the absorbance data at 502 nm. Because quantifying the Beta-carotene concentration in a carotenoid minture using the sole absorbance at 450 nm is prone to error, an equation to determine the concentration of this compound from the absorbances data at two wavelengths was modeled. Using the modeled equations to re-check the molar absorptivity of lycopene at 472 nm, the value obtained was about 98% close to the value reported in literature. The relative accuracy of the predicted concentrations of two carotenoids using the modeled equations is a function of the ratio of these carotenoids in the samples. (author)

  11. Aggregate development in C 60/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solution and its mixture with water as revealed by extraction and mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzyma, O. A.; Korobov, M. V.; Avdeev, M. V.; Garamus, V. M.; Snegir, S. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Aksenov, V. L.; Bulavin, L. A.

    2010-06-01

    The aggregate development in C 60/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (C 60/NMP) solution with time is studied by the extraction (hexane) and mass spectroscopy. It is shown that only molecular C 60 in NMP is extracted in hexane, which makes it possible to follow a change in the concentration of non-aggregated fullerene in C 60/NMP during the aggregate growth. It is concluded that almost all fullerene dissolved in NMP is in the aggregates after one month. The reorganization of the aggregates is detected when water is added to the aggregated solution C 60/NMP. Both methods prove that in this case individual fullerene molecules are detached from the aggregates, which contradicts somewhat to complete insolubility of C 60 in water.

  12. Using the Chinese herb Scutellaria barbata against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Shiuan; Hsu, Chun-Ru; Chang, Chiu-Ming; Chang, I-Wei; Lin, Li-Wei; Hung, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Jiun-Ling

    2018-03-20

    No animal model studies have been conducted in which the efficacy of herbal compounds has been tested against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Very few antibiotics are available for the treatment of pulmonary infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB). To find alternative treatments, traditional Chinese herbs were screened for their antimicrobial potential. The present study screened 30 herbs that are traditionally used in Taiwan and that are commonly prescribed for heat clearing and detoxification. The herbs with antibacterial activities were analysed by disc diffusion assays, time-kill assays and a murine lung infection model. Of the 30 herbs tested, only Scutellaria barbata demonstrated 100% in vitro activity against XDRAB. Furthermore, we compared the antibacterial effect of the S. barbata extract with that of colistin, and the S. barbata extract showed better antibacterial effect. In the XDRAB pneumonia murine model, we compared the antimicrobial effects of the orally administered S. barbata extract (200 mg/kg, every 24 h), the intratracheally administered colistin (75,000 U/kg, every 12 h), and the control group. The bacterial load in the lungs of the treatment group that received the oral S. barbata extract showed a significant decrease in comparison to that in the lungs of the control group. In addition, histopathological examinations also revealed better resolution of perivascular, peribronchial, and alveolar inflammation in the oral S. barbata extract-treated group. Our in vitro and in vivo data from the animal model support the use of S. barbata as an alternate drug to treat XDRAB pulmonary infections. However, detailed animal studies and clinical trials are necessary to establish the clinical utility of S. barbata in treating XDRAB pulmonary infections.

  13. Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Angelova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer (MCF7 and normal (MCF10A cell lines. Antitumor effect was established by МТТ cell viability assay and assessment of apoptotic potential was done through analysis of genomic integrity (DNA fragmentation assay and analysis of morphological cell changes (Fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that total extract of the herb has a marked dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of MCF7 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration is 15 μg/ml. Cell viability of MCF10A was moderately decreased without visible dose-dependent effect. The saponin fraction has increased inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells compared to total extract. Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed as markers for early and late apoptosis predominantly in tumor cells after treatment. Apoptotic processes were intensified with the increase of treatment duration.The obtained results are the first showing selective antitumor activity of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cells in vitro. Apoptotic processes are involved in the antitumor mechanisms induced by the herb. This results give directions for future investigations concerning detailed assessment of its pharmacological potential.

  14. Evaluation of macro and microminerals in crude drugs and infusions of five herbs widely used as sedatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta E. Petenatti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined the concentration of fourteen micro and macrominerals (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, and Zn in both crude drugs and infusions of Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, Nepeta cataria L., Lamiaceae, Passiflora caerulea L., Passifloraceae, Tilia x moltkei Späth ex C.K. Schneid., Tiliaceae, and Valeriana officinalis L., Caprifoliaceae. These herbs are widely consumed by its sedative properties, either alone or in herb mixtures. All measurements were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES. The products were obtained from regional markets, mainly in San Luis province (Argentina. The estimated daily intake was compared with current recommendations. All products and its infusions were included within the upper tolerable limits for minerals, in trace elements such as toxic elements present at low levels.

  15. Evaluation of macro and microminerals in crude drugs and infusions of five herbs widely used as sedatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta E. Petenatti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined the concentration of fourteen micro and macrominerals (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, and Zn in both crude drugs and infusions of Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, Nepeta cataria L., Lamiaceae, Passiflora caerulea L., Passifloraceae, Tilia x moltkei Späth ex C.K. Schneid., Tiliaceae, and Valeriana officinalis L., Caprifoliaceae. These herbs are widely consumed by its sedative properties, either alone or in herb mixtures. All measurements were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES. The products were obtained from regional markets, mainly in San Luis province (Argentina. The estimated daily intake was compared with current recommendations. All products and its infusions were included within the upper tolerable limits for minerals, in trace elements such as toxic elements present at low levels.

  16. An analysis of the combination frequencies of constituent medicinal herbs in prescriptions for the treatment of bone and joint disorder in Korean medicine: determination of a group of candidate prescriptions for universal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Kyoung Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to select prescriptions (mixtures of medicinal herbs used in the treatment of bone and joint disorders in Korean medicine, and through the analysis of medicinal herb combination frequencies, select a high-frequency medicinal herb combination group for further experimental and clinical research. Methods: We systematically searched for terms related to bone and joint disorder in the “Dongeuibogam (Dong yibaojian”, a seminal Korean medicine book. We reviewed the results of published papers regarding the effects in bone and joint disorders (especially in osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteopenia, rheumatoid arthritis, and degenerative arthritis. Results: In total, 34 candidates of a medicinal herb combination for the treatment of bone and joint disorders(CMHCTBJDs and nine candidates of a medicinal herb for the treatment of bone and joint disorders(CMHTBJDs were selected. Conclusion: : The candidates of a medicinal herb combination for the treatment of bone and joint disorders (CMHCTBJDs and candidates of a medicinal herb for the treatment of bone and joint disorders(CMHTBJDs proposed in this study can be useful material for text mining to develop natural products with the effects in BJDs and also it has the potential to reduce the experimental and developmental time period. Keywords: Dongeuibogam (Dong yi bao gian, Text mining, Bone disorder

  17. Willingness of Herbal Medicine Practitioners and Herbs Vendors to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willingness of Herbal Medicine Practitioners and Herbs Vendors to Contribute Financially to Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Ibadan, ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The earlier version of this paper had some errors.

  18. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  19. MEDICINAL HERBS USED BY HIV-POSITIVE PEOPLE IN LESOTHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugomeri, Eltony; Chatanga, Peter; Chakane, Ntema

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal herbs whose efficacy and toxicities are not known by HIV-positive people in Lesotho is a threat to the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment. This study explored some medicinal herbs used by HIV-positive people in Lesotho and the reasons for their use. This was a cross sectional study based on a questionnaire distributed to purposively-sampled HIV-positive people in Leribe and Maseru districts of Lesotho. The participants' socio-demographic and clinical variables were summarized using frequency tables in Stata version 13 statistical software. Data variables for medicinal herbs used, frequency of use, uses by the participants and in the literature, parts of plants used and the method of preparation were also explored. Out of 400 questionnaires distributed to the participants, 389 were returned with data acceptable for analysis. Ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 75 years (Mean=43 + 11.6). Out of the 272 (69.9%) participants who conceded that they had used medicinal herbs at least once, 30 (7.7%) participants used medicinal herbs frequently while 242 (62.2 %) rarely used the herbs. At least 20 plant species belonging to 16 families were reportedly used by the participants. Asteraceae was the most common plant family reportedly used by the participants. Allium sativum and Dicoma anomala , reportedly used by 21.0% and 14.3% respectively, were the most commonly used medicinal herbs in this population. In addition, boosting the immune system and treating gastrointestinal ailments, apparently cited by 32% and 28% participants respectively, were the most commonly reported reasons for using medicinal herbs. A considerable proportion (69.9%) of HIV-positive people use medicinal herbs in this population, and 7.7% use them frequently. At least 20 plant species belonging to 16 families were reportedly used by the participants. HIV counselling protocols in Lesotho should emphasize the dangers of using medicinal herbs whose safety and

  20. Irradiation on spices, dried herbs and condiments preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, D.

    1996-01-01

    Among food irradiation applications, radiation decontamination of spices, condiments and dried herbs has the most immediate application potential in many countries. The article is intended to provide justification for the radiation decontamination of spices, herbs and others vegetables seasonings, compared to conventional methods used today by industry, namely the technique of fumigation with ethylene oxide (ETO). The article provides also information both to industrial users and governmental officers for the necessary authorization of the process [it

  1. Impact of Air Frying on Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Oxidation in Sardines: Protective Effects of Aromatic Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda S; Sampaio, Geni R; Keller, Laura M; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Chávez, Davy W H; Torres, Elizabeth A F S; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2017-12-01

    The high temperatures used to fry fish may induce thermo-oxidation of cholesterol, forming cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). COPs have been associated to coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases. Air fryers are an alternative thermal process technology to fry foods without oil, and are considered a healthier cooking method. This study is the 1st to evaluate the formation of COPs and the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in air-fried sardine fillets. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of fresh herbs added as natural antioxidants to sardines subjected to air frying. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), and a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) were added in quantities of 0%, 2%, and 4%. Air frying significantly decreased the content of essential PUFAs, and increased the levels of COPs from 61.2 (raw) to 283 μg/g (P addition of 4% of cheiro-verde in air-fried sardines presented the best protective effect against lipid oxidation. Fish is an important source of essential lipids. However, oxidized cholesterol products, which are formed during thermal processing, are potential hazards to human health. Air fryers present an alternative thermal process for frying food without oil, and this method of cooking is considered to be more convenient and healthier This study shows that the air frying increased the formation of cholesterol oxidation products and decreased the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in sardine fillets. However, the lipid oxidation is significantly reduced by adding fresh herbs, such as parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), or a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) that are natural antioxidants. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tse Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs.

  3. Cloud point extraction of palladium in water samples and alloy mixtures using new synthesized reagent with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priya, B. Krishna; Subrahmanayam, P.; Suvardhan, K.; Kumar, K. Suresh; Rekha, D.; Rao, A. Venkata; Rao, G.C.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper outlines novel, simple and sensitive method for the determination of palladium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after separation and preconcentration by cloud point extraction (CPE). The cloud point methodology was successfully applied for palladium determination by using new reagent 4-(2-naphthalenyl)thiozol-2yl azo chromotropic acid (NTACA) and hydrophobic ligand Triton X-114 as chelating agent and nonionic surfactant respectively in the water samples and alloys. The following parameters such as pH, concentration of the reagent and Triton X-114, equilibrating temperature and centrifuging time were evaluated and optimized to enhance the sensitivity and extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The preconcentration factor was found to be (50-fold) for 250 ml of water sample. Under optimum condition the detection limit was found as 0.067 ng ml -1 for palladium in various environmental matrices. The present method was applied for the determination of palladium in various water samples, alloys and the result shows good agreement with reported method and the recoveries are in the range of 96.7-99.4%

  4. HERB RECOVERY IN DEGRADED CAATINGA SITES ENRICHED WITH NATIVE TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Matos Figueiredo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb recovery was evaluated in degraded Caatinga sites protected from grazing and enriched with native trees, in Patos-PB state, Brazil . Treatments were randomized according to a block design with five treatments (no tree planting –T 0 – or tree planting of three tree species in pure –T 1 = Poincianella pyramidalis , T 2 = Mimosa tenuiflora and T 3 = Cnidoscolus quercifolius – or mixed balanced stands –T 4 and five replications of squared-144-m 2 plots with 36 seedlings developing in planting holes enriched with manure and chemical fertilizers, arranged in a 2 m x 2 m grid. Data were collected from September 2008 to October 2009. After this period, natural tree regeneration was still not observed, and tree canopy covered 15 to 49% of the soil and did not affect herb growth and species composition. Initial and final herb cover were 16% and 100%, respectively. The number of dicot herbs increased from five, mainly two Sida species, to 13 species, monocots were represented by one species only (Aristida sp ., and quantity of herb forage reached 3 ton/ha (2:1, dicot:monocot. Adjacent overgrazed plots kept the initial low level of herb cover and species composition. Animal deferment during one year allowed the increase in soil cover and plant diversity in degraded Caatinga sites into which planted tree seedlings established successfully. This management practice could be implemented to avoid further environmental degradation and recover degraded areas.

  5. The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences. PMID:18499033

  6. Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2001-01-01

    , coriander, cress, dill, lemon balm, lovage, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme, and watercress) were analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Five major flavonoid aglycones were detected and quantified by HPLC after acid hydrolysis: apigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin......Many herbs are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh herbs in the diet may therefore contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. The present study was performed in order to quantify flavonoids in commonly eaten fresh herbs. Fifteen fresh herbs (basil, chives......, and quercetin. The highest levels of flavonoids were found in parsley (510-630 mg apigenin /100 g), lovage (170 mg quercetin/100g), mint (18-100 mg apigenin/ 100 g), and dill (48-110 mg quercetin/100 g). Mass spectrometric detection, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), was used to verify...

  7. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed t...

  8. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on pharmacokinetic ... Keywords: Carica papaya, Ciprofloxacin, Sickle cell anaemia, Herb-drug interaction, Pharmacokinetics. Tropical ..... and reproduction in any medium, provided the.

  9. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

    2013-01-01

    Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety.

  10. Herbal extracts and symbiotic mixture replacing antibiotics in piglets at the initial phase Extratos herbais e mistura simbiótica em substituição aos antibióticos para suínos na fase inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of vegetable extract based addictives associated or not to symbiotics as an alternative for antibiotic as growth promoters for piglets at initial phase. It was used 125 pigs of commercial genetic line with initial weight of 7.4 ± 1.1 kg, weaned at 20 days of age, during 50 days. The experimental design used was randomized blocks (initial weight, with five treatments and five replicates with five animals per experimental unit. The experimental diets were a basal diet, without additive, and other four diets, one diet containing antibiotic (colistin + zinc oxide; diet with 0.3% of a symbiotic mixture; diet with 0.3% of a symbiotic mixture plus 0.05% of herbal mix (plant extracts and microencapsulated essential oils; and another diet with 0.3% of symbiotic mixture plus 0.1% of herbal mixture. It was observed that the use of the symbiotic mixture associated to 0.05% of herbal mixture showed positive results, similar to the ones obtained with diets containing antibiotics for the final weight, average weight gain, average daily feed intake and pH of stomach and diarrhea incidence. The use of symbiotics promoted smaller vilous:depth crypt ratio, except when associated to 0.1% of herbal mixture, which was similar to the diet without addictives. There was no differences in the feed conversion, coliform and lactobacillus count in the jejune and in the cecum and in the pH of cecum. The use of herbal mixture associated to symbiotic is a viable alternative for replacing the use of antibiotics as growth promoters for piglets in the initial phase. However, the concentration of the herbal mixture is an important factor to be considered.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de aditivos à base de extratos vegetais associados ou não ao uso de simbióticos como alternativa aos antibióticos como promotores de crescimento para suínos na fase inicial. Foram utilizados 125 leitões de genética comercial, com

  11. Indian herb 'Sanjeevani' (Selaginella bryopteris) can promote ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The aqueous extract of S. bryopteris possesses growth-promoting activity as ... promote growth and protect against heat shock and apoptotic activities of ..... Physical parameters .... tive stress and the use of anti-oxidants in diabetes: Linking.

  12. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-31

    Oct 31, 2013 ... These suggest that C. papaya may be used as an antibiotic, and extracts in .... They include one strain of Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus .... the dried seed of C. papaya, produces microbial inhibition (Dawkins et al., ...

  13. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  14. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for Extracting Spectra of N-Glycans Directly from Incubation Mixtures Following Glycan Release: Application to Glycans from Engineered Glycoforms of Intact, Folded HIV gp120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David J.; Sobott, Frank; Crispin, Max; Wrobel, Antoni; Bonomelli, Camille; Vasiljevic, Snezana; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Scarff, Charlotte A.; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Scrivens, James H.

    2011-03-01

    The analysis of glycosylation from native biological sources is often frustrated by the low abundances of available material. Here, ion mobility combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry have been used to extract the spectra of N-glycans released with PNGase F from a serial titration of recombinantly expressed envelope glycoprotein, gp120, from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Analysis was also performed on gp120 expressed in the α-mannosidase inhibitor, and in a matched mammalian cell line deficient in GlcNAc transferase I. Without ion mobility separation, ESI spectra frequently contained no observable ions from the glycans whereas ions from other compounds such as detergents and residual buffer salts were abundant. After ion mobility separation on a Waters T-wave ion mobility mass spectrometer, the N-glycans fell into a unique region of the ion mobility/ m/z plot allowing their profiles to be extracted with good signal:noise ratios. This method allowed N-glycan profiles to be extracted from crude incubation mixtures with no clean-up even in the presence of surfactants such as NP40. Furthermore, this technique allowed clear profiles to be obtained from sub-microgram amounts of glycoprotein. Glycan profiles were similar to those generated by MALDI-TOF MS although they were more susceptible to double charging and fragmentation. Structural analysis could be accomplished by MS/MS experiments in either positive or negative ion mode but negative ion mode gave the most informative spectra and provided a reliable approach to the analysis of glycans from small amounts of glycoprotein.

  15. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  16. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  17. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  18. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2014-07-02

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 μg of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC₅₀=16, 29, and 59 μM, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 μM). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC₅₀=0.43±0.07 μM), hispidulin (IC₅₀=0.49±0.06 μM), and naringenin (IC₅₀=2.5±0.29 μM). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management.

  19. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (pnettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3.2-946.0 mg/m3 (median 18.1 mg/m3), exceeding at 13 out of 14 sampling sites the Polish OEL

  20. PXR as a mediator of herb-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, Brett C; Guan, Xiudong; Folan, M Maggie; Xie, Wen

    2018-04-01

    Medicinal herbs have been a part of human medicine for thousands of years. The herb-drug interaction is an extension of drug-drug interaction, in which the consumptions of herbs cause alterations in the metabolism of drugs the patients happen to take at the same time. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been established as one of the most important transcriptional factors that regulate the expression of phase I enzymes, phase II enzymes, and drug transporters in the xenobiotic responses. Since its initial discovery, PXR has been implicated in multiple herb-drug interactions that can lead to alterations of the drug's pharmacokinetic properties and cause fluctuating therapeutic efficacies, possibly leading to complications. Regions of the world that heavily incorporate herbalism into their primary health care and people turning to alternative medicines as a personal choice could be at risk for adverse reactions or unintended results from these interactions. This article is intended to highlight our understanding of the PXR-mediated herb-drug interactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Compatibility art of traditional Chinese medicine: from the perspective of herb pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengpeng; Hu, Yangyang; Tan, Wen; Wu, Xu; Chen, Ruie; Cao, Jiliang; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2012-09-28

    Over the past decades, research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) mainly focused on developing potential candidates from Chinese medicinal herbs, while the wisdom of applying these traditional herbs has not been paid as much attention as it deserves. As is well-known, multi-herb therapy is one of the most important characteristics of TCM, but the modernization drive of this conventional wisdom has faced many obstacles due to its unimaginable complexity. Herb pairs, the most fundamental and the simplest form of multi-herb formulae, are a centralized representative of Chinese herbal compatibility. In light of their simplicity and the basic characteristics of complex formulae, herb pairs are of great importance in the studies of herb compatibility. A systematic search of herb pair related research was carried out using multiple online literature databases, books and monographs published in the past 20 years. A comprehensive introduction to the compatibility of TCM, the position of herb pairs in TCM and the progresses of several famous herb pairs were provided in this review. Furthermore, the clinical study and the future research trends of herb pairs were also discussed. Herb pairs have played, and may continue to play a key role in full investigation of general herb compatibility for their indispensable position in TCM. Much more research is needed for the standardization, safety evaluation, and mechanism exploration of herb pairs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of irradiated components in flavour blends composed of non-irradiated species herbs and vegetable seasonings by thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec-Czechowska, K.; Stachowicz, W.

    2003-01-01

    The results of experiments on the detection of irradiated component in commercial flavour blends composed of a mixture of non-irradiated spices, herbs and seasonings are presented. A method based on the thermoluminescence measurements on silicate materials isolated from blends has been adapted. It has been proved that by applying of this technique it is possible to detect 0.95% by weight of paprika, irradiated with a dose of 7 kGy, which was a minor component of non-irradiated flavour blends. (author)

  3. Assessment of endocrine disruption potential of essential oils of culinary herbs and spices involving glucocorticoid, androgen and vitamin D receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-04-25

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are consumed on a daily basis. They are multicomponent mixtures of compounds with already demonstrated biological activities. Taking into account regular dietary intake and the chemical composition of EOs, they may be considered as candidates for endocrine-disrupting entities. Therefore, we examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on transcriptional activities of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), androgen receptor (AR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Using reporter gene assays in stably transfected cell lines, weak anti-androgen and anti-glucocorticoid activity was observed for EO of vanilla and nutmeg, respectively. Moderate augmentation of calcitriol-dependent VDR activity was caused by EOs of ginger, thyme, coriander and lemongrass. Mixed anti-glucocorticoid and VDR-stimulatory activities were displayed by EOs of turmeric, oregano, dill, caraway, verveine and spearmint. The remaining 19 EOs were inactive against all receptors under investigation. Analyses of GR, AR and VDR target genes by means of RT-PCR confirmed the VDR-stimulatory effects, but could not confirm the anti-glucocorticoid and anti-androgen effects of EOs. In conclusion, although we observed minor effects of several EOs on transcriptional activities of GR, AR and VDR, the toxicological significance of these effects is very low. Hence, 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices may be considered safe, in terms of endocrine disruption involving receptors GR, AR and VDR.

  4. Essential oils of culinary herbs and spices display agonist and antagonist activities at human aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise). Major constituents (>10%) of AhR-active EOs were studied in more detail. We identified AhR partial agonists (carvacrol, ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, thymol, ar-turmerone) and antagonists (trans-anethole, butylidine phtalide, R/S-carvones, p-cymene), which account for AhR-mediated activities of EOs of fennel, anise, star anise, caraway, spearmint, tarragon, cloves, dill, turmeric, lovage, thyme and oregano. We also show that AhR-mediated effects of some individual constituents of EOs differ from those manifested in mixtures. In conclusion, EOs of culinary herbs and spices are agonists and antagonists of human AhR, implying a potential for food-drug interactions and interference with endocrine pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. This study to investigate the antibacterial activities of mistletoe grown on cocoa trees, 4 different extracts (1% HCl, ... organ damages, toxicity, hypersensitivity, immune-suppression, and tissue residues posing public health hazard. (Yusuf et ... Page 2 ..... HPLC fingerprint of bioactive compounds.

  6. Sensory Evaluation of Irradiated Herbs for Insect Disinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongratarpon, Titima; Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Pransopon, Prapon; Sutantawong; Manoon

    2006-01-01

    Sensory evaluation was conducted on irradiated and non-irradiated herbs: Glyeyrrhiza glabra I. Zingiber officinale Roseoe., Cartharmus tinctorius L., Pandanus amaryllifolius Rox. b and Chrysanthemum moriifoloum Ramat. The herbs were irradiated at the doses of 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 Gy (Dose rate 2.1 Gy/min), followed by storage at 30 o C, 70% RH for 7, 60 or 120 days. The nine point hedonic scale method was applied for evaluation. No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non irradiated samples in their colour, odour, flavour and overall quality after irradiation and the mean scores showed the tester s acceptance. The experiment could be summarized that the tester s accepted the irradiated herbs at the dose of 1,000 Gy with 120 days of storage after irradiation

  7. [Combining herbs with medication--risks vs. chances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nir

    2013-07-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is driven by the use of plants or parts of plants, which have undergone minimal processing in order to treat disease and improve health. The article: "Traditional Immunosuppression--Lei Gong Teng in Modern Medicine", published in this issue of "Harefuah", raises the importance of integrating herbal medicine within the existing medical system. However, there are various limitations on integrating herbology in official frameworks, such as bureaucratic and legislative restrictions concerning the safety and efficacy of the herbs. This allows the marketing of many plants without a prescription requirement or professional advice. Another limitation relates to therapists, some of whom have not undergone proper training and may recommend the improper use of plants, resulting in a problematic combination with drugs in some cases. Regulation is necessary in order to better serve both the public and doctors. Regulation will define who is allowed to work with herbs and this will create a secure integration of herbs into the formal medical world.

  8. Study on quality control of Chinese herb medicine irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dongqing; En Lihua; Deng Wenmin

    2010-01-01

    6-8 kGy γ-ray irradiation dosage treatment can reduce the bacteria, mildew effectively from 105 CFU/g to 102 CFU/g and eliminate the parasite in 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine, enhance their quality of sanitation observably. In the other hand, irradiation doesn't influence the medicinal component and therapy effect. Storage study has improved that the 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine treated by γ-ray irradiation can be preserved over one year in the room temperature with high quality of sanitation and steady medicinal component. (authors)

  9. [Comparative study on promoting blood effects of Danshen-Honghua herb pair with different preparations based on chemometrics and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cheng; Tang, Yu-Ping; Shi, Xu-Qin; Zhou, Gui-Sheng; Shang, Er-Xin; Shang, Li-Li; Guo, Jian-Ming; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis effects of Danshen-Honghua(DH) herb pair with different preparations (alcohol, 50% alcohol and water) on blood rheology and coagulation functions in acute blood stasis rats, and optimize the best preparation method of DH based on principal component analysis(PCA), hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods. Ice water bath and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline were both used to establish the acute blood stasis rat model. Then the blood stasis rats were administrated intragastrically with DH (alcohol, 50% alcohol and water) extracts. The whole blood viscosity(WBV), plasma viscosity(PV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) and haematocrit(HCT) were tested to observe the effects of DH herb pair with different preparations and doses on hemorheology of blood stasis rats; the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), thrombin time(TT), prothrombin time(PT), and plasma fibrinogen(FIB) were tested to observe the effects of DH herb pair with different preparations on blood coagulation function and platelet aggregation of blood stasis rats. Then PCA, hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods were all used to comprehensively evaluate the total promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis effects of DH herb pair with different preparations. The hemorheological indexes and coagulation parameters of model group had significant differences with normal blank group. As compared with the model group, the DH herb pair with different preparations at low, middle and high doses could improve the blood hemorheology indexes and coagulation parameters in acute blood stasis rats with dose-effect relation. Based on the PCA, hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods, the high dose group of 50% alcohol extract had the best effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood

  10. Herbs containing L- Dopa: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Kuber B; Thaakur, Santhrani

    2007-07-01

    L-Dopa is the drug of choice in the treatment of Parkinson's disease but it has dose related adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, orthostatic hypotension, end of dose deterioration, on off phenomena and on chronic therapy motor complications synonymous to parkinsonism. Mucuna pruriens (M.P) commonly known as velvet beans or cowitch are used in case of spasms associated with Parkins onism. Clinical efficacy of seeds of this plant was confirmed and the efficacy was contributed to its L-Dopa content. M.P extract showed twice the antiparkinsonism activity compared with synthetic L-Dopa. There is sufficient L-Dopa in broad bean (Vicia faba) pods. One study proved its efficacy in Parkinsonism. Ginkgo biloba extract showed protective effect in vivo and invitro. 50% ethanolic extract of Plumbago zeylanica was effective in rats. The following plants were reported to have L-Dopa but their protective effect is yet to be established in animal models. Vigna aconitifolia, Vigna unguiculata, Vigna vexillata, Prosopis chilensis, Pileostigma malabarica, Phanera vahlis, Parkinsonia acculeata, Macuna urens, Canvavalia glandiata, Cassia floribanda, Casia hirsute and Dalbergia retusa etc.

  11. Radiation countermeasures from Himalayan herbs - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    A successful radioprotector is the one, which essentially renders protection from the multi-organ dis-function syndrome (MODS) caused by the total body exposure to ionizing radiation. Our rationale is that and instead of a single molecule, a group of molecules/compounds working synergistically can combat the MODS more effectively. Plant extracts offer natural combinations of a plethora of compounds, which act through different mechanisms and are, therefore, the ideal choice. Plants of Himalayan regions have survived under extreme climatic conditions through millions of years and are expected to harbor a battery of anti-stress adaptive molecules offering survival benefits. Our group is actively engaged in developing composite herbal radioprotective preparations from Himalayan Plants. This group is working to develop radiation countermeasures by tapping the essential complex phytochemicals from the plants inhabiting extreme climatic zones of Himalayas. In our laboratory, systematic studies were undertaken to investigate some of these plants located at high altitude regions of Himalayas viz. Hippophae rhamnoides, Rhodiola imbricata and Podophylium hexandruin. The most effective preparation from each of these plants individually, could provide more than 80% survival benefit to the irradiated (10 Gy) mice population against zero per cent survival in non-drug treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. It was observed that whole extracts of plant provided much better protection than the partial extracts/fractions. It was also observed that some of the partial extracts/fractions although, provided much higher survival benefits, yet were found to be unsuitable for drug development due to much higher mutagenic and/or recombinogenic effects in comparison to the whole extracts, One of the preparations from leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides (drug) showed more than 90% survival benefits in the irradiated mice population. Only one time intra-peritoneal administration of the drug

  12. Effectiveness of Indonesian Essential Oil Mixture of Lemongrass, Cananga, and Patchouli in Relaxation through Inhalation: A Clinical Test on Healthy Woman with High Potential for Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Siahaan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is one of many mechanisms for coping with stress. One of the most widely used methods for relaxation is aromatherapy with the application of essential oils. Known for their therapeutic benefits, essential oils can be extracted from various Indonesian native herbs such as lemongrass (sereh wangi or Cymbopogon winterianus, cananga or ylang-ylang (kenanga or Canarium odoratum, and patchouli (nilam or Pogostemon cabin. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a mixture of Indonesian essential oil made of lemongrass, cananga, and patchouli extracts. Experiment was conducted by asking a number of subjects to inhale the oil mixture and assessing its effectiveness in terms of psychological relaxation by using Visual Analog Scale or VAS and of physical relaxation by examining the subjects’ blood pressure (MAP, pulse frequency, and breathing frequency. The result was then compared with that of lavender oil and with the control group. The study was conducted on 60 healthy women through single-blind clinical trials (before and after using the “intent to treat” approach, followed by a startle test. Participants were divided into three groups: (1 20 participants who were treated with Indonesian essential oil mixture, (2 20 participants who were treated with lavender oil, and (3 20 participants who served as the control group. Psychological relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced the same degree of effectiveness as lavender oil and the control groups did, although both treatments tended to produce better results than the control group did. However, physical relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced a higher degree of effectiveness than lavender oil and tended to produce a better result than the control group did, especially in terms of blood pressure based on MAP scores.

  13. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, C; Chanyotha, S; Kritsananuwat, R; Ploykrathok, T; Pengvanich, P; Tumnoi, Y; Thumvijit, T; Sriburee, S

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg -1 for 226 Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg -1 for 228 Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40 K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy -1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy -1 . The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard. (paper)

  14. The Public Health Impact of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; Heitzer, Marjet; Wesa, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased exponentially in recent years despite the lack of regulatory oversight and in the face of growing safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the public health implications and safety concerns associated with dietary supplement use, especially by cancer patients. Botanical research is actively pursued at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Integrative Medicine department. Work of the MSKCC Center for the Study of Botanical Immunomodulators is described, and guidelines for cancer patients’ use of dietary supplements outlined. Herbs and other botanicals are complex, physiologically active agents, but little is known about most of the popular, widely available dietary supplements. Herb-drug interactions, a major concern, are exacerbated in the cancer setting. Biologically active agents may interfere with chemotherapy and other prescription medications. They may exert anti-coagulant activity at rather inconvenient times such as during surgery, and create other serious problems. Research on the bioavailability, effective dosage, safety and benefits of these complex agents is sorely needed. Oncology professionals and other healthcare providers should educate themselves and their patients about these issues. Probably the largest, continuously-updated free information resource is MSKCC’s AboutHerbs website (www.mskcc.org/AboutHerbs). PMID:19890479

  15. Herb-drug interactions: challenges and opportunities for improved predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Scott J; Argikar, Aneesh A; Lin, Yvonne S; Nagar, Swati; Paine, Mary F

    2014-03-01

    Supported by a usage history that predates written records and the perception that "natural" ensures safety, herbal products have increasingly been incorporated into Western health care. Consumers often self-administer these products concomitantly with conventional medications without informing their health care provider(s). Such herb-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when the herbal product perturbs the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters. Despite increasing recognition of these types of herb-drug interactions, a standard system for interaction prediction and evaluation is nonexistent. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying herb-drug interactions remain an understudied area of pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of herbal product interaction liability is challenging due to variability in herbal product composition, uncertainty of the causative constituents, and often scant knowledge of causative constituent pharmacokinetics. These limitations are confounded further by the varying perspectives concerning herbal product regulation. Systematic evaluation of herbal product drug interaction liability, as is routine for new drugs under development, necessitates identifying individual constituents from herbal products and characterizing the interaction potential of such constituents. Integration of this information into in silico models that estimate the pharmacokinetics of individual constituents should facilitate prospective identification of herb-drug interactions. These concepts are highlighted with the exemplar herbal products milk thistle and resveratrol. Implementation of this methodology should help provide definitive information to both consumers and clinicians about the risk of adding herbal products to conventional pharmacotherapeutic regimens.

  16. Protection of Chinese herbs against Adenine-induced chronic renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbs (Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum wallichii, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Rhodiola crenilata, Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis) on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. 30 age-matched male Wistar rats were divided into three ...

  17. Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

  18. Dosimetry Characteristics of Coupled Fast-Thermal Core 'HERBE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Milosevic, M.; Milovanovic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The 'HERBE' is new coupled fast-thermal core, designed in 1991, at the 'RB' reactor in the 'Vinca' Institute. It is used for verification of designed oriented computer codes developed in the Institute, training and sample irradiation in fast neutron field. For the last purpose a vertical experimental channel (VCH) is placed in the central axis of the fast core. Neutron spectrum in the centre of the VCR is calculated in 44 energy groups. Space distributions of two energy group neutron flux in the 'HERBE' are measured using gold foils and converted into the neutron absorbed dose (in air and tissue) using group flux-dose conversion factors. Gamma absorption doses in the air in the centre of the VCH are measured using calibrated small ionisation chamber filled with air. Determined dose rates are related to the reactor power. The first preliminary irradiations of silicon diodes (designed for production of the neutron dosemeters) in the centre of the VCH of the 'HERBE' fast core are carried out in 1994 and 1995. This paper describes calculation methods and measurement techniques applied to determination of the irradiation performance and dosimetry characteristics of the 'HERBE' system. (author)

  19. Rosemary, the beneficial chemistry of a garden herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, James R

    2016-01-01

    The major natural products that are present in the garden herb, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) including the mono di- and triterpenoid, flavonoid and phenolic constituents together with their biological activity as anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, memory-enhancing and tumour-inhibitory agents, are reviewed.

  20. Formulation and Sensory Evaluation of Herb Tea from Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensory appeal of tea, like all food products, is an important consideration in new product de-velopment. Tea in general and herb tea in particular are gaining increasing consumer attention due to a growing awareness of health benefits derived from their consumption. Even though sev-eral underutilized plants exist with ...

  1. Effects of immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 1Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030032, China. 2Modern ... Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with ..... saponins that are capable of activating immune system.

  2. Medicinal herbs in Iranian traditional medicine for learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Most of the studies on TIM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Also, for some of the herbal medicine used in TIM, there are no or not enough studies to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical ...

  3. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the New…

  4. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed...

  5. Effects Of Chinese Herbs On The Hemagglutination And Adhesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate Chinese herbs' efficacy on adhesive properties of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The effects of Chinese herbal solution on the hemagglutination and adhesion by E. coli strain were studied. E. coli C16 was isolated from a patient with urinary tract infection. The MIC value of herbal solution for the ...

  6. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a Newly Naturalized Herb in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Huai Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a newly naturalized fleshy herb in Taiwan, is reported here. The taxonomic description, line drawing, and photographs are provided. The population is colonized on Mt. Tatun, Yangmingshan National Park, north Taiwan. Since this species was reported being invasive, its impacts on the local ecosystem should be concerned.

  7. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  8. Functional and chemical stability of a medicinal herb, Artemisia capillaris, following gamma sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Bae, Mun Hyoung; Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Sung Kee [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The stability of functional and chemical properties of gamma-irradiated (10 kGy) Artemisia capillaris, a widely used herb in the traditional Oriental medicine, was investigated. Functional properties of the extracts of gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris were compared in antioxidant activities, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and protection of lymphocyte and plasmid DNA. Their chemical properties were assessed by HPLC analysis, comparing with chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, which were isolated from ethylacetate fraction as major compounds with strong antioxidant activities. No significant difference in functional properties between irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris was found in all antioxidant assays. Also HPLC analysis of ethyl acetate fractions of irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris revealed the preservation of chlorogenic acid ({sub t}R=3.124 min) and caffeic acid ({sub t}R=3.672 min), and showed almost the same pattern in the general peaks. These results suggest that the chemical components and antioxidant properties of A. capillaris are not affected largely by gamma-ray irradiation. Therefore, this study may provide evidence that the irradiated herbs retain their potential functional properties.

  9. Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-15

    Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Medicinal herbs used by HIV-positive people in Lesotho | Mugomeri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of medicinal herbs whose efficacy and toxicities are not known by HIV-positive people in Lesotho is a threat to the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment. This study ... need to be explored. Key words: Allium sativum; Anti-retroviral treatment; Dicoma anomala; Herb-drug interaction; HIV; Medicinal herb ...

  11. Effect of essential oils against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer awareness of fresh herbs and demand has increased in recent years due to health benefits and distinct aroma in prepared food. There are specific markets for local growers, especially for organically grown herbs. Fresh herbs have been implicated in illnesses associated with Salmonella, E. co...

  12. Greater therapeutic efficacy of prednisolone plus medicinal herbs than prednisolone or medicinal herbs alone in patients with oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ta Chiu

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that treatment consisting of prednisolone plus traditional medicinal herbs can improve OLP symptoms, relieve pain, reduce recurrent severity, and increase the disease-free period. The benefits of combined therapy for OLP should be investigated by conducting a prospective randomized clinical trial in the future.

  13. Hepatotoxicity or hepatoprotection? Pattern recognition for the paradoxical effect of the Chinese herb Rheum palmatum L. in treating rat liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-bo Wang

    Full Text Available The hepatotoxicity of some Chinese herbs has been a cause for concern in recent years. However, some herbs, such as rhubarb, have been documented as having both therapeutic and toxic effects on the liver, leading to the complex problem of distinguishing the benefits from the risks of using this herb. To comparatively analyze the dose-response relationship between rhubarb and hepatic health, we administrated total rhubarb extract (RE to normal and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4-treated rats for 12 weeks at 4 dosage levels (2.00, 5.40, 14.69 and 40.00 g·kg(-1, measured as the quantity of crude material, followed by biochemical and histopathological tests of the rats' livers. A composite pattern was extracted by factor analysis, using all the biochemical indices as variables, into a visual representation of two mathematically obtained factors, which could be interpreted as the fibrosis factor and the cellular injury factor, according to the values of the variable loadings. The curative effect of administering the two lowest dosages of RE to CCl(4-treated rats was mainly expressed as a decrease in the extent of cellular injury. The hepatoprotective mechanism of RE might be related to its antioxidant effect, the antagonism of the free radical damage to hepatocytes caused by CCl(4. By contrast, the RE-induced liver damage was mainly expressed as a significant increase in the amount of fibrosis in both normal rats at all dosage levels and CCl(4-treated rats at the two highest dosage levels. Therefore, the hepatotoxic potential of RE could be attributable to the liver cell fibrosis induced by high doses of the herb. This study illustrates the bidirectional potential of rhubarb and demonstrates the feasibility of using factor analysis to study the dose-response relationships between herbal medicines and hepatotoxicity or the healing effects of these herbs by extracting the underlying interrelationships among a number of functional bio-indices in a holistic

  14. [Interpretation of the concept of 'medicinal product' in relation to herb- and cannabinoid-based products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsigmond, Ferge

    2014-11-30

    On 10th of July 2014 the European Court of Justice made in his decisions in relation to the cases D. (C-358/13) and G. (C-181/14) an interpretation, that the concept of 'medicinal product' according to the law of the European Union does not include the materials, which are - as not covering substances, such as those at issue in the main proceedings, which produce effects that merely modify physiological functions but which are not such as to have any beneficial effects, either immediately or in the long term, on human health, are consumed solely to induce a state of intoxication and are, as such, harmful to human health. The Court made his interpretation after the request for preliminary ruling from the Bundesgerichtshof (the High Court of Justice in Germany). The Court had to decide in two criminal procedures, whether for the retail of mixtures including syntetic canabinoids, such as complements of marihuana, due the fact that they are "unsafe medicinal products", a criminal proceeding can be initiated or not. The Ordinary Courts had two persons (D. and G.) for selling the unsafe medicinal products sentenced to one year and nine months imprisonment, and suspension (D.), and sentenced (G.) to four years and six months imprisonment and fined with a charge of two hundred thousand Euro. The retail of herb mixtures containing, inter alia, synthetic cannabinoids, did not fall under the German law on narcotic drugs at the material time, resulting that the German Authorities could not initiate a criminal procedure.

  15. Documents needed for obtaining the operation licence for the HERBE system at the RB reactor; Dokumentacija za dobijanje dozvole za rad sistema HERBE na reaktoru RB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M et al [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1989-10-15

    Documents included in this volume are needed for obtaining the operation licence for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE constructed at the RB reactor. It contains the following chapters: description of the system; nuclear calculations; performed changes at the RB reactor; proofs about static and dynamic stability of the built construction; normal operation regime of HERBE; accident analysis; dosimetry data; additional instructions and regulations for reactor operation; program of start-up; program for testing the HERBE system.

  16. Studies on elemental analysis of Chinese traditional herbs by neutron activation technique and their mutagenic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A.; Beh, C.W.; Abugassa, I.; Sarmani, S.B.; Liow, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Chinese herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness. It is important to know the contents of these herbs that might cause gene mutation. Ten most popular herbs used in Malaysia were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 16 trace and major elements were determined and the concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. Toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The mutagenicity test showed that there was no toxic effect due to the heavy metals present in the herbs. (author)

  17. [Biological activity of metabolites of the herb Kalanchoe diagremontania (Hamet de la Bbathie) Jacobs et Perr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M M; Gerasimenko, N I; Chaĭkina, E L; Serebriakov, Iu M

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the hemolytic, antimicrobial, and phytoregulatory activity of various classes of lipids (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids (FFA), the glyceroglycolipids monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)), sterols, all of them were obtained from the medical herb Kalanchoe diagremontiana, and also pigments, phenolic compounds (FC), polysaccharides, and ethanol extract (EE) of the herbal. It was established that EE, FC, FFA, and sterols display pH-dependent membranothropic activity. FFA showed antimicrobial activity and stimulated growth of buckwheat stalk sprouts. K. diagremontiana glyceroglycolopids did not display expressed biological activity. Caroteniods displayed pH-independent membranothopic action and antibacterial activity. Chlorophylls displayed antimicrobial action, but did not influence erythrocytes and buckwheat sprouts. Polysaccharides acted against the microorganisms Safale S-04, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysperum and buckwheat sprouts.

  18. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  19. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  20. The industrial potential of herbs and spices - a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Katarzyna B; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used for food and medicinal purposes for centuries - the first recorded evidence of their use dates back to 1500BC and the Ebers Papyrus, which mentioned spices such as anise, mustard, saffron, cinnamon, and cassia. Now, in the 21st century, a variety of secondary compounds produced by plants are used in many fields of industry, such as food production (to improve taste, to provide vitamins and macro- and microelements, and also to inhibit food spoilage caused by foodborne bacteria), in medicine (in the treatment of various diseases; in chemoprevention and cancer therapy; as a source of natural antimicrobials for the treatment of infectious disease), and in pharmacology and cosmetology (in dietary supplements, and as a result of the demand for preservative-free cosmetics, to reduce the risk of methylparaben allergies). The aim of this review is to present the major active compounds in herbs and spices and explore their potential applications in industry.

  1. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  2. TALL-HERB BOREAL FORESTS ON NORTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aleinikov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the pressing aims of today’s natural resource management is its re-orientation to preserving and restoring ecological functions of ecosystems, among which the function of biodiversity maintenance plays an indicator role. The majority of today’s forests have not retained their natural appearance as the result of long-standing human impact. In this connection, refugia studies are becoming particularly interesting, as they give us an insight into the natural appearance of forests. Materials and methods. Studies were performed in dark conifer forests of the Pechora–Ilych reserve, in the lower reaches of the Bol’shaya Porozhnyaya River in 2013 yr. Vegetation data sampling was done at 50 temporary square plots of a fixed size (100 m2 randomly placed within a forest type. A list of plant species with species abundance was made for each forest layer. The overstorey (or tree canopy layer was denoted by the Latin letter A. The understorey layer (indicated by the letter B included tree undergrowth and tall shrubs. Ground vegetation was subdivided into the layers C and D. Layer C (field layer comprised the herbaceous species (herbs, grasses, sedges and dwarf shrubs together with low shrubs, tree and shrub seedlings. The height of the field layer was defined by the maximal height of the herbaceous species, ferns, and dwarf shrubs; the height varied from several cm to more than 200 cm in the ‘tall-herb’ forest types. Layer D (bottom layer included cryptogamic species (bryophytes and lichens. Species abundance in the each layer was usually assessed using the Braun-Blanquet cover scale (Braun-Blanquet 1928. The nomenclature used follows Cherepanov’s (1995 for vascular plants, and Ignatov & Afonina’s (1992. Results. The present article contains descriptions of unique tall-herb boreal forests of European Russia preserved in certain refugia which did not experience prolonged anthropogenic impact or any other catastrophes

  3. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was...

  4. Tipos do Herbário Prisco Bezerra - EAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stela Bezerra da Silva

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho pretende-se contribuir para a divulgação dos tipos do Herbário Prisco Bezerra - EAC. Um levantamento realizado no acervo do Herbário revelou o registro de dez tipos. Sete deles pertencentes à família Leguminosae distribuídas entre as subfamilias Caesalpinioideae: Peltogyne crenulata, Sentia dardanoi, Moldenhawera acuminata, Chamaecrista duckeana, Papilionoideae: Aeschynomene monteiroi, Cranocarpus gracilis e Mimosoideae: Mimosa niomarlei; dois, pertencentes à família Erythroxylaceae. As espécies Erythroxylum tianguanum e Erythroxylum bezerrae e um à família Euphorbiaceae: Dalechampia fernandesii recentemente descrita por G. Webster. Os tipos são apresentados na seqüência das indicações: nome das famílias, seguido do epíteto específico, habitat, com a transferência de todas as informações mencionadas na ficha de exsicata do material, bem como, a fotografia correspondente. Citam-se também alguns aspectos característicos das espécies, para melhor visualização dos detalhes fotográficos.The present paper repasts the type specimens in the Herbário Prisco Bezerra (University of Ceará. The Herbário has ten type, of which seven are Leguminosae: Peltoqyne crenulata, Senna dardanoi, Moldenhawera acuminata Chamaecrista duckeana, Aeschynomene monteiroi, Cranocarpus gracilis, Mimosa niomarlei, two the Erythroxylaceae: Erythroxylum tianquanum and Erythroxylum bezerrae and one Euphorbiaceae: Dalechampia fernandesii. Additional informations for these exsicata is presented.

  5. Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermaier, Barbara; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and its secondary metabolites in food. The objective of the present study was to examine selected dried culinary herbs for the presence of S. chartarum chemotype S, to assess the potential risk of a contamination of foods with macrocyclic trichothecenes. In total, 50 Stachybotrys isolates from different types of culinary herbs (n=100) such as marjoram (Origanum majorana Linné (L.)), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja hortensis L.) were examined by MTT-cell culture test (effect-based bioassay), ELISA, and by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selected toxic and non-toxic isolates (n=15) were genetically characterized by PCR and sequencing. Five isolates (10%) were highly toxic in the MTT-cell culture test, and the production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was proven by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. These five isolates were genetically confirmed as S. chartarum chemotype S. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a contamination of dried culinary herbs with toxigenic S. chartarum.

  6. Radiation resistance of some microorganisms isolated from irradiated herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Shihab, A.; Farrag, H.A.; El-Sayed, Z.G.; Mahmoud, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    Three types of Egyptian medicinal herbs, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were used in this study. The tested herbs were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 1.0 to 10,0 kGy. The sublethal doses of radioresistant molds ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 kGy and the sublethal doses of radioresistant bacteria ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 kGy. The radioresistant molds isolated from sweet marjoram and spearmint herbs were identified as Aspergillus, whereas that isolated from thyme was identified as Aspergillus ochraceus. The radioresistant bacteria isolated from sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B.pantothenticus and B. brevis, respectively. All the radioresistant molds exhibited an exponential response. The D 15 v alue of Asp. ochraceus was 0.33 kGy, while that of Asp. niger were 0.45 and 0.5 kGy, respectively. All the bacterial species exhibited non-exponential response. The D 10 -values for B.megaterium, B. pantothenticus and B. brevis were found to be 2.58, 3.0 and 1.63 kGy, respectively

  7. Extraction of copper zinc and iron from hydrochloric acid solutions by means of different extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhivkova, Svetlana [Institute of Chemical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    The extraction of copper, zinc and iron from hydrochloric acid solutions has been studied. The experiments have been carried out using various solvents, involving different extraction mechanisms – solvating, anion-exchange, cation-exchange, bifunctional . Mixtures of these extractants have been also used. The extraction properties of these extractant mixtures toward copper, zinc and iron, the effect of used modifiers and diluents have been also investigated. Key words: Copper, Zinc, Iron, Extraction, Extractant, Modifier, Diluent.

  8. Determining efficient extraction procedure of phytochemicals from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-04-30

    Apr 30, 2017 ... Extraction: The ground herbs were divided into three 45g portions. .... The test tubes were incubated for 15 min, methanol was used to zero the ... 45gms of ground product. .... Dekker, INC, New York, p 1; 4; 116; 186; 136.

  9. Assessing effects of Equisetum ramosissimum extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: As a medicinal herb, Equisetum ramossisemum has been utilized for centuries as a diuretic and has been recommended for different disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal toxicity of aerial parts of Equisetum ramosissimum extract on pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Females ...

  10. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  11. Screening for impact of popular herbs improving mental abilities on the transcriptional level of brain transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrozikiewicz Przemyslaw M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette and SLC (solute carrier transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1. Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB

  12. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  13. Polyphenols: Extraction Methods, Antioxidative Action, Bioavailability and Anticarcinogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brglez Mojzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity.

  14. Consumer acceptance of model soup system with varying levels of herbs and salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Youngsoo; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-10-01

    Although herbs have been reported as one of the most common saltiness enhancers, few studies have focused on the effect of herbs on reducing added sodium as well as the impact of herbs on consumers' overall liking of foods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of varying levels of herbs on reducing added sodium and consumers' overall liking of soups and identify the impact of salt levels on consumers' overall liking of soups. Overall liking of freshly prepared and retorted canned soups with varying levels of herbs was evaluated before and after adding salt by consumers ad libitum until the saltiness of the soup was just about right for them. The results of the study demonstrated that when the perceived herb flavor increased, the amount of salt consumers added to fresh soups decreased (P ≤ 0.006); however, consumers' overall liking decreased (P ≤ 0.013) as well for the highest level of herb tested in the study. Although overall liking of all canned soups was not significantly decreased by herbs, the amount of salt consumers added was also not significantly decreased when herbs were used. Overall liking of all soups significantly increased after more salt was added (P ≤ 0.001), which indicates that salt level was a dominant factor in affecting consumers' overall liking of soups with varying levels of herbs. These findings imply the role of herbs in decreasing salt intake, and the adequate amount of herbs to be added in soup systems. It is challenging for the food industry to reduce sodium in foods without fully understanding the impact of sodium reduction on sensory properties of foods. Herbs are recommended to use in reducing sodium; however, little has been reported regarding the effect of herbs on sodium reduction and how herbs influence consumers’ acceptance of foods. This study provides findings that herbs may aid in decreasing the amount of salt consumers need to add for freshly prepared soups. It was also found that high

  15. Biochemical Studies on Rosemary Extracts as an Antioxidant in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abady, M.M.; Zahran, A.M.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ragab, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) essential oil and crude ethanolic extract, have been attributed to its phenolic diterpene, carnosol, carnosic acid, caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These aroma compounds were identified to protect biological membranes from oxidative stress in addition to divers pharmacological and therapeutic activities. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of natural extract derived from rosemary herb, as an antioxidant defensive element in irradiated rats. Mixture of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract was orally administered to rats by gavage (150 mg/kg B.w.) for 35 days before exposure to the first fraction of irradiation exposure and during the whole period of irradiation treatment (12 days). Whole body irradiation was delivered as fractionated doses at 1 Gy increment every other day up to total cumulative dose of 6 Gy. Changes in the content of reduced glutathion (GSH), glutathion peroxidase (GSHPx), glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat.) in blood, liver and spleen were evaluated in different rat groups. The results revealed that transient noticeable increase during the 1st hour post irradiation in the aforementioned parameters, followed by significant decrease recorded after 7 days. Rats supplemented rosemary extract before irradiation have significantly ameliorate the radiation induced depletion in the antioxidant component system

  16. Proteomic identification of the related immune-enhancing proteins in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei stimulated with vitamin C and Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jie; Du, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yueling; Du, Hong; Guo, Lingling; Zhong, Mingqi; Cao, Jingsong; Wang, Xiuying

    2011-12-01

    Recently, strong interest has been focused on immunostimulants to reducing the diseases in shrimp aquaculture. However, information regarding to the related immune-enhancing proteins in shrimps is not available yet. In this study, vitamin C (Vc), Chinese herbs (CH), and the mixture of vitamin C and Chinese herbs (Mix) were tested for their enhancement on shrimp's immune activity. Compared with those in the control group, values of phenoloxidase (PO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and antibacterial (Ua) activity in the Mix-treated group were improved significantly 12 or 24 days after the treatment. The cumulative mortality was also lower in the Mix-treated group after infection with Vibrio parahemolyticus. Furthermore, comparative proteomic approach was used to assess the protein expression profile in shrimps. Approximately 220-290 and 300-400 protein spots were observed in the 2-DE gels. Among them, 29 and 28 altered proteins from hemocytes and hepatopancreas, respectively, were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis. The results revealed that the main altered proteins showed high homologies with Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyanin, hemolymph clottable protein, hemoglobin beta, cytosolic MnSOD, trypsin, cathepsin I(L) and zinc proteinase Mpc1. Together, these studies found Vc and CH were suitable immunostimulants to shrimp L. vannamei, and 7 altered proteins could be involved in the enhanced immune activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Mehreen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL, Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL, Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL, Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL, Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL, and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds.

  18. Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Common Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdul Qadir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of onion (Allium cepa, garlic (Allium sativum, mint (Mentha spicata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, oak (Quercus, aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller, and ginger (Zingiber officinale. All extracts showed a wide range of total phenolic contents, that is, 4.96 to 98.37 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalents, and total flavonoid contents, that is, 0.41 to 17.64 mg/100 g catechin equivalents. Antioxidant activity (AA was determined by measuring reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging activity. Different extracts inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid by 16.6–84.2% while DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values ranged from 17.8% to 79.1 μg/mL. Reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration ranged from 0.11 to 0.84 nm. Furthermore the extracts of these medicinal herbs in 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone, and 100% water were screened for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method against selected bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pasteurella multocida, and fungal strains, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus solani, and Alternaria alternata. The extracts show better antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains as compared to fungal strains. Results of various assays were analyzed statistically by applying appropriate statistical methods.

  19. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27429983

  20. Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Gloria Y; Eisenberg, David M; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Phillips, Russell S

    2003-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy and safety of herbal therapies and vitamin/mineral supplements for glucose control in patients with diabetes. We conducted an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, Cochrane Library Database, and HealthSTAR, from database inception to May 2002, in addition to performing hand searches and consulting with experts in the field. Available clinical studies published in the English language that used human participants and examined glycemic control were included. Data were extracted in a standardized manner, and two independent investigators assessed methodological quality of randomized controlled trials using the Jadad scale. A total of 108 trials examining 36 herbs (single or in combination) and 9 vitamin/mineral supplements, involving 4,565 patients with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 58 controlled clinical trials involving individuals with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (42 randomized and 16 nonrandomized trials). Most studies involved patients with type 2 diabetes. Heterogeneity and the small number of studies per supplement precluded formal meta-analyses. Of these 58 trials, the direction of the evidence for improved glucose control was positive in 76% (44 of 58). Very few adverse effects were reported. There is still insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions about the efficacy of individual herbs and supplements for diabetes; however, they appear to be generally safe. The available data suggest that several supplements may warrant further study. The best evidence for efficacy from adequately designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is available for Coccinia indica and American ginseng. Chromium has been the most widely studied supplement. Other supplements with positive preliminary results include Gymnema sylvestre, Aloe vera, vanadium, Momordica charantia, and nopal.

  1. The herbal mixture Xiao-Chai-Hu Tang (XCHT) induces apoptosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Xiao-Chai-Hu Tang (XCHT) is an extract of seven herbs with anticancer properties, but its mechanism of action is unknown. In this study, we evaluated XCHT-treated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Materials and Methods: Using a hepatic cancer xenograft model, ...

  2. Synergistic mutual potentiation of antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. and Larrea nitida Cav. extracts in clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butassi, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Feresin, Gabriela E; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana A

    2015-06-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) and Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae) are indistinctly or jointly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal-related infections. Although their dichloromethane (DCM) extract have demonstrated moderate antifungal activities when tested on their own, antifungal properties of combinations of both plants have not been assessed previously. The aim of this study was to establish with statistical rigor whether Z. punctata (ZpE) and L. nitida DCM extract (LnE) interact synergistically against the clinically important fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and to characterize the most synergistic combinations. For synergism assessment, the statistical-based Boik's design was applied. Eight ZpE-LnE fixed-ratio mixtures were prepared from four different months of 1 year and tested against Candida strains. Lϕ (Loewe index) of each mixture at different fractions affected (ϕ) allowed for the finding of the most synergistic combinations, which were characterized by HPLC fingerprint and by the quantitation of the selected marker compounds. Lϕ and confidence intervals were determined in vitro with the MixLow method, once the estimated parameters from the dose-response curves of independent extracts and mixtures, were obtained. Markers (four flavonoids for ZpE and three lignans for LnE) were quantified in each extract and their combinations, with a valid HPLC-UV method. The 3D-HPLC profiles of the most synergistic mixtures were obtained by HPLC-DAD. Three over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE fixed-ratio mixtures displayed synergistic interactions at effect levels ϕ > 0.5 against C. albicans. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.62) mixture was 65.96 µg/ml (ZpE = 28%; LnE = 72%) containing 8 and 36% of flavonoids and lignans respectively. On the other hand, one over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE mixtures displays synergistic interactions at ϕ > 0.5 against C. glabrata. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.67) mixture was 168

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and bioactive compounds of Bergenia ciliata Sternb.: A valuable medicinal herb of Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mithilesh; Pandey, Neha; Agnihotri, Vasudha; Singh, K K; Pandey, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Bergenia ciliata Sternb., commonly known as Paashaanbhed, is a well known herb of Sikkim Himalaya with various pharmaceutical properties. However, scientific exploration of B. ciliata , growing in the Sikkim Himalaya, for phytochemicals and pharmacological properties is in infancy. With this view, the present study was undertaken to investigate B. ciliata leaf extracts for antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and bioactive compounds. Three solvents viz., methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane were used for extraction and the respective leaf extracts were analyzed for total phenolic and flavonoid contents along with the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Amongst the tested solvents, methanol was found to be the best solvent for extraction with highest total phenolic contents and the lowest IC 50 values for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Methanol extract also exhibited effective antimicrobial activity, particularly against bacteria and actinomycetes. Further, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that methanolic extract contains the highest amount of all the three analyzed bioactive compounds viz. bergenin, catechin and gallic acid. The current study suggests that the methanol extract of B. ciliata is a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds that can be used in food and drug industries.

  4. TECHNOLOGY OF FRESH HERBS STORAGE USING HYDROGEL AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia PRISS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a stable consumer demand for fresh culinary herbs. Also, the greenery contains a large number of valuable phytonutrients. Despite high efficiency and increasing annual production of fresh herbs, the problem of preserving their quality in the post-harvest period remains unresolved. Because of the high specific surface area of evaporation, in the green crops droop quickly, they lose their marketable quality, and, as a result, the level of profitability of greenery production in general is being reduced. It is necessary to use new effective approaches to leafy greens storage in order to reduce product losses during transportation and storage. For example, agrarian hydrogel can be used for storage of greenery. Hydrogel is an acrylic potassium polymer that is non-toxic and has a high environmental standard. The hydrogel granules can absorb up to 250 times more moisture than their weight. We propose the following procedure as the method of greenery preservation: the greens are packed in bundles and put in sticks in polyethylene bags with a fastener, pre-filled with hydrogel solutions. The storage temperature is maintained optimally for each species of fresh herbs, the relative humidity is 95 ± 3%. Usage of the proposed method allows obtaining environment-friendly products, preserving their high biological value and increasing the shelf life. The accumulation of peroxide products, which cause physiological disorders, is inhibited as the result of such storage. The use of hydrogel reduces the natural loss of mass by 10% as compared with the control. Duration of greenery storage increases by 30 days.

  5. [Thought on several problems of clinical revaluation of post-marketing herb research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2010-06-01

    The revaluation of post-marketing herb is a complex research work, which concerns widely content and difficult to put it into practice. The starting of our country's revaluation post-marketing herb was comparatively late. It should profect it both in laws and regulations mechanism as well as technological specification. This article is try to focus on some attention problems in revaluation of postmarketing herb process. Such as the laws and regulations demand, the basement and the subject of revaluation of post-marketing herb.

  6. Producing ashless coal extracts by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur Sonmez; Elife Sultan Giray [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Chemistry

    2011-06-15

    To produce ashless coal extracts, three Turkish coals were extracted with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), NMP/ethylenediamine (EDA) (17/1, vol/vol) mixture and NMP/tetralin (9/1, vol/vol) mixture through thermal extraction and microwave extraction. Solvent extraction by microwave irradiation (MI) was found to be more effective than that by thermal extraction. Extraction yield of coals in NMP enhanced by addition of a little EDA, but tetralin addition showed variances according to extraction method used. While tetralin addition caused a decrease in the thermal extraction yield, it increased the yield of the extraction by MI. Following the extraction, the solid extracts were produced with ash content ranging from 0.11% to 1.1%. Ash content of solid extract obtained from microwave extraction are less than ash contents of solid extracts obtained from thermal extraction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  8. Two-Microphone Separation of Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    combined, independent component analysis (ICA) and binary time–frequency (T–F) masking. By estimating binary masks from the outputs of an ICA algorithm, it is possible in an iterative way to extract basis speech signals from a convolutive mixture. The basis signals are afterwards improved by grouping...

  9. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in several industrial processes such as enhanced oil recovery, carbon capture and storage, and supercritical extractions, where CO2 is used as a solvent. Despite this importance...

  10. The effect of dry extract of Geranium Palustre herb on coagulation system = Вплив сухого екстракту трави герані болотної на систему зсідання крові

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Ostapets

    2015-08-01

      Abstract The article is devoted to the studying of mechanism action on coagulation system the dry extract of Geranium Palustre herb. Established, those during 20-ty days of introduction the investigation extract increasing the activity of platelet’s mechanism of hemostasis (increasing platelet’s amount, their aggregation activity and retraction of blood clotting. On the background of introduction the investigation extract decreasing indicators of I and III phase of coagulation cascade (activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, increasing prothrombin time and level of fibrinogen. Obtaining result suggest about active action the dry extract of Geranium Palustre herb on «external» way activation of hemocoagulation by possibility effect of accelerate the formation of thromboplastin, causing the hypercoagulation. The mechanism of antihemmorhagic action of dry extract of Geranium Palustre herb due to the presence in the composition biological active substances (such as tannins, flavonoids, elagic, galic and ascorbinic organic acids that acting complex on vascular-platelet and coagulation hemostasis at the expense of increasing the strength and sealing vascular-tissue barriers, P-vitamin activity – it is ability to reduce capillary fragility and permeability and increasing their resistance. Key words: dry extract of Geranium Palustre herb, platelets, coagulation, phenolic compounds.   Реферат Стаття присвячена дослідженню механізму дії сухого екстракту трави герані болотної на систему зсідання крові. Встановлено, що протягом 20-ти денного введення досліджуваного екстракту підвищувалася активність тромбоцитарної ланки гемостазу (підвищувалася кількість тромбоцитів, їх агрегаційна

  11. Accelerated healing by composites containing herb epimedium for osteoinductive regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Tian, X F; Wu, S Y; Meng, X C; Wen, G W

    2014-01-01

    Porous composites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA), herb epimedium (EP), and chitosan (CS) were used to improve the repair of rabbit bone defects. The in vivo implantation of the HA/CS-EP showed that homogeneous bone formation occurred after 12 weeks' implantation and possessed good osteogenesis. The osteogenic process of the HA/CS-EP group was different from that of the HA/CS group. Direct bone formation of osteoblasts with HA/CS-EP as the matrix could be observed. Compared with the group filled with HA/CS, the group filled with HA/CS-EP showed significant increases in the number of osteoblasts and the bone formation area, and the areas of new bone formation in the HA/CS-EP group after 4 or 12 weeks' implantation reached 33% and 87%, respectively. The novel repair system of HA/CS-EP can induce bone formation, increase osteoblast quantity and improve osteogenesis, for EP can significantly promote the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts in the early stage and accelerate bone remodeling in the later stage. Composites containing EP could be a promising material with multifunctions of osteoinduction, osteoconduction and medication for bone repair, and herb medicine EP could be used as an osteoinduction material for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  12. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-05-01

    A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components.

  13. Fungi transporting by sowing seed material of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing seed material of33 species of herbs obtained in 1997-1999 from the Herb Seed-Testing Station, in Bydgoszcz were examined. Fungi were isolated using the method of artificial cultures on the mineral medium. Sixty seeds superficially disinfected and sixty undisinfected seeds were taken from each sample. Obtained single-spore cultures of the fungi grown on malt-agar or on standard medium were identified up to the species level. Fungi species belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified on the PDA and SNA, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. on the malt-agar and Czapek-Dox and Phoma spp. on the malt-agar, oat-meal-agar and cherry-agar. Mycological analyses showed that the superficial disinfection of seeds reduced by three times the number of isolates obtained. The fungi most frequently isolated from both the inside and the outside seed tissues were Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua var. exigua and species of Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Trichothecium.

  14. Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L.: noxious weed or powerful medical herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L., an annual dicot species of the family Zygophyllaceae, is a common herb that is often found in disturbed habitats and agricultural areas in many parts of the temperate, tropical and desert regions of the world. T. terrestris is an aggressive species that has the potential to injure livestock, reduce hay and wool values, detour recreationists and reduces plant biodivesity. The species may become troublesome because of its weedy potential. It has been declared a weed in at least 37 countries and in at least 21 crops (cotton, maize, vineyards, orchards, etc.. It is adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and grows on a wide variety of soil types. The management of T. terrestris can be achieved by herbicide application, mechanical (hand pulling, hoeing, mulching and biological control methods. Beside its invasive potential as a noxious and troublesome weed, T. terrestris is considered highly useful herb which is used for various purposes in folk and modern medicine and sport, as well.

  15. Determination of six pesticides in the medicinal herb Cordia salicifolia by matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique Viana; Prata, Vanessa de Menezes; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Navickiene, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    A simple and effective extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed for acephate, chlorpropham, pyrimicarb, bifenthrin, tetradifon, and phosalone in leaves of the medicinal plant Cordia salicifolia, whose extracts are commercialized in Brazil as diuretic, appetite suppressant, and weight loss products. The determination method was GC/MS with selected-ion monitoring. Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as type of solid phase (C18, alumina, silica gel, and Florisil) and the amount of solid phase and eluent (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and cyclohexane). The best results were obtained using 0.5 g herb sample, 0.5 g neutral alumina as the dispersant sorbent, 0.5 g C18 as the cleanup sorbent, and cyclohexane-dichloromethane (3 + 1, v/v) as the eluting solvent. The method was validated using herb samples fortified with pesticides at different concentration levels (0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg). Average recoveries (seven replicates) ranged from 67.7 to 129.9%, with relative standard deviations between 6.3 and 26%. Detection and quantitation limits for the herb ranged from 0.10 to 0.15 and 0.15 to 0.25 mg/kg, respectively.

  16. Effect of Radiation on Microbial Contamination Activity and Chemical Composition of Antimicrobial Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leelapattranuruk, Paveena

    1999-01-01

    The selected herbs which are known to have antimicrobial compounds i.e. garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit rinds, roselle (Hibiscus sabdoriffa Linn.) calyxes, and tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) leaves were exposed to gamma and ultraviolet (UV) radiations. After being irradiated with 1, 3 and 5 kGy of ionizing radiation from a cobalt-60 source for 5, 15 and 15 minutes and with non-ionizing radiation from ultraviolet source for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, the irradiated herbs were examined for number of contaminants and specified microorganisms i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp, as well as antimicrobial potency and components and compared to unirradiated herbs. The results showed that unirradiated garlic was most heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The specified microorganisms were not detected in either unirradiated or irradiated samples. In comparison of radiated herbs, the reduction of microorganisms in UV treated herbs was less than that in gamma ray treated ones, especially at the treatment dose of 5 kGy. There was slight reduction of microbial number in UV treated herbs as compared to the untreated herbs. Gamma treatment at 5 kGy reduced the microbe contamination more than other doses and caused complete elimination in tea. The UV and gamma treatments had no effect on antimicrobial potency of herbs except for that of garlic. The preliminary chemical analysis to examine if there was any radiolytic components in these herbs by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that no such compounds were detected in any tested herbs. This study indicated that gamma irradiation treatment was one of the physical methods to decontaminate microbes in herbs

  17. CHEMOMETRICS IN BIOANALYTICAL SAMPLE PREPARATION - A FRACTIONATED COMBINED MIXTURE AND FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR THE MODELING OF THE RECOVERY OF 5 TRICYCLIC AMINES FROM PLASMA AFTER LIQUID-LIQUID-EXTRACTION PRIOR TO HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIELING, J; MENSINK, CK; JONKMAN, JHG; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; DUINEVELD, CAA; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    A general systematic approach is described for the chemometric modelling of liquid-liquid extraction data of drugs from biological fluids. Extraction solvents were selected from Snyder's solvent selectivity triangle: methyl tert.-butyl ether, methylene chloride and chloroform. The composition of a

  18. HERBE- Report on test operation from 15 Dec 1989 to 15 May 1990; HERBE - Izvestaj o probnom radu u periodu 15.XII 1989. - 15.V 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M et al [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1990-06-15

    This report describes the activities preformed during previous 6 months performed on the HERBE system at the RB reactor in order to fulfill the requirements of the safety Committee of the Institute with the aim to improve the operation safety and decrease of the total reactivity input during maximum hypothetical accident on the HERBE N system. The objective was to increase the possibility of RB reactor safety system timely and adequate response to the estimated accident.

  19. Prevalent use of herbs for reduction of labour duration in Mwanza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewer

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Despite of this perception, a number of herbs have been reported to have ... The practice is also common across African and Asian countries. ... Health surveys in Bushenyi district in Uganda revealed that over. 80% of women .... use of herbs is likely to be affected by culture. In a study ...

  20. HerDing: herb recommendation system to treat diseases using genes and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonjun; Choi, Chan-Hun; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Seon-Jong; Na, Chang-Su; Lee, Hyunju

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, herbs have been researched for new drug candidates because they have a long empirical history of treating diseases and are relatively free from side effects. Studies to scientifically prove the medical efficacy of herbs for target diseases often spend a considerable amount of time and effort in choosing candidate herbs and in performing experiments to measure changes of marker genes when treating herbs. A computational approach to recommend herbs for treating diseases might be helpful to promote efficiency in the early stage of such studies. Although several databases related to traditional Chinese medicine have been already developed, there is no specialized Web tool yet recommending herbs to treat diseases based on disease-related genes. Therefore, we developed a novel search engine, HerDing, focused on retrieving candidate herb-related information with user search terms (a list of genes, a disease name, a chemical name or an herb name). HerDing was built by integrating public databases and by applying a text-mining method. The HerDing website is free and open to all users, and there is no login requirement. Database URL: http://combio.gist.ac.kr/herding. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. The Classification of Sri Lankan Medicinal Herbs: An Extensive Comparison of the Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viduranga Y. Waisundara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka has variety of herbs whose effectiveness has been proven across many generations. These herbs are classified into two groups — ‘heating’ and ‘cooling’, based on the physiological reactions upon consumption. Application-wise, the ‘cooling’ herbs are administered to patients contracted with diabetes, imbalances in the lipid profile, or even cancer. However, this classification has been misunderstood due to inconsistent interpretations and lack of scientific reasoning. This study systematically determines the rationale behind this classification, by specifically evaluating the antioxidant activity of 18 herbs — nine herbs from each category. The oxygen radical absorbance capacities, DPPH radical scavenging activities, and the total phenolic contents are analyzed here. The ‘heating’ herbs have a comparatively lower antioxidant potential than the ‘cooling’ herbs. The total phenolic contents correlate with the antioxidant values. It can be hypothesized that the high antioxidant potential of the ‘cooling’ herbs may have been responsible for the containment of the diseases mentioned previously.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Su; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. The physiological effectiveness including antioxidant and anticomplement function, nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of Korean medicinal herbs by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy did not differ from that of the nonirradiated control

  3. Bioactive Compounds in Some Culinary Aromatic Herbs and Their Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Gonçalves, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Culinary herbs are herbaceous (leafy) plants that add flavour and colour to all types of meals. There is a wide variety of herbs that are used for culinary purposes worldwide, which are also recognized for their beneficial health effects, and thus have also been used in folk medicine. Besides their nutritional value herbs are rich in many phytochemical components with bioactive effects, thus improving human health. The aim of the present work was to make a general overview of some of these herbs, including their gastronomic usage, their chemical composition in bioactive components and their reported health effects. This work showed that the health effects are very diverse and differ according to the herb in question. However, some of the most frequently citted biological activities include antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects.

  4. Coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE', as the benchmark experiment at the RB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    2003-10-01

    Validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNP TM against measured criticality data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE. System at the RB research reactor is shown in this paper. Experimental data are obtained for regular HERBE core and for the cases of controlled flooding of the neutron converter zone by heavy water. Earlier calculations of these criticality parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using 2D geometry model are also compared to new calculations carried out by the MCNP code in 3D geometry, applying new detailed 3D model of the HEU fuel slug, developed recently. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of the HERBE criticality calculation results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are obtained and confirmed that HERBE core could be used as a criticality benchmark for coupled fast-thermal core. (author)

  5. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of several trace elements in Chinese herbs with epithermal neutral activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Chang Lai, Sheng-Pin

    2002-01-01

    For purpose of medication and health, Chinese herbs have been long adopted throughout oriental communities. Thus, more than ten trace elements in herbal medicines that are frequently consumed by children in central Taiwan were analyzed herein to explore the importance of various herbs. These elements are considered beneficial to human health in many folds. INAA was applied to determine the concentrations of elements as Al, Cl and Sc, while ENAA analyzed As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in this work. Among various local herbs, the elemental concentrations varied from 10 4 to 10 -3 μg/g. The experimental results suggest that the ENAA method can be applied successfully to analyze trace elements of As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in herbs. Yet, thirteen elements were verified, and a quantified index AT was introduced to help classifying the elements. The ATs in various Chinese herbs are also discussed herein and the accuracy is in excellent agreement with values reported in previously published data. (author)

  7. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 μg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 μg/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced

  9. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2009-03-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically

  10. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Różańska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs: An application of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Nargesh Khatun; Noorhosseini, Seyyed Ali; Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh; Damalas, Christos A

    2017-07-31

    The shift in consumers' preferences from synthetic to 'natural' products has led to a resurgence of interest in medicinal plants, particularly in developing countries. However, research data about consumers' preferences for particular products is hard to find. The main objective of this study was to contribute to the general understanding of consumers' intention for selecting medicinal herbs for consumption. Factors underpinning consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs were studied with the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Rasht City of Iran using a structured questionnaire. Most respondents had low to moderate familiarity with consumption of medicinal herbs. However, about half of the respondents (47.5%) showed a high level of acceptance of medicinal herbs. Herbs like spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Damask rose (Rosa × damascena Herrm.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J.Presl), flixweed [Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl], red feathers (Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.), and green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] had the highest consumption rate among the majority (over 75%) of citizens of Rasht. The highest rate of perceived usefulness of medicinal herbs was related to their perceived role in healing diseases. The variable of importance of use of medicinal herbs had the strongest direct effect and the variables of perceived usefulness and attitude towards use had the second and third strongest direct effect on the acceptance of medicinal herbs' use at p acceptance of medicinal herbs and may serve as a benchmark for future research and evaluation concerning the use of medicinal herbs over time. For plant producers, more effective and targeted crop development should be encouraged, whereas for retailers better marketing and delivery strategies should be sought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes of vitamin C content in celery and parsley herb after processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Valšíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other primates have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C and therefore the only source is diet. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid has labile nature, it is removed or destroyed in specific degree immediately after harvest, but storage and post - harvest processing also contribute to its degradation. The aim of work was to determine the vitamin C content in the herb of selected celery and parsley varieties in dependence on chosen postharvest processing and to compare it with fresh herb. There were chosen five bulb forms varieties of celery (Apium graveolens - Makara, Ilonaa, Hegy Köi, Talar and Diamant. In case of parsley (Petroselinum crispum there were evaluated one variety of curly parsley, one variety of herb parsley - Petra, and five varieties of root parsley - Lenka, Eagle, Ginate D´Italia, Titana and Arat. Every variety was harvested in three terms, followed by vitamin C content estimation in fresh herb, after drying and after freezing. The content of vitamin C was estimated by HPLC method by the help of liquid chromatograph with UV detector. There was found the significant difference in content of vitamin C in parsley as well as in celery when comparing the fresh herb with herbs after post - harvest processes - drying (by air circulation in laboratory hall and freezing. After processing of herbs in both observed species the vitamin C content decreased, in case of freezing it was about 65% (celery and 61% (parsley, after drying about 86% (celery and 82% (parsley in comparison with fresh herb. The effect of processing played more important role in influencing of vitamin C content than variety in case of both selected species. For using of celery and parsley not only as culinary herb, but as a notable source of ascorbic acid it is the most important fresh herb intake.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  13. SOILS AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION UNDER MEDICINAL HERBS ECOLOGICAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out with medicinal herbs in the frame of a National project financed by CNCSIS through the Partnership Program. Ecologic and conventional technologies were applied. The project aimed to implement a standardization system of the vegetal raw materials which can be used in the cosmetic industry. Sage, basilicum, and savory were subject of the experiments, at Jucu, Cluj County, Ungureni – Butimanu, Dâmboviţa County, and Secuieni, Neamţ County. The dominant soils in these areas are Fluvisols and Haplic Chernozems in the Jucu area, Chromic Luvisol in the Ungureni – Butimanu area, and Calcic Chernozem in the Secuieni area. The agrochemical analysis of the soils from the experimental fields highlighted soil fertility properties conservation both under ecologic and conventional growing technologies.

  14. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  15. Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae): an American herb in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel F

    2008-05-08

    People in the Indian region often apply shankhapushpi and vishnukranti, two Sanskrit-based common names, to Evolvulus alsinoides. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal American species transported into the area. The period of introduction is uncertain, but probably took place in the 1500s or 1600s. Examination of relationships of Evolvulus alsinoides, geographic distribution, its names in Asia, medical uses, and chemical and laboratory analysis indicates that the alien plant was adopted, given an ancient Indian name, and incorporated into some Old World pharmacopoeias. The herb apparently was included in medicines because it not only reminded people of certain aspects of their gods and goddesses, but also because the chemicals it contained were useful against some maladies.

  16. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  17. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS OF HERB OF THYMUS CRETACEUS KLOK. ET SCHOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied carboxylic acids of the herb of Thymus cretaceus Klok. et Schost which is widespread on a territory of some regions (Belgorod, Voronezh. The study was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography at Agilent Technologies 6890 chromatographer with massspectrometric detector 5973 N. Acids concentration was calculated by means of inner standard.We have established that carboxylic acids of Thymus cretaceus are represented by 34 compounds. Palmitic (1779.02 mg/kg, behenic (1084.15 mg/kg, levulinic (986.24 mg/kg and linoleic acids (678.82 mg/kg predominate among fatty acids; citric (9835.14 mg/kg, malonic (447.91 mg/kg and oxalic acids (388.32 mg/kg predominate among organic acids; andferulic acid predominate amongphenolcarbonic acids.

  18. Development of an Automatic Dispensing System for Traditional Chinese Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ying Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gathering of ingredients for decoctions of traditional Chinese herbs still relies on manual dispensation, due to the irregular shape of many items and inconsistencies in weights. In this study, we developed an automatic dispensing system for Chinese herbal decoctions with the aim of reducing manpower costs and the risk of mistakes. We employed machine vision in conjunction with a robot manipulator to facilitate the grasping of ingredients. The name and formulation of the decoction are input via a human-computer interface, and the dispensing of multiple medicine packets is performed automatically. An off-line least-squared curve fitting method was used to calculate the amount of material grasped by the claws and thereby improve system efficiency as well as the accuracy of individual dosages. Experiments on the dispensing of actual ingredients demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  19. NUTRIENT RIQUERIMENT OF Schizolobium amazonicum, Herb (PARICÁ SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Macronutrients concentrations in leave, stem, and root tissues of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. were determined under greenhouse conditions using the missing element technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replications and 13 treatments. Seedlings 0.05–0.10 -m high were planted into 3 L pots filled with nutritive solution. Based on the concentrations of macronutrients in the leaves of the complete and the deficient treatments, suitable and deficient levels (g kg-1 of macronutrients for S. amazonicum are: a suitable: 4 for P; 15 for K; 40 for Ca; 4 for Mg; and 3 for S; 33of B; 5 of Cu; 540 of Fe, 88 of Mn; and 71 of Zn; b critical: 1 for P; 4 for K; 8 for Ca; 1 for Mg; and 2 for S; 31 of B; 4 of Cu; 140 of Fe; 38 of Mn; and 24 of Zn

  20. Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Seed Extracts of Cucurbita Maxima Duchense

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Sharma; Ashish K. Sharma; Tara Chand; Manoj Khardiya; Kailash Chand Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima Duchense (family:Cucurbitaceae) is a trailing annual herb, widely cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world, for used as vegetables as well as medicines. The present study deals with preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of seed extract of Cucurbita maxima. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detailed analysis. Different physicochemical parameters such as ash value (total ash, aci...

  1. Iterative Mixture Component Pruning Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture PHD Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As far as the increasing number of mixture components in the Gaussian mixture PHD filter is concerned, an iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is proposed. The pruning algorithm is based on maximizing the posterior probability density of the mixture weights. The entropy distribution of the mixture weights is adopted as the prior distribution of mixture component parameters. The iterative update formulations of the mixture weights are derived by Lagrange multiplier and Lambert W function. Mixture components, whose weights become negative during iterative procedure, are pruned by setting corresponding mixture weights to zeros. In addition, multiple mixture components with similar parameters describing the same PHD peak can be merged into one mixture component in the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is superior to the typical pruning algorithm based on thresholds.

  2. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  3. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, P.K., E-mail: pkgoyal2002@gmail.com [Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2014-07-01

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  4. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  5. RUCAM in Drug and Herb Induced Liver Injury: The Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Danan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method or its previous synonym CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences is a well established tool in common use to quantitatively assess causality in cases of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI and herb induced liver injury (HILI. Historical background and the original work confirm the use of RUCAM as single term for future cases, dismissing now the term CIOMS for reasons of simplicity and clarity. RUCAM represents a structured, standardized, validated, and hepatotoxicity specific diagnostic approach that attributes scores to individual key items, providing final quantitative gradings of causality for each suspect drug/herb in a case report. Experts from Europe and the United States had previously established in consensus meetings the first criteria of RUCAM to meet the requirements of clinicians and practitioners in care for their patients with suspected DILI and HILI. RUCAM was completed by additional criteria and validated, assisting to establish the timely diagnosis with a high degree of certainty. In many countries and for more than two decades, physicians, regulatory agencies, case report authors, and pharmaceutical companies successfully applied RUCAM for suspected DILI and HILI. Their practical experience, emerging new data on DILI and HILI characteristics, and few ambiguous questions in domains such alcohol use and exclusions of non-drug causes led to the present update of RUCAM. The aim was to reduce interobserver and intraobserver variability, to provide accurately defined, objective core elements, and to simplify the handling of the items. We now present the update of the well accepted original RUCAM scale and recommend its use for clinical, regulatory, publication, and expert purposes to validly establish causality in cases of suspected DILI and HILI, facilitating a straightforward application and an internationally harmonized approach of causality

  6. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi′s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler′s health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  7. The 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory, antioxidant, antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of fourteen ethnomedicinally used African spices and culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Kuete, Victor; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2014-10-28

    Culinary herbs and spices are widely used ethnomedically across Africa. They are traditionally employed in the treatment of several ailments including inflammation disorders, pain alleviation and infectious diseases. Pharmacological studies are necessary to provide a scientific basis to substantiate their traditional use and safety. In this study, the 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory, antioxidant, antimycobacterial and the cytotoxic activities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of fourteen edible plants were investigated. The 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated by the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay method. The antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical scavenging assays. The antimycobacterial activity was determined by a broth microdilution method against three species of mycobacteria: Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium fortuitum using tetrazolium violet as growth indicator. The cytotoxicity was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on Vero monkey kidney cells. All the extracts tested had some 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity ranging from 32.9 to 78.64%. Adansonia digitata (fruit) had the highest antioxidant capacity (IC₅₀ values of 8.15 μg/mL and 9.16 μg/mL in the DPPH and ABTS assays respectively; TEAC of 0.75 in the FRAP assay) along with the highest amount of total phenolics (237.68 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoids (16.14 mg E/g). There were good correlations between DPPH and ABTS values (R(2) 0.98) and between total phenolics and total flavonoids (R(2) 0.94). Tamarindus indica had significant antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium aurum (MIC 78 μg/mL). As could be expected with edible plants, all the extracts had a relatively low cytotoxicity with LC₅₀ values higher than 102 μg/mL with the exception of the two Aframomum species (33 and 74 μg/mL). This study provides scientific support for some of the the traditional uses

  8. Extraction with supercritical gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G M; Wilke, G; Stahl, E

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this book derives from a symposium on the 5th and 6th of June 1978 in the ''Haus der Technik'' in Essen. Contributions were made to separation with supercritical gases, fluid extraction of hops, spices and tobacco, physicochemical principles of extraction, phase equilibria and critical curves of binary ammonia-hydrocarbon mixtures, a quick method for the microanalytical evaluation of the dissolving power of supercritical gases, chromatography with supercritical fluids, the separation of nonvolatile substances by means of compressed gases in countercurrent processes, large-scale industrial plant for extraction with supercritical gases, development and design of plant for high-pressure extraction of natural products.

  9. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Leonurus: The herb to benefit the mothers and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Han; Liu, Zhi-Ke; Yang, Da-Song; Zhang, Xing-Jie; Sun, Han-Dong; Xiao, Wei-Lie

    2018-03-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Leonurus, also named motherwort, are traditionally used for anti-gynecological disorder in East Asia, and for sedative in Europe. Chemical investigation of the genus Leonurus not only enriched the natural products library, but also enlarged the pharmacological application of this traditional herb. In this review, we systematically summarized the structures of 259 compounds isolated from the genus Leonurus, featured with 147 labdane diterpenoids. The reported bioactivity studies up to 2017 are presented in the second part, with the main focus on the isolated compounds and also concerning the extracts. In addition to the traditional uterine contraction and sedative activity, recently the cardiovascular protection effect of leonurine has drawn most attention. Other than that, neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-platelet aggregation and many other activities have been assigned to various compounds from the genus Leonurus. Among 70 bioactivity references cited in this review, 57% of them were concentrated on two alkaloids (leonurine and stachydrine), whereas only 20% are about the 147 diterpenoids. Anti-inflammation is the major bioactivity discovered so far for the labdane diterpenoids from the genus Leonurus, whose further therapeutic potential still remains for exploration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro propagation of the aromatic herb Strobilanthes tonkinensis Lindau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyomsri Srikun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Strobilanthes tonkinensis Lindau is a rare aromatic herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae. Its plant extract has been confirmed as a major source of squalene. In this research, a protocol for micropropagation was developed that can support ex situ conservation and will benefit plant material production. Shoot explants were provided from plants grown in the greenhouse and trickle irrigated for 1 mth and then effectively sterilized by shaking in NaOCl at a concentration of 1.2% for 10 min, followed by 0.6% for 15 min, which produced 70% good-growing, healthy shoots. Increasing thidiazuron and N6-benzyladenine (BA concentrations did not promote shoot multiplication. Shoot multiplication was the best on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 16 μM BA. The highest shoot number (12 shoots/explant was obtained at 8 wk of culture. The highest shoot elongation was obtained on the medium added with 16 μM BA for 4 wk and subsequent subculturing to hormone-free MS medium for another 4 wk. High frequency rooting (21 roots/shoot was obtained on MS medium fortified with 7.5 μM indole-3-butyric acid. Complete plantlets that were transferred to pots under greenhouse conditions produced healthy plants with 100% survival after 5 wk.

  11. A study on the 'Yin-tonic' component of the Chinese herb Zhimu sarsasapogenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yuansheng; Yi Ningyu; Wang Yongqing; Dai Xiangdong; Xia Zongqin

    1991-01-01

    Sarsasapogenin was extracted from the Chinese herb Zhimu(Anemerrhena Asphodeloides Bunge) and its pharmacological action was compared with ZM decoction (ZM) in 'Hyperthyroid' mice. 125 I-Pindolol binding assay revealed that the maximum binding capacity (RT) of brain beta-adrenoceptors of the models was significantly higher than normal and that repeated oral administrations of either ZM or SAR reduced the elevated RT to nearly normal. The peak value of plasma cAMP after a single dose of isoproterenol (ISO) was also significantly higher in the models than in control. Again oral administrations of either ZM or SAR reduced the response of plasma cAMP to ISO to nearly normal. However, in vitro competitive binding assay indicated that neither SAR nor its succinyl derivative had any direct binding reaction with beta adrenoceptors. It is therefore concluded that SAR is an important component of Zhimu and the mechanism of its 'Yin-tonic' action is probably a down-regulation of the beta-adrenoceptors rather than direct occupation of receptor binding sites

  12. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicine Herbs Decoction on Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aziyah Mat-Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective and curative activities of aqueous extract of decoction containing 10 Chinese medicinal herbs (HPE-XA-08 were evaluated in Sprague–Dawley albino rats with liver damage induced by thioacetamide (TAA. These activities were assessed by investigating the liver enzymes level and also histopathology investigation. Increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT levels were observed in rats with cirrhotic liver. No significant alterations of the liver enzymes were observed following treatment with HPE-XA-08. Histopathology examination of rats treated with HPE-XA-08 at 250 mg/kg body weight, however, exhibited moderate liver protective effects. Reduced extracellular matrix (ECM proteins within the hepatocytes were noted in comparison to the cirrhotic liver. The curative effects of HPE-XA-08 were observed with marked decrease in the level of ALP (more than 3x and level of GGT (more than 2x in cirrhotic rat treated with 600 mg/kg body weight HPE-XA-08 in comparison to cirrhotic rat treated with just water diluent. Reversion of cirrhotic liver to normal liver condition in rats treated with HPE-XA-08 was observed. Results from the present study suggest that HPE-XA-08 treatment assisted in the protection from liver cirrhosis and improved the recovery of cirrhotic liver.

  13. In vivo screening and evaluation of four herbs against MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Najma; Mehreen, Arifa; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Muhammad; Afrasiab, Humera

    2017-11-23

    Recently, we reported high in vitro antibacterial efficacy of Althaea officinalis, Ziziphus jujuba, Cordia latifolia and Thymus vulgaris out of a total 21 plants against wide range of bacteria including MRSA. This study was therefore, designed to confirm efficacy of these four herbs against MRSA in an animal model. A pilot study was conducted to establish the dose of S. aureus (KY698020) required to induce clinical infection. Afterword, in main trial, efficacy of aforementioned plant extracts on the course of sore throat was checked by evaluating general health, gross lesion score, bacterial load and hematology in mice. Pilot study revealed that 40 μl dose of 10 7  CFU/ml could induce infection which persist upto 08 days post infection. Mice treated with T. vulgaris and Z. jujuba showed reduction in gross lesion score of both heart and lungs. Treatment with only some plants could significantly decrease bacterial load of throat (T. vulgaris) heart, blood and joint (C. latifolia, and T. vulagris). Hematological indicators confirmed in vivo control of MRSA infection in all treatment groups except A. officinalis. This is first report confirming in vivo anti-MRSA potential of C. latifolia and T. vulgaris and highlight the need to explore bioactive constituents of these plants. Moreover, previously reported in vitro antibacterial efficiency of A. officinalis could not be validated in current study.

  14. THE USE OF THE MEDICINAL HERBS IN THE CITY OF VELENJE

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    Zalika Klemenc Ketiš

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data about the use of medicinal herbs for selftreatment in our population is sparse. Therefore the aim of our survey was to investigate the measures taken by patients with four most frequent symptoms, which medicinal herbs they used and where they got them.Methods. In the streets of the city of Velenje 184 randomly chosen adults were asked about the measures to cope with their four most common symptoms: abdominal pain, headache, diarrhoea and raised body temperature.Results. 72 percent of people surveyed use medicinal herbs. The use increases with advancing age. There are no differences regarding their education. It has been found that the pill is mostly used while the medicinal herbs take the third place. The most frequently used herb is camomile (Matricaria chamomilla. The herbs are mainly provided by the users themselves.Conclusions. Medicinal herbs are often used in combination with conventional therapy, without proper knowledge of their side effects and the harm of potentional misuse. The physicians are mainly not aware of their use among the patients. The importance of this problem for the public health service is thus essential.

  15. Assessment of the microbiological safety of dried spices and herbs commercialized in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sospedra, Isabel; Soriano, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi

    2010-12-01

    Spices and herbs are natural products or their blends that must be free of extraneous matter content. Conventional production of these products implicates a number of hygienic problems so spices and herbs may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post-harvest and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, we have analyzed the microbial quality of 53 samples of spices and dry herbs collected from Spanish markets detecting a contamination of samples of spices with mesophilic aerobic counts (10%) and Enterobacteriaceae (20%). The analysis from herbs showed that the percentage of contamination was 26% in both microbiological values. Pathogenic microorganisms like Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia intermedia, Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Hafni alvei were also isolated from spices and herbs. These unsatisfactory results showed a poor microbiological quality. Spices and dry herbs are used as ingredients in a variety of products prepared in different ways, this fact suggests the need to provide a control system to improve the quality of herbs and spices.

  16. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Shing; Tsai, Chiu-Lin; Tu, Ching-Yeh; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions. Methods Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient. Results During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ≤70 mg/dL). Conclusion Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. PMID:25733840

  17. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  18. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  19. Total phenols and antioxidant activities of leaf and stem extracts from coriander, mint and parsley grown in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Juhaimi, F.; Ghafoorr, K.

    2011-01-01

    Leaves and stems of three different herbs from two different families were used to extract phenolic compounds and the bioactivity of the extracts was evaluated by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl or DPPH scavenging ability or their antioxidant activities. Extract from leaves of mint, which belongs to Lamiaceae family contained 1.24 mgGAE/100 mL of total phenolic compounds and 34.21% antioxidant activity which were significantly higher than those in extracts from coriander and parsley, both of which belong to Apiaceae family. Extracts of leaves from these herbs showed more quantity of total phenols and higher antioxidant activities than extracts from stem parts, however both leaves and stems of these three herbs grown in Saudi Arabia contained good quantities of total phenols (>1.02 mgGAE/100 mL) and showed more than 18.3% free radical scavenging activity. (author)

  20. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Kiran S

    2013-03-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies.

  2. [Present situation and prospects of special fertilizer for traditional Chinese medicine herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Ji-Yong; Wang, Wen-Quan

    2004-08-01

    To find out the present situation and the development trend special fertilizer of the traditional Chinese medicina plants. By consulting a great deal of literatures on special fertilizer and fertilization on traditional Chinese medicine herbs, and based on the scientific research and manufacture experience of the author, and the theoretic actuality of the researches on the fertilization of traditional Chinese medicine herbs, the present study of the special fertilizer inside and outside of our country was analyzed. The view points of developing special fertilizer for Chinese traditional medicine were put forward, and the development trend of special fertilizer for traditional Chinese medicine herbs was forecasted.

  3. DCMDN: Deep Convolutional Mixture Density Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Isanto, Antonio; Polsterer, Kai Lars

    2017-09-01

    Deep Convolutional Mixture Density Network (DCMDN) estimates probabilistic photometric redshift directly from multi-band imaging data by combining a version of a deep convolutional network with a mixture density network. The estimates are expressed as Gaussian mixture models representing the probability density functions (PDFs) in the redshift space. In addition to the traditional scores, the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) and the probability integral transform (PIT) are applied as performance criteria. DCMDN is able to predict redshift PDFs independently from the type of source, e.g. galaxies, quasars or stars and renders pre-classification of objects and feature extraction unnecessary; the method is extremely general and allows the solving of any kind of probabilistic regression problems based on imaging data, such as estimating metallicity or star formation rate in galaxies.

  4. The Stability of Medicinal Plant microRNAs in the Herb Preparation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Xie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear. Viscum album L. (European mistletoe has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has indicated the therapeutic potential of mistletoe miRNAs by using bioinformatics tools. To evaluate the stability of these miRNAs, various mistletoe extracts that mimic the clinical medicinal use as well as traditional folk medicinal use were prepared. The mistletoe miRNAs including miR166a-3p, miR159a, miR831-5p, val-miR218 and val-miR11 were quantified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. As a result, miRNAs were detectable in the majority of the extracts, indicating that consumption of medicinal plant preparations might introduce miRNAs into mammals. The factors that might cause miRNA degradation include ultrasonic treatment, extreme heat, especially RNase treatment, while to be associated with plant molecules (e.g., proteins, exosomes might be an efficient way to protect miRNAs against degradation. Our study confirmed the stability of plant derived miRNAs during herb preparations, suggesting the possibility of functionally intact medicinal plant miRNAs in mammals.

  5. The Stability of Medicinal Plant microRNAs in the Herb Preparation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenyan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2018-04-16

    Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear. Viscum album L. (European mistletoe) has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has indicated the therapeutic potential of mistletoe miRNAs by using bioinformatics tools. To evaluate the stability of these miRNAs, various mistletoe extracts that mimic the clinical medicinal use as well as traditional folk medicinal use were prepared. The mistletoe miRNAs including miR166a-3p, miR159a, miR831-5p, val-miR218 and val-miR11 were quantified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. As a result, miRNAs were detectable in the majority of the extracts, indicating that consumption of medicinal plant preparations might introduce miRNAs into mammals. The factors that might cause miRNA degradation include ultrasonic treatment, extreme heat, especially RNase treatment, while to be associated with plant molecules (e.g., proteins, exosomes) might be an efficient way to protect miRNAs against degradation. Our study confirmed the stability of plant derived miRNAs during herb preparations, suggesting the possibility of functionally intact medicinal plant miRNAs in mammals.

  6. Isotope dilution-GC-MS/MS analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in selected medicinal herbs used as health food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Cao, Y; Zhang, J; Cui, Z; Sun, H

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have a very important role in health protection and disease control, and have been used in health foods. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have carcinogenic, biological and mutagenic effects. In this paper, the content of 16 PAHs as representative contaminants in nine Chinese medicinal herbs, as additives for health foods, was investigated in order to ensure food safety from this source. A highly sensitive isotope dilution-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-GC-MS/MS) method combined with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed. Calibration curves showed good linearity for all PAHs (R² > 0.999), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.42 to 2.7 µg kg⁻¹. Average recoveries for these compounds were in the range of 52.5-117%, 52.6-119% and 81.4-108% at the concentrations of 10, 50 and 250 µg kg⁻¹ with RSD of 1.8-15%, 0.9-15% and 1.0-15%, respectively. The proposed method was used for the analysis of nine Chinese medicinal herbs. Total levels of PAHs varied from 98.2 µg kg⁻¹ (cassia seed) to 2245 µg kg⁻¹ (eucommia bark). The highest level was found for phenanthrene (Phe) in liquorice root (631.3 µg kg⁻¹), indigowoad leaf (551.0 µg kg⁻¹), rose flower (435.2 µg kg⁻¹) and eucommia bark (432.3 µg kg⁻¹). The proposed method could provide a useful basis for safety monitoring of herbs and risk management for PAHs in the health food industry.

  7. Toward rapid analysis, forecast and discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs by jointly using thin layer chromatography and ratiometric surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoling; Jin, Yang; Dong, Fang; Cai, Yueqing; You, Zhengyi; You, Junhui; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu

    2018-05-10

    Conventional isolation and identification of active compounds from herbs have been extensively reported by using various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. However, how to quickly discover new bioactive ingredients from natural sources still remains a challenging task due to the interference of their similar structures or matrices. Here, we present a grand approach for rapid analysis, forecast and discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs based on a hyphenated strategy of thin layer chromatography and ratiometric surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The performance of the hyphenated strategy is first evaluated by analyzing four protoberberine alkaloids, berberine (BER), coptisine (COP), palmatine (PAT) and jatrorrhizine (JAT), from a typical herb Coptidis Rhizoma as an example. It has been demonstrated that this coupling method can identify the four compounds by characteristic peaks at 728, 708, 736 and 732 cm -1 , and especially discriminate BER and COP (with similar migration distances) by ratiometric Raman intensity (I 708 /I 728 ). The corresponding limits of detection are 0.1, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 μM, respectively, which are about 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of direct observation method under 254 nm UV lamp. Based on these findings, the proposed method further guides forecast and discovery of unknown compounds from traditional Chinese herb Typhonii Rhizoma. Results infer that two trace alkaloids (BER and COP) from the n-butanol extract of Typhonii Rhizoma are found for the first time. Moreover, in vitro experiments manifest that BER can effectively decrease the viability of human glioma U87 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats were sacrificed after the fourteenth day of administration of herbal extract and the aortae harvested and processed histologically using haematoxylin and eosin staining technique. Tissue sections revealed that A. cordifolia is capable of inducing elastogenesis in the aorta. This attribute of the herb may be beneficial ...

  9. Comparative Effects of Rothmannia Hispida Leaves Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both, manifesting in hyperglycaemia, polyuria, glucosuria etc. Various regimens have been used to alleviate the symptoms of this disorder; notable in orthodox medicine is insulin. Rothmannia hispida herb extract is ...

  10. 11. Russian Conference on Extraction. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1998-01-01

    Results of fundamental and applied investigations in the region of chemistry of extraction, technology and analytical chemistry are presented. Modern state of theoretical and experimental investigations in the region of thermodynamics and kinetics of extraction by organic phosphorus compounds, organic nitrogen compounds and their mixtures are described. Date on mass exchange, extraction process simulation, extraction apparatuses are given

  11. Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, E; Tournier, H A; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Saavedra, G; Schinella, G R

    2003-02-01

    The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S. terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging activity on the superoxide and DPPH radicals.

  12. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-15

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  13. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-01

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  14. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  15. Heavy metals in chinese therapeutic foods and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.M.; Ning, H.M.; Wu, Y.X.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study 15 samples of Chin ese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed, for the content of cadmium, mercury, lead, arsenic, cuprum and zinc, by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd(0.49 mg kg/sup -1/), Hg(0.34 mg kg/sup -1/), Pb(9.01 mg kg/sup -1/), As(3.26 mg kg/sup -1/), Cu(33.56 mg kg/sup -1) and Zn(38.32 mg kg/sup -1/) were found in Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Puerariae, Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Fructus Crataegi, Herba andrographis, respectively.The Cd levels of two samples and Cu levels of one sample were found to be higher than the recommended values of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and World Health Organization (WHO), and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. Mercury, lead, and arsenic levels of one sample were higher than the recommended limit of China Pharmacopoeia, but it were below the WHO and FDA. All other heavy metals in other medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

  16. Herbs as an antioxidant arsenal for periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have long been used as a traditional mode of therapy for various ailments in India. They are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to ward off common diseases. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the world population. Gingivitis is the mild form whereas periodontitis results in an irreversible loss of supporting structures of the teeth. Even though periodontal pathogens form a crucial component in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the disease initiation and progression. Studies have shown a direct correlation between increased levels of biomarkers for tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS to the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the focus of attention has revolved back to herbal medicines due to their wide spectrum of biological and medicinal activities, lower costs, and higher safety margin. Internet databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched, and the most relevant articles were considered for review. This review briefly describes the various herbs with antioxidant capacity and their potency in the treating periodontal disease. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 92-96

  17. Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research.

  18. Modern European monographs for quality control of Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rudolf; Franz, Gerhard

    2010-12-01

    The actual concern about the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on observations that these medicinal plants may have a high risk potential due to insufficient definitions, problems with identity, purity and falsifications. No uniform legal status for these groups of herbal drugs currently exists in the European Union. For quality control, monographs for TCM herbs can mainly be found in the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China. Based on these facts the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia decided in 2005 to establish TCM-herbal drug monographs for the most important medicinal plants imported from Far East. These new monographs had to be established and evaluated on the basis of existing monographs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP), English edition 2005. Due to important differences in the overall features of EP and ChP, a simple adapt/adopt procedure was not feasible. Therefore, specialist groups were mandated with a corresponding working programme. Some results and actual problems related to this working programme will be presented and discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Herb-Drug Interactions: Insight into Mechanisms and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga, Enoche F; Sekine, Shuichi; Shitara, Yoshihisa; Horie, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Herbal medicines are currently in high demand, and their popularity is steadily increasing. Because of their perceived effectiveness, fewer side effects and relatively low cost, they are being used for the management of numerous medical conditions. However, they are capable of affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of coadministered conventional drugs. These interactions are particularly of clinically relevance when metabolizing enzymes and xenobiotic transporters, which are responsible for the fate of many drugs, are induced or inhibited, sometimes resulting in unexpected outcomes. This article discusses the general use of herbal medicines in the management of several ailments, their concurrent use with conventional therapy, mechanisms underlying herb-drug interactions (HDIs) as well as the drawbacks of herbal remedy use. The authors also suggest means of surveillance and safety monitoring of herbal medicines. Contrary to popular belief that "herbal medicines are totally safe," we are of the view that they are capable of causing significant toxic effects and altered pharmaceutical outcomes when coadministered with conventional medicines. Due to the paucity of information as well as sometimes conflicting reports on HDIs, much more research in this field is needed. The authors further suggest the need to standardize and better regulate herbal medicines in order to ensure their safety and efficacy when used alone or in combination with conventional drugs.

  1. Propagule pressure governs establishment of an invasive herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramula, Satu; Jauni, Miia; van Ooik, Tapio

    2015-10-01

    The success of plant invasions may be limited by the availability of propagules and/or of suitable microsites, with microsite availability being affected by, for example, disturbance and interspecific competition. A mechanistic understanding of the contributions of propagule pressure and microsite limitation to plant invasions is therefore required to minimise future invasions. Here, we investigated the relative roles of propagule pressure, the availability of microsites, and their interaction on the establishment of an invasive herb, Lupinus polyphyllus, in two geographic regions representing different climate and growth conditions in Finland (a more productive southern region and a harsher central region). We carried out a field experiment in 14 L. polyphyllus populations, in which we manipulated both propagule pressure and disturbance. In a complementary greenhouse experiment, we manipulated propagule pressure and interspecific competition. Seedling establishment of L. polyphyllus was higher in the more productive southern region than in the harsher central region. The number of L. polyphyllus seedlings increased with increasing propagule pressure regardless of disturbance or interspecific competition. However, the number of L. polyphyllus seedlings per sown seed (relative establishment) tended to decrease with increasing propagule pressure, indicating that the positive effect of propagule pressure on early invasion is partially counteracted by density-dependent mortality at high seed densities. Our results highlight the dominant role of propagule pressure over disturbance and interspecific competition in the establishment of L. polyphyllus, suggesting that the early stage of invasion is limited by the availability of propagules rather than the availability of suitable microsites.

  2. Online education about herbs and dietary supplements: margin or mission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Patel, Sejal

    2015-01-01

    Online education is increasingly used to train health professionals, but little is known about how variations in cost affect use of elective training. We assessed whether offering registration for free increased the number of modules consumed in both absolute terms (# modules consumed per person, pp) and relative terms (# modules consumed per # modules registered). We analyzed results of the 'natural experiment' on learner's use of the OSU Center for Integrative Health and Wellness online elective curriculum, Introduction Herbs and Dietary Supplements Across the Lifespan, in which costs varied based on monthly discounts for students, faculty, staff, alumni, and members of selected professional associations. Over 7 months there were a total of 905 registrants for 8553 modules. Most (847/905, 94%) registered for free; they completed 1505 (18%) of 8344 modules for which they registered. Fewer (58/905, 6%) people paid for registration; they completed a significantly higher percentage 90/209 (43%, P online elective training addresses the institutional mission of increasing the number health professionals trained and the number of modules consumed compared with charging for training. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of pricing on educational outcomes and ultimately on patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Detection of herbs and spices irradiated through optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciado, S.; Agundez A, Z.; Barboza F, M.; Cruz Z, E.

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation of foods is one of the common practices in several countries of the American and European continents. In spite of the widespread use of irradiation methods and technics of nutritious products, it doesn't exist a method of general use at the present time for the detection of previously submitted foods to irradiation with pasteurization ends or sterilization. In the present work the results are presented obtained in the detection of herbs and spices exposed to radiation in the range of 0.1 - 3 KGy, by means of the photostimulation with light of 470 nm. It was used for it a RIS0 model team TL/OSL-GIVE-15 conditioned with a β ray source, 90 Sr/ 90 Y and a source of light of 50 mW/cm2. samples of chili guajillo were studied, pepper, cumin, mint and camomile; achieving you to detect exhibitions of the order of 8.33x10 -4 KGy that which is indicative of the high sensitivity of the luminescence technique optically stimulated. The answer of the samples with regard to the radiation dose presents a range of lineality for low dose of the order of 0.5 KGy; and supralineal for further dose without to arrive to a saturation stage. (Author)

  4. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay.

  5. Evaluation of the Knowledge of Herb Sellers in the Diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine ... This paper examined the manner in which sickle cell disease is diagnosed among herb sellers in Osun and Oyo states of Nigeria.

  6. Estimating the yin-yang nature of Western herbs: a potential tool based on antioxidation-oxidation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Marilena; Gaman, Laura; Lixandru, Daniela; Stoian, Irina

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to progress in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) development in Western countries is the difficulty of applying the traditional concepts to the Western medicinal plants, which are not traditionally described in ancient literature. During recent years, new advances in the field of understanding Yin/Yang aspects from a modern bioscientific point of view have led to the conclusion that antioxidationoxidation concepts might mirror a Yin-Yang relationship. This study was intended to integrate the Yin-Yang theory of the traditional Chinese medicine with modern antioxidation-oxidation theory, and to propose a biochemical tool based on redox parameters (e.g. antioxidant capacity, chemiluminescence-CL signal inducing capacity), usable for the classification of Western medicinal plants from Yin/Yang perspective. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of six vegetal aqueous extracts (Symphitum officinalae (radix)-SYM, Inula helenium (radix)-INU, Calendula officinalis (flores)-CAL, Angelica arhanghelica (folium)ANG(F), Angelica arhanghelica (radix)-ANG(R), Ecbalium Elaterium (fruits)-ECB) and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of PMNL on addition of these vegetal extracts were measured. Percentages from the maximal or minimal values obtained were calculated for each extract (TEAC%, PMNL stimulation%, PMNL inhibition%, relative speed of action% (RSA%%)), specific Yin-Yang significance was assigned to each relative parameter. In the end, an integration of all the relative values was done, in order to find a global "Yin" or a "Yang" trait of each vegetal extract. TEAC decreased in the following order: SYM > INU > CAL >ANG(F) > ANG(R > ECB. Three vegetal extracts (SYM > INU > ECB) decreased the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of PMNL, two (ANG(R) > ANG(F)) increased it, while one (CAL) had a dual effect. After the integration of the percentages, CAL was found to have a global "Yang" trait, while the rest of the plants had a global "Yin

  7. I-optimal mixture designs

    OpenAIRE

    GOOS, Peter; JONES, Bradley; SYAFITRI, Utami

    2013-01-01

    In mixture experiments, the factors under study are proportions of the ingredients of a mixture. The special nature of the factors in a mixture experiment necessitates specific types of regression models, and specific types of experimental designs. Although mixture experiments usually are intended to predict the response(s) for all possible formulations of the mixture and to identify optimal proportions for each of the ingredients, little research has been done concerning their I-optimal desi...

  8. Measurement of βeff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Pesic, M.; Avdic, S.

    1994-01-01

    The delayed neutron parameters and methods used in reactor safety studies are verified by measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction β eff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE. The HERBE system is strongly heterogeneous. Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of β eff measurement are described. The measured and calculated quantities and estimated uncertainties are presented. Agreement between the computation and measurement suggests the validity of the calculation method

  9. The Effects of Herbs on Milk Yield and Milk Quality of Mastitis Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin, E; Amelia, T; Makin, M

    2011-01-01

    This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa) supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status) in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++) were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia...

  10. Functional assessments and histopathology of hepatorenal tissues of rats treated with raw and processed herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ukairo, Doris I.; Ibegbulem, Chiedozie O.; Nwaoguikpe, Reginald N.

    2017-01-01

    The present study ascertained the functional integrity of hepatic and renal tissues, concurrently with blood lipid patterns, of Wistar rats infused with CCl4 and treated with raw and hydrothermal processed herbs, namely, Monodora myristica, Chromolaena odorata, Buccholzia coriacea and Sphenostylis stenocarpa. Measurement of phytochemical contents of the herbs was according to standard methods. The rats were randomly designated on the bases of diets and treatments received for 28 consecutive d...

  11. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.......Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy....

  12. HERBE- Report on test operation from 15 Dec 1989 to 15 May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M. et.al.

    1990-06-01

    This report describes the activities preformed during previous 6 months performed on the HERBE system at the RB reactor in order to fulfill the requirements of the safety Committee of the Institute with the aim to improve the operation safety and decrease of the total reactivity input during maximum hypothetical accident on the HERBE N system. The objective was to increase the possibility of RB reactor safety system timely and adequate response to the estimated accident

  13. Herb-drug interactions among commonly used psychoactive substances by healthcare students

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, André; Caetano, Liliana Aranha

    2014-01-01

    The concurrent use of herbs and/or nutritional supplements with psychoactive effect and prescription medications is common among college students. College students are a particularly vulnerable population, for they are under less social/familiar surveillance and seek greater independence, as well as under greater intellectual effort, stress, anxiety and depression, which predispose them to a higher consumption of psychoactive substances. Herbs, vitamins, and other dietary supplements may infl...

  14. Mixtures and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Drinking water can be considered as a complex mixture that consists of tens, hundreds or thousands of chemicals of which the composition is qualitatively and quantitatively not fully known. From a public health point of view it is most relevant to answer the question of whether chemicals in drinking

  15. Inhibitory effect of aromatic herbs, lavender, sage and chamomile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study demonstrated anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity of lavender, sage and chamomile extracts. Green monkey kidney cells were protected from HSV-2 infection by dichloromethane and methanol extract of lavender with therapeutic indices (TI) of 1.98 and 2.90, respectively when the cells were treated before ...

  16. Screening for Anticandidal and Antibiofilm Activity of Some Herbs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of GC-MS analysis showed the major compound of P. betle extract responsible for anticandidal activity as 4-chromanol. Conclusion: P. betle extract contains 4-chromanol which is a good potential anticandidal agent for the treatment of oral infectious diseases caused by certain Candida spp. Keywords: Piper betle ...

  17. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

    2013-01-01

    Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53 μg/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5 μg/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5 μg/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs. PMID:23766719

  18. Effect of herb drug medicine Treatment for Functional Dyspepsia:Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Jin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Obejective : Functional dyspepsia is a prevalent disease. It impedes subjective quality of life. The purpose of this research is to examine the equivalent effect of herb drug medicine treatment(H-Dand Over the Counter(OTC for functional dyspepsia. Method : In this controlled study, we compared herb drug medicine(H-D with Over the Counter(OTC of functional dyspepsia. 30 volunteers who satisfied the requirements were enrolled in study. Severity of dyspepsia was measured by Nepean Dyspepsia Index(NDI-K before and after treatments. Result : The results are summarized as follows. 1. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, total key symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 2. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, each symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 3. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, quality of life score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. Conclusion : Herb drug medicine treatment(H-D is effective to improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  19. Validation experiments of nuclear characteristics of the fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Zavaljevski, N.; Marinkovic, P.; Stefanovis, D.; Nikolic, D.; Avdic, S.

    1992-01-01

    In 1988/90 a coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at RB reactor, based on similar facilities, is designed and realized. Fast core of HERBE is built of natural U fuel in RB reactor center surrounded by the neutron filter and neutron converter located in an independent Al tank. Fast zone is surrounded by thermal neutron core driver. Designed nuclear characteristics of HERBE core are validated in the experiments described in the paper. HERBE cell parameters were calculated with developed computer codes: VESNA and DENEB. HERBE system criticality calculation are performed with 4G 2D RZ computer codes GALER and TWENTY GRAND, 1D multi-group AVERY code and 3D XYZ few-group TRITON computer code. The experiments for determination of critical level, dρ/dH, and reactivity of safety rods are accomplished in order to validate calculation results. Specific safety experiment is performed in aim to determine reactivity of flooded fast zone in possible accident. A very good agreements with calculation results are obtained and the validation procedures are presented. It is expected that HERBE will offer qualitative new opportunities for work with fast neutrons at RB reactor including nuclear data determination. (author)

  20. Could the gut microbiota reconcile the oral bioavailability conundrum of traditional herbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Wen, Qi; Jiang, Jun; Li, Hai-Long; Tan, Yin-Feng; Li, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Nian-Kai

    2016-02-17

    A wealth of information is emerging about the impact of gut microbiota on human health and diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes. As we learn more, we find out the gut microbiota has the potential as new territory for drug targeting. Some novel therapeutic approaches could be developed through reshaping the commensal microbial structure using combinations of different agents. The gut microbiota also affects drug metabolism, directly and indirectly, particularly towards the orally administered drugs. Herbal products have become the basis of traditional medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine and also been being considered valuable materials in modern drug discovery. Of note, low oral bioavailability but high bioactivity is a conundrum not yet solved for some herbs. Since most of herbal products are orally administered, the herbs' constituents are inevitably exposed to the intestinal microbiota and the interplays between herbal constituents and gut microbiota are expected. Emerging explorations of herb-microbiota interactions have an opportunity to revolutionize the way we view herbal therapeutics. The present review aims to provide information regarding the health promotion and/or disease prevention by the interplay between traditional herbs with low bioavailability and gut microbiota through gut microbiota via two different types of mechanisms: (1) influencing the composition of gut microbiota by herbs and (2) metabolic reactions of herbal constituents by gut microbiota. The major data bases (PubMed and Web of Science) were searched using "gut microbiota", "intestinal microbiota", "gut flora", "intestinal flora", "gut microflora", "intestinal microflora", "herb", "Chinese medicine", "traditional medicine", or "herbal medicine" as keywords to find out studies regarding herb-microbiota interactions. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition, Volume I) was also used to collect the data of commonly used medicinal herbs and their quality