Sample records for herault watershed constraints

  1. Sources of nitrate in rivers draining sixteen watersheds in the northeastern U.S. : Isotopic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, B.; Boyer, E.W.; Goodale, C.; Jaworski, N.A.; Breemen, van N.; Howarth, R.W.; Seitzinger, S.; Billen, G.; Lajtha, K.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Dam, van D.; Hetling, L.J.; Nosal, M.; Paustian, K.


    The feasibility of using nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate (NO3 -) for elucidating sources and transformations of riverine nitrate was evaluated in a comparative study of 16 watersheds in the northeastern U.S.A. Stream water was sampled repeatedly at the outlets of the watersheds between

  2. Métodos educativos en la prevención del tabaquismo, en escolares del Departamento del Herault, Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Séquier


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia de dos estrategias educativas para la prevención del tabaquismo en jóvenes de edad escolar. Material y métodos. Estudio de intervención, de comparación concurrente, con alumnos del quinto grado de primaria durante los cursos de 1992 a 1995, efectuado en el Departamento del Herault, Montpellier, Francia. Se incluyeron tres grupos de observación: grupo I, sometido durante el año escolar a un programa educativo transversal; grupo II, sometido el "Día Mundial sin Fumar" a una acción puntual, y el grupo III, testigo, no sometido a intervención, cuyos resultados se compararon con ji cuadrado y se hizo regresión logística. Resultados. Se confirma el papel pronóstico de sus iguales y del entorno familiar sobre el consumo de tabaco. Transcurridos tres años, el grupo sometido a la intervención transversal sostenida muestra una prevalencia de fumadores significativamente inferior a la de los otros dos grupos. Conclusiones. Aunque el consumo de tabaco parece iniciar más tardíamente en las niñas que en los niños, en este estudio la prevalencia aumenta al cabo de tres años, de 0.7 a 7%. Deben mantenerse y reforzarse en tiempo y lugar las acciones educativas de prevención para que tengan influencia y eficacia en la iniciación y disminución del consumo de tabaco en los niños.Abstract Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of two educational strategies to prevent tobacco addiction in schoolchildren living in Herault, France. Material and Methods. A study was conducted to deliver an intervention and make a concurrent comparison, among elementary school, fifth-grade students, during school years 1992 to 1995, in Herault Department, Montpellier, France. Three observation groups were included: Group 1 was subject to a cross-sectional educational intervention; Group 2 was only subject to a single health activity on World Day Against Smoking; and Group 3 or control was not subject to any intervention. Results. The

  3. Métodos educativos en la prevención del tabaquismo, en escolares del Departamento del Herault, Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séquier Annie


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia de dos estrategias educativas para la prevención del tabaquismo en jóvenes de edad escolar. Material y métodos. Estudio de intervención, de comparación concurrente, con alumnos del quinto grado de primaria durante los cursos de 1992 a 1995, efectuado en el Departamento del Herault, Montpellier, Francia. Se incluyeron tres grupos de observación: grupo I, sometido durante el año escolar a un programa educativo transversal; grupo II, sometido el "Día Mundial sin Fumar" a una acción puntual, y el grupo III, testigo, no sometido a intervención, cuyos resultados se compararon con ji cuadrado y se hizo regresión logística. Resultados. Se confirma el papel pronóstico de sus iguales y del entorno familiar sobre el consumo de tabaco. Transcurridos tres años, el grupo sometido a la intervención transversal sostenida muestra una prevalencia de fumadores significativamente inferior a la de los otros dos grupos. Conclusiones. Aunque el consumo de tabaco parece iniciar más tardíamente en las niñas que en los niños, en este estudio la prevalencia aumenta al cabo de tres años, de 0.7 a 7%. Deben mantenerse y reforzarse en tiempo y lugar las acciones educativas de prevención para que tengan influencia y eficacia en la iniciación y disminución del consumo de tabaco en los niños.

  4. Use of trace elements as indicators for underground fluid circulations in karstic environment; Utilisation des elements en trace comme traceurs des circulations souterraines en milieu karstique (site du Lamalou, Herault)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pane-Escribe, M.B.


    The geochemical study of the trace element behaviour in karstic groundwaters has been carried out over the experimental site of Lamalou (Herault, France). Routine measurements of the physico-chemical parameters and of the dissolved elements concentrations have been achieved during two hydrological cycles. Radon has been monitored by passive detectors and by automatic electronic probes. Trace elements (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Th, U) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The first part of this work presents the methodologies employed with in particular the improvement of the analytical performances of ICP-MS for water samples analysis. The detection limit for each considered element has been determined. The short and long term reproducibility for the samples analysis has also been tested. The second part of this study presents the treatment and interpretation of the results. This analysis has pointed our the influence of the aquifer structure on the chemical elements distribution. The trace and major elements concentrations are effectively related to the fracturing state of the reservoir and allow to individualize the high transmissivity zones from zones with a lower transmissivity in this mono-lithological context, trace elements appear to be particularly efficient tracers for determining the water origin and circulation their spatial and temporal behaviour leads to identify three different origins for the water mineralization over the studied area: limestones, clays and external sources (rainfalls and occasional pollutions). (author). 154 refs.

  5. Watershed District (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  6. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  7. Prioritization of sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial technique in Piperiya watershed, India (United States)

    Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Kansal, Mitthan Lal


    Hydrological investigation and behavior of watershed depend upon geo-morphometric characteristics of catchment. Morphometric analysis is commonly used for development of regional hydrological model of ungauged watershed. A critical valuation and assessment of geo-morphometric constraints has been carried out. Prioritization of watersheds based on water plot capacity of Piperiya watershed has been evaluated by linear, aerial and relief aspects. Morphometric analysis has been attempted for prioritization for nine sub-watersheds of Piperiya watershed in Hasdeo river basin, which is a tributary of the Mahanadi. Sub-watersheds are delineated by ArcMap 9.3 software as per digital elevation model (DEM). Assessment of drainages and their relative parameters such as stream order, stream length, stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio has been calculated separately for each sub-watershed using the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial techniques. Finally, the prioritized score on the basis of morphometric behavior of each sub-watershed is assigned and thereafter consolidated scores have been estimated to identify the most sensitive parameters. The analysis reveals that stream order varies from 1 to 5; however, the first-order stream covers maximum area of about 87.7 %. Total number of stream segment of all order is 1,264 in the watershed. The study emphasizes the prioritization of the sub-watersheds on the basis of morphometric analysis. The final score of entire nine sub-watersheds is assigned as per erosion threat. The sub-watershed with the least compound parameter value was assigned as highest priority. However, the sub-watersheds has been categorized into three classes as high (4.1-4.7), medium (4.8-5.3) and low (>5.4) priority on the basis of their maximum (6.0) and minimum (4.1) prioritized score.

  8. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca


    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...

  9. Watershed Management Partnership Agreement (United States)

    On November 19, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers signed the Watershed Management Partnership Agreement to promote watershed health, economic sustainability and community vitality through effective manageme

  10. Managing Watersheds with WMOST (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) allows water-resource managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices for cost-effectiveness in achieving watershed or water utilities management goals.

  11. Adopt Your Watershed (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  12. Healthy Watersheds Protection (United States)

    ... provide critical services, such as clean drinking water, productive fisheries, and outdoor recreation, that support our economies, ... Watershed Assessments Integrated Assessment of Watershed Condition Protection Projects and Partnerships Additional Resources Main menu Environmental Topics ...

  13. Multiagent distributed watershed management (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.


    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  14. Watershed controls on the export of large wood from stream corridors (United States)

    Fremier, Alexander K.; Seo, Jung Il; Nakamura, Futoshi


    Large wood maintains in-channel and floodplain habitats by influencing the biophysical character of the river corridor. Large wood dynamics in a river corridor are a product of watershed wide processes and also of local recruitment, transport, and storage. This complexity of scales added to the logistical constraints in taking measurements limits our understanding of large wood dynamics through the watershed. To begin to unravel this issue, we compiled a data set of the volume of large wood deposited annually into 131 reservoirs across Japan and compared large wood export to flow discharge and watershed characteristics (watershed size, latitude, channel slope, percent forest, and forest type). We found that large wood was predominately transported during peak flow events. Large wood export increased logarithmically with watershed area. The decreasing export rate of large wood per watershed area is interpreted as a combination of annual export variability in upper watersheds, a non-significant increase in large wood recruitment along the longitudinal gradient (potentially human influenced), the increase in long-term storage on adjacent large floodplains, and significant decay/fragmentation downstream. Watersheds transport limitation in smaller watersheds. The data suggest the existence of an export threshold (∼ 75 km2) where large wood export is no longer related to watershed size. Export across all watershed sizes was controlled by watershed characteristics (slope, percent forested, etc.) and peak discharge events. The connection with upstream watersheds and laterally with the floodplain increases the net flux of large wood through downstream transport and retransport of buried logs. Identifying rates of large wood transport from watershed connectivity as a potential key input process will improve our basic understanding of geomorphic and ecological patterns within the watershed. These results highlight the importance of understanding the local- and watershed

  15. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data. (United States)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo


    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  16. Watershed Planning Basins (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  17. A multimedia constraint system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.A. van Hintum; G.J. Reynolds


    textabstractThe MADE constraint system provides excellent opportunities to introduce constraints in a multimedia application. Multimedia applications are not only a good place to experiment with constraint systems; constraints in a multimedia environment are almost indispensable. Due to the

  18. Watershed Central: A New Gateway to Watershed Information (United States)

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new Web site called "Watershed Central, a “onestop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protect their ...

  19. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7. (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen


    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  20. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover


    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...


    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. The application of these two models allows AGWA to conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple temporal and spatial scales. AGWA’s current outputs are runoff (volumes and peaks) and sediment yield, plus nitrogen and phosphorus with the SWAT model. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both models. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the individual model requirements. The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then executed, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visualization. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA also has tools to apply an array of best management practices. There are currently two versions of AGWA available; AGWA 1.5 for

  2. Watersheds in disordered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. Andrade Jr.


    Full Text Available What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watershedsseparating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have beenused to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes betweencountries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance,slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in awatershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arisesnaturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide,and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields suchas image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scalingproperties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a moreprofound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed andstatistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of awatershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometricaland physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificialmodel landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be ingood qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  3. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  4. Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming


    Bistarelli, S.; Montanari, U.; Rossi, F.


    Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving formalisms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming framework where soft constraints can be handled. In this paper we show how the classical concurrent constraint (cc) programming framework can work with soft constraints, and we also propose an extension ...

  5. Stochastic Constraint Programming


    Walsh, Toby


    To model combinatorial decision problems involving uncertainty and probability, we introduce stochastic constraint programming. Stochastic constraint programs contain both decision variables (which we can set) and stochastic variables (which follow a probability distribution). They combine together the best features of traditional constraint satisfaction, stochastic integer programming, and stochastic satisfiability. We give a semantics for stochastic constraint programs, and propose a number...

  6. Watershed councils: it takes a community to restore a watershed (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Rebecca Flitcroft


    Regulation alone cannot solve complex ecological problems on private lands that are managed for diverse uses. Executing coordinated restoration projects at the watershed scale is only possible with the cooperation and commitment of all stakeholders. Locally organized, nonregulatory watershed councils have proven to be a powerful method of engaging citizens from all...

  7. Global perspective of watershed management (United States)

    Kenneth N. Brooks; Karlyn Eckman


    This paper discusses the role of watershed management in moving towards sustainable natural resource and agricultural development. Examples from 30 field projects and six training projects involving over 25 countries are presented to illustrate watershed management initiatives that have been implemented over the last half of the 20th century. The level of success has...

  8. The Soft Cumulative Constraint


    Petit, Thierry; Poder, Emmanuel


    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  9. A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ashley. Steel


    Full Text Available Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, USA. We identified six aquatic restoration management strategies either described in the literature or in common use for watershed recovery planning. For each of the six strategies, actions were identified and their effect on the landscape was estimated. In this way, we created six potential future landscapes, each estimating how the watershed might look under one of the management strategies. We controlled for cost across the six modeled strategies by creating simple economic estimates of the cost of each restoration or protection action and fixing the total allowable cost under each strategy. We then applied a suite of evaluation models to estimate watershed function and habitat condition and to predict biological response to those habitat conditions. The concurrent use of many types of models and our spatially explicit approach enables analysis of the trade-offs among various types of habitat improvements and also among improvements in different areas within the watershed. We report predictions of the quantity, quality, and distribution of aquatic habitat as well as predictions for multiple species of species-specific habitat capacity and survival rates that might result from each of the six management strategies. We use our results to develop four on-the-ground watershed management strategies given alternative social constraints and manager profiles. Our approach provides technical guidance in the study watershed by predicting future impacts of potential

  10. Composing constraint solvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Zoeteweij (Peter)


    htmlabstractComposing constraint solvers based on tree search and constraint propagation through generic iteration leads to efficient and flexible constraint solvers. This was demonstrated using OpenSolver, an abstract branch-and-propagate tree search engine that supports a wide range of relevant

  11. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 1: Methods for Increasing Forest Cover in a Watershed (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright


    This manual is one in a three-part series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 1: Methods for Increasing Forest Cover in a Watershed introduces the emerging topic of urban watershed forestry. This part also presents new methods for the watershed planner or forester to systematically measure watershed...

  12. Part 1: Principles of Urban Watershed Forestry (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright


    Conserving forests in a watershed? This manual introduces the emerging topic of urban watershed forestry and presents new methods for systematically measuring watershed forest cover and techniques for maintaining or increasing this cover. The audience for this manual includes the local watershed planner or forester.

  13. Watershed processes, fish habitat, and salmonid distribution in the Tonsina River (Copper River watershed), Alaska (United States)

    Booth, D. B.; Ligon, F. K.; Sloat, M. R.; Amerson, B.; Ralph, S. C.


    -scale differences in physical habitat features. For example, juvenile coho salmon used interstitial spaces between unembedded cobbles and boulders but were absent from adjacent habitat with high embeddedness. Thus high delivery rates of coarse sediment sustain critical rearing habitat that would otherwise be relatively inhospitable to fish. Using Chinook salmon as a focal species, we have integrated field- and map-based analyses to predict basin- scale geomorphic and biological constraints on the distribution of suitable spawning and rearing habitat. These analyses provide rapid guidance for where focused investigations or monitoring of key habitats should occur, a particularly important outcome where watersheds are large and field logistics are challenging. The predicted extent of suitable stream habitat within the study area represents a relatively minor fraction (ca. 10 percent) of the total stream channel network, suggesting that production of salmon from the study area depends on the maintenance of quality habitat in discrete, and relatively rare, reaches.

  14. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha


    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  15. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.


    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  16. Watershed and longitudinal monitoring events (United States)

    Harold Harbert; Steven Blackburn


    Georgia Adopt-A-Stream partners annually with many organizations, universities and watershed groups to conduct sampling events with volunteers at a watershed level. These monitoring events range from one-day snapshots to week-long paddle trips. One-day sampling events, also called “Blitzs,” River Adventures and River Rendezvous, generally target 20-50 sites within a...

  17. Effects of urbanization on groundwater evolution in an urbanizing watershed (United States)

    Reyes, D.; Banner, J. L.; Bendik, N.


    The Jollyville Plateau Salamander (Eurycea tonkawae), a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, is endemic to springs and caves within the Bull Creek Watershed of Austin, Texas. Rapid urbanization endangers known populations of this salamander. Conservation strategies lack information on the extent of groundwater contamination from anthropogenic sources in this karst watershed. Spring water was analyzed for strontium (Sr) isotopes and major ions from sites classified as "urban" or "rural" based on impervious cover estimates. Previous studies have shown that the 87Sr/86Sr value of municipal water is significantly higher than values for natural streamwater, which are similar to those for the Cretaceous limestone bedrock of the region's watersheds. We investigate the application of this relationship to understanding the effects of urbanization on groundwater quality. The use of Sr isotopes as hydrochemical tracers is complemented by major ion concentrations, specifically the dominant ions in natural groundwater (Ca and HCO3) and the ions associated with the addition of wastewater (Na and Cl). To identify high priority salamander-inhabited springs for water quality remediation, we explore the processes controlling the chemical evolution of groundwater such as municipal water inputs, groundwater-soil interactions, and solution/dissolution reactions. 87Sr/86Sr values for water samples from within the watershed range from 0.70760 to 0.70875, the highest values corresponding to sites located in the urbanized areas of the watershed. Analyses of the covariation of Sr isotopes with major ion concentrations help elucidate controls on spring water evolution. Springs located in rural portions of the watershed have low 87Sr/86Sr, high concentrations of Ca and HCO3, and low concentrations of Na and Cl. This is consistent with small inputs of municipal water. Three springs located in urban portions of the watershed have high 87Sr/86Sr, low Ca and HCO3, and

  18. Symbolic Constraints in Constructive Geometric Constraint Solving


    Hoffmann, Christoph M.; Joan-Arinyo, Robert


    In design and manufacturing applications, users of computer aided design systems want to define relationships between dimension variables, since such relationships express design intent very flexibly. This work reports on a technique developed to enhance a class of constructive geometric constraint solvers with the capability of managing functional relationships between dimension variables. The method is shown to be correct.

  19. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan


    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  20. Credit Constraints in Education (United States)

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander


    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  1. The Antigone Constraint. (United States)

    Tuggy, David

    This paper presents a class of sentences that certain syntactic rules of English would be expected to produce, but that are not grammatical. The sentences all involve the raising of a sentential Noun Phrase (NP) and the subsequent application of some syntactic rule to that senential NP. A constraint, referred to as the Antigone Constraint, is…

  2. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.


    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  3. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.


    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  4. SIR2005-5073_CBRWM_watersheds (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is an ArcGIS dataset depicting watershed segments in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and adjacent states of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia,...

  5. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 02 - HUC 04 (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Level 02 Watersheds....

  6. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) Workshop. (United States)

    EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) version 2 is a decision support tool designed to facilitate integrated water management by communities at the small watershed scale. WMOST allows users to look across management options in stormwater (including green i...

  7. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  8. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb


    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  9. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R


    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  10. Cloud GIS Based Watershed Management (United States)

    Bediroğlu, G.; Colak, H. E.


    In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service) and DAAS (Data as a Service). We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries). We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes), Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  11. Emerging tools and technologies in watershed management (United States)

    D. Phillip Guertin; Scott N. Miller; David C. Goodrich


    The field of watershed management is highly dependent on spatially distributed data. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made toward the capture, storage, and use of spatial data. Emerging tools and technologies hold great promise for improving the scientific understanding of watershed processes and are already revolutionizing watershed research....

  12. Watershed Boundaries, Frederick County, Maryland, watershed management areas that extend to the topographic watershed divide. Watersheds were developed from catchment delineations (2008) by dissolving catchments within larger drainage areas that were previously defined by Fre, Published in 2008, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Frederick County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Watershed Boundaries dataset current as of 2008. Frederick County, Maryland, watershed management areas that extend to the topographic watershed divide. Watersheds...

  13. Development of an ecological classification system for the Cooper Creek watershed of the Chattahoochee National Forest: a first approximation (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; Ronald B. Stephens; Erika M. Mavity; Joanne E. Baggs; James M. Wentworth; Richard D. Rightmyer; Alex J. Jaume; Brian D. Jackson; Michael P. Joyce


    The 2004 management plan for the Chattahoochee National Forest states that many future resource objectives and goals have an ecological basis. Assessment of resource needs in the Cooper Creek watershed area of the southern Appalachian Mountains of north Georgia were identified with awareness of ecological constraints and suitability. An interdisciplinary team of...

  14. DNA metabarcoding and morphological macroinvertebrate metrics reveal the same changes in boreal watersheds across an environmental gradient. (United States)

    Emilson, Caroline E; Thompson, Dean G; Venier, Lisa A; Porter, Teresita M; Swystun, Tom; Chartrand, Derek; Capell, Scott; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad


    Cost-effective, ecologically relevant, sensitive, and standardized indicators are requisites of biomonitoring. DNA metabarcoding of macroinvertebrate communities is a potentially transformative biomonitoring technique that can reduce cost and time constraints while providing information-rich, high resolution taxonomic data for the assessment of watershed condition. Here, we assess the utility of DNA metabarcoding to provide aquatic indicator data for evaluation of forested watershed condition across Canadian eastern boreal watersheds, subject to natural variation and low-intensity harvest management. We do this by comparing the similarity of DNA metabarcoding and morphologically derived macroinvertebrate metrics (i.e. richness, % Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, % chironomid), and the ability of DNA metabarcoding and morphological metrics to detect key gradients in stream condition linked to forested watershed features. Our results show consistency between methods, where common DNA metabarcoding and morphological macroinvertebrate metrics are positively correlated and indicate the same key gradients in stream condition (i.e. dissolved oxygen, and dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen and conductivity) linked to watershed size and shifts in forest composition across watersheds. Our study demonstrates the potential usefulness of macroinvertebrate DNA metabarcoding to future application in broad-scale biomonitoring of watershed condition across environmental gradients.

  15. Integrated systems optimization model for biofuel development: The influence of environmental constraints (United States)

    Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.


    The environmental impact is one of the major concerns of biofuel development. While many other studies have examined the impact of biofuel expansion on stream flow and water quality, this study examines the problem from the other side - will and how a biofuel production target be affected by given environmental constraints. For this purpose, an integrated model comprises of different sub-systems of biofuel refineries, transportation, agriculture, water resources and crops/ethanol market has been developed. The sub-systems are integrated into one large-scale model to guide the optimal development plan considering the interdependency between the subsystems. The optimal development plan includes biofuel refineries location and capacity, refinery operation, land allocation between biofuel and food crops, and the corresponding stream flow and nitrate load in the watershed. The watershed is modeled as a network flow, in which the nodes represent sub-watersheds and the arcs are defined as the linkage between the sub-watersheds. The runoff contribution of each sub-watershed is determined based on the land cover and the water uses in that sub-watershed. Thus, decisions of other sub-systems such as the land allocation in the land use sub-system and the water use in the refinery sub-system define the sources and the sinks of the network. Environmental policies will be addressed in the integrated model by imposing stream flow and nitrate load constraints. These constraints can be specified by location and time in the watershed to reflect the spatial and temporal variation of the regulations. Preliminary results show that imposing monthly water flow constraints and yearly nitrate load constraints will change the biofuel development plan dramatically. Sensitivity analysis is performed to examine how the environmental constraints and their spatial and the temporal distribution influence the overall biofuel development plan and the performance of each of the sub

  16. Discover a Watershed: The Everglades. (United States)

    Robinson, George B.; And Others

    This publication is designed for both classroom teachers and nonformal educators of young people in grades 6 through 12. It can provide a 6- to 8-week course of study on the watershed with students participating in activities as they are ordered in the guide, or activities may be used in any order with educators selecting those appropriate for the…

  17. 10 Watershed Disturbance.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Atewa Range Forest Reserve in the Eastern Region of Ghana is a very important watershed which serves three important river systems - the Densu, Ayensu and Birim, all in southern Ghana. Widespread degradation of the forest reserve .... chewing stick (for brushing the teeth). A large proportion of the respondents also ...

  18. Constraints in Genetic Programming (United States)

    Janikow, Cezary Z.


    Genetic programming refers to a class of genetic algorithms utilizing generic representation in the form of program trees. For a particular application, one needs to provide the set of functions, whose compositions determine the space of program structures being evolved, and the set of terminals, which determine the space of specific instances of those programs. The algorithm searches the space for the best program for a given problem, applying evolutionary mechanisms borrowed from nature. Genetic algorithms have shown great capabilities in approximately solving optimization problems which could not be approximated or solved with other methods. Genetic programming extends their capabilities to deal with a broader variety of problems. However, it also extends the size of the search space, which often becomes too large to be effectively searched even by evolutionary methods. Therefore, our objective is to utilize problem constraints, if such can be identified, to restrict this space. In this publication, we propose a generic constraint specification language, powerful enough for a broad class of problem constraints. This language has two elements -- one reduces only the number of program instances, the other reduces both the space of program structures as well as their instances. With this language, we define the minimal set of complete constraints, and a set of operators guaranteeing offspring validity from valid parents. We also show that these operators are not less efficient than the standard genetic programming operators if one preprocesses the constraints - the necessary mechanisms are identified.

  19. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...

  20. Random Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Coja-Oghlan


    Full Text Available Random instances of constraint satisfaction problems such as k-SAT provide challenging benchmarks. If there are m constraints over n variables there is typically a large range of densities r=m/n where solutions are known to exist with probability close to one due to non-constructive arguments. However, no algorithms are known to find solutions efficiently with a non-vanishing probability at even much lower densities. This fact appears to be related to a phase transition in the set of all solutions. The goal of this extended abstract is to provide a perspective on this phenomenon, and on the computational challenge that it poses.

  1. Characterization of nested watershed hydrologic response from high-resolution rainfall and runoff data in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER (United States)

    Miller, A. J.; Lindner, G. A.; Smith, J. A.; Baeck, M. L.; Welty, C.; Miller, J.; Meierdiercks, K. L.


    This presentation reports initial results from analysis of data collected at a set of six stream gages representing three nested watershed scales (1-2 km2, 5-6 km2, 14 km2) in Dead Run, a highly impervious suburban watershed in Baltimore County, MD, USA. Streamflow data collected at 5-minute temporal resolution during the period 2007-2011 are compared with 1-km2 gridded and watershed-average precipitation data with 15-minute temporal resolution provided by the HydroNEXRAD project for the Baltimore metropolitan area. The period of overlapping precipitation and runoff data currently available for all six nested watersheds includes calendar years 2008 and 2009. Analyses include mass balance for monthly time periods as well as individual storm events; comparison of hydrologic response among nested watersheds of similar scale and across scales; and characterization of spatial and temporal patterns in storm-period rainfall, drainage network structure, watershed morphometry, and urban infrastructure as potential influences on patterns of hydrologic response. We attempted to isolate the effects of watershed characteristics by selecting a subset of storm events with a rainfall "pulse" defined by minimum accumulation of ~10 mm and >80% of storm-total rainfall arriving within a one-hour period at all six nested subwatersheds. Hydrographs were compared to assess characteristic shape, runoff ratio, and timing. We also examined several longer, more complex storm events with multiple rainfall pulses in order to observe the response at multiple watershed scales. Despite the constraints imposed on storm structure we find that even slight variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall may be associated with major differences in watershed response (volume and timing) at the 1-2 km2 and 5-6 km2 scales. Some of these variations would be difficult to explain without availability of high-resolution rainfall data. In multiple events we observe that the 5-6 km2 watersheds

  2. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim


    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  3. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds (United States)

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  4. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  5. Developing Participatory Models of Watershed Management in the Sugar Creek Watershed (Ohio, USA)


    Jason Shaw Parker; Richard Moore; Mark Weaver


    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershe...

  6. Partially clairvoyant scheduling for aggregate constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Subramani


    constraints. In this paper, we extend the class of constraints for which partially clairvoyant schedules can be determined efficiently, to include aggregate constraints. Aggregate constraints form a strict superset of standard constraints and can be used to model performance metrics.

  7. Modeling soil erosion in a watershed


    Lanuza, R.


    Most erosion models have been developed based on a plot scale and have limited application to a watershed due to the differences in aerial scale. In order to address this limitation, a GIS-assisted methodology for modeling soil erosion was developed using PCRaster to predict the rate of soil erosion at watershed level; identify the location of erosion prone areas; and analyze the impact of landuse changes on soil erosion. The general methodology of desktop modeling or soil erosion at watershe...

  8. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  9. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager" (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.


    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  10. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management (United States)

    Rango, A.


    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  11. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson


    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  12. Comparing Effects of Lake- and Watershed-Scale Influences on Communities of Aquatic Invertebrates in Shallow Lakes (United States)

    Hanson, Mark A.; Herwig, Brian R.; Zimmer, Kyle D.; Fieberg, John; Vaughn, Sean R.; Wright, Robert G.; Younk, Jerry A.


    Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO) in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships. PMID:22970275

  13. Comparing effects of lake- and watershed-scale influences on communities of aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hanson

    Full Text Available Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships.

  14. The NCL natural constraint language

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianyang


    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  15. Different seasonality of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed in Midwestern USA (United States)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. A.; Richards, R. P.; Liu, J.; Baker, D. B.; Liu, Y.


    Land use/land cover is a critical factor affecting temporal dynamics of nitrate export from watersheds. Based on a long-term (>30 years) water quality monitoring program in the Western Lake Erie area, United States, this study compared seasonal variation of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed. A seasonality index was adapted to quantitatively characterize seasonal variation of nitrate export from the two watersheds. Results showed that monthly nitrate concentrations from the two watersheds exhibited different seasonal variation. Seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading for the agricultural watershed is approximately 3 times of that from the urbanized watershed and the difference is statistically significant (p pollution in Midwestern United States.

  16. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion...

  17. Tree response to experimental watershed acidification (United States)

    N.K. Jensen; E.J. Holzmueller; P.J. Edwards; M. Thomas-Van Gundy; D.R. DeWalle; K.W.J. Williard


    Forest ecosystems in the Eastern USA are threatened by acid deposition rates that have increased dramatically since industrialization. We utilized two watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia to examine long-term effects of acidification on ecological processes. One watershed has been treated with ammonium sulfate (approximately twice the ambient...

  18. Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kerr


    Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

  19. Cumulative watershed effects: a research perspective (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer


    A cumulative watershed effect (CWE) is any response to multiple land-use activities that is caused by, or results in, altered watershed function. The CWE issue is politically defined, as is the significance of particular impacts. But the processes generating CWEs are the traditional focus of geomorphology and ecology, and have thus been studied for decades. The CWE...

  20. Segmentation by watersheds : definition and parallel implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold


    The watershed algorithm is a method for image segmentation widely used in the area of mathematical morphology. In this paper we first address the problem of how to define watersheds. It is pointed out that various existing definitions are not equivalent. In particular we explain the differences

  1. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte


    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  2. Watershed-Scale Ecohydrological Studies of Woody Plant Encroachment in Sonoran and Chihuahuan Desert Landscapes (United States)

    Vivoni, E.; Pierini, N.; Anderson, C.; Schreiner-McGraw, A.; Robles-Morua, A.; Mendez-barroso, L. A.; Templeton, R. C.


    The causes and consequences of woody shrub and tree encroachment onto historical grasslands in arid and semiarid areas have been studied for over a century. Despite significant progress, the scientific community has not addressed the problem from a hydrologic perspective at a scale that integrates both vertical and lateral processes. The hydrologic budget of a small watershed can provide a strong constraint for other measured ecohydrological fluxes as well as help to link ecosystem transitions to changes in landscape properties. In this study, we present the measurement and modeling of ecohydrological processes in two watersheds in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (Green Valley, AZ) and the Jornada Experimental Range (Las Cruces, NM). In each watershed, a similar set of observations are obtained from a high-resolution sensor network consisting of six rain gauges, forty soil moisture and temperature profiles, four channel runoff flumes, a COSMOS sensor and an eddy covariance tower. In addition, high-resolution digital terrain models and image orthomosaics were obtained from an aircraft with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) measurements or an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a digital camera. Based on these datasets, a distributed hydrologic model has been applied and tested to reproduce spatiotemporal patterns in the watershed ecohydrological processes. We compare and contrast the observations and model simulations for two summer periods (2011 and 2012) when both watersheds responded to the precipitation availability during the North American monsoon. Activities at both sites will provide a foundation for synthesizing the role of woody plant encroachment on watershed hydrology with broad implications for the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts.

  3. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh


    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  4. Hydrologic research on instrumented watersheds (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere


    The successful research man is the one who asks himself the right question. Research must go on primarily in the mind and only secondarily in the physical and biological world. It is only too easy to confuse the choice of a proper tool and the choice of a proper question. Some tools are quite unsuited to certain questions and some questions cannot be answered without the appropriate tool.There has been in recent years a large amount of discussion about whether the high costs and the extensive time period required for experimental watershed* research is really worth the investment. Recent discussions of this matter have cited as major criticisms of the instrumented basin that they are expensive, they leak water, they are unrepresentative, they produce changes too small for detection, and it is difficult to transfer the results. (See Hewlett, Lull, and Reinhart, 1969.) These are all questions worth talking about, but in one sense they tend to obscure the main issue. The main issue is what do we want to learn? If we can decide what it is we want to know, then we can logically ask ourselves what is the best way of going about obtaining that knowledge. It is in this context that we are most likely to place the experimental watershed in a useful and logical position in a classification of research methods.

  5. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ozdogan


    Full Text Available Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 m elevation to the hot and dry Blue Nile gorge that includes areas below 1000 m elevation, and contain a diversity of slope forms and soil types. This physical diversity and accompanying socio-economic contrasts demand diverse strategies for enhanced climate resilience and adaptation to climate change. To support development of locally appropriate climate resilience strategies across the Blue Nile Highlands, we present here an agroecosystem analysis of Choke Mountain, under the premise that the agroecosystem—the intersection of climatic and physiographic conditions with agricultural practices—is the most appropriate unit for defining adaptation strategies in these primarily subsistence agriculture communities. To this end, we present two approaches to agroecosystem analysis that can be applied to climate resilience studies in the Choke Mountain watersheds and, as appropriate, to other agroecologically diverse regions attempting to design climate adaptation strategies. First, a full agroecoystem analysis was implemented in collaboration with local communities. It identified six distinct agroecosystems that differ systematically in constraints and adaptation potential. This analysis was then paired with an objective landscape classification trained to identify agroecosystems based on climate and physiographic setting alone. It was found that the distribution of Choke Mountain watershed agroecosystems can, to first order, be explained as a function of

  6. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng


    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  7. A proposed international watershed research network (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.


    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  8. Geospatial Data Combined With The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Tool For Rapid Post-Fire Watershed Assessments (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Clifford, T. J.; Guertin, D. P.; Sheppard, B. S.; Barlow, J. E.; Korgaonkar, Y.; Burns, I. S.; Unkrich, C. C.


    Wildfires disasters are common throughout the western US. While many feel fire suppression is the largest cost of wildfires, case studies note rehabilitation costs often equal or greatly exceed suppression costs. Using geospatial data sets, and post-fire burn severity products, coupled with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA -, the Dept. of Interior, Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams can rapidly analyze and identify at-risk areas to target rehabilitation efforts. AGWA employs nationally available geospatial elevation, soils, and land cover data to parameterize the KINEROS2 hydrology and erosion model. A pre-fire watershed simulation can be done prior to BAER deployment using design storms. As soon as the satellite-derived Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) map is obtained, a post-fire watershed simulation using the same storm is conducted. The pre- and post-fire simulations can be spatially differenced in the GIS for rapid identification of high at-risk areas of erosion or flooding. This difference map is used by BAER teams to prioritize field observations and in-turn produce a final burn severity map that is used in AGWA/KINEROS2 simulations to provide report ready results. The 2013 Elk Wildfire Complex that burned over 52,600 ha east of Boise, Idaho provides a tangible example of how BAER experts combined AGWA and geospatial data that resulted in substantial rehabilitation cost savings. The BAER team initially, they identified approximately 6,500 burned ha for rehabilitation. The team then used the AGWA pre- and post-fire watershed simulation results, accessibility constraints, and land slope conditions in an interactive process to locate burned areas that posed the greatest threat to downstream values-at-risk. The group combined the treatable area, field observations, and the spatial results from AGWA to target seed and mulch treatments that most effectively reduced the threats. Using this

  9. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) ... (United States)

    EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) version 2 is a decision support tool designed to facilitate integrated water management by communities at the small watershed scale. WMOST allows users to look across management options in stormwater (including green infrastructure), wastewater, drinking water, and land conservation programs to find the least cost solutions. The pdf version of these presentations accompany the recorded webinar with closed captions to be posted on the WMOST web page. The webinar was recorded at the time a training workshop took place for EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST, v2).

  10. Constraints and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Biskjær, Michael Mose; Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie


    Developing creative abilities is an important part of 21st century skills, and yet remains challenging. In this paper we describe a study investigating small-scale creative strategies that groups of Scandinavian high school students use when collaboratively building LEGO models. We recorded thirty...... groups of students building three models each. We studied groups building with traditional plastic bricks and also using a digital environment. The building tasks students undertake, and our subsequent analysis, are informed by the role constraints and ambiguity play in creative processes. Based...... on the insights we gained, we present three strategies for designing tools and environments that support students as they develop creative skills. These strategies relate to: tools and materials, mutual learning, and reflection...

  11. Relative constraints and evolution (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz


    Several mathematical models of evolving systems assume that changes in the micro-states are constrained to the search of an optimal value in a local or global objective function. However, the concept of evolution requires a continuous change in the environment and species, making difficult the definition of absolute optimal values in objective functions. In this paper, we define constraints that are not absolute but relative to local micro-states, introducing a rupture in the invariance of the phase space of the system. This conceptual basis is useful to define alternative mathematical models for biological (or in general complex) evolving systems. We illustrate this concept with a modified Ising model, which can be useful to understand and model problems like the somatic evolution of cancer.

  12. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...... and sub-concepts, including ‘late’, ‘self-imposed’, and ‘continua of creativity constraints’, to inform future cross-disciplinary work on creativity constraints....

  13. Solving Sudoku with Constraint Programming (United States)

    Crawford, Broderick; Castro, Carlos; Monfroy, Eric

    Constraint Programming (CP) is a powerful paradigm for modeling and solving Complex Combinatorial Problems (generally issued from Decision Making). In this work, we model the known Sudoku puzzle as a Constraint Satisfaction Problems and solve it with CP comparing the performance of different Variable and Value Selection Heuristics in its Enumeration phase. We encourage this kind of benchmark problem because it may suggest new techniques in constraint modeling and solving of complex systems, or aid the understanding of its main advantages and limits.

  14. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van


    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  15. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco


    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  16. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    and occasionally non-binding credit constraints. Easier credit access increases the likelihood that constraints become slack in the face of expansionary shocks, while contractionary shocks are further amplified due to tighter constraints. As a result, busts gradually become deeper than booms. Based...... on the differential impact that occasionally non-binding constraints exert on the shape of expansions and contractions, we are also able to reconcile a more negatively skewed business cycle with a moderation in its volatility. Finally, our model can account for an intrinsic feature of economic downturns preceded...

  17. Topographic Wetness Indices, Soil Moisture, and Water Table Dynamics Identify Hydrologic Flow Paths in a Forest Watershed (United States)

    Hofmeister, K.; Nave, L. E.; Drevnick, P. E.; Walter, M. T.


    Soil water is an essential hydrologic component linking water movement through a watershed with other hydrological, geological, and biological processes. Furthermore, soil water exists as water held in surface soil as well as shallow groundwater moving through the soil. Because soil moisture, shallow groundwater, and stream flow measurements in the field can be limited in spatial and temporal resolution due to constraints on resources, developing a relationship between point measurements and topographic wetness indices (TWIs) can allow for larger watershed or regional scale identification of saturated landscape areas and flow paths. We generated TWIs using topographic and soil data for a 120 ha forest watershed in northern Michigan. Field measurements of soil moisture, water table height, and stream flow were used to validate the TWIs as predictive maps of water storage and movement. TWIs successfully predicted spatial patterns of soil moisture and depth to water table at daily and seasonal scales. However, upland and wetland ecosystems showed fundamentally different relationships between observed soil moistures and TWI predictions. Temporal dynamics of soil moisture, shallow groundwater, and stream flow were linked seasonally during spring and fall recharge, and on a flashy event basis during the peak growing season. Collectively these results indicate that TWI maps can be effectively used to describe surface and shallow subsurface hydrology in this watershed, providing a hydrologic framework for watershed biogeochemistry research at this site.

  18. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  19. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education. (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.


    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  20. American River Watershed Investigation, California. Reconnaisance Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The report describes studies of alternative measures for flood control in the American River Watershed predicated on the assumption that Auburn Dam as previously authorized will not be constructed...

  1. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common reedgrass...

  2. Modifier constraint in alkali borophosphate glasses using topological constraint theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zeng, Huidan, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Jiang, Qi [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Donghui [Unifrax Corporation, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States); Chen, Guorong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Chen, Jianding [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)


    In recent years, composition-dependent properties of glasses have been successfully predicted using the topological constraint theory. The constraints of the glass network are derived from two main parts: network formers and network modifiers. The constraints of the network formers can be calculated on the basis of the topological structure of the glass. However, the latter cannot be accurately calculated in this way, because of the existing of ionic bonds. In this paper, the constraints of the modifier ions in phosphate glasses were thoroughly investigated using the topological constraint theory. The results show that the constraints of the modifier ions are gradually increased with the addition of alkali oxides. Furthermore, an improved topological constraint theory for borophosphate glasses is proposed by taking the composition-dependent constraints of the network modifiers into consideration. The proposed theory is subsequently evaluated by analyzing the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature in alkali borophosphate glasses. This method is supposed to be extended to other similar glass systems containing alkali ions.

  3. Modeling Economic Impacts of Environmental Flows in California's Yuba River Watershed (United States)

    Rheinheimer, D. E.; Yarnell, S.; Viers, J. H.


    Managing rivers is becoming more challenging with increasing demand for better environmental flow regimes, just as demand for water for hydropower and water supply are increasing and water supplies are changing due to climate change. Restoration of freshwater ecosystems, such as in the Yuba River in California’s Sierra Nevada, will require flows that mimic the natural flow regime, which native freshwater species are uniquely adapted to. In particular, freshwater ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada were historically adapted to the spring snowmelt flows. To study the potential effects of restoring a natural flow regime to the Yuba River watershed, we developed a multi-reservoir network flow optimization model of the watershed that represents environmental flows more ecologically useful than simple minimum instream flows, which are typically the only environmental requirement in streams. The model uses weekly time steps. The objective function is to maximize benefit, which equals hydropower revenue less penalties for deviations from environmental constraints and spills. Constraints include targets for minimum flows, maximum flows, maximum weekly up-ramp rates and maximum weekly down-ramp rates. We applied the model to the Yuba River watershed surface water inflow data from a rainfall-runoff model recently developed for the Sierra Nevada that considers regional climate warming of +0, 2, 4 and 6 °C. The Yuba watershed has high potential for fish restoration yet is currently managed primarily for hydropower. We assess the economic effects (primarily impacts on hydropower generation and revenues in the adjacent Bear River) and management implications of increasing and reshaping instream flow requirements in several ecologically important, yet regulated, stream reaches within the Yuba watershed. Further, we explore the potential of using regulating reservoirs to adapt to changing hydrologic conditions. Increasing minimum instream flow magnitudes in the South Fork Yuba River

  4. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability (United States)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel


    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  5. Land suitability assessment on a watershed of Loess Plateau using the analytic hierarchy process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Yi

    Full Text Available In order to reduce soil erosion and desertification, the Sloping Land Conversion Program has been conducted in China for more than 15 years, and large areas of farmland have been converted to forest and grassland. However, this large-scale vegetation-restoration project has faced some key problems (e.g. soil drying that have limited the successful development of the current ecological-recovery policy. Therefore, it is necessary to know about the land use, vegetation, and soil, and their inter-relationships in order to identify the suitability of vegetation restoration. This study was conducted at the watershed level in the ecologically vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau, to evaluate the land suitability using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The results showed that (1 the area unsuitable for crops accounted for 73.3% of the watershed, and the main factors restricting cropland development were soil physical properties and soil nutrients; (2 the area suitable for grassland was about 86.7% of the watershed, with the remaining 13.3% being unsuitable; (3 an area of 3.95 km(2, accounting for 66.7% of the watershed, was unsuitable for forest. Overall, the grassland was found to be the most suitable land-use to support the aims of the Sloping Land Conversion Program in the Liudaogou watershed. Under the constraints of soil water shortage and nutrient deficits, crops and forests were considered to be inappropriate land uses in the study area, especially on sloping land. When selecting species for re-vegetation, non-native grass species with high water requirements should be avoided so as to guarantee the sustainable development of grassland and effective ecological functioning. Our study provides local land managers and farmers with valuable information about the inappropriateness of growing trees in the study area along with some information on species selection for planting in the semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau.

  6. Land suitability assessment on a watershed of Loess Plateau using the analytic hierarchy process. (United States)

    Yi, Xiaobo; Wang, Li


    In order to reduce soil erosion and desertification, the Sloping Land Conversion Program has been conducted in China for more than 15 years, and large areas of farmland have been converted to forest and grassland. However, this large-scale vegetation-restoration project has faced some key problems (e.g. soil drying) that have limited the successful development of the current ecological-recovery policy. Therefore, it is necessary to know about the land use, vegetation, and soil, and their inter-relationships in order to identify the suitability of vegetation restoration. This study was conducted at the watershed level in the ecologically vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau, to evaluate the land suitability using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that (1) the area unsuitable for crops accounted for 73.3% of the watershed, and the main factors restricting cropland development were soil physical properties and soil nutrients; (2) the area suitable for grassland was about 86.7% of the watershed, with the remaining 13.3% being unsuitable; (3) an area of 3.95 km(2), accounting for 66.7% of the watershed, was unsuitable for forest. Overall, the grassland was found to be the most suitable land-use to support the aims of the Sloping Land Conversion Program in the Liudaogou watershed. Under the constraints of soil water shortage and nutrient deficits, crops and forests were considered to be inappropriate land uses in the study area, especially on sloping land. When selecting species for re-vegetation, non-native grass species with high water requirements should be avoided so as to guarantee the sustainable development of grassland and effective ecological functioning. Our study provides local land managers and farmers with valuable information about the inappropriateness of growing trees in the study area along with some information on species selection for planting in the semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau.

  7. Watershed Central: Harnessing a social media tool to organize local technical knowledge and find the right watershed resources for your watershed (United States)

    Watershed Central was developed to be a bridge between sharing and searching for information relating to watershed issues. This is dependent upon active user support through additions and updates to the Watershed Central Wiki. Since the wiki is user driven, the content and applic...

  8. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning


    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  9. Constraints in vector meson photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F


    Constraints are discussed for spin observables extracted from photoproduction of vector mesons. These constraints originate from positivity of the spin density matrix and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data. Spin observables need to be defined in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame.

  10. Constraints in Vector Meson Photoproduction (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F.


    Constraints are discussed for spin observables extracted from photoproduction of vector mesons. These constraints originate from positivity of the spin density matrix and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data. Spin observables need to be defined in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame.

  11. Thermodynamic Constraints Improve Metabolic Networks. (United States)

    Krumholz, Elias W; Libourel, Igor G L


    In pursuit of establishing a realistic metabolic phenotypic space, the reversibility of reactions is thermodynamically constrained in modern metabolic networks. The reversibility constraints follow from heuristic thermodynamic poise approximations that take anticipated cellular metabolite concentration ranges into account. Because constraints reduce the feasible space, draft metabolic network reconstructions may need more extensive reconciliation, and a larger number of genes may become essential. Notwithstanding ubiquitous application, the effect of reversibility constraints on the predictive capabilities of metabolic networks has not been investigated in detail. Instead, work has focused on the implementation and validation of the thermodynamic poise calculation itself. With the advance of fast linear programming-based network reconciliation, the effects of reversibility constraints on network reconciliation and gene essentiality predictions have become feasible and are the subject of this study. Networks with thermodynamically informed reversibility constraints outperformed gene essentiality predictions compared to networks that were constrained with randomly shuffled constraints. Unconstrained networks predicted gene essentiality as accurately as thermodynamically constrained networks, but predicted substantially fewer essential genes. Networks that were reconciled with sequence similarity data and strongly enforced reversibility constraints outperformed all other networks. We conclude that metabolic network analysis confirmed the validity of the thermodynamic constraints, and that thermodynamic poise information is actionable during network reconciliation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.


    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  13. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints (United States)

    Johnson, William R.


    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  14. Weighted Constraints in Fuzzy Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Kaymak (Uzay); J.M. Sousa


    textabstractMany practical optimization problems are characterized by some flexibility in the problem constraints, where this flexibility can be exploited for additional trade-off between improving the objective function and satisfying the constraints. Especially in decision making, this type of

  15. Market segmentation using perceived constraints (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen


    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  16. Integrity Constraints in Trust Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Winsborough, William H.

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust managementstyle authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then we address the fact that not all participants in a trust

  17. Conservation constraints on random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Wen Jong; Hsieh, J


    We study the random matrices constrained by the summation rules that are present in the Hessian of the potential energy surface in the instantaneous normal mode calculations, as a result of momentum conservation. In this paper, we analyse the properties related to such conservation constraints in two classes of real symmetric matrices: one with purely row-wise summation rules and the other with the constraints on the blocks of each matrix, which underscores partially the spatial dimension. We show explicitly that the constraints are removable by separating the degrees of freedom of the zero-eigenvalue modes. The non-spectral degrees of freedom under the constraints can be realized in terms of the ordinary constraint-free orthogonal symmetry but with the rank deducted by the block dimension. We propose that the ensemble of real symmetric matrices with full randomness, constrained by the summation rules, is equivalent to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) with lowered rank. Independent of the joint probabil...

  18. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff


    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint...... space and answers linear-constraint queries using an optimal number of I/Os in the worst case. For d=3, we present a near-linear-size data structure that answers queries using an optimal number of I/Os on the average. We present linear-size data structures that can answer d-dimensional linear-constraint...

  19. Developing stressor-watershed function relationships to refine the national maps of watershed integrity (United States)

    Abstract ESA 2017Developing stressor-watershed function relationships to refine the national maps of watershed integrityJohnson, Z.C., S.G. Leibowitz, and R.A. Hill. To be submitted to the Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Portland, OR. August 2017.Human-induced ecolo...

  20. The role of interior watershed processes in improving parameter estimation and performance of watershed models (United States)

    Watershed models typically are evaluated solely through comparison of in-stream water and nutrient fluxes with measured data using established performance criteria, whereas processes and responses within the interior of the watershed that govern these global fluxes often are neglected. Due to the l...

  1. Characterizing ponds in watershed simulations and evaluating their influence on streamflowin a Mississippi Watershed (United States)

    Small water bodies are common landscape features, but often are not simulated within a watershed modeling framework. The wetland modeling tool, AgWET, uses a GIS framework to characterize the features of ponds and wetlands so that they can be incorporated into watershed simulations using the Annuali...

  2. Spate Irrigation Systems and Watershed Development in Eritrea: the case of Sheeb watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.


    This paper describes the interactions of the Spate Irrigation System (SIS) in Eritrea with their upper watersheds, as a case study in Sheeb watershed. The spate irrigation practices, among others, include techniques to harvest runoff water, sediments, and nutrients. A strong relationship exists

  3. Watershed Fact Sheet: Improving Utah's Water Quality, Upper Sevier River Watershed


    Extension, USU


    The Upper Sevier River watershed is located in south central Utah, within the borders of Garfield, Kane, Piute, and Iron counties. This watershed encompasses the headwaters of the Sevier River which are straddled by the mountains of the Markagunt Plateau to the west and the Paunsaugunt Plateau to the east.

  4. Modeling Yuba River Watershed using WEHY Model and Dam Operation Rules (United States)

    Pahwa, Prince

    Water is an essential requirement for human existence. However, due to economic and social developments as well as climate change, both water withdrawals and water supplies are changing significantly. Water consumption has an increasing tendency in all the sectors mainly in agricultural use, industrial and power generation use, and domestic use. The total water demand of US is projected to increase by about 12.3 percent between 2000 and 2050. In the meantime, water supplies are being impacted by climate change and anthropogenic impacts. It has, thus, become a necessity to be able to model and predict the water flow based on integration of spatial elements and atmospheric/climatic changes. The purpose of this project is to model the surface run off in the Yuba River Watershed, California, given the geographic and geomorphologic complexities and the presence of dams that regulate the water discharge. The model used, the Watershed Environmental Hydrology Model, WEHY, utilizes upscaled hydrologic conservation equations to describe the evolution of the hydrologic processes and environmental processes within a watershed in time and space. It is capable of accounting for the effect of heterogeneity within natural watersheds. With the development of modern geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, increasingly more watershed physical attributes are digitally available, such as topography, geology, soils, land/vegetation cover, and so on. Because the WEHY model parameters are related to the physical properties of the watershed, it is possible to estimate the geomorphologic parameters and the soil hydraulic parameters of the WEHY model by means of existing GIS data sets that describe the geomorphologic features and the soil conditions. So the geographic and geomorphologic complexities are addressed by WEHY and GIS. Presence of big dams makes it necessary to define operation rules taking care of all the constraints including downstream water demand

  5. Payments for Ecosystem Services for watershed water resource allocations (United States)

    Fu, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Zang, Wenbin; Guo, Wenxian; Qian, Zhan; Liu, Laisheng; Zhao, Jinyong; Feng, Jian


    Watershed water resource allocation focuses on concrete aspects of the sustainable management of Ecosystem Services (ES) that are related to water and examines the possibility of implementing Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for water ES. PES can be executed to satisfy both economic and environmental objectives and demands. Considering the importance of calculating PES schemes at the social equity and cooperative game (CG) levels, to quantitatively solve multi-objective problems, a water resources allocation model and multi-objective optimization are provided. The model consists of three modules that address the following processes: ① social equity mechanisms used to study water consumer associations, ② an optimal decision-making process based on variable intervals and CG theory, and ③ the use of Shapley values of CGs for profit maximization. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology for realizing sustainable development was examined. First, an optimization model with water allocation objective was developed based on sustainable water resources allocation framework that maximizes the net benefit of water use. Then, to meet water quality requirements, PES cost was estimated using trade-off curves among different pollution emission concentration permissions. Finally, to achieve equity and supply sufficient incentives for water resources protection, CG theory approaches were utilized to reallocate PES benefits. The potential of the developed model was examined by its application to a case study in the Yongding River watershed of China. Approximately 128 Mm3 of water flowed from the upper reach (Shanxi and Hebei Provinces) sections of the Yongding River to the lower reach (Beijing) in 2013. According to the calculated results, Beijing should pay USD6.31 M (¥39.03 M) for water-related ES to Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. The results reveal that the proposed methodology is an available tool that can be used for sustainable development with resolving PES

  6. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa


    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  7. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah


    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Groves


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The technology of Constraint Programming is rapidly becoming a popular alternative for solving large-scale industry problems. This paper provides an introduction to Constraint Programming and to Constraint Logic Programming (CLP, an enabler of constraint programming. The use of Constraint Logic Programming is demonstrated by describing a system developed for scheduling university timetables. Timetabling problems have a high degree of algorithmic complexity (they are usually NP-Complete, and share features with scheduling problems encountered in industry. The system allows the declaration of both hard requirements, which must always be satisfied, and soft constraints which need not be satisfied, though this would be an advantage.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n familie van probleem-oplossingstegnieke bekend as “Constraint Programming”, wat al hoe meer gebruik word om groot-skaalse industriële probleme op te los. Die nut van hierdie tegnieke word gedemonstreer deur die beskrywing van ’n skeduleringsisteem om die roosters vir ’n universiteit te genereer. Roosterskeduleringsprobleme is in praktiese gevalle NP-volledig en deel baie eienskappe met industriële skeduleringsprobleme. Die sisteem wat hier beskryf word maak gebruik van beide harde beperkings (wat altyd bevredig moet word en sagte beperkings (bevrediging hiervan is wel voordelig maar dit is opsioneel.

  9. Analysis of optical flow constraints. (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C


    Different constraint equations have been proposed in the literature for the derivation of optical flow. Despite of the large number of papers dealing with computational techniques to estimate optical flow, only a few authors have investigated conditions under which these constraints exactly model the velocity field, that is, the perspective projection on the image plane of the true 3-D velocity. These conditions are analyzed under different hypotheses, and the departures of the constraint equations in modeling the velocity field are derived for different motion conditions. Experiments are also presented giving measures of these departures and of the induced errors in the estimation of the velocity field.

  10. Building multi-country collaboration on watershed ... (United States)

    Community-based watershed resilience programs that bridge public health and environmental outcomes often require cross-boundary, multi-country collaboration. The CRESSIDA project, led by the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) and supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), forwards a resilience-focused approach for Western Balkan communities in the Drini and Drina river watersheds with the goal of safeguarding public health and the environment. The initial phases of this project give a contextualized example of how to advance resilience-driven environmental health goals in Western Balkan communities, and experience within the region has garnered several theme areas that require focus in order to promote a holistic watershed management program. In this paper, using CRESSIDA as a case study, we show (1) how watershed projects designed with resilience-driven environmental health goals can work in context, (2) provide data surrounding contextualized problems with resilience and suggest tools and strategies for the implementation of projects to address these problems, and (3) explore how cross-boundary foci are central to the success of these approaches in watersheds that comprise several countries. Published in the journal, Reviews on Environmental Health.

  11. Land protection plan : Bear River Watershed Conservation Area (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is establishing a conservation area for the Bear River watershed in Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. The Bear River Watershed...

  12. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 04 - HUC 08 - Majors (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of 81 watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Major Watersheds....


    Through a wide range of information and topics, Integrated Watershed Management Principles and Practice shows how involved the watershed management planning process can be. The book is informative, and the author obviously has researched the subject thoroughly. The book's case...

  14. How Sustainable is Participatory Watershed Development in India?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.; Soest, van D.P.; Bulte, E.H.


    Watershed conservation is widely recognized as a major strategy for rural development throughout the developing world. In India, the apparent success of participatory approaches to watershed development resulted in a decentralization of project planning, implementation, and management to local

  15. Information Management for the Watershed Approach in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    A collection of interviews with leaders and key participants in the statewide watershed approach activities in the State of Washington. Additionally, there are reviews of Washington’s statewide watershed activities in a case study fashion.

  16. The Mystic River Watershed Initiative Steering Committee Purpose and Structure (United States)

    The Mystic River Watershed Initiative (MRWI) works to improve water quality and public access to open spaces in the Mystic River watershed. The MRWI Steering Committee meets regularly to discuss key issues and priority actions related to this initiative.

  17. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed. (United States)

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng


    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world.

  18. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed (United States)

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng


    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world. PMID:28273834

  19. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangli Su


    Full Text Available In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential. Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world.

  20. Topology Optimization with Stress Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbart, A.


    This thesis contains contributions to the development of topology optimization techniques capable of handling stress constraints. The research that led to these contributions was motivated by the need for topology optimization techniques more suitable for industrial applications. Currently, topology

  1. Decentralized systems with design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S


    This volume provides a rigorous examination of the analysis, stability and control of large-scale systems, and addresses the difficulties that arise because of dimensionality, information structure constraints, parametric uncertainty and time-delays.

  2. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose


    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due...... to no overall conceptual framing or shared terminology. This lack of unity hinders overt opportunities for cross-disciplinary interchange. We argue that an improved understanding of constraints in creativity holds a promising potential for advancements in creativity research across domains and disciplines. Here......, we give an overview of the growing, but incohesive body of research into creativity and constraints, which leads us to introduce ‘creativity constraints’ as a unifying concept to help bridge these disjoint contributions to facilitate crossdisciplinary interchange. Finally, we suggest key topics...

  3. Can Leverage Constraints Help Investors?


    Heimer, Rawley


    This paper provides causal evidence that leverage constraints can reduce the underperformance of individual investors. In accordance with Dodd-Frank, the CFTC was given regulatory authority over the retail market for foreign exchange and capped the maximum permissible leverage available to U.S. traders. By comparing U.S. traders on the same brokerages with their unregulated European counterparts, I show that the leverage constraint reduces average per-trade losses even after adjusting for ris...

  4. Risk Sharing under Incentive Constraints.


    Wagner, W.B.


    In addressing the matter, this thesis covers issues such as the welfare gains from international risk sharing, the impact of international risk sharing on national economic policies and production efficiency, the welfare effects of international risk sharing in the presence of tax competition, and risk sharing among entrepreneurs that face financing constraints. The thesis outlines the implications of incentive constraints for the efficiency of the actual extent and pattern of risk sharing am...

  5. Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO): Facilitating Discovery, Evaluation and Integration through the Sharing of Watershed Modeling Data (United States)

    Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO) is a system of information technologies designed to publish watershed modeling studies for reuse. WEDO facilitates three aspects of interoperability: discovery, evaluation and integration of data. This increased level of interop...

  6. Understanding human uses and values in watershed analysis. (United States)

    Roger D. Fight; Linda E. Kruger; Christopher Hansen-Murray; Arnold Holden; Dale. Bays


    Watershed analysis is used as a tool to understand the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem processes at the landscape scale and to assess opportunities to restore or improve those processes and associated watershed conditions. Assessing those opportunities correctly requires an understanding of how humans have interacted with the watershed in the past and...

  7. Guiding principles for management of forested, agricultural, and urban watersheds (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W.J. Williard


    Human actions must be well planned and include consideration of their potential influences on water and aquatic ecosystems - such consideration is the foundation of watershed management. Watersheds are the ideal land unit for managing and protecting water resources and aquatic health because watersheds integrate the physical, biological and chemical processes within...

  8. Challenges of Participatory Approach to Watershed Management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also showed that many of the communities had rules and regulations guiding the use of watersheds but could not apply the principle of participatory management approach to ensure sustainability of the watersheds. However, the rules and regulations merely emphasized environmental sanitation of the watershed ...

  9. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajeet Chaubey


    Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ≤ NS ≤ 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  10. Upper South Platte Watershed Protection and Restoration Project (United States)

    Steve Culver; Cindy Dean; Fred Patten; Jim Thinnes


    The Upper South Platte Basin is a critical watershed in Colorado. Nearly 80 percent of the water used by the 1.5 million Denver metropolitan residents comes from or is transmitted through this river drainage. The Colorado Unified Watershed Assessment identified the Upper South Platte River as a Category 1 watershed in need of restoration. Most of the river basin is...

  11. Water balance of drained plantation watersheds in North Carolina (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; R. W. Skaggs


    A 3-year study to evaluate the effect of thinning on the hydrology of a drained loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation was conducted in eastern North Carolina. The study utilized a paired watershed design with a 40-ha thinned watershed (WS5) and a 16-ha control watershed (WS2). Data from the field experiment conducted from 1999-2002 was used to...

  12. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.


    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  13. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks


    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... in determining conservation policy. We incorporated remote-sensing data, expert opinion on current watershed quality, and a spatial economic and hydrological model of O`ahu’s freshwater use with reports of conservation activities from 1910–1960 to assess these benefits. We find a 2.3% annual increase...

  14. Watershed Fact Sheet: Improving Utah's Water Quality, Middle and Lower Sevier Watershed


    Extension, USU


    The Middle and Lower Sevier watershed includes all of the basins of the Middle and Lower Sevier River, and is located in all or parts of Piute, Sevier, Sanpete, Juab, Millard, Tooele and Beaver counties.

  15. USLE Estimation for Potential Erosion at Wae Heru Watershed and Wae Tonahitu Watershed, Ambon Island, Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saiya, Halvina Grasela; Dibyosaputro, Suprapto; Santosa, Sigit Herumurti Budi


    Abstract Calculate the potential erosion at Wae Heru and Wae Tonahitu Watershed aims to map and assess the potential erosion, in order to be a scientific consideration for exploration and development...

  16. Ecology-oriented groundwater resource assessment in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China (United States)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, G. H.; Li, W. L.


    In arid and semi-arid regions, a close relationship exists between groundwater and supergene eco-environmental issues such as swampiness, soil salinization, desertification, vegetation degradation, reduction of stream base flow, and disappearance of lakes and wetlands. When the maximum allowable withdrawal of groundwater (AWG) is assessed, an ecology-oriented regional groundwater resource assessment (RGRA) method should be used. In this study, a hierarchical assessment index system of the supergene eco-environment was established based on field survey data and analysis of the supergene eco-environment factors influenced by groundwater in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China. The assessment system comprised 11 indices, including geomorphological type, lithology and structure of the vadose zone, depth of the water table (DWT), total dissolved solids content of groundwater, etc. Weights for all indices were calculated using an analytical hierarchy process. Then, the current eco-environmental conditions were assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Under the imposed constraints, and using both the assessment results on the current eco-environment situation and the ecological constraint of DWT (1.5-5.0 m), the maximum AWG (0.408 × 108 m3/a or 24.29 % of the river base flow) was determined. This was achieved by combining the groundwater resource assessment with the supergene eco-environmental assessment based on FCE. If the maximum AWG is exceeded in a watershed, the eco-environment will gradually deteriorate and produce negative environmental effects. The ecology-oriented maximum AWG can be determined by the ecology-oriented RGRA method, and thus sustainable groundwater use in similar watersheds in other arid and semi-arid regions can be achieved.

  17. Holonomic constraints: an analytical result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazars, Martial [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Universite de Paris Sud XI, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    Systems subjected to holonomic constraints follow quite complicated dynamics that could not be described easily with Hamiltonian or Lagrangian dynamics. The influence of holonomic constraints in equations of motions is taken into account by using Lagrange multipliers. Finding the value of the Lagrange multipliers allows us to compute the forces induced by the constraints and therefore, to integrate the equations of motions of the system. Computing analytically the Lagrange multipliers for a constrained system may be a difficult task that depends on the complexity of systems. For complex systems it is, most of the time, impossible to achieve. In computer simulations, some algorithms using iterative procedures estimate numerically Lagrange multipliers or constraint forces by correcting the unconstrained trajectory. In this work, we provide an analytical computation of the Lagrange multipliers for a set of linear holonomic constraints with an arbitrary number of bonds of constant length. In the appendix explicit formulae are shown for Lagrange multipliers for systems having 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 bonds of constant length, linearly connected.

  18. A Hybrid Inexact Optimization Method for Land-Use Allocation in Association with Environmental/Ecological Requirements at a Watershed Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingkui Qiu


    Full Text Available In this study, an inexact stochastic fuzzy programming (ISFP model is proposed for land-use allocation (LUA and environmental/ecological planning at a watershed level, where uncertainties associated with land-use parameters, benefit functions, and environmental/ecological requirements are described as discrete intervals, probabilities and fuzzy sets. In this model, an interval stochastic fuzzy programming model is used to support quantitative optimization under uncertainty. Complexities in land-use planning systems can be systematically reflected, thus applicability of the modeling process can be highly enhanced. The proposed method is applied to planning land use/ecological balance in Poyang Lake watershed, China. The objective of the ISFP is maximizing net benefit from the LUA system and the constraints including economic constraints, social constraints, land suitability constraints, environmental constraints, ecological constraints and technical constraints. Modeling results indicate that the desired system benefit will be between [15.17, 18.29] × 1012 yuan under the minimum violating probabilities; the optimized areas of commercial land, industrial land, agricultural land, transportation land, residential land, water land, green land, landfill land and unused land will be optimized cultivated land, forest land, grass land, water land, urban land, unused land and landfill will be [228234, 237844] ha, [47228, 58451] ha, [20982, 23718] ha, [33897, 35280] ha, [15215, 15907] ha, [528, 879] ha and [1023, 1260] ha. These data can be used for generating decision alternatives under different scenarios and thus help decision makers identify desired policies under various system-reliability constraints of ecological requirement and environmental capacity. Tradeoffs between system benefits and constraint-violation risks can be tackled. They are helpful for supporting (a decision of land-use allocation and government investment; (b formulation of local

  19. Modeling rock weathering in small watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, F.A.L.; van der Weijden, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06836816X


    Many mountainous watersheds are conceived as aquifer media where multiple groundwater flow systems have developed (Tóth, 1963), and as bimodal landscapes where differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled rock has occurred (Wahrhaftig, 1965). The results of a weathering algorithm (Pacheco and

  20. Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed ... (United States)

    Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were developed to quantify the nonlinear relationships between landscape variables and nutrient concentrations in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed during base-flow conditions. Factors that affect instream biological components, based on the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), were also analyzed. Seasonal BRT models at two spatial scales (watershed and riparian buffered area [RBA]) for nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP) and annual models for the IBI score were developed. Two primary factors — location within the watershed (i.e., geographic position, stream order, and distance to a downstream confluence) and percentage of urban land cover (both scales) — emerged as important predictor variables. Latitude and longitude interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores. BRT results also suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover), runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors), and processes not easily represented by spatial data indicators. Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrological Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. The results from our BRT approach can help prioritize areas for nutrient management in mixed-use and heavily impacted watershed

  1. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) (United States)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA, see: or is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University ...

  2. Modeling global nutrient export from watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Bouwman, A.F.; Seitzinger, S.


    We describe how global models can be used to analyze past and future trends in nutrient export from watersheds and how such models can be used to analyze causes and effects of coastal eutrophication. Future nutrient inputs to coastal waters may be higher than today, and nutrient ratios may depart

  3. Joint Management of Transboundary Watersheds : Promoting Peace ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Equitable access to and efficient management of water is critical for sustainable development, ecosystem protection, and social and political stability. Water rights and management are an important source of tension between Latin American countries, given that 60% of the continent belongs to transboundary watersheds.

  4. Adapting to Climate Change through Improved Watershed ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Other problems, such as ecosystem degradation and climate change impacts, are compromising water quality and availability, increasing the risk of droughts and floods in the watershed. Given these pressures, this project seeks to inform changes to the current approach to integrated water resources management.

  5. Adapting to Climate Change through Improved Watershed ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adapting to Climate Change through Improved Watershed Management and Payment for Environmental Services in Morocco's Tensift Basin ... Women in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and ...

  6. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi


    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  7. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik


    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto


    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  9. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.


    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur

  10. Magnetotail dynamics under isobaric constraints (United States)

    Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl; Janicke, Lutz; Hesse, Michael


    Using linear theory and nonlinear MHD simulations, we investigate the resistive and ideal MHD stability of two-dimensional plasma configurations under the isobaric constraint dP/dt = 0, which in ideal MHD is equivalent to conserving the pressure function P = P(A), where A denotes the magnetic flux. This constraint is satisfied for incompressible modes, such as Alfven waves, and for systems undergoing energy losses. The linear stability analysis leads to a Schroedinger equation, which can be investigated by standard quantum mechanics procedures. We present an application to a typical stretched magnetotail configuration. For a one-dimensional sheet equilibrium characteristic properties of tearing instability are rediscovered. However, the maximum growth rate scales with the 1/7 power of the resistivity, which implies much faster growth than for the standard tearing mode (assuming that the resistivity is small). The same basic eigen-mode is found also for weakly two-dimensional equilibria, even in the ideal MHD limit. In this case the growth rate scales with the 1/4 power of the normal magnetic field. The results of the linear stability analysis are confirmed qualitatively by nonlinear dynamic MHD simulations. These results suggest the interesting possibility that substorm onset, or the thinning in the late growth phase, is caused by the release of a thermodynamic constraint without the (immediate) necessity of releasing the ideal MHD constraint. In the nonlinear regime the resistive and ideal developments differ in that the ideal mode does not lead to neutral line formation without the further release of the ideal MHD constraint; instead a thin current sheet forms. The isobaric constraint is critically discussed. Under perhaps more realistic adiabatic conditions the ideal mode appears to be stable but could be driven by external perturbations and thus generate the thin current sheet in the late growth phase, before a nonideal instability sets in.

  11. New Constraints on Quantum Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.


    Full Text Available Hierarchical relationships between physical theories are discussed. It is explained how a lower rank theory imposes constraints on an acceptable structure of its higher rank theory. This principle is applied to the case of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory of massive particles. It is proved that the Dirac equation is consistent with these constraints whereas the Klein-Gordon equation, as well as all other second order quan- tum equations are inconsistent with the Schrödinger equation. This series of arguments undermines the theoretical structure of the Standard Model.

  12. Designing a watershed scorecard as a performance evaluation tool for Ur River watershed, Tikamgarh District, Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeta Gupta


    Full Text Available The study is an attempt to design a watershed scorecard by identifying and evaluating selected set of indicators, such as surface water quality, ground water quality, soil condition, agriculture condition, and forest condition, which accurately reflect the health of the watershed. Ur River Watershed in Tikamgarh District, Madhya Pradesh was taken as a case study to assess the watershed health. Evaluation was done by calculating different indices for the selected set of indicators and comparing them with the National standards and guidelines. Based on the performance of each indicator, the grades were assigned to the indicators which helped in designing the watershed scorecard. The results revealed that within the watershed, the forest and soil conditions need a considerable plan for improvement in order to maintain the ecosystem whereas the surface water quality, groundwater quality and the agricultural conditions requires protection as well as enhancement in certain areas. Keywords: Watershed scorecard, Ur River, Bundelkhand, Water quality, Agricultural condition

  13. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L


    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to

  14. Streamflow simulation by a watershed model using stochastically generated weather in New York City watersheds (United States)

    Mukundan, R.; Acharya, N.; Gelda, R.; Owens, E. M.; Frei, A.; Schneiderman, E. M.


    Recent studies have reported increasing trends in total precipitation, and in the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events in the West of Hudson (WOH) watersheds of the New York City (NYC) water supply. The potential effects of these changes may pose challenges for both water quality (such as increased sediment and nutrient loading) and quantity (such as reservoir storage and management). The NYC Dept. of Environmental Protection Climate Change Integrated Modeling Project (CCIMP) is using "bottom-up" or vulnerability based methods to explore climate impacts on water resources. Stochastic weather generators (SWGs) are an integral component of the bottom-up approach. Previous work has identified and evaluated the skill of alternative stochastic weather generators of varying complexity for simulating the statistical characteristics of observed minimum and maximum daily air temperature and occurrence and amount of precipitation. This evaluation focused on the skill in representing extreme streamflow event probabilities across NYC West of Hudson (WOH) watersheds. Synthetic weather time series from the selected (skewed normal) SWG were used to drive the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) watershed model for a 600 year long period to simulate daily streamflows for WOH watersheds under a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Long-term average daily streamflows generated using the synthetic weather time series were comparable to values generated using observed long-term (1950-2009) weather time series. This study demonstrates the ability of the selected weather generator to adequately represent the hydrologic response in WOH watersheds with respect to the total, peak, and seasonality in streamflows. Future application of SWGs in NYC watersheds will include generating multiple scenarios of changing climate to evaluate water supply system vulnerability and selection of appropriate adaptation measures.

  15. Social Exclusion in Watershed Development: Evidence From the Indo-German Watershed Development Project in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwer Kale


    Full Text Available The concept of social exclusion is context-specific and there is no uniform paradigm of exclusion across the world. This paper attempts to analyse exclusion of resource-poor groups in watershed development programmes in the Indian context. It aims to explore excluded community groups from the perspective of people’s equal opportunity and equal access to newly generated economic benefits in watershed development programmes. The paper also traces the determinant factors responsible for denial and exclusion of resource-poor groups and describes the detailed processes involved in their exclusion from institutional and livelihood opportunities in watershed programmes. At the same time, the paper also explores suggestions and views of resource-poor groups about their meaningful social inclusion in watershed programme. The Gadiwat Indo-German Watershed Development Project in Aurangabad district in the State of Maharashtra is studied in detail in terms of its social, economic and political realities through mix-method and multi-stakeholder approaches. The key findings of the paper are that landownership, caste, gender, membership in village institutions and/or watershed institutions or close relationship with members, as well as the limitations of the programme guidelines, are the major determinants of institutional inclusion and the extent of resulting economic benefits. The exclusion of resource-poor groups mainly takes the form of their exclusion from institutional representation. In order to promote meaningful social inclusion of resource-poor groups, there is need for a more livelihood-oriented focus and their equal representation and participation in watershed institutions.

  16. Biological Constraints on Literacy Acquisition. (United States)

    Cossu, Giuseppe


    Investigates some of the biological constraints that shape the process of literacy acquisition. Explores the possibility of isolating processing components of reading which correspond to computational units of equivalent size in the neural architecture. Suggests that the process of literacy acquisition is largely constrained by a specific…

  17. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper


    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  18. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren


    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity...

  19. Conjoined Constraints and Phonological Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bonilha


    Full Text Available Since the start of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993, research on phonological acquisition has explored the explanatory potential of constraint theories. This study, also based on Optimality Theory, attempts to analyze the acquisition of CVVC syllable structure by Brazilian Portuguese children and addresses the issue of Local Conjunction (Smolensky, 1995, 1997 in research that deals with problems of phonological acquisition.

  20. Continuous Optimization on Constraint Manifolds (United States)

    Dean, Edwin B.


    This paper demonstrates continuous optimization on the differentiable manifold formed by continuous constraint functions. The first order tensor geodesic differential equation is solved on the manifold in both numerical and closed analytic form for simple nonlinear programs. Advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional optimization techniques are discussed.

  1. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.


    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  2. Constraint-Based Scheduling System (United States)

    Zweben, Monte; Eskey, Megan; Stock, Todd; Taylor, Will; Kanefsky, Bob; Drascher, Ellen; Deale, Michael; Daun, Brian; Davis, Gene


    Report describes continuing development of software for constraint-based scheduling system implemented eventually on massively parallel computer. Based on machine learning as means of improving scheduling. Designed to learn when to change search strategy by analyzing search progress and learning general conditions under which resource bottleneck occurs.

  3. From community preferences to design: Investigation of human-centered optimization algorithms in web-based, democratic planning of watershed restoration (United States)

    Babbar-Sebens, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.


    Web 2.0 technologies are useful resources for reaching out to larger stakeholder communities and involve them in policy making and planning efforts. While these technologies have been used in the past to support education and communication endeavors, we have developed a novel, web-based, interactive planning tool that involves the community in using science-based methods for the design of potential runoff management strategies on their landscape. The tool, Watershed REstoration using Spatio-Temporal Optimization of Resources (WRESTORE), uses a democratic voting process coupled with visualization interfaces, computational simulation and optimization models, and user modeling techniques to support a human-centered design approach. The tool can be used to engage diverse watershed stakeholders and landowners via the internet, thereby improving opportunities for outreach and collaborations. Users are able to (a) design multiple types of conservation practices at their field-scale catchment and at the entire watershed scale, (b) examine impacts and limitations of their decisions on their neighboring catchments and on the entire watershed, (c) compare alternatives via a cost-benefit analysis, (d) vote on their "favorite" designs based on their preferences and constraints, and (e) propose their "favorite" alternatives to policy makers and other stakeholders. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the effectiveness of WRESTORE for designing alternatives of conservation practices to reduce peak flows in a Midwestern watershed, present results on multiple approaches for engaging with larger communities, and discuss potential for future developments.

  4. Watershed characteristics and water-quality trends and loads in 12 watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia (United States)

    Joiner, John K.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Landers, Mark N.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a Long-Term Trend Monitoring (LTTM) program in 1996. The LTTM program is a comprehensive, long-term, water-quantity and water-quality monitoring program designed to document and analyze the hydrologic and water-quality conditions of selected watersheds of Gwinnett County, Georgia. Water-quality monitoring initially began in six watersheds and was expanded to another six watersheds in 2001. As part of the LTTM program, streamflow, precipitation, water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity were measured continuously at the 12 watershed monitoring stations for water years 2004–09. In addition, discrete water-quality samples were collected seasonally from May through October (summer) and November through April (winter), including one base-flow and three stormflow event composite samples, during the study period. Samples were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total organic carbon, trace elements (total lead and total zinc), total dissolved solids, and total suspended sediment (total suspended solids and suspended-sediment concentrations). The sampling scheme was designed to identify variations in water quality both hydrologically and seasonally. The 12 watersheds were characterized for basin slope, population density, land use for 2009, and the percentage of impervious area from 2000 to 2009. Precipitation in water years 2004–09 was about 18 percent below average, and the county experienced exceptional drought conditions and below average runoff in water years 2007 and 2008. Watershed water yields, the percentage of precipitation that results in runoff, typically are lower in low precipitation years and are higher for watersheds with the highest percentages of impervious areas. A comparison of base-flow and stormflow water-quality samples indicates that turbidity and concentrations of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, total

  5. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder


    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable...... medical equipment. At Coloplast, constraints played a fundamental role and the observations show the important, dual role of constraints in terms of being a limitation and a prerequisite for creativity. Too few or too many constraints had a negative impact on creativity, whereas the formulation, rationale...... and ownership of formal constraints played a crucial role in defining their influence on creativity – along with the tacit constraints held by the designers. The designers were found to be highly constraint focused, and four main creative strategies for constraint manipulation were observed: blackboxing...

  6. Integrating local research watersheds into hydrologic education: Lessons from the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Aishlin, P. S.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.; Marshall, H. P.; Pierce, J. L.


    While a proliferation of instrumented research watersheds and new data sharing technologies has transformed hydrologic research in recent decades, similar advances have not been realized in hydrologic education. Long-standing problems in hydrologic education include discontinuity of hydrologic topics from introductory to advanced courses, inconsistency of content across academic departments, and difficulties in development of laboratory and homework assignments utilizing large time series and spatial data sets. Hydrologic problems are typically not amenable to "back-of-the-chapter" examples. Local, long-term research watersheds offer solutions to these problems. Here, we describe our integration of research and monitoring programs in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed into undergraduate and graduate hydrology programs at Boise State University. We developed a suite of watershed-based exercises into courses and curriculums using real, tangible datasets from the watershed to teach concepts not amenable to traditional textbook and lecture methods. The aggregation of exercises throughout a course or degree allows for scaffolding of concepts with progressive exposure of advanced concepts throughout a course or degree. The need for exercises of this type is growing as traditional lecture-based classes (passive learning from a local authoritative source) are being replaced with active learning courses that integrate many sources of information through situational factors.

  7. Automatic delineation of a watershed using a DEM. Case study – The Oltet watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea ZAMFIR


    Full Text Available This paper aims to present some solutions for automatic delineation of a watershed. In order to find this study’s applicability in the geographical reality, we decided that the river whose watershed will be delineated to be Oltet river. Automatic delineation of the Olteţ watershed was carried out comparatively, using two softwares, ArcGIS Desktop 9.3 andQuantum GIS 1.7.0 Wroclaw, and it based on a SRTM digital elevation model of 90 m. After using GIS techniques, there have resulted two maps showing the boundary of theOlteţ watershed. By overlapping the resulted maps, obtained with ArcGIS and QGIS, we found some small differences generated by the different way of working of each softwareinvolved in this study. We have also calculated a circularity coefficient for the Oltet watershed and the value obtained supports its elongated form and all the implication of it.

  8. Developing Participatory Models of Watershed Management in the Sugar Creek Watershed (Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Shaw Parker


    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  9. Project Scheduling Under Resource Constraints: Application of the Cumulative Global Constraint


    Trojet, Mariem; H'Mida, Fehmi; Lopez, Pierre


    International audience; This paper concerns project scheduling under resource constraints. The objective is to find a solution that minimizes the project makespan, while respecting the precedence constraints and the resource constraints. The problem under consideration is modelled as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP). It is implemented under the constraint programming language CHIP V5. For modelling the resource constraints, we are particularly interested in the application of the cumul...

  10. Multiple stressors in the Sacramento River watershed. (United States)

    Hinton, D E


    Aquatic biota in the Sacramento River watershed are stressed by diversion of river flows, by historical mining resulting in cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury, and, more recently, contamination by agricultural and urban chemical runoff. In addition, the proposed redirection of drainage of saline waters--containing selenium--from the western slope of the San Joaquin River into the Delta formed by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers could add to the stress on resident organisms. These combined stressors have led to deterioration in surface water quality and the aquatic habitat. The potential interaction of these stressors, coupled with invasions of foreign species and the export of juvenile fish into aqueducts, has driven several species of fish to near extinction in the system. Effects of historical contamination by heavy metals are potentially exacerbated by presence of organophosphate pesticides, at concentrations exceeding National Academy of Sciences recommendations, throughout the lower watershed and the San Francisco Bay. The Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, an introduced non-indigenous species has apparently become a preferred food item of the sturgeon, Accipenser transmontanus, an important sport and aquaculture species. Since this introduction, sturgeon body burdens for selenium have increased dramatically and analytical chemistry of P. amurensis indicates that these organisms are effective bioaccumulators of selenium. This review examines potential ecotoxicity associated with multiple stressors in the watershed. Data from field monitoring, laboratory toxicity assays with ambient water, and ecotoxicologic investigations are reviewed. Potential designs for multiple stressor investigations are discussed. The information presented on this watershed illustrates the challenge to investigators seeking to evaluate multiple stressor effects on riverine and estuarine organisms.

  11. Watershed modeling at the Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vache, Kellie [Oregon State University


    The overall goal of the work was the development of a watershed scale model of hydrological function for application to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary outcomes is a grid based hydrological modeling system that captures near surface runoff as well as groundwater recharge and contributions of groundwater to streams. The model includes a physically-based algorithm to capture both evaporation and transpiration from forestland.

  12. Nitrate dynamics in artificially drained nested watersheds (United States)

    Billy, C.; Birgand, F.; Sebilo, M.; Billen, G.; Tournebize, J.; Kao, C.

    There is concern that subsurface drainage, by destroying or by-passing active denitrification areas, may prevent nitrate retention processes and enhance nitrate contamination of surface water by agriculture. To address this question, we studied the flow and concentration signatures of drainage waters and their transformations in a series of 5 nested watersheds, from 1 to 100 km 2 area, in the Brie region near Paris (France). At all scales, nitrate concentrations are generally higher during the winter drainage season compared to the low flow periods (late spring to early fall). High nitrate concentrations characterizing drainage waters are visible at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd stream order but are “diluted” by surface runoff from forested zones and buffered by groundwater contributions. The analysis of nitrate chemographs and nitrate budgets established for the different nested watersheds show significant nitrogen retention. Isotopic measurements indicate that the nitrate pool is enriched in δ 15N- NO3- as its concentration decreases. Direct estimation of benthic denitrification with benthic chambers allowed concluding that benthic denitrification is not the only retention mechanism and that “underground” denitrification, affecting nitrate on its way from the base of the root zone down to the limit of the river bed, may in fact dominate nitrogen retention processes even in this intensively drained watershed.

  13. Citizen participation in collaborative watershed partnerships. (United States)

    Koehler, Brandi; Koontz, Tomas M


    Collaborative efforts are increasingly being used to address complex environmental problems, both in the United States and abroad. This is especially true in the growing field of collaborative watershed management, where diverse stakeholders work together to develop and advance water-quality goals. Active citizen participation is viewed as a key component, yet groups often struggle to attract and maintain citizen engagement. This study examined citizen participation behavior in collaborative watershed partnerships by way of a written survey administered to citizen members of 12 collaborative watershed groups in Ohio. Results for the determination of who joins such groups were consistent with the dominant-status model of participation because group members were not demographically representative of the broader community. The dominant-status model, however, does not explain which members are more likely to actively participate in group activities. Instead, individual characteristics, including political activity, knowledge, and comfort in sharing opinions with others, were positively correlated with active participation. In addition, group characteristics, including government-based membership, rural location, perceptions of open communication, perceptions that the group has enough technical support to accomplish its goals, and perceived homogeneity of participant opinions, were positively correlated with active participation. Overall, many group members did not actively participate in group activities.

  14. Land Capability Evaluation of Upper Sekampung Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa


    Full Text Available Land degradation is a serious problem in the Upper Sekampung Watersheds. This is because the farmers cultivated in steep land to coffee crops without in adequate soil and water conservation practices. The land degradation is mostly caused by erosion. The erosion problem not only stripping the most fertile top soil and decreasing crop production, but also resulting problems in lowland. Therefore, the reorientation land management should be improved to produce agriculture sustainability. The first step is to evaluated land capability this area. The objectives of the research were evaluate land capability of Upper Sekampung Watersheds. The results showed that the Upper Sekampung Watersheds were dominated with class and subclass land capability of III-l2 about 17.630,51 ha (41,58%. All of the constrain for each land capability in this area is erosion hazard, especially land slope. From this research, cultivated land to coffee base crops were allowed in land capability II-l1.e1, III-l2, IV-l3, and VI-l4, with in adequate soil and water conservation practices. In contrary, the land capability of VII-l5 unsuitable for agriculture, they should be a nature or for conservation forest.

  15. Understanding toxicity at the watershed scale : design of the Syncrude Sandhill Fen watershed research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    Fens are peat-accumulating wetlands with a water table consisting of mineral-rich ground or surface water. This study discussed the construction of a fen-type reclaimed wetland constructed in a post-mining oil sands landscape. Syncrude Canada's Sandhill fen watershed project represents the first attempt at constructing a fen wetland in the oil sands region. The wetland and its watershed will be constructed on a soft tailings deposit. The design basis for the fen and watershed was developed by a team of researchers and scientists. The aim of the fen design was to control the salinity caused by tailings consolidation and seepage over time. Methods of mitigating potentially toxic effects from salinity were discussed.

  16. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose


    Abstract This dissertation epitomizes three years of research guided by the research question: how can we conceptualize creative self-binding as a resource in art and design processes? Concretely, the dissertation seeks to offer insight into the puzzling observation that highly skilled creative...... practitioners sometimes freely and intentionally impose rigid rules, peculiar principles, and other kinds of creative obstructions on themselves as a means to spur momentum in the process and reach a distinctly original outcome. To investigate this the dissertation is composed of four papers (Part II) framed...... of analysis. Informed by the insight that constraints both enable and restrain creative agency, the dissertation’s main contention is that creative self- binding may profitably be conceptualized as the exercise of self-imposed creativity constraints. Thus, the dissertation marks an analytical move from vague...

  17. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto


    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...... and amount dimensions. We define the problem of aggregating FOs taking into account grid power constraints. We also propose two constraint-based aggregation techniques that efficiently aggregate FOs while retaining flexibility. We show through a comprehensive evaluation that our techniques, in contrast...

  18. A compendium of chameleon constraints (United States)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy


    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f(R) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  19. Veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in mixed land use watersheds: from agricultural headwater to water monitoring watershed. (United States)

    Jaffrézic, A; Jardé, E; Soulier, A; Carrera, L; Marengue, E; Cailleau, A; Le Bot, B


    Veterinary pharmaceuticals, widely used in intensive livestock production, may contaminate surface waters. Identifying their sources and pathways in watersheds is difficult because i) most veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in human medicine as well and ii) septic or sewer wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can release pharmaceuticals into surface water, even in agricultural headwater watersheds. This study aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal variability of animal-specific, mixed-use, and human-specific pharmaceuticals, from agricultural headwaters with intensive livestock production and a WWTP to a watershed used for Water Framework Directive monitoring. Grab sampling was performed during one hydrological year upstream and downstream from a WWTP and at three dates in seven nested watersheds with areas of 1.9-84.1km 2 . Twenty pharmaceuticals were analyzed. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected at all sampling dates upstream and downstream from the WWTP and at concentrations higher than those of human-specific pharmaceuticals. The predominance of animal-specific and mixed-use pharmaceuticals vs. human-specific pharmaceuticals observed at these sampling points was confirmed at the other sampling points. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected mainly during runoff events and periods of manure spreading. A large percentage of mixed-use pharmaceuticals could come from animal sources, but it was difficult to determine. Mixed-use and human-specific pharmaceuticals predominated in the largest watersheds when runoff decreased. In areas of intensive livestock production, mitigation actions should focus on agricultural headwater watersheds to decrease the number of pathways and the transfer volume of veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can be the main contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing Restaurant Tables using Constraints (United States)

    Vidotto, Alfio; Brown, Kenneth N.; Beck, J. Christopher

    Restaurant table management can have significant impact on both profitability and the customer experience. The core of the issue is a complex dynamic combinatorial problem. We show how to model the problem as constraint satisfaction, with extensions which generate flexible seating plans and which maintain stability when changes occur. We describe an implemented system which provides advice to users in real time. The system is currently being evaluated in a restaurant environment.

  1. Public investment under fiscal constraints


    Alessandro Missale; emanuele bacchiocchi; elisa borghi


    EU New Member States must comply with the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) and the investment requirements implied by the Lisbon Agenda. However, the SGP rules may result in underinvestment or distortions in the allocation of public expenditure. This paper provides new evidence on the effects of debt sustainability and SGP fiscal constraints on government expenditure in fixed capital, education and health in OECD countries by estimating government expenditure reaction functions to public debt ...

  2. Constraint-based feature validation


    Dohmen, M.H.P.J.


    The feature modeling paradigm combines geometric and functional product information in one model. In an ideal product development environment, multiple views of a product in terms of features coexist. Feature validation concerns the validity of the feature information in all these views, focusing on validity specification and maintenance. This thesis presents a feature validation scheme based on constraints. It enables flexible and expressive feature validity maintenance. The scheme ensures t...

  3. Memory Constraint Online Multitask Classification


    Cavallanti, Giovanni; Cesa-Bianchi, Nicolò


    We investigate online kernel algorithms which simultaneously process multiple classification tasks while a fixed constraint is imposed on the size of their active sets. We focus in particular on the design of algorithms that can efficiently deal with problems where the number of tasks is extremely high and the task data are large scale. Two new projection-based algorithms are introduced to efficiently tackle those issues while presenting different trade offs on how the available memory is man...

  4. Delphi Research Methodology Applied to Place-Based Watershed Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna R. Vallor


    Full Text Available This research focuses on the results of the Flathead Watershed Delphi survey, a consensus-building methodology used to establish foundational knowledge, skills and dispositions for the Flathead Watershed Educators Guide, a place-based watershed curriculum for middle school grades based on the Flathead Watershed Sourcebook. Survey participants (n = 33 were chosen based on their expertise as educators, resource managers and scientists living and practicing in the Flathead Watershed in northwestern Montana, USA. Participants’ responses were gathered through a three-round survey conducted by the Montana State University (MSU research team using MSU’s online course management system, Desire 2 Learn (D2L, an anonymous, asynchronous platform with distance accessibility. Round One responses gathered through the D2L discussion tool allowed participants to read responses and reply if desired. Round One discussion responses were reformatted into statements, which were then rated through two successive rounds using a 1–5 Likert scale. Of the initial 142 statements, 91 statements were retained in the final round. Final statements were cross-referenced with the Flathead Watershed Sourcebook to identify learning objectives for the Flathead Watershed Educators Guide. Final statements identified the knowledge, skills, and dispositions deemed most important for students in the Flathead Watershed to learn. Statements supported the need for place-based watershed education in fostering positive attitudes toward conservation and protection of the natural environment.

  5. A hydrologic primer for New Jersey watershed management (United States)

    Watt, Martha K.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the N.J. Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), and many other agencies and organizations are striving to educate the public about New Jersey’s water resources. In 1996, the NJDEP began implementing a “watershed management approach” to maintain the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of New Jersey’s waters. This approach concentrates on managing individual watershed areas by (1) defining the physical geographic boundaries of the watersheds, (2) basing water policy on sound scientific principles, and (3) developing partnerships with the public--the people most affected by watershed-management policies.

  6. Hydrological responses to climate change in Mt. Elgon watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Musau


    New Hydrological Insights for the Region: Comparison between the simulated baseline and future streamflow shows that in the Koitobos and Kimilili watersheds, August to December streamflow is likely to be highly altered. In the Kuywa watershed, March to June flows is likely to change considerably due to climate change. Major streamflow changes are likely in March to June and August to November in the Rongai watershed. Projected changes differed between the four watersheds despite their proximity, indicating different sensitivities to climate change and uncertainty about the potential hydrological impacts of climate change in the area.

  7. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrologic modeling (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Abstract Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier...

  8. Physicians' responses to resource constraints. (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Hull, Sara Chandros; DuVal, Gordon; Danis, Marion


    A common dilemma that confronts physicians in clinical practice is the allocation of scarce resources. Yet the strategies used by physicians in actual situations of resource constraint have not been studied. This study explores the strategies and rationales reported by physicians in situations of resource constraints encountered in practice. A national survey of US internists, oncologists, and intensive care specialists was performed by computer-assisted telephone interviews. As part of this survey, we asked physicians to tell us about a recent ethical dilemma encountered in practice. A subset of respondents reported difficulties regarding resource allocation. Transcripts of open-ended responses were coded for content based on consensus. Of the 600 physicians originally identified, 537 were eligible and 344 participated (response rate, 64%). Internists do not make allocation decisions alone but rather engage in negotiation in their resolution. Furthermore, these decisions are not made as dichotomous choices. Rather they often involve alternative solutions in the face of complexities of both the health care system and situations where limited resources must be allocated. Justice is not commonly the justification for rationing. Physicians' experiences in situations of resource constraints appear to be more complex than the normative literature on health care rationing assumes. In addition, reasoning about justice in health care seems to play only a small part in clinical decision making. Bridging this gap could be an important step in fostering fair allocation of resources in difficult cases.

  9. Analysis of Space Tourism Constraints (United States)

    Bonnal, Christophe


    Space tourism appears today as a new Eldorado in a relatively near future. Private operators are already proposing services for leisure trips in Low Earth Orbit, and some happy few even tested them. But are these exceptional events really marking the dawn of a new space age ? The constraints associated to the space tourism are severe : - the economical balance of space tourism is tricky; development costs of large manned - the technical definition of such large vehicles is challenging, mainly when considering - the physiological aptitude of passengers will have a major impact on the mission - the orbital environment will also lead to mission constraints on aspects such as radiation, However, these constraints never appear as show-stoppers and have to be dealt with pragmatically: - what are the recommendations one can make for future research in the field of space - which typical roadmap shall one consider to develop realistically this new market ? - what are the synergies with the conventional missions and with the existing infrastructure, - how can a phased development start soon ? The paper proposes hints aiming at improving the credibility of Space Tourism and describes the orientations to follow in order to solve the major hurdles found in such an exciting development.

  10. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Cañas


    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs, discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1×10−11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1|≤5.6×10−11μB, |Λ2|≤4.0×10−11μB, and |Λ3|≤3.1×10−11μB (90% C.L., irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  11. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  12. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  13. Coastal watershed management across an international border in the Tijuana River watershed (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda


    The paper develops and applies a game theoretic model of upstream and downstream countries to examine cooperative and noncooperative strategies of a common watershed. The application to the Tijuana River watershed shared by the United States and Mexico provides quantification of the strategies for internalizing water quality externalities to upstream and downstream originating from sedimentation. Results show that different transfer payments, such as the Chander/Tulkens cost sharing rule and the Shapley value, imply the size of the existing transfer from downstream to upstream could increase the amount currently allocated.

  14. Water quality trading opportunities in two sub-watersheds in the northern Lake Okeechobee watershed. (United States)

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando


    For decades, the increase of nutrient enrichment has threatened the ecological integrity and economic sustainability of many rivers, lakes, and coastal waters, including Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Water quality trading programs have been an area of active development to both, reduce nutrient pollution and minimize abatement costs. The objective of this study was to apply a comprehensive modeling framework, integrating a hydrologic-water quality model with an economic model, to assess and compare the cost-effectiveness of a water quality trading program over a command-and-control approach in order to reduce phosphorus loadings to Lake Okeechobee. The Upper Kissimmee (UK) and Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough (TCNS) sub-watersheds, identified as major sources of total phosphorus (TP) loadings to the lake, were selected for this analysis. The effect of different caps on the market potential was assessed while considering four factors: the least-cost abatement solutions, credit prices, potential cost savings, and credit supply and demand. Hypothetical trading scenarios were also developed, using the optimal caps selected for the two sub-watersheds. In both sub-watersheds, a phosphorus credit trading program was less expensive than the conventional command-and-control approach. While attaining cost-effectiveness, keeping optimal credit prices, and fostering market competition, phosphorus reduction targets of 46% and 32% were selected as the most appropriate caps in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds, respectively. Wastewater treatment facilities and urban areas in the UK, and concentrated animal feeding operations in the TCNS sub-watershed were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas improved pastures were identified as the major credit sellers in both sub-watersheds. The estimated net cost savings resulting from implementing a phosphorus trading program in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds were 76% ($ 34.9 million per

  15. Retrospective Review of Watershed Characteristics and a Framework for Future Research in the Sarasota Bay Watershed, Florida (United States)

    Kish, George R.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Alderson, Mark


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sarasota Bay Estuary Program conducted a retrospective review of characteristics of the Sarasota Bay watershed in west-central Florida. This report describes watershed characteristics, surface- and ground-water processes, and the environmental setting of the Sarasota Bay watershed. Population growth during the last 50 years is transforming the Sarasota Bay watershed from rural and agriculture to urban and suburban. The transition has resulted in land-use changes that influence surface- and ground-water processes in the watershed. Increased impervious cover decreases recharge to ground water and increases overland runoff and the pollutants carried in the runoff. Soil compaction resulting from agriculture, construction, and recreation activities also decreases recharge to ground water. Conventional approaches to stormwater runoff have involved conveyances and large storage areas. Low-impact development approaches, designed to provide recharge near the precipitation point-of-contact, are being used increasingly in the watershed. Simple pollutant loading models applied to the Sarasota Bay watershed have focused on large-scale processes and pollutant loads determined from empirical values and mean event concentrations. Complex watershed models and more intensive data-collection programs can provide the level of information needed to quantify (1) the effects of lot-scale land practices on runoff, storage, and ground-water recharge, (2) dry and wet season flux of nutrients through atmospheric deposition, (3) changes in partitioning of water and contaminants as urbanization alters predevelopment rainfall-runoff relations, and (4) linkages between watershed models and lot-scale models to evaluate the effect of small-scale changes over the entire Sarasota Bay watershed. As urbanization in the Sarasota Bay watershed continues, focused research on water-resources issues can provide information needed by water

  16. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine


    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  17. Relationship between protein structure and geometrical constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Hansen, Jan; Brunak, Søren


    We evaluate to what extent the structure of proteins can be deduced from incomplete knowledge of disulfide bridges, surface assignments, secondary structure assignments, and additional distance constraints. A cost function taking such constraints into account was used to obtain protein structures...... using a simple minimization algorithm. For small proteins, the approximate structure could be obtained using one additional distance constraint for each amino acid in the protein. We also studied the effect of using predicted secondary structure and surface assignments. The constraints used...

  18. Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management (United States)

    Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.


    Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To

  19. Organizational Constraints on Corporate Public Relations Practitioners. (United States)

    Ryan, Michael


    Catalogs various internal constraints under which many public relations practitioners work, including constraints on (1) access to management; (2) information collection; (3) dissemination of timely, accurate information; and (4) the public relations mission. Reports that most practitioners see organizational constraints as more of a problem for…

  20. Reliance on constraints means detection of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Runeson, S.; Andersson, I.E.K.


    We argue four points. First, perception always relies on environmental constraints, not only in special cases. Second, constraints are taken advantage of by detecting information granted by the constraints rather than by internalizing them. Third, apparent motion phenomena reveal reliance on

  1. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brock, EO

    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world"

  2. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management. (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó


    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices.

  3. Assessing the vulnerability of watersheds to climate change: results of national forest watershed vulnerability pilot assessments (United States)

    Michael J. Furniss; Ken B. Roby; Dan Cenderelli; John Chatel; Caty F. Clifton; Alan Clingenpeel; Polly E. Hays; Dale Higgins; Ken Hodges; Carol Howe; Laura Jungst; Joan Louie; Christine Mai; Ralph Martinez; Kerry Overton; Brian P. Staab; Rory Steinke; Mark. Weinhold


    Existing models and predictions project serious changes to worldwide hydrologic processes as a result of global climate change. Projections indicate that significant change may threaten National Forest System watersheds that are an important source of water used to support people, economies, and ecosystems.Wildland managers are expected to anticipate and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaluddin Rumi PRASAD


    Full Text Available Data and land resource information complete, accurate, and current is an input in management planning, evaluation, and monitoring Watershed. Implementation of this research is conducted with optimum utilization of secondary data that is supported by direct field measurement data, digitalizing the maps associated, Geographic Information Systems modeling, and model calibration. This research has resulted in a Geographic Information System Management of potential Watershed GIS Web-based or abbreviated WEB GIS MPPDAS using Palopo watershed area, South Sulawesi as a case study sites for the development of a prototype that consists of three applications the main website ie Web Portal, Web GIS, and Web Tutorial. The system is built to show online (and offline maps watershed in the administrative area of Palopo along with the location of its potential accumulated in the four (4 groups of layers, including groups of main layer (2 layer, a group of base layer (14 layers, groups of thematic layers (12 layers, a group of policy layer (8 layer. In addition to display a map, use the WEB application of GIS MPPDAS can also use tools or controls in the application to perform analyzes in its monitoring and evaluation, including: Geocoding, Add layer, Digitizing, Selection, Measurements, Graph, Filtering, Geolocation, Overlay cartographic, and etc.

  5. An improved risk-explicit interval linear programming model for pollution load allocation for watershed management. (United States)

    Xia, Bisheng; Qian, Xin; Yao, Hong


    Although the risk-explicit interval linear programming (REILP) model has solved the problem of having interval solutions, it has an equity problem, which can lead to unbalanced allocation between different decision variables. Therefore, an improved REILP model is proposed. This model adds an equity objective function and three constraint conditions to overcome this equity problem. In this case, pollution reduction is in proportion to pollutant load, which supports balanced development between different regional economies. The model is used to solve the problem of pollution load allocation in a small transboundary watershed. Compared with the REILP original model result, our model achieves equity between the upstream and downstream pollutant loads; it also overcomes the problem of greatest pollution reduction, where sources are nearest to the control section. The model provides a better solution to the problem of pollution load allocation than previous versions.

  6. QPO Constraints on Neutron Stars (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman


    The kilohertz frequencies of QPOs from accreting neutron star systems imply that they are generated in regions of strong gravity, close to the star. This suggests that observations of the QPOs can be used to constrain the properties of neutron stars themselves, and in particular to inform us about the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear densities. Here we discuss some relatively model-insensitive constraints that emerge from the kilohertz QPOs, as well as recent developments that may hint at phenomena related to unstable circular orbits outside neutron stars.

  7. Varieties of the generality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Clapp


    Full Text Available Since its introduction by Evans (1982, the generality constraint (GC has been invoked by various philosophers for different purposes. Our purpose here is, first, to clarify what precisely the GC states by way of an interpretive framework, the GC Schema, and second, to demonstrate in terms of this framework some problems that arise if one invokes the GC (or systematicity without clearly specifying an appropriate interpretation. By utilizing the GC Schema these sorts of problems can be avoided, and we thus propose it as a tool to facilitate argumentation that appeals to the GC.

  8. A methodology for quantifying and mapping ecosystem services provided by watersheds (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Angermeier, Paul L.


    Watershed processes – physical, chemical, and biological – are the foundation for many benefits that ecosystems provide for human societies. A crucial step toward accurately representing those benefits, so they can ultimately inform decisions about land and water management, is the development of a coherent methodology that can translate available data into the ecosystem services (ES) produced by watersheds. Ecosystem services (ES) provide an instinctive way to understand the tradeoffs associated with natural resource management. We provide a synthesis of common terminology and explain a rationale and framework for distinguishing among the components of ecosystem service delivery, including: an ecosystem’s capacity to produce a service; societal demand for the service; ecological pressures on this service; and flow of the service to people. We discuss how interpretation and measurement of these components can differ among provisioning, regulating, and cultural services and describe selected methods for quantifying ES components as well as constraints on data availability. We also present several case studies to illustrate our methods, including mapping capacity of several water purification services and demand for two forms of wildlife-based recreation, and discuss future directions for ecosystem service assessments. Our flexible framework treats service capacity, demand, ecological pressure, and flow as separate but interactive entities to better evaluate the sustainability of service provision across space and time and to help guide management decisions.

  9. Integrated flash flood analysis in ungauged watersheds. (United States)

    Grillakis, M. G.; Tsanis, I. K.


    Reconstruction of flash flood events processes in ungauged basins requires a synthesis of alternative information sources to compensate for the absence data. The present study presents the combination of information from very high resolution Digital Elevation Models (VHR-DEM), intensive post event surveys and rainfall-runoff modeling in order to reconstruct the flash flood processes for the event of October 17, 2006 in Almirida basin. The VHR-DEM produced by a GeoEye-1 0.5 m resolution satellite stereo-pair is assessed for flood plain management applications such as watershed delineation and river cross-section extraction. The procedure is applied at the 25km2 watershed of Almirida. Cross sections and watershed boundary extracted based on the generated high resolution DEM used for rainfall-runoff and hydraulic modelling. The synoptic meteorological analysis shows the dynamic evolution and the path of the storm that led to the flash flood event, while METEOSAT imagery reveals critical information about the structure and timing of the storm. Precipitation time series is generated from neighbouring rain-gauges and C-Band weather radar data. A post flood event field study produced evidence for peak flood stage and allowed for key cross section measurements, while interviews with eye witnesses revealed the exact timing of the peak stage. Semi-distributed and lumped hydrological/hydraulic models are applied to simulate the runoff and are calibrated on the witnessed peak stage values. Results shows, that the combination of information from post event surveys, VHR-DEMs and rainfall-runoff modeling can decrease the uncertainty in peak discharge estimation and event interpretation.

  10. Watershed Models for Predicting Nitrogen Loads from Artificially Drained Lands (United States)

    R. Wayne Skaggs; George M. Chescheir; Glenn Fernandez; Devendra M. Amatya


    Non-point sources of pollutants originate at the field scale but water quality problems usually occur at the watershed or basin scale. This paper describes a series of models developed for poorly drained watersheds. The models use DRAINMOD to predict hydrology at the field scale and a range of methods to predict channel hydraulics and nitrogen transport. In-stream...

  11. Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy Crop Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cibin, Raj [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bowling, Laura [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Brouder, Sylvie [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cherkauer, Keith [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Engel, Bernard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Frankenberger, Jane [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Goforth, Reuben [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gramig, Benjamin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Volenec, Jeffrey [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    The overall goal of this project was to conduct a watershed-scale sustainability assessment of multiple species of energy crops and removal of crop residues within two watersheds (Wildcat Creek, and St. Joseph River) representative of conditions in the Upper Midwest. The sustainability assessment included bioenergy feedstock production impacts on environmental quality, economic costs of production, and ecosystem services.

  12. An Ecological Survey Of Asanmagbe Watershed, Forestry Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conservation of the characteristics of indigenous species and the genetic variability of watersheds in any community is important. The ecological survey of the watershed of Asanmagbe stream was carried out. From the flora species and their families identified along the stream, eighty-seven (87) species belonging to 39 ...

  13. Geomorphic predictors of riparian vegetation in small mountain watersheds (United States)

    Blake M. Engelhardt; Jeanne C. Chambers; Peter J. Weisberg


    Hydrogeomorphic processes operating at watershed, process zone and site scales influence the distribution of riparian vegetation. However, most studies examining the relationships between hydrogeomorphic processes and riparian vegetation are conducted at site scales. We quantified the relative importance of watershed, process zone and site geomorphic characteristics...

  14. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters


    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  15. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 3: Urban Tree Planting Guide (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright; Jennifer Tomlinson


    This is the third in a three-manual series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 3. Urban Tree Planting Guide provides detailed guidance on urban tree planting that is applicable at both the development site and the watershed scales. Topics covered include site assessment, planting design, site...

  16. Frequency of floods from a burned chaparral watershed (United States)

    Iraj Nasseri


    Effects of brush fire on hydrologic characteristics of chaparral watersheds were analyzed. An unburned chaparral produces moderate surface runoff. The vegetation promotes infiltration by retarding the runoff and providing temporary storage during intense rainfall. The hydrologic characteristics of chaparral watershed, however, are drastically changed by fires. The high...

  17. Modeling the cumulative watershed effects of forest management strategies (United States)

    R. R. Ziemer; J. Lewis; R. M. Rice; T. E. Lisle


    Abstract - There is increasing concern over the possibility of adverse cumulative watershed effects from intensive forest management. It is impractical to address many aspects of the problem experimentally because to do so would require studying large watersheds for 100 yr or more. One such aspect is the long-term effect of forest management strategies on erosion and...

  18. Integrated landscape/hydrologic modeling tool for semiarid watersheds (United States)

    Mariano Hernandez; Scott N. Miller


    An integrated hydrologic modeling/watershed assessment tool is being developed to aid in determining the susceptibility of semiarid landscapes to natural and human-induced changes across a range of scales. Watershed processes are by definition spatially distributed and are highly variable through time, and this approach is designed to account for their spatial and...

  19. Watershed management implications of agroforestry expansion on Minnesota's farmlands (United States)

    C. Hobart Perry; Ryan C. Miller; Anthony R. Kaster; Kenneth N. Brooks


    Minnesota’s agricultural landscape is changing. The increasing use of woody perennials in agricultural fields, living snow fences, windbreaks, and riparian areas has important watershed management implications for agricultural watersheds in northwestern Minnesota. These changes in land use could lead to reductions in annual water yield, annual flood peaks, and dry...

  20. Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest: Past, present, and future (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Malchus B. Baker; Vicente L. Lopes


    Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest have been, are, and will be reflected by the nature of watershed management practices. Past perspectives evolved from considerations of increasing water yields and water quality concerns. Present perspectives are centered on minimizing adverse impacts to soil and water resources, sustaining high-quality water flows,...

  1. Participatory policy development for integrated watershed management in Uganda's highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutekanga, F.P.


    Soil erosion is a serious problem in the densely populated Uganda highlands and previous interventions were ineffective. This study, on the Ngenge watershed, Mount Elgon, was aimed at developing policy for the implementation of a new strategy for solving the problem, Integrated Watershed Management

  2. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds. (United States)


    ... LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Natural Resources Control § 251.9 Management of Municipal Watersheds... forth in subpart B of this part. (e) Any municipal watershed management agreements, special use... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of Municipal...

  3. The role of fire in management of watershed responses (United States)

    Malcolm J. Zwolinski


    Hydrologic responses of watersheds are strongly related to vegetation and soil disturbances. Many of the storage and transfer components of the global hydrologic cycle are altered by the occurrence of fire. The major effect of fire on the hydrologic functioning of watersheds is the removal of vegetation and litter materials that protect the soil surface. Reductions in...

  4. Watershed management contributions to land stewardship: A literature review (United States)

    Malchus B. Baker; Peter F. Folliott; Carleton B. Edminster; Karen L. Mora; Madelyn C. Dillon


    An international conference to increase people's awareness of the contributions that watershed management can make to future land stewardship was held in Tucson, Arizona, March 13-16, 2000. This bibliography is a compilation of the synthesis and poster papers presented at the conference along with the literature cited in these papers on watershed research projects...

  5. Nitrogen fluxes and retention in urban watershed ecosystems (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Neely L. Law; Kenneth T. Belt; Lawrence E. Band; Gary T. Fisher


    Although the watershed approach has long been used to study whole-ecosystem function, it has seldom been applied to study human-dominated systems, especially those dominated by urban and suburban land uses. Here we present 3 years of data on nitrogen (N) losses from one completely forested, one agricultural, and six urban/suburban watersheds, and input--output N...

  6. Risk of impaired condition of watersheds containing National Forest lands (United States)

    Thomas C Brown; Pamela Froemke


    We assessed the risk of impaired condition of the nearly 3700 5th-level watersheds in the contiguous 48 states containing the national forests and grasslands that make up the U.S. Forest Service's National Forest System (NFS). The assessment was based on readily available, relatively consistent nationwide data sets for a series of indicators representing watershed...

  7. Sediment dynamics and sources in a grazed hardwood rangeland watershed (United States)

    Melvin R. George; Neil K. McDougald; Kenneth W. Tate; Royce Larsen


    From 1994 to 1998 we documented sediment transport dynamics and sources in a 137 ha grazed hardwood rangeland watershed on granitic soils at the San Joaquin Experimental Range in Madera County. Sediment transport for this watershed was determined by measuring total suspended solids, bedload and flow at an H-flume installed in 1994. Sediment movement as bedload is the...

  8. Lessons learned in watershed management: A retrospective view (United States)

    Walter F. Megahan; Jim Hornbeck


    Forest watershed management research is mandated by over 100 years of legislation, from the Organic Act and Weeks Law enacted around the beginning of the 20th century, to a variety of environmental protection acts passed over the past several decades. Research results have come primarily from studies of a multitude of gaged watersheds selected to represent a variety of...

  9. Watershed management: A concept evolving to meet new needs (United States)

    Joe Gelt


    Watershed management is attracting increased attention, not only among persons involved in natural resource management, but even among those with a less specialized interest in such issues. Watershed management is reviewed as a movement with historical, social and political implications, in the past and the present.

  10. Hydrological processes of reference watersheds in Experimental Forests, USA (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Pete Wohlgemuth; Kelly Elder; Stephen Sebestyen; Sherri Johnson; Elizabeth Keppeler; Mary Beth Adams; Peter Caldwell; D. Misra


    Long-term research at small, gauged, forested watersheds within the USDA Forest Service, Experimental Forest and Range network (USDA-EFR) has contributed substantially to our current understanding of relationships between forests and streamflow (Vose et al., 2014). Many of these watershed studies were established in the early to mid-20th century and have been used to...

  11. Watershed Development in India : An Approach Evolving through Experience


    Symle, Jim; Lobo, Crispino; Milne, Grant; Williams, Melissa


    This report analyses the experiences and lessons from three World Bank-Supported watershed development projects in the Indian states of Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand.5 The primary reason for the analysis was to guide the development and execution of new watershed programs in India, including new Bank-supported state-level operations in Uttarakhand and Karnataka, and a propos...

  12. Accountability to Public Stakeholders in Watershed-Based Restoration (United States)

    There is an increasing push at the federal, state, and local levels for watershed-based conservation projects. These projects work to address water quality issues in degraded waterways through the implementation of a suite of best management practices on land throughout a watersh...

  13. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review]. (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang


    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  14. Watershed health: An evaluation index for New Mexico (United States)

    Bill Fleming


    Although watersheds are not equally healthy, there are no generally accepted criteria for evaluating and comparing them. This paper suggests several criteria which numerically evaluate watersheds in four ways: (1) riparian health, (2) aquatic macroinvertebrate biodiversity, (3) hillslope soil loss and (4) upland land use/flood peak potential. Each criterion is...

  15. Application of iron and zinc isotopes to track the sources and mechanisms of metal loading in a mountain watershed (United States)

    Borrok, D.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ian, Ridley W.; Lamothe, P.J.; Kimball, B.A.; Verplanck, P.L.; Runkel, R.L.


    Here the hydrogeochemical constraints of a tracer dilution study are combined with Fe and Zn isotopic measurements to pinpoint metal loading sources and attenuation mechanisms in an alpine watershed impacted by acid mine drainage. In the tested mountain catchment, ??56Fe and ??66Zn isotopic signatures of filtered stream water samples varied by ???3.5??? and 0.4???, respectively. The inherent differences in the aqueous geochemistry of Fe and Zn provided complimentary isotopic information. For example, variations in ??56Fe were linked to redox and precipitation reactions occurring in the stream, while changes in ??66Zn were indicative of conservative mixing of different Zn sources. Fen environments contributed distinctively light dissolved Fe (+0.4???). Acidic drainage from mine wastes contributed heavier dissolved Fe (???+0.5???) and lighter Zn (???+0.2???) isotopes relative to the fen. Upwelling of Fe-rich groundwater near the mouth of the catchment was the major source of Fe (??56Fe ??? 0???) leaving the watershed in surface flow, while runoff from mining wastes was the major source of Zn. The results suggest that given a strong framework for interpretation, Fe and Zn isotopes are useful tools for identifying and tracking metal sources and attenuation mechanisms in mountain watersheds. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Surface runoff in the Itaim Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista


    Full Text Available This paper describes a work done in the Itaim watershed at Taubaté, SP, and had the objective of estimating the surface runoff based on the Curve-Number (CN method in area with vegetation cover of grassland (Brachiaria Decumbens, that prevails in this watershed. The surface runoff was estimated using three different methods: 1st values of accumulated Infiltration (IAc obtained in the field were used, considered as the Potential Infiltration (S, which varied from 15.37 mm to 51.88 mm with an average value of 23.46 mm. With those measured infiltration rates and using the maximum precipitation values for Taubaté, SP, with duration time of 3 hours: P = 54.4; 70.3; 80.8; 86.7; 90.9; 94.1 and 103.9 mm, respectively, for the return times, Tr = 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 years, the following values of surface runoff were generated: 34.83; 49.33; 59.14; 64.71; 68.69; 71.73 and 81.10 mm, respectively; In the 2nd method it was considered that the prevailing vegetation cover of the watershed was Dirty Pasture (Pasture with regrowth of natural vegetation and therefore, a value of CN = 75 was used and generated a potential infiltration, S = 84,7 mm and resulted in surface runoff values that varied from 11 to 44 mm; In the 3rd method, the value of CN was considered equal to 66.57. This value was calculated weighting the contribution of all land use cover classes of the watershed, and as a result a higher value of potential infiltration, S = 127 mm, was obtained. Consequently, the surface runoff values were 5.33; 11.64; 16.72; 19.83; 22.16; 23.98 and 29.83 mm, respectively. Therefore, the comparison with the results obtained by the two Curve-Number methods (conventional and weighted allowed to be concluded that the Curve-Number method applied in a conventional way underestimated the surface runoff in the studied area. However, results indicate that it is possible to use this method for surface runoff estimates as long as adjustments based on potential

  17. Climate change impacts in Zhuoshui watershed, Taiwan (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Pei-Ling; Cheng, Chao-Tzuen; Li, Hsin-Chi; Wu, Tingyeh; Chen, Wei-Bo; Shih, Hung-Ju


    There are 5.3 typhoons hit Taiwan per year on average in last decade. Typhoon Morakot in 2009, the most severe typhoon, causes huge damage in Taiwan, including 677 casualty and roughly NT 110 billion (3.3 billion USD) in economic loss. Some researches documented that typhoon frequency will decrease but increase in intensity in western North Pacific region. It is usually preferred to use high resolution dynamical model to get better projection of extreme events; because coarse resolution models cannot simulate intense extreme events. Under that consideration, dynamical downscaling climate data was chosen to describe typhoon satisfactorily. One of the aims for Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information Platform (TCCIP) is to demonstrate the linkage between climate change data and watershed impact models. The purpose is to understand relative disasters induced by extreme rainfall (typhoons) under climate change in watersheds including landslides, debris flows, channel erosion and deposition, floods, and economic loss. The study applied dynamic downscaling approach to release climate change projected typhoon events under RCP 8.5, the worst-case scenario. The Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) and FLO-2D models, then, were used to simulate hillslope disaster impacts in the upstream of Zhuoshui River. CCHE1D model was used to elevate the sediment erosion or deposition in channel. FVCOM model was used to asses a flood impact in urban area in the downstream. Finally, whole potential loss associate with these typhoon events was evaluated by the Taiwan Typhoon Loss Assessment System (TLAS) under climate change scenario. Results showed that the total loss will increase roughly by NT 49.7 billion (1.6 billion USD) in future in Zhuoshui watershed in Taiwan. The results of this research could help to understand future impact; however model bias still exists. Because typhoon track is a critical factor to consider regional

  18. Developmental constraint of insect audition. (United States)

    Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Strauss, Johannes


    Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  19. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  20. It's all about Balance: Using a watershed model to evaluate costs, benefits and tradeoffs for Monponsett Ponds watershed (United States)

    As part of an EPA Region 1 RARE project, EPA Region 1 reached out to towns in the Taunton River watershed to identify those interested in testing new version of EPA watershed management tool (WMOST version 2)and found Halifax, MA in need of assistance in dealing with a suite of w...

  1. Phosphorus losses from an irrigated watershed in the Northwestern U.S.: Case study of the Upper Snake Rock Watershed (United States)

    Watersheds utilizing surface water for irrigation often return a portion of the water to a water body. This irrigation return flow often includes sediment and nutrients that reduce the quality of the receiving water body. Research in the 82,000 ha Upper Snake Rock (USR) watershed from 2005 to 2008 s...

  2. Headwaters to estuaries: advances in watershed science and management - Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds (United States)

    Christina E. Stringer; Ken W. Krauss; James S. Latimer


    These proceedings contain the abstracts, manuscripts, and posters of presentations given at the Fifth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds—Headwaters to estuaries: advances in watershed science and management, held at the Trident Technical College Conference Center in North Charleston, South Carolina, March 3-5, 2015. The conference was hosted...

  3. Biogeochemistry of a treeline watershed, northwestern Alaska. (United States)

    Stottlemyer, R


    Since 1950, mean annual temperatures in northwestern Alaska have increased. Change in forest floor and soil temperature or moisture could alter N mineralization rates, production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic nitrogen (DON), and their export to the aquatic ecosystem. In 1990, we began study of nutrient cycles in the 800-ha Asik watershed, located at treeline in the Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska. This paper summarizes relationships between topographic aspect, soil temperature and moisture, inorganic and organic N pools, C pools, CO2 efflux, growing season net N mineralization rates, and stream water chemistry. Forest floor (O2) C/N ratios, C pools, temperature, and moisture were greater on south aspects. More rapid melt of the soil active layer (zone of annual freeze-thaw) and permafrost accounted for the higher moisture. The O2 C and N content were correlated with moisture, inorganic N pools, CO2 efflux, and inversely with temperature. Inorganic N pools were correlated with temperature and CO2 efflux. Net N mineralization rates were positive in early summer, and correlated with O2 moisture, temperature, and C and N pools. Net nitrification rates were inversely correlated with moisture, total C and N. The CO2 efflux increased with temperature and moisture, and was greater on south aspects. Stream ion concentrations declined and DOC increased with discharge. Stream inorganic nitrogen (DIN) output exceeded input by 70%. Alpine stream water nitrate (NO3-) and DOC concentrations indicated substantial contributions to the watershed DIN and DOC budgets.

  4. Rocky River Watershed Based Curriculum Guide Project (United States)

    Cox, Phillip Howard

    Environmental education has the ability to increase cognitive ability, have a positive impact on group work skills, attitudes and self-efficacy, and increase student performance. Due to Federal "No Child Left Behind Act" legislation, increased standardized testing has resulted in the disenfranchisement of students from formal learning. The purpose of this project was to develop a curriculum guide based on the Rocky River watershed so teachers could use the Rocky River watershed as a means to satisfy the objectives of the NC Standard Course of Study and at the same time increase student environmental awareness, classroom engagement, sense of place and scores on the NC Earth/Environmental Final Exams. The project was developed to correlate with the newly revised North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Earth/Environmental Science. The curriculum guide was developed by utilizing the best practices suggested by scientific literature, the NC Standard Course of Study for Earth/Environmental Science, the North American Association for Environmental Education and the National Education Association.

  5. An interval chance-constrained fuzzy modeling approach for supporting land-use planning and eco-environment planning at a watershed level. (United States)

    Ou, Guoliang; Tan, Shukui; Zhou, Min; Lu, Shasha; Tao, Yinghui; Zhang, Zuo; Zhang, Lu; Yan, Danping; Guan, Xingliang; Wu, Gang


    An interval chance-constrained fuzzy land-use allocation (ICCF-LUA) model is proposed in this study to support solving land resource management problem associated with various environmental and ecological constraints at a watershed level. The ICCF-LUA model is based on the ICCF (interval chance-constrained fuzzy) model which is coupled with interval mathematical model, chance-constrained programming model and fuzzy linear programming model and can be used to deal with uncertainties expressed as intervals, probabilities and fuzzy sets. Therefore, the ICCF-LUA model can reflect the tradeoff between decision makers and land stakeholders, the tradeoff between the economical benefits and eco-environmental demands. The ICCF-LUA model has been applied to the land-use allocation of Wujiang watershed, Guizhou Province, China. The results indicate that under highly land suitable conditions, optimized area of cultivated land, forest land, grass land, construction land, water land, unused land and landfill in Wujiang watershed will be [5015, 5648] hm(2), [7841, 7965] hm(2), [1980, 2056] hm(2), [914, 1423] hm(2), [70, 90] hm(2), [50, 70] hm(2) and [3.2, 4.3] hm(2), the corresponding system economic benefit will be between 6831 and 7219 billion yuan. Consequently, the ICCF-LUA model can effectively support optimized land-use allocation problem in various complicated conditions which include uncertainties, risks, economic objective and eco-environmental constraints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Variations in Sediment Yield from the Upper Doubs River Carbonate Watershed (Jura, France) since the Late-Glacial Period (United States)

    Bichet, Vincent; Campy, Michel; Buoncristiani, Jean-François; Digiovanni, Christian; Meybeck, Michel; Richard, Hervé


    The Upper Doubs River Valley is a 910-km2watershed feeding into Lake Chaillexon. The lake was formed by a natural rockfall at the end of the Bølling Chronozone (around 14,250 cal yr B.P.) and since then has trapped material eroded from the watershed. The filling process and variations in sediment yield have been investigated by mechanical coring, seismic surveys, and electric soundings. The detrital sediment yield of the upstream watershed can be calculated by quantifying the sedimentary stocks for each climatic stage of the Late-Glacial period and Holocene Epoch and estimating the lake's entrapment capacity. This enables us to determine the intensity of the erosion processes in relation to climate and environmental factors. The Bølling-Allerød Interstade produced the greatest yields with mean values of 19,500 metric tons per calendar year (t/yr). The Younger Dryas Chronozone saw a sharp fall (8900 t/yr) that continued into the Preboreal (2100 t/yr). Clastic supply increased during the Boreal (4500 t/yr) before declining again in the Early Atlantic (2400 t/yr). Since then, yields have risen from 4500 t/yr in the Late Atlantic to 6800 t/yr in the Subboreal and 11,100 t/yr in the Subatlantic. Comparison of quantitative data with the qualitative analysis of the deposits and with the paleohydrologic curve of the watershed based on level fluctuations in lakes around Chaillexon shows that climate was the controlling factor of sediment yield until the Late Atlantic. From the Late Atlantic-Subboreal around 5400 cal yr B.P. (470014C yr B.P.) and especially from the end of the Subboreal Chronozone and during the Subatlantic Chronozone (2770 cal yr B.P./270014C yr B.P.-present) climatic constraints have been compounded by human activity related to forest clearing and land use.

  7. Watershed management in the United States in the 21st Century (United States)

    David B. Thorud; George W. Brown; Brian J. Boyle; Clare M. Ryan


    Views of watershed management in the 21st Century are presented in terms of concept, status, progress and future of watershed planning. The watershed as a unit will increasingly be the basis of planning because the concept is widely understood, many state and federal laws require such a focus, and watersheds are a logical entity for monitoring purposes. Impediments to...

  8. Prioritization of Watersheds across Mali Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques for Agricultural Development Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Gumma


    Full Text Available Implementing agricultural water management programs over appropriate spatial extents can have positive effects on water access and erosion management. Lack of access to water for domestic and agricultural uses represents a major constraint on agricultural productivity and perpetuates poverty and hunger in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This lack of access is the result of erratic precipitation, poor water management, limited knowledge of hydrological systems, and inadequate investment in water infrastructure. Water management programs should be made by multi-disciplinary teams that consider the interrelationship between hydraulic and anthropogenic factors. This paper proposes a method to prioritize watersheds for water management and agricultural development across Mali (Western Africa using remote sensing data and GIS tools. The method involves deriving a set of relevant thematic layers from satellite imagery. Satellite images from Landsat ETM+ were used to generate thematic layers such as land use/land cover. Slope and drainage density maps were derived from Shuttle RADAR Topography Mission (SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM at 90 m spatial resolution. Population grids were available from the Global rural-urban mapping project (GRUMP database for the year 2000 and mean rainfall maps were extracted from Tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM grids for each year between 1988 and 2014. Each thematic layer was divided into classes that were assigned a rank for agriculture and livelihoods development provided by experts in the relevant field (e.g., Soil scientist ranking the soil classes and published literature on those themes. Zones of priority were delineated based on the combination of high scoring ranks from each thematic layer. Five categories of priority zones ranging from “very high” to “very low” were determined based on total score percentages. Field verification was then undertaken in selected categories to check the priority

  9. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena (United States)

    Maroney, O. J. E.


    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  10. Atom mapping with constraint programming. (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Nahar, Feras; Schnorr, Norah; Backofen, Rolf; Stadler, Peter F; Flamm, Christoph


    Chemical reactions are rearrangements of chemical bonds. Each atom in an educt molecule thus appears again in a specific position of one of the reaction products. This bijection between educt and product atoms is not reported by chemical reaction databases, however, so that the "Atom Mapping Problem" of finding this bijection is left as an important computational task for many practical applications in computational chemistry and systems biology. Elementary chemical reactions feature a cyclic imaginary transition state (ITS) that imposes additional restrictions on the bijection between educt and product atoms that are not taken into account by previous approaches. We demonstrate that Constraint Programming is well-suited to solving the Atom Mapping Problem in this setting. The performance of our approach is evaluated for a manually curated subset of chemical reactions from the KEGG database featuring various ITS cycle layouts and reaction mechanisms.

  11. Constraint Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridges (United States)

    Mazzolo, Alain


    In this paper, we study the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge process (i.e., the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process conditioned to start and end at fixed points) constraints to have a fixed area under its path. We present both anticipative (in this case, we need the knowledge of the future of the path) and non-anticipative versions of the stochastic process. We obtain the anticipative description thanks to the theory of generalized Gaussian bridges while the non-anticipative representation comes from the theory of stochastic control. For this last representation, a stochastic differential equation is derived which leads to an effective Langevin equation. Finally, we extend our theoretical findings to linear bridge processes.

  12. Optical flow computation using extended constraints. (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C


    Several approaches for optical flow estimation use partial differential equations to model changes in image brightness throughout time. A commonly used equation is the so-called optical flow constraint (OFC), which assumes that the image brightness is stationary with respect to time. More recently, a different constraint referred to as the extended optical flow constraint (EOFC) has been introduced, which also contains the divergence of the flow field of image brightness. There is no agreement in the literature about which of these constraints provides the best estimation of the velocity field. Two new solutions for optical flow computation are proposed, which are based on an approximation of the constraint equations. The two techniques have been used with both EOFC and OFC constraint equations. Results achieved by using these solutions have been compared with several well-known computational methods for optical flow estimation in different motion conditions. Estimation errors have also been measured and compared for different types of motion.

  13. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...

  14. Relationship between protein structure and geometrical constraints.


    Lund, O.; Hansen, J.; Brunak, S.; Bohr, J.


    We evaluate to what extent the structure of proteins can be deduced from incomplete knowledge of disulfide bridges, surface assignments, secondary structure assignments, and additional distance constraints. A cost function taking such constraints into account was used to obtain protein structures using a simple minimization algorithm. For small proteins, the approximate structure could be obtained using one additional distance constraint for each amino acid in the protein. We also studied the...

  15. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification. (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A


    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  16. Workshop to transfer VELMA watershed model results to ... (United States)

    An EPA Western Ecology Division (WED) watershed modeling team has been working with the Snoqualmie Tribe Environmental and Natural Resources Department to develop VELMA watershed model simulations of the effects of historical and future restoration and land use practices on streamflow, stream temperature, and other habitat characteristics affecting threatened salmon populations in the 100 square mile Tolt River watershed in Washington state. To date, the WED group has fully calibrated the watershed model to simulate Tolt River flows with a high degree of accuracy under current and historical conditions and practices, and is in the process of simulating long-term responses to specific watershed restoration practices conducted by the Snoqualmie Tribe and partners. On July 20-21 WED Researchers Bob McKane, Allen Brookes and ORISE Fellow Jonathan Halama will be attending a workshop at the Tolt River site in Carnation, WA, to present and discuss modeling results with the Snoqualmie Tribe and other Tolt River watershed stakeholders and land managers, including the Washington Departments of Ecology and Natural Resources, U.S. Forest Service, City of Seattle, King County, and representatives of the Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission. The workshop is being co-organized by the Snoqualmie Tribe, EPA Region 10 and WED. The purpose of this 2-day workshop is two-fold. First, on Day 1, the modeling team will perform its second site visit to the watershed, this time focus

  17. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the study area whereas flatland and gentle slopes characterize the western, northwestern, and central parts of the study area. The drainage pattern in the study area is dendritic. Water flows from south, east and northeast to the center and forms one main river that drains the watershed northwest. This river then leaves the ...

  18. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco


    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  19. Pressures and constraints on general management. (United States)

    Stewart, R


    A discussion of pressures and constraints on general management is not straightforward. Pressures and constraints can be seen both as external influences and as individually determined. This dual origin is important so that general managers can help themselves, and be helped, to be more in control of their jobs and their environment. Drawing on the findings from the Templeton tracer study of DGMs and from the Templeton DGMs' group, the paper considers a range of possible pressures and constraints on DGMs. It argues that an effective general manager will know which pressures and constraints are external and which are self-imposed and will know which can and should be changed.

  20. Toward an automaton Constraint for Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He


    Full Text Available We explore the idea of using finite automata to implement new constraints for local search (this is already a successful technique in constraint-based global search. We show how it is possible to maintain incrementally the violations of a constraint and its decision variables from an automaton that describes a ground checker for that constraint. We establish the practicality of our approach idea on real-life personnel rostering problems, and show that it is competitive with the approach of [Pralong, 2007].

  1. Extending models for two-dimensional constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren


    for models of two-dimensional constraints and as examples we apply it to the hard-square constraint and the no isolated bits (n.i.b) constraint. The iterative scaling can ensure that the entropy of the extension is optimized and that the entropy is increased compared to the initial model defined on 2 times 2...... elements. Application to a simple stationary model with hidden states is also outlined. For the n.i.b constraint, the initial model is based on elements defined by blocks of (1 times 2) binary symbols....

  2. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.


    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  3. Watershed planning, implementation and assessment: the May River Watershed Action Plan case study (United States)

    Kimberly W. Jones; Christopher L. Ellis; Jeremy S. Ritchie


    Prior to exponential growth in the early to mid-2000s, the Town of Bluffton, SC was one square mile; as of 2015, it is approximately 55 square miles. Associated with this growth was a shellfish harvesting closure for nearly onethird of the May River in 2009. The Town and its partners developed and began to implement the May River Watershed Action Plan in 2011. The plan...

  4. Watershed regions and watershed lines based cooperation strategy for image segmentation. Application to roof detection


    EL MERABET, Youssef; MEURIE, Cyril; RUICHEK, Yassine; SBIHI, Abderrahmane; TOUAHNI, Raja


    In this paper, we present a strategy of image segmentation for roof detection from aerial images. For that, an orthophotoplan segmentation method based on a cooperation technique including edge based segmentation and region based segmentation is proposed. Both segmentation techniques are assured by watershed algorithm. The proposed strategy is composed of three steps: (i) A simplification step that consists in simplifying the image with an appropriate couple of invariant/gradient optimized fo...

  5. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John


    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  6. Design of Water Discharge of Medewi Watershed Using Avswat Model (United States)

    Pramana, Y. H.; Purwanto, B. P.


    Medewi watersheds is located in the southern of Bali Island and its estuary is located in Medewi Beach at Kabupaten Jembrana. The exact location of Medewi watersheds is between Desa Medewi and Desa Pulukan, Kecamatan Pekutatan, Kabupaten Jembrana. The watersheds itself, due to its strategic location is used as a territorial border between the two villages. Geographically, Medewi watersheds is between 114o48'00' - 114o50'00' east longitude and 08o20'00' - 08o26,5'00' south latitude. The main river of Medewi Watersheds is 25,64 km long and is classified as a continuous river, the width of the watersheds itself is measured 128,2 km2. Medewi watersheds have two tributaries which is Medaan watersheds and Pangliman watersheds, both watersheds' heads are located in Medewi Beach. Medewi watersheds is often flooded and brings heavy toll to its surrounding areas and citizen. Therefore, there is an urgent need to perform engineering techniques to overcome the aforementioned problem. However, there is a slight issue in the definition of water discharge plan in the location. The water discharge plan, which is used as a basis to prevent flooding, is often inaccurate. That is the reason why it is needed to build a model in order to accurately find out the amount of water discharge in the study location. Medewi watersheds' area usage is as follow: bushes (9,44%), forestation (77,10%), farm (7,76%), settlement (2,15%), irrigation field (1,64%), rainfed field (1,88%) and crops field (0,48%). The result of our modeling using ASVAT shows that the maximum water discharge is 149,9 m3/sec. The discharge is calibrated with the available water discharge data log. According to AWLR data, it is known that the largest discharge occurred on June 2nd, 2009 and measured at 147,9 m3/sec. Our conclusion is that the model used in this study managed to approach the field result with minimum error.

  7. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  8. Application of the ReNuMa model in the Sha He river watershed: tools for watershed environmental management. (United States)

    Sha, Jian; Liu, Min; Wang, Dong; Swaney, Dennis P; Wang, Yuqiu


    Models and related analytical methods are critical tools for use in modern watershed management. A modeling approach for quantifying the source apportionment of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and associated tools for examining the sensitivity and uncertainty of the model estimates were assessed for the Sha He River (SHR) watershed in China. The Regional Nutrient Management model (ReNuMa) was used to infer the primary sources of DN in the SHR watershed. This model is based on the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions (GWLF) and the Net Anthropogenic Nutrient Input (NANI) framework, modified to improve the characterization of subsurface hydrology and septic system loads. Hydrochemical processes of the SHR watershed, including streamflow, DN load fluxes, and corresponding DN concentration responses, were simulated following calibrations against observations of streamflow and DN fluxes. Uncertainty analyses were conducted with a Monte Carlo analysis to vary model parameters for assessing the associated variations in model outputs. The model performed accurately at the watershed scale and provided estimates of monthly streamflows and nutrient loads as well as DN source apportionments. The simulations identified the dominant contribution of agricultural land use and significant monthly variations. These results provide valuable support for science-based watershed management decisions and indicate the utility of ReNuMa for such applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Streamwater Chemistry in Flowpath Analysis of Large-Scale Forested Watersheds Near Stowe, VT: Developed vs. Undeveloped Watersheds (United States)

    Zinni, B. J.; Wemple, B. C.; Lini, A.; James, S. B.


    The analysis of flowpaths in small alpine watersheds has provided insight into the interrelationships between overall streamwater chemistry and the various flowpaths contributing to it. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the methods used in determining the flowpaths of small watersheds are applicable in a large-scale watershed. The two sites being studied are in the Mt. Mansfield region of Vermont. They are the Ranch Brook (9.6km2) and West Branch (11.7km2) watersheds. The techniques being implemented include the isotopic characterization of streamwater samples following a precipitation event, basic streamwater chemistry data and their relationship to stream discharge, and the determination of endmembers to the overall streamwater chemistry. Analysis of stream chemistry data suggests that up to three end members contribute to run-off production in both watersheds. A second aspect of this study is a comparison of the two watersheds. These watersheds are similar in all aspects except for the amount of development within each. Ranch Brook is undeveloped forestland while West Branch encompasses an alpine ski resort. Elevated chloride concentrations in the managed watershed suggest the possibility of contamination due to the application of road-salt. Initial oxygen isotope data suggests different flowpath patterns during snowmelt events, which may be the result of the impacts of ski trails and artificial snow on the West Branch site. These two sites provide the unique opportunity to determine impacts of ski development on the streamwater chemistry of alpine watersheds. Future plans include sampling of potential end members such as soilwater, groundwater and snowpack and analysis of additional isotopic data in order to constrain our assessment of flowpaths contributing to the runoff in these basins.

  10. Filtering Algorithms for Global Chance Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hnich, B.; Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Prestwich, S.


    Stochastic Constraint Satisfaction Problems (SCSPs) are a powerful modeling framework for problems under uncertainty. To solve them is a PSPACE task. The only complete solution approach to date — scenario-based stochastic constraint programming — compiles SCSPs down into classical CSPs. This allows

  11. Integrity Constraints in Trust Management (Extended Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Winsborough, William H.; Ahn, G-J.

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust managementstyle authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then we address the fact that not all participants in a trust

  12. Cosmological Constraints from Gravitational Lens Time Delays (United States)

    Coe, Dan; Moustakas, Leonidas A.


    Future large ensembles of time delay (TD) lenses have the potential to provide interesting cosmological constraints complementary to those of other methods. In a flat universe with constant w including a Planck prior, The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope TD measurements for ~4000 lenses should constrain the local Hubble constant h to ~0.007 (~1%), Ω de to ~0.005, and w to ~0.026 (all 1σ precisions). Similar constraints could be obtained by a dedicated gravitational lens observatory (OMEGA) which would obtain precise TD and mass model measurements for ~100 well-studied lenses. We compare these constraints (as well as those for a more general cosmology) to the "optimistic Stage IV" constraints expected from weak lensing, supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cluster counts, as calculated by the Dark Energy Task Force. TDs yield a modest constraint on a time-varying w(z), with the best constraint on w(z) at the "pivot redshift" of z ≈ 0.31. Our Fisher matrix calculation is provided to allow TD constraints to be easily compared to and combined with constraints from other experiments. We also show how cosmological constraining power varies as a function of numbers of lenses, lens model uncertainty, TD precision, redshift precision, and the ratio of four-image to two-image lenses.

  13. Efficient sizing of structures under stress constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Z.; Abdalla, M.M.


    Optimisation algorithms used to automatically size structural members commonly involve stress constraints to avoid material failure. Therefore the cost of optimisation grows rapidly as the number of structural members is increased due to the corresponding increase in the number of constraints. In

  14. A model for strategy in constraint solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Wijk (Jack)


    textabstractThe use of constraints for the definition of graphical user interfaces has been recognized as a great concept. However, often many valuations of the variables will satisfy the constraints, and which particular valuation matches best with the expectation of the user cannot be decided

  15. Supernova constraints on neutrino mass and mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article I review the constraints on neutrino mass and mixing coming from type-II supernovae. The bounds obtained on these parameters from shock reheating, -process nucleosynthesis and from SN1987A are discussed. Given the current constraints on neutrino mass and mixing the effect of oscillations of neutrinos ...

  16. Missed opportunities and caretaker constraints to childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite concerted support to vaccination programmes, coverage remains low. While health service reasons for this are known, there is little information on caretaker constraints to vaccination in Africa. Objective: To establish the prevalence of missed vaccination opportunities and caretaker constraints to ...

  17. Climate Change Adaptation Constraints among Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean ranks of the constraints significantly differ from one another with the three topmost constraints being unreliable water source, lack of information on climate change and limited income. But for crop diversification, poor extension services and lack of credit are factors that cut across all the identified adaptation ...

  18. Constraints on three flavor neutrino mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 54; Issue 1. Constraints on three flavor neutrino ... We summarize the constraints on three flavor neutrino mixing coming from data. We first map out the allowed region in ... Mohan Narayan1. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India ...

  19. Domain General Constraints on Statistical Learning (United States)

    Thiessen, Erik D.


    All theories of language development suggest that learning is constrained. However, theories differ on whether these constraints arise from language-specific processes or have domain-general origins such as the characteristics of human perception and information processing. The current experiments explored constraints on statistical learning of…

  20. Network Design with Node Degree Balance Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has...

  1. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin


    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  2. On Noisy Extensions of Nonholonomic Constraints (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Putkaradze, Vakhtang


    We propose several stochastic extensions of nonholonomic constraints for mechanical systems and study the effects on the dynamics and on the conservation laws. Our approach relies on a stochastic extension of the Lagrange-d'Alembert framework. The mechanical system we focus on is the example of a Routh sphere, i.e., a rolling unbalanced ball on the plane. We interpret the noise in the constraint as either a stochastic motion of the plane, random slip or roughness of the surface. Without the noise, this system possesses three integrals of motion: energy, Jellet and Routh. Depending on the nature of noise in the constraint, we show that either energy, or Jellet, or both integrals can be conserved, with probability 1. We also present some exact solutions for particular types of motion in terms of stochastic integrals. Next, for an arbitrary nonholonomic system, we consider two different ways of including stochasticity in the constraints. We show that when the noise preserves the linearity of the constraints, then energy is preserved. For other types of noise in the constraint, e.g., in the case of an affine noise, the energy is not conserved. We study in detail a class of Lagrangian mechanical systems on semidirect products of Lie groups, with "rolling ball type" constraints. We conclude with numerical simulations illustrating our theories, and some pedagogical examples of noise in constraints for other nonholonomic systems popular in the literature, such as the nonholonomic particle, the rolling disk and the Chaplygin sleigh.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucu Sutarsyah


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify and describe the vocabulary in reading materials and to seek if the texts are useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. Some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the texts are dominated by low frequency words which compose 16.97% of the words in the texts. In terms of high frequency words occurring in the texts, function words dominate the texts. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts being used have very limited number of words from GSL (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only comprises 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words constitute account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also impede the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  4. Analysis of the Lake Superior Watershed Seasonal Snow Cover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Steven F; Baldwin, Timothy B; Weyrick, Patricia


    Daily estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) distribution for the period from 1 December through 30 April for each winter season from 1979 80 through 2002 03 were calculated for the entire Lake Superior watershed...

  5. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - Puerto Rico 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for Puerto Rico, Culebra Island and Vieques Island, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  6. Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquat

  7. Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection Web site is a searchable database of financial assistance sources (grants, loans) available to fund a...

  8. Development of the Internet Watershed Educational Tool (InterWET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Parson


    Full Text Available Watershed educational and informational efforts have largely neglected to inform one important group of decision-makers: local government officials. The Internet Watershed Educational Tool (InterWET was developed to help inform local officials about water resources, using as a case study the Spring Creek Watershed in central Pennsylvania. Utilizing the "microworlds" concept, InterWET consists of a set of web pages that present water resource issues and components from different perspectives. Specifically, the components of surface runoff, groundwater flow, detached and delivered sediment, in-stream nutrients, and fish populations are presented from the perspectives of a researcher, a conservationist, and a local official. In addition to informing local officials, InterWET can also be used as a stand-alone informational resource or as part of larger watershed educational efforts.

  9. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-2006, R1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains five data files, in comma-separated format (.csv), derived from the Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) vegetation inventory in eastern Tennessee....

  10. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, Kansas River Watershed (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Upper Kansas River Watershed Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period as part of a...

  11. Integrated Land Use Planning and Sustainable Watershed Management


    Cruz, Rex Victor O.


    This paper discusses the key issues and concerns regarding sustainable Philippine watershed management. Emphasis is made on the various requisites of a sustainable management with a focus on the critical roles of land use planning.

  12. Walnut Creek Watershed Restoration and Water Quality Monitoring Project (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this project is to establish a nonpoint source monitoring program in relation to the watershed habitat restoration and agricultural...

  13. Identification of drought in Dhalai river watershed using MCDM and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models from surveyed drought parameter data around the Dhalai river watershed in Tripura hinterlands, India. Total eight drought parameters, i.e., precipitation, soil moisture, ...

  14. Geographically isolated wetlands and watershed hydrology: A modified (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data for "An improved representation of geographically isolated wetlands in a watershed-scale hydrologic model". This dataset is associated with the following...

  15. Fish Creek Watershed Lake Classification, NPRA, Alaska, 2016 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This study focuses on the development of a 20 attribute lake cover classification scheme for the Fish Creek Watershed (FCW), which is located in the National...

  16. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The original objectives of the long-term vegetation survey of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee (WBW; Curlin and Nelson 1968) was to quantify...

  17. EAARL Topography--Potato Creek Watershed, Georgia, 2010 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in Georgia was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  18. 2011 FEMA Lidar: Chemung Watershed (NY) (AOI 2) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was acquired by Tuck Mapping Solutions, Inc. (TMSI) for the Chemung Watershed and broken down into two AOIs based on the level of processing performed on...


    To assist stormwater management professionals in planning for best management practices (BMPs) implementation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is developing a decision support system for placement of BMPs at strategic locations in urban watersheds. This tool wil...

  20. Baseline Contaminants Investigation of the Patoka River Watershed, Southwest Indiana (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment and fish tissue samples were collected from various locations within the Patoka River watershed (PRW) as part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's...

  1. Optimum beamforming subject to multiple linear constraints (United States)

    Steele, A. K.


    Optimum beamformers with a single look direction constraint can suffer from signal suppression problems when the optimum weights are calculated from the inverse of the signal-plus-noise cross-spectral matrix. Signal suppression occurs when the beam steer direction does not exactly correspond to the signal direction and this can occur if the number of fixed beams is small. The use of multiple linear constraints upon the optimum weights reduces this signal suppression. Multiple directional constraints can lead to ill-conditioned equations. However, it is shown that the limiting solutions of multiple directional constraints are multiple derivative contraints and these do not lead to ill-conditioned equations. The ability of various derivative constraints to prevent signal suppression is analyzed quantitatively.

  2. Participatory watershed research and management: Where the shadow falls


    Rhoades, Robert E.


    Metadata only record This paper evaluates the popular trend in development to adhere to a participatory watershed approach, which is viewed as providing an effective holistic methodology for addressing development. The author discusses the benefits of this approach, but also examines the potential problems in the theory and application of this approach. The viability of combining participation with watershed scale programs is assessed, as are the needed changes to avoid the pitfalls and en...

  3. Storytelling to support watershed research on emerging issues (United States)

    Phillip Hellman


    Projections of budget deficits by the Congressional Budget Office imply ever-increasing pressure on federal spending for all purposes, including long-term watershed research. This presentation will argue that, since federal funding is ultimately a political decision, those responsible for maintaining long-term watershed research programs should not try to provide ...

  4. Methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design (United States)

    Romnée, Ambroise; Evrard, Arnaud; Trachte, Sophie


    In urban stormwater management, decentralized systems are nowadays worldwide experimented, including stormwater best management practices. However, a watershed-scale approach, relevant for urban hydrology, is almost always neglected when designing a stormwater management plan with best management practices. As a consequence, urban designers fail to convince public authorities of the actual hydrologic effectiveness of such an approach to urban watershed stormwater management. In this paper, we develop a design oriented methodology for studying the morphology of an urban watershed in terms of sustainable stormwater management. The methodology is a five-step method, firstly based on the cartographic analysis of many stormwater relevant indicators regarding the landscape, the urban fabric and the governance. The second step focuses on the identification of many territorial stakes and their corresponding strategies of a decentralized stormwater management. Based on the indicators, the stakes and the strategies, the third step defines many spatial typologies regarding the roadway system and the urban fabric system. The fourth step determines many stormwater management scenarios to be applied to both spatial typologies systems. The fifth step is the design of decentralized stormwater management projects integrating BMPs into each spatial typology. The methodology aims to advise urban designers and engineering offices in the right location and selection of BMPs without given them a hypothetical unique solution. Since every location and every watershed is different due to local guidelines and stakeholders, this paper provide a methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design that could be reproduced everywhere. As an example, the methodology is applied as a case study to an urban watershed in Belgium, confirming that the method is applicable to any urban watershed. This paper should be helpful for engineering and design offices in urban hydrology to define a

  5. Streamflow, sediment and carbon transport from a Himalayan watershed (United States)

    Sharma, P.; Rai, S. C.


    Rivers indeed serve an important role in the carbon fluxes being recognized as a major component to regional and global environmental change. The present study focuses the sediment and carbon transports in a Himalayan watershed (elevational range 300-2650 m asl, area of 3014 ha) at Sikkim, India. The watershed has five perennial streams, all attain significant size during rainy season. The micro-watershed for each perennial stream has a mosaic distribution of land-use practices, viz. forests, agroforestry, agriculture and wastelands. The average discharge in the Rinjikhola, the watershed outlet was 840-850 l s -1 in summer season that increased by 5-6 times in rainy season. Sediment concentration varied distinctly with seasons in different streams and the outlet of the watershed. The soil loss rate from the total watershed ranged from 6 to 7 t ha -1 yr -1 that accounts to a net loss of 833 t yr -1 organic carbon, and 2025 t yr -1 dissolved organic carbon from the watershed, and more than 90% of soil losses were attributable to open cropped area. The stream discharge, soil and carbon loss and precipitation partitioning through different pathways in forest and agroforestry land-use suggest that these land-uses promote conservation of soil and carbon. It is emphasized that a good understanding of carbon transfer through overland flow and discharge is important for policy decisions and management of soil and carbon loss of a Himalayan watershed as it is very sensitive to land-use/cover changes. Therefore, the conversion of forest to agricultural land should be reversed. Agroforestry systems should be included in agricultural land in mountainous regions.

  6. San Juan Bay Estuary watershed urban forest inventory (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Francisco J. Escobedo; Christina L. Staudhammer; David J. Nowak; Wayne C. Zipperer


    We present information on the urban forests and land uses within the watershed of Puerto Rico’s 21 658-ha San Juan Bay Estuary based on urban forest inventories undertaken in 2001 and 2011. We found 2548 ha of mangrove and subtropical moist secondary forests covering 11.8 percent of the total watershed area in 2011. Red, black, and white mangroves (Rhizophora...

  7. FERMiers required: applying watershed governance to banking and finance


    W. Travis Selmier


    This paper conceptualizes financial markets as virtual environments which should be subject to stewardship requirements found in natural environments. As in natural environments, irresponsible self-governance and lax or off-target regulation result in environmental damage and social loss. Watershed governance is proposed as the best-fitting analogy to financial markets governance for seven reasons: 1, scaling the watershed analogy from small to large fits well with financial markets; 2, both ...

  8. Watershed Restoration at Richmond, CA Field Site: Science Education Partnership (United States)

    Berry, W. B.


    The University of California Berkeley owns a field research station in Richmond, California, a few miles from the central campus. Wetlands, and tidal marsh environments cover a significant part of the site. Metals, primarily mercury, but also arsenic and copper as well as PCBs, have been removed from the wetlands under order from the Regional Water Quality Control Board. The University contracted with a professional organization, The Watershed Project, to renew/restore the wetlands from which the metals and PCBs had been removed. This renewal/restoration project is being used in research and teaching in courses and independent study projects. The Watershed Project scientists, specialists in wetlands restoration, come to the Berkeley Campus to lecture in a Bay Area environmental issues class on wetlands values and on processes in restoration of wetlands. Some environmental science students take a field study course in which they go to the wetlands restoration site to learn "hands-on" restoration techniques from The Watershed Project specialists and to gain practical experience. Students write an analysis of their learning experience while under the supervision of The Watershed Project specialists to satisfy course requirements. Berkeley faculty and The Watershed Project scientists collaborate in planning the student learning and research experience in these wetlands. The close collaboration among faculty, The Watershed Project scientists and students has been a rewarding experience for all. This program has been in place for four years.

  9. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake J Beaulieu

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  10. Sediment yields from small, steep coastal watersheds of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Warrick


    New hydrological insights for the region: The watersheds were found to have suspended-sediment concentrations that extended over five orders of magnitude (1 to over 100,000 mg L−1. Sediment concentrations were weakly correlated with discharge (r2 = 0.10–0.25, and four types of hysteresis patterns were observed during high flow events (clockwise, counterclockwise, no hysteresis, and complex. Annual sediment yields varied by 400-fold across the four watersheds (e.g., 5–2100 t km−2 yr −1 during the 2003–2006 water years, and sediment discharge was measurably elevated in one watershed that was partially burned by a late summer wildfire. Dozens of high flow events provided evidence that suspended-sediment yields were generally related to peak stream discharge and event-based precipitation, although these relationships were not consistent across the watersheds. This suggests that watersheds smaller than 100 km2 can provide large – and therefore important – fluxes of sediment to the coast, but that simple techniques to estimate sediment loads, such as sediment rating curves, hydrologic regressions, and extrapolation using global sediment yield relationships that include watershed area as a primary factor, may provide poor results.

  11. A Stochastic Water Balance Framework for Lowland Watersheds (United States)

    Thompson, Sally; MacVean, Lissa; Sivapalan, Murugesu


    The water balance dynamics in lowland watersheds are influenced not only by local hydroclimatic controls on energy and water availability, but also by imports of water from the upstream watershed. These imports result in a stochastic extent of inundation in lowland watersheds that is determined by the local flood regime, watershed topography, and the rate of loss processes such as drainage and evaporation. Thus, lowland watershed water balances depend on two stochastic processes—rainfall and local inundation dynamics. Lowlands are high productivity environments that are disproportionately associated with urbanization, high productivity agriculture, biodiversity, and flood risk. Consequently, they are being rapidly altered by human development—generally with clear economic and social motivation—but also with significant trade-offs in ecosystem services provision, directly related to changes in the components and variability of the lowland water balance. We present a stochastic framework to assess the lowland water balance and its sensitivity to two common human interventions—replacement of native vegetation with alternative land uses, and construction of local flood protection levees. By providing analytical solutions for the mean and PDF of the water balance components, the proposed framework provides a mechanism to connect human interventions to hydrologic outcomes, and, in conjunction with ecosystem service production estimates, to evaluate trade-offs associated with lowland watershed development.

  12. Institutional Analysis of Watershed Manangement in Batam Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Donie


    Full Text Available This study aimed to look at the institutional condition of the current watershed management and institutional models (management authority which were relevant to Batam Island in the future. The data collection was conducted by interview techniques and was validated through focus group discussions. The data were described and analyzed with SCP (structure, conduct, performance method for relevant stakeholders’ data, legislation, and with KIPA (quadrant interpretative performance analysis method for data of interest and power of stakeholders. The results showed that the watershed management institutional in Batam Island was still overlapping. According to the regulations, the Management Board (BP of Batam Island was given the authority to manage and to use land and water; on the other hand the Local Government (Mayor was facilitated by BPDAS KEPRI (Watershed Management Institute of Riau Islands to also arrange an integrated watershed management. The results of discussions showed that BP Batam was an institute of having interest and power as well as key position in achieving successful watershed management. Based on this study, it was suggested that BP Batam should be given authority in watershed management in Batam Island, which keeps referring to the norms, standards, procedures, and indicators set by the central government.

  13. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1999 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.


    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a summary of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. Up until last year, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and was the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices are the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. However, the watershed stream evaluation team used in the watershed analysis determined that there were problems along the Pataha Creek that needed to be addressed that would add further protection to the banks and therefore a further reduction of sedimentation into the stream. 1999 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. In stream work was not addressed this year because of the costs associated with these projects and the low impact of the sediment issue concerning Pataha Creeks impact on Chinook Salmon in the Tucannon River.

  14. Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S.; Groffman, Peter M; Band, Lawrence; Elliott, Emily M.; Shields, Catherine A.; Kendall, Carol


    Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for agricultural, suburban, and forest watersheds, respectively. Analysis of δ15N-NO3–, and δ18O-NO3– indicated wastewater was an important nitrate source in urbanized streams during baseflow. Negative correlations between δ15N-NO3– and δ18O-NO3– in urban watersheds indicated mixing between atmospheric deposition and wastewater, and N source contributions changed with storm magnitude (atmospheric sources contributed ∼50% at peak storm N loads). Positive correlations between δ15N-NO3– and δ18O-NO3– in watersheds suggested denitrification was removing septic system and agriculturally derived N, but N from belowground leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. N transformations were also observed in a storm drain (no natural drainage network) potentially due to organic carbon inputs. Overall, nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizer showed different susceptibility to watershed N export. There were large changes in nitrate sources as a function of runoff, and anticipating source changes in response to climate and storms will be critical for managing nonpoint N pollution.

  15. The Flattened Aggregate Constraint Homotopy Method for Nonlinear Programming Problems with Many Nonlinear Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyong Zhou


    Full Text Available The aggregate constraint homotopy method uses a single smoothing constraint instead of m-constraints to reduce the dimension of its homotopy map, and hence it is expected to be more efficient than the combined homotopy interior point method when the number of constraints is very large. However, the gradient and Hessian of the aggregate constraint function are complicated combinations of gradients and Hessians of all constraint functions, and hence they are expensive to calculate when the number of constraint functions is very large. In order to improve the performance of the aggregate constraint homotopy method for solving nonlinear programming problems, with few variables and many nonlinear constraints, a flattened aggregate constraint homotopy method, that can save much computation of gradients and Hessians of constraint functions, is presented. Under some similar conditions for other homotopy methods, existence and convergence of a smooth homotopy path are proven. A numerical procedure is given to implement the proposed homotopy method, preliminary computational results show its performance, and it is also competitive with the state-of-the-art solver KNITRO for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization.

  16. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lewitus


    Full Text Available Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the

  17. Use of remote sensing to link watershed land use change and wetland vegetation response in a California coastal watershed


    Kelly, N. Maggi; Byrd, Kristin B.


    While Elkhorn Slough wetlands are protected by a State ecological reserve and NOAA research reserve, intensified farming in the watershed has led to high soil erosion rates and sedimentation into the slough, where several sediment fans have formed at the base of slopes. The goal of this study was to determine how watershed land use change (i.e., increasing agriculture) and associated sedimentation over 30 years influenced changes in salt marsh soil physical properties, and in turn, plant comp...

  18. Valuing the effects of hydropower development on watershed ecosystem services: Case studies in the Jiulong River Watershed, Fujian Province, China (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Fang, Qinhua; Zhang, Luoping; Chen, Weiqi; Chen, Zhenming; Hong, Huasheng


    Hydropower development brings many negative impacts on watershed ecosystems which are not fully integrated into current decision-making largely because in practice few accept the cost and benefit beyond market. In this paper, a framework was proposed to valuate the effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development. Watershed ecosystem services were classified into four categories of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services; then effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development were identified to 21 indicators. Thereafter various evaluation techniques including the market value method, opportunity cost approach, project restoration method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method were determined and the models were developed to valuate these indicators reflecting specific watershed ecosystem services. This approach was applied to three representative hydropower projects (Daguan, Xizaikou and Tiangong) of Jiulong River Watershed in southeast China. It was concluded that for hydropower development: (1) the value ratio of negative impacts to positive benefits ranges from 64.09% to 91.18%, indicating that the negative impacts of hydropower development should be critically studied during its environmental administration process; (2) the biodiversity loss and water quality degradation (together accounting for 80-94%) are the major negative impacts on watershed ecosystem services; (3) the average environmental cost per unit of electricity is up to 0.206 Yuan/kW h, which is about three quarters of its on-grid power tariff; and (4) the current water resource fee accounts for only about 4% of its negative impacts value, therefore a new compensatory method by paying for ecosystem services is necessary for sustainable hydropower development. These findings provide a clear picture of both positive and negative effects of hydropower development for decision-makers in the monetary term, and also provide a

  19. Applying Physically Representative Watershed Modelling to Assess Peak and Low Flow Response to Timber Harvest: Application for Watershed Assessments (United States)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Anderson, A.; Silins, U.; Craig, J. R.


    Forest harvesting, insects, disease, wildfire, and other disturbances can combine with climate change to cause unknown changes to the amount and timing of streamflow from critical forested watersheds. Southern Alberta forest and alpine areas provide downstream water supply for agriculture and water utilities that supply approximately two thirds of the Alberta population. This project uses datasets from intensely monitored study watersheds and hydrological model platforms to extend our understanding of how disturbances and climate change may impact various aspects of the streamflow regime that are of importance to downstream users. The objectives are 1) to use the model output of watershed response to disturbances to inform assessments of forested watersheds in the region, and 2) to investigate the use of a new flexible modelling platform as a tool for detailed watershed assessments and hypothesis testing. Here we applied the RAVEN hydrological modelling framework to quantify changes in key hydrological processes driving peak and low flows in a headwater catchment along the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The model was applied to simulate the period from 2006 to 2011 using data from the Star Creek watershed in southwestern Alberta. The representation of relevant hydrological processes was verified using snow survey, meteorological, and vegetation data collected through the Southern Rockies Watershed Project. Timber harvest scenarios were developed to estimate the effects of cut levels ranging from 20 to 100% over a range of elevations, slopes, and aspects. We quantified changes in the timing and magnitude of low flow and high flow events during the 2006 to 2011 period. Future work will assess changes in the probability of low and high flow events using a long-term meteorological record. This modelling framework enables relevant processes at the watershed scale to be accounted in a physically robust and computational efficient manner. Hydrologic

  20. Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project (United States)

    Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.


    The Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed (FCRW) (830 km2) is a watershed within the HELP Washita Basin, located in Caddo and Washita Counties, OK. It is also a benchmark watershed under USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project, a national project to quantify environmental effects of USDA and other conservation programs. Population in south-western Oklahoma, in which FCRW is located, is sparse and decreasing. Agricultural focuses on commodity production (beef, wheat, and row crops) with high costs and low margins. Surface and groundwater resources supply public, domestic, and irrigation water. Fort Cobb Reservoir and contributing stream segments are listed on the Oklahoma 303(d) list as not meeting water quality standards based on sedimentation, trophic level of the lake associated with phosphorus loads, and nitrogen in some stream segments in some seasons. Preliminary results from a rapid geomorphic assessment results indicated that unstable stream channels dominate the stream networks and make a significant but unknown contribution to suspended-sediment loadings. Impairment of the lake for municipal water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife are important factors in local economies. The Thika River Watershed (TRW) (867 km2) is located in central Kenya. Population in TRW is high and increasing, which has led to a poor land-population ratio with population densities ranging from 250 people/km2 to over 500 people/km2. The poor land-population ratio has resulted in land sub-division, fragmentation, over- cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation which have serious implications on soil erosion, which poses a threat to both agricultural production and downstream reservoirs. Agricultural focuses mainly on subsistence and some cash crops (dairy cattle, corn, beans, coffee, floriculture and pineapple) farming. Surface and groundwater resources supply domestic, public, and hydroelectric power generation water. Thika River supplies 80% of the water for the city of

  1. Contemporary Water Governance: Navigating Crisis Response and Institutional Constraints through Pragmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Baird


    Full Text Available Water has often been the source of crises and their frequency will intensify due to climate change impacts. The Niagara River Watershed provides an ideal case to study water crises as it is an international transboundary system (Canada-United States and has both historical and current challenges associated with water quantity and quality, which resonates broadly in water basins throughout the world. The aim of this study was to understand how stakeholders perceive ecosystems and the relationship with preferences for governance approaches in the context of water governance. An online survey instrument was employed to assess perceptions of the system in terms of resilience (engineering, ecological, social-ecological, or epistemic, preferences for governance approaches (state, citizen, market, and hybrid forms, and the most pressing issues in the watershed. Responses showed that, despite demographic differences and adherence to different resilience perspectives, support was strongest for governance approaches that focused on state or state-citizen hybrid forms. The validity of the resilience typology as a grouping variable is discussed. The roles of institutional constraints, pragmatism in governance approach preferences, and the influence of multiple crises are explored in relation to the context of the study site, as well as to water governance scholarship more broadly.

  2. USLE Estimation for Potential Erosion at Wae Heru Watershed and Wae Tonahitu Watershed, Ambon Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvina Grasela Saiya


    Full Text Available Abstract Calculate the potential erosion at Wae Heru and Wae Tonahitu Watershed aims to map and assess the potential erosion, in order to be a scientific consideration for exploration and development. The method is a field survey to determine the forms of land use and other forms of conservation efforts; secondary data collection, i.e. soil data, rainfall data, slopes data and data interpretation from Geo Eye satellite imagery in 2012. Further data processing used USLE formula with ArcGIS program. The results showed that the potential erosion of Wae Heru Watershed and Wae Tonahitu Watershed are in very light potential class. This is because the conditions in the upstream are still forested largely. However, at the downstream potential for erosion is vary, i.e. light class, moderate class, heavy class and very heavy class. This is because the conditions in the downstream undergo conversion into settlement, moor, garden, open land and sand mining.   Abstrak Menghitung potensi erosi di Wae Heru dan Wae Tonahitu Daerah Aliran Sungai bertujuan untuk memetakan dan menilai potensi erosi, agar menjadi pertimbangan ilmiah untuk eksplorasi dan pengembangan. Metode ini adalah survei lapangan untuk menentukan bentuk penggunaan lahan dan bentuk lain dari upaya konservasi; pengumpulan data sekunder, data tanah yaitu, data curah hujan, data yang lereng dan interpretasi data dari citra satelit Geo Eye pada tahun 2012. pengolahan data lebih lanjut digunakan rumus USLE program ArcGIS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa erosi potensi Wae Heru DAS dan Wae Tonahitu Daerah Aliran Sungai di kelas potensial sangat ringan. Hal ini karena kondisi di hulu masih berhutan sebagian besar. Namun, pada potensi hilir erosi adalah bervariasi, yaitu kelas ringan, kelas menengah, kelas berat dan kelas yang sangat berat. Hal ini karena kondisi di hilir mengalami konversi menjadi pemukiman, tegalan, kebun, lahan terbuka dan penambangan pasir.

  3. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.


    Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address

  4. Constraint satisfaction problems CSP formalisms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ghedira, Khaled


    A Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) consists of a set of variables, a domain of values for each variable and a set of constraints. The objective is to assign a value for each variable such that all constraints are satisfied. CSPs continue to receive increased attention because of both their high complexity and their omnipresence in academic, industrial and even real-life problems. This is why they are the subject of intense research in both artificial intelligence and operations research. This book introduces the classic CSP and details several extensions/improvements of both formalisms a

  5. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Levin, Eugene [Departemento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,and Centro Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Avda. Espana 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Department of Particle Physics, Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lublinsky, Michael [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)


    We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P; Prof. Yuh J. Chao, P


    The meaning of the phrase 'constraint effect in fracture' has changed in the past two decades from 'contained plasticity' to a broader description of 'dependence of fracture toughness value on geometry of test specimen or structure'. This paper will first elucidate the fundamental mechanics reasons for the apparent 'constraint effects in fracture', followed by outlining a straightforward approach to overcoming this problem in both brittle (elastic) and ductile (elastic-plastic) fracture. It is concluded by discussing the major difference in constraint effect on fracture event in elastic and elastic-plastic materials.

  7. COHERENT constraints on nonstandard neutrino interactions (United States)

    Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, Danny


    Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering consistent with the standard model has been observed by the COHERENT experiment. We study nonstandard neutrino interactions using the detected spectrum. For the case in which the nonstandard interactions (NSI) are induced by a vector mediator lighter than 50 MeV, we obtain constraints on the coupling of the mediator. For a heavier mediator, we find that degeneracies between the NSI parameters severely weaken the constraints. However, these degeneracies do not affect COHERENT constraints on the effective NSI parameters for matter propagation in the Earth.

  8. Relaxations of semiring constraint satisfaction problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L


    Full Text Available 5 ted by Abstract The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial con- straint satisfaction problems. In this framework preferences can be associated with tuples of values... of the domains of con- straints. The operator × is used to combine constraints in order to find a solution (i.e., a single constraint) to a SCSP, and the operator + is used to define the c-value of the projection of a tuple of values over a set of vari...

  9. Nitrate in watersheds: straight from soils to streams? (United States)

    Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Perakis, Steven S.; Bernhardt, Emily S.


    Human activities are rapidly increasing the global supply of reactive N and substantially altering the structure and hydrologic connectivity of managed ecosystems. There is long-standing recognition that N must be removed along hydrologic flowpaths from uplands to streams, yet it has proven difficult to assess the generality of this removal across ecosystem types, and whether these patterns are influenced by land-use change. To assess how well upland nitrate (NO3-) loss is reflected in stream export, we gathered information from >50 watershed biogeochemical studies that reported nitrate concentrations ([NO3-]) for stream water and for either upslope soil solution or groundwater NO3- to examine whether stream export of NO3- accurately reflects upland NO3- losses. In this dataset, soil solution and streamwater [NO3-] were correlated across 40 undisturbed forest watersheds, with streamwater [NO3-] typically half (median = 50%) soil solution [NO3-]. A similar relationship was seen in 10 disturbed forest watersheds. However, for 12 watersheds with significant agricultural or urban development, the intercept and slope were both significantly higher than the relationship seen in forest watersheds. Differences in concentration between soil solution or groundwater and stream water may be attributed to biological uptake, microbial processes including denitrification, and/or preferential flow routing. The results of this synthesis are consistent with the hypotheses that undisturbed watersheds have a significant capacity to remove nitrate after it passes below the rooting zone and that land use changes tend to alter the efficiency or the length of watershed flowpaths, leading to reductions in nitrate removal and increased stream nitrate concentrations.

  10. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.


    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  11. Watershed health assessment to monitor land degradation (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Cerdà, Artemi


    Land degradation is a worldwide issue that affects the Planet and the fate of the humankind (Cerdà et al., 2009; Choudhury et al., 2016; Fernández et al., 2016; Ferreira et al., 2016). Several processes affect the sustainability of the ecosystems, from soil erosion to soil compation, deforestation, Climate Change or water, soil and air pollution (Sadeghi et al., 2015a; 2015b; Gómez-Acanta et al., 2016; Mengistu et al., 2016; Mukai, 2016). Several ecosystem theories have been presented in the scientific literatures to monitor land degradation (Cerdà et al., 2016; Davudirad et al., 2016; Fava et al., 2016; Mahyou et al., 2016; Soulard et al., 2016). Besides the scientific tasks of improving the indication, the conviction of the potential users to change their concepts toward a higher consideration of ecosystem attributes, and toward a fruitful application of the health or integrity concepts, will be a main task of future activities. Reliability, resilience and vulnerability (R-R-V) indicators are often used in combination for quantifying risk and decision making in many systems. However, the use of hydrological series data for R-R-V computations has been rather limited. Toward this, the overall objective of this paper is to conduct a risk assessment analysis on stream flow discharge from Shazand Watershed located in the south western of Markazi Province in Iran for the period of 1972-2014 using R-R-V indicators. Based on the R-R-V analysis conducted in this study, the stream flow discharge of the study region followed a cyclic pattern with a decreasing trend. The results further showed a decreasing trend in reliability and resilience and an increasing trend in vulnerability in the Shazand Watershed. It may be concluded that the Shazand Watershed was in overall in unhealthy condition from view of stream flow discharge. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant no. 603498 (RECARE Project

  12. Choco: an Open Source Java Constraint Programming Library


    Jussien, Narendra; Rochart, Guillaume; Lorca, Xavier


    International audience; Choco is a java library for constraint satisfaction problems (CSP), constraint programming (CP) and explanation-based constraint solving (e-CP). It is built on a event-based propagation mechanism with backtrackable structures.

  13. Application-Specific Constraints for Multimedia Presentation Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.T.M. Geurts (Joost); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); L. Hardman (Lynda)


    textabstractThe paper describes the advantages of the use of constraint logic programming to articulate transformation rules for multimedia presentation in combination with efficient constraint solving techniques. It demonstrates the need for two different types of constraints. Quantitative

  14. Comparing Evolutionary Algorithms on Binary Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craenen, B.G.W.; Eiben, A.E.; van Hemert, J.I.


    Constraint handling is not straightforward in evolutionary algorithms (EAs) since the usual search operators, mutation and recombination, are 'blind' to constraints. Nevertheless, the issue is highly relevant, for many challenging problems involve constraints. Over the last decade, numerous EAs for

  15. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper addresses this gap. The and six case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper sheds light on the types of constraints generated by the relevant constraint generators. The paper shows that in the cases studied...... and landlords need to be considered as well as the interest of the client and brand owner. Furthermore the users need to be taken into account in order to develop an interesting and functional shopping and working environments. Finally, suppliers and competitors may influence the design with regard...... pro-actively with constraints, the resources for alteration can be limited, but in order to do this a solid understanding of the types of constraints is required. Although literature has dealt with the topic it does not provide detailed answers to these questions. Based on a literature study and six...

  16. Constraints To Farmers Effective Participation In Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Nigeria is the provision of agricultural extension services to farmers. This study, therefore, examined the constraints to farmers' effective participation in the agricultural extension programmes of four non-profit NGOs in three states of ...

  17. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan


    The relationship between creativity and constraints is often described in the literature either in rather imprecise, general concepts or in relation to very specific domains. Cross-domain and cross-disciplinary takes on how the handling of constraints influences creative activities are rare....... In this paper, we explore these particular issues in two creative domains: art and engineering design. These domains vary so greatly in terms of number and types of constraints in play that we argue for considering them as opposite extremes of a continuum of levels of creative freedom. By comparing two case...... studies of Danish cutting-edge proponents of creative expertise thus exemplifying each domain, this preliminary exploration mainly focuses on similarities in how such successful professionals work with constraints to frame their creative process and ensure its progression toward the final outcome. Our...

  18. Constraint theory multidimensional mathematical model management

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, George J


    Packed with new material and research, this second edition of George Friedman’s bestselling Constraint Theory remains an invaluable reference for all engineers, mathematicians, and managers concerned with modeling. As in the first edition, this text analyzes the way Constraint Theory employs bipartite graphs and presents the process of locating the “kernel of constraint” trillions of times faster than brute-force approaches, determining model consistency and computational allowability. Unique in its abundance of topological pictures of the material, this book balances left- and right-brain perceptions to provide a thorough explanation of multidimensional mathematical models. Much of the extended material in this new edition also comes from Phan Phan’s PhD dissertation in 2011, titled “Expanding Constraint Theory to Determine Well-Posedness of Large Mathematical Models.” Praise for the first edition: "Dr. George Friedman is indisputably the father of the very powerful methods of constraint theory...

  19. Biological constraints do not entail cognitive closure. (United States)

    Vlerick, Michael


    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors--most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn--have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will refer to as 'representation' and 'object of representation'. The second confuses the cognitive scope of the assisted mind for that of the unassisted mind. Cognitive closure, I conclude, cannot be established from pointing out the (uncontroversial) existence of cognitive constraints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    This paper studies how short-sale constraints affect the informational efficiency of market prices and the link between prices and economic activity. I show that under short-sale constraints security prices contain less information. However, short-sale constraints increase the informativeness...... of prices to some agents who learn about the quality of an investment opportunity from market prices and have additional private information. Then I apply this observation when modeling a run on an investment bank by its short-term creditors, who are endowed with dispersed information and also learn from......), creditors with high private signals are more lenient to roll over debt, and a bank with lower asset quality remains solvent. This leads to higher allocative efficiency in the real economy. My result thus implies that the decrease in average informativeness due to short-sale constraints can be more than...

  1. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick


    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and p......We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top...... results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  2. Constraint specialisation in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick


    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute a speciali......We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute...... underlying the clauses. Experimental results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (based on a convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  3. Integrity Constraint Checking in Federated Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Widom, Jennifer

    A federated database is comprised of multiple interconnected databases that cooperate in an autonomous fashion. Global integrity constraints are very useful in federated databases, but the lack of global queries, global transaction mechanisms, and global concurrency control renders traditional

  4. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha


    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  5. Synchronized sweep algorithms for scalable scheduling constraints


    Letort, Arnaud; Carlsson, Mats; Beldiceanu, Nicolas


    This report introduces a family of synchronized sweep based filtering algorithms for handling scheduling problems involving resource and precedence constraints. The key idea is to filter all constraints of a scheduling problem in a synchronized way in order to scale better. In addition to normal filtering mode, the algorithms can run in greedy mode, in which case they perform a greedy assignment of start and end times. The filtering mode achieves a significant speed-up over ...

  6. Hydrological disposition of flash flood and debris flows events in an Alpine watershed in Austria (United States)

    Prenner, David; Kaitna, Roland; Mostbauer, Karin; Hrachowitz, Markus


    Debris flows and flash floods including intensive bedload transport represent severe hazards in the Alpine environment of Austria. For neither of these processes, explicit rainfall thresholds - even for specific regions - are available. This may be due to insufficient data on the temporal and spatial variation of precipitation, but probably also due to variations of the geomorphic and hydrological disposition of a watershed to produce such processes in the course of a rainfall event. In this contribution we investigate the importance of the hydrological system state for triggering debris flows and flash floods in the Ill/Suggadin watershed (500 km2), Austria, by analyzing the effects of dynamics in system state variables such as soil moisture, snow pack, or ground water level. The analysis is based on a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model, spatially discretizing the watershed according to the available precipitation observations, elevation, topographic considerations and land cover. Input data are available from six weather stations on a daily basis ranging back to 1947. A Thiessen polygon decomposition results in six individual precipitation zones with a maximum area of about 130 km2. Elevation specific behavior of the quantities temperature and precipitation is covered through an elevation-resolved computation every 200 m. Spatial heterogeneity is considered by distinct hydrological response units for bare rock, forest, grassland, and riparian zone. To reduce numerical smearing on the hydrological results, the Implicit Euler scheme was used to discretize the balance equations. For model calibration we utilized runoff hydrographs, snow cover data as well as prior parameter and process constraints. The obtained hydrological output variables are linked to documented observed flash flood and debris flow events by means of a multivariate logistic regression. We present a summary about the daily hydrological disposition of experiencing a flash flood or

  7. University Course Timetabling using Constraint Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shahmoradi


    Full Text Available University course timetabling problem is a challenging and time-consuming task on the overall structure of timetable in every academic environment. The problem deals with many factors such as the number of lessons, classes, teachers, students and working time, and these are influenced by some hard and soft constraints. The aim of solving this problem is to assign courses and classes to teachers and students, so that the restrictions are held. In this paper, a constraint programming method is proposed to satisfy maximum constraints and expectation, in order to address university timetabling problem. For minimizing the penalty of soft constraints, a cost function is introduced and AHP method is used for calculating its coefficients. The proposed model is tested on department of management, University of Isfahan dataset using OPL on the IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio platform. A statistical analysis has been conducted and shows the performance of the proposed approach in satisfying all hard constraints and also the satisfying degree of the soft constraints is on maximum desirable level. The running time of the model is less than 20 minutes that is significantly better than the non-automated ones.

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coty, J


    This surface water protection plan (plan) provides an overview of the management efforts implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that support a watershed approach to protect surface water. This plan fulfills a requirement in the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A to demonstrate a watershed approach for surface water protection that protects the environment and public health. This plan describes the use of a watershed approach within which the Laboratory's current surface water management and protections efforts have been structured and coordinated. With more than 800 million acres of land in the U.S. under federal management and stewardship, a unified approach across agencies provides enhanced resource protection and cost-effectiveness. The DOE adopted, along with other federal agencies, the Unified Federal Policy for a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management (UFP) with a goal to protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands. This policy intends to prevent and/or reduce water pollution from federal activities while fostering a cost-effective watershed approach to federal land and resource management. The UFP also intends to enhance the implementation of existing laws (e.g., the Clean Water Act [CWA] and National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA]) and regulations. In addition, this provides an opportunity for the federal government to serve as a model for water quality stewardship using a watershed approach for federal land and resource activities that potentially impact surface water and its uses. As a federal land manager, the Laboratory is responsible for a small but important part of those 800 million acres of land. Diverse land uses are required to support the Laboratory's mission and provide an appropriate work environment for its staff. The Laboratory comprises two sites: its main site in Livermore, California, and the Experimental Test Site (Site 300), near Tracy, California. The main site

  9. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT); Rogers, Rox (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Libby, MT)


    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian

  10. Watershed Modeling to Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow ... (United States)

    EPA has released for independent external peer review and public comment a draft report titled, Watershed Modeling to Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to Potential Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds. This is a draft document that intends to characterize the sensitivity of streamflow, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus), and sediment loading in different regions of the nation to a range of plausible mid-21st Century climate change and urban development scenarios. Watershed modeling was conducted in 20 large, U.S. watersheds to assess the sensitivity of streamflow, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus), and sediment loading to a range of plausible mid-21st Century climate change and urban development scenarios in different regions of the nation. This draft report provides a summary of simulation results. The model simulations characterize the sensitivity of streamflow, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus), and sediment loading to a range of plausible mid-21st Century climate change and urban development. Results show a high degree of variability in the response throughout the nation. Results also provide an improved understanding of methodological challenges associated with integrating existing tools and datasets to address these scientific questions. This provides guidance for improving how existing models and datasets can be used for assessing climate change impacts on watersheds. Projected changes in cli

  11. Potential stream density in Mid-Atlantic US watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Elmore

    Full Text Available Stream network density exerts a strong influence on ecohydrologic processes in watersheds, yet existing stream maps fail to capture most headwater streams and therefore underestimate stream density. Furthermore, discrepancies between mapped and actual stream length vary between watersheds, confounding efforts to understand the impacts of land use on stream ecosystems. Here we report on research that predicts stream presence from coupled field observations of headwater stream channels and terrain variables that were calculated both locally and as an average across the watershed upstream of any location on the landscape. Our approach used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt, a robust method commonly implemented to model species distributions that requires information only on the presence of the entity of interest. In validation, the method correctly predicts the presence of 86% of all 10-m stream segments and errors are low (<1% for catchments larger than 10 ha. We apply this model to the entire Potomac River watershed (37,800 km(2 and several adjacent watersheds to map stream density and compare our results with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD. We find that NHD underestimates stream density by up to 250%, with errors being greatest in the densely urbanized cities of Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD and in regions where the NHD has never been updated from its original, coarse-grain mapping. This work is the most ambitious attempt yet to map stream networks over a large region and will have lasting implications for modeling and conservation efforts.

  12. Evolving Human Alteration of the Carbon Cycle: the Watershed Continuum (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Newcomer Johnson, T.; Pennino, M. J.; Smith, R. M.; Beaulieu, J. J.; Belt, K.; Grese, M.; Blomquist, J.; Duan, S.; Findlay, S.; Likens, G.; Mayer, P. M.; Murthy, S.; Utz, R.; Yepsen, M.


    Watersheds experiencing land development are constantly evolving, and their biogeochemical signatures are expected to evolve across both space and time in drainage waters. We investigate how land development influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Eastern U.S. Along the watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and bioavailability of carbon; (2) carbon retention/release at the reach scale; and (3) ecosystem metabolism of carbon from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and frequency of carbon "pulses" in watersheds. Amounts and forms of carbon pulses in agricultural and urban watersheds respond similarly to climate variability due to headwater alteration and loss of ecosystem services to buffer runoff and temperature changes. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered organic carbon concentrations in tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay, and there have been increased bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. due to human activities. In summary, our analyses indicates that the form and reactivity of carbon have evolved over space and time along the watershed continuum with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.

  13. Export and Metabolism of Carbon in Urban Watersheds: Climate Implications (United States)

    Smith, R. M.; Kaushal, S.


    Rivers export and transform globally-significant quantities of carbon from watersheds to coastal ecosystems. Urbanization and climate change influence these fluxes by altering the hydrologic regime, water temperature, and anthropogenic sources of organic matter. Here, we quantify export and metabolism of carbon in highly urbanized, coastal watersheds, and evaluate the importance of physical drivers linked to climate and land use. Using a combination of discrete-samples, continuous water quality sensors, lab experiments, and modeling, we quantified rates of DOC, DIC, and CO2 export as well as changes in DOC quality and in-stream metabolism in four highly developed watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay over three years. Annual DOC and DIC exports from the four watersheds varied from 9 to 23 and 19 to 59 Kg ha-1yr-1 respectively. The range of daily CO2 concentrations was 0.01 to 2.6mg L-1, equivalent to between 0.37 and 53% of daily DOC export across all streams and dates. All sites were net-heterotrophic for the majority of the year (NEP0) during spring and early summer. There was a significant (Purban watersheds can export significant amounts of DOC, DIC, and CO2 to coastal zones. The influence of urbanization on coastal water quality and greenhouse gases may be exacerbated by climate change as temperatures and storm frequency continue to rise.

  14. [Decision support system for watershed management: a review]. (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Yan, Jing


    Watershed management decision support system (DSS) is an intellectual system developed for the optimal allocation of water resources by watershed managers, and the simulation results of the system can directly affect the scientificity and practicability of watershed management. This paper summarized the related researches from the aspects of water quantity simulation and deployment systems, water quality monitoring and evaluation systems, and integrated watershed management systems. The main features and problems in existing DSS were analyzed, and the model structure and development status of the representative systems such as AQUA-Tool, Elbe-DSS, and HD were introduced. It was suggested that the accuracy and stability of simulated results, the succinctness of working process, and the high degree of user visualization would be the focuses in developing the DSS in the future, and the optimization of program-selecting models and 3D visualization tools, the research and development of inter-basin integrated management DSS, and the improvement of stakeholder participation would be the development trend for the future watershed management DSS.

  15. Morphometric analysis of Andhale watershed, Taluka Mulshi, District Pune, India (United States)

    Umrikar, Bhavana N.


    The morphometric analysis coupled with remote sensing and geographical information system techniques evaluates various valuable parameters for the watershed development plan of drought-prone Andhale watershed of Pune district, Maharashtra. The upper part of the watershed shows parallel-sub parallel and rectilinear drainage patterns indicative of structural control, whereas the lower part shows dendritic drainage pattern revealing the homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The elongated shape of this basin is indicated by values of form factor, circulatory ratio and elongation ratio. The mean bifurcation ratio is observed to be 4.65 indicating the watershed is less affected by structural disturbances, and drainage pattern is not much influenced by geological structures. The hypsometric integral obtained for Andhale watershed is 0.316 indicating maturity stage of the basin. The longitudinal profile depicts steep gradient at the origin but it gradually flattens out as the river erodes its base level. The high values of drainage density, stream frequency, infiltration number and drainage texture indicate that the study area is underlain by impermeable rocks responsible for high runoff. Thus, the results of this analysis would be useful in determining the effect of catchment characteristics such as size, shape, slope of the catchment on runoff vis-a-vis the scope for water harvesting.

  16. Hydrological modeling of the Jiaoyi watershed (China) using HSPF model. (United States)

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie


    A watershed hydrological model, hydrological simulation program-Fortran (HSPF), was applied to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of hydrological processes in the Jiaoyi watershed of Huaihe River Basin, the heaviest shortage of water resources and polluted area in China. The model was calibrated using the years 2001-2004 and validated with data from 2005 to 2006. Calibration and validation results showed that the model generally simulated mean monthly and daily runoff precisely due to the close matching hydrographs between simulated and observed runoff, as well as the excellent evaluation indicators such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (R (2)), and the relative error (RE). The similar simulation results between calibration and validation period showed that all the calibrated parameters had a certain representation in Jiaoyi watershed. Additionally, the simulation in rainy months was more accurate than the drought months. Another result in this paper was that HSPF was also capable of estimating the water balance components reasonably and realistically in space through the whole watershed. The calibrated model can be used to explore the effects of climate change scenarios and various watershed management practices on the water resources and water environment in the basin.

  17. Fena Valley Reservoir watershed and water-balance model updates and expansion of watershed modeling to southern Guam (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.; Hay, Lauren E.


    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense’s Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, initiated a project to evaluate the potential impacts of projected climate-change on Department of Defense installations that rely on Guam’s water resources. A major task of that project was to develop a watershed model of southern Guam and a water-balance model for the Fena Valley Reservoir. The southern Guam watershed model provides a physically based tool to estimate surface-water availability in southern Guam. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, PRMS-IV, was used to construct the watershed model. The PRMS-IV code simulates different parts of the hydrologic cycle based on a set of user-defined modules. The southern Guam watershed model was constructed by updating a watershed model for the Fena Valley watersheds, and expanding the modeled area to include all of southern Guam. The Fena Valley watershed model was combined with a previously developed, but recently updated and recalibrated Fena Valley Reservoir water-balance model.Two important surface-water resources for the U.S. Navy and the citizens of Guam were modeled in this study; the extended model now includes the Ugum River watershed and improves upon the previous model of the Fena Valley watersheds. Surface water from the Ugum River watershed is diverted and treated for drinking water, and the Fena Valley watersheds feed the largest surface-water reservoir on Guam. The southern Guam watershed model performed “very good,” according to the criteria of Moriasi and others (2007), in the Ugum River watershed above Talofofo Falls with monthly Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency statistic values of 0.97 for the calibration period and 0.93 for the verification period (a value of 1.0 represents perfect model fit). In the Fena Valley watershed, monthly simulated streamflow volumes from the watershed model compared reasonably well with the

  18. Integrating topography, hydrology and rock structure in weathering rate models of spring watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, F.A.L.; Weijden, C.H. van der


    Weathering rate models designed for watersheds combine chemical data of discharging waters with morphologic and hydrologic parameters of the catchments. At the spring watershed scale, evaluation of morphologic parameters is subjective due to difficulties in conceiving the catchment geometry.

  19. Establish Effective Lower Bounds of Watershed Slope for Traditional Hydrologic Methods (United States)


    Equations to estimate timing parameters for a watershed contain watershed slope as a principal parameter and : estimates are usually inversely proportional to topographic slope. Hence as slope vanishes, the estimates approach : infinity. The research...

  20. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling Software: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) (United States)

    Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a software application designed tofacilitate integrated water resources management across wet and dry climate regions. It allows waterresources managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices across their watersh...

  1. Comparison of radar and gauge precipitation data in watershed models across varying spatial and temporal scales (United States)

    Precipitation is a key control on watershed hydrologic modelling output, with errors in rainfall propagating through subsequent stages of water quantity and quality analysis. Most watershed models incorporate precipitation data from rain gauges; higher-resolution data sources are...

  2. Multi-scale trends analysis of landscape stressors in an urbanizing coastal watershed (United States)

    Anthropogenic land based stressors within a watershed can deliver major impacts to downstream and adjacent coastal waterways affecting water quality and estuarine habitats. Our research focused on a subset of non-point sources of watershed stressors specifically, human population...

  3. LBA-ECO ND-01 Watershed Deforestation from Landsat TM Series, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of watershed deforestation, as a proportion of the total area of watersheds, in Rondonia, Brazil for 1999. Deforestation maps were...

  4. LBA-ECO ND-01 Watershed Deforestation from Landsat TM Series, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides estimates of watershed deforestation, as a proportion of the total area of watersheds, in Rondonia, Brazil for 1999. Deforestation...

  5. Watershed-based natural research management: Lessons from projects in the Andean region


    Sowell, A.R.


    This Undergraduate Honors Thesis focuses on how different factors affect the success of a watershed management project and lessons learned from projects in the Andean Region. LTRA-3 (Watershed-based NRM for Small-scale Agriculture)

  6. Seasonal frost penetration, Sleepers River Research Watershed, Vermont, USA, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The frost tube network is located within a 3.25-square-mile sub-watershed of the Sleepers River Research Watershed near Danville, Vermont, USA. Tubes were positioned...

  7. Annual Report Card Shows Water Quality Improvements in Parts of the Mystic River Watershed (United States)

    Each year, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in collaboration with the Mystic River Watershed Association (MyRWA), issues a Water Quality Report Card on water quality in the Mystic River watershed.

  8. Multi isotopic characterization (Li-Cu-Zn-Pb) of waste waters pollution in a small watershed (Loire River basin, France) (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.


    The goal of this study is to use multi-isotopic signature to track the pollution in surface waters, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in the environment. In the present study, we investigate waste water releases from a hospital water treatment plant and its potential impact in a small river basin near Orléans in France (Egoutier watershed: 15 km²and 5 km long). We decided to monitor this small watershed which is poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is located in a pristine area (forested area), while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. A sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Isotopic ratios were measured using a MC-ICP-MS at BRGM, after a specific protocol of purification for each isotopic systematics. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters along the main course of the stream. The waste water signal is very different from the natural background with significant heavy lithium contribution (high δ7Li). Lead isotopic compositions are rather homogenous in river waters and sediments with values close to geologic background. For Zn, the sediments with high concentrations and depleted isotopic compositions (low δ66Zn), typical of an anthropic pollution, are strongly impacted. The analyses of Cu isotopes in sediments show the impact of waster waters, but also isotopic fractionations due to redox processes in the watershed. To better understand these processes controlling the release of metals in water, sequential extractions on sediments are in progress under laboratory conditions and will provide important constraints for metal distribution in this river basin.

  9. An integrated approach to assess the dynamics of a peri-urban watershed influenced by wastewater irrigation (United States)

    Mahesh, Jampani; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Pavelic, Paul


    In many urban and peri-urban areas of India, wastewater is under-recognized as a major water resource. Wastewater irrigated agriculture provides direct benefits for the livelihoods and food security of many smallholder farmers. A rapidly urbanizing peri-urban micro-watershed (270 ha) in Hyderabad was assessed over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2010 for changes in land use and associated farming practices, farmer perceptions, socio-economic evaluation, land-use suitability for agriculture and challenges in potential irrigated area development towards wastewater use. This integrated approach showed that the change in the total irrigated area was marginal over the decade, whereas the built-up area within the watershed boundaries doubled and there was a distinct shift in cropping patterns from paddy rice to paragrass and leafy vegetables. Local irrigation supplies were sourced mainly from canal supplies, which accounted for three-quarters of the water used and was largely derived from wastewater. The remainder was groundwater from shallow hard-rock aquifers. Farmer perception was that the high nutrient content of the wastewater was of value, although they were also interested to pay modest amounts for additional pre-treatment. The shift in land use towards paragrass and leafy vegetables was attributed to increased profitability due to the high urban demand. The unutilised scrubland within the watershed has the potential for irrigation development, but the major constraints appear to be unavailability of labour and high land values rather than water availability. The study provides evidence to support the view that the opportunistic use of wastewater and irrigation practices, in general, will continue even under highly evolving peri-urban conditions, to meet the livelihood needs of the poor driven by market demands, as urban sprawl expands into cultivable rural hinterlands. Policy support is needed for enhanced recognition of wastewater for agriculture, with flow

  10. Constraint-Muse: A Soft-Constraint Based System for Music Therapy (United States)

    Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin

    Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.

  11. Constraints and Creativity in NPD - Testing the Impact of 'Late Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný

    The aim of the presented work is to investigate how the timing of project constraints can influence the creativity of the output in New Product Development (NPD) projects. When seeking to produce a creative output, is it beneficial to know all constraints when initiating a project, or will constr......, in the presented setup no negative impact of adding radically new constraints during a project was found, highlighting for managers that it is not crucial to a project’s creative output to have all constraints from the beginning.......The aim of the presented work is to investigate how the timing of project constraints can influence the creativity of the output in New Product Development (NPD) projects. When seeking to produce a creative output, is it beneficial to know all constraints when initiating a project......, or will constraints introduced throughout a project potentially lead to a more creative output? While the relationship between constraints and creativity is fairly well studied, the question of how introducing constraints late in a project can influence creativity is still unanswered. A single factor, two level...

  12. Imposing Constraints from the Source Tree on ITG Constraints for SMT (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Okuma, Hideo; Sumita, Eiichiro

    In the current statistical machine translation (SMT), erroneous word reordering is one of the most serious problems. To resolve this problem, many word-reordering constraint techniques have been proposed. Inversion transduction grammar (ITG) is one of these constraints. In ITG constraints, target-side word order is obtained by rotating nodes of the source-side binary tree. In these node rotations, the source binary tree instance is not considered. Therefore, stronger constraints for word reordering can be obtained by imposing further constraints derived from the source tree on the ITG constraints. For example, for the source word sequence { a b c d }, ITG constraints allow a total of twenty-two target word orderings. However, when the source binary tree instance ((a b) (c d)) is given, our proposed “imposing source tree on ITG” (IST-ITG) constraints allow only eight word orderings. The reduction in the number of word-order permutations by our proposed stronger constraints efficiently suppresses erroneous word orderings. In our experiments with IST-ITG using the NIST MT08 English-to-Chinese translation track's data, the proposed method resulted in a 1.8-points improvement in character BLEU-4 (35.2 to 37.0) and a 6.2% lower CER (74.1 to 67.9%) compared with our baseline condition.

  13. Assessment of climate change impacts on water balance components of Heeia watershed in Hawaii


    Leta, Olkeba Tolessa; El-Kadi, Aly I.; Dulai, Henrietta; Ghazal, Kariem A.


    Study region: Heeia watershed, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. Study focus: Hydrological models are useful tools for assessing the impact of climate change in watersheds. We evaluated the applicability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in a case study of Heeia, Pacific-island watershed that has highly permeable volcanic soils and suffers from hydrological data scarcity. Applicability of the model was enhanced with several modifications to reflect unique watershed characteristics. The c...

  14. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.


    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  15. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  16. Analysis of Rainfall Characteristicsfor Flood Estimation in Way Awi Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumastuti D.I.


    Full Text Available This study investigates rainfall intensity distribution in Way Awi watershed located in Bandar Lampung, and how their impacts on flood peak and flood hydrographs. Hourly rainfall data is examined to obtain design rainfall intensity and rainfall intensity distribution at rainfall duration from three to eight hours. Rainfall-runoff model, i.e. Rational method is used to calculate flood peak while unit hydrograph method is used to develop flood hydrograph. This study shows that in Way Awi watershed 88.3% to 96.4% of 24-hour rain occurs in three to eight hour durations. In addition, rainfall with three hour duration generates the highest flood peak, followed by four hour duration rainfall. When rainfall duration and design rainfall intensity are the same but rainfall intensity distribution is different, generated flood hydrograph may have different flood peak magnitude and timing. Result of this study is useful for flood analysis and mitigation in Way Awi watershed.

  17. Land degradation and integrated watershed management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Bhan


    Government of India has launched various centre-sector, state-sector and foreign aided schemes for prevention of land degradation, reclamation of special problem areas for ensuring productivity of the land, preservation of land resources and improvement of ecology and environment. These schemes are being implemented on watershed basis in rainfed areas. Soil conservation measures and reclamation of degraded lands are decided considering the land capability and land uses. The efforts made so far resulted in enhancement of agricultural production and productivity of lands, increase in employment generation, improving the environment of the areas and socio-economic upgradation of the people. Integrated watershed management approach has been adopted as a key national strategy for sustainable development of rural areas. This has been proved by conducting monitoring and impact evaluation studies of the integrated watershed projects by external agencies.

  18. Small Reservoir Impact on Simulated Watershed-Scale Nutrient Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane J. Prochnow


    Full Text Available The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT is used to assess the influence of small upland reservoirs (PL566 on watershed nutrient yield. SWAT simulates the impact of collectively increasing and decreasing PL566 magnitudes (size parameters on the watershed. Totally removing PL566 reservoirs results in a 100% increase in total phosphorus and an 82% increase in total nitrogen, while a total maximum daily load (TMDL calling for a 50% reduction in total phosphorus can be achieved with a 500% increase in the magnitude of PL566s in the watershed. PL566 reservoirs capture agriculture pollution in surface flow, providing long-term storage of these constituents when they settle to the reservoir beds. A potential strategy to reduce future downstream nutrient loading is to enhance or construct new PL566 reservoirs in the upper basin to better capture agricultural runoff.

  19. Psychoactive pharmaceutical residues in the watersheds of Galicia (Spain). (United States)

    Esteban, Sara; Valcárcel, Yolanda; Catalá, Myriam; Castromil, Miguel González


    To monitor the presence of pharmaceutical residues of 14 psychoactive drugs belonging to three therapeutic groups in the watersheds of Galicia (Spain). Five sewage treatment plants were selected in the main cities of Galicia. Thirteen psychoactive pharmaceutical compounds and one metabolite were chosen. In addition, tap water samples were taken from public places and private residences in the selected cities. In all the water samples analyzed, the highest concentrations corresponded to the group of anxiolytics. In particular, high concentrations of lorazepam were found in river and tap water samples. This investigation demonstrates the presence of psychoactive pharmaceuticals in the watersheds of the autonomous region of Galicia and the conversion of metabolites to parent compounds. This work also shows the need to increase environmental monitoring of watersheds and to improve sewage and drinking water treatment processes to remove these pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Game theory and fuzzy programming approaches for bi-objective optimization of reservoir watershed management: a case study in Namazgah reservoir. (United States)

    Üçler, N; Engin, G Onkal; Köçken, H G; Öncel, M S


    In this study, game theory and fuzzy programming approaches were used to balance economic and environmental impacts in the Namazgah reservoir, Turkey. The main goals identified were to maximize economic benefits of land use and to protect water quality of reservoir and land resources. Total phosphorous load (kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and economic income (USD ha(-1) year(-1)) from land use were determined as environmental value and economic value, respectively. The surface area of existing land use types, which are grouped under 10 headings according to the investigations on the watershed area, and the constraint values for the watershed were calculated using aerial photos, master plans, and basin slope map. The results of fuzzy programming approach were found to be very close to the results of the game theory model. It was concluded that the amount of fertilizer used in the current situation presents a danger to the reservoir and, therefore, unnecessary fertilizer use should be prevented. Additionally, nuts, fruit, and vegetable cultivation, instead of wheat and corn cultivation, was found to be more suitable due to their high economic income and low total phosphorus (TP) load. Apart from agricultural activities, livestock farming should also be considered in the area as a second source of income. It is believed that the results obtained in this study will help decision makers to identify possible problems of the watershed.

  1. An Alternative Algorithm for Computing Watersheds on Shared Memory Parallel Computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, A.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.


    In this paper a parallel implementation of a watershed algorithm is proposed. The algorithm can easily be implemented on shared memory parallel computers. The watershed transform is generally considered to be inherently sequential since the discrete watershed of an image is defined using recursion.

  2. Timber markets and marketing in the Monocacy River watershed of Maryland and Pennsylvania (United States)

    George E. Doverspike; James C. Rettie; Harry W., Jr. Camp


    The Maryland Department of State Forests and Parks, cooperating with the locally organized Monocacy River Watershed Council, has requested the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station to undertake a study of the forest resource of that watershed. The objective is to provide information that will be helpful in conserving watershed values and in promoting better management...

  3. 78 FR 13874 - Watershed Modeling To Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to... (United States)


    ... Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds (EPA... Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds, is...

  4. Physiography, geology, and land cover of four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico (United States)

    S.F. Murphy; R.F. Stallard; M.C. Larsen; W.A. Gould


    Four watersheds with differing geology and land cover in eastern Puerto Rico have been studied on a long-term basis by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets. These watersheds are typical of tropical, island-arc settings found in many parts of the world. Two watersheds are located on coarse-grained granitic rocks that weather...

  5. Modeling runoff and sediment yield from a terraced watershed using WEPP (United States)

    Mary Carla McCullough; Dean E. Eisenhauer; Michael G. Dosskey


    The watershed version of WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) was used to estimate 50-year runoff and sediment yields for a 291 ha watershed in eastern Nebraska that is 90% terraced and which has no historical gage data. The watershed has a complex matrix of elements, including terraced and non-terraced subwatersheds, multiple combinations of soils and land...

  6. Effects of prescribed fire on recruitment of Juniperus and Opuntia in a semiarid grassland watershed (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White


    The Bernalillo Watershed Protection Project was begun in 1953 following catastrophic erosion and flooding of small communities below. Although erosion control features and protection from grazing successfully increased grass cover and stabilized watershed soils, the expansion of juniper woodland (Juniperus monosperma) into the grassland watershed...

  7. Mercury and Organic Carbon Relationships in Streams Draining Forested Upland/Peatland Watersheds (United States)

    R. K. Kolka; D. F. Grigal; E. S. Verry; E. A. Nater


    We determined the fluxes of total mecury (HgT), total organic carbon (TOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from five upland/peatland watersheds at the watershed outlet. The difference between TOC and DOC was defined as particulate OC (POC). Concentrations of HgT showed moderate to strong relationships with POC (R2 = 0.77) when all watersheds...

  8. The development and use of best practices in forest watersheds using GIS and simulation models (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty; Ge Sun


    Forest watersheds provide timber and water, wildlife and fisheries habitat, and recreational opportunities. However, not an entire watershed is equally suited for each activity. Steeper slopes may be better left forested and used for wildlife habitat, while more gentle slopes of the watershed could be used for timber production. Logging steep slopes can lead to soil...

  9. Watershed research and management in the lake states and northeastern United States (United States)

    Elton S. Verry; James W. Hornbeck; H. Albert


    We present a brief synopsis of the beginnings of watershed management research and practice in the Lake States and Northeastern United States, followed by a summary of significant research findings on many aspects of watershed management, and finally, a review of four examples of how watershed management research has been incorporated into national forest management...

  10. Effects of watershed management practices on sediment concentrations in the southwestern United States: Management implications (United States)

    Vicente L. Lopes; Peter F. Ffolliott; Malchus B. Baker


    Effects of watershed management practices on suspended sediment concentrations from ponderosa pine forests and pinyon-juniper woodlands in the Southwestern United States are examined. Completely cleared and strip-cut ponderosa pine watersheds produced higher sediment concentrations than the control. Likewise, cabled and herbicide-treated pinyon-juniper watersheds...

  11. Soil erosion and sediment production on watershed landscapes: Processes and control (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Kenneth N. Brooks; Daniel G. Neary; Roberto Pizarro Tapia; Pablo Garcia-Chevesich


    Losses of the soil resources from otherwise productive and well functioning watersheds is often a recurring problem confronting hydrologists and watershed managers. These losses of soil have both on-site and off-site effects on the watershed impacted. In addition to the loss of inherent soil resources through erosion processes, on-site effects can include the breakdown...

  12. A review of theoretical frameworks applicable for designing agricultural watershed restoration projects (United States)

    Agricultural watershed restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of ecosystem structure and/or function within watersheds that have been degraded and damaged by agriculture. Unfortunately, agricultural watershed restoration is the rare exception within the Midwestern United States despit...

  13. Stream dissolved organic matter bioavailability and composition in watersheds underlain with discontinuous permafrost (United States)

    Kelly L. Balcarczyk; Jeremy B. Jones; Rudolf Jaffe; Nagamitsu Maie


    We examined the impact of permafrost on dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition in Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW), a watershed underlain with discontinuous permafrost, in interior Alaska. The stream draining the high permafrost watershed had higher DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations, higher DOCDON and greater specific...


    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to...

  15. Increasing the visibility of watershed management as a land management profession (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Peter F. Ffolliott; Kenneth N. Brooks


    Population increases will continue to severely pressure water resources in the 21st century. Consequently, the importance of watershed management will increase. The potential demand in the next century for information on, and individuals skilled in, watershed management raises several important issues: the need for watershed management to have a central voice to gain...

  16. Land use/cover change and perceived watershed status in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    degraded watershed in terms of water and soil quality; vegetation type and species diversity among the lay people and technocrats. The focus ... The pressure on watershed resources has affected the original land use/cover. Land ... government and development partners to protect and restore the degraded watersheds ...

  17. Dynamic rainfall distribution analysis of the Credit River watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdikaris, J. [Credit Valley Conservation, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Rudra, R.; Gharabaghi, B.; Ahmed, I.; Ramkellawan, J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). School of Engineering


    The Credit River watershed is located within 4 climatic regions in southern Ontario. The Credit River watershed has experienced flood conditions in the past, recording 54 floods since 1797 over a span of 160 years causing serious damage to buildings and other structures. Although the monetary amounts resulting from flood damages from extreme events is well understood for the Credit River watershed, the current trend in meteorological data is not as well understood. It suggests an increase in the occurrence and escalation in the severity of extreme storm events and overall increase in flood damages resulting from these events. This paper presented the results of a study that determined rainfall frequency relationships over a wide range of storm periods from 5 minutes to 48 hours. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the spatial variability, speed, and direction of various rainfall events within the Credit River watershed; examine the pattern of short duration rainfall extremes for various stations in the watershed; and to investigate the existence of the trends in monthly, seasonal, and annual extreme short duration rainfall events in the watershed. The paper discussed the study methodology that was undertaken in two phases. Radar analysis was used to generate rainfall time series for the identified events. IDF and extreme value analysis were also employed. Frequency analysis using frequency factor was described and the hydrologic data was plotted on probability paper. Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves were also calculated. The Gumbel distribution was selected to fit the historical records and examination of goodness of fit revealed that it represented the monthly and annual extreme rainfall data well. 47 refs., 18 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Monitoring water quality and quantity of national watersheds in Turkey. (United States)

    Odemis, Berkant; Evrendilek, Fatih


    National data from the hydrological network for 38 rivers out of 25 watersheds were used to detect spatial and temporal trends in water quality and quantity characteristics between 1995 and 2002. Assessment of water quality and quantity included flow rate, water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption rate, Na, K, Ca+Mg, CO(3), HCO(3), Cl, SO(4), and boron. Among the major ions assessed on a watershed basis, Turkish river waters are relatively high in Ca+Mg, Na and HCO(3), and low in K and CO(3). The watersheds in Turkey experienced a general trend of 16% decrease in flow rates between 1995 and 2002 at a mean annual rate of about 4 m(3) s(-1), with a considerable spatial variation. Similarly, there appeared to be an increasing trend in river water temperature, at a mean annual rate of about 0.2 degrees C. A substantial proportion of watersheds experienced an increase in pH, in particular, after 1997, with a maximum increase from 8.1 to 8.4 observed in Euphrates (P Big Menderes watersheds where intensive agricultural activities take place. Such continued levels may threaten biotic integrity and both drinking and irrigation water quality of rivers. Best multiple linear regression (MLR) models constructed both annually and monthly differed in R (2) values in accounting for variations of pH and water temperature only. The findings of the study can provide a useful assessment of controls over water quality and quantity and assist in devising integrated and sustainable management practices for watersheds at the regional scale in Turkey.

  19. Watershed management in South Asia: A synoptic review (United States)

    Ratna Reddy, V.; Saharawat, Yashpal Singh; George, Biju


    Watershed management (WSM) is the most widely adopted technology in developed as well as developing countries due to its suitability across climatic conditions. Watershed technology is suitable to protect and enhance soil fertility, which is deteriorating at an alarming rate with agricultural intensification in high as well as low rainfall regions. Of late, WSM is considered as an effective poverty alleviation intervention in the rain fed regions in countries like India. This paper aims at providing a basic watershed policy and implementation framework based on a critical review of experiences of WSM initiatives across South Asia. The purpose is to provide cross learnings within South Asia and other developing countries (especially Africa) that are embarking on WSM in recent years. Countries in the region accord differential policy priority and are at different levels of institutional arrangements for implementing WSM programmes. The implementation of watershed interventions is neither scientific nor comprehensive in all the countries limiting the effectiveness (impacts). Implementation of the programmes for enhancing the livelihoods of the communities need to strengthen both technical and institutional aspects. While countries like India and Nepal are yet to strengthen the technical aspects in terms of integrating hydrogeology and biophysical aspects into watershed design, others need to look at these aspects as they move towards strengthening the watershed institutions. Another important challenge in all the countries is regarding the distribution of benefits. Due to the existing property rights in land and water resources coupled with the agrarian structure and uneven distribution and geometry of aquifers access to sub-surface water resources is unevenly distributed across households. Though most of the countries are moving towards incorporating livelihoods components in order to ensure benefits to all sections of the community, not much is done in terms of

  20. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bakosi


    Full Text Available We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N nonnegative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires a set of fluctuating variables to be nonnegative and (if appropriately normalized sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the nonnegativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraints are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.

  1. Pair Production Constraints on Superluminal Neutrinos Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Gardner, Susan; /Kentucky U.


    We revisit the pair creation constraint on superluminal neutrinos considered by Cohen and Glashow in order to clarify which types of superluminal models are constrained. We show that a model in which the superluminal neutrino is effectively light-like can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint. In summary, any model for which the CG pair production process operates is excluded because such timelike neutrinos would not be detected by OPERA or other experiments. However, a superluminal neutrino which is effectively lightlike with fixed p{sup 2} can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint because of energy-momentum conservation. The coincidence involved in explaining the SN1987A constraint certainly makes such a picture improbable - but it is still intrinsically possible. The lightlike model is appealing in that it does not violate Lorentz symmetry in particle interactions, although one would expect Hughes-Drever tests to turn up a violation eventually. Other evasions of the CG constraints are also possible; perhaps, e.g., the neutrino takes a 'short cut' through extra dimensions or suffers anomalous acceleration in matter. Irrespective of the OPERA result, Lorentz-violating interactions remain possible, and ongoing experimental investigation of such possibilities should continue.

  2. Two new constraints for the cumulant matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Matito, Eduard [Institut de Química Computacional i Catàlisi (IQCC) and Department de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Piris, Mario [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea UPV/EHU, and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC). P.K. 1072, 20080 Donostia, Euskadi (Spain)


    We suggest new strict constraints that the two-particle cumulant matrix should fulfill. The constraints are obtained from the decomposition of 〈S-^{sup 2}〉, previously developed in our laboratory, and the vanishing number of electrons shared by two non-interacting fragments. The conditions impose stringent constraints into the cumulant structure without any need to perform an orbital optimization procedure thus carrying very small or no computational effort. These constraints are tested on the series of Piris natural orbital functionals (PNOF), which are among the most accurate ones available in the literature. Interestingly, even though all PNOF cumulants ensure correct overall 〈S{sup ^2}〉 values, none of them is consistent with the local spin structure of systems that dissociate more than one pair of electrons. A careful analysis of the local spin components reveals the most important missing contributions in the cumulant expression thus suggesting a means to improve PNOF5. The constraints provide an inexpensive tool for the construction and testing of cumulant structures that complement previously known conditions such as the N-representability or the square of the total spin angular momentum, 〈S{sup ^2}〉.

  3. Forces Associated with Nonlinear Nonholonomic Constraint Equations (United States)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Hodges, Dewey H.


    A concise method has been formulated for identifying a set of forces needed to constrain the behavior of a mechanical system, modeled as a set of particles and rigid bodies, when it is subject to motion constraints described by nonholonomic equations that are inherently nonlinear in velocity. An expression in vector form is obtained for each force; a direction is determined, together with the point of application. This result is a consequence of expressing constraint equations in terms of dot products of vectors rather than in the usual way, which is entirely in terms of scalars and matrices. The constraint forces in vector form are used together with two new analytical approaches for deriving equations governing motion of a system subject to such constraints. If constraint forces are of interest they can be brought into evidence in explicit dynamical equations by employing the well-known nonholonomic partial velocities associated with Kane's method; if they are not of interest, equations can be formed instead with the aid of vectors introduced here as nonholonomic partial accelerations. When the analyst requires only the latter, smaller set of equations, they can be formed directly; it is not necessary to expend the labor to form the former, larger set first and subsequently perform matrix multiplications.

  4. Exact and approximate computations of watersheds on triangulated terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsirogiannis, Konstantinos; de Berg, Mark


    The natural way of modeling water flow on a triangulated terrain is to make the fundamental assumption that water follows the direction of steepest descent (dsd). However, computing watersheds and other flow-related structures according to the dsd model in an exact manner is difficult: the dsd...... implementation that computes watersheds on triangulated terrains following strictly the dsd model and using exact arithmetic, and we experimentally investigate its computational cost. Our experiments show that the algorithm cannot handle large data sets effectively, due to the bit-sizes needed in the exact...

  5. Total enzyme activity constraint and homeostatic constraint impact on the optimization potential of a kinetic model. (United States)

    Komasilovs, Vitalijs; Pentjuss, Agris; Elsts, Atis; Stalidzans, Egils


    The application of biologically and biochemically relevant constraints during the optimization of kinetic models reduces the impact of suggested changes in processes not included in the scope of the model. This increases the probability that the design suggested by model optimization can be carried out by an organism after implementation of design in vivo. A case study was carried out to determine the impact of total enzyme activity and homeostatic constraints on the objective function values and the following ranking of adjustable parameter combinations. The application of constraints on the model of sugar cane metabolism revealed that a homeostatic constraint caused heavier limitations of the objective function than a total enzyme activity constraint. Both constraints changed the ranking of adjustable parameter combinations: no "universal" constraint-independent top-ranked combinations were found. Therefore, when searching for the best subset of adjustable parameters, a full scan of their combinations is suggested for a small number of adjustable parameters, and evolutionary search strategies are suggested for a large number. Simultaneous application of both constraints is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. LINCS : A linear constraint solver for molecular simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hess, B; Bekker, H.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; Fraaije, J.G E M

    In this article, we present a new LINear Constraint Solver (LINCS) for molecular simulations with bond constraints. The algorithm is inherently stable, as the constraints themselves are reset instead of derivatives of the constraints, thereby eliminating drift. Although the derivation of the

  7. 12 CFR 1805.502 - Severe constraints waiver. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Severe constraints waiver. 1805.502 Section... constraints waiver. (a) In the case of an Applicant with severe constraints on available sources of matching... request a “severe constraints waiver” as part of its application for assistance. An Applicant shall...

  8. Constraints and spandrels of interareal connectomes (United States)

    Rubinov, Mikail


    Interareal connectomes are whole-brain wiring diagrams of white-matter pathways. Recent studies have identified modules, hubs, module hierarchies and rich clubs as structural hallmarks of these wiring diagrams. An influential current theory postulates that connectome modules are adequately explained by evolutionary pressures for wiring economy, but that the other hallmarks are not explained by such pressures and are therefore less trivial. Here, we use constraint network models to test these postulates in current gold-standard vertebrate and invertebrate interareal-connectome reconstructions. We show that empirical wiring-cost constraints inadequately explain connectome module organization, and that simultaneous module and hub constraints induce the structural byproducts of hierarchies and rich clubs. These byproducts, known as spandrels in evolutionary biology, include the structural substrate of the default-mode network. Our results imply that currently standard connectome characterizations are based on circular analyses or double dipping, and we emphasize an integrative approach to future connectome analyses for avoiding such pitfalls.

  9. Restricting query relaxation through user constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaasterland, T.


    This paper describes techniques to restrict and to heuristically control relaxation of deductive database queries. The process of query relaxation provides a user with a means to automatically identify new queries that are related to the user`s original query. However, for large databases, many relaxations may be possible. The methods to control and restrict the relaxation process introduced in this paper focus the relaxation process and make it more efficient. User restrictions over the data base domain may be expressed as user constraints. This paper describes how user constraints can restrict relaxed queries. Also, a set of heuristics based on cooperative answering techniques are presented for controlling the relaxation process. Finally, the interaction of the methods for relaxing queries, processing user constraints, and applying the heuristic rules is described.

  10. Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)

  11. A systematic assessment of watershed-scale nonpoint source pollution during rainfall-runoff events in the Miyun Reservoir watershed. (United States)

    Qiu, Jiali; Shen, Zhenyao; Wei, Guoyuan; Wang, Guobo; Xie, Hui; Lv, Guanping


    The assessment of peak flow rate, total runoff volume, and pollutant loads during rainfall process are very important for the watershed management and the ecological restoration of aquatic environment. Real-time measurements of rainfall-runoff and pollutant loads are always the most reliable approach but are difficult to carry out at all desired location in the watersheds considering the large consumption of material and financial resources. An integrated environmental modeling approach for the estimation of flash streamflow that combines the various hydrological and quality processes during rainstorms within the agricultural watersheds is essential to develop targeted management strategies for the endangered drinking water. This study applied the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) to simulate the spatial and temporal variation in hydrological processes and pollutant transport processes during rainstorm events in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, a drinking water resource area in Beijing. The model performance indicators ensured the acceptable applicability of the HSPF model to simulate flow and pollutant loads in the studied watershed and to establish a relationship between land use and the parameter values. The proportion of soil and land use was then identified as the influencing factors of the pollution intensities. The results indicated that the flush concentrations were much higher than those observed during normal flow periods and considerably exceeded the limits of Class III Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB3838-2002) for the secondary protection zones of the drinking water resource in China. Agricultural land and leached cinnamon soils were identified as the key sources of sediment, nutrients, and fecal coliforms. Precipitation volume was identified as a driving factor that determined the amount of runoff and pollutant loads during rainfall processes. These results are useful to improve the streamflow predictions, provide

  12. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization. (United States)

    Mescher, H; Ulrich, S; Bangert, M


    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities [Formula: see text] of covering a specific target volume fraction [Formula: see text] with a certain dose [Formula: see text]. Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target

  13. Forest use strategies in watershed management and restoration: application to three small mountain watersheds in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ángel Mintegui Aguirre


    Full Text Available The effect of forests on flow and flood lamination decreases as the magnitude and intensity of torrential events and the watershed surface increase, thus resulting negligible when extreme events affect large catchments. However the effect of forests is advantageous in case of major events, which occur more often, and is particularly effective in soil erosion control. As a result, forests have been extensively used for watershed management and restoration, since they regulate water and sediments cycles, preventing the degradation of catchments.

  14. Updated galactic radio constraints on Dark Matter (United States)

    Cirelli, Marco; Taoso, Marco


    We perform a detailed analysis of the synchrotron signals produced by dark matter annihilations and decays. We consider different set-ups for the propagation of electrons and positrons, the galactic magnetic field and dark matter properties. We then confront these signals with radio and microwave maps, including Planck measurements, from a frequency of 22 MHz up to 70 GHz. We derive two sets of constraints: conservative and progressive, the latter based on a modeling of the astrophysical emission. Radio and microwave constraints are complementary to those obtained with other indirect detection methods, especially for dark matter annihilating into leptonic channels.

  15. Modifier constraints in alkali ultraphosphate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, B.P.; Mauro, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng


    In applying the recently introduced concept of cationic constraint strength [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 214501 (2014)] to bond constraint theory (BCT) of binary phosphate glasses in the ultraphosphate region of xR2O-(1-x)P2O5 (with x ≤ 0.5 and R = {Li, Na, Cs}), we demonstrate that a fundamental...... of the modifier sites and then use this to calculate the glass transition temperature as a function of chemical composition. A statistical distribution of sites achieves a remarkable agreement with experimental data for all tested glasses and greatly improves upon previously published work....

  16. Universal constraints on axions from inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, R. Z.; Sloth, M. S.


    through this mechanism, larger than the vacuum ones, without violating the observational constraints unless we combine this mechanism with a curvaton or if the sigma field becomes heavy and decays during inflation. Even in this last case there are non-trivial constraints coming from the slow......-roll evolution of the curvature perturbation on super horizon scales which should be taken into account. We also comment on implications for inflationary models where axions play an important role as, for example, models of natural inflation where more than one axion are included and models where the curvaton...

  17. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel


    is to a large extent driven by the desire to realize those losses, either immediately by sharply decreasing the holding of assets carrying unrealized losses, or indirectly by increasing such holdings in order to prepare for a decrease in a future period to earn the tax rebate payment. Our findings are robust......We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  18. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tran, David [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy


    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  19. Constraint algebra for interacting quantum systems (United States)

    Fubini, S.; Roncadelli, M.


    We consider relativistic constrained systems interacting with external fields. We provide physical arguments to support the idea that the quantum constraint algebra should be the same as in the free quantum case. For systems with ordering ambiguities this principle is essential to obtain a unique quantization. This is shown explicitly in the case of a relativistic spinning particle, where our assumption about the constraint algebra plus invariance under general coordinate transformations leads to a unique S-matrix. On leave from Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Università di Pavia and INFN, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.

  20. On the evolutionary constraint surface of hydra (United States)

    Slobodkin, L. B.; Dunn, K.


    Food consumption, body size, and budding rate were measured simultaneously in isolated individual hydra of six strains. For each individual hydra the three measurements define a point in the three dimensional space with axes: food consumption, budding rate, and body size. These points lie on a single surface, regardless of species. Floating rate and incidence of sexuality map onto this surface. It is suggested that this surface is an example of a general class of evolutionary constraint surfaces derived from the conjunction of evolutinary theory and the theory of ecological resource budgets. These constraint surfaces correspond to microevolutionary domains.

  1. Simplification of integrity constraints for data integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide


    When two or more databases are combined into a global one, integrity may be violated even when each database is consistent with its own local integrity constraints. Efficient methods for checking global integrity in data integration systems are called for: answers to queries can then be trusted...... together with given a priori constraints on the combination, so that only a minimal number of tuples needs to be considered. Combination from scratch, integration of a new source, and absorption of local updates are dealt with for both the local-as-view and global-as-view approaches to data integration....

  2. Constraints on vector meson photoproduction spin observables (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, Frank


    Extraction of spin observables from vector meson photoproduction on a nucleon target is described. Starting from density matrix elements in the vector meson's rest frame, we transform to spin observables in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame. Several constraints on the transformed density matrix and on the spin observables follow from requiring that the angular distribution and the density matrix be positive definite. A set of constraints that are required in order to extract meaningful spin observables from forthcoming data are enunciated.

  3. Updated galactic radio constraints on Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirelli, Marco [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies (LPTHE),UMR 7589 CNRS & UPMC, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris, F-75252 (France); Taoso, Marco [Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT) UAM/CSIC,calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, Madrid, 28049 (Spain)


    We perform a detailed analysis of the synchrotron signals produced by dark matter annihilations and decays. We consider different set-ups for the propagation of electrons and positrons, the galactic magnetic field and dark matter properties. We then confront these signals with radio and microwave maps, including PLANCK measurements, from a frequency of 22 MHz up to 70 GHz. We derive two sets of constraints: conservative and progressive, the latter based on a modeling of the astrophysical emission. Radio and microwave constraints are complementary to those obtained with other indirect detection methods, especially for dark matter annihilating into leptonic channels.

  4. Light dark matter versus astrophysical constraints


    Cline, James M.; Frey, Andrew R.


    Hints of direct dark matter detection coming from the DAMA, CoGeNT experiments point toward light dark matter with isospin-violating and possibly inelastic couplings. However an array of astrophysical constraints are rapidly closing the window on light dark matter. We point out that if the relic density is determined by annihilation into invisible states, these constraints can be evaded. As an example we present a model of quasi-Dirac dark matter, interacting via two U(1) gauge bosons, one of...

  5. Optimal Portfolios Under Dynamic Shortfall Constraints

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In mathematical terms the final stochastic optimal control problem with TCE constraint is max. { , c}GА(ι0). 0,ι0. T. 0 e. -psН1(cs)ds + e. -pTН2(VT) , (5) subject to the wealth dynamics given in (3) and the TCE constraint. TCFɑ t ε(Vt, t), t ¾ [0, T Δt),. (6) for fixed a and Δt > 0, where TCFɑ t = TCFɑ t (Vt, θt, ct) is given in (4). Here t ...

  6. Data Driven Constraints for the SVM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder


    . Assuming that two observations of the same subject in different states span a vector, we hypothesise that such structure of the data contains implicit information which can aid the classification, thus the name data driven constraints. We derive a constraint based on the data which allow for the use...... classifier solution, compared to the SVM i.e. reduces variance and improves classification rates. We present a quantitative measure of the information level contained in the pairing and test the method on simulated as well as a high-dimensional paired data set of ear-canal surfaces....

  7. Critical phenomena for systems under constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izmailian


    Full Text Available It is well known that the imposition of a constraint can transform the properties of critical systems. Early work on this phemomenon by Essam and Garelick, Fisher, and others, focused on the effects of constraints on the leading critical exponents describing phase transitions. Recent work extended these considerations to critical amplitudes and to exponents governing logarithmic corrections in certain marginal scenarios. Here these old and new results are gathered and summarised. The involutory nature of transformations between the critical parameters describing ideal and constrained systems are also discussed, paying particular attention to matters relating to universality.

  8. Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Weitzell


    Full Text Available Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA, with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources.

  9. Groundwater flow modeling of Kwa Ibo river watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential aquifer zones earlier delineated using the geoelectrical resistivity soundings and well inventory in the area formed the basis for groundwater flow modeling. The watershed has been modeled with a grid of 65 rows x 43 columns and with two layers Lateral inflow from the north has been simulated with constant ...

  10. Watershed management and organizational dynamics: nationwide findings and regional variation (United States)

    Clark, B.T.; Burkardt, N.; King, M.D.


    Recent attention has focused on resource management initiatives at the watershed scale with emphasis on collaborative, locally driven, and decentralized institutional arrangements. Existing literature on limited selections of well-established watershed-based organizations has provided valuable insights. The current research extends this focus by including a broad survey of watershed organizations from across the United States as a means to estimate a national portrait. Organizational characteristics include year of formation, membership size and composition, budget, guiding principles, and mechanisms of decision-making. These characteristics and the issue concerns of organizations are expected to vary with respect to location. Because this research focuses on organizations that are place based and stakeholder driven, the forces driving them are expected to differ across regions of the country. On this basis of location, we suggest basic elements for a regional assessment of watershed organizations to channel future research and to better approximate the organizational dynamics, issue concerns, and information needs unique to organizations across the country. At the broadest level, the identification of regional patterns or organizational similarities may facilitate the linkage among organizations to coordinate their actions at the much broader river basin or ecosystem scale.

  11. Investigation of the Hydrological Quality of Ethiope River Watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface and groundwater resources of the Ethiope river watershed have been investigated for its hydrological and quality characteristics. The results indicate that Ethiope River is perennial and fed by groundwater seepages, precipitation and surface run-off from adjacent areas. The lowest discharge rate of the river is ...

  12. Research in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, Northern California (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Rand E. Eads; Robert R. Ziemer


    For the past four decades, researchers from the Pacific Southwest Research Station's Redwood Sciences Laboratory, in cooperation with the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, have been studying the effects of logging in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds on the Jackson Demonstration State Forest near Fort Bragg, California. Their findings...

  13. Assessment of Some Watersheds Homogeneous Methods for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sediment yield in a watershed occurs by some physical processes ... process. It is recommended to reduce the number of input variables even though this causes some of information to be omitted (Lin and Wang, 2006; Noori et al., ...... Carroll S P; Dawes L; Hargreaves M and Goonetilleke A 2009 Faecal pollution source.

  14. Differential behaviour of a Lesser Himalayan watershed in extreme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climatic extremes including precipitation are bound to intensify in the global warming environment. The present study intends to understand the response of the Tons sub-watershed in Lesser Himalaya, in 3 years with entirely different hydrological conditions (July 2008–June 2011) in terms of discharge, sedimentflux and ...

  15. The Caspar Creek Watersheds--a case study (United States)

    R. R. Ziemer


    Caspar Creek experimental watersheds are located on the Jackson Demonstration State Forest. Sponsors are the Pacific Southwest Research Station (PSW), USDA Forest Service, and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF). Both organizations have been working cooperatively since 1962

  16. A pebble count procedure for assessing watershed cumulative effects (United States)

    Gregory S. Bevenger; Rudy M. King


    Land mangement activities can result in the delivery of fine sediment to streams. Over time, such delivery can lead to cumulative impacts to the aquactic ecosystem. Because numerous laws require Federal land managers to analyze watershed cumulative effects, field personnel need simple monitoring procedures that can be used directly and consistently. One approach to...

  17. The urban watershed continuum: evolving spatial and temporal dimensions (United States)

    Sujay S. Kaushal; Kenneth T. Belt


    Urban ecosystems are constantly evolving, and they are expected to change in both space and time with active management or degradation. An urban watershed continuum framework recognizes a continuum of engineered and natural hydrologic flowpaths that expands hydrologic networks in ways that are seldom considered. It recognizes that the nature of hydrologic connectivity...

  18. A comparative analysis of watershed and edge based segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 17, 2015 ... Background: Useful information which is helpful in the diagnosis of various disorders is obtained from the analysis of individual blood cells. Aim: To perform a comparative analysis between edge-based segmentation and watershed segmentation on images of the red blood cells. Method: The images.

  19. Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS: Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and application of a spatial tool for erosion modeling named Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS. SDAS computes export (yield of sediment from watershed as product of erosion rate and sediment delivery ratio (SDR. The erosion rate is calculated for each raster grid according to a digital elevation model, soil, rain fall depth, and land cover data using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. SDR calculation is carried out for each spatial unit. A spatial unit is the smallest sub-watershed considered in the model and generated according to the TauDEM algorithm. The size of one spatial unit is assigned by the user as the minimum number of raster grids. SDR is inversely proportional to sediment resident time and controlled by rainfall, slope, soil, and land cover. Application of SDAS is demonstrated in this paper by simulating the spatial distribution of the annual sediment yield across the Citarum watershed in the northwest of Java, Indonesia. SDAS calibration was carried out based on sediment discharge observations from the upper catchment. We considered factors for hillslope flow depth and for actual and effective rainfall duration to fit the computed sediment yield to the observed sediment discharge. The computed sediment yield agreed with the observation data with a 7% mean relative accuracy.

  20. Watershed morphology of highland and mountain ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma (United States)

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.


    The fluvial system represents a nested hierarchy that reflects the relationship among different spatial and temporal scales. Within the hierarchy, larger scale variables influence the characteristics of the next lower nested scale. Ecoregions represent one of the largest scales in the fluvial hierarchy and are defined by recurring patterns of geology, climate, land use, soils, and potential natural vegetation. Watersheds, the next largest scale, are often nested into a single ecoregion and therefore have properties that are indicative of a given ecoregion. Differences in watershed morphology (relief, drainage density, circularity ratio, relief ratio, and ruggedness number) were evaluated among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma: Ozark Highlands, Boston Mountains, and Ouachita Mountains. These ecoregions were selected because of their high-quality stream resources and diverse aquatic communities and are of special management interest to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. One hundred thirty-four watersheds in first-through fourth-order streams were compared. Using a nonparametric, two-factor analysis of variance (?? = 0.05) we concluded that the relief, drainage density, relief ratio, and ruggedness number all changed among ecoregion and stream order, whereas circularity ratio only changed with stream order. Our study shows that ecoregions can be used as a broad-scale framework for watershed management. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  1. Ensuring the common for the goose: Implementing effective watershed policies (United States)

    Hanna J. Cortner; Margaret A. Moote


    Addressing public and scientific concerns about human impacts on long-term ecological sustainability will require new approaches to resource management. These new approaches, which place considerable emphasis on management on the landscape or watershed scale, stress holistic and integrated science, meaningful public involvement to reflect changing social goals and...

  2. Sustaining the Earth's watersheds, agricultural research data system (United States)

    The USDA-ARS water resources program has developed a web-based data system, STEWARDS: Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System to support research that encompasses a broad range of topics such as water quality, hydrology, conservation, land use, and soils. The data syst...

  3. Post-disturbance sediment recovery: Implications for watershed resilience (United States)

    Sara L. Rathburn; Scott M. Shahverdian; Sandra E. Ryan


    Sediment recovery following disturbances is a measure of the time required to attain pre-disturbance sediment fluxes. Insight into the controls on recovery processes and pathways builds understanding of geomorphic resilience.We assess post-disturbance sediment recovery in three small (1.5-100 km2), largely unaltered watersheds within the northern Colorado...

  4. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.


    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  5. Watershed Disturbance and its Potential Effects on River Systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Atewa Range Forest Reserve in the Eastern Region of Ghana is a very important watershed which serves three important river systems - the Densu, Ayensu and Birim, all in southern Ghana. Widespread degradation of the forest reserve as a result of rampant anthropogenic activities threatens the long-term ...

  6. A comparative analysis of watershed and edge based segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Useful information which is helpful in the diagnosis of various disorders is obtained from the analysis of individual blood cells. Aim: To perform a comparative analysis between edge-based segmentation and watershed segmentation on images of the red blood cells. Method: The images to be used for the ...

  7. Mid-Holocene Hydrologic Model of the Shingobee Watershed, Minnesota (United States)

    Filby, Sheryl K.; Locke, Sharon M.; Person, Mark A.; Winter, Thomas C.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Nieber, John L.; Gutowski, William J.; Ito, Emi


    A hydrologic model of the Shingobee Watershed in north-central Minnesota was developed to reconstruct mid-Holocene paleo-lake levels for Williams Lake, a surface-water body located in the southern portion of the watershed. Hydrologic parameters for the model were first estimated in a calibration exercise using a 9-yr historical record (1990-1998) of climatic and hydrologic stresses. The model reproduced observed temporal and spatial trends in surface/groundwater levels across the watershed. Mid-Holocene aquifer and lake levels were then reconstructed using two paleoclimatic data sets: CCM1 atmospheric general circulation model output and pollen-transfer functions using sediment core data from Williams Lake. Calculated paleo-lake levels based on pollen-derived paleoclimatic reconstructions indicated a 3.5-m drop in simulated lake levels and were in good agreement with the position of mid-Holocene beach sands observed in a Williams Lake sediment core transect. However, calculated paleolake levels based on CCM1 climate forcing produced only a 0.05-m drop in lake levels. We found that decreases in winter precipitation rather than temperature increases had the largest effect on simulated mid-Holocene lake levels. The study illustrates how watershed models can be used to critically evaluate paleoclimatic reconstructions by integrating geologic, climatic, limnologic, and hydrogeologic data sets.

  8. Rhododendron leaf baiting of coastal California watersheds for Phytophthora (United States)

    Tyler B. Bourret; Heather K. Mehl; Kamyar Aram; David M. Rizzo


    For more than a decade, the Rizzo lab and collaborators have monitored northern and central coastal California watersheds each spring and early summer for the presence of Phytophthora using submerged Rhododendron leaves as bait. This served as an early detection tool for the sudden oak death (SOD) pathogen, P. ramorum...

  9. Participatory Watershed Management for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods in India


    Budumuru Yoganand; Tesfa Gebremedhin


    International development goals moved beyond increasing food production to include poverty reduction and protecting the environment in a sustainable way. Degradation of natural resources due to exploitation coupled with population pressure in developing countries causing food insecurity and environmental degradation further. Participatory watershed management approach is proposed to address this problem effectively.

  10. Dissemination of watershed management information through the World Wide Web (United States)

    Malchus B. Baker; Deborah J. Young


    Information and related literature on watershed management practices is sometimes not widely known nor readily accessible. New electronic technologies provide unique tools for disseminating research findings to scientists, educators, land management professionals, and the public. This paper illustrates how the usefulness and accessibility of research information from...

  11. Stressed Watersheds in a Rainfall-Rich Region (United States)

    Kastrinos, J. R.; Miles, O.; Pickering, N. B.


    Southern New England has ample rainfall and, in some years, snowmelt, to sustain reservoirs and aquifers that are used primarily for municipal water supplies and secondarily for industrial and agricultural needs. Despite the humid climate, however, many watersheds are considered stressed, particularly during the summer and early fall growing-season months due to the combined effect of evapotranspiration and increased demand for lawn irrigation and other seasonal, warm-weather uses. While per capita consumption is frequently the focus of water-conservation efforts, most high-stress areas are in population centers where concentrated demand exceeds recharge (to aquifers) or runoff (to surface water supplies) within the region's small watersheds (commonly 200 mi2 or less). The parameter depletion intensity, described by Konikow (2015) in a review of groundwater-depletion trends across the United States, is used to compare seasonal stress and changes in stress level in several watersheds in Massachusetts. Areas of stress follow patterns of high depletion intensity during the summer months when demand is high. This seasonal stress is exacerbated by inter-basin transfer of water or wastewater from a watershed. Examples will be presented of projects where streamflow impacts have been offset using tools including well optimization, water conservation, storm water recharge, and reductions of infiltration/inflow to utilities, pursuant to the state's Sustainable Water Management Initiative.

  12. Impact of India's watershed development programs on biomass productivity (United States)

    Bhalla, R. S.; Devi Prasad, K. V.; Pelkey, Neil W.


    Watershed development (WSD) is an important and expensive rural development initiative in India. Proponents of the approach contend that treating watersheds will increase agricultural and overall biomass productivity, which in turn will reduce rural poverty. We used satellite-measured normalized differenced vegetation index as a proxy for land productivity to test this crucial contention. We compared microwatersheds that had received funding and completed watershed restoration with adjacent untreated microwatersheds in the same region. As the criteria used can influence results, we analyzed microwatersheds grouped by catchment, state, ecological region, and biogeographical zones for analysis. We also analyzed pre treatment and posttreatment changes for the same watersheds in those schemes. Our findings show that WSD has not resulted in a significant increase in productivity in treated microwatersheds at any grouping, when compared to adjacent untreated microwatershed or the same microwatershed prior to treatment. We conclude that the well-intentioned people-centric WSD efforts may be inhibited by failing to adequately address the basic geomorphology and hydraulic condition of the catchment areas at all scales.

  13. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1998 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.


    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a few of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. 1998 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek.

  14. Statistical investigations into indicator bacteria concentrations in Houston metropolitan watersheds. (United States)

    Desai, Anuradha M; Rifai, Hanadi; Helfer, Emil; Moreno, Norma; Stein, Ron


    Bacterial pollution in the Houston metropolitan area (Texas) watersheds was studied using statistical methods to determine the Escherichia coli levels and causes of their spatial and temporal variability. Houston bayous generally exhibit elevated E. coli concentrations. The more urban watersheds had higher concentration ranges and geometric means and had more spatial variation with higher overall ranges at downstream monitoring stations. They also were less sensitive to temperature variations and more strongly influenced by rainfall events. The median flow in the more urban bayous is predominantly wastewater. Frequent rainfall in the region, combined with relatively long travel times in the bayous, results in elevated bacterial levels in the bayous. Multiple regression models using water quality parameters were more representative on the segment level and not at the watershed level and may not be useful for predictions that rely on conventional water quality measures, particularly in urban watersheds, such as those studied here. Cluster analysis for the segments resulted in two distinct clusters differentiated by their developed land-use, population density, domestic animal density, and grassy land-use.

  15. Evaluating the influence of spatial resolutions of DEM on watershed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Digital elevation model (DEM) of a watershed forms key basis for hydrologic modelling and its resolution plays a key role in accurate prediction of ... DEM is a digital (raster) dataset of ele- vations in 3D (x, y, z co-ordinates), which is ..... Advanced Space borne Thermal 30×30. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  16. Emergency watershed treatments on burned lands in southwestern Oregon (United States)

    Ed Gross; Ivars Steinblums; Curt Ralston; Howard Jubas


    Following extensive, natural wildfires on the Siskiyou National Forest in southwest Oregon during fall 1987, numerous rehabilitation measures were applied to severely burned public and private forest watersheds. Treatments were designed to prevent offsite degradation of water quality and fisheries, to minimize soil erosion and productivity losses, and to prevent...

  17. A Workflow to Model Microbial Loadings in Watersheds (United States)

    Many watershed models simulate overland and instream microbial fate and transport, but few actually provide loading rates on land surfaces and point sources to the water body network. This paper describes the underlying general equations for microbial loading rates associated wit...

  18. A Workflow to Model Microbial Loadings in Watersheds (proceedings) (United States)

    Many watershed models simulate overland and instream microbial fate and transport, but few actually provide loading rates on land surfaces and point sources to the water body network. This paper describes the underlying general equations for microbial loading rates associated wit...

  19. Assessment of landscape change and occurrence at watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land cover categories of riverine vegetation and forest land showed the most marked decrease in areal coverage by about 67 and 60%, respectively, while barren surfaces and urban areas increased by more than 100 and 98%, respectively, between 1976 and year 2000. At the watershed scale, land cover diversity was ...

  20. The inaugural Plaatje festival, Mahikeng: A watershed event

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    share a few reflections on the festival as marking a watershed moment in Plaatje scholarship. Festival presentations signalled the end of the hegemony of English literary criticism in Plaatje scholarship. In recounting the restoration of Plaatje's Mhudi – a kind of textual archaeological endeavour to uncover Plaatje's original ...

  1. Agrichemicals in Nebraska, USA, watersheds: occurrence and endocrine effects. (United States)

    Sellin, Marlo K; Snow, Daniel D; Schwarz, Matthew; Carter, Barbara J; Kolok, Alan S


    The objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence and endocrine effects of agrichemicals in four Nebraska, USA, watersheds--the Elkhorn, Platte, Niobrara, and Dismal rivers. Land use in the Elkhorn River and Platte River watersheds is characterized by intense agriculture, including row crop and beef cattle production. In contrast, land within the Niobrara River and Dismal River watersheds consists primarily of grasslands. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and caged fathead minnows were deployed at a site within each watershed for 7 d. The POCIS were analyzed for pesticides and hormones, while the caged minnows were analyzed for the expression of estrogen- and androgen-responsive genes. Amounts of pesticides recovered in POCIS extracts from the Elkhorn and Platte rivers were higher than those recovered from the Niobrara and Dismal rivers. Furthermore, female minnows deployed in the Elkhorn River experienced significant reductions in expression of two estrogen-responsive genes (vitellogenin and estrogen receptor α) relative to females deployed at the other sites, indicating alterations in endocrine function. However, the defeminization of these females could not be definitely linked to any of the agrichemicals detected in the POCIS recovered from the Elkhorn River.

  2. Bridging the gap between ecosystem theory and forest watershed management (United States)

    Jackson Webster; Wayne Swank; James Vose; Jennifer Knoepp; Katherine Elliott


    The history of forests and logging in North America provides a back drop for our study of Watershed (WS) 7. Prior to European settlement, potentially commercial forests covered approximately 45% of North America, but not all of it was the pristine, ancient forest that some have imagined. Prior to 1492, Native Americans had extensive settlements throughout eastern...

  3. Assessment of landscape change and occurrence at watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The distribution and pattern of change of LULC types that characterize the urban landscape of Nairobi city and its environs was identified from supervised classification of landsat satellite images. LULC make-up at the watershed scale addressed the question regarding urban ecological planning. Non-vegetated surfaces of ...

  4. Annual evapotranspiration of a forested wetland watershed, SC (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl Trettin


    In this study, hydro-meteorological data collected from 1 964 to 1 9 76 on an approximately 5, 000 ha predominantly forested coastal watershed (Turkey Creek) at the Francis Marion National Forest near Charleston, SC were analyzed to estimate annual evapotranspiration (E T) using four different empirical methods. The first one, reported by Zhang et a/. (2001), that...

  5. Why rehabilitation, restoration and protection of watershed forests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forested watersheds when properly managed help maintain ecological balance, minimize the occurrence of floods and droughts, and could mitigate the effects of adverse climatic changes. Because of its known environmental and economic benefits, economic and land use decisions is being made the world over in favour ...

  6. Adapting to Climate Change in Urbanizing Watersheds | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adapting to Climate Change in Urbanizing Watersheds ... Climate change is likely to increase climate variability, further aggravating water-related stresses, especially for marginalized groups. The process of rapid ... Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality cancers.

  7. Modelling and analyzing the watershed dynamics using Cellular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Improper practices of land use and land cover (LULC) including deforestation, expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development are deteriorating watershed conditions. Here, we have utilized remote sensing and GIS tools to study LULC dynamics using Cellular Automata (CA)–Markov model and predicted the future ...

  8. Optimal hydrograph separation using a recursive digital filter constrained by chemical mass balance, with application to selected Chesapeake Bay watersheds (United States)

    Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Baker, Anna C.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Hopple, Jessica A.


    Quantitative estimates of base flow are necessary to address questions concerning the vulnerability and response of the Nation’s water supply to natural and human-induced change in environmental conditions. An objective of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Project is to determine how hydrologic systems are affected by watershed characteristics, including land use, land cover, water use, climate, and natural characteristics (geology, soil type, and topography). An important component of any hydrologic system is base flow, generally described as the part of streamflow that is sustained between precipitation events, fed to stream channels by delayed (usually subsurface) pathways, and more specifically as the volumetric discharge of water, estimated at a measurement site or gage at the watershed scale, which represents groundwater that discharges directly or indirectly to stream reaches and is then routed to the measurement point.Hydrograph separation using a recursive digital filter was applied to 225 sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The recursive digital filter was chosen for the following reasons: it is based in part on the assumption that groundwater acts as a linear reservoir, and so has a physical basis; it has only two adjustable parameters (alpha, obtained directly from recession analysis, and beta, the maximum value of the base-flow index that can be modeled by the filter), which can be determined objectively and with the same physical basis of groundwater reservoir linearity, or that can be optimized by applying a chemical-mass-balance constraint. Base-flow estimates from the recursive digital filter were compared with those from five other hydrograph-separation methods with respect to two metrics: the long-term average fraction of streamflow that is base flow, or base-flow index, and the fraction of days where streamflow is entirely base flow. There was generally good correlation between the methods, with some biased

  9. Organizing Creativity : Creativity and Innovation under Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, Marjolein C.J.; Rietzschel, Eric F.


    The best way of organizing creativity within organizations remains somewhat enigmatic to scholars, particularly when it comes to the role of constraints. On the one hand, creative organizations are often associated with freedom, autonomy, weak rules and few boundaries. On the other hand, several

  10. Quantum Einstein's equations and constraints algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we shall address this problem: Is quantum gravity constraints algebra closed and what are the quantum Einstein's equations. ... Physics Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box ...

  11. grammatical constraints on intrasentential code switching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In this section I will first set out Poplack's (1980) Free Morpheme Constraint and Belazi et ..... the mapping to phonetic form is completely different from the syntactic component of the ..... described in terms of three social and pragmatic properties: situational, metaphorical and .... I think of Mafias, they donder you up six love.

  12. Relationships Between Firm Characteristics and Export Constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships Between Firm Characteristics and Export Constraints in SME Exporters. Zororo Muranda. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 89-107. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ·

  13. Assessment of sweetpotato farming systems, production constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetpotato is an important food security crop in Tanzania. The crop is grown under diverse farming systems with very low yields. The objective of this study was to assess the present sweetpotato farming systems, farmers' preferences, production constraints and breeding priorities in eastern Tanzania. Participatory rural ...

  14. Further Note on the Probabilistic Constraint Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.; Datta, R


    A robust probabilistic constraint handling approach in the framework of joint evolutionary-classical optimization has been presented earlier. In this work, the
    theoretical foundations of the method are presented in detail. The method is known as bi-objective method, where the conventional

  15. Entrepreneurial Characteristics And Constraints Of Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The, entrepreneurial characteristics marketing strategies, poultry drugs distribution methods and constraints were studied among 110 poultry enterprises in Imo State, Nigeria. Ten types of poultry businesses were identified with commercial feeds retailing, egg and broiler productions being the most frequently practiced (18.1 ...

  16. Estimating carrying capacity with simultaneous nutritional constraints. (United States)

    Thomas A. Hanley; James J. Rogers


    A new procedure is presented for estimating carrying capacity (the number of animals of a given species that can be supported per unit area of habitat) on the basis of two simultaneous nutritional constraints. It requires specifying the quantity (bio-mass) and quality (chemical composition or digestibility) of available food and the nutritional requirements of the...

  17. Management practices and production constraints of central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2016 on randomly selected 250 households who reared goats in Emba Alaje District to assess management practices of central highland goats and their major constraints. A pretested and semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the required data. Out of ...

  18. IPv6 Geolocation Using Latency Constraints (United States)


    Association for Internet Data Analysis CDF cumulative distribution function CIDR Classless Inter-domain Routing CBG Constraint Based Geolocation DNS...called blocks or prefixes. Blocks can span non-Classless Inter-domain Routing ( CIDR ) subsets of the address. Most ge- olocation database entries are

  19. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne


    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified corre...

  20. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...