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Sample records for hepatoma fish cell

  1. Use of a highly sensitive recombinant hepatoma cell method to determine dioxin concentrations in samples of fish and crab from a hotspot area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ding-Yan; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Chen, Fu-An; Wang, Ya-Fan; Chen, Kuan-Chung; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chao, How-Ran

    2013-06-01

    A new and easy fast-screening test (the Ad-DR (adenoviral vector-dioxin response) bioassay) for dioxins in biological samples from highly dioxin-contaminated areas was developed. The aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor (AhR) reporter system was utilized to transport a dioxin-responsive-element (DRE) via an adenovirus vector into rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cells before each experiment; these DRE-H4IIE cells were utilized in the Ad-DR bioassay. Biological extracts were simultaneously analyzed by the Ad-DR bioassay and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). A good correlation was found between the results of the HRGC/HRMS assay and those of the Ad-DR bioassay (R(2) = 0.920, p fish or crab caught in the abandoned pentachlorophenol plant (AP) was extremely high compared with the BEQ in fish or crab caught in two rivers nearby this abandoned plant. Dioxins were more heavily bioaccumulated in fish viscera than in fish muscles or in the whole fish. Two-way analysis of variance tests identified the significant effects of fish collection site, fish or crab tissue sample and the interaction between them on dioxin levels in the tissues of these aquatic animals. In conclusion, the Ad-DR bioassay is a useful tool to determine dioxin levels in samples of fish and crab. Compared with fish tissues, where a sample is taken (in the PCP plant or nearby rivers) is the most important factor to determine bioaccumulation of dioxins in fish.

  2. Comparative Study of Light Scattering from Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wang, Rongrong; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao; Guo, Xiaoen

    2012-11-01

    Primary liver cancer is one of the highest mortality malignant tumors in the world. China is a high occurrence area of primary liver cancer. Diagnosis of liver cancer, especially early diagnosis, is essential for improving patients' survival. Light scattering and measuring method is an emerging technology developed in recent decades, which has attracted a large number of biomedical researchers due to its advantages, such as fast, simple, high accuracy, good repeatability, and non-destructive. The hypothesis of this project is that there may be some different light scattering information between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte. Combined with the advantages of the dynamic light scattering method and the biological cytology, an experimental scheme to measure the light scattering information of cells was formulated. Hepatoma cells and hepatic cells were irradiated by a semiconductor laser (532 nm). And the Brookhaven BI-200SM wide-angle light scattering device and temperature control apparatus were adopted. The light scattering information of hepatoma cells and hepatic cells in vitro within the 15°C to 30°C temperature range was processed by a BI-9000AT digital autocorrelator. The following points were found: (a) the scattering intensities of human hepatic cells and hepatoma cells are nearly not affected by the temperature factor, and the former is always greater than the latter and (b) the relaxation time of hepatoma cells is longer than that of hepatic cells, and both the relaxation time are shortened with increasing temperature from 15°C to 25°C. It can be concluded that hepatoma cells could absorb more incident light than hepatic cells. The reason may be that there exists more protein and nucleic acid in cancerous cells than normal cells. Furthermore, based on the length relaxation time, a conclusion can be inferred that the Brownian movement of cancer cells is greater.

  3. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J. [Medical Univ. of Charleston South Carolina, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  4. Phenotypic expression of human hepatoma cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, Kenneth R; White, Sheryl L; Buttolph, Thomas R; Allison, Gretchen; Ehrlich, H Paul

    2007-04-01

    Hepatomas thrive in a hypoxic environment resulting in the induction of a cluster of hypoxia related genes. The protein phenotypic expression include hypoxia inducible factor-alpha, prolyl-4-hydroxylase, vascular endothelear growth factor and erythropoietin. The present study was undertaken to determine if human hepatoma cells when cultured for 72 h in the presence of serum under normoxia would maintain their cancerous phenotypic expression of certain hypoxia inducible genes. Our positive results affords an in vitro model system to test hypoxia inhibitors on the expression and the intracellular compartmentalization or the secretion of these hypoxia-inducible proteins. c 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Recent advances in live cell imaging of hepatoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Live cell imaging enables the study of dynamic processes of living cells in real time by use of suitable reporter proteins and the staining of specific cellular structures and/or organelles. With the availability of advanced optical devices and improved cell culture protocols it has become a rapidly growing research methodology. The success of this technique relies mainly on the selection of suitable reporter proteins, construction of recombinant plasmids possessing cell type specific promoters as well as reliable methods of gene transfer. This review aims to provide an overview of the recent developments in the field of marker proteins (bioluminescence and fluorescent) and methodologies (fluorescent resonance energy transfer, fluorescent recovery after photobleaching and proximity ligation assay) employed as to achieve an improved imaging of biological processes in hepatoma cells. Moreover, different expression systems of marker proteins and the modes of gene transfer are discussed with emphasis on the study of lipid droplet formation in hepatocytes as an example. PMID:25005127

  6. INHIBITORY EFFECT OF CHITOSAN OLIGOSACCHARIDE ON HUMAN HEPATOMA CELLS IN VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Likun; Xin, Yi; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Ershao; Li, Weiling

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide, the degradation products of chitin, was reported to have a wide range of physiological functions and biological activities. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of Chitosan oligosaccharide on human hepatoma cells. MTT assay was applied to detect cell viability of the human hepatoma cells treated with Chitosan oligosaccharide. Flow cytometric analysis was used to investigate the apoptosis of the human hepatoma cells treated with Chitosan oligosaccharide. We employed western blot to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the apoptosis. Our data indicated that chitosan oligosaccharide dose-dependently inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and induced apoptosis. On the molecular level, chitosan oligosaccharide decreased Bcl-2 and increased Caspase-3 expression which may be related to the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Our results provide an experimental basis for the clinical development of Chitosan oligosaccharide as a novel anti-hepatoma drug.

  7. Synthesis and targeting of hexokinase to mitochondria in hepatoma cells

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    Kabir, F.; Nelson, B.D. (Univ. of Stockholm (Sweden))

    1989-10-01

    The synthesis and turnover of hexokinase has been measured in Zajdela hepatoma ascites cells labeled for short periods with ({sup 35}S)methionine. Digitonin fractionation of the labeled cells into a soluble and a membrane fraction showed that only a small part of the newly labeled hexokinase is transferred to mitochondrial binding sites. The soluble enzyme disappears, however, with a half-life of less than 2 h. Glucose had no effect on the stability of the soluble enzyme in intact cells. Our experiments suggest that Zajdela cell hexokinase is synthesized in excess of binding sites and that the excess enzyme is not stable.

  8. A fish hepatoma cell line (PLHC-1) as a tool to study cytotoxicity and CYP1A induction properties of cellulose and wood chip extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, S E; Hahn, M E; Lindström-Seppä, P

    1998-06-01

    Cytotoxicity and CYP1A induction properties of celluloses and wood chips were studied with a teleost liver cell line, PLHC-1. Cells were exposed to acetone extracts of celluloses produced using new bleaching techniques (elemental chlorine free, ECF; totally chlorine free, TCF) in two sulphate mills or without any bleaching (unbleached, UB) in a sulphite mill. In another set of exposures, celluloses (ECF and TCF bleached) and wood chips (from pine and birch) were collected from a sulphate mill, extracted with acetone, and the extracts used to treat the cells. After exposure, O-deethylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin (EROD, a measure of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) catalytic activity), and total protein content, a measure of cytotoxicity, were assayed. The presence of the CYP1A protein in the exposed cells was assessed by immunoblotting. The cellulose and wood chip extracts were able to cause both cytotoxicity and EROD induction in the PLHC-1 cells. In the exposures conducted with the material from three different mills, the celluloses made of birch were more cytotoxic and more potent inducers of EROD activity than were the celluloses of pine. Further, UB celluloses increased EROD activity and caused cytotoxicity at lower doses than material bleached with modern bleaching techniques. In the exposures made with material from one single mill, there were no clear trends between the celluloses made of pine or birch. Wood chips of pine, however, were more cytotoxic than wood chips of birch. Especially with pine wood chips, cytotoxicity interfered with the induction of EROD activity, thus complicating the evaluation of CYP1A induction. CYP1A protein content was not detected in cells exposed to extracts of celluloses or wood chips, possibly due to low amounts of protein available for the assay. Wood and pulp processing, like bleaching, may change the chemical composition of the raw material in a way that reduces the potency for biological effects of the final product, cellulose

  9. Niclosamide suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation via the Wnt pathway

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    Tomizawa M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Tomizawa,1 Fuminobu Shinozaki,2 Yasufumi Motoyoshi,3 Takao Sugiyama,4 Shigenori Yamamoto,5 Makoto Sueishi,4 Takanobu Yoshida6 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Rheumatology, 5Department of Pediatrics, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital, Yotsukaido City, Chiba, Japan Background: The Wnt pathway plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We analyzed the association of the Wnt pathway with the proliferation of hepatoma cells using Wnt3a and niclosamide, a drug used to treat tapeworm infection. Methods: We performed an MTS assay to determine whether Wnt3a stimulated proliferation of Huh-6 and Hep3B human hepatoma cell lines after 72 hours of incubation with Wnt3a in serum-free medium. The cells were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL after 48 hours of incubation. RNA was isolated 48 hours after addition of Wnt3a or niclosamide, and cyclin D1 expression levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The promoter activity of T-cell factor was analyzed by luciferase assay 48 hours after transfection of TOPflash. Western blot analysis was performed with antibodies against β-catenin, dishevelled 2, and cyclin D1. Results: Cell proliferation increased with Wnt3a. Niclosamide suppressed proliferation with or without Wnt3a. Hematoxylin and eosin and TUNEL staining suggested that apoptosis occurred in cells with niclosamide. Cyclin D1 was upregulated in the presence of Wnt3a and downregulated with addition of niclosamide. The promoter activity of T-cell factor increased with Wnt3a, whereas T-cell factor promoter activity decreased with niclosamide. Western blot analysis showed that Wnt3a upregulated β-catenin, dishevelled 2, and cyclin D1, while niclosamide downregulated them. Conclusion: Niclosamide is a potential

  10. Inhibitory effect of gingerol on the proliferation and invasion of hepatoma cells in culture

    OpenAIRE

    Yagihashi, Satoru; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    Effect of [6]-gingerol, a major pungent component in ginger, on the proliferation of a rat ascites hepatoma AH109A cells was investigated by measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation into acid-insoluble fraction of the cultured cells and that on the invasion by co-culturing the hepatoma cells with rat mesentery-derived mesothelial cells. [6]-Gingerol inhibited both the proliferation and invasion of hepatoma cells in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 6.25–200 μM (proliferation) and 50–2...

  11. Cytochrome P4501A induction, benzo[a]pyrene metabolism, and nucleotide adduct formation in fish hepatoma cells: Effect of preexposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, J.M.W.; Voormolen, A.; Tillitt, D.E.; Everaarts, J.M.; Seinen, W.; Vanden Berg, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    In PLHC-1 hepatoma cells, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) caused a maximum induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity, measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), after 4 to 8 h of exposure, depending on the B[a]P concentration. The decline of EROD activity at longer exposure times was probably caused by the rapid metabolism of B[a]P in this system (57% metabolism within 4 h incubation). In subsequent experiments, PLHC-1 cells were preinduced with PCB 126 for 24 h and then received a dose of 10, 100, or 1,000 nM 3H-B[a]P. A 1-nM concentration of PCB 126 caused an 80-fold induction of CYP1A activity, resulting in an increase in B[a]P metabolism of less than 10%, except at the highest concentration of B[a]P (1,000 nM), where a 50% increase was observed. In another experiment, an 80-fold induction of CYP1A activity caused a 20% increase in the metabolism of B[a]P (100 nM), and RNA adduct formation was increased approximately twofold. These results indicate that, at exposure concentrations up to 100 nM B[a]P, CYP1A activity is not rate limiting for B[a]P metabolism. Furthermore, CYP1A seems to also he specifically involved in B[a]P activation in PLHC-1 cells. However, CYP1A induction causes only a relatively small increase in activation, probably because of the action of other enzymes involved in B[a]P activation and deactivation.

  12. Effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation on the lipid metabolism in hepatoma-bearing rats with hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Miura, Yutaka; Funabiki, Ryuhei; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    The effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid (L-methionine and L-cystine) supplementation on serum lipid concentrations and various parameters related to the lipid metabolism were studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with an ascites hepatoma cell line, AH109A. A diet containing 10% fish oil was found to reduce serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, (very-low-density lipoprotein plus low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in these animals, and dietary supplementation of 1.2% L-methionine and L-cystine also suppressed these serum lipid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid synthesis and the availability of serum NEFA were decreased, and epididymal adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was elevated by dietary fish oil, while LPL activity in various tissues and hepatic fatty acid oxidation were increased by dietary sulfur amino acids, resulting in a reduction in the serum triglyceride concentration by dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acids, respectively. Dietary fish oil suppressed the hepatoma-induced increase in cholesterogenesis in the host liver, and dietary methionine and cystine enhanced bile acid excretion into feces, which were the causes of the hypocholesterolemic effect. In these serum lipid concentrations, there were significant effects of fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation, but no significant interaction between these two factors was seen. These results indicate that dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acid, L-methionine and L-cystine, have hypolipidemic effects in cancer-related hyperlipidemia, and that the effects of these two factors on the decrease in these serum lipid concentrations are additive; these two factors may affect the lipid metabolism via different pathways and mechanisms.

  13. Sphere-forming cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties in human hepatoma cell lines

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    Chen Lei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs are regarded as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. Methods Human hepatoma cell lines were plated in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming. To evaluate the stemness characteristics of spheres, the self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells, and the expression levels of stem cell related proteins in the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells were assessed, comparing with the parental cells. The stem cell RT-PCR array was performed to further explore the biological properties of liver CSCs. Results The PLC/PRF/5, MHCC97H and HepG2 cells could form clonal nonadherent 3-D spheres and be serially passaged. The PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells possessed a key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, overexpression of liver CSCs related proteins (Oct3/4, OV6, EpCAM, CD133 and CD44. Even 500 sphere-forming cells were able to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice, and the tumor initiating capability was not decreased when spheres were passaged. Besides, downstream proteins DTX1 and Ep300 of the CSL (CBF1 in humans, Suppressor of hairless in Drosophila and LAG1 in C. elegans -independent Notch signaling pathway were highly expressed in the spheres, and a gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 could significantly inhibit the sphere formation ability. Conclusions Nonadherent tumor spheres from hepatoma cell lines cultured in stem cell conditioned medium possess liver CSC properties, and the CSL-independent Notch signaling pathway may play a role in liver CSCs.

  14. Effects of Uptake of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles into Hepatoma Cells on Cell Adhesion and Proliferation

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    Meizhen Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAPs were prepared by homogeneous precipitation, and size distribution and morphology of these nanoparticles were determined by laser particle analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Nano-HAPs were uniformly distributed, with rod-like shapes sizes ranging from 44.6 to 86.8 nm. Attached overnight, suspended, and proliferating Bel-7402 cells were repeatedly incubated with nano-HAPs. Inverted microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy were used to observe the cell adhesion and growth, the culture medium containing nano-HAPs, the cell ultrastructure, and intracellular Ca2+ labeled with a fluo-3 calcium fluorescent probe. The results showed that nano-HAPs inhibited proliferation of Bel-7402 cells and, caused an obvious increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+, along with significant changes in the cell ultrastructure. Moreover, nano-HAPs led suspended cells and proliferating cells after trypsinized that did not attach to the bottom of the culture bottle died. Nano-HAPs continuously entered these cells. Attached, suspended, and proliferating cells endocytosed nano-HAPs, and nanoparticle-filled vesicles were in the cytoplasm. Therefore, hepatoma cellular uptake of nano-HAPs through endocytosis was very active and occurred continuously. Nano-HAPs affected proliferation and adhesion of hepatoma cells probably because uptake of nano-HAPs blocked integrin-mediated cell adhesion, which may have potential significance in inhibiting metastatic cancer cells to their target organ.

  15. Evaluation of selenite effects on selenoproteins and cytokinome in human hepatoma cell lines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rusolo, Fabiola; Pucci, Biagio; Colonna, Giovanni; Capone, Francesca; Guerriero, Eliana; Milone, Maria Rita; Nazzaro, Melissa; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Di Bernardo, Gianni; Castello, Giuseppe; Costantini, Susan

    2013-01-01

    .... The aim of this work was to test in vitro the effect of sodium selenite on the human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7, to assess its effect on the expression of GPX1, SELK and SELENBP1 and also...

  16. Pokemon Silencing Leads to Bim-Mediated Anoikis of Human Hepatoma Cell QGY7703

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Liu; Feng Liu; Nannan Zhang; Shiying Liu; Yuyang Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Knockdown of P...

  17. Expression of activins C and E induces apoptosis in human and rat hepatoma cells.

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    Vejda, Susanne; Erlach, Natascha; Peter, Barbara; Drucker, Claudia; Rossmanith, Walter; Pohl, Jens; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf; Grusch, Michael

    2003-11-01

    Activins C and E (homodimers of the betaC and betaE subunits), which are almost exclusively expressed in the liver, are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily of growth factors. We examined their expression in three different hepatoma cell lines and found that, compared with normal liver or primary hepatocytes, human hepatoblastoma (HepG2), human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B) and rat hepatoma (H4IIEC3) cells have either completely lost or drastically reduced the expression of activins C and E. In order to elucidate the biological function of these proteins we transiently transfected HepG2, Hep3B and H4IIEC3 cell lines with rat activin betaC or betaE cDNA to study the consequences of restoring activin expression in hepatoma cells. Transfection with activin betaA, a known inhibitor of hepatic DNA synthesis and inducer of apoptosis, served as a positive control. We found that transfection of the three cell lines with activin betaC or betaE, as well as with activin betaA, reduced the increase in cell number by up to 40% compared with cells transfected with a control plasmid. Co-culture with a CHO cell clone secreting activin C also inhibited HepG2 cell multiplication. Furthermore, the three hepatoma cell lines studied showed an enhanced rate of apoptosis and elevated levels of active caspases in response to activin transfection. These results indicate that activins C and E share the potential to induce apoptosis in liver derived cell lines with activin A and TGFbeta1.

  18. Polyunsaturated Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Unfolded Protein Response in Human Hepatoma Cells.

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    Chieko Iwao

    Full Text Available The acyclic diterpenoid acid geranylgeranoic acid (GGA has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in several human hepatoma-derived cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism for this remains unknown. In the present study, several diterpenoids were examined for ability to induce XBP1 splicing and/or lipotoxicity for human hepatoma cell lines. Here we show that three groups of diterpenoids emerged: 1 GGA, 2,3-dihydro GGA and 9-cis retinoic acid induce cell death and XBP1 splicing; 2 all-trans retinoic acid induces XBP1 splicing but little cell death; and 3 phytanic acid, phytenic acid and geranylgeraniol induce neither cell death nor XBP1 splicing. GGA-induced ER stress/ unfolded protein response (UPR and its lipotoxicity were both blocked by co-treatment with oleic acid. The blocking activity of oleic acid for GGA-induced XBP1 splicing was not attenuated by methylation of oleic acid. These findings strongly suggest that GGA at micromolar concentrations induces the so-called lipid-induced ER stress response/UPR, which is oleate-suppressive, and shows its lipotoxicity in human hepatoma cells.

  19. Stimulation of Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential by Proteins Secreted From Irradiated Nonparenchymal Cells

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    Zhou Leyuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Zhiming [Department of Medical Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Gao Yabo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Lingyan [Experimental Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether factors secreted by irradiated liver nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) may influence invasiveness and/or metastatic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to elucidate a possible mechanism for such effect. Methods and Materials: Primary rat NPCs were cultured and divided into irradiated (10-Gy X-ray) and nonirradiated groups. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, conditioned medium from irradiated (SR) or nonirradiated (SnonR) cultures were collected and added to sublethally irradiated cultures of the hepatoma McA-RH7777 cell line. Then, hepatoma cells were continuously passaged for eight generations (RH10Gy-SR and RH10Gy-SnonR). The invasiveness and metastatic potential of McA-RH7777, RH10Gy-SnonR, and RH10Gy-SR cells were evaluated using an in vitro gelatinous protein (Matrigel) invasion and an in vivo metastasis assay. In addition, SR and SnonR were tested using rat cytokine antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In vitro gelatinous protein invasion assay indicated that the numbers of invading cells was significantly higher in RH10Gy-SR (40 {+-} 4.74) than in RH10Gy-SnonR (30.6 {+-} 3.85) cells, and lowest in McA-RH7777 (11.4 {+-} 3.56) cells. The same pattern was observed in vivo in a lung metastasis assay, as evaluated by number of metastatic lung nodules seen with RH10Gy-SR (28.83 {+-} 5.38), RH10Gy-SnonR (22.17 {+-} 4.26), and McA-RH7777 (8.3 {+-} 3.8) cells. Rat cytokine antibody arrays and ELISA demonstrated that metastasis-promoting cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6), circulating growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor), and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were upregulated in SR compared with SnonR. Conclusions: Radiation can increase invasiveness and metastatic potential of sublethally irradiated hepatoma cells, and soluble mediators released from irradiated NPCs promote this potential. Increased secretion of

  20. Magnetic targeting of iron-oxide-labeled fluorescent hepatoma cells to the liver

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    Luciani, Alain [Universite Rene Descartes, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, EA 4062, Paris (France); Imagerie Medicale, Faculte de Medecine Paris XII, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil cedex (France); Wilhelm, Claire; Gazeau, Florence [Universite Paris Diderot, Batiment Condorcet, Laboratoire Matiere et Systemes Complexes, CNRS-UMR 7057, Paris Cedex (France); Bruneval, Patrick [Anatomopathologie, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Paris (France); Cunin, Patrick [Unite de Recherche Clinique, Faculte de Medecine Paris XII, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil cedex (France); Autret, Gwennhael; Clement, Olivier [Universite Rene Descartes, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, EA 4062, Paris (France); Rahmouni, Alain [Imagerie Medicale, Faculte de Medecine Paris XII, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil cedex (France)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an external magnet field can induce preferential trafficking of magnetically labeled Huh7 hepatoma cells to the liver following liver cell transplantation. Huh7 hepatoma cells were labeled with anionic magnetic nanoparticles (AMNP) and tagged with a fluorescent membrane marker (PKH67). Iron-uptake was measured by magnetophoresis. Twenty C57Bl6 mice received an intrasplenic injection of 2 x 10{sup 6} labeled cells. An external magnet (0.29 T; 25 T/m) was placed over the liver of 13 randomly selected animals (magnet group), while the remaining 7 animals served as controls. MRI (1.5 T) and confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) were performed 10 days post-transplantation. The presence and location of labeled cells within the livers were compared in the magnet group and controls, and confronted with histological analysis representing the standard of reference. Mean iron content per cell was 6 pg. Based on histology, labeled cells were more frequently present within recipient livers in the magnet group (p < 0.01) where their distribution was preferentially peri-vascular (p<0.05). MRI and CFM gave similar results for the overall detection of transplanted cells (kappa=0.828) and for the identification of peri-vascular cells (kappa=0.78). Application of an external magnet can modify the trafficking of transplanted cells, especially by promoting the formation of perivascular aggregates. (orig.)

  1. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

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    Singaravelu, Ragunath [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Lyn, Rodney K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Srinivasan, Prashanth [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Delcorde, Julie [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta (Canada); Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Katz Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2S2 (Canada); Pezacki, John P., E-mail: John.Pezacki@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1α and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1α, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1α/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  2. Drug Transporter Expression and Activity in Human Hepatoma HuH-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jouan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2. By contrast, they failed to display functional activities of the uptake transporters sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP, organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, and of the canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Concomitantly, mRNA expressions of various sinusoidal and canalicular hepatic drug transporters were not detected (NTCP, OATP1B1, organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2, OCT1 and bile salt export pump or were found to be lower (OATP1B3, OATP2B1, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, BCRP and MRP3 in hepatoma HuH-7 cells than those found in human hepatocytes, whereas other transporters such as OAT7, MRP4 and MRP5 were up-regulated. HuH-7 cells additionally exhibited farnesoid X receptor (FXR- and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-related up-regulation of some transporters. Such data indicate that HuH-7 cells, although expressing rather poorly some main hepatic drug transporters, may be useful for investigating interactions of drugs with MRPs, notably MRP2, and for studying FXR- or Nrf2-mediated gene regulation.

  3. Role of ROS-mediated autophagy in radiation-induced bystander effect of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jianghong; Fu, Jiamei; Wang, Juan; Ye, Shuang; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-05-01

    Autophagy plays a crucial role in cellular response to ionizing radiation, but it is unclear whether autophagy can modulate radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Here, we investigated the relationship between bystander damage and autophagy in human hepatoma cells of HepG2. HepG2 cells were treated with conditioned medium (CM) collected from 3 Gy γ-rays irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells for 4, 12, or 24 h, followed by the measurement of micronuclei (MN), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and protein expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 in the bystander HepG2 cells. In some experiments, the bystander HepG2 cells were respectively transfected with LC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA), Beclin-1 siRNA or treated with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Additional MN and mitochondrial dysfunction coupled with ROS were induced in the bystander cells. The expressions of protein markers of autophagy, LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin-1, increased in the bystander cells. The inductions of bystander MN and overexpressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 were significantly diminished by DMSO. However, when the bystander cells were transfected with LC3 siRNA or Beclin-1 siRNA, the yield of bystander MN was significantly enhanced. The elevated ROS have bi-functions in balancing the bystander effects. One is to cause MN and the other is to induce protective autophagy.

  4. Hepatoma SK Hep-1 cells exhibit characteristics of oncogenic mesenchymal stem cells with highly metastatic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ryeol Eun

    Full Text Available SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells derived from a patient with liver adenocarcinoma have been considered a human hepatoma cell line with mesenchymal origin characteristics, however, SK cells do not express liver genes and exhibit liver function, thus, we hypothesized whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. Here, we characterized SK cells and its tumourigenicity.We found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers were presented on SK cells, but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC and bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC do. Importantly, a single SK cell exhibited a substantial tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity in immunodefficient mice. Metastasis not only occurred in circulating organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys, but also in muscle, outer abdomen, and skin. SK cells presented greater in vitro invasive capacity than those of Ad-MSC and BM-MSC. The xenograft cells from subcutaneous and metastatic tumors exhibited a similar tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity, and showed the same relatively homogenous population with MSC characteristics when compared to parental SK cells. SK cells could unlimitedly expand in vitro without losing MSC characteristics, its tumuorigenicity and metastatic capacity, indicating that SK cells are oncogenic MSC with enhanced self-renewal capacity. We believe that this is the first report that human MSC appear to be transformed into cancer stem cells (CSC, and that their derivatives also function as CSCs.Our findings demonstrate that SK cells represent a transformation mechanism of normal MSC into an enhanced self-renewal CSC with metastasis capacity, SK cells and their xenografts represent a same relative homogeneity of CSC with substantial metastatic capacity. Thus, it represents a novel mechanism of tumor initiation, development and

  5. Metabolism and cytotoxic effects of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuuri; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kato, Shunji; Tatewaki, Naoto; Mizuochi, Shunsuke; Ito, Junya; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nishida, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-03-20

    In this study, we investigated cellular uptake and metabolism of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and then evaluated whether PCOOH or its metabolites cause pathophysiological effects such as cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Although we found that most PCOOH was reduced to PC hydroxide in HepG2 cells, the remaining PCOOH caused cytotoxic effects that may be mediated through an unusual apoptosis pathway. These results will enhance our fundamental understanding of how PCOOH, which is present in oxidized low density lipoproteins, is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Uncoupling Protein 2 Regulates Palmitic Acid-Induced Hepatoma Cell Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is suggested to have a role in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Autophagy is an important mediator of many pathological responses. This study aims to investigate the relationship between UCP2 and hepatoma cells autophagy in palmitic acid- (PA- induced lipotoxicity. H4IIE cells were treated with palmitic acid (PA, and cell autophagy and apoptosis were examined. UCP2 expression, in association with LC3-II and caspase-3, which are indicators of cell autophagy and apoptosis, respectively,was measured. Results demonstrated that UCP2 was associated with autophagy during PA-induced hepatic carcinoma cells injury. Tests on reactive oxygen species (ROS showed that UCP2 overexpression strongly decreases PA-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Conversely, UCP2 inhibition by genipin or UCP2 mRNA silencing enhances PA-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Autophagy partially participates in this progress. Moreover, UCP2 was associated with ATP synthesis during PA-induced autophagy. In conclusion, increasing UCP2 expression in hepatoma cells may contribute to cell autophagy and antiapoptotic as result of fatty acid injury. Our results may bring new insights for potential NASH therapies.

  7. PKCα mediated induction of miR-101 in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hua-Chien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein Kinase C (PKC is a serine/threonine kinase that involved in controlling of many cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. We have observed previously that TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate induces cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. However, is there any miRNA involved in PKCα mediated cell growth arrest is still unknown. Methods We first surveyed 270 miRNA expression profiles in 20 pairs of human hepatoma tissues. We identified 11 up-regulated and 23 down-regulated miRNAs (FDR = 2 in human hepatoma tissue after Student's T-test and Mann-Whitney rank test. We then examined miRNAs expression profile in TPA treated HepG2 cells. Two miRNAs, miR-101, and miR-29c, were shown to be significantly down regulated in human hepatoma tissues and induced over 4-fold in HepG2 cells under TPA treatment. Results In this study, we examined TPA regulated miRNA expression profile in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. We identified two miRNAs, 101 and 29c, were induced by TPA and down regulated in human hepatoma tissues suggest that they might play as tumor suppressor gene and in tumor formation of HCC. Since induction kinetics of miR-101 by TPA was much faster than miR-29c suggests that the induction of miR-101 may be the primary response of TPA treatment. We then further investigated how miR-101 was regulated by TPA. MiR-101 targets two subunits of PRC2 complex, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2 and EED, and was shown to play as a tumor suppressor gene in human prostate, breast and liver cancers. The target sequence of miR-101 located in the 3' UTR of both EZH2 and EED's mRNA was identified by bioinformatic analysis and was validated by reporter luciferase activity assay. Then we showed that TPA not only up regulated miR-101 expression, but also reduced protein level of EZH2, EED and H3K27me3 in HepG2 cells. Using lenti-virus-mediated shRNA to knockdown endogenous PKCα expression

  8. Combined effect of honokiol and rosiglitazone on cell growth inhibition through enhanced G0/G1 phase arrest in hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chi Chen

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Honokiol combined with rosiglitazone showed more effective growth inhibition in hepatoma cells mediated through the regulation of G0/G1 phase-related proteins p21, cyclin D1, cyclin E1, and Rb and cell cycle progression.

  9. Effects of dexamethasone and insulin on the acute phase response of Morris hepatoma cells and of rat hepatocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magielska-Zero, D; Guzdek, A; Bereta, J; Kurdowska, A; Cieszka, K; Koj, A

    1988-01-01

    Dexamethasone and insulin stimulate production of several plasma proteins in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes but inhibit their production in primary cultures of Morris hepatoma cell line 7777W. The acute phase response elicited in cultured cells by crude cytokines from activated rat peritoneal macrophages is considerably higher in hepatocytes in the presence of hormones, and especially of dexamethasone. In hepatoma cells the hormones enhance the cytokine-induced formation of fibrinogen and cysteine proteinase inhibitor but are without significant effect on suppression of albumin and alpha-fetoprotein synthesis by macrophage supernatants.

  10. Peroxisomal oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) by human hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, P.A.; Ferrell, E.V. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Beta-oxidation of VLCFA was studied in a human hepatoma cell line (HEP-G2). These cells, disrupted by exposure to low concentrations of digitonin, oxidize (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate (C16:0) and (1-/sup 14/C)lignocerate (C24:0) to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and water-soluble products. It was recently reported that in rat liver the beta-oxidation of VLCFA takes place primarily in the peroxisome rather than the mitochondrion. The precise site of VLCFA oxidation in human tissues has not been clearly elucidated. The peroxisome has been implicated since there is impaired VLCFA oxidation in fibroblasts from Zellweger syndrome patients, in which this organelle is deficient. In order to define the subcellular localization of human VLCFA oxidation, homogenates of HEP-G2 cells were fractionated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Fractions enriched in the peroxisomal marker catalase oxidized C24:0 at significantly greater rates than fractions enriched in the mitochondrial marker succinate:cytochrome c reductase. C16:0 oxidation was catalyzed by both peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. These results suggest that the subcellular site of VLCFA oxidation in human hepatoma cells and rat liver is similar.

  11. Redifferentiation of human hepatoma cells (SMMC-7721) induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Ghadially F N 1988 Ultrastructural pathology of the cell and matrix (London: Butterworth-Heinemann Publishing). Guo B Z 1987 The economic flora of Qinghai (Xi'ning, P RChina: Qinghai People's Press). Ingber D, Fujita T, Kishimoto S, Sudo K, Kanamaru T, Brem. H and Folkman J 1990 Synthetic analogs of fumagillin that.

  12. Induction of cell proliferation arrest and apoptosis in hepatoma cells through adenoviral-mediated transfer of p53 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, M; Neumann, I; Schmiegel, W; Wu, P C; Lau, J Y

    2000-05-01

    Loss of p53 function is common in hepatocellular carcinoma and is associated with an extremely poor prognosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the biologic effect of adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of wild-type p53 gene in four hepatoma cell lines with different p53 genetic makeup. Recombinant adenovirus expressing wild-type p53 was used. Recombinant adenoviruses with either an empty expression cassette or expressing beta-galactosidase gene served as controls. High-level expression of wild-type p53 was achieved with adenoviral-mediated gene transfer. The expressed p53 protein showed nuclear localization and its expression was associated with an induction of p21 and bax expression. Expression of the p53 gene was associated with inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Expression of p53 was also associated with an upregulation of CD95 (Apo-1/Fas) gene expression, which may predispose the tumor cells to undergo apoptosis induced by the Fas Ligand/Fas cytolytic pathway. An additional anti-tumor effect, in terms of allowing the replication-defective adenovirus to replicate, was observed in hepatoma cells with homozygous deletion of p53 genes and to a lesser extent, hepatoma cells with mutated p53 genes. These data showed that adenoviral-mediated gene transfer is effective in delivering p53 gene to tumor cells, and the multiple pathways involved in their antitumor activities.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF SESQUITERPENE Γ-LACTONE AHILLIN IN HEPATOMA TISSUE CULTURE (HTC CELLS

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    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Investigation of hypolipidemic effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone ahillin in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells.Material and methods. In this study we’ve evaluated the effect of γ-lactone sesquiterpene aсhillin and gemfibrozil (comparator drug on the lipid content in the hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cell which were incubated with a fat emulsion lipofundin by fluorescent method with vital dye Nile Redand staining the cells with the dye Oil Red O. The cell viability was investigated using the MTT-test and staining with Trypan blue.Results. Cultivation cells HTC with aсhillin and gemfibrozilat concentrations ranging from 0.5 to1.5 mM and from0.25 mM to0.5 mM, respectively, resulted in dose-dependent decrease of the fluorescence’s intensity Nile Red. It reflects a decrease in lipid content in the cells. At these concentrations the drugs didn’t have cytotoxic effect and the cell viability didn’t change compared to the control culture.An experimental hyperlipidemia in the hepatoma culture cells was induced by adding to the incubation medium a fat emulsion lipofundin at a final concentration 0.05%. The intensity of fluorescence Nile Red in the cells was increased 4 fold (p < 0.05. This result suggests the significant accumulation of lipids in the cell’s cytosol and confirmed by microscopy after staining neutral lipids with the dye Oil Red O. Under these conditions aсhillin and gemfibrozil reduced lipid content in cells and hadthe effect at concentrations of0.5 mM and0.25 mM respectively.Conclusion. In the lipofundin-mediated model of hyperlipidemia the sesquiterpene lactone aсhillin prevents the lipid accumulation in cells. It confirms by decrease of fluorescence Nile Red and reduction lipid drops which were stained with Oil Red O in cytosol. To establish the molecular targets of aсhillin’saction on lipid metabolism in cell culture HTC we need to investigate a gene expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism.

  14. The oncoprotein HBXIP suppresses gluconeogenesis through modulating PCK1 to enhance the growth of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Fang, Runping; Li, Yinghui; Li, Leilei; Zhang, Weiying; Wang, Huawei; Chen, Fuquan; Zhang, Shuqin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2016-11-28

    Hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) as an oncoprotein plays crucial roles in the development of cancer, involving glucose metabolism reprogramming. In this study, we are interested in whether the oncoprotein HBXIP is involved in the modulation of gluconeogenesis in liver cancer. Here, we showed that the expression level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, was lower in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues than that in normal tissues. Mechanistically, HBXIP inhibited the expression of PCK1 through down-regulating transcription factor FOXO1 in hepatoma cells, and up-regulated miR-135a targeting the 3'UTR of FOXO1 mRNA in the cells. In addition, HBXIP increased the phosphorylation levels of FOXO1 protein by activating PI3K/Akt pathway, leading to the export of FOXO1 from nucleus to cytoplasm. Strikingly, over-expression of PCK1 could abolish the HBXIP-promoted growth of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP is able to depress the gluconeogenesis through suppressing PCK1 to promote hepatocarcinogenesis, involving miR-135a/FOXO1 axis and PI3K/Akt/p-FOXO1 pathway. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which oncoprotein HBXIP modulates glucose metabolism reprogramming in HCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hepatitis C virus F protein-mediated inhibition of hepatoma cell proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Liu, Jiao; Chen, Qing-mei; Shan, Xiao-ling; Chen, Lin-lin; Quan, Hui-qin; Tang, Ni

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the biological function of the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-encoded F protein in hepatocytes. The full-length F gene was amplified by PCR from HCV genotype 1a and cloned into plasmid pSEB-3Flag by restriction enzyme digestion and ligation. Hepatoma cell lines, Huh7 and SMMC7721, were transfected with the resultant recombinant pSEB-3Flag-F or the original pSEB-3Flag (negative control) and screened with the selective antibiotic, blasticidin. Stable F gene and protein expression was verified by RT-PCR analysis. Analysis of cell growth and cell cycle was carried out by MTS assay, crystal violet staining and flow cytometry. Huh7 and SMMC7721 cells transfected with pSEB-3Flag-F plasmid (Huh7-F and SMMC7721-F, respectively) uniquely expressed the F gene and protein. The Huh7-F and SMMC7721-F cells showed significantly decreased proliferation rates, compared to the respective control groups. A similar HCV F-mediated growth-inhibiting activity was observed by the cell viability assay. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis revealed that the S-phase distribution was much lower in Huh7-F (47.12%) and SMMC7721-F (30.75%) cells than in the respective controls (55.35% and 33.23%, respectively) (P less than 0.05). Stable expression of the HCV F gene reduced the in vitro proliferation rate of hepatoma cell lines, indicating that the F protein may function as a growth inhibitor of infected cells.

  16. Multiple hormonal control of enzyme synthesis in liver and hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, F.T.; Lee, K.L.; Pomato, N.; Nickol, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Synthesis of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase is accelerated in vivo by either of the pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon as well as by glucocorticoids, and glucagon acts via the intracellular mediator, cyclic AMP. The mechanisms responsive to these hormones have also been retained in cultured hepatoma cells: in H-35 cells the responses appear to be essentially identical to those in liver, especially in that each inducer can act independently of the others. In this paper we describe recent analyses of the cellular mechanisms involved in this multiple hormonal control of synthesis of a single enzyme. These experiments have been done with rat liver in vivo, owing to a need for larger quantities of cellular components that can readily be obtained from cultured cells. As some of these results appear to be at variance in important respects with those of earlier analyses carried out in H-35 cells, we briefly review these earlier experiments as well.

  17. Elemene injection induced autophagy protects human hepatoma cancer cells from starvation and undergoing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Keming; Hu, Chunping; Lin, Lin; Qin, Shukui; Cai, Xueting

    2014-01-01

    Elemene, a compound found in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, has shown promising anticancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors. In an in vivo experiment, we found that apatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively inhibits VEGFR2, combined with elemene injection (Ele) for the treatment of H22 solid tumor in mice resulted in worse effectiveness than apatinib alone. Moreover, Ele could protect HepG2 cells from death induced by serum-free starvation. Further data on the mechanism study revealed that Ele induced protective autophagy and prevented human hepatoma cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. Proapoptosis effect of Ele was enhanced when proautophagy effect was inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Above all, Ele has the effect of protecting cancer cells from death either in apatinib induced nutrient deficient environment or in serum-free induced starvation. A combination of elemene injection with autophagy inhibitor might thus be a useful therapeutic option for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. [Newcastle disease virus enhances tumoricidal activity of mouse NK cells against mouse Novikoff hepatoma cells via up-regulating expression of TRAIL on the NK cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dezhi; Liang, Ying; Fan, Xiaohui; Yin, Jun; Gong, Jinling; Lai, Zhenping; Gao, Lingxi

    2015-05-01

    To observe the effect of intraperitoneal injection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) on tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression in mouse spleen NK cells and NK cells-mediated tumoricidal activity against mouse Novikoff hepatoma cell line, and explore the role of interferon (IFN)-γ in NDV-induced TRAIL expression and tumoricidal activity. NDV was injected intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice and IFN-γ receptor-deficient (IFN-γR-/-) B6.129S7 mice. Twelve hours after injection, the concentration of IFN-γ in peripheral blood from BALB/c mice was determined by ELISA. Mouse spleen NK cells were separated. The mRNA and protein expression of TRAIL in NK cells were detected through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity of NK cells against mouse hepatoma cells. NDV injection increased the IFN-γ concentration in peripheral blood of BALB/c mice, induced up-regulation of TRAIL at the mRNA and protein levels in mouse spleen NK cells, and enhanced the killing ability of mouse spleen NK cells towards Novikoff hepatoma cells. Blocking TRAIL by neutralizing antibody suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells against Novikoff hepatoma cells. Furthermore, NDV injection in IFN-γR-/- B6.129S7 mice did not make significant difference from control group in TRAIL expression in spleen NK cells, and the tumoricidal activity of IFN-γR-/- B6.129S7 mouse spleen NK cells against Novikoff hepatoma cells was significantly lower than that of BALB/c mouse NK cells. Intraperitoneal injection with NDV could enhance tumoricidal activity of mouse spleen NK cells in vitro, and one of the mechanisms might be that NDV injection up-regulates TRAIL expression in NK cells through the IFN-γ receptor pathway.

  19. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is th...

  20. Impact of graphene oxide on viability of Chinese hamster ovary and mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiuskaite, Danute; Grinceviciute, Nora; Snitka, Valentinas

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of the cyto- and bio-compatibility is a critical step in the development of graphene oxide (GO) as a new promising material for in vivo biomedical applications. In this study, we report the impact of GO, with and without the addition of bovine serum albumin, on healthy (Chinese hamster ovary) and a cancer (mouse hepatoma MH-22A) cells viability and the estimation of the intracellular distribution of GO inside the cells in vitro. The viability tests were performed using a colony formation assay. The intracellular distribution of GO was estimated using Raman spectroscopy and imaging. The viability of both cell lines decreased with increasing concentration of graphene oxide (12.5-50.0 μg/ml): in the case of Chinese hamster ovary cells viability decreased from 44% to 11%, in the case of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells--from 22% to 3%. These cell lines significantly differed in their response to GO and GO-BSA formulations. The results of viability tests correlate with results of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy and imaging findings. The GO influence on cell morphology changes, cell structure, cells colony growth dynamics and GO accumulation inside the cells was higher in the case of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation of Peroxisomes from Rat Liver and Cultured Hepatoma Cells by Density Gradient Centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manner, Andreas; Islinger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Subcellular fractionation is still a valuable technique to unravel organelle-specific proteomes, validate the location of uncharacterized proteins, or to functionally analyze import and metabolism in individual subcellular compartments. In this respect, density gradient centrifugation still represents a very classic, indispensable technique to isolate and analyze peroxisomes. Here, we present two independent protocols for the purification of peroxisomes from either liver tissue or the HepG2 hepatoma cell line. While the former permits the isolation of highly pure peroxisomes suitable for, e.g., subcellular proteomics experiments, the latter protocol yields peroxisomal fractions from considerably less purity but allows to easily modify metabolic conditions in the culture medium or to genetically manipulate the peroxisomal compartment. In this respect, both purification methods represent alternative tools to be applied in experiments investigating peroxisome physiology.

  2. An integrated transcriptomic and meta-analysis of hepatoma cells reveals factors that influence susceptibility to HCV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I MacPherson

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a global problem. To better understand HCV infection researchers employ in vitro HCV cell-culture (HCVcc systems that use Huh-7 derived hepatoma cells that are particularly permissive to HCV infection. A variety of hyper-permissive cells have been subcloned for this purpose. In addition, subclones of Huh-7 which have evolved resistance to HCV are available. However, the mechanisms of susceptibility or resistance to infection among these cells have not been fully determined. In order to elucidate mechanisms by which hepatoma cells are susceptible or resistant to HCV infection we performed genome-wide expression analyses of six Huh-7 derived cell cultures that have different levels of permissiveness to infection. A great number of genes, representing a wide spectrum of functions are differentially expressed between cells. To focus our investigation, we identify host proteins from HCV replicase complexes, perform gene expression analysis of three HCV infected cells and conduct a detailed analysis of differentially expressed host factors by integrating a variety of data sources. Our results demonstrate that changes relating to susceptibility to HCV infection in hepatoma cells are linked to the innate immune response, secreted signal peptides and host factors that have a role in virus entry and replication. This work identifies both known and novel host factors that may influence HCV infection. Our findings build upon current knowledge of the complex interplay between HCV and the host cell, which could aid development of new antiviral strategies.

  3. Enhanced Hepatic Functions of Genetically Modified Mouse Hepatoma Cells by Spheroid Culture for Drug Toxicity Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Joyita; Kumari, Jyoti; Tonello, Jane M; Kamihira, Masamichi; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-10-01

    While hepatic cell lines are mainly used for in vitro drug induced toxicity studies, they exhibit limited functionalities. To overcome this, the authors have employed genetically engineered mouse hepatoma cells, Hepa/8F5, wherein expression of liver enriched transcription factors is induced by doxycycline leading to increased functionality. Further enhancement in functionality is achieved by spheroid culture in a previously developed 3D cell culture platform. Cells are seeded in presence of temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide--co-gelatin) cryogel scaffold based high throughput platform. Cells seeded in presence of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and induced with doxycycline exhibited highest functionalities. There is an increase of ≈26, 36, and 39% in albumin secretion, ammonia removal, and CYP3A4 activity, respectively. Morphological analysis showed arrest in cell proliferation and enlarged nucleus in presence of doxycyline and spheroid formation in presence of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Drug induced liver toxicity studies revealed that cells induced with doxycycline are resistive to tamoxifen but sensitive to acetaminophen whereas, cultures initiated in presence of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) are resistive to both the drugs which is indicative of diffusional barrier of the spheroids. The authors conclude that Hepa/8F5 cells show enhanced functionality in cryogel based spheroid culture platform which can be successfully used for high throughput screening of hepatic toxicity in vitro. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of carbon-based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, in human glioblastoma and hepatoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Ewa Zakrzewska

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests.

  5. Analysis of the Cytotoxicity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles, Diamond and Graphite, in Human Glioblastoma and Hepatoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Pijanowska, Dorota Genowefa; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests. PMID:25816103

  6. Pokemon Silencing Leads to Bim-Mediated Anoikis of Human Hepatoma Cell QGY7703

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA. Knockdown of Pokemon alone did not significantly affect the growth and survival of QGY7703 cells but notably enhanced their sensitivity to apoptotic stress due to the presence of chemical agents or cell detachment, thereby inducing anoikis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays. In contrast, ectopic expression of Pokemon in HL7702 cells led to resistance to anoikis. Dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assays illustrated that Pokemon suppressed Bim transcription via direct binding to its promoter. Our results suggest that Pokemon prevents anoikis through the suppression of Bim expression, which facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis. This Pokemon-Bim pathway may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for cancer.

  7. Pokemon silencing leads to Bim-mediated anoikis of human hepatoma cell QGY7703.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Shiying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Knockdown of Pokemon alone did not significantly affect the growth and survival of QGY7703 cells but notably enhanced their sensitivity to apoptotic stress due to the presence of chemical agents or cell detachment, thereby inducing anoikis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays. In contrast, ectopic expression of Pokemon in HL7702 cells led to resistance to anoikis. Dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assays illustrated that Pokemon suppressed Bim transcription via direct binding to its promoter. Our results suggest that Pokemon prevents anoikis through the suppression of Bim expression, which facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis. This Pokemon-Bim pathway may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for cancer.

  8. Effects of Lipofectamine 2000/siRNA complexes on autophagy in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Robert H; Zaro, Jennica L; Ou, Jing-Hsiung James; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2012-05-01

    Lipofectamine 2000 is commonly used for siRNA transfections. However, few studies have examined cellular responses to this delivery system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of siRNA transfection using Lipofectamine 2000 on cellular autophagy. Huh7.5 cells, stably transfected to express GFP-LC3, were treated with Lipofectamine 2000/negative control siRNA (NC siRNA) complexes. At different time points after treatment, cells were lysed and analyzed by immunoblotting and fluorescence spectroscopy. Cells were also observed using confocal microscopy. An increase of endogenous LC3 lipidation, GFP-LC3 fluorescence, and autophagosomal puncta was observed in cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000/NC siRNA complexes. The kinetics of the increase of GFP-LC3 fluorescence correlated with the concentration of NC siRNA transfected, where 50, 100, and 200 nM NC siRNA caused a significant increase at 72, 48, and 24 h, respectively, after transfection. A similar effect on the GFP-LC3 signal was also observed for cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000 complexed with two other NC siRNAs. The effects were also confirmed in another hepatoma cell line, H4IIE, by immunoblotting. Lipofectamine 2000-mediated transport of NC siRNAs led to an increase of autophagosomes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thus, this effect on cells should be taken into consideration when using this approach for intracellular delivery of siRNA.

  9. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus and induction of hepatoma cell apoptosis by ASGPR-directed delivery of shRNAs.

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    Jingwei Ma

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a worldwide liver disease and nearly 25% of chronic HBV infections terminate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Currently, there is no effective therapy to inhibit HBV replication and to eliminate hepatoma cells, making it highly desired to develop novel therapies for these two stages of the HBV-caused detrimental disease. Recently, short hairpin RNA (shRNA has emerged as a potential therapy for virus-infected disease and cancer. Here, we have generated a shRNA, pGenesil-siHBV4, which effectively inhibits HBV replication in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.2.15. The inhibitory effects of pGenesil-siHBV4 are manifested by the decrease of both the HBV mRNA level and the protein levels of the secreted HBV surface antigen (HBsAg and HBV e antigen (HBeAg, and by the reduction of secreted HBV DNA. Using mouse hydrodynamic tail vein injection, we demonstrate that pGenesil-siHBV4 is effective in inhibiting HBV replication in vivo. Because survivin plays a key role in cancer cell escape from apoptosis, we further generated pGenesil-siSurvivin, a survivin-silencing shRNA, and showed its effect of triggering apoptosis of HBV-containing hepatoma cells. To develop targeted shRNA therapy, we have identified that as a specific binder of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR, jetPEI-Hepatocyte delivers pGenesil-siHBV4 and pGenesil-siSurvivin specifically to hepatocytes, not other types of cells. Finally, co-transfection of pGenesil-siHBV4 and pGenesil-siSurvivin exerts synergistic effects in inducing hepatoma cell apoptosis, a novel approach to eliminate hepatoma by downregulating survivin via multiple mechanisms. The application of these novel shRNAs with the jetPEI-Hepatocyte targeting strategy demonstrates the proof-of-principle for a promising approach to inhibit HBV replication and eliminate hepatoma cells with high specificity.

  10. T Cells in Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Teruyuki Nakanishi; Yasuhiro Shibasaki; Yuta Matsuura

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-ho...

  11. Fish germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, HongYan; Li, MingYou; Gui, JianFang; Hong, YunHan

    2010-04-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplantation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  12. T Cells in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-09-25

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4⁺ and CD8α⁺ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4⁺ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α⁺, CD4⁺ T-cells and sIgM⁺ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells.

  13. [Comparative investigation of antigens associated with plasmatic membranes of rat hepatoma and myogenic cells using anti-kidney serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teriukova, N P; Desheva, A S; Blinova, G I; Mirgorodskaia, O A; Ivanov, V A

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of antigenic diversion of tumor cells resulting from the expression of heteroorganic antigens has been continued. Tumor-associated heteroorganic antigens with mol. weight 200-210 kDa (identified before as laminin), 105-130, 75-80 and 43 kDa were detected by anti-kidney serum in fractions of plasmatic membranes of cells of rat ascitic Zajdela hepatoma and cultured HTC hepatoma; the antigen 43 kDa was isolated on immunosorbent and identified by mass spectrometry as beta-actin. Anti-kidney serum revealed laminin in fractions of plasmatic membranes of cultured L8 and L6J1 myoblasts, and L6J1 myotubes; apparently, synthesis of laminin by hepatoma and myogenic cells is not connected with their proliferative activity. Besides, anti-kidney serum detected components 38, 42, 44, 48, 62, 78 and 120 kDa, expression of which on myogenic cells surface might be consequence of active cell proliferation and (or) differentiation.

  14. miR-150-5p inhibits hepatoma cell migration and invasion by targeting MMP14.

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    Tao Li

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite progress in diagnostics and treatment of HCC, its prognosis remains poor because the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatocarcinogenesis are not well understood. In the study, we focused on identifying the role of miRNAs in HCC progression. miRNA microarray was used to analyze the differentially expressed miRNAs, and the results were validated by qPCR. We found that the miR-150-5p expression is down-regulated in HCC tissues compared with pair non-tumor tissues. miR-150-5p expression is also decreased in metastatic cancer tissues compared with pair primary tissues, indicating that miR-150-5p may be involved in HCC metastasis. Functionally, miR-150-5p inhibition significantly promotes hepatoma cell migration and invasion, whereas miR-150-5p overexpression suppresses cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. The matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14 is identified as a new target gene of miR-150-5p. miR-150-5p markedly inhibits MMP14 expression in hepatoma cells, and miR-150-5p expression is negative correlation with MMP14 expression in vivo. More important, re-expression of MMP14 in hepatoma cells partially reverses the effect of miR-150-5p in inhibiting cell invasion.

  15. Divergent pathways for TNF and C(2)-ceramide toxicity in HTC hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autelli, Riccardo; Ullio, Chiara; Prigione, Elisa; Crepaldi, Silvia; Schiavone, Nicola; Brunk, Ulf T; Capaccioli, Sergio; Baccino, Francesco M; Bonelli, Gabriella

    2009-07-01

    We previously showed that, in the rat hepatoma cell line HTC, TNF brings about a non-caspase-dependent, apoptosis-like process requiring NADPH oxidase activity, an iron-mediated pro-oxidant status, and a functional acidic vacuolar compartment. This process may thus involve mechanisms such as autophagy or relocation of lysosomal enzymes, perhaps secondary to the formation of ceramide by acidic sphingomyelinase. Here we investigated whether ceramide formation contributes to the apoptogenic process. HTC cells were found to be sensitive to exogenous ceramide and significantly protected against TNF by desipramine, an inhibitor of lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase. However, Bcl-2 transfection and Bcl-x(L) upregulation by dexamethasone significantly diminished the apoptogenic effect of ceramide but not that of TNF, suggesting that ceramide is not directly involved in TNF toxicity. Moreover, Bcl-x(L) silencing precluded dexamethasone-induced protection against ceramide and, by itself, induced massive death, demonstrating the strict dependence of HTC cells on Bcl-x(L) for survival also under standard culture conditions.

  16. Characterization of pancreastatin receptor and signaling in rat HTC hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margalet, V; González-Yanes, C; Santos-Alvarez, J; Najib, S

    2000-06-02

    Pancreastatin, a chromogranin A-derived peptide widely distributed throughout the neuroendocrine system, has a general inhibitory effect on endocrine secretion and a counterregulatory effect on insulin action. We have recently described the cross-talk of pancreastatin with insulin signaling in rat hepatoma cells (HTC), where it inhibits insulin action and signaling through the serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, thereby impairing tyrosine kinase activity. Here, we have characterized pancreastatin receptors and signaling in HTC cells. The pancreastatin effector systems were studied by determining phospholipase C activity in HTC membranes and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation activity in HTC cells. Binding studies with radiolabeled pancreastatin showed a population of high affinity binding sites, with a B(max) of 8 fmol/mg protein and a K(d) of 0.6 nM. Moreover, we assessed the coupling of the receptor with a G protein system by inhibiting the binding with guanine nucleotide and by measuring the GTP binding to HTC membranes. We found that pancreastatin receptor was coupled with a G alpha(q/11) protein which activates phospholipase C-beta(1) and phospholipase C-beta(3), in addition to MAPK via both beta gamma and alpha(q/11).

  17. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer. PMID:21547056

  18. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  19. Anticancer effects of pyocyanin on HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Wu, Y; Alfred, A T; Wei, P; Yang, S

    2014-06-01

    Pyocyanin, a major virulence factor produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, displays redox activity and damaging effects on mammalian cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of pyocyanin on the proliferation of HepG2 tumour cells. Interestingly, pyocyanin significantly inhibited cell proliferation and triggered the production of large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby upregulating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Additionally, pyocyanin treatment significantly depleted reduced glutathione (GSH) and decreased the GSH/oxidized GSH (GSSG) ratio. These results supported that pyocyanin-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells was mediated by acute ROS production and subsequent oxidative stress. SA-β-Gal, acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double staining, caspase-3 measurements and comet assay results revealed that cell death induced by pyocyanin involved DNA damage and activation of caspase-3, accelerating cell senescence and apoptosis. Thus, our data provided insights into the mechanisms underlying pyocyanin-induced cytotoxicity and may lead to better treatment strategies for cancer. Pyocyanin is a redox-active phenazine toxin. Here, we investigated the ability of pyocyanin to inhibit cancer-related phenotypes in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Our results indicated that pyocyanin accelerated cellular senescence and apoptosis and induced oxidative stress-associated DNA damage in HepG2 cells. The potential anticancer applications of pyocyanin should be investigated further in clinical studies. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Genotoxic effect of 6-gingerol on human hepatoma G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhong, Laifu; Jiang, Liping; Geng, Chengyan; Cao, Jun; Sun, Xiance; Ma, Yufang

    2010-04-15

    6-gingerol, a major component of ginger, has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, some dietary phytochemicals possess pro-oxidant effects as well, and the risk of adverse effects is increased by raising the use of doses. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of 6-gingerol and to clarify the mechanisms, using human hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells. Exposure of the cells to 6-gingerol caused significant increase of DNA migration in comet assay, increase of micronuclei frequencies at high concentrations at 20-80 and 20-40 microM, respectively. These results indicate that 6-gingerol caused DNA strand breaks and chromosome damage. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we tested lysosomal membrane stability, mitochondrial membrane potential, the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, the level of oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by immunocytochemical analysis on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Results showed that lysosomal membrane stability was reduced after treatment by 6-gingerol (20-80 microM) for 40 min, mitochondrial membrane potential decreased after treatment for 50 min, GSH and ROS levels were significantly increased after treatment for 60 min. These suggest 6-gingerol induces genotoxicity probably by oxidative stress; lysosomal and mitochondrial damage were observed in 6-gingerol-induced toxicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic Flux Distribution during Defatting of Steatotic Human Hepatoma (HepG2 Cells

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    Gabriel Yarmush

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods that rapidly decrease fat in steatotic hepatocytes may be helpful to recover severely fatty livers for transplantation. Defatting kinetics are highly dependent upon the extracellular medium composition; however, the pathways involved are poorly understood. Steatosis was induced in human hepatoma cells (HepG2 by exposure to high levels of free fatty acids, followed by defatting using plain medium containing no fatty acids, or medium supplemented with a cocktail of defatting agents previously described before. We measured the levels of 28 extracellular metabolites and intracellular triglyceride, and fed the data into a steady-state mass balance model to estimate strictly intracellular fluxes. We found that during defatting, triglyceride content decreased, while beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the urea cycle increased. These fluxes were augmented by defatting agents, and even more so by hyperoxic conditions. In all defatting conditions, the rate of extracellular glucose uptake/release was very small compared to the internal supply from glycogenolysis, and glycolysis remained highly active. Thus, in steatotic HepG2 cells, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation may co-exist. Together, these pathways generate reducing equivalents that are supplied to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

  2. Proteomic analysis of human hepatoma cells expressing methionine adenosyltransferase I/III☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Paul C.; Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Bigaud, Emilie; Serna, Antonio; Renández-Alcoceba, Rubén; Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, José M.; Prieto, Jesús; Corrales, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase I/III (MATI/III) synthesizes S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in quiescent hepatocytes. Its activity is compromised in most liver diseases including liver cancer. Since SAM is a driver of hepatocytes fate we have studied the effect of re-expressing MAT1A in hepatoma Huh7 cells using proteomics. MAT1A expression leads to SAM levels close to those found in quiescent hepatocytes and induced apoptosis. Normalization of intracellular SAM induced alteration of 128 proteins identified by 2D-DIGE and gel-free methods, accounting for deregulation of central cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation and survival. Human Dead-box protein 3 (DDX3X), a RNA helicase regulating RNA splicing, export, transcription and translation was down-regulated upon MAT1A expression. Our data support the regulation of DDX3X levels by SAM in a concentration and time dependent manner. Consistently, DDX3X arises as a primary target of SAM and a principal intermediate of its antitumoral effect. Based on the parallelism between SAM and DDX3X along the progression of liver disorders, and the results reported here, it is tempting to suggest that reduced SAM in the liver may lead to DDX3X up-regulation contributing to the pathogenic process and that replenishment of SAM might prove to have beneficial effects, at least in part by reducing DDX3X levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. PMID:22270009

  3. Thyroid hormone receptor inhibits hepatoma cell migration through transcriptional activation of Dickkopf 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Liao, Chen-Hsin [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Ya-Hui [Medical Research Central, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Sheng-Ming; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Liao, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, Cheng-Yi; Chung, I-Hsiao; Wu, Tzu-I [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Wei-Jan [First Cardiovascular Division, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Kwang-Huei, E-mail: khlin@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •T{sub 3} affects DKK4 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2-TR cells. •Regulation of DKK4 by T{sub 3} is at transcriptional level. •DKK4 overexpression suppresses hepatoma cell metastasis. -- Abstract: Triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) is a potent form of thyroid hormone mediates several physiological processes including cellular growth, development, and differentiation via binding to the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). Recent studies have demonstrated critical roles of T{sub 3}/TR in tumor progression. Moreover, long-term hypothyroidism appears to be associated with the incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), independent of other major HCC risk factors. Dickkopf (DKK) 4, a secreted protein that antagonizes the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is induced by T{sub 3} at both mRNA and protein levels in HCC cell lines. However, the mechanism underlying T{sub 3}-mediated regulation of DKK4 remains unknown. In the present study, the 5′ promoter region of DKK4 was serially deleted, and the reporter assay performed to localize the T{sub 3} response element (TRE). Consequently, we identified an atypical direct repeat TRE between nucleotides −1645 and −1629 conferring T{sub 3} responsiveness to the DKK4 gene. This region was further validated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Stable DKK4 overexpression in SK-Hep-1 cells suppressed cell invasion and metastatic potential, both in vivo andin vitro, via reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression. Our findings collectively suggest that DKK4 upregulated by T{sub 3}/TR antagonizes the Wnt signal pathway to suppress tumor cell progression, thus providing new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid hormone activity in HCC.

  4. Hybrid hepatitis B virus-host transcripts in a human hepatoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, J; Rutter, W J

    1985-01-01

    The human PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cell line (the Alexander cell) contains at least seven copies of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA integrated in its genome; but it selectively expresses the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) gene and perhaps low levels of the core gene. We have prepared a cDNA library from PLC/PRF/5 cell poly(A)+ RNA and isolated clones containing HBV sequences. Hybridization experiments show that the great majority of HBV-specific RNAs in this cell line contain HBsAg coding sequences and are presumably derived from the HBsAg gene. Primer extension experiments show that these HBsAg mRNAs are, however, derived from multiple initiation sites in the HBsAg gene and involve two promoters: one at the 5' end of the gene that can produce a protein of 45 kDa, and one located in the pre-S region that can produce two proteins of 31 kDa and the mature HBsAg, 25 kDa, respectively. The HBV RNAs are hybrid RNA species that contain HBV sequences at their 5' ends and host DNA sequences at the 3' ends. The great majority of these hybrid RNAs are transcribed from two closely related yet distinct HBV integrants. The viral-host sequences of these two related hybrid RNAs suggest that the related HBV sequences were generated from a parental fragment via duplication, translocation, and mutagenesis. These processes may play a role in HBV-related oncogenesis. Images PMID:2982146

  5. Synergistic effect of intervention of glypican-3 gene transcription combined with antitumor drugs in inhibiting hepatoma cell proliferation

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    YANG Jie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the inhibitory effect of intervention of glypican-3 (GPC3 gene transcription combined with antitumor drugs on hepatoma cell proliferation. MethodsFour types of GPC3-shRNA plasmids were established and transfected into HepG2 hepatoma cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of GPC3 to analyze its association with hepatoma cell proliferation and apoptosis. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between any two groups, and a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups. ResultsAmong these four plasmids, shRNA1 had a transfection efficiency of >85% in the transfection of HepG2 cells and a silence efficiency of 89.3% at the mRNA level, and the protein expression of GPC3 was significantly inhibited(P<0.01). At 72 hours, the GPC3-shRNA1 co-intervention group had an HepG2 cell inhibition rate of 71.1%, significantly different from that in the negative group (t=18.092, P<0.001, an inhibition rate of migration of 89.1%, significantly lower than that in the negative group (t=8.326, P<0.001, and inhibition rates of HepG2 cell movement and invasion of 53.6% and 60.1%, which were significantly different from those in the negative group (t=52.400 and 48.245, both P<0.001. The GPC3-shRNA1 co-intervention group had a β-catenin mRNA inhibition rate of 46.9% and a Gli1 mRNA upregulation rate of 7.4%, significantly different from those in the negative group (t=30.108 and -3.551, P<0.001 and P=0.009. At 24 hours, 10 μmol/L sorafenib combined with shRNA1 had an inhibition rate of tumor cells of 52.6% and 100 μmol/L sorafenib combined with shRNA1 had an inhibition rate of tumor cells of 79.5%, which were significantly different from that in the control group (t=23.314 and 50.352, both P<0.001. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of sorafenib, rapamycin, and erlotinib for HepG2 were 4.67±1

  6. Tse-2: a trans-dominant extinguisher of albumin gene expression in hepatoma hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A C; Fournier, R E

    1989-09-01

    Serum albumin gene expression is generally extinguished in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. To define the genetic basis of this phenomenon, we screened a panel of hepatoma hybrids retaining different fibroblast chromosomes for albumin production by immunofluorescence. We report that albumin extinction in these clones was strictly correlated with the retention of mouse chromosome 1. Furthermore, albumin was systematically reexpressed in chromosome 1 segregants. These data define a tissue-specific extinguisher locus (Tse-2) that affects albumin gene expression in trans. Two other liver genes, those encoding liver alcohol dehydrogenase and liv-10, were coordinately extinguished with albumin in monochromosomal hybrids that specifically retained mouse chromosome 1.

  7. Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and a Novel Curcumin Derivative on Notch1 Signaling in Hepatoma Cell Line

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    Mohamed Talaat Abdel Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and a novel curcumin derivative (NCD on HepG2 cells (hepatoma cell line and to investigate their effect on Notch1 signaling pathway target genes. HepG2 cells were divided into HepG2 control group, HepG2 cells treated with MSC conditioned medium (MSCs CM, HepG2 cells treated with a NCD, HepG2 cells treated with MSCs CM and NCD, and HepG2 cells treated with MSCs CM (CM of MSCs pretreated with a NCD. Expression of Notch1, Hes1, VEGF, and cyclin D1 was assessed by real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in HepG2 cells. In addition, HepG2 proliferation assay was performed in all groups. Notch1 and its target genes (Hes1 and cyclin D1 were downregulated in all treated groups with more suppressive effect in the groups treated with both MSCs and NCD. Also, treated HepG2 cells showed significant decrease in cell proliferation rate. These data suggest that modulation of Notch1 signaling pathway by MSCs and/or NCD can be considered as a therapeutic target in HCC.

  8. Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerapreeyakul Natthida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2, and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P = 0.000. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 μg/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7 ± 12.3 μg/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79 ± 7.62 μg/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro.

  9. An occult hepatitis B-derived hepatoma cell line carrying persistent nuclear viral DNA and permissive for exogenous hepatitis B virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lang Lin

    Full Text Available Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is defined as persistence of HBV DNA in liver tissues, with or without detectability of HBV DNA in the serum, in individuals with negative serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting its important clinical roles, the molecular and virological basis of occult hepatitis B remains unclear. In an attempt to establish new hepatoma cell lines, we achieved a new cell line derived from a hepatoma patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV and occult HBV infection. Characterization of this cell line revealed previously unrecognized properties. Two novel human hepatoma cell lines were established. Hep-Y1 was derived from a male hepatoma patient negative for HCV and HBV infection. Hep-Y2 was derived from a female hepatoma patient suffering from chronic HCV and occult HBV infection. Morphological, cytogenetic and functional studies were performed. Permissiveness to HBV infection was assessed. Both cell lines showed typical hepatocyte-like morphology under phase-contrast and electron microscopy and expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, and aldolase B. Cytogenetic analysis revealed extensive chromosomal anomalies. An extrachromosomal form of HBV DNA persisted in the nuclear fraction of Hep-Y2 cells, while no HBsAg was detected in the medium. After treated with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide, both cell lines were permissive for exogenous HBV infection with transient elevation of the replication intermediates in the cytosol with detectable viral antigens by immunoflurescence analysis. In conclusions, we established two new hepatoma cell lines including one from occult HBV infection (Hep-Y2. Both cell lines were permissive for HBV infection. Additionally, Hep-Y2 cells carried persistent extrachromosomal HBV DNA in the nuclei. This cell line could serve as a useful tool to establish the molecular and virological basis of occult HBV infection.

  10. Downregulation of miR-210 expression inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei, E-mail: detachedy@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Sun, Ting [Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cao, Jianping; Liu, Fenju [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Tian, Ye [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhu, Wei [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2012-05-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and an important contributor to tumor radioresistance. miR-210 is the most consistently and robustly induced microRNA under hypoxia in different types of tumor cells and normal cells. In the present study, to explore the feasibility of miR-210 as an effective therapeutic target, lentiviral-mediated anti-sense miR-210 gene transfer technique was employed to downregulate miR-210 expression in hypoxic human hepatoma SMMC-7721, HepG2 and HuH7 cells, and phenotypic changes of which were analyzed. Hypoxia led to an increased hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and miR-210 expression and cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase in all cell lines. miR-210 downregulation significantly suppressed cell viability, induced cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, increased apoptotic rate and enhanced radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Moreover, apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 3 (AIFM3) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. AIFM3 downregulation by siRNA attenuated radiation induced apoptosis in miR-210 downregulated hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-210 might be a potential therapeutic target and specific inhibition of miR-210 expression in combination with radiotherapy might be expected to exert strong anti-tumor effect on hypoxic human hepatoma cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 downregulation radiosensitized hypoxic hepatoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIFM3 was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 might be a therapeutic target to hypoxic hepatoma.

  11. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Kuo Liu,1 Kuan-Hsing Chen,2 Yann-Lii Leu,3,4 Tzong-Der Way,5 Ling-Wei Wang,6,7 Yu-Jen Chen,8,9,* Yu-Ming Liu6–8,* 1Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 2Kidney Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, School of Medicine, 3Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, 4Chinese Herbal Medicine Research Team, Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 6Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 7National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 8School of Medicine, Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae, a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu's stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed

  12. Elimination of Cancer Stem-Like “Side Population” Cells in Hepatoma Cell Lines by Chinese Herbal Mixture “Tien-Hsien Liquid”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jung Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing pieces of evidence suggesting that the recurrence of cancer may result from a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of Chinese herbal mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL on the cancer stem-like side population (SP cells isolated from human hepatoma cells. After sorting and subsequent culture, the SP cells from Huh7 hepatoma cells appear to have higher clonogenicity and mRNA expressions of stemness genes such as SMO, ABCG2, CD133, β-catenin, and Oct-4 than those of non-SP cells. At dose of 2 mg/mL, THL reduced the proportion of SP cells in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells from 1.33% to 0.49%, 1.55% to 0.43%, and 1.69% to 0.27%, respectively. The viability and colony formation of Huh7 SP cells were effectively suppressed by THL dose-dependently, accompanied with the inhibition of stemness genes, e.g., ABCG2, CD133, and SMO. The tumorigenicity of THL-treated Huh7 SP cells in NOD/SCID mice was also diminished. Moreover, combination with THL could synergize the effect of doxorubicin against Huh7 SP cells. Our data indicate that THL may act as a cancer stem cell targeting therapeutics and be regarded as complementary and integrative medicine in the treatment of hepatoma.

  13. Degradable and biocompatible nanoparticles decorated with cyclic RGD peptide for efficient drug delivery to hepatoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyer, Pascal; Bedhouche, Wahib; Huang, Zhi Wei; Cammas-Marion, Sandrine

    2013-10-01

    Amphiphilic derivatives of poly(benzyl malate) were synthesized and characterized with the aim of being used as degradable and biocompatible building blocks for the design of functional nanoparticles (NPs). An anti-cancer model drug, doxorubicin, has been successfully encapsulated into the prepared NPs and its release profile has been evaluated in water and in culture medium. NPs bearing biotin molecules were prepared either for site-specific drug delivery via the targeting of biotin receptors overexpressed on the surface of several cancer cells, or for grafting biotinylated cyclic RGD peptide onto their surface using the strong and highly specific interactions between biotin and the streptavidin protein. We have shown that this binding did not affect dramatically the physico-chemical properties of the corresponding NPs. Cyclic RGD grafted fluorescent NPs were more efficiently uptaken by the HepaRG hepatoma cells than biotinylated fluorescent NPs. Furthermore, the targeting of HepaRG hepatoma cells with NPs bearing cyclic RGD was very efficient and much weaker for HeLa and HT29 cell lines confirming that cyclic RGD is a suitable targeting agent for liver cells. Our results also provide a new mean for rapid screening of short hepatotropic peptides in order to design NPs showing specific liver targeting properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Purification from a human hepatoma cell line of a basic fibroblast growth factor-like molecule that stimulates capillary endothelial cell plasminogen activator production, DNA synthesis, and migration.

    OpenAIRE

    Presta, M; Moscatelli, D; Joseph-Silverstein, J; Rifkin, D B

    1986-01-01

    A 17,500-dalton protein which stimulates plasminogen activator production in cultured bovine capillary endothelial cells has been purified from a SK-Hep-1 human hepatoma cell lysate by using heparin affinity chromatography and fast protein-liquid ion exchange chromatography. The purified molecule stimulated plasminogen activator production in a dose-dependent manner between 0.01 and 1 ng/ml. It also stimulated collagenase synthesis, DNA synthesis, and motility in capillary endothelial cells i...

  15. Antiproliferative and Anti-Invasive Effect of Piceatannol, a Polyphenol Present in Grapes and Wine, against Hepatoma AH109A Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Kita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Piceatannol is a stilbenoid, a metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine. Piceatannol and sera from rats orally given piceatannol were found to dose-dependently suppress both the proliferation and invasion of AH109A hepatoma cells in culture. Its antiproliferative effect was based on cell cycle arrest at lower concentration (25~50 μM and on apoptosis induction at higher concentration (100 μM. Piceatannol suppressed reactive oxygen species-potentiated invasive capacity by scavenging the intracellular reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that piceatannol, unlike resveratrol, has a potential to suppress the hepatoma proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. They also suggest that the antioxidative property of piceatannol, like resveratrol, may be involved in its anti-invasive action. Subsequently, piceatannol was found to suppress the growth of solid tumor and metastasis in hepatoma-bearing rats. Thus, piceatannol may be a useful anticancer natural product.

  16. Kinetic imaging of NPC1L1 and sterol trafficking between plasma membrane and recycling endosomes in hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig Petersen, Nicole; Færgeman, Nils J; Yu, Liqing

    2008-01-01

    fluorescent protein (NPC1L1-EGFP) and cholesterol analogues in hepatoma cells. At steady state about 42% of NPC1L1 resided in the transferrin (Tf) positive, sterol enriched endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), while time-lapse microscopy demonstrated NPC1L1 traffic between plasma membrane and ERC....... Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed rapid recovery (half-time t1/2 ~2.5 min) of about 35% of NPC1L1 in the ERC probably replenished from peripheral sorting endosomes. Acute cholesterol depletion blocked internalization of NPC1L1-EGFP and Tf and stimulated recycling of NPC1L1-EGFP from...... the ERC to the plasma membrane. NPC1L1-EGFP facilitated transport of fluorescent sterols from the plasma membrane to the ERC. Insulin induced translocation of vesicles containing NPC1L1 and fluorescent sterol from the ERC to the cell membrane. Upon polarization of hepatoma cells NPC1L1 resided almost...

  17. Propane 2-nitronate is more rapidly denitrified and is more genotoxic than 2-nitropropane in cultured rat hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalke, C; Andrae, U

    1992-07-01

    We have investigated the importance of nitronate formation from 2-nitropropane (2-NP) for the oxidative metabolism and the genotoxicity of 2-NP in 2sFou rat hepatoma cells. Treatment of the cells with 2-NP for up to 3 h resulted in the time-dependent appearance of nitrite in the culture medium and in a weak induction of DNA repair synthesis. Both nitrite formation and repair induction were markedly enhanced in cells exposed to the anionic form of 2-NP, propane 2-nitronate. These observations suggest that propane 2-nitronate, rather than 2-NP itself, is oxidized by the liver cells to yield a DNA-damaging product. The results also indicate that the nitro/nitronate equilibration in intact liver cells is slow, suggesting that nitronate formation represents the rate-limiting step in the metabolic activation of 2-NP.

  18. Cytotoxic effects of procyanidins from Castanea mollissima Bl. shell on human hepatoma G2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Ke, J; Shao, T; Li, J; Duan, Y; He, Y; Zhang, C; Chen, G; Sun, G; Sun, X

    2014-02-01

    Significant cytotoxic effects of procynadins from chestnut (Castanea mollissima Bl.) shell (CSPC) on human hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells were found in vitro. CSPC could inbibit HepG2 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (100-400 μg/mL), arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, induce apoptosis and trigger necrosis of HepG2. Proapoptotic effect of CSPC was evidenced by nuclear condensation, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with CSPC caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and stimulated reactive oxidative species (ROS) generation. These results suggested CSPC could trigger apoptosis and necrotic cell death in HepG2 cell, which might be associated with ROS generation through the mitochondria-dependent signaling way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant HBxΔ127 promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fabao [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); You, Xiaona [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Chi, Xiumei [Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Wang, Tao [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ye, Lihong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Niu, Junqi, E-mail: junqiniu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Relative to wild type HBx, HBX mutant HBxΔ127 strongly enhances cell proliferation. • Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 remarkably up-regulates miR-215 in hepatoma cells. • HBxΔ127-elevated miR-215 promotes cell proliferation via targeting PTPRT mRNA. - Abstract: The mutant of virus is a frequent event. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a vital role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the identification of potent mutant of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is significant. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene (termed HBxΔ127). Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhanced cell proliferation and migration in HCC. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism of HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells. Our data showed that both wild type HBx and HBxΔ127 could increase the expression of miR-215 in hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. However, HBxΔ127 was able to significantly increase miR-215 expression relative to wild type HBx in the cells. We identified that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T (PTPRT) was one of the target genes of miR-215 through targeting 3′UTR of PTPRT mRNA. In function, miR-215 was able to promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Meanwhile anti-miR-215 could partially abolish the enhancement of cell proliferation mediated by HBxΔ127 in vitro. Knockdown of PTPRT by siRNA could distinctly suppress the decrease of cell proliferation mediated by anti-miR-215 in HepG2-XΔ127/H7402-XΔ127 cells. Moreover, we found that anti-miR-215 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Collectively, relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhances proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of HBx mutant HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  20. The X protein of hepatitis B virus activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing melanoma inhibitory activity 2 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yilin; Yang, Yang; Cai, Yanyan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yingle; Zhu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wu, Jianguo, E-mail: jwu@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that HBV represses MIA2 gene expression both invitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The X protein of HBV plays a major role in such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activates cell growth and proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates cell proliferation, over-expression of MIA2 impaired such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing MIA2 expression. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths globally. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for over 75% of all HCC cases; however, the molecular pathogenesis of HCC is not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of the newly identified gene melanoma inhibitory activity 2 (MIA2) was reduced by HBV infection invitro and invivo, and that HBV X protein (HBx) plays a major role in this regulation. Recent studies have revealed that MIA2 is a potential tumor suppressor, and that, in most HCCs, MIA2 expression is down-regulated or lost. We found that the knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activated cell growth and proliferation, suggesting that MIA2 inhibits HCC cell growth and proliferation. In addition, the over-expression of HBx alone induced cell proliferation, whereas MIA2 over-expression impaired the HBx-mediated induction of proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that HBx activates hepatoma cell growth and proliferation through repression of the potential tumor suppressor MIA2.

  1. Synergistic effect of all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide on growth inhibition and apoptosis in human hepatoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Le-Min; Li, Bao-Xin; Xiao, Jian-Bing; Lin, Dan-Hua; Yang, Bao-Feng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-induced apoptosis of human hepatoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer cells in an attempt to find a better combination therapy for solid tumors.

  2. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide exerts proliferation/anti-apoptosis/angiogenesis/migration effects via amplifying the activation of NF-κB pathway in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Yulan; Pan, Wanying; Hu, Fen; Wu, Hongfu; Feng, Jianqiang; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jingfu

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) takes part in a diverse range of intracellular pathways and hss physical and pathological properties in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of H2S on cancer are controversial and remain unclear. The present study investigates the effects of H2S on liver cancer progression via activating NF-κB pathway in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells. PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells were pretreated with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h. The expression levels of CSE, CBS, phosphosphorylate (p)-NF-κB p65, caspase-3, COX-2, p-IκB and MMP-2 were measured by western blot assay. Cell viability was detected by cell counter kit 8 (CCK-8). Apoptotic cells were observed by Hoechst 33258 staining assay. The production level of H2S in cell culture medium was measured by using the sulfur-sensitive electrode method. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the production of H2S was dramatically increased in the PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells, compared with human LO2 hepatocyte cells group, along with the overexpression levels of CSE and CBS. Treatment of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h markedly increased the expression levels of CSE, CBS, p-IκB and NF-κB activation, leading to COX-2 and MMP-2 overexpression, and decreased caspase-3 production, as well as increased cell viability and decreased number of apoptotic cells. Otherwise, the production level of H2S and VEGF were also significantly increased. Furthermore, co-treatment of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS and 200 µmol/l PDTC for 24 h significantly overturned these indexes. The findings of the present study provide evidence that the NF-κB is involved in the NaHS-induced cell proliferation, anti-apoptisis, angiogenesis, and migration in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells, and that the PDTC against the NaHS-induced effects were by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.

  3. Oleoylethanolamide, a natural ligand for PPAR-alpha, inhibits insulin receptor signalling in HTC rat hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Ubago, María; García-Oya, Inmaculada; Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Quintana-Portillo, Rocio; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; González-Yanes, Carmen; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2009-08-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid mediator belonging to the fatty acid ethanolamides family. It is produced by intestine and adipose tissue. It inhibits food intake and body weight gain, and has hypolipemiant action in vivo, as well as a lipolytic effect in vitro. OEA is a PPAR-alpha agonist, and recently it has been found that OEA is an endogenous ligand of an orphan receptor. Previously, we have shown that OEA inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes, and produces glucose intolerance in rats. In the present work, we have studied another insulin target cell, the hepatocyte using a rat hepatoma cell line (HTC), and we have studied the cross-talk of OEA signalling with metabolic and mitotic signal transduction of insulin receptor. OEA dose-dependently activates JNK and p38 MAPK, and inhibits insulin receptor phosphorylation. OEA inhibits insulin receptor activation, blunting insulin signalling in the downstream PI3K pathway, decreasing phosphorylation of PKB and its target GSK-3. OEA also inhibits insulin-dependent MAPK pathway, as assessed by immunoblot of phosphorylated MEK and MAPK. These effects were reversed by blocking JNK or p38 MAPK using pharmacological inhibitors (SP 600125, and SB 203580). Since OEA is an endogenous PPAR-alpha agonist, we investigated whether a pharmacologic agonist (WY 14643) may mimic the OEA effect on insulin receptor signalling. Activation of PPAR-alpha by the pharmacological agonist WY14643 in HTC hepatoma cells is sufficient to inhibit insulin signalling and this effect is also dependent on p38 MAPK but not JNK kinase. In summary, OEA inhibits insulin metabolic and mitogenic signalling by activation of JNK and p38 MAPK via PPAR-alpha.

  4. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus surface gene expression by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in a human hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinis, M; Reinisová, M; Korec, E; Hlozánek, I

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the inhibitory effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides on the expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigens. Human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5 harbors several integrated copies of the HBV genome and produces and secretes hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) to the medium. Synthetic antisense oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to various regions of the surface antigen gene were synthesized and their ability to block its expression was tested. Oligodeoxynucleotides (17- and 21-mers) complementary to regions covering ATG codons of both preS2 and S genes significantly inhibited preS2 and S protein production. Less efficient inhibition was achieved when the oligonucleotide complementary to the inside S gene region was assayed.

  5. Identification of the insulin receptor tyrosine residues undergoing insulin-stimulated phosphorylation in intact rat hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornqvist, H.E.; Gunsalus, J.R.; Nemenoff, R.A.; Frackelton, A.R.; Pierce, M.W.; Avruch,J.

    1988-01-05

    Tyr(P)-containing proteins were purified from extracts of insulin-treated rat hepatoma cells (H4-II-E-C3) by antiphosphotyrosine immunoaffinity chromatography. Two major insulin-stimulated, Tyr(P) proteins were recovered: an M/sub r/ 95,000 protein (identified as the insulin receptor ..beta.. subunit by its immunoprecipitation by a patient-derived anti-insulin receptor serum and several anti-insulin receptor (peptide) anti-sera) and an M/sub r/ 180,000 protein. After purification and tryptic digestion of the M/sub r/ 95,000 protein, tryptic peptides containing Tyr (P) were purified by sequential antiphosphotyrosine immunoaffinity, reversed-phase, anion-exchange chromatography. Approximately 80% of all ..beta.. subunit (/sup 32/P)Tyr(P) resides on two tryptic peptides: 50-60% of (/sup 32/P)Tyr(P) is found on the tryptic peptide Asp-Ile-Try-Glu-Thr-Asp-Try-Try-Arg from the tyrosine kinase domain. A second tryptic peptide is located near the carboxyl terminus; this contains 20-30% of ..beta.. subunit (/sup 32/P)Tyr(P) and is identified primarily in a double phosphorylated form. In a summary, the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in intact rat hepatoma cells involves at least 6 of the 13 tyrosine residues located on the ..beta.. subunit intracellular extension. These tyrosines are clustered in several domains in a distribution virtually identical to that previously found for partially purified human insulin receptor autophosphorylated in vitro in the presence of insulin.

  6. The role of transferrin receptor 1 and 2 in transferrin-bound iron uptake in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Carly E; Thorstensen, Ketil; Chua, Anita C G; Graham, Ross M; Leedman, Peter; Olynyk, John K; Trinder, Debbie

    2009-12-01

    Transferrin receptor (TFR) 1 and 2 are expressed in the liver; TFR1 levels are regulated by cellular iron levels while TFR2 levels are regulated by transferrin saturation. The aims of this study were to 1) determine the relative importance of TFR1 and TFR2 in transferrin-bound iron (TBI) uptake by HuH7 human hepatoma cells and 2) characterize the role of metal-transferrin complexes in the regulation of these receptors. TFR expression was altered by 1) incubation with metal-transferrin (Tf) complexes, 2) TFR1 and TFR2 small interfering RNA knockdown, and 3) transfection with a human TFR2 plasmid. TBI uptake was measured using (59)Fe-(125)I-labeled Tf and mRNA and protein expression by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Fe(2)Tf, Co(2)Tf, and Mn(2)Tf increased TFR2 protein expression, indicating that the upregulation was not specifically regulated by iron-transferrin but also other metal-transferrins. In addition, Co(2)Tf and Mn(2)Tf upregulated TFR1, reduced ferritin, and increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein expression, suggesting that TFR1 upregulation was due to a combination of iron deficiency and chemical hypoxia. TBI uptake correlated with changes in TFR1 but not TFR2 expression. TFR1 knockdown reduced iron uptake by 80% while TFR2 knockdown did not affect uptake. At 5 microM transferrin, iron uptake was not affected by combined TFR1 and TFR2 knockdown. Transfection with a hTFR2 plasmid increased TFR2 protein expression, causing a 15-20% increase in iron uptake and ferritin levels. This shows for the first time that TFR-mediated TBI uptake is mediated primarily via TFR1 but not TFR2 and that a high-capacity TFR-independent pathway exists in hepatoma cells.

  7. A Taiwanese Propolis Derivative Induces Apoptosis through Inducing Endoplasmic Reticular Stress and Activating Transcription Factor-3 in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fat-Moon Suk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activating transcription factor-(ATF- 3, a stress-inducible transcription factor, is rapidly upregulated under various stress conditions and plays an important role in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. NBM-TP-007-GS-002 (GS-002 is a Taiwanese propolin G (PPG derivative. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of GS-002 in human hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells in vitro. First, we found that GS-002 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manners. Several main apoptotic indicators were found in GS-002-treated cells, such as the cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. GS-002 also induced endoplasmic reticular (ER stress as evidenced by increases in ER stress-responsive proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α, phosphorylated protein endoplasmic-reticular-resident kinase (PERK, and ATF-3. The induction of ATF-3 expression was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in GS-002-treated cells. Furthermore, we found that GS-002 induced more cell apoptosis in ATF-3-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that the induction of apoptosis by the propolis derivative, GS-002, is partially mediated through ER stress and ATF-3-dependent pathways, and GS-002 has the potential for development as an antitumor drug.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway contributes to the proliferation of hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yan; Ye, Shuang; Yuan, Dexiao; Zhang, Jianghong; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • Inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway strongly stimulates cellular apoptosis. • Inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway suppresses cell growth by blocking EGFR pathway. • H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway is critical for maintaining the proliferation of hepatoma cells. - Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway has been demonstrated to play vital roles in physiology and pathophysiology. However, its role in tumor cell proliferation remains largely unclear. Here we found that CSE over-expressed in hepatoma HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Inhibition of endogenous H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway drastically decreased the proliferation of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells, and it also enhanced ROS production and mitochondrial disruption, pronounced DNA damage and increased apoptosis. Moreover, this increase of apoptosis was associated with the activation of p53 and p21 accompanied by a decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and up-regulation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activity. In addition, the negative regulation of cell proliferation by inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE system correlated with the blockage of cell mitogenic and survival signal transduction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via down-regulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. These results demonstrate that H{sub 2}S/CSE and its downstream pathway contribute to the proliferation of hepatoma cells, and inhibition of this pathway strongly suppress the excessive growth of hepatoma cells by stimulating mitochondrial apoptosis and suppressing cell growth signal transduction.

  9. Screening of α-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Sensitive Genes in Human Hepatoma Cells (HepG2

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    Yang-Hua Qu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available α-Tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP is a ~32 kDa protein expressed mainly in hepatocytes. The major function of the protein is to bind specifically to α-tocopherol and, together, the complex transfers from late lysosomes to the cell membrane. A previous study indicated that some factors might be required in the transferring process. However, there is little information available about the potential transferring factors. In addition, there remains much to learn about other physiological processes which α-TTP might participate in. Thus, in this study a human α-TTP eukaryotic expression vector was successfully constructed and expressed in human hepatoma cells (HepG2. The sensitive genes related to α-TTP were then screened by microarray technology. Results showed that expression of the vector in HepG2 cells led to the identification of 323 genes showing differential expression. The differentially expressed transcripts were divided into four main categories, including (1 cell inflammation; (2 cell cycle and cell apoptosis; (3 cell signaling and gene regulation; and (4 cellular movement. A few cellular movement related transcripts were selected and verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Expressions of some were significantly increased in α-TTP-expressed group, which indicated that these factors were likely to play a role in the transferring process.

  10. HBx inhibits CYP2E1 gene expression via downregulating HNF4α in human hepatoma cells.

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    Hongming Liu

    Full Text Available CYP2E1, one of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidases located predominantly in liver, plays a key role in metabolism of xenobiotics including ethanol and procarcinogens. Recently, down-expression of CYP2E1 was found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with the majority to be chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV carriers. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HBx may inhibit CYP2E1 gene expression via hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α. By enforced HBx gene expression in cultured HepG2 cells, we determined the effect of HBx on CYP2E1 mRNA and protein expression. With a bioinformatics analysis, we found a consensus HNF-4α binding sequence located on -318 to -294 bp upstream of human CYP2E1 promoter. Using reporter gene assay and site-directed mutagenesis, we have shown that mutation of this site dramatically decreased CYP2E1 promoter activity. By silencing endogenous HNF-4α, we have further validated knockdown of HNF-4α significantly decreased CYP2E1 expression. Ectopic overexpression of HBx in HepG2 cells inhibits HNF-4α expression, and HNF-4α levels were inversely correlated with viral proteins both in HBV-infected HepG2215 cells and as well as HBV positive HCC liver tissues. Moreover, the HBx-induced CYP2E1 reduction could be rescued by ectopic supplement of HNF4α protein expression. Furthermore, human hepatoma cells C34, which do not express CYP2E1, shows enhanced cell growth rate compared to E47, which constitutively expresses CYP2E1. In addition, the significantly altered liver proteins in CYP2E1 knockout mice were detected with proteomics analysis. Together, HBx inhibits human CYP2E1 gene expression via downregulating HNF4α which contributes to promotion of human hepatoma cell growth. The elucidation of a HBx-HNF4α-CYP2E1 pathway provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism underlining chronic HBV infection associated hepatocarcinogenesis.

  11. Utility of liposomes coated with polysaccharide bearing 1-amino-lactose as targeting chemotherapy for AH66 hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Ichinose, K; Ishii, N; Khoji, T; Akiyoshi, K; Moriguchi, N; Sunamoto, J; Kanematsu, T

    2000-01-01

    The cell recognition element is very important for drug delivery systems. We synthesized cholesteryl pullulan (CHP) bearing 1-aminolactose (1-AL) and introduced a saccharide, cholesteryl pullulan bearing 1-aminolactose (1-AL/CHP), to an outer layer of the conventional liposome as a cell recognition element. Lectin recognized the beta-galactose by aggregation of 1-AL/CHP coated liposome (1-AL/CHP liposome). The uptake of this liposome to AH66 rat hepatoma cells was greater than in liposomes without 1-aminolactose in vitro. Furthermore, 1-AL/CHP liposomal adriamycin showed a stronger antitumor effect in comparison with other types of liposomal adriamycin in vitro. When in vivo tumor-targeting efficacy was investigated in AH66 tumor transplanted mice using 3H-liposome, the tumor/serum radioactivity ratio in mice injected with 1-AL/CHP liposome was higher than that of mice injected with other liposomes. These observations suggest that 1-AL is effective as a cell recognition element. As a result, 1-AL/CHP liposome is considered to be a good carrier of anticancer drugs for the active targeting of tumor cells.

  12. Overexpression of thyroid hormone beta1 nuclear receptor is associated with an increased proliferation of human hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, K.; Lin, Y.; McPhie, P. [Chang-Gung College of Medicine and Technology, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taoyuan (Taiwan, Province of China); Cheng, S. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is evaluated the expression of thyroid hormone nuclear receptors (TRs) and their possible roles in the carcinogenesis of human hepatocarcinoma. The expression of TR{beta}1 and TR{alpha} genes was evaluated at both the mRNA and protein levels. The expression of TR{beta}1 and TR{alpha}1 mRNAs is similar to those found in normal liver. However, the expression of TR isoform proteins depends on the cell-type. The expression of TRaplha1 protein is low in all cell lines examined. However, TR{Beta}1 protein is overexpressed in Mahlavu, SK-Hep-1, and HA22T, moderately expressed in J5, J7, and J328 and is very low HepG2, Hep3B, and PLC/PRF/5 cells. The proliferation of cells in which TR{beta}1 is overexpressed is stimulated by the thyroid hormone, 3,3`,5- triiodo-L-thyronine. These results suggest that TR{beta}1, not TR{alpha}1, is probably involved in the prolifaration of hepatoma cells.

  13. Identification of polypeptides whose presence correlates with retention or loss of an albumin extinguisher chromosome in rat hepatoma-mouse L cell fibroblast microcell hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent-Winter, C; Fougère-Deschatrette, C; Weiss, M C

    1994-02-01

    The total protein content of a series of hybrids derived from the fusion of rat hepatoma cells with microcells of mouse L cell fibroblasts has been evaluated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The parental rat hepatoma cells express a large set of hepatic functions, including the production of albumin. In the microcell hybrids containing chromosome M1 (marker 1) as the unique mouse chromosome, it has been previously shown that rat albumin production is selectively extinguished, and that this extinction is no longer observed when chromosome M1 is partially or completely lost. Our current results show that albumin-producing and -nonproducing microcell hybrids have very similar polypeptide patterns, although a few differences are detected and can be classified in coherent categories. One of these polypeptides is a fibroblast protein whose synthesis is maintained and strictly correlated with the albumin extinction phenotype. It thus represents a potential candidate for a negative regulator of albumin expression.

  14. Cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of three types of magnetic nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Wei; Xiaojun, Xu; Ximing, Pu; Zhenqing, Hou; Qiqing, Zhang

    2011-07-01

    The evaluation of the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention in recent years. The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Fe3O4, oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 (OA-Fe3O4), and carbon-coated Fe (C-Fe) nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells and the mechanisms. WST-1 assay demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of three types of MNPs was in a dose-dependent manner. G1 (Fe3O4 and OA-Fe3O4) phase and G2 (C-Fe) phase cell arrests and apoptosis induced by MNPs were detected by flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol. Moreover, apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological and biochemical hallmarks, such as swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae and caspase-3 activation. Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway. The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

  15. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of Smilax glabra Roxb. extract on hepatoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Fei; Gao, Jian-Li; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Zheng, Ying; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2008-01-10

    Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGR) is the root of a traditional Chinese herb, referred to as tu fu ling in Chinese medicine. It is an inexpensive traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for the treatment of liver diseases, and a few studies have indicated that SGR has anti-hepatocarcinogenic and anti-cancer growth activities. In the current study, raw SGR plant was extracted with Accelerate Solvent Extractor, and the molecular mechanism by which S. glabra Roxb. extract (SGRE) has an anti-proliferative effect on the human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, was determined. We showed that SGRE inhibited HepG2 and Hep3B cell growth by causing cell-cycle arrest at either S phase or S/G2 transition and induced apoptosis, as evidenced by a DNA fragmentation assay. SGRE-induced apoptosis by alternation of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The SGRE-mediated mitochondria-caspase dependent apoptotic pathway also involved activation of p38, JNK, and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Isometric compounds of astilbin (flavonoids) and smilagenin (saponin) have been identified as the main chemical constituents in SGRE by HPLC-MS/MS. These results have identified, for the first time, the biological activity of SGRE in HepG2 and Hep3B cells and should lead to further development of SGR for liver disease therapy.

  16. Human papillomavirus type 18 E6 and E7 genes integrate into human hepatoma derived cell line Hep G2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhong Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human papillomaviruses have been linked causally to some human cancers such as cervical carcinoma, but there is very little research addressing the effect of HPV infection on human liver cells. We chose the human hepatoma derived cell line Hep G2 to investigate whether HPV gene integration took place in liver cells as well. METHODS: We applied PCR to detect the possible integration of HPV genes in Hep G2 cells. We also investigated the expression of the integrated E6 and E7 genes by using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Then, we silenced E6 and E7 expression and checked the cell proliferation and apoptosis in Hep G2 cells. Furthermore, we analyzed the potential genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory pathways. Finally, we used in situ hybridization to detect HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. RESULTS: Hep G2 cell line contains integrated HPV 18 DNA, leading to the expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins. Knockdown of the E7 and E6 genes expression reduced cell proliferation, caused the cell cycle arrest at the S phase, and increased apoptosis. The human cell cycle and apoptosis real-time PCR arrays analysis demonstrated E6 and E7-mediated regulation of some genes such as Cyclin H, UBA1, E2F4, p53, p107, FASLG, NOL3 and CASP14. HPV16/18 was found in only 9% (9/100 of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Our investigations showed that HPV 18 E6 and E7 genes can be integrated into the Hep G2, and we observed a low prevalence of HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. However, the precise risk of HPV as causative agent of hepatocellular carcinoma needs further study.

  17. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  18. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Lateef Ezzat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %, β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 % and curcumenol (5.11 %. Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1 was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1. Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract in C. longa rhizomes.

  19. The metabolomic profile of gamma-irradiated human hepatoma and muscle cells reveals metabolic changes consistent with the Warburg effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two human cell lines HepG2 from hepatoma and HMCL-7304 from striated muscle were γ-irradiated with doses between 0 and 4 Gy. Abundant γH2AX foci were observed at 4 Gy after 4 h of culture post-irradiation. Sham-irradiated cells showed no γH2AX foci and therefore no signs of radiation-induced double-strand DNA breaks. Flow cytometry indicated that 41.5% of HepG2 cells were in G2/M and this rose statistically significantly with increasing radiation dose reaching a plateau at ∼47%. Cell lysates from both cell lines were subjected to metabolomic analysis using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS. A total of 46 metabolites could be identified by GCMS in HepG2 cell lysates and 29 in HMCL-7304 lysates, most of which occurred in HepG2 cells. Principal Components Analysis (PCA showed a clear separation of sham, 1, 2 and 4 Gy doses. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA revealed elevations in intracellular lactate, alanine, glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, fructose and 5-oxoproline, which were found by univariate statistics to be highly statistically significantly elevated at both 2 and 4 Gy compared with sham irradiated cells. These findings suggested upregulation of cytosolic aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect, with potential shunting of glucose through aldose reductase in the polyol pathway, and consumption of reduced Glutathione (GSH due to γ-irradiation. In HMCL-7304 myotubes, a putative Warburg effect was also observed only at 2 Gy, albeit a lesser magnitude than in HepG2 cells. It is anticipated that these novel metabolic perturbations following γ-irradiation of cultured cells will lead to a fuller understanding of the mechanisms of tissue damage following ionizing radiation exposure.

  20. Radiosensitization to X-ray radiation by telomerase inhibitor MST-312 in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yali; Sun, Chao; Mao, Aihong; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Hong

    2015-02-15

    Previous studies in malignant cells have shown that irradiation-induced upregulation of telomerase activity, not only protected damaged telomeres, but also contributed to DNA damage repair by chromosomal healing and increased resistance to irradiation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the radiosensitizing effect of telomerase inhibitor MST-312 and the corresponding mechanism in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Cell proliferation, telomerase activity, cell cycle distribution, DNA damage and repair, expression of p53, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell apoptosis were measured with the MTT assay, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, western blots, JC-1 staining, and Hoechst 33258 staining, respectively. MST-312 effectively inhibited telomerase activity and showed relative weak toxicity to HepG2 cells at 4 μM. Compared with irradiation alone, 4 μM MST-312 pretreatment, followed by X-ray treatment, significantly reduced clonogenic potential. Aggravated DNA damage and increased sub-G1 cell fractions were observed. Further investigation found that homologous recombination (HR) repair protein Rad51 foci nuclear formation was blocked, and expression of p53 was elevated. These led to the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and enhanced the apoptotic rate. These data demonstrated that disturbances of telomerase function could enhance the radiosensitivity of HepG2 cells to X-ray irradiation by impairing HR repair processes. In addition, telomerase inhibitor MST-312 may be useful as an adjuvant treatment in combination with irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The dietary flavonoid kaempferol effectively inhibits HIF-1 activity and hepatoma cancer cell viability under hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylonis, Ilias; Lakka, Achillia; Tsakalof, Andreas [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece); Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (BIOMED), 51 Papanastasiou str., 41222 Larissa (Greece); Simos, George, E-mail: simos@med.uth.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece); Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (BIOMED), 51 Papanastasiou str., 41222 Larissa (Greece)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Kaempferol inhibits HIF-1 activity in hepatocarcinoma cells; {yields} Kaempferol causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of HIF-1{alpha} by impairing the MAPK pathway. {yields} Viability of hepatocarcinoma cells under hypoxia is reduced by kaempferol. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1{alpha} subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1{alpha} as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 5.16 {mu}M). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1{alpha} protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC{sub 50} = 4.75 {mu}M). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10 {mu}{Mu} kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10 {mu}M) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent.

  2. Composition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and their apoptosis-inducing effect on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

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    Qian Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is a natural functional component that has a variety of biological activities. The molecular structures and apoptosis-inducing activities on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells of two LBP fractions, LBP-d and LBP-e, were investigated. Results: The results showed that LBP-d and LBP-e both consist of protein, uronic acid, and neutral sugars in different proportions. The structure of LBP was characterized by gas chromatography, periodate oxidation, and Smith degradation. LBP-d was composed of eight kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, while LBP-e was composed of six kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. LBP-d and LBP-e blocked SMMC-7721 cells at the G0/G1 and S phases with an inhibition ratio of 26.70 and 45.13%, respectively, and enhanced the concentration of Ca2 + in the cytoplasm of SMMC-7721. Conclusion: The contents of protein, uronic acid, and galactose in LBP-e were much higher than those in LBP-d, which might responsible for their different bioactivities. The results showed that LBP can be provided as a potential chemotherapeutic agent drug to treat cancer.

  3. Sphingolipid transport to the apical plasma membrane domain in human hepatoma cells is controlled by PKC and PKA activity : A correlation with cell polarity in HepG2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, MMP; Hoekstra, D

    1997-01-01

    The regulation of sphingolipid transport to the bile canalicular apical membrane in the well differentiated HepG2 hepatoma cells was studied. By employing fluorescent lipid analogs, trafficking in a transcytosis-dependent pathway and a transcytosis-independent ('direct') route between the

  4. Hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein over-expressed by baculovirus in hepatoma cells, efficiently encapsidates and transmits the viral RNA to naïve cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Suzanne U

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recombinant baculovirus(vBacORF2 that expressed the full-length ORF2 capsid protein of a genotype 1 strain of hepatitis E virus(HEV was constructed. Transduction of S10-3 human hepatoma cells with this baculovirus led to large amounts of ORF2 protein production in ~50% of the cells as determined by immune fluorescence microscopy. The majority of the ORF2 protein detected by Western blot was 72 kDa, the size expected for the full-length protein. To determine if the exogenously-supplied ORF2 protein could transencapsidate viral genomes, S10-3 cell cultures that had been transfected the previous day with an HEV replicon of genotype 1 that contained the gene for green fluorescent protein(GFP, in place of that for ORF2 protein, were transduced with the vBacORF2 virus. Cell lysates were prepared 5 days later and tested for the ability to deliver the GFP gene to HepG2/C3A cells, another human hepatoma cell line. FACS analysis indicated that lysates from cell cultures receiving only the GFP replicon were incapable of introducing the replicon into the HepG2/C3A cells whereas ~2% of the HepG2/C3A cells that received lysate from cultures that had received both the replicon and the baculovirus produced GFP. Therefore, the baculovirus-expressed ORF2 protein was able to trans-encapsidate the viral replicon and form a particle that could infect naïve HepG2/C3A cells. This ex vivo RNA packaging system should be useful for studying many aspects of HEV molecular biology.

  5. Spheroid organization kinetics of H35 rat hepatoma model cell system on elastin-like polypeptide-polyethyleneimine copolymer substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul A; Weeks, C Andrew; McMurphy, Austin J; Janorkar, Amol V

    2014-03-01

    Though two-dimensional systems have yielded some success in deriving morphological and functional markers of hepatocyte culture, they largely fail to capture the three-dimensional organization, long-term viability, and functionality of the hepatic tissue. We have engineered a system for inducing self-assembly of model H35 rat hepatoma spheroids using a copolymer comprised of biocompatible elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) chemically conjugated to positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI). We have achieved a conjugation ratio of 30 mol %, though our studies analyzing spheroid organization kinetics indicate conjugate ratios of 5 mol % and greater to be optimal for cell culture based on least variability in spheroid sizes and minimum incidence of overgrown aggregates. Furthermore, our ELP-PEI system indicated the potential for influencing ultimate spheroid dimensions, with spheroid size inversely related to polyelectrolyte conjugation. Overall, this study provides a good starting point to investigate functional correlations between spheroid size and functional markers and their future use as an in vitro diagnostic or tissue engineering tool. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  6. Cyclic Mechanical Stretch Up-regulates Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor Expression in Cultured Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ying-Hsien; Chen, Po-Han; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Yo-Chen; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Lee, Po-Huang; Cheng, Cheng-I

    2018-02-21

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during embryogenesis and injury repair of vessel walls. Whether mechanical stimuli modulate HDGF expression remains unknown. This study aimed at investigating whether cyclic mechanical stretch plays a regulatory role in HDGF expression and regenerative cytokine production in aortic SMCs. A SMC cell line was grown on a silicone-based elastomer chamber with extracellular matrix coatings (either type I collagen or fibronectin) and received cyclic and uni-axial mechanical stretches with 10% deformation at frequency 1 Hz. Morphological observation showed that fibronectin coating provided better cell adhesion and spreading and that consecutive 6 hours of cyclic mechanical stretch remarkably induced reorientation and realignment of SMCs. Western blotting detection demonstrated that continuous mechanical stimuli elicited up-regulation of HDGF and PCNA, a cell proliferative marker. Signal kinetic profiling study indicated that cyclic mechanical stretch induced signaling activity in RhoA/ROCK and PI3K/Akt cascades. Kinase inhibition study further showed that blockade of PI3K activity suppressed the stretch-induced TNF-a, whereas RhoA/ROCK inhibition significantly blunted the IL-6 production and HDGF over-expression. Moreover, siRNA-mediated HDGF gene silencing significantly suppressed constitutive expression of IL-6, but not TNF-α, in SMCs. These findings support the role of HDGF in maintaining vascular expression of IL-6, which has been regarded a crucial regenerative factor for acute vascular injury. In conclusion, cyclic mechanical stretch may maintain constitutive expression of HDGF in vascular walls and be regarded an important biophysical regulator in vascular regeneration. ©2018 The Author(s).

  7. Effects of JS-K, a novel anti-cancer nitric oxide prodrug, on gene expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ray; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Huan; Liu, Zhengyun; Liu, Jie; Saavedra, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    JS-K is a novel anticancer nitric oxide (NO) prodrug effective against a variety of cancer cells, including the inhibition of AM-1 hepatoma cell growth in rats. To further evaluate anticancer effects of JS-K, human hepatoma Hep3B cells were treated with JS-K and the compound control JS-43-126 at various concentrations (0-100μM) for 24h, and cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay. The compound control JS-43-126 was not cytotoxic to Hep3B cells at concentrations up to 100μM, while the LC50 for JS-K was about 10μM. To examine the molecular mechanisms of antitumor effects of JS-K, Hep3B cells were treated with 1-10μM of JS-K for 24h, and then subjected to gene expression analysis via real time RT-PCR and protein immunostain via confocal images. JS-K is a GST-α targeting NO prodrug, and decreased immunostaining for GST-α was associated with JS-K treatment. JS-K activated apoptosis pathways in Hep3B cells, including induction of caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and immunostaining for caspase-3 was intensified. The expressions of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were increased by JS-K at both transcript and protein levels. JS-K treatment also increased the expression of differentiation-related genes CD14 and CD11b, and depressed the expression of c-myc in Hep3B cells. Thus, multiple molecular events appear to be associated with anticancer effects of JS-K in human hepatoma Hep3B cells, including activation of genes related to apoptosis and induction of genes involved in antiangiogenesis and tumor cell migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Alpha particle-induced bystander effect is mediated by ROS via a p53-dependent SCO2 pathway in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jitao; He, Mingyuan; Shen, Bo; Yuan, Dexiao; Shao, Chunlin

    2013-12-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for the efficiency of radiotherapy but the underlying role of cellular metabolism is widely unknown. The roles of synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2), a key effector for respiratory chain, and related signaling factors in α-particle-induced bystander damage were currently investigated in a liver cell co-culture system. Human hepatoma cells of HepG2 with wild-type p53 (wtp53) and Hep3B (p53 null) were irradiated with 0.4 Gy of α-particles and co-cultured with non-irradiated normal liver cells HL-7702 for 6 h, then the incidence of micronucleus (MN) in the bystander HL-7702 cells was analyzed. The expressions of total P53, phospho-P53 (p-P53), SCO2, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the irradiated hepatoma cells were detected. In some experiments, the hepatoma cells were respectively treated with p53 siRNA, SCO2 siRNA, or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) before irradiation. Bystander damage in HL-7702 cells was induced by α-irradiated HepG2 cells but not by α-irradiated Hep3B cells, and this bystander effect was diminished when the irradiated HepG2 cells were pretreated with p53 siRNA, SCO2 siRNA, or DMSO. Meanwhile, the expressions of p-P53 protein and SCO2 mRNA, the activity of SCO2 protein, and intracellular ROS were all increased in the irradiated HepG2 cells but not Hep3B cells and these expressions were eliminated by p53 siRNA treatment. Moreover, the radiation-enhanced expressions of SCO2 and ROS were inhibited by SCO2 siRNA. α-particle-induced bystander effect was regulated by p53 and its downstream SCO2 in the irradiated hepatoma cells, and ROS generation could be an early event for triggering this bystander response.

  9. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis eliminates the adaptive response of ascitic hepatoma 22 cells to nedaplatin that targets thioredoxin reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yijun [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Lu, Hongjuan [Productivity Center of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dongxu; Li, Shengrong; Sun, Kang; Wan, Xiaochun [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Taylor, Ethan Will [Department of Nanoscience, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China)

    2012-12-15

    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a target for cancer therapy and the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin involves TrxR inhibition. We hypothesize that the anticancer drug nedaplatin (NDP), an analogue of cisplatin and a second-generation platinum complex, also targets TrxR. Furthermore, we investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of NDP can be enhanced by simultaneous modulation of 1) TrxR, via NDP, and 2) glutathione (GSH), via the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mice bearing ascitic hepatoma 22 (H22) cells were treated with NDP alone or NDP plus BSO. TrxR activity of H22 cells was inhibited by NDP in a dose-dependent manner. A high correlation between the inhibition of TrxR activity at 6 h and the inhibition of ascitic fluid volume at 72 h was established (r = 0.978, p < 0.01). As an adaptive response, the viable ascitic cancer cells after NDP treatment displayed an enlarged cell phenotype, assembled with several-fold more antioxidant enzymes and GSH-predominant non-protein free thiols. This adaptive response was largely eliminated when BSO was co-administered with NDP, leading to the decimation of the H22 cell population without enhancing renal toxicity, since at this dose, NDP did not inhibit renal TrxR activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological effect of NDP involves TrxR inhibition, and the adaptive response of NDP-treated ascitic H22 cells can be efficiently counteracted by BSO. Simultaneous modulation of TrxR and GSH on ascitic H22 cells using NDP plus BSO greatly enhances therapeutic efficacy as compared with the single modulation of TrxR using NDP alone. -- Highlights: ► Nedaplatin at a pharmacological dose inhibits TrxR in cancer cells but not in kidney. ► The nedaplatin-treated cancer cells exhibit adaptive response. ► Buthionine sulfoximine inhibits glutathione in both cancer cells and kidney. ► Buthionine sulfoximine counteracts the adaptive response to the nedaplatin treatment. ► Buthionine sulfoximine does not

  10. Cooperative effect of Bifidobacteria lipoteichoic acid combined with 5-fluorouracil on hepatoma-22 cells growth and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Xie, Ning; Wang, Yue

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the cooperative effect of Bifidobacteria lipoteichoic acid (BLTA) combined with 5-fluorouracil on tumor cells growth and apoptosis in mice bearing H22. Hepatoma-22 (H22) cells were cultured in RPMI1640. Establish tumor-bearing mice model of liver cancer by injecting intraperitoneally 1×10(6)/mL cells into the above-mentioned Balb/c mice. 5-FU alone, BLTA alone or BLTA in combination with 5-FU were used to treat tumor-bearing mice. The tumor size were observed and measured regularly. The growth-inhibiting rate (IR) of tumor was detected. Real-Time PCR and Western blot were used to detect Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 expressions of mRNA and protein in tumor tissue of tumor-bearing mice. Detection of apoptotic cells in tumor tissue by HE staining analysis. Detection of the organ index was for evaluate the added-activity of immune organs in mouse. FCM was used to detect T subgroup ratio of spleen cells of tumor-bearing mice. Expression change of mRNA and proteins of Foxp3 and TIM-3 were detected by Real-Time PCR and Western blot in tumor-bearing mice tumor tissue. BLTA and 5-FU significantly inhibited the proliferation of tumor and induced obvious apoptosis, the combined effects were greater than those of the individual agents (P<0.01). The underlying molecular mechanism of apoptotic process could be up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Caspase-3. The HE staining indicated that combined treat could both induce tissue cells necrosis and increase immune cells infiltration. Organ index showed that BLTA can enhance the proliferation of immune organs. The ratio of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg significantly decreased and CD4(+) T cell increased in BLTA and 5-FU group (P<0.01). Compared to NS group, mRNA and proteins expression of Foxp3 and TIM-3 down regulated in BLTA and 5-FU group (P<0.01). These results show that combined effects of Bifidobacteria lipoteichoic acid and 5-FU on H22 cells were superior to the individual. The combination did not only

  11. {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in hepatoma cells due to tissue-specific human sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Libo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Altman, Annette [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mier, Walter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lu Hankui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Zhu Ruisen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Haberkorn, Uwe [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany) and Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: uwe_haberkorn@med.uni-heidelberg.de

    2006-05-15

    The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene could be used as an ideal reporter gene as well as a promising therapeutic gene. {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate has proven to be more advantageous than {sup 131}I-iodide with respect to image quality, procedure and radiation dose in examination of thyroid uptake and scintigraphy. Herein, we investigated the feasibility of monitoring human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate in hepatoma cells (MH3924A) following tissue-specific expression. Methods: MH3924A cells were stably transfected with the recombinant retroviral vector, in which hNIS cDNA was driven by murine albumin enhancer/promoter (mAlb) and coupled to hygromycin resistance gene using an internal ribosomal entry site. Functional NIS expression in hepatoma cells was confirmed by an {sup 125}I{sup -} uptake assay. The dynamic uptake and efflux of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate was determined both in vitro and in vivo. Results: The {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate was up to 254-fold higher in stably transfected MH3924A cells than in wild-type cells. However, the in vitro efflux of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate out of recombinant cells was rapid with a half-life of less than 2 min. Further, the in vivo studies yielded clear images and quantitative data of mAlbhNIS-infected tumor xenografts using {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate and {gamma} camera. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates enhanced {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo following tissue-specific gene transfer using a recombinant retrovirus with the albumin enhancer/promoter and the hNIS gene. It is feasible to monitor hNIS gene expression noninvasively and quantitatively using conventional {gamma} camera and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate.

  12. The essential oils from Zanthoxylum schinifolium pericarp induce apoptosis of HepG2 human hepatoma cells through increased production of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Soon-Young; Koh, Kyung-Hee; Beak, Sung-Mok; Paek, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2005-05-01

    The volatile extract from dried pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium that was obtained by simultaneous distillation with dichloromethane and water was composed of 29.9% geranyl acetate, 15.8% citronella, 15.4% sabinene and the minor volatile components included beta-myrcene, linalool, (-)-isopulegol, citronellyl acetate, 1,4-dimethyl pyrazole, alpha-terpinene, 3-methyl-6-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclo-hexene-1-o1 and trans-geraniol. The volatile extract decreased the cell viability and induced apoptotic death in HepG2 human hepatoma cells in a concentration- and time-related manner. In addition, the volatile extract increased the production of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the cells with Trolox, a well-known antioxidant, significantly suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death induced by the extract. However, caspase-3 activity was not changed in the extract-treated cells, suggesting that the extract-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells is caspase-3 independent. Furthermore, in nude mice inoculated with Huh-7 human hepatoma cells, the extract significantly inhibited tumor development. These results suggest that the volatile extract from Zanthoxylum schinifolium pericarpium is a good candidate for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy and that reactive oxygen species are the key signaling molecules in the volatile extract-induced cell death in HepG2 cells.

  13. STAT3-blocked whole-cell hepatoma vaccine induces cellular and humoral immune response against HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuju Han

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-cell tumor vaccines have shown much promise; however, only limited success has been achieved for the goal of eliciting robust tumor-specific T-cell responses. Methods Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells, H22 and Hepa1–6, were modified by blocking the STAT3 signaling pathway with a STAT3 decoy oligodeoxynucleotide, and the immunogenicity and possibility of using these cell lysates as a vaccine were evaluated. Results STAT3-blocked whole HCC cell lysates inhibited tumor growth and tumorigenesis, and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, STAT3-blocked whole HCC cell lysates stimulated the activation of T cells and natural killer (NK cells, and enhanced the infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in the tumor tissues. In addition, the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs was enhanced, which promoted the generation of immunological memory against HCC. Furthermore, secondary immune responses could be primed as soon as these immunized mice were challenged with HCC cells, accompanied by T cell and NK cell activation and infiltration. Additionally, immunization with this vaccine decreased the generation of Tregs and the production of TGF-β and IL-10. Importantly, STAT3-blocked whole HCC cell lysates prevented HCC-mediated exhaustion of T cells and NK cells, showing low expression of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1 and TIGIT on T cells and NK cells in the immunized mice. Conclusions The newly generated STAT3-blocked whole-cell HCC vaccine has potential for cancer cell vaccination.

  14. Effects of dietary phenolics and botanical extracts on hepatotoxicity-related endpoints in human and rat hepatoma cells and statistical models for prediction of hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yitong; Flynn, Thomas J; Ferguson, Martine S; Hoagland, Erica M; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2011-08-01

    Toxicity assessment of botanical materials is difficult because they are typically complex mixtures of phytochemicals. In the present study, 16 phenolics were tested in both human (HepG2/C3A) and rat (MH1C1) hepatoma cells using a battery of eight toxicity endpoints. Cluster analysis was used to group the phenolics into four clusters for each cell type. Comparison of overall and individual liver activity of phenolics on both human and rat hepatoma cell lines showed significant differences for some endpoints. However, the cluster membership was similar across both cell types with the majority of phenolics clustering with the solvent control group (cluster 1). Each cell type produced a cluster of compounds with reported in vivo liver toxicity (cluster 2). Five herbal extracts were prepared and then tested as above. Using the cluster model developed with the phenolics, in the HepG2/C3A cells green tea was assigned to cluster 2 and the remaining four extracts to cluster 1. In the MH1C1 cells, green tea and thyme were assigned to cluster 2, cinnamon to cluster 4, and juniper berry and peppermint to cluster 1. The data suggest that this in vitro model may be useful for identifying hepatotoxic phenolics and botanical preparations rich in phenolics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. mRNA levels of related Abcb genes change opposite to each other upon histone deacetylase inhibition in drug-resistant rat hepatoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adám Sike

    Full Text Available The multidrug-resistant phenotype of tumor cells is acquired via an increased capability of drug efflux by ABC transporters and causes serious problems in cancer treatment. With the aim to uncover whether changes induced by epigenetic mechanisms in the expression level of drug transporter genes correlates with changes in the drug resistance phenotypes of resistant cells, we studied the expression of drug transporters in rat hepatoma cell lines. We found that of the three major rat ABC transporter genes Abcb1a, Abcb1b and Abcc1 the activity of only Abcb1b increased significantly in colchicine-selected, drug-resistant cells. Increased transporter expression in drug-resistant cells results primarily from transcriptional activation. A change in histone modification at the regulatory regions of the chromosomally adjacent Abcb1a and Abcb1b genes differentially affects the levels of corresponding mRNAs. Transcriptional up- and down-regulation accompany an increase in acetylation levels of histone H3 lysine 9 at the promoter regions of Abcb1b and Abcb1a, respectively. Drug efflux activity, however, does not follow tightly the transcriptional activity of drug transporter genes in hepatoma cells. Our results point out the need for careful analysis of cause-and-effect relationships between changes in histone modification, drug transporter expression and drug resistance phenotypes.

  16. [Inhibitory effect of magnesium cantharidate on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cell proliferation by blocking MAPK signaling pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Li, Xiaofei; Zou, Qianqian; Liu, Liu; Zhu, Xinting; Jia, Qi; Wang, Lingjun; Yan, Rong

    2017-03-01

    Objective To investigate the anticancer mechanism of magnesium cantharidate by observing its effect on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells. Methods The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity detection kit was used to detect the effects of magnesium cantharidate and okadaic acid (OA) on PP2A activity. After the treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with magnesium cantharidate and/or OA, mRNA levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2, p38MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and JNK2 were detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and the protein expression levels and protein phosphorylation of ERK1, ERK2, p38 MAPK and JNK were determined by Western blotting. Results The effect of magnesium cantharidate on the activity of PP2A in SMMC-7721 cells was not evident at the concentration of 0.283 μmol/L, but the activity of PP2A was declined significantly at 0.567 μmol/L or higher concencentrations in a concentration-dependent manner. Likewise, OA also displayed apparent inhibitory effect on the activity of PP2A at 0.059 nmol/L. Compared with the control group, mRNA levels of ERK1 and ERK2 were not changed by magnesium cantharidate at 0.283 μmol/L, but they significantly declined at the concentrations greater than 0.567 μmol/L. In contrast, mRNA levels of ERK1 and ERK2 were significantly elevated by 0.059 nmol/L OA. mRNA levels of p38MAPK, JNK1 and JNK2 significantly increased after the treatment of 0.059 nmol/L OA or magnesium cantharidate at varying concentrations. Compared with the control group, phosphorylation levels of ERK1 and ERK2 were not changed by 0.283 μmol/L magnesium cantharidate, but decreased significantly when the concentration was 0.567 μmol/L or above. In contrast, the phosphorylation levels of ERK1 and ERK2 showed a significant increase in 0.059 nmol/L OA treated group. The phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK, JNK1 and JNK2 were also significantly increased by 0.059 nmol/L OA or

  17. Protein transfection study using multicellular tumor spheroids of human hepatoma Huh-7 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Kato

    Full Text Available Several protein transfection reagents are commercially available and are powerful tools for elucidating function of a protein in a cell. Here we described protein transfection studies of the commercially available reagents, Pro-DeliverIN, Xfect, and TuboFect, using Huh-7 multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS as a three-dimensional in vitro tumor model. A cellular uptake study using specific endocytosis inhibitors revealed that each reagent was internalized into Huh-7 MCTS by different mechanisms, which were the same as monolayer cultured Huh-7 cells. A certain amount of Pro-DeliverIN and Xfect was uptaken by Huh-7 cells through caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which may lead to transcytosis through the surface-first layered cells of MCTS. The results presented here will help in the choice and use of protein transfection reagents for evaluating anti-tumor therapeutic proteins against MCTS models.

  18. Hepatitis B virus X protein promotes interleukin-7 receptor expression via NF-κB and Notch1 pathway to facilitate proliferation and migration of hepatitis B virus-related hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyun Kong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R is involved in the abnormal function of solid tumors, but the role and regulatory mechanisms of IL-7R in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are still unclear. Methods Gene and protein expression levels of IL-7R were examined in hepatoma cells transfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV plasmids and in hepatoma cells transfected with the multifunctional nonstructural protein X (HBX. The expression of HBX and IL-7R was measured by immunohistochemical analysis in HBV-related HCC tissues. The role of NF-κB and Notch1 pathways in HBX-mediated expression of IL-7R in hepatoma cells was examined. Activation of IL-7R downstream of intracellular signaling proteins AKT, JNK, STAT5, and the associated molecules CyclinD1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, was assessed in HBX-positive cells with or without treatment with IL-7R short hairpin RNA (shRNA. Additionally, the role of IL-7R in HBX-mediated proliferation and migration of hepatoma cells was investigated. Results The expression of IL-7R was increased in hepatoma cells transfected with HBV plasmids; HBX was responsible for the HBV-mediated upregulation of IL-7R. Compared to adjacent tissues, the expression of HBX and IL-7R was increased in HBV-related HCC tissues. Additionally, the relative expression levels of HBX were associated with IL-7R in HBV-related HCC tissues. The activation of NF-κB pathways and expression of Notch1 were increased in hepatoma cells transfected with HBX, and inhibition of NF-κB and Notch1 pathways significantly decreased HBX-mediated expression of IL-7R. The activation of AKT and JNK and the expression of CyclinD1 and MMP-9 were increased in HBX-positive cells. When cells were treated with IL-7R shRNA, the activation of AKT and JNK, as well as the expression of CyclinD1 and MMP-9, were significantly inhibited. Additionally, IL-7R was responsible for HBX-induced proliferation and migration ability of hepatoma cells

  19. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor-negative hepatoma and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, E F; Koch, D C; Bisson, W H; Jang, H S; Kolluri, S K

    2014-01-30

    Identification of new molecular targets for the treatment of breast cancer is an important clinical goal, especially for triple-negative breast cancer, which is refractory to existing targeted treatments. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known primarily as the mediator of dioxin toxicity. However, the AhR can also inhibit cellular proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner and act as a tumor suppressor in mice, and thus may be a potential anticancer target. To investigate the AhR as an anticancer target, we conducted a small molecule screen to discover novel AhR ligands with anticancer properties. We identified raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator currently used in the clinic for prevention of ER-positive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, as an AhR activator. Raloxifene directly bound the AhR and induced apoptosis in ER-negative mouse and human hepatoma cells in an AhR-dependent manner, indicating that the AhR is a molecular target of raloxifene and mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in the absence of ER. Raloxifene selectively induced apoptosis of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells compared with non-transformed mammary epithelial cells via the AhR. Combined with recent data showing that raloxifene inhibits triple-negative breast cancer xenografts in vivo (Int J Oncol. 43(3):785-92, 2013), our results support the possibility of repurposing of raloxifene as an AhR-targeted therapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer patients. To this end, we also evaluated the role of AhR expression on survival of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. We found that higher expression of the AhR is significantly associated with increased overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival in both hormone-dependent (ER-positive) and hormone-independent (ER and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative) breast cancers. Together, our data strongly support the possibility of using the Ah

  20. Effects of Lipofectamine 2000/siRNA Complexes on Autophagy in Hepatoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Robert H.; Zaro, Jennica L.; Ou, Jing-hsiung James; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Lipofectamine 2000 is commonly used for siRNA transfections. However, few studies have examined cellular responses to this delivery system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of siRNA transfection using Lipofectamine 2000 on cellular autophagy. Huh7.5 cells, stably-transfected to express GFP-LC3, were treated with Lipofectamine 2000/negative control siRNA (NC siRNA) complexes. At different time points after treatment, cells were lysed and analyzed by immunoblotting and fluore...

  1. Induction of Apurinic Endonuclease 1 Overexpression by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Lin Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with poor prognosis due to resistance to conventional chemotherapy and limited efficacy of radiotherapy. Previous studies have noted the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress or apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 expression in many tumors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and APE1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we investigate the expression of APE1 during ER stress in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines. Tunicamycin or brefeldin A, two ER stress inducers, increased APE1 and GRP78, an ER stress marker, expression in HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. Induction of APE1 expression was observed through transcription level in response to ER stress. APE1 nuclear localization during ER stress was determined using immunofluorescence assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, expression of Hepatitis B virus pre-S2∆ large mutant surface protein (pre-S2∆, an ER stress-induced protein, also increased GRP78 and APE1 expression in the normal hepatocyte NeHepLxHT cell line. Similarly, tumor samples showed higher expression of APE1 in ER stress-correlated liver cancer tissue in vivo. Our results demonstrate that ER stress and HBV pre-S2∆ increased APE1 expression, which may play an important role in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents or tumor development. Therefore, these data provide an important chemotherapeutic strategy in ER stress and HBV pre-S2∆-associated tumors.

  2. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Stanley K.L. [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Neo, Soek-Ying, E-mail: neo_soek_ying@sics.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Yap, Yann-Wan [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L. [Genome Institute of Singapore A-STAR (Singapore); Liau, Kui-Hin [Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Ren, Ee-Chee, E-mail: ren_ee_chee@immunol.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  3. Effects of perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure on hepatoma Hep G2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiao-Zhong; Hu, De-Cong [Technology Center of Hubei Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Wuhan (China)

    2009-09-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are emerging compounds of concern. They are widely distributed in the environment, wildlife and human. Concern has been raised over their possible adverse effects on human health. This study was designed to determine cytotoxic effects of two important PFCs, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in a single and a mixture of them exposure to Hep G2 cells. The results showed that PFOA and PFOS (50-200 {mu}mol/l) induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), dissipation of mitochondria membrane potential and apoptosis of Hep G2 cells. Moreover, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased, whereas activities of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased. Glutathione content was reduced. Differential expression of genes, such as p53, Bcl-2, caspase-9, was evident in PFOA or PFOS exposure groups. The possible mechanism was that they could overwhelm homeostasis of antioxidative systems, boost ROS generation, impact mitochondria, and affect genes expression of apoptotic regulators, which resulted in start-ups of apoptosis program. Cells exposed to mixture of PFOA and PFOS and each of them showed non-apoptotic rate significant difference, which indicated that the combined effect of two compounds was summation effect, but neither synergistic nor antagonistic effect. (orig.)

  4. BlueBerry Isolate, Pterostilbene, Functions as a Potential Anticancer Stem Cell Agent in Suppressing Irradiation-Mediated Enrichment of Hepatoma Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For many malignancies, radiation therapy remains the second option only to surgery in terms of its curative potential. However, radiation-induced tumor cell death is limited by a number of factors, including the adverse response of the tumor microenvironment to the treatment and either intrinsic or acquired mechanisms of evasive resistance, and the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs. In this study, we demonstrated that using different doses of irradiation led to the enrichment of CD133+ Mahlavu cells using flow cytometric method. Subsequently, CD133+ Mahlavu cells enriched by irradiation were characterized for their stemness gene expression, self-renewal, migration/invasion abilities, and radiation resistance. Having established irradiation-enriched CD133+ Mahlavu cells with CSC properties, we evaluated a phytochemical, pterostilbene (PT, found abundantly in blueberries, against irradiation-enriched CSCs. It was shown that PT treatment dose-dependently reduced the enrichment of CD133+ Mahlavu cells upon irradiation; PT treatment also prevented tumor sphere formation, reduced stemness gene expression, and suppressed invasion and migration abilities as well as increasing apoptosis of CD133+ Mahlavu CSCs. Based on our experimental data, pterostilbene could be used to prevent the enrichment of CD133+ hepatoma CSCs and should be considered for future clinical testing as a combined agent for HCC patients.

  5. 6-Gingerol induces apoptosis through lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in human hepatoma G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Shaopeng; Zhong, Laifu; Dong, Xu; Zhang, Wenli; Jiang, Liping; Geng, Chengyan; Sun, Xiance; Liu, Xiaofang; Chen, Min; Ma, Yufang

    2012-11-01

    6-Gingerol, a major phenolic compound derived from ginger, has been known to possess anticarcinogenic activities. However, the mechanisms are not well understood. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that lysosome and mitochondria may be the primary targets for 6-gingerol in HepG2 cells. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate lysosome-mitochondria cross-signaling in 6-gingerol-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33342 and TUNEL assay after 24 h treatment, and the destabilization of lysosome and mitochondria were early upstream initiating events. This study showed that cathepsin D played a crucial role in the process of apoptosis. The release of cathepsin D to the cytosol appeared to be an early event that preceded the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Moreover, inhibition of cathepsin D activity resulted in suppressed release of cytochrome c. To further determine the involvement of oxidative stress in 6-gingerol-induced apoptosis, the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined. Taken together, these results suggest that cathepsin D may be a positive mediator of 6-gingerol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, acting upstream of cytochrome c release, and the apoptosis may be associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchissio, Maria Julia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Marinelli, Raúl Alberto, E-mail: rmarinel@unr.edu.ar

    2012-10-15

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72 h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p < 0.05). Studies in isolated mtAQP8-knockdown mitochondria showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, assessed by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p < 0.05), an effect not observed in digitonin-permeabilized mitochondria. mtAQP8-knockdown cells showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS, assessed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (+ 120%, p < 0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (− 80%, p < 0.05), assessed by tetramethylrhodamine-coupled quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTempol prevented ROS accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker, also abolished the mtAQP8 knockdown-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Besides, the loss of viability in mtAQP8 knockdown cells verified by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and trypan blue exclusion test could be prevented by cyclosporin A. Our data on human hepatoma HepG2 cells suggest that mtAQP8 facilitates mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. -- Highlights: ► Aquaporin-8 is expressed in mitochondria of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. ► Aquaporin-8 knockdown impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and increases ROS. ► Aquaporin

  7. The chicken c-erbA alpha-product induces expression of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine receptor-deficient rat hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, A; Höppner, W; Sap, J

    1990-01-01

    To determine the capacity of the chicken c-erbA (cTR-alpha) gene product in regulating expression of known thyroid hormone-responsive genes, both the cTR-alpha and the viral v-erbA genes were expressed in FAO cells, a rat hepatoma cell line defective for functional thyroid hormone receptors. Upon...

  8. HCV Core Protein Uses Multiple Mechanisms to Induce Oxidative Stress in Human Hepatoma Huh7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander V.; Smirnova, Olga A.; Petrushanko, Irina Y.; Ivanova, Olga N.; Karpenko, Inna L.; Alekseeva, Ekaterina; Sominskaya, Irina; Makarov, Alexander A.; Bartosch, Birke; Kochetkov, Sergey N.; Isaguliants, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accompanied by the induction of oxidative stress, mediated by several virus proteins, the most prominent being the nucleocapsid protein (HCV core). Here, using the truncated forms of HCV core, we have delineated several mechanisms by which it induces the oxidative stress. The N-terminal 36 amino acids of HCV core induced TGFβ1-dependent expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases 1 and 4, both of which independently contributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The same fragment also induced the expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2, which, however, made no input into ROS production. Amino acids 37–191 of HCV core up-regulated the transcription of a ROS generating enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1. Furthermore, the same fragment induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1α. The latter triggered efflux of Ca2+ from ER to mitochondria via mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, leading to generation of superoxide anions, and possibly also H2O2. Suppression of any of these pathways in cells expressing the full-length core protein led to a partial inhibition of ROS production. Thus, HCV core causes oxidative stress via several independent pathways, each mediated by a distinct region of the protein. PMID:26035647

  9. HCV Core Protein Uses Multiple Mechanisms to Induce Oxidative Stress in Human Hepatoma Huh7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Ivanov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is accompanied by the induction of oxidative stress, mediated by several virus proteins, the most prominent being the nucleocapsid protein (HCV core. Here, using the truncated forms of HCV core, we have delineated several mechanisms by which it induces the oxidative stress. The N-terminal 36 amino acids of HCV core induced TGF\\(\\upbeta\\1-dependent expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidases 1 and 4, both of which independently contributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The same fragment also induced the expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2, which, however, made no input into ROS production. Amino acids 37–191 of HCV core up-regulated the transcription of a ROS generating enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1. Furthermore, the same fragment induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1\\(\\upalpha\\. The latter triggered efflux of Ca2+ from ER to mitochondria via mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, leading to generation of superoxide anions, and possibly also H2O2. Suppression of any of these pathways in cells expressing the full-length core protein led to a partial inhibition of ROS production. Thus, HCV core causes oxidative stress via several independent pathways, each mediated by a distinct region of the protein.

  10. SphK1 inhibitor SKI II inhibits the proliferation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells via the Wnt5A/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Cai-Xia; Ma, Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jia-Ping; Shao, Rong-Guang

    2016-04-15

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) promotes cell growth, proliferation and survival. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), which converts sphingosine to S1P, is a key promoter in cancer. We previously found that the SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI II), suppresses the cell growth and induces apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. However, the precise regulatory mechanism and signaling pathway on SKI II inhibiting tumor growth remains unknown. The expressions of β-catenin and related molecules of Wnt/β-catenin signal were detected by western blot in HepG2 cells. And the mRNA expression of β-catenin was detected by RT-PCR. The Wnt5A gene was silenced by siRNA. The colony formation was determined by staining with crystal violet. And the cell growth was examined by SRB assay and BrdU assay. We found that SKI II decreased the expression of β-catenin and the downstream molecules of β-catenin signal pathway and promotes the β-catenin degradation. In addition, SKI II induced the expression of Wnt5A, and then triggered β-catenin degradation. Furthermore, silencing Wnt5A decreased the anti-tumor effects of SKI II through recovering the expressions of β-catenin and downstream molecules of β-catenin signal pathway. SKI II-induced downregulation of HepG2 cell proliferation was associated with Wnt signaling pathway through Wnt5A-mediated β-catenin degradation. Our study revealed that a novel signal pathway was involved in SKI II-inhibited cell proliferation in human hepatoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. HBx induced AFP receptor expressed to activate PI3K/AKT signal to promote expression of Src in liver cells and hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Guo, Junli; Li, Wei; Xia, Hua; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Fu, Shigan; Li, Mengsen

    2015-05-06

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-X protein(HBx) is a transactivator of host several cellular genes including alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) and AFP receptor(AFPR) which contributes to HBV-associated tumor development. The expression of AFP/AFPR are correlated with hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)-initial cells. But the role of AFP and AFPR in promoting occurrence of HBV-related HCC were still unclear. A total of 71 clinical patients' liver specimens, normal human liver cells L-02 and HCC cell lines, PLC/PRF/5 were selected for analyzing the effects of HBx on expression of AFP, AFPR and Src. The expression of goal proteins were detected by Immunohistochemical stained and Western blotting; HBx-expressed vectors were constructed and transfected into L-02 cells, laser confocal microscopy was applied to observe expression and location of AFP, AFPR and Src in the normal liver cells and HCC cells, soft agar colony formation assay was used to observe colonies formed of the cells. We confirmed HBx gives preference to promote the expression of AFP and AFPR; HBx priors to up-regulate the expression of AFPR and AFP in L-02 cells and in normal liver specimens; AFPR signal been able to stimulate Src expression. The results also indicated that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K) inhibitors Ly294002 and GDC0941 effectively suppress AFPR mediated up-regulation expression of Src in AFPR positive HCC lines. HBx priors to drive the expression of AFP and AFPR to promote expression of Src in normal liver cells and hepatoma cells; AFP and AFPR maybe play pivotal role in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis; Targeting AFPR is an available therapeutic strategy of HCC.

  12. Antcin K, an active triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of basswood cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea, induces mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-I. Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in Taiwan as per the 2011 statistics and ranks fourth in cancer-related mortality in the world. Recent researches have shown that Antrodia cinnamomea, a Taiwan-specific medicinal mushroom, has biological activities, including hepatoprotection, anti-inflammation, antihepatitis B virus activity, and anticancer activity. In the present study, the antiproliferative activity and molecular mechanisms of antcin K, the most abundant ergostane triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of basswood cultivated A. cinnamomea, were investigated using human hepatoma Hep 3B cells. The results showed that antcin K effectively reduced Hep 3B cells viability within 48 hours. Antcin K induced phosphatidylserine exposure, chromatin condensation, and DNA damage, but did not significantly increase autophagosome content or cause cell expansion and cell lysis. Thus, the principal mode of Hep 3B cells death induced by antcin K was apoptosis, rather than autophagy or necrosis. In-depth investigation of the molecular mechanisms revealed that antcin K first promoted reactive oxygen species generation and adenosine triphosphate depletion, leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress and resulting in mitochondrial membrane permeability changes. After losing the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-independent and caspase-dependent apoptosis-related proteins were released, including HtrA2, apoptotic-induced factor, endonuclease G, and cytochrome c. Cytochrome c activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cut downstream protein PARP, ultimately leading to cell apoptosis. These results suggested that antcin K induced mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. Coupled with these findings, antcin K has a potential to be a complementary agent in liver cancer therapy.

  13. Proteomics Based Identification of Autotaxin As An Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Factor and a Promoter of Hepatoma Cell Invasion and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha She

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, we aimed to obtain further information on HBV pathogenesis, and to search for novel putative molecules for anti-HBV therapy. Methods: We utilized Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ to identify the secretory proteins that are differentially expressed in the HBV DNA-transfected HepG2.2.15 cell line and its parental HepG2 cell line. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was employed to assess the clinical relevance of the observations. Small interfering (siRNA-based silencing transfection methods were carried out to study the function of ENPP2. Results: Totally, 133 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed in HepG2.2.15 cell line compared with HepG2 cell line. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2 precursor (ENPP2 is one of the most significantly up-regulated secretory proteins associated with HBV replication. This differential expression of ENPP2 was further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemical analysis. To study the function of ENPP2, we knockdown ENPP2 expression in HepG2.2.15 cell line by RNA interference. ENPP2 silencing increased HBV replication approximately 2.3-fold by enhancing, via the type I IFN signaling pathway, HBV cccDNA (covalently closed circular DNA translation into viral RNA. Moreover, attenuation of ENPP2 expression inhibited both the invasion and migration ability of hepatoma cells in vitro via interacting with the molecules in the tumor microenvironment. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that ENPP2 may be a novel anti-HBV target and indicate that suppression of its expression may inhibit the invasion and migration ability of hepatoma cells.

  14. The effects of urotensin II on migration and invasion are mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species through the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Ying; Shi, Zheng-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Tong; Feng, Ping; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive neuropeptide involved in migration and invasion in various cell types. However, the effects of UII on human hepatoma cells still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of UII on migration and invasion in human hepatoma cells. Migration was measured by wound healing assays and a Transwell(®) methodology, and invasion was analyzed using Matrigel(®) invasion chambers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected using a 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe, and flow cytometry, and protein expression levels were evaluated by western blotting. Cell proliferation and actin polymerization were examined using cell proliferation reagent WST-1 and F-actin immunohistochemistry staining. Exposure to UII promoted migration and invasion in hepatoma cells compared with that in cells without UII. UII also increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression in a time-independent manner. Furthermore, UII markedly enhanced ROS generation and NADPH oxidase subunit expression, and consequently facilitated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The UT antagonist urantide or the antioxidant/NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin decreased UII-induced ROS production. JNK phosphorylation, migration, invasion, and MMP9/2 expression were also reversed by pretreatment with apocynin. Urantide and JNK inhibitor SP600125 abrogated migration, invasion, or MMP9/2 expression in response to UII. UII induced actin polymerization and fascin protein expression, and could be reversed by apocynin and SP600125. Exogenous UII induced migration and invasion in hepatoma cells that mainly involved NADPH oxidase-derived ROS through JNK activation. UT played an additional role in regulating hepatoma cells migration and invasion. Thus, our data suggested an important effect of UII in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatitis B virus X protein up-regulates C4b-binding protein α through activating transcription factor Sp1 in protection of hepatoma cells from complement attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guoxing; Li, Jiong; Zheng, Minying; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yunxia; Zhang, Shuqin; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Weiying; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-05-10

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays crucial roles in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously showed that HBx protected hepatoma cells from complement attack by activation of CD59. Moreover, in this study we found that HBx protected hepatoma cells from complement attack by activation of C4b-binding protein α (C4BPα), a potent inhibitor of complement system. We observed that HBx were positively correlated with those of C4BPα in clinical HCC tissues. Mechanistically, HBx activated the promoter core region of C4BPα, located at -1199/-803nt, through binding to transcription factor Sp1. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that HBx was able to bind to the promoter of C4BPα, which could be blocked by Sp1 silencing. Functionally, knockdown of C4BPα obviously increased the deposition of C5b-9, a complex of complement membrane attack, and remarkably abolished the HBx-induced resistance of hepatoma cells from complement attack in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we conclude that HBx up-regulates C4BPα through activating transcription factor Sp1 in protection of liver cancer cells from complement attack. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which HBx enhances protection of hepatoma cells from complement attack.

  16. Basil extract inhibits the sulfotransferase mediated formation of DNA adducts of the procarcinogen 1'-hydroxyestragole by rat and human liver S9 homogenates and in HepG2 human hepatoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Punt, A.; Delatour, T.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a basil extract on the sulfation and concomitant DNA adduct formation of the proximate carcinogen 1¿-hydroxyestragole were studied using rat and human liver S9 homogenates and the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Basil was chosen since it contains the procarcinogen estragole that can

  17. Effects of PARP-1 inhibitors AG-014699 and AZD2281 on proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Senrong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo observe the inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of two poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-1 inhibitors, AG-014699 and AZD2281, on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and preliminarily explore the mechanism by which AG-014699 induces HepG2 cell apoptosis, and to provide a new therapeutic target for hepatoma. MethodsThe effects of different concentrations of AG-014699 and AZD2281 on HepG2 cell proliferation were determined by MTT assay. The cell apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. The expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-8 were measured by Western Blot. Inter-group comparison was made by t test. ResultsBoth AG-014699 and AZD2281 suppressed HepG2 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, the sensitivity of HepG2 cells to the two PARP-1 inhibitors was different. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of AG-014699 and AZD2281 at 48 h determined by MTT assay were about 20 μmol/L and 400 μmol/L, respectively. Flow cytometry and Western blot were not used to evaluate the apoptosis of HepG2 cells exposed to AZD2281 to which these cells were not sensitive. HepG2 cell apoptosis could be induced by 10, 30, and 50 μmol/L AG-014699, and the highest apoptosis rate at 48 h was significantly higher than that of the control group (3100%±2.13% vs 09%±0013%, P<0.01. Compared with those in the control group, the protein levels of caspase-3 and caspase-8 in HepG2 cells after 48-h exposure to 30, and 50 μmol/L AG-014699 increased. ConclusionThe two PARP-1 inhibitors AG-014699 and AZD2281 can inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, which showed different sensitivities to the two inhibitors. AG-014699 can induce HepG2 cell apoptosis by up-regulating the protein expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8.

  18. Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccadei, Stefania; Di Venere, Donato; Cardinali, Angela; Romano, Ferdinando; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Fraioli, Rocco; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (AE). The hepatocytes were exposed to H2O2generated in situ by glucose oxidase and were treated with either AE, or pure chlorogenic acid (ChA) or with the well known antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenilenediamine (DPPD). Addition of glucose oxidase to the culture medium caused depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cultures, as a lipid peroxidation indicator, and cell death. These results demonstrated that AE protected cells from the oxidative stress caused by glucose oxidase, comparable to DPPD. Furthermore, AE, as well as ChA, prevented the loss of total GSH and the accumulation of MDA. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with AE reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, however, ChA had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, AE rather than ChA induced apoptosis, measured by flow cytometric analysis of annexin and by activation of caspase-3, in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that AE had a marked antioxidative potential that protects hepatocytes from an oxidative stress. Furthermore, AE reduced cell viability and had an apoptotic activity on a human liver cancer cell line.

  19. Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time-kill curve studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selestino Neta, Maria Cipriano; Vittorazzi, Catia; Guimarães, Aline Cristina; Martins, João Damasceno Lopes; Fronza, Marcio; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; Scherer, Rodrigo

    2017-12-01

    Orange Jessamine [Murraya paniculata L. (Rutaceae)] has been used worldwide in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and analgesic. The objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant, cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activity and the time-kill curve studies of orange jessamine essential oil and β-caryophyllene, as well as the chemical composition of the essential oil. The cytotoxic activity of M. paniculata and β-caryophyllene (7.8-500 μg/mL) was evaluated using the MTT assay on normal fibroblasts and hepatoma cells. The minimal inhibitory concentration and time-kill curves (24 h) were evaluated against those of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecallis, Aspergillus (niger, fumigates and parasiticum) and F. solani by the broth microdilution method. The antioxidant activity was measured by the DPPH and ABTS assays. Chemical composition was evaluated by GC/MS analyses. GC/MS analyses identified 13 compounds, with β-caryophyllene as the major compound. The oil exhibited moderate antibacterial activity (MIC curve studies showed that either the essential oil or β-caryophyllene presented rapid bacterial killing (4 h for S. aureus) and fungicidal effect (2-4 h for F. solani); however, both displayed weak free radical scavenger capacity. The cytotoxic activity exhibited a prominent selective effect against hepatoma cancer cells (IC 50 value =63.7 μg/mL) compared with normal fibroblasts (IC 50 value =195.0 μg/mL), whereas the β-caryophyllene showed low cytotoxicity. The experimental data suggest that the activities of M. paniculata essential oil are due to the synergistic action among its components.

  20. Synergistic effect of all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide on growth inhibition and apoptosis in human hepatoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Le-Min; Li, Bao-Xin; Xiao, Jian-Bing; Lin, Dan-Hua; Yang, Bao-Feng

    2005-09-28

    To investigate the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3))-induced apoptosis of human hepatoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer cells in an attempt to find a better combination therapy for solid tumors. Human hepatoma cell lines HepG2, Hep3B, human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, and human lung adenocarcinoma cell line AGZY-83-a were treated with As(2)O(3) together with ATRA. Cell survival fraction was determined by MTT assay, cell viability and apoptosis were measured by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and PI staining, and intracellular glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were determined using commercial kits. Cytotoxicity of ATRA was low. ATRA (0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) could synergistically potentiate As(2)O(3) to exert a dose-dependent inhibition of growth and to induce apoptosis in each of the cell lines. HepG2 and Hep3B with low intracellular GSH or GST activities were remarkably sensitive to As(2)O(3) or As(2)O(3)+ATRA, while AGZY-83-a with higher GSH or GST activities was less sensitive to As(2)O(3) or As(2)O(3)+ATRA. Treatment with 2 micromol/L As(2)O(3) for 72 h significantly decreased intracellular GSH and GST levels in each of the cell lines, and 1 micromol/L ATRA alone reduced minimal intracellular GSH and GST levels. ATRA potentiated the effect of As(2)O(3) on intracellular GSH levels, but intracellular GST levels were not significantly affected by the combination of As(2)O(3) and ATRA for 72 h as compared to As(2)O(3) alone. ATRA can strongly potentiate As(2)O(3)-induced growth-inhibition and apoptosis in each of the cell lines, and two drugs can produce a significant synergic effect. The sensitivity to As(2)O(3) or As(2)O(3)+ATRA is inversely proportional to intracellular GSH or GST levels in each of the cell lines. The GSH redox system may be the possible mechanism by which ATRA synergistically potentiates As(2)O(3) to exert a dose-dependent inhibition of growth and to induce

  1. MiR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells via targeting prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Guoxing [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Shi, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Li, Jiong; Yang, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Fang, Runping; Ye, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Weiying, E-mail: zhwybao@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-04-08

    Aberrant microRNA expression has been shown to be characteristic of many cancers. It has been reported that the expression levels of miR-30e are decreased in liver cancer tissues. However, the role of miR-30e in hepatocellular carcinoma remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the significance of miR-30e in hepatocarcinogenesis. Bioinformatics analysis reveals a putative target site of miR-30e in the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA. Moreover, luciferase reporter gene assays verified that miR-30e directly targeted 3′UTR of P4HA1 mRNA. Then, we demonstrated that miR-30e was able to reduce the expression of P4HA1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Enforced expression of miR-30e suppressed proliferation of HepG2 cells by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay and reduced colony formation of these cells by colony formation analysis. Conversely, anti-miR-30e enhanced the proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro. Interestingly, the ectopic expression of P4HA1 could efficiently rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-30e in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, silencing of P4HA1 abolished the anti-miR-30e-induced proliferation of cells. Clinically, quantitative real-time PCR showed that miR-30e was down-regulated in liver tumor tissues relative to their peritumor tissues. The expression levels of miR-30e were negatively correlated to those of P4HA1 mRNA in clinical liver tumor tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting P4HA1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • P4HA1 is a novel target gene of miR-30e. • P4HA1 is increased in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e is negatively correlated with P4HA1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e suppresses the proliferation of HCC cells through

  2. Hepatitis-B Markers In Sera Of Egyptian Hepatoma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    El Asser, A. A. [عبد الباسط الاعصر; Zakhary, Nadia I.; Sharawi, Sabri M.; El-Demerdash, Salwa; Hamza, Mohamed R.; Kamel, Refaat; Michael, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was performed on 52 hepatoma patients; 46 of them were of the histopathological type known as hepatic cell carcinoma (HCC), aiming to investigate the possible role of hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection in the etiology of hepatoma; among Egyptians, with special reference to hepatocellular carcinoma. To fulfill this aim, the three hepatitis B markers namely hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) were estim...

  3. Camel milk triggers apoptotic signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines through transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; Maayah, Zaid H; Abd-Allah, Adel R; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2012-01-01

    Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  4. Camel Milk Triggers Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Breast Cancer MCF7 Cell Lines through Transcriptional Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2 and human breast (MCF7 cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  5. MiR-520b suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiying; Lu, Zhanping; Gao, Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Ye, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Song, Tianqiang, E-mail: tjchi@hotmai.com [Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2015-05-08

    Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs are able to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. We previously reported that miR-520b was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its deregulation was involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, we report that miR-520b suppresses cell proliferation in HCC through targeting the ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) mRNA. Notably, we identified that miR-520b was able to target 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of TET1 mRNA by luciferase reporter gene assays. Then, we revealed that miR-520b was able to reduce the expression of TET1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. In terms of function, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation and colony formation assays demonstrated that the forced miR-520b expression remarkably inhibited proliferation of hepatoma cells, but TET1 overexpression could rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-520b. Furthermore, anti-miR-520b enhanced proliferation of hepatoma cells, whereas silencing of TET1 abolished anti-miR-520b-induced acceleration of cell proliferation. Then, we validated that the expression levels of miR-520b were negatively related to those of TET1 mRNA in clinical HCC tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-520b depresses proliferation of liver cancer cells through targeting 3′UTR of TET1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • TET1 is a novel target gene of miR-520b. • TET1 is upregulated in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-520b is negatively correlated with TET1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-520b depresses the proliferation of HCC cells through targeting TET1 mRNA.

  6. Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Ji-Hye; Um, Hong-Duck [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu, E-mail: sgh63@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotype of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.

  7. Bystander effect in human hepatoma HepG2 cells caused by medium transfers at different times after high-LET carbon ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingfeng; Li, Qiang; Jin, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying

    2011-01-01

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well documented in a variety of biological systems, whether irradiated cells have the ability to generate bystander signaling persistently is still unclear and the clinical relevance of bystander effects in radiotherapy remains to be elucidated. This study examines tumor cellular bystander response to autologous medium from cell culture irradiated with high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at a therapeutically relevant dose in terms of clonogenic cell survival. In vitro experiments were performed using human hepatoma HepG2 cell line exposed to 100 keV/μm carbon ions at a dose of 2 Gy. Two different periods (2 and 12 h) after irradiation, irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and replenished fresh medium were harvested and then transferred to unirradiated bystander cells. Cellular bystander responses were measured with the different medium transfer protocols. Significant higher survival fractions of unirradiated cells receiving the media from the irradiated cultures at the different times post-irradiation than those of the control were observed. Even replenishing fresh medium for unirradiated cells which had been exposed to the ICCM for 12 h could not prevent the bystander cells from the increased survival fraction. These results suggest that the irradiated cells could release unidentified signal factor(s), which induced the increase in survival fraction for the unirradiated bystander cells, into the media sustainedly and the carbon ions triggered a cascade of signaling events in the irradiated cells rather than secreting the soluble signal factor(s) just at a short period after irradiation. Based on the observations in this study, the importance of bystander effect in clinical radiotherapy was discussed and incorporating the bystander effect into the current radiobiological models, which are applicable to heavy ion radiotherapy, is needed urgently.

  8. Bystander effect in human hepatoma HepG2 cells caused by medium transfers at different times after high-LET carbon ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Qingfeng [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Qiang, E-mail: liqiang@impcas.ac.c [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jin Xiaodong; Liu Xinguo [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dai Zhongying [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well documented in a variety of biological systems, whether irradiated cells have the ability to generate bystander signaling persistently is still unclear and the clinical relevance of bystander effects in radiotherapy remains to be elucidated. This study examines tumor cellular bystander response to autologous medium from cell culture irradiated with high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at a therapeutically relevant dose in terms of clonogenic cell survival. In vitro experiments were performed using human hepatoma HepG2 cell line exposed to 100 keV/{mu}m carbon ions at a dose of 2 Gy. Two different periods (2 and 12 h) after irradiation, irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and replenished fresh medium were harvested and then transferred to unirradiated bystander cells. Cellular bystander responses were measured with the different medium transfer protocols. Significant higher survival fractions of unirradiated cells receiving the media from the irradiated cultures at the different times post-irradiation than those of the control were observed. Even replenishing fresh medium for unirradiated cells which had been exposed to the ICCM for 12 h could not prevent the bystander cells from the increased survival fraction. These results suggest that the irradiated cells could release unidentified signal factor(s), which induced the increase in survival fraction for the unirradiated bystander cells, into the media sustainedly and the carbon ions triggered a cascade of signaling events in the irradiated cells rather than secreting the soluble signal factor(s) just at a short period after irradiation. Based on the observations in this study, the importance of bystander effect in clinical radiotherapy was discussed and incorporating the bystander effect into the current radiobiological models, which are applicable to heavy ion radiotherapy, is needed urgently.

  9. Targeted imaging and induction of apoptosis of drug-resistant hepatoma cells by miR-122-loaded graphene-InP nanocompounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xin; Yuan, Yi; Wang, Ting; Wang, Han; Hu, Xianyun; Fu, Ziyi; Zhang, Gen; Liu, Bin; Lu, Guangming

    2017-01-23

    Currently, graphene oxide has attracted growing attention as a drug delivery system due to its unique characteristics. Furthermore, utilization of microRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic strategies would be particularly attractive because of their biological mechanisms and relatively low toxicity. Therefore, we have developed functionalized nanocompounds consisted of graphene oxide, quantum dots and microRNA, which induced cancer cells apoptosis along with targeted imaging. In the present study, we synthesized a kind of graphene-P-gp loaded with miR-122-InP@ZnS quantum dots nanocomposites (GPMQNs) that, in the presence of glutathione, provides controlled release of miR-122. The miR-122 actively targeted liver tumor cells and induced their apoptosis, including drug-resistant liver tumor cells. We also explored the near-infrared fluorescence and potential utility for targeting imaging of InP@ZnS quantum dots. To further understand the molecular mechanism of GPMQNs-induced apoptosis of drug-resistant HepG2/ADM hepatoma cells, the relevant apoptosis proteins and signal pathways were explored in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, near-infrared GPMQNs, which exhibited reduced photon scattering and auto-fluorescence, were applied for tumor imaging in vivo to allow for deep tissue penetration and three-dimensional imaging. In conclusion, techniques using GPMQNs could provide a novel targeted treatment for liver cancer, which possessed properties of targeted imaging, low toxicity, and controlled release.

  10. Mechanism(s of Toxic Action of Zn2+ and Selenite: A Study on AS-30D Hepatoma Cells and Isolated Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Belyaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria of AS-30D rat ascites hepatoma cells are found to be the main target for Zn2+ and sodium selenite (Na2SeO3. High [mu]M concentrations of Zn2+ or selenite were strongly cytotoxic, killing the AS-30D cells by both apoptotic and necrotic ways. Both Zn2+ and selenite produced strong changes in intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the mitochondrial dysfunction via the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC disturbance, the membrane potential dissipation, and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. The significant distinctions in toxic action of Zn2+ and selenite on AS-30D cells were found. Selenite induced a much higher intracellular ROS level (the early event compared to Zn2+ but a lower membrane potential loss and a lower decrease of the uncoupled respiration rate of the cells, whereas the mtETC disturbance was the early and critical event in the mechanism of Zn2+ cytotoxicity. Sequences of events manifested in the mitochondrial dysfunction produced by the metal/metalloid under test are compared with those obtained earlier for Cd2+, Hg2+, and Cu2+ on the same model system.

  11. Salmonella typhimurium strain SL7207 induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of HepG2 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baowei Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhimurium is probably most extensively studied tumor-targeting bacteria and SL7207 is one of its attenuated strains. SL7207 was first made for bacterial vaccine development and its therapeutic efficacy and safety for hepatocellular carcinoma has not been characterized. In this study, the inhibitory ability of SL7207-lux on human hepatoma HepG2 cells was tested in vitro and in vivo. A bacterial luminescent gene cluster (lux CDABE was transfected into SL7207 to better monitor the invasion of the bacteria. The results show that SL7207-lux can rapidly enter HepG2 cells and localize in the cytoplasm. This invasion represses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. In vivo real-time invasion studies showed that the bacteria gradually accumulate in the tumor. This enrichment was confirmed by anatomic observation at 5 days after inoculation. About 40% of tumor growth was inhibited by SL7207-lux at 34 days post-treatment without significant loss of body weight. The area of necrosis of tumor tissue was clearly increased in the treated group. Bacterial quantification showed that the number of colony-forming units per gram of bacteria within tumor tissue was approximately 1000-fold higher than that of liver and spleen. These data suggest that attenuated S. typhimurium strain SL7207 has potential for the treatment of cancers.

  12. A dimeric urea of the bisabolene sesquiterpene from the Okinawan marine sponge Axinyssa sp. inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity in Huh-7 human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Kanno, Syu-Ichi; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-01-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays an important role as a negative regulator of the insulin and leptin signaling pathways. Therefore, this enzyme is regarded as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Our screening program for PTP1B inhibitors led to the isolation of four sesquiterpenes and sterol: N,N'-bis[(6R,7S)-7-amino-7,8-dihydro-α-bisabolen-7-yl]urea (1), (6R,7S)-7-amino-7,8-dihydro-α-bisabolene (2), (1R,6S,7S,10S)-10-isothiocyanato-4-amorphene (3), axinisothiocyanate J (4), and axinysterol (5) from the marine sponge Axinyssa sp. collected at Iriomote Island. Of these, compound 1 was the most potent inhibitor of PTP1B activity (IC50=1.9μM) without cytotoxicity at 50μM in two human cancer cell lines, hepatoma Huh-7 and bladder carcinoma EJ-1 cells. Compound 1 also moderately enhanced the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation levels of Akt in Huh-7 cells. Therefore, compound 1 has potential as a new type of anti-diabetic drug candidate possessing PTP1B inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fish T cells: recent advances through genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Kerry J.; Hansen, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review is intended to provide a concise overview of the current literature concerning T cells, advances in identifying distinct T cell functional subsets, and in distinguishing effector cells from memory cells. We compare and contrast a wealth of recent progress made in T cell immunology of teleost, elasmobranch, and agnathan fish, to knowledge derived from mammalian T cell studies. From genome studies, fish clearly have most components associated with T cell function and we can speculate on the presence of putative T cell subsets, and the ability to detect their differentiation to form memory cells. Some recombinant proteins for T cell associated cytokines and antibodies for T cell surface receptors have been generated that will facilitate studying the functional roles of teleost T cells during immune responses. Although there is still a long way to go, major advances have occurred in recent years for investigating T cell responses, thus phenotypic and functional characterization is on the near horizon.

  14. Induction of S phase arrest and apoptosis by ethyl acetate extract from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Zhuang, Ding-ding; Guo, Qiao-sheng

    2015-04-01

    Tetrastigma hemsleyanum, a rare and endangered medicinal plant, has attracted much attention due to antitumor and immunomodulatory activities. In this study, the effect and mechanism of ethyl acetate extract from T. hemsleyanum (EET) on cell cycle and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells were investigated. Twenty-five to 200 μg/mL of EET were found to have the antiproliferation effect toward HepG2 cells determined by MTT assay. The morphology of EET-treated HepG2 cells showed evidence of apoptosis that included blebbing and chromatin condensation, nucleic fragmentation, and so on. The DNA laddering assay confirmed that DNA fragmentation had occurred during late apoptosis. The cell-cycle analysis indicated that EET was able to induce S phase arrest and typical subdiploid peak in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The apoptosis rate of 200 μg/mL treatment for 24 h was 42.24 ± 4.90%. The protein expression of Bax and P53 was increased after treatment, while that of Bcl2 was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner, which suggested that a high Bax/Bcl2 ratio and an upregulated P53 might contribute to the pro-apoptotic activity of EET via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. The protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) was decreased in EET-treated HepG2 cells, suggesting that EET evoked S phase arrest possibly through the downregulation of cyclin A-CDK1 complex. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells induced by EET is a result of both cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Thus, it may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of liver cancer.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic action of pre-germinated brown rice in hepatoma-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Daiki; Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2006-06-13

    The effect of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on cholesterol metabolism was studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with the ascites hepatoma cell line AH109A and compared with that of white rice (WR). The effect of brown rice (BR), the source of PGBR, was also studied. Hepatoma-bearing rats fed a WR diet exhibited hypercholesterolemia compared with normal rats fed the same diet. Feeding hepatoma-bearing rats a PGBR or BR diet suppressed hepatoma-induced hypercholesterolemia, and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion and the activity of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid biosynthesis, in the microsomal fraction of the liver without affecting cholesterol synthesis in the host liver of hepatoma-bearing rats. These results suggest that PGBR as well as BR suppresses hypercholesterolemia induced by hepatoma growth by up-regulating cholesterol catabolism.

  16. Species-specific differences in peroxisome proliferation, catalase, and SOD2 upregulation as well as toxicity in human, mouse, and rat hepatoma cells induced by the explosive and environmental pollutant 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Ekaterina Anatolevna; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2017-03-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used as an explosive substance and its toxicity is still of interest as it persisted in polluted areas. TNT is metabolized in hepatocytes which are prone to its toxicity. Since analysis of the human liver or hepatocytes is restricted due to ethical reasons, we investigated the effects of TNT on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, peroxisome proliferation, and antioxidative enzymes in human (HepG2), mouse (Hepa 1-6), and rat (H4IIEC3) hepatoma cell lines. Under control conditions, hepatoma cells of all three species were highly comparable exhibiting identical proliferation rates and distribution of their cell cycle phases. However, we found strong differences in TNT toxicity with the lowest IC50 values (highest cell death rate) for rat cells, whereas human and mouse cells were three to sevenfold less sensitive. Moreover, a strong decrease in cellular dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay) and increased ROS levels were noted. TNT caused peroxisome proliferation with rat hepatoma cells being most responsive followed by those from mouse and human. Under control conditions, rat cells contained fivefold higher peroxisomal catalase and mitochondrial SOD2 activities and a twofold higher capacity to reduce MTT than human and mouse cells. TNT treatment caused an increase in catalase and SOD2 mRNA and protein levels in human and mouse, but not in rat cells. Similarly, human and mouse cells upregulated SOD2 activity, whereas rat cells failed therein. We conclude that TNT induced oxidative stress, peroxisome proliferation and mitochondrial damage which are highest in rat cells rendering them most susceptible toward TNT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 989-1006, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Induction of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase in murine hepatoma cells by phenolic antioxidants, azo dyes, and other chemoprotectors: a model system for the study of anticarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Long, M J; Prochaska, H J; Talalay, P

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells to a variety of chemical agents known to protect animals against the neoplastic, mutagenic, and other toxic effects of chemical carcinogens results in dose- and time-dependent inductions of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (EC 1.6.99.2). This enzyme protects against quinone toxicity by promoting obligatory two-electron reductions that divert quinones from oxidative cycling or direct interactions with critical nucleophiles. Quinone reductase levels are stable in culture, are easily measured, and are useful markers for the inductive effects of chemoprotective agents. The Hepa 1c1c7 system responds to chemoprotective compounds such as phenolic antioxidants (e.g., BHA [3(2)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole], BHT (3,5-ditert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene), and tert-butylhydroquinone), lipophilic azo dyes belonging to the 1,1'-azonaphthalene, Sudan I (1-phenylazo-2-naphthol), and Sudan III [1-(4-phenylazophenylazo)-2-naphthol] families, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coumarin and various other lactones, flavonoids, and certain sulfur compounds (e.g., benzylisothiocyanate, dithiolthiones, and dithiocarbamates), all of which are recognized enzyme inducers and chemoprotectors in vivo. Quinone reductase induction in Hepa 1c1c7 cells therefore provides a simple, versatile, and reliable system for the evaluation of the potency, kinetics, and mechanism of action of anticarcinogens. PMID:3080750

  18. cis-acting DNA elements regulating expression of the liver pyruvate kinase gene in hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Evidence for tissue-specific activators and extinguisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognet, M; Bergot, M O; Kahn, A

    1991-04-25

    To identify the DNA sequences that cis-regulate the expression of the rat liver pyruvate kinase (L-PK) genes, a series of constructs in which the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter genes is driven by various deleted fragments of the 3200 base pairs (bp) upstream of the L-PK gene cap site have been assayed for transient expression after introduction into hepatoma HepG2 cells, rat hepatocytes in primary culture, fibroblast LTK- cells, myogenic C2C12 cells, and CHO cells. Four distinct regulatory domains have been characterized. A proximal promoter region containing a binding site for the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) which is sufficient to confer liver specificity, even in the presence of a ubiquitous enhancer. A distal promoter region (-96 to -283 bp) containing binding sites for the liver-specific factor A1 (LFA1), the ubiquitous nuclear factor 1 (NF1), the major late transcriptional factor (MLTF), and so far unidentified proteins binding to the L5-PK region which is essential to maximally activate expression of the construct in HepG2 cells. An extinguisher region, located between positions -2082 and -1170 bp, which decreases efficiency of the L-PK promoter in HepG2 cells, but not in hepatocytes in primary culture. Finally, a far upstream region (-2900 to -2500 bp) which seems to correspond to a liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive site and which behaves in HepG2 cells as an activating sequence efficient in the absence of the extinguisher.

  19. Involvement of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein in acetaminophen-induced toxicity in hepatoma-derived HepG2 and Hep3B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manov, Irena; Bashenko, Yulia; Hirsh, Mark; Iancu, Theodore C

    2006-09-01

    Acetaminophen overdose causes severe hepatic failure. Although the mechanisms of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity have been well investigated, little is known about the involvement of the P-glycoprotein in acetaminophen transport and toxicity. P-Glycoprotein is a membrane efflux pump, playing a significant role in regulating absorption, excretion, and tissue distribution of many drugs. To evaluate the contribution of P-glycoprotein transporter in the course of acetaminophen-induced toxicity, HepG2 and Hep3B cells with different P-glycoprotein expression and activity, were treated by acetaminophen (1-10 mM) for different time periods, with or without the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil. P-Glycoprotein activity was determined by rhodamine 123 efflux assay and western blot analysis. To assess the acetaminophen-induced toxicity and effect of verapamil, we investigated cellular redox status, phosphatidylserine externalization, nuclear fragmentation and ultrastructural changes. Verapamil markedly enhanced acetaminophen-induced oxidative damage and cell death. Moreover, verapamil revealed acetaminophen toxicity even at subtoxic levels. High acetaminophen concentrations increased P-glycoprotein activity and content in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells. These observations suggest the involvement of P-glycoprotein in acetaminophen transport. Notwithstanding the differences of the investigated hepatoma cell lines in P-glycoprotein function, acetaminophen-induced toxicity was similar, possibly due to different functions of drug-metabolizing systems. We conclude that acetaminophen is a P-glycoprotein substrate and P-glycoprotein is involved in acetaminophen transport and toxicity in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. This study establishes the fact that acetaminophen can modulate P-glycoprotein in tumour cells, suggesting that its routine use in cancer patients in combination with anticancer drugs, may influence the result of chemotherapy.

  20. Role of hepatitis B virus X protein in regulating LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1 expression to mediate proliferation and migration of hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Renxian

    2012-08-01

    the stable HBx-expressing cells significantly suppressed hepatocellular cells proliferation and migration. Conclusions These results demonstrated that HBx could upregulate LASP-1 through PI3-K pathway to promote the proliferation and migration of hepatoma cells.

  1. Genotoxicity assessment of membrane concentrates of landfill leachate treated with Fenton reagent and UV-Fenton reagent using human hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guifang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Lu, Gang [Key Laboratory of Water/Soil Toxic Pollutants Control and Bioremediation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yin, Pinghe, E-mail: tyinph@jnu.edu.cn [Research Center of Analysis and Test, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Ling, E-mail: zhaoling@jnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Water/Soil Toxic Pollutants Control and Bioremediation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jimmy Yu, Qiming [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Membrane concentrates have a threat to human health and environment. • Untreated membrane concentrates induces cytotoxic and genotoxic to HepG2 cells. • Both methods were effective method for degradation of BPA and NP in concentrates. • Both methods were efficient in reducing genotoxic effects of concentrates. • UV-Fenton reagent had higher removal efficiency and provides toxicological safety. - Abstract: Membrane concentrates of landfill leachates contain organic and inorganic contaminants that could be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In this paper, the genotoxicity of membrane concentrates before and after Fenton and UV-Fenton reagent was assessed. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was determined by using the methods of methyltetrazolium (MTT), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assay in human hepatoma cells. MTT assay showed a cytotoxicity of 75% after 24 h of exposure to the highest tested concentration of untreated concentrates, and no cytotoxocity for UV-Fenton and Fenton treated concentrates. Both CBMN and comet assays showed increased levels of genotoxicity in cells exposed to untreated concentrates, compared to those occurred in cells exposed to UV-Fenton and Fenton reagent treated concentrates. There was no significant difference between negative control and UV-Fenton treated concentrates for micronucleus and comet assay parameters. UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in concentrates. These findings showed UV-Fenton and Fenton reaction were effective methods for treatment of such complex concentrates, UV-Fenton reagent provided toxicological safety of the treated effluent, and the genotoxicity assays were found to be feasible tools for assessment of toxicity risks of complex concentrates.

  2. Roles of COMM-domain-containing 1 in stability and recruitment of the copper-transporting ATPase in a mouse hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Hiraoka, Daisuke; Kawaji, Fumika; Nakamura, Emi; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2010-07-01

    A novel function of COMMD1 {COMM [copper metabolism MURR1 (mouse U2af1-rs1 region 1)]-domain-containing 1}, a protein relevant to canine copper toxicosis, was examined in the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa 1-6 with multi-disciplinary techniques consisting of molecular and cellular biological techniques, speciation and elemental imaging. To clarify the function of COMMD1, COMMD1-knockdown was accomplished by introducing siRNA (small interfering RNA) into the cells. Although COMMD1-knockdown did not affect copper incorporation, it inhibited copper excretion, resulting in copper accumulation, which predominantly existed in the form bound to MT (metallothionein). It is known that the liver copper transporter Atp7b (ATP-dependent copper transporter 7beta), localizes on the trans-Golgi network membrane under basal copper conditions and translocates to cytoplasmic vesicles to excrete copper when its concentration exceeds a certain threshold, with the vesicles dispersing in the periphery of the cell. COMMD1-knockdown reduced the expression of Atp7b, and abolished the relocation of Atp7b back from the periphery to the trans-Golgi network membrane when the copper concentration was reduced by treatment with a Cu(I) chelator. The same phenomena were observed during COMMD1-knockdown when another Atp7b substrate, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, and its sequestrator, glutathione ethylester, were applied. These results suggest that COMMD1 maintains the amount of Atp7b and facilitates recruitment of Atp7b from cytoplasmic vesicles to the trans-Golgi network membrane, i.e. COMMD1 is required to shuttle Atp7b when the intracellular copper level returns below the threshold.

  3. Genotoxic potential of montmorillonite clay mineral and alteration in the expression of genes involved in toxicity mechanisms in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisanaba, Sara, E-mail: saramh@us.es [Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, Profesor García González no. 2, 41012 Seville (Spain); Hercog, Klara; Filipic, Metka [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jos, Ángeles [Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, Profesor García González no. 2, 41012 Seville (Spain); Zegura, Bojana [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Cloisite{sup ®}Na{sup +} has a wide range of well-documented and novel applications. • Cloisite{sup ®}Na{sup +} induces micronucleus, but not nuclear bridges or nuclear buds in HepG2 cells. • Cloisite{sup ®}Na{sup +} induces changes in the gene expression. • Gene alteration is presented mainly after 24 h of exposure to Cloisite{sup ®}Na{sup +}. - Abstract: Montmorillonite, also known as Cloisite{sup ®}Na{sup +} (CNa{sup +}), is a natural clay with a wide range of well-documented and novel applications, such as pharmaceutical products or food packaging. Although considered a low toxic product, the expected increased exposure to CNa{sup +} arises concern on the potential consequences on human and environmental health especially as its genotoxicity has scarcely been investigated so far. Thus, we investigated, for the first time, the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of CNa{sup +} (15.65, 31.25 and 62.5 μg/mL) on genomic instability of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) by determining the formation of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) with the Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay. Further on we studied the influence of CNa{sup +} on the expression of several genes involved in toxicity mechanisms using the real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that CNa{sup +} increased the number of MNi, while the numbers of NBUDs and NPBs were not affected. In addition it deregulated genes in all the groups studied, mainly after longer time of exposure. These findings provide the evidence that CNa{sup +} is potentially genotoxic. Therefore further studies that will elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in toxic activity of CNa{sup +} are needed for hazard identification and human safety assessment.

  4. Proteomic analysis of human hepatoma cells expressing methionine adenosyltransferase I/III: Characterization of DDX3X as a target of S-adenosylmethionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Paul C; Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Bigaud, Emilie; Serna, Antonio; Renández-Alcoceba, Rubén; Lu, Shelly C; Mato, José M; Prieto, Jesús; Corrales, Fernando J

    2012-06-06

    Methionine adenosyltransferase I/III (MATI/III) synthesizes S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in quiescent hepatocytes. Its activity is compromised in most liver diseases including liver cancer. Since SAM is a driver of hepatocytes fate we have studied the effect of re-expressing MAT1A in hepatoma Huh7 cells using proteomics. MAT1A expression leads to SAM levels close to those found in quiescent hepatocytes and induced apoptosis. Normalization of intracellular SAM induced alteration of 128 proteins identified by 2D-DIGE and gel-free methods, accounting for deregulation of central cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation and survival. Human Dead-box protein 3 (DDX3X), a RNA helicase regulating RNA splicing, export, transcription and translation was down-regulated upon MAT1A expression. Our data support the regulation of DDX3X levels by SAM in a concentration and time dependent manner. Consistently, DDX3X arises as a primary target of SAM and a principal intermediate of its antitumoral effect. Based on the parallelism between SAM and DDX3X along the progression of liver disorders, and the results reported here, it is tempting to suggest that reduced SAM in the liver may lead to DDX3X up-regulation contributing to the pathogenic process and that replenishment of SAM might prove to have beneficial effects, at least in part by reducing DDX3X levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fish Stem Cells: Classification, Resources, Characteristics and Application Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehriban ÇEK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells, have the potential for self-renewal that can differ to the specialized cells. First studies on stem cells in fish started with zebra fish in 1992. In this review, classification, resources, vital importance, characteristics and application areas of fish stem cell were clarified.

  6. Effects of Benzo(a)pyrene on the Expression of Heat Shock Proteins, Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Antioxidant Enzymes in Hepatic Tumors Induced by Rat Hepatoma N1-S1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Park, So-Young; Lee, Min; Phark, Sohee; Won, Nam Hee; Kang, Hyung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is easily introduced to humans via consumption of grilled or smoked meat. BaP causes harmful oxidative effects on cell development, growth and survival through an increase in membrane lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and mutagenesis. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic effects of BaP on oxidative stress in hepatic tumors. In this study, we established a hepatic tumor model by injecting rat hepatoma N1-S1 cells into healthy rats. Changes in the abundance of heat shock proteins (HSPs), antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines were then investigated by western blot analysis. In addition, we examined changes in oxidative stress levels. Injection of N1-S1 cells or concomitant injection of BaP and N1-S1 cells resulted in the formation of hepatic tumors at the injection site. Evaluation of rat plasma reveals that hepatic tumors induced by BaP and N1-S1 cells expresses higher levels of Hsp27, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) when compared to those induced by N1-S1 cells only. The collective results of this study suggest that BaP exerts synergistic effects on the expression of HSP, cytokines and antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tumors induced by rat hepatoma N1-S1 cells. PMID:21286013

  7. Inhibitory effect of chitosan oligosaccharide on human hepatoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chitosan oligosaccharide, the degradation products of chitin, was reported to have a wide range of physiological functions and biological activities. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of Chitosan oligosaccharide on human hepatoma cells. Materials and Methods: MTT assay was applied to detect cell ...

  8. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jin [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Agriculture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Feng [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fang, Yong; Yang, Wenjian [College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023 (China); An, Xinxin; Zhao, Liyan; Xin, Zhihong; Cao, Lin [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu, Qiuhui, E-mail: qiuhuihu@njau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Tea polyphenols have strong antioxidant and antitumor activities. However, these health benefits are limited due to their poor in vivo stability and low bioavailability. Chitosan nanoparticles as delivery systems may provide an alternative approach for enhancing bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. In this study, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles have been prepared using two different chitosan biomaterials, and their antitumor effects were evaluated in HepG2 cells, including cell cytotoxicity comparison, cell morphology analysis, cell apoptosis and cell cycle detection. The results indicated that the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed a branch shape and heterogeneous distribution in prepared suspension. MTT assay suggested that tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the cytotoxicity rates were increased gradually and appeared an obvious dose-dependent relationship. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the HepG2 cells treated with tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited some typical apoptotic features, such as microvilli disappearance, margination of nuclear chromatin, intracytoplasmic vacuoles and the mitochondrial swelling. In addition, the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles had relatively weak inhibitory effects on HepG2 cancer cells compared with tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenols not only induced cancer cell apoptosis, but also promoted their necrosis. However, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited their antitumor effects mainly through inducing cell apoptosis. Our results revealed that the inhibition effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on tumor cells probably depended on their controlled drug release and effective cell delivery. The chitosan nanoparticles themselves as the delivery carrier showed limited antitumor effects compared with their encapsulated drugs. - Highlights: • Tea polyphenol

  9. Rat hepatitis E virus derived from wild rats (Rattus rattus) propagates efficiently in human hepatoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirintai, Suljid; Tanggis; Mulyanto; Suparyatmo, Joseph Benedictus; Takahashi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nagashima, Shigeo; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2014-06-24

    Although rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in wild rats, no cell culture systems for this virus have been established. A recent report suggesting the presence of antibodies against rat HEV in human sera encouraged us to cultivate rat HEV in human cells. When liver homogenates obtained from wild rats (Rattus rattus) in Indonesia were inoculated onto human hepatocarcinoma cells, the rat HEV replicated efficiently in PLC/PRF/5, HuH-7 and HepG2 cells, irrespective of its genetic group (G1-G3). The rat HEV particles released from cultured cells harbored lipid-associated membranes on their surface that were depleted by treatment with detergent and protease, with the buoyant density in sucrose shifting from 1.15-1.16 g/ml to 1.27-1.28 g/ml. A Northern blotting analysis revealed genomic RNA of 7.0 kb and subgenomic RNA of 2.0 kb in the infected cells. The subgenomic RNA of G1-G3 each possessed the extreme 5'-end sequence of GUAGC (nt 4933-4937), downstream of the highly conserved sequence of GAAUAACA (nt 4916-4923). The establishment of culture systems for rat HEV would allow for extended studies of the mechanisms of viral replication and functional roles of HEV proteins. Further investigation is required to clarify the zoonotic potential of rat HEV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Tumor Microenvironment on Selective Uptake of Boric Acid in HepG2 Human Hepatoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu-Chi; Hsia, Yu-Chun; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Chou, Fong-In; Yang, Chia-Min; Chuang, Yung-Jen

    2017-11-01

    Feasibility and efficacy of boric acid (BA)-mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was first demonstrated by eliminating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a rat model. Furthermore, selective uptake of BA by liver tumor cells was shown in a rabbit model. To gain further insight, this study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of transportation and selective uptake of BA in HepG2 liver tumor cells. Transportation of BA in HepG2 cells was analyzed by time-course assays and by analyzing the rate of diffusion versus the concentration of BA. The effect of different tumor conditions on BA uptake was studied by treating HepG2 cells with 25 μg (10)B/ml BA under different concentrations of glucose, at different pH and in the presence of water-soluble cholesterol. HepG2 cells mainly uptake BA by simple diffusion. Cell membrane permeability may also contribute to tumor-specific uptake of BA. The selective uptake of BA was achieved primarily by diffusion, while other factors, such as low pH and increased membrane fluidity, which are hallmarks of HCC, might further enhance BA uptake. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Sensitive-cell-based fish chromatophore biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Thomas K.; Chaplen, Frank W.; Jovanovic, Goran; Kolodziej, Wojtek; Trempy, Janine E.; Willard, Corwin; Liburdy, James A.; Pence, Deborah V.; Paul, Brian K.

    2004-07-01

    A sensitive biosensor (cytosensor) has been developed based on color changes in the toxin-sensitive colored living cells of fish. These chromatophores are highly sensitive to the presence of many known and unknown toxins produced by microbial pathogens and undergo visible color changes in a dose-dependent manner. The chromatophores are immobilized and maintained in a viable state while potential pathogens multiply and fish cell-microbe interactions are monitored. Low power LED lighting is used to illuminate the chromatophores which are magnified using standard optical lenses and imaged onto a CCD array. Reaction to toxins is detected by observing changes is the total area of color in the cells. These fish chromatophores are quite sensitive to cholera toxin, Staphococcus alpha toxin, and Bordatella pertussis toxin. Numerous other toxic chemical and biological agents besides bacterial toxins also cause readily detectable color effects in chromatophores. The ability of the chromatophore cell-based biosensor to distinguish between different bacterial pathogens was examined. Toxin producing strains of Salmonella enteritis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus induced movement of pigmented organelles in the chromatophore cells and this movement was measured by changes in the optical density over time. Each bacterial pathogen elicited this measurable response in a distinctive and signature fashion. These results suggest a chromatophore cell-based biosensor assay may be applicable for the detection and identification of virulence activities associated with certain air-, food-, and water-borne bacterial pathogens.

  12. 2- and 4-Aminobiphenyls induce oxidative DNA damage in human hepatoma (Hep G2) cells via different mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shuchi [Institute of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chung, Jing-Gung [Institute of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-H. [Department of Medical Technology, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-C. [Department of Biotechnology, National Kaoshiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: osycchna@ksts.seed.net.tw

    2006-01-29

    4-Aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and its analogue, 2-aminobiphenyl (2-ABP), were examined for their ability to induce oxidative DNA damage in Hep G2 cells. Using the alkaline comet assay, we showed that 2-ABP and 4-ABP (25-200 {mu}M) were able to induce the DNA damage in Hep G2 cells. With both compounds, formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using flow cytometry analysis. Post-treatment of 2-ABP and 4-ABP-treated cells by endonuclease III (Endo III) or formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) to determine the formation of oxidized pyrimidines or oxidized purines showed a significant increase of the extent of DNA migration. This indicated that oxidative DNA damage occurs in Hep G2 cells after exposure to 2-ABP and 4-ABP. This assumption was further substantiated by the fact that the spin traps, 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and N-tert-butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN), decreased DNA damage significantly. Furthermore, addition of the catalase (100 U/ml) caused a decrease in the DNA damage induced by 2-ABP or 4-ABP, indicating that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is involved in ABP-induced DNA damage. Pre-incubation of the cells with the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO) (1 mM) and with the copper chelator neocupronine (NC) (100 {mu}M) also decreased DNA damage in cells treated with 200 {mu}M 2-ABP or 200 {mu}M 4-ABP, while the calcium chelator {l_brace}1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester{r_brace}(BAPTA/AM) (10 {mu}M) decreased only DNA strand breaks in cells exposed to 4-ABP. This suggested that ions are involved in the formation of DNA strand breaks. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting, lower inhibition of the expression of the OGG1 gene and of the OGG1 protein was observed in cells treated with 4-ABP, and 2-ABP-treated cells showed a marked reduction in the expression of OGG1 gene and OGG1 protein. Taken together, our finding indicated the mechanisms of induced oxidative DNA damage in Hep G2 cell

  13. Co-operation of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to transcriptional activation of the human haem oxygenase-1 gene promoter in a hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigeru; Matsuura, Naomi; Kurokawa, Takako; Takahashi, Yuji; Miura, Takashi

    2002-11-01

    We reported previously that the 5'-flanking region (nucleotides -1976 to -1655) of the human haem oxygenase-1 ( hHO-1 ) gene enhances hHO-1 promoter activity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, but not in HeLa cells [Takahashi, Takahashi, Ito, Nagano, Shibahara and Miura (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1447, 231-235]. To define more precisely the regulatory elements involved, in the present study we have functionally dissected this region and localized the enhancer to a 50 bp fragment (-1793 to -1744). Site-direct mutagenesis analysis revealed that two regions were responsible for this enhancer activity, i.e. a hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) homologous region and a GC box motif homologous region. Mutation in either region alone moderately decreased enhancer activity. However, mutations in both regions reduced promoter activity to the basal level. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that the P5-2 fragment (-1793 to -1744) interacted with at least two nuclear factors, i.e. HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3. Co-transfection experiments using Drosophila SL2 cells revealed that HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3 synergistically stimulated the enhancer activity of the P5-2 fragment. These results indicate that co-operation of HNF-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to the activation of hHO-1 gene expression in hepatoma cells.

  14. Stigmasterol isolated from marine microalgae Navicula incerta induces apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sang; Li, Xi-Feng; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Ryu, BoMi; Kim, Se Kwon

    2014-08-01

    Plant sterols have shown potent anti-proliferative effects and apoptosis induction against breast and prostate cancers. However, the effect of sterols against hepatic cancer has not been investigated. In the present study, we assessed whether the stigmasterol isolated from Navicula incerta possesses apoptosis inductive effect in hepatocarcimona (HepG2) cells. According to the results, Stigmasterol has up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic gene expressions (Bax, p53) while down-regulating the anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2). Probably via mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway. With the induction of apoptosis caspase-8, 9 were activated. The DNA damage and increase in apoptotic cell numbers were observed through Hoechst staining, annexin V staining and cell cycle analysis. According to these results, we can suggest that the stigmasterol shows potent apoptosis inductive effects and has the potential to be tested as an anti-cancer therapeutic against liver cancer.

  15. Waltonitone inhibits proliferation of hepatoma cells and tumorigenesis via FXR-miR-22-CCNA2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Gong, Junting; Wang, Guangyun; Chen, Peng; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-11-15

    Waltonitone (WA), an ursane-type pentacyclic triterpene extracted from Gentiana waltonii Burkill, was recently appeared to exert anti-tumor effect. However, the biological underpinnings underlying the role of WA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells have not been completely elucidated. Our previous report indicated that the FXR-regulated miR-22-CCNA2 pathway contributed to the progression and development of HCC. Besides, a wide spectrum of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be up- or down-regulated upon WA treatment, including miR-22. Hence, we aimed to determine whether WA inhibited HCC cell proliferation via the FXR-miR-22-CCNA2 axis. In this study, we observed a significant downregulation of FXR and miR-22, along with upregulation of CCNA2 in 80 paired tumors relative to adjacent normal tissues of HCC subjects, which were obtained from the available GEO database in NCBI (GSE22058). Furthermore, we validated the expression patterns of these three targets in another set of HCC samples and found the highly correlation within each other. Additionally, our data demonstrated that WA induced miR-22 and repressed CCNA2 in HCC cells, which contributed to the cell proliferation arrest. In addition, evidence suggested that either miR-22 silencing or FXR knockdown reversed the diminished CCNA2 expression as well as cell proliferation inhibition caused by WA treatment and WA inhibited tumor masses in vivo in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model of HCC. Overall, our data indicated that WA inhibited HCC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis through miR-22-regulated CCNA2 repression, which was at least partially through FXR modulation.

  16. Curcumin Upregulates Antioxidant Defense, Lon Protease, and Heat-Shock Protein 70 Under Hyperglycemic Conditions in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounden, Shivona; Chuturgoon, Anil

    2017-05-01

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) regulates mitochondrial antioxidant (AO) defense and improves mitochondrial disorders. Curcumin protects mitochondria; however, the mechanisms need investigation. We postulated that curcumin increases AO defense under hyperglycemic conditions in HepG2 cells through SIRT3-mediated mechanisms. Cell viability was determined in HepG2 cells cultured with 5 mM glucose, 19.9 mM mannitol, vehicle control, 10 mM glucose, and 30 mM glucose in the absence or presence of curcumin for 24 h. SIRT3, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and Lon protein expressions were determined using western blot. Transcript levels of SIRT3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability, SIRT3 protein expression, transcript levels of SIRT3, PGC-1α, CREB, GPx1, and SOD2 and protein expressions of NF-κB, Lon, and Hsp70 were significantly increased in the curcumin-treated hyperglycemic groups. Since curcumin and SIRT3 both improve mitochondrial function and AO defense, SIRT3 may be involved in the protective effects of curcumin.

  17. Cholesterol depletion of hepatoma cells impairs hepatitis B virus envelopment by altering the topology of the large envelope protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorobantu, C.M.; Macovei, A.; Lazar, C.; Dwek, R.A.; Zitzmann, N.; Branza-Nichita, N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that cholesterol depletion of the membrane envelope of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) impairs viral infection of target cells. A potential function of this lipid in later steps of the viral life cycle remained controversial, with secretion of virions and subviral particles

  18. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of carbon-based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, in human glioblastoma and hepatoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Samluk, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two car...

  19. CXCL10 Decreases GP73 Expression in Hepatoma Cells at the Early Stage of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Golgi protein 73 (GP73, which is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, has recently been identified as a novel serum marker for HCC diagnosis. Several reports also noted the increased levels of GP73 expression in chronic liver disease in patients with acute hepatitis of various etiologies, chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and alcoholic liver disease. The molecular mechanisms of GP73 expression in HCV related liver disease still need to be determined. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of HCV infection on GP73 expression. GP73 was highly expressed in Huh7, Hep3B, 293T and HUVEC cells, and was low-expressed in HepG2 cells. HCV infection led to down-regulation of GP73 in Huh7 and HepG2/CD81 cells at the early stage of infection. CXCL10 decreased GP73 expression in Huh7 and HepG2 cells. Up-regulation of GP73 was noted in hepatocytes with cytopathic effect at advanced stage of HCV infection, and further research is needed to determine the unknown factors affecting GP73 expression. In conclusion, our study provided additional evidence for the roles of GP73 in liver disease.

  20. Alteration of N-glycan expression profile and glycan pattern of glycoproteins in human hepatoma cells after HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tian; Yang, Ganglong; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Yidan; Fu, Zhongxiao; Lu, Fangfang; Gu, Jianguo; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Tan, Zengqi; Chen, Xi; Xie, Yan; Guan, Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases, liver fibrosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However little is known about any information of N-glycan pattern in human liver cell after HCV infection. The altered profiles of N-glycans in HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cell were analyzed by using mass spectrometry. Then, lectin microarray, lectin pull-down assay, reverse transcription-quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) and western-blotting were used to identify the altered N-glycosylated proteins and glycosyltransferases. Compared to uninfected cells, significantly elevated levels of fucosylated, sialylated and complex N-glycans were found in HCV infected cells. Furthermore, Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA)-binding glycoconjugates were increased most. Then, the LCA-agarose was used to precipitate the specific glycosylated proteins and identify that fucosylated modified annexin A2 (ANXA2) and heat shock protein 90 beta family member 1 (HSP90B1) was greatly increased in HCV-infected cells. However, the total ANXA2 and HSP90B1 protein levels remained unchanged. Additionally, we screened the mRNA expressions of 47 types of different glycosyltransferases and found that α1,6-fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) was the most up-regulated and contributed to strengthen the LCA binding capability to fucosylated modified ANXA2 and HSP90B1 after HCV infection. HCV infection caused the altered N-glycans profiles, increased expressions of FUT8, fucosylated ANXA2 and HSP90B1 as well as enhanced LCA binding to Huh7.5.1. Our results may lay the foundation for clarifying the role of N-glycans and facilitate the development of novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets based on the increased FUT8, fucosylated ANXA2 and HSP90B1 after HCV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. LNO3 AND L3 Are Associated With Antiproliferative And Pro-Apoptotic Action In Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Campos Zanelatto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of antitumoral substances is the focus of intense biomedical research. Two structural analogues of thalidomide, LNO3 and L3, are two synthetic compounds that might possess such antitumor properties. We evaluated the toxicological effects of these substances, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in HTC cells. Additionally, the production of free radicals (nitric oxide and superoxide was investigated, and the expression of caspases genes 3, 8, and 9 were determined by RT-qPCR. The compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects that resulted in inhibited cell proliferation. LNO3 showed to be more effective and toxic than L3 in all assays. LNO3 stimulated the release of NO and superoxide, which was accompanied by the formation of peroxynitrite. Apoptosis was induced in a dose-dependent manner by both compounds; however, the expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9 was unchanged. These results suggested that L3 and LNO3 possess antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in HTC cells. Additionally, although they exhibited cytotoxicity, L3 and LNO3 might be useful coadjuvants in tumor treatment studies.

  2. Hemoglobin Regulates the Metabolic, Synthetic, Detoxification, and Biotransformation Functions of Hepatoma Cells Cultured in a Hollow Fiber Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic hollow fiber (HF) bioreactors constitute one type of extracorporeal bioartificial liver assist device (BLAD). Ideally, cultured hepatocytes in a BLAD should closely mimic the in vivo oxygenation environment of the liver sinusoid to yield a device with optimal performance. However, most BLADs, including hepatic HF bioreactors, suffer from O2 limited transport toward cultured hepatocytes, which reduces their performance. We hypothesize that supplementation of hemoglobin-based O2 carriers into the circulating cell culture medium of hepatic HF bioreactors is a feasible and effective strategy to improve bioreactor oxygenation and performance. We examined the effect of bovine hemoglobin (BvHb) supplementation (15 g/L) in the circulating cell culture medium of hepatic HF bioreactors on hepatocyte proliferation, metabolism, and varied liver functions, including biosynthesis, detoxification, and biotransformation. It was observed that BvHb supplementation supported the maintenance of a higher cell mass in the extracapillary space, improved hepatocyte metabolic efficiency (i.e., hepatocytes consumed much less glucose), improved hepatocyte capacity for drug metabolism, and conserved both albumin synthesis and ammonia detoxification functions compared to controls (no BvHb supplementation) under the same experimental conditions. PMID:20528678

  3. Waltonitone inhibits proliferation of hepatoma cells and tumorigenesis via FXR-miR-22-CCNA2 signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan; Gong, Junting; Wang, Guangyun; Chen, Peng; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-01-01

    Waltonitone (WA), an ursane-type pentacyclic triterpene extracted from Gentiana waltonii Burkill, was recently appeared to exert anti-tumor effect. However, the biological underpinnings underlying the role of WA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells have not been completely elucidated. Our previous report indicated that the FXR-regulated miR-22-CCNA2 pathway contributed to the progression and development of HCC. Besides, a wide spectrum of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be up- or down-regulated u...

  4. miR-101 suppresses HBV replication and expression by targeting FOXO1 in hepatoma carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjing; Tian, Hui

    2017-05-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to participate in the progression of cancers and in the infection of viruses. miR-101 expression has been found to be suppressed by HBV, however, the regulatory relationship between miR-101 and HBV replication remains elusive. In this report, miR-101 was significantly downregulated in HepG2.2.15 cells with HBV expression. miR-101 overexpression dramatically suppressed HBV replication and expression. Oppositely, overexpression of FOXO1 significantly promoted HBV replication and expression. Moreover, luciferase reporter analysis, qRT-PCR analysis and western blot assay confirmed that FOXO1 was a functional target of miR-101. Furthermore, restored FOXO1 expression abolished the inhibitory effect of miR-101 overexpression on HBV replication and expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Our data suggested that miR-101 suppressed HBV replication and expression partially by targeting FOXO1, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of miR-101 in HBV-host interactions and a promising therapeutic target for HBV replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient replication of genotype 3a and 4a hepatitis C virus replicons in human hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Mohsan; Scheel, Troels K H; Gottwein, Judith M

    2012-01-01

    to express a chimeric fusion protein of firefly luciferase and neomycin phosphotransferase to yield stable replicon-expressing cells. Using these constructs, the inhibitory effects of beta interferon (IFN-β), an NS3 protease inhibitor, and an NS5B nucleoside polymerase inhibitor were readily detected...... culture adaptive mutations originally reported for genotype 1b replicons. RNA replication was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and detection of viral protein. Sequencing of multiple independent replicon clones revealed the presence of additional nonsynonymous mutations. Interestingly......, all potentially adaptive mutations mapped to the NS3 protein. These mutations, when introduced back into original constructs, substantially increased colony formation efficiency. To make these replicons useful for high-throughput screening and evaluation of antiviral compounds, they were modified...

  6. HFE modulates transferrin receptor 2 levels in hepatoma cells via interactions that differ from transferrin receptor 1-HFE interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing; Chloupková, Maja; Gao, Junwei; Chapman-Arvedson, Tara L; Enns, Caroline A

    2007-12-21

    Mutations in the transmembrane glycoproteins transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and HFE are associated with hereditary hemochromatosis. Interactions between HFE and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) have been mapped to the alpha1- and alpha2-helices in HFE and to the helical domain of TfR1. Recently, TfR2 was also reported to interact with HFE in transfected mammalian cells. To test whether similar HFE residues are important for both TfR1 and TfR2 binding, a mutant form of HFE (W81AHFE) that has an approximately 5,000-fold lower affinity for TfR1 than HFE was employed. As expected, W81AHFE does not interact with TfR1. However, we found that the same mutation in HFE does not affect the TfR2/HFE interaction. This finding indicates that the TfR2/HFE and TfR1/HFE interactions are distinct. We further observed that, unlike TfR1/HFE, Tf does not compete with HFE for binding to TfR2 and that binding is independent of pH (pH 6-7.5). TfR2-TfR1 and HFE-HLA-B7 chimeras were generated to map the domains of the TfR2/HFE interaction. TfR1 and HLA-B7 were chosen because of their similar overall structures with TfR2 and HFE, respectively. We mapped the interacting domains to the putative stalk and protease-like domains of TfR2 located between residues 104 and 250 and to the alpha3 domain of HFE, both of which differ from the TfR1/HFE interacting domains. Furthermore, we found that HFE increases TfR2 levels in hepatic cells independent of holo-Tf.

  7. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Cytotoxicities of Selected Medicinal Herbs Using Human Hepatoma Cell Line (Hepg2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bashiri Dezfouli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the hepatotoxicity as well as antioxidants activities of hydromethanolic extract of six common traditional species (Origanum vulgar, Pterocarya fraxinifolia, Ferula assafoetida, Artemisia dracunculus, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Valerian officinalis in order to find a safe antioxidant source. Methods: This research project was performed at Toxicology and Animal Poisoning Research Center, University of Tehran (Tehran, Iran, in 2016. The HepG2 cells viability was examined by LDH and MTT techniques following treatment with different concentrations of selected herbal hydroethanolic extracts for 72 h. Furthermore, assessment of antioxidative properties of the extracts was carried out by various scavenging models including DPPH and FRAP. Results: The highest cytotoxicity was displayed by F. asafoetida extract (IC50= 67.3 µg/ml. R. Officinalis and A. dracunculus extracts were noted as non-toxic due to the high effective dose. Interestingly, V. officinalis extract indicated stimulating effects on cell growth/ proliferation with ED50 values of 20.9 µ/ml. The highest and lowest antioxidant capacities refer to R. officinalis and V. officials. In DPPH assay, the IC50 value of R. officinalis and V. officinalis extracts was found to be 39.82 and 371.77 µg/ml, respectively. FRAP values of R. officinalis and V. officials were 2754.07 and 561.14 µM/g, respectively. Conclusion: This study identified R. officinalis extract as a natural non-toxic agent with remarkable antioxidant potential in phytomedicine.

  8. Primary cell culture from fish gills and kidney using fish serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, G; Sood, N; Swaminathan, R

    2001-09-01

    A novel, cost effective and time saving technique for primary cell culture from gills and kidney using fish serum has been developed. Single cell suspension of gills and kidney of Clarias gariepinus was obtained by trypsinization. Minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% fish serum in place of 10% foetal calf serum and 20% fish muscle extract, yielded confluent monolayer on 6th and 8th day in gill and kidney tissue respectively at 28 degrees C. Fish serum can be successfully used as media supplement for cultivation and maintenance of primary cell culture from fishes.

  9. Effects of two organomodified clays intended to food contact materials on the genomic instability and gene expression of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisanaba, Sara; Jordá-Beneyto, María; Cameán, Ana M; Jos, Ángeles

    2016-02-01

    Globally, food industries have made significant progress in order to increase the shelf-life of food products and have fewer economic losses. In this sense, the use of organomodified clays destined to be incorporated in polymer matrices play a novel role, leading to improved materials named nanocomposites with enhanced technological profiles. Due to the presence of these clays into the package, the safety of the consumers is a main concern. Cloisite(®)30B and Clay1 are two organomodified clays containing quaternary ammonium salts as modifiers, that can be potentially used to reinforce packaging polymers. Available toxicity data about these clays, specifically genotoxicity, is still limited and inconclusive in some aspects. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate both clays ability to induce genomic instability through the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN) and for the first time, their influence in the modulation of several genes involved in genotoxicity and cell death mechanisms. Overall, no genotoxicity response was obtained in any case at the conditions tested. On the other hand, significant expression changes were observed on the genes selected. Nevertheless, further studies are highly needed to elucidate and increase the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of clays toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypoxia/hepatoma dual specific suicide gene expression plasmid delivery using bio-reducible polymer for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Nam, Kihoon; Lee, Minhyung; Kim, Sung Wan

    2013-10-10

    Gene therapy is suggested as a promising alternative strategy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) therapy. To achieve a successful and safe gene therapy, tight regulation of gene expression is required to minimize side-effects in normal tissues. In this study, we developed a novel hypoxia and hepatoma dual specific gene expression vector. The constructed vectors were transfected into various cell lines using bio-reducible polymer, PAM-ABP. First, pAFPS-Luc or pAFPL-Luc vector was constructed with the alpha-fectoprotein (AFP) promoter and enhancer for hepatoma tissue specific gene expression. Then, pEpo-AFPL-Luc was constructed by insertion of the erythropoietin (Epo) enhancer for hypoxic cancer specific gene expression. In vitro transfection assay showed that pEpo-AFPL-Luc transfected hepatoma cell increased gene expression under hypoxic condition. To confirm the therapeutic effect of dual specific vector, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene was introduced for cancer cell killing. The pEpo-AFPL-TK was transfected into hepatoma cell lines in the presence of ganciclovir (GCV) pro-drug. Caspase-3/7, MTT and TUNEL assays elucidated that pEpo-AFPL-TK transfected cells showed significant increasing of death rate in hypoxic hepatoma cells compared to controls. Therefore, the hypoxia/hepatoma dual specific gene expression vector with the Epo enhancer and AFP promoter may be useful for hepatoma specific gene therapy. © 2013.

  11. Identification of genes that regulate multiple cellular processes/responses in the context of lipotoxicity to hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yedwabnick Matthew

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to devise efficient treatments for complex, multi-factorial diseases, it is important to identify the genes which regulate multiple cellular processes. Exposure to elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α alters multiple cellular processes, causing lipotoxicity. Intracellular lipid accumulation has been shown to reduce the lipotoxicity of saturated FFA. We hypothesized that the genes which simultaneously regulate lipid accumulation as well as cytotoxicity may provide better targets to counter lipotoxicity of saturated FFA. Results As a model system to test this hypothesis, human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2 were exposed to elevated physiological levels of FFAs and TNF-α. Triglyceride (TG accumulation, toxicity and the genomic responses to the treatments were measured. Here, we present a framework to identify such genes in the context of lipotoxicity. The aim of the current study is to identify the genes that could be altered to treat or ameliorate the cellular responses affected by a complex disease rather than to identify the causal genes. Genes that regulate the TG accumulation, cytotoxicity or both were identified by a modified genetic algorithm partial least squares (GA/PLS analysis. The analyses identified NADH dehydrogenase and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs as important regulators of both cytotoxicity and lipid accumulation in response to FFA and TNF-α exposure. In agreement with the predictions, inhibiting NADH dehydrogenase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK reduced cytotoxicity significantly and increased intracellular TG accumulation. Inhibiting another MAPK pathway, the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK, on the other hand, improved the cytotoxicity without changing TG accumulation. Much greater reduction in the toxicity was observed upon inhibiting the NADH dehydrogenase and MAPK (which were identified by the dual-response analysis, than for the

  12. The inhibition effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in human hepatoma cells with the treatment of cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, How-Ran [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Emerging Compounds Research Center, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Tsou, Tsui-Chun [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hung-Ta [Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Eddy Essen; Tsai, Feng-Yuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ding-Yan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Chen, Fu-An [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yan-Pu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Fen, E-mail: yfwang@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); R and D Center of Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), considered as endocrine disruptors, tend to accumulate in fatty tissues. Dioxin-responsive element chemical activated luciferase gene expression assay (DRE-luciferase assay) has been recognized as a semi-quantitative method for screening dioxins for its fast and low-cost as compared with HRGC/HRMS. However, some problems with the bioassay, including specificity, detection variation resulted from different cleanup strategies, and uncertainty of false-negative or false-positive results, remain to be overcome. Cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant around the world. This study was aimed to examine the effects of cadmium on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated gene expression in human hepatoma cells (Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and Huh7 cells). Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and DRE-luciferase assay were employed to determine the enzyme activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and activation of AhR, respectively. The results showed that Cd{sup 2+} levels significantly inhibited the induction of TCDD-induced CYP1A1 and DRE luciferase activation in hepatoma cells. The 50% inhibited concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of CdCl{sub 2} were 0.414 {mu}M (95% confidence interval (C.I.): 0.230-0.602 {mu}M) in Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and 23.2 {mu}M (95% C.I.: 21.7-25.4 {mu}M) in Huh7 cells. Accordingly, prevention of interference with non-dioxin-like compounds in a DRE-luciferase assay is of great importance in an extensive cleanup procedure.

  13. Modulation of the mutagenic effect of benzo[a]pyrene and bleomycin by isoflavone extracts in a rat hepatoma cell line Modulação do efeito mutagênico do benzo[a]pireno e bleomicina por extratos de isoflavonas em células de hepatoma de roedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Mantovani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies show that the intake of foods rich in isoflavones (phytoestrogens, such as soybeans, confers protection against various types of cancer, what increases the scientific and popular interest on these compounds. In the present study, phytoestrogens extracts from soybeans were tested for genotoxic potential and modulatory effects on benzo[a]pyrene and bleomycin. Two phytoestrogens were evaluated in vitro, phytoestrogen “A” was supplied by EMBRAPA-Soja, Londrina – PR, and phytoestrogen “B” was purchased in a local drug store. The methods used were the comet assay (genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity and micronucleus test with cytokinesis block (mutagenicity in rat hepatoma cells (HTC cell. The isoflavones were tested at three concentrations pre-established by the MTT cytotoxicity assay. Both isoflavone extracts showed no genotoxic effects in the comet assay, but showed induction of micronucleus. In the evaluation of the phytoestrogens for a modulatory effect, both phytoestrogens extracts showed antigenotoxicity in the comet assay.Estudos epidemiológicos mostram que a ingestão de alimentos ricos em isoflavonas (fitoestrógenos, como a soja, confere proteção contra vários tipos de câncer, o que aumenta o interesse científico e popular sobre esses compostos. No presente estudo, os fitoestrógenos de extrato de soja foram testados quanto aos efeitos genotóxicos e modulador de benzo [a] pireno e bleomicina. Dois fitoestrogênios foram avaliados in vitro, o fitoestrógenos “A” foi fornecido pela Embrapa-Soja, Londrina - PR, e o fitoestrógenos “B” foi comprado em uma farmácia de manipulação local. Os métodos utilizados foram o teste do Cometa (genotoxicidade e antigenotoxicidade e teste do Micronúcleo com Bloqueio Citocinese (mutagenicidade em células de hepatoma de rato (HTC celulares. As isoflavonas foram testadas em três concentrações pré-estabelecidas pelo ensaio de citotoxidade MTT. Ambos os

  14. Chronic ecotoxic effects to Pseudomonas putida and Vibrio fischeri, and cytostatic and genotoxic effects to the hepatoma cell line (HepG2) of ofloxacin photo(cata)lytically treated solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M.I. [University of Cyprus, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Street, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Nireas International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus (Cyprus); Garcia-Käufer, M. [University Medical Centre Freiburg, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, 115 B, Breisacher Straße, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Hapeshi, E. [University of Cyprus, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Street, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Nireas International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus (Cyprus); Menz, J. [Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1/C13, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Kostarelos, K.; Fatta-Kassinos, D. [University of Cyprus, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Street, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Nireas International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus (Cyprus); Kümmerer, K., E-mail: Klaus.Kuemmerer@uni.leuphana.de [Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1/C13, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Ofloxacin (OFL), a broad-spectrum and widespread-used photolabile fluoroquinolone, is frequently found in treated wastewaters, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems leading to increasing concern during the past decades regarding its effects to the environment and human health. The elimination of OFL and other xenobiotics by the application of advanced oxidation processes using photolytic (PL) and photocatalytic (PC) treatments seems promising. However, an integrated assessment scheme is needed, in which, not only the removal of the parent compound, but also the effects of the photo-transformation products (PTPs) are investigated. For this purpose, in the present study, a chronic ecotoxic assessment using representative bacteria of marine and terrestrial ecosystems and a cytostatic and genotoxic evaluation using hepatoma cell line were performed. PL and PC treatments of OFL were applied using UV radiation. The photo-transformation of OFL during the treatments was monitored by DOC measurements and UPLC–MS/MS analysis. The chronic ecotoxicity of OFL and treated samples was evaluated using Pseudomonas putida and Vibrio fischeri; whereas the cytostasis and genotoxicity were estimated by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). The main results suggest that photo-transformation of OFL took place during these treatments since the concentration of OFL decreased when the irradiation time increased, as quantified by UPLC–MS/MS analysis, and this was not coupled with an analogous DOC removal. Furthermore, nine compounds were identified as probable PTPs formed through piperazinyl dealkylation and decarboxylation. The ecotoxicity of treated solutions to the bacteria studied decreased while the cytostasis to the hepatoma cell line remained at low levels during both treatments. However, the genotoxicity to the hepatoma cell line demonstrated a different pattern in which treated samples induced a greater number of MNi for the 4–16 min of irradiation (p < 0.05) during

  15. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF ARGLABIN IN HEPATOMA TISSUE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ratkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Investigation of hypolipidemic effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone Arglabin in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC.Materials and methods. In this study we’ve evaluated the effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone Arglabin and gemfibrozil (reference drug on the lipid content in the hepatoma tissue culture (HTC which were incubated with a fat emulsion “Lipofundin” by fluorescent method with vital dye Nile Red. The cell viability was investigated using the MTT-test and staining by Trypan blue.Results. Cultivation of cell cultures of rat’s hepatoma cell line HTC with Arglabin and gemfibrozil in concentrations from 10 to 50 μmol and from 0.25 to 0.5 mmol, respectively, had no cytotoxic effect. HTC cell viability did not change compared with the corresponding rate in the control culture. Experimental hyperlipidemia in hepatoma culture was induced by the addition in the incubation medium of fat emulsion “Lipofundin” in a final concentration of 0.05 %. The fluorescence intensity of Nile Red in the cells was increased 4-fold (p < 0.05, which indicates a significant accumulation of lipids in the cytosol of cells. In these steady-state Arglabin and gemfibrozil at concentrations 75–100 μM and 0.25–1.0 mM, respectively, reduced the content of lipid in cells. Conclusion. In the model of hyperlipidemia induced by lipofundin, sesquiterpene γ-lactone Arglabin prevents the accumulation of lipids in the HTC cell line, as evidenced by a decrease in Nile Red fluorescence. However hypolipidemic effect of Arglabin is associated with cytotoxic effects, which is typical for anticancer drugs.

  16. Negligible cytotoxicity induced by different titanium dioxide nanoparticles in fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Connolly, Mona; Rosenkranz, Philipp; Fernández-Cruz, María-Luisa; Navas, José M

    2017-04-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) have a wide number of applications in cosmetic, solar and paint industries due to their photocatalyst and ultraviolet blocking properties. The continuous increase in the production of TiO 2 -NPs enhances the risk for this manufactured nanomaterial to enter water bodies through treated effluents or agricultural amendments. TiO 2 -NPs have shown very low toxicity in a number of aquatic organisms. However, there are no conclusive data about their deleterious effects and on their possible mechanisms of toxic action. At this level, in vitro cell culture systems are a useful tool to gain insight about processes underlying the toxicity of a wide variety of substances, including nanomaterials. Differences in the physiology of different taxa make advisable the use of cells coming from the taxon of interest, but collecting data from a variety of cellular types allows a better understanding of the studied processes. Taking all this into account, the aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity of three types of TiO 2 -NP, rutile hydrophobic (NM-103), rutile hydrophilic (NM-104) and rutile-anatase (NM-105), obtained from the EU Joint Research Centre (JRC) repository, using various fish cell lines (RTG-2, PLHC-1, RTH-149, RTL-W1) and rainbow trout primary hepatocytes. For comparative purposes, the effect of different dispersion protocols, end-point assays and extended exposure time was studied in a fish cell line (RTG-2) and in the rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). TiO 2 -NPs dispersions showed a variable degree of aggregation in cell culture media. Disruption of mitochondrial metabolic activity, plasma membrane integrity and lysosome function was not detected in any cell line after exposure to TiO 2 -NPs at any time and concentration ranges tested. These results are indicative of a low toxicity of the TiO 2 -NPs tested and show the usefulness of fish cells maintained in vitro as high throughput screening methods that can

  17. Energy substrate utilization in a poorly differentiated rat hepatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mares-Perlman, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism of energy substrates in a transplantable, poorly differentiated rat hepatoma and the effect of high fat total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on growth of this neoplasms and host were studied. Although high-fat TPN better maintained host weight and nitrogen balance than oral feeding and did not increase tumor growth, adverse consequences of high-fat TPN were found. These included liver lipid infiltration and indications of the possible development of insulin resistance. A method for isolating fresh hepatoma cells was designed to study the metabolism of energy substrates by this neoplasms. The metabolic viability of cells obtained by this procedure in sustained incubations was demonstrated by observations of linear rates of leucine and uridine incorporation into acid-insoluble material, retention of cellular ATP and ADP content and stable rates of oxygen consumption. Cells isolated by this procedure were used to determine whether this hepatoma was capable of oxidizing fatty acids and ketones and to estimate the contribution oxidation of these substrates made to ATP production relative to glucose and glutamine. Incorporation of radiolabel from both palmitate and ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate carbon into CO/sub 2/ was observed.

  18. Knockdown of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptosis of H1299 cells via ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hong Shik [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Ji-Hye [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk; Park, In-Chul [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu, E-mail: sgh63@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. • ROS generation enhances NF-κB activity, which acts as an upstream signal in the c-Myc/Noxa apoptotic pathway. - Abstract: We previously identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistant biomarker in p53 wild-type A549 cells and found that p53-dependent induction of the PUMA pathway was a critical event in regulating the radioresistant phenotype. Here, we found that HRP-3 knockdown regulates the radioresistance of p53-null H1299 cells through a distinctly different molecular mechanism. HRP-3 depletion was sufficient to cause apoptosis of H1299 cells by generating substantial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. Subsequent, ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation stimulated expression of c-Myc and Noxa proteins, thereby inducing the apoptotic machinery. Our results thus extend the range of targets for the development of new drugs to treat both p53 wild-type or p53-null radioresistant lung cancer cells.

  19. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 9-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl) guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHBG) in HSV1-tk gene transduced hepatoma cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Tae Sup [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung Keun [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-08-15

    The HSV1-tk reporter gene system is the most widely used system because of its advantage that direct monitoring is possible without the introduction of a separate reporter gene in case of HSV1-tk suicide gene therapy. In this study, we investigate the usefulness of the reporter probe (substrate), 9-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl) guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHBG) for non-invasive reporter gene imaging using PET in HSV1-tk expressing hepatoma model. Radiolabeled FHBG was prepared in 8 steps from a commercially available triester. The labeling reaction was carried out by NCA nucleophilic substitution with K[{sup 18}F]/K2.2.2. in acetonitrile using N2-monomethoxytrityl-9-[4-(tosly)-3-monomethoxytritylmethylbutl] guanine as a precursor, followed by deprotection with 1 N HCI. Preliminary biological properties of the probe were evaluated with MCA cells and MCA-tk cells transduced with HSV1-tk reporter gene. In vitro uptake and release-out studies of [{sup 18}F]FHBG were performed, and was analyzed correlation between [{sup 18}F]FHBG uptake ratio according to increasing numeric count of MCA-tk cells and degree of gene expression. MicroPET scan image was obtained with MCA and MCA-tk tumor beating Balb/c-nude mouse model. [{sup 18}F]FHBG was purified by reverse phase semi-HPLC system and collected at around 16-18 min. Radiochemical yield was about 20-25% (corrected for decay), radiochemical purity was > 95% and specific activity was around > 55.5 GBq/ {mu} mol. Specific accumulation of [{sup 18}F]FHBG was observed in HSV1-tk gene transduced MCA-tk cells but not MCA cells, and consecutive 1 hour release-out results showed more than 86% of uptaked [{sup 18}F]FHBG was retained inside of cells. The uptake of [{sup 18}F]FHBG was showed a highly significant linear correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.995) with increasing percentage of MCA-tk numeric cell count. In microPET scan images, remarkable difference of accumulation was observed for the two type of tumors. [{sup 18}F]FHBG appears

  20. Efficiency of a specific albumin extinguisher locus in monochromosomal hepatoma hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon-Benais, C; Delagebeaudeuf, C; Jeremiah, S; Lecoq, O; Cassio, D

    1994-07-01

    Fusion of hepatoma cells with cells of similar ploidy (1s) from different histogenetic origin results in the systematic and stable extinction of hepatic traits. However, doubling the ploidy of the hepatoma parent (2s) leads to the formation of hybrids in which extinction is not observed. To establish if these dosage effects reflect, as generally thought, the ineffectiveness of the extinguishers in 2s hepatoma-derived hybrids, the efficiency of a specific extinguisher was improved. Rat hepatoma cells (1s) stably and selectively extinguished for albumin, owing to the presence of a single mouse fibroblast chromosome marker M1, were fused with the original albumin producing hepatoma cells. In the dozen independent hybrid clones isolated, the M1 chromosome was retained and the rat albumin gene silenced. This proves that the albumin extinguisher is still efficient when the number of its targets is doubled. However the extinction promoted by this extinguisher was not immediate after fusion. A detailed analysis of the time course of extinction revealed that a precise number of cell divisions, seven, is required for the monochromosomal 2s hybrid cells to become extinguished. This phenotype was stable but reversible, loss of M1 chromosome leading to albumin expression. Moreover, the M1 part carrying the specific albumin extinguisher locus, Tse a, was identified as mouse chromosome 3.

  1. The Inhibitory Effect of 3β-Hydroxy-12-oleanen-27-oic Acid on Growth and Motility of Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells through JNK and Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3β-Hydroxy-12-oleanen-27-oic acid (ATA was a main antitumor active triterpene from the rhizomes of Astilbe chinensis. In this study, we investigated its effects on growth, apoptosis, cell cycle, motility/invasion, and metatasis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro and antimetastasis of B16-F10 melanoma in mice in vivo, as well as its molecular mechanisms of action using a high-throughput Cancer Pathway Finder PCR Array. ATA could not only induce tumor cells into apoptosis through the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, arrest HepG2 cells in G2/M phase, but also suppress the invasion and metastasis abilities of HepG2 cells and the lung metastasis of B16-F10 melanoma in mice. PCR array assay revealed that ATA upregulated 9 genes including CDKN1A, MDM2, CFLAR (CASPER, TNFRSF10B (DR5, c-Jun, IL-8, THBS1, SERPINB5 (maspin, and TNF and downregulated 8 genes such as CCNE1, AKT, ANGPT1, TEK, TGFBR1, MMP9, U-PA, and S100A4. These results indicate that ATA could exert antitumor effects through activating JNK/MAPK and suppressing AKT signal transduction pathways and that ATA might be a potent anticancer agent.

  2. Elevated glutathione level does not protect against chronic alcohol mediated apoptosis in recombinant human hepatoma cell line VL-17A over-expressing alcohol metabolizing enzymes--alcohol dehydrogenase and Cytochrome P450 2E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Karthikeyan; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Kumar, S Mathan; Chatterjee, Suvro; Clemens, Dahn L; Dey, Aparajita

    2011-06-01

    Chronic consumption of alcohol leads to liver injury. Ethanol-inducible Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) plays a critical role in alcohol mediated oxidative stress due to its ability to metabolize ethanol. In the present study, using the recombinant human hepatoma cell line VL-17A that over-expresses the alcohol metabolizing enzymes-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and CYP2E1; and control HepG2 cells, the mechanism and mode of cell death due to chronic ethanol exposure were studied. Untreated VL-17A cells exhibited apoptosis and oxidative stress when compared with untreated HepG2 cells. Chronic alcohol exposure, i.e., 100 mM ethanol treatment for 72 h caused a significant decrease in viability (47%) in VL-17A cells but not in HepG2 cells. Chronic ethanol mediated cell death in VL-17A cells was predominantly apoptotic, with increased oxidative stress as the underlying mechanism. Chronic ethanol exposure of VL-17A cells resulted in 1.1- to 2.5-fold increased levels of ADH and CYP2E1. Interestingly, the level of the antioxidant GSH was found to be 3-fold upregulated in VL-17A cells treated with ethanol, which may be a metabolic adaptation to the persistent and overwhelming oxidative stress. In conclusion, the increased GSH level may not be sufficient enough to protect VL-17A cells from chronic alcohol mediated oxidative stress and resultant apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Blazeispirol A from Agaricus blazei fermentation product induces cell death in human hepatoma Hep 3B cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tung, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2011-05-11

    Currently, liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer. Previously, it was reported that blazeispirol A (BA) is the most active antihepatoma compound in an ethanolic extract of Agaricus blazei fermentation product. The aim of this study was to understand the antihepatoma mechanism of BA in human liver cancer Hep 3B cells. The results showed that BA inhibited the growth of Hep 3B cells and increased the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, BA treatment resulted in DNA fragmentation, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activations, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) degradation, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expressions, up-regulation of Bax expression, and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in Hep 3B cells. Furthermore, z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor, did not enhance the viability of BA-treated Hep 3B cells, and BA induced the release of HtrA2/Omi and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria into the cytosol. These findings suggested that BA with novel chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potentials causes both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death in Hep 3B cells.

  4. Biology and identity of fish spermatogonial stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Samyra Maria dos Santos Nassif; Costa, Guilherme Mattos Jardim; de França, Luiz Renato

    2014-10-01

    Although present at relatively low number in the testis, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are crucial for the establishment and maintenance of spermatogenesis in eukaryotes and, until recently, those cells were investigated in fish using morphological criteria. The isolation and characterization of these cells in fish have been so far limited by the lack of specific molecular markers, hampering the high SSCs biotechnological potential for aquaculture. However, some highly conserved vertebrate molecular markers, such as Gfra1 and Pou5f1/Oct4, are now available representing important candidates for studies evaluating the regulation of SSCs in fish and even functional investigations using germ cells transplantation. A technique already used to demonstrate that, different from mammals, fish germ stem cells (spermatogonia and oogonia) present high sexual plasticity that is determined by the somatic microenvironment. As relatively well established in mammals, and demonstrated in zebrafish and dogfish, this somatic environment is very important for the preferential location and regulation of SSCs. Importantly, a long-term in vitro culture system for SSCs has been now established for some fish species. Therefore, besides the aforementioned possibilities, such culture system would allow the development of strategies to in vitro investigate key regulatory and functional aspects of germline stem cells (ex: self-renewal and/or differentiation) or to amplify SSCs of rare, endangered, or commercially valuable fish species, representing an important tool for transgenesis and the development of new biotechnologies in fish production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Graphene nanoplatelets spontaneously translocate into the cytosol and physically interact with cellular organelles in the fish cell line PLHC-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammel, Tobias; Navas, José M., E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • We assessed the cytotoxicity and uptake of graphene nanomaterials in PLHC-1 cells. • GO and CXYG nanoplatelets caused physical injury of the plasma membrane. • GO and CXYG accumulated in the cytosol and interacted with cellular organelles. • PLHC-1 cells exposed to GO/CXYG demonstrated high ROS levels but low cytotoxicity. • ROS formation was related with GO/CXYG-induced structural damage of mitochondria. - Abstract: Graphene and graphene derivatives constitute a novel class of carbon-based nanomaterials being increasingly produced and used in technical and consumer applications. Release of graphene nanoplatelets during the life cycle of these applications may result in human and environmental exposure calling for assessment of their potential to cause harm to humans and wildlife. This study aimed to assess the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and carboxyl graphene (CXYG) nanoplatelets to non-mammalian species using the fish cell line PLHC-1 as in vitro model. The cytotoxicity of GO and CXYG was assessed using different assays measuring alterations in plasma membrane integrity, metabolic activity, and lysosomal and mitochondrial function. The induction of oxidative stress was assessed by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Interaction with the plasma membrane and internalization of nanoplatelets were investigated by electron microscopy. Graphene nanoplatelets spontaneously penetrated through the plasma membrane and accumulated in the cytosol, where they further interacted with mitochondrial and nuclear membranes. PLHC-1 cells demonstrated significantly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased ROS levels at 16 μg/ml GO and CXYG (72 h), but barely any decrease in cell viability. The observation of intracellular graphene accumulations not enclosed by membranes suggests that GO and CXYG internalization in fish hepatoma cells occurs through an endocytosis-independent mechanism.

  6. Delineating cellular interactions between ciliates and fish by co-culturing Tetrahymena thermophila with fish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcel D O; Bols, Niels C

    2014-10-01

    Although several species of Tetrahymena are often described as histophagous and opportunistic pathogens of fish, little is known about ciliate/fish cell interactions, but one approach for studying these is in vitro with cell lines. In this study, T. thermophila, B1975 (wild type) and NP1 (temperature sensitive mutant for phagocytosis) were cultured on monolayers of 3 fish epithelial cell lines, CHSE-214, RTgill-W1, and ZEB2J, and the rabbit kidney epithelial cell line, RK-13. Generally the ciliates flourished, whereas the monolayers died, being completely consumed over several days. The destruction of monolayers required that the ciliates could make contact with the animal cells through swimming, which appeared to dislodge or loosen cells so that they could be phagocytosed. The ciliates internalized into food vacuoles ZEB2J from cell monolayers as well as from cell suspensions. Phagocytosis was essential for monolayer destruction as monolayers remained intact under conditions where phagocytosis was impeded, such as 37°C for NP1 and 4°C for B1975. Monolayers of fish cells supported the proliferation of ciliates. Thus T. thermophila can 'eat' animal cells or be histophagous in vitro, with the potential to be histophagous in vivo. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells as a model for investigating the effects of low concentrations of herbicide on cell structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, M; Perdoni, F; Santin, G; Battistelli, S; Muller, S; Biggiogera, M

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies on mice fed genetically modified (GM) soybean demonstrated modifications of the mitochondrial functions and of the transcription/splicing pathways in hepatocytes. The cause(s) of these alterations could not be conclusively established but, since the GM soybean used is tolerant to glyphosate and was treated with the glyphosate-containing herbicide Roundup , the possibility exists that the effects observed may be due to herbicide residues. In order to verify this hypothesis, we treated HTC cells with 1-10mM Roundup and analysed cellular features by flow cytometry, fluorescence and electron microscopy. Under these experimental conditions, the death rate and the general morphology of HTC cells were not affected, as well as most of the cytoplasmic organelles. However, in HTC-treated cells, lysosome density increased and mitochondrial membranes modified indicating a decline in the respiratory activity. Moreover, nuclei underwent morpho-functional modifications suggestive of a decreased transcriptional/splicing activity. Although we cannot exclude that other factors than the presence of the herbicide residues could be responsible for the cellular modifications described in GM-fed mice, the concordance of the effects induced by low concentrations of Roundup on HTC cells suggests that the presence of Roundup residues could be one of the factors interfering with multiple metabolic pathways.

  8. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing ‘humanized’ mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Makishima, Makoto; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how “human-like” can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1_CYP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+)_severe-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs. PMID:19285097

  9. Vildagliptin and its metabolite M20.7 induce the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Mitsutoshi; Karaki, Fumika; Fujii, Hideaki; Atsuda, Koichiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2016-10-19

    Vildagliptin is a potent, orally active inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that vildagliptin can cause hepatic dysfunction in patients. However, the molecular-mechanism of vildagliptin-induced liver dysfunction has not been elucidated. In this study, we employed an expression microarray to determine hepatic genes that were highly regulated by vildagliptin in mice. We found that pro-inflammatory S100 calcium-binding protein (S100) a8 and S100a9 were induced more than 5-fold by vildagliptin in the mouse liver. We further examined the effects of vildagliptin and its major metabolite M20.7 on the mRNA expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin, M20.7, and sitagliptin - another DPP-4 inhibitor - induced S100A9 mRNA. In HL-60 cells, in contrast, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs were significantly induced by vildagliptin and M20.7, but not by sitagliptin. The release of S100A8/A9 complex in the cell culturing medium was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with vildagliptin and M20.7. Therefore, the parental vildagliptin- and M20.7-induced release of S100A8/A9 complex from immune cells, such as neutrophils, might be a contributing factor of vildagliptin-associated liver dysfunction in humans.

  10. PCBP-1 regulates alternative splicing of the CD44 gene and inhibits invasion in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Changhui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCBP1 (or alpha CP1 or hnRNP E1, a member of the PCBP family, is widely expressed in many human tissues and involved in regulation of transcription, transportation process, and function of RNA molecules. However, the role of PCBP1 in CD44 variants splicing still remains elusive. Results We found that enforced PCBP1 expression inhibited CD44 variants expression including v3, v5, v6, v8, and v10 in HepG2 cells, and knockdown of endogenous PCBP1 induced these variants splicing. Invasion assay suggested that PCBP1 played a negative role in tumor invasion and re-expression of v6 partly reversed the inhibition effect by PCBP1. A correlation of PCBP1 down-regulation and v6 up-regulation was detected in primary HCC tissues. Conclusions We first characterized PCBP1 as a negative regulator of CD44 variants splicing in HepG2 cells, and loss of PCBP1 in human hepatic tumor contributes to the formation of a metastatic phenotype.

  11. Hepatoma targeting peptide conjugated bio-reducible polymer complexed with oncolytic adenovirus for cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Kim, Hyun Ah; Nam, Kihoon; Na, Youjin; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, SungWan

    2015-12-28

    Despite adenovirus (Ad) vector's numerous advantages for cancer gene therapy, such as high ability of endosomal escape, efficient nuclear entry mechanism, and high transduction, and therapeutic efficacy, tumor specific targeting and antiviral immune response still remain as a critical challenge in clinical setting. To overcome these obstacles and achieve cancer-specific targeting, we constructed tumor targeting bioreducible polymer, an arginine grafted bio-reducible polymer (ABP)-PEG-HCBP1, by conjugating PEGylated ABP with HCBP1 peptides which has high affinity and selectivity towards hepatoma. The ABP-PEG-HCBP1-conjugated replication incompetent GFP-expressing ad, (Ad/GFP)-ABP-PEG-HCBP1, showed a hepatoma cancer specific uptake and transduction compared to either naked Ad/GFP or Ad/GFP-ABP. Competition assays demonstrated that Ad/GFP-ABP-PEG-HCBP1-mediated transduction was specifically inhibited by HCBP1 peptide rather than coxsackie and adenovirus receptor specific antibody. In addition, ABP-PEG-HCBP1 can protect biological activity of Ad against serum, and considerably reduced both innate and adaptive immune response against Ad. shMet-expressing oncolytic Ad (oAd; RdB/shMet) complexed with ABP-PEG-HCBP1 delivered oAd efficiently into hepatoma cancer cells. The oAd/ABP-PEG-HCBP1 demonstrated enhanced cancer cell killing efficacy in comparison to oAd/ABP complex. Furthermore, Huh7 and HT1080 cancer cells treated with oAd/shMet-ABP-PEG-HCBP1 complex had significantly decreased Met and VEGF expression in hepatoma cancer, but not in non-hepatoma cancer. In sum, these results suggest that HCBP1-conjugated bioreducible polymer could be used to deliver oncolytic Ad safely and efficiently to treat hepatoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions to zebrafish (Danio rerio) cells, embryos and fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Selck, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    The use of engineered metal nanoparticles (NPs) is continuously increasing and so is the need for information regarding their toxicity. This study compares the toxicity of CuO NPs with ionic Cu in three zebrafish model systems; zebrafish hepatoma cell line (ZFL), fish embryo toxicity test (FET...

  13. Isolation of rat alpha-fetoprotein from Morris hepatoma 7777.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereta, J; Koj, A

    1982-01-01

    1. Tissue slices from Morris hepatoma 7777 were incubated for 3 hr in Krebs-Ringer-bicarbonate solution and the cell-free supernatants were used for isolating alpha-fetoprotein. 2. Purification procedure included salting out with ammonium sulphate, affinity chromatography (either Concanavalin A-Sepharose or Cibacron-Blue-Sepharose), hydrophobic chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). 3.alpha-Fetoprotein was obtained with a yield of approx. 10% and in pure form, as judged from crossed immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

  14. Radiological diagnosis of bone metastasis of hepatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Hajime; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Nakayama, Chikashi; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Takashi (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-08-01

    Six cases of bone metastases were detected among 80 hepatomas diagnosed during the period from December 1980 to February 1983. Four of them presented with the bone metastases as their initial symptoms. The majority of the metastases were found in the thorax, spine and sacrum. Bone scintigraphy and X-ray examination were the most effective means for diagnosis while /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and CT were complementary in some cases. Since bone metastases is not rare in hepatoma, its evaluation is essential for the proper management of the patient.

  15. Recent applications of fish cell culture to biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, L E; Renfro, J L

    1988-12-01

    Tissues of the fishes are as amenable to the techniques of modern cell culture as mammalian tissues and organs, and yet this vast resource, comprising thousands of vertebrate species, remains largely unexplored. The model systems that have been developed demonstrate the utility of fish cells as sources of special adaptations and exaggerated physiological systems. In this review, we briefly describe several of the successful models along with recent developments in fish cell culture with the hope of stimulating increased interest in the lower vertebrates as useful complements to mammalian cell culture in biomedical research. The topics covered include epithelial ion transport, endocrinological studies, the cellular stress (heat shock) response, thermotolerance, cancer biology, and environmental toxicology.

  16. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2 cell membrane chromatographic analysis system for charactering anti-hepatoma components from rat serum after oral administration of Radix scutellariae: A strategy for rapid screening active compounds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Wu, Xunxun; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Chuan; Chai, Yifeng; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2016-01-25

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a bioaffinity chromatography technique for characterizing interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and has been widely used to screen active components from complex samples such as herbal medicines (HMs). However, it has never been applied in vivo due to its relatively high limit of detection (LOD) and the matrix interferences. In this study, a novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2/CMC/enrich columns/high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry system was developed to rapidly screen potential anti-hepatoma components from drug-containing serum of rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae. A matrix interference deduction method with a home-written program in MATLAB was developed, which could successfully eliminate the interference of endogenous substances in serum. Baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, neobaicalein and rivularin from Radix scutellariae extraction were significantly retained in the HepG2/CMC column. Three potential active components, wogonin, oroxylin A and neobaicalein were firstly screened from the drug-containing serum as well. The cell counting kit-8 assay demonstrated that wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin showed high inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner on HepG2 cells at the concentration of 12.5-200 μM (pCMC system and matrix interference elimination strategy have significant advantages for in vivo screening of active components from complex biological samples and could be applied to other biochromatography models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation-induced adaptive response in fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lorna A; Seymour, Colin B; O'Neill-Mehlenbacher, Alicia; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2008-04-01

    There is considerable interest at present in low-dose radiation effects in non-human species. In this study gamma radiation-induced adaptive response, a low-dose radiation effect, was examined in three fish cell lines, (CHSE-214 (Chinook salmon), RTG-2 (rainbow trout) and ZEB-2J (zebrafish)). Cell survival after exposure to direct radiation with or without a 0.1 Gy priming dose, was determined using the colony forming assay for each cell line. Additionally, the occurrence of a bystander effect was examined by measuring the effect of irradiated cell culture medium from the fish cell lines on unexposed reporter cells. A non-linear dose response was observed for all cell lines. ZEB-2J cells were very sensitive to low doses and a hyper-radiosensitive (HRS) response was observed for doses fish cell lines tested. Rather, it was found that pre-exposure of these cells to 0.1 Gy radiation sensitized the cells to subsequent high doses. In CHSE-214 cells, increased sensitivity to subsequent high doses of radiation was observed when the priming and challenge doses were separated by 4 h; however, this sensitizing effect was no longer present when the interval between doses was greater than 8 h. Additionally, a "protective" bystander response was observed in these cell lines; exposure to irradiated medium from fish cells caused increased cloning efficiency in unirradiated reporter cells. The data confirm previous conclusions for mammalian cells that the adaptive response and bystander effect are inversely correlated and contrary to expectations probably have different underlying mechanisms.

  18. Tumor-targeted gene therapy using Adv-AFP-HRPC/IAA prodrug system suppresses growth of hepatoma xenografted in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M; Liu, J; Chen, D-E; Rao, Y; Tang, Z-J; Ho, W-Z; Dong, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    Clinical efficacy of current therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment is limited. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is non-toxic for mammalian cells. Oxidative decarboxylation of IAA by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) leads to toxic effects of IAA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel gene-targeted enzyme prodrug therapy with IAA on hepatoma growth in vitro and in vivo mouse hepatoma models. We generated a plasmid using adenovirus to express HRP isoenzyme C (HRPC) with the HCC marker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as the promoter (pAdv-AFP-HRPC). Hepatocellular cells were infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and treated with IAA. Cell death was detected using MTT assay. Hepatoma xenografts were developed in mice by injection of mouse hepatoma cells. The size and weight of tumors and organs were evaluated. Cell death in tumors was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. HRPC expression in tissues was detected using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction. IAA stimulated death of hepatocellular cells infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not in control cells. Growth of hepatoma xenografts, including the size and weight, was inhibited in mice treated with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and IAA, compared with that in control group. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment induced cell death in hepatoma xenografts in mice. HRPC gene expressed only in hepatoma, but not in other normal organs of mice. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment did not cause any side effects on normal organs. These findings suggest that pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA enzyme/prodrug system may serve as a strategy for HCC therapy.

  19. Cell Culture Isolation of Piscine Nodavirus (Betanodavirus) in Fish-Rearing Seawater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nishi, Shinnosuke; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    ...) in a variety of cultured fish species, particularly marine fish. In the present study, we developed a sensitive method for cell culture isolation of the virus from seawater and applied the method to a spontaneous fish-rearing environment...

  20. Estrogen receptor α and aryl hydrocarbon receptor cross-talk in a transfected hepatoma cell line (HepG2 exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Göttel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prototype dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is known to exert anti-estrogenic effects via activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR by interfering with the regulation of oestrogen homeostasis and the estrogen receptor α (ERα signalling pathway. The AhR/ER cross-talk is considered to play a crucial role in TCDD- and E2-dependent mechanisms of carcinogenesis, though the concerted mechanism of action in the liver is not yet elucidated. The present study investigated TCDD's impact on the transcriptional cross-talk between AhR and ERα and its modulation by 17β-estradiol (E2 in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is AhR-responsive but ERα-negative. Transient transfection assays with co-transfection of hERα and supplementation of receptor antagonists showed anti-estrogenic action of TCDD via down-regulation of E2-induced ERα signaling. In contrast, enhancement of AhR signaling dependent on ERα was observed providing evidence for increased cytochrome P450 (CYP induction to promote E2 metabolism. However, relative mRNA levels of major E2-metabolizing CYP1A1 and 1B1 and the main E2-detoxifying catechol-O-methyltransferase were not affected by the co-treatments. This study provides new evidence of a TCDD-activated AhR-mediated molecular AhR/ERα cross-talk mechanism at transcriptional level via indirect inhibition of ERα and enhanced transcriptional activity of AhR in HepG2 cells.

  1. Studies on Anti-Hepatoma Effect of Gan-Ai-Xiao Decoction | Yuan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the anti-hepatoma effect of Gan-Ai-Xiao Decoction (GAXD), a folk remedy. Methods: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify the major chemical components of GAXD ethanol extract (EE). The cytotoxic effect of GAXD EE against HepG2 cells was measured by methyl ...

  2. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Monroe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation versus direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies.

  3. Camel milk modulates the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; El Gendy, Mohamed A M; Alhaider, Abdulqader A; El-Kadi, Ayman O

    2012-01-01

    There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1), and cancer-protective genes, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1), in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE)-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  4. Camel Milk Modulates the Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Regulated Genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in Murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1, and cancer-protective genes, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1 and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1, in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  5. Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of Teleost fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2012-01-01

    As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naive T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity. PMID:22133710

  6. An anti-tumor protein produced by Trichinella spiralis and identified by screening a T7 phage display library, induces apoptosis in human hepatoma H7402 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichinella spiralis infection confers effective resistance to tumor cell expansion. In this study, a T7 phage cDNA display library was constructed to express genes encoded by T. spiralis. Organic phase multi-cell screening was used to sort through candidate proteins in a transfected human chronic m...

  7. Enteroendocrine cells of the cyprinid fish, Barbus conchonius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Information on the endocrine regulation of digestion in fish is scarce especially on stomachless cyprinids. In the present study (chapters I, III) 3 distinct enteroendocrine cell types will be described for the intestinal epithelium of Barbus conchonius. With the light

  8. Melanosome Motility in Fish Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Smith, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Several model systems have been developed to investigate mechanism and regulation of intracellular organelle motility. The fish retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell represents a novel yet simple system for the study of organelle motility. Primary cultures of dissociated RPE cells are easily prepared and amenable to motility studies. In vivo, melanin-containing pigment granules (melanosomes) within fish RPE migrate distances up to 100 μm in response to light flux. When dissociated from the epithelial layer and cultured in vitro, RPE cells attach to the substrate with the apical projections extending radially from the central cell body. Melanosomes can be chemically triggered to aggregate or disperse throughout the projections, and are easily observed using phase contrast microscopy. Melanosome migration in RPE apical projections is dependent on actin filaments, and thus renders this model system useful for investigations of actin-dependent organelle motility.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the effects of acetaminophen and N-acetylcysteine on the surface morphology of Hep3B hepatoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Daniel; Manov, Irena; Iancu, Theodore C

    2004-01-01

    Acetaminophen (AAP) is harmful to the liver if consumed in excessive doses. Its toxicity can be counteracted by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The authors studied cultures of Hep3B cells exposed to AAP or NAC or both, at 24 and 48 h, using the scanning electron microscope. Using morphometric software, they found that cultures exposed for 24 h to AAP or AAP + NAC suffered reduction in cell confluence. Exposure increased the incidence of rounding cells and of apoptotic and autoschizic appearances. Differences between control cultures cultivated without serum versus those exposed to xenobiotics were merely quantitative, not essential.

  10. Crosstalk Influence between P38MAPK and Autophagy on Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Anti-Fas Antibody/Actinomycin D in Human Hepatoma Bel-7402 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study indicated that anti-Fas antibody/actinomycin D (AF/AD induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells; however, crosstalk influence between P38MAPK and autophagy on mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by AF/AD in Bel-7402 cells remains unclear. Therefore, effect of AF/AD on apoptosis, autophagy, phosphorylated-P38MAPK (p-P38MAPK, and membrane potential (ΔΨm with or without the P38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA in Bel-7402 cells was investigated in the present study. The results showed that AF/AD resulted in induction of apoptosis concomitant with autophagy, upregulation of p-P38MAPK and autophagy-associated gene proteins (Atg5-Atg12 protein complex, Atg7, Atg10, Beclin-1, LC3 I, and LC3 II, and downregulation of ΔΨm in Bel-7402 cells. In contrast, SB203580 attenuated the effects of AF/AD in Bel-7402 cells. Furthermore, the findings also demonstrated that 3-MA inhibited the impact of AF/AD on autophagy, Atg5-Atg12 protein complex, Atg7, Atg10, Beclin-1, LC3 I, LC3 II, and ΔΨm, and promoted the influence of AF/AD on apoptosis and p-P38MAPK in Bel-7402 cells. Taken together, we conclude that crosstalk between P38MAPK and autophagy regulates mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by AF/AD in Bel-7402 cells.

  11. Copper inhibits P2Y(2)-dependent Ca(2+) signaling through the effects on thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores in HTC hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolovcak, Svjetlana; Waldrop, Shar L; Fitz, J Gregory; Kilic, Gordan

    2010-07-02

    Purinergic P2Y(2) G-protein coupled receptors play a key role in the regulation of hepatic Ca(2+) signaling by extracellular ATP. The concentration of copper in serum is about 20muM. Since copper accumulates in the liver in certain disease states, the purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of copper on P2Y(2) receptors in a model liver cell line. Exposure to a P2Y(2) agonist UTP increased [Ca(2+)](i) by stimulating Ca(2+) release from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores. Pretreatment of HTC cells for several minutes with copper did not affect cell viability, but potently inhibited increases in [Ca(2+)](i) evoked by UTP and thapsigargin. During this pretreatment, copper was not transported into the cytosol, and inhibited P2Y(2) receptors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC(50) of about 15muM. These results suggest that copper inhibits P2Y(2) receptors through the effects on thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores by acting from an extracellular side. Further experiments indicated that these effect of copper may lead to inhibition of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) evoked by hypotonic solution. Thus, copper may contribute to defective regulation of purinergic signaling and liver cell volume in diseases associated with the increased serum copper concentration. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Copper inhibits P2Y2-dependent Ca2+ signaling through the effects on thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores in HTC hepatoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolovcak, Svjetlana; Waldrop, Shar L.; Fitz, J. Gregory; Kilic, Gordan

    2010-01-01

    Purinergic P2Y2 G-protein coupled receptors play a key role in the regulation of hepatic Ca2+ signaling by extracellular ATP. The concentration of copper in serum is about 20 μM. Since copper accumulates in the liver in certain disease states, the purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of copper on P2Y2 receptors in a model liver cell line. Exposure to a P2Y2 agonist UTP increased [Ca2+]i by stimulating Ca2+ release from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores. Pretreatment of HTC cells for several minutes with copper did not affect cell viability, but potently inhibited increases in [Ca2+]i evoked by UTP and thapsigargin. During this pretreatment, copper was not transported into the cytosol, and inhibited P2Y2 receptors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC50 of about 15 μM. These results suggest that copper inhibits P2Y2 receptors through the effects on thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores by acting from an extracellular side. Further experiments indicated that these effect of copper may lead to inhibition of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) evoked by hypotonic solution. Thus, copper may contribute to defective regulation of purinergic signaling and liver cell volume in diseases associated with the increased serum copper concentration. PMID:20515656

  13. Effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins exposure on the viability and metabolism of human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ningbo; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Baoqin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Feidi; Yu, Zhengkun; Chen, Jiping

    2015-03-03

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have attracted considerable attention for their characteristic of persistent organic pollutants. However, very limited information is available for their toxic effects at environmentally relevant doses, limiting the evaluation of their health risks. In this study, cell viability assay and targeted metabolomic approach was used to evaluate the environmental dose (<100 μg/L) effect of SCCPs on HepG2 cells. Cell viability was found to be decreased with increases in exposure dose of SCCPs. Exposure for 48 h to C10-CPs resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability compared with 24 h, even at 1 μg/L. SCCPs exposure altered the intracellular redox status and caused significant metabolic disruptions. As a kind of peroxisome proliferator, SCCPs specifically stimulated the β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids. Meanwhile, SCCPs exposure disturbed glycolysis and amino acid metabolism, and led to the up-regulation of glutamate metabolism and urea cycle. The toxic effects of SCCPs might mainly involve the perturbation of energy production, protein biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and ammonia recycling.

  14. Metabolism of gamma hydroxybutyrate in human hepatoma HepG2 cells by the aldo-keto reductase AKR1A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeer, Samar; Ellis, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a recreational and date-rape drug, for which the detection following ingestion is hampered by rapid metabolism and its endogenous presence. GHB catabolism occurs mainly by its oxidation to succinic semialdehyde (SSA), which converts to succinate and enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle. A high Km aldehyde reductase has previously been reported to catalyse the NADP-dependent oxidation of GHB at high concentrations. It is assumed that this enzyme is identical to the aldo-keto reductase AKR1A1, but its role in GHB oxidation has not been fully evaluated. In this study, the extent of AKR1A1 in GHB metabolism has been determined in HepG2 cells using RNA-interference technology. The gene encoding AKR1A1 was targeted by siRNA. Results demonstrate a successful knock-down of the AKR1A1 gene with 92% reduction in total mRNA and 93% reduction in protein expression. Demolishing AKR1A1 expression in HepG2 cells leads to significant 82% decrease in NADP-dependent GHB-dehydrogenase activity at high concentration (10mM) of GHB. Moreover, when exposing the cells to 50 μM of GHB for 24h, and measuring intracellular and extracellular GHB levels by GC/MS, a significant two-fold increase was observed on GHB intracellular level in silenced cells. In contrast, measuring SSA-reductase activity in silenced cells indicated that AKR1A1 is not involved in endogenous GHB production. These findings describe a pathway for GHB metabolism in the liver which should be useful in GHB exposure cases, and will enable a better understanding of the enzymes participating in its metabolism at natural and overexposed levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alteration of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 and Glucocorticoid Receptor by Ethanol in Rat Liver and Mouse Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojie Meng

    2013-01-01

    for 3 months and 100 mM for 48 h, respectively. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests in vivo were performed, and protein levels of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR in liver and Hepa 1–6 cells were measured. Alterations of key enzymes of gluconeogenesis phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase, as well as glycogen synthase kinase 3a (GSK3α, were also examined. The results revealed that glucose levels were increased, and insulin sensitivity was impaired accompanied with liver injury in rats exposed to ethanol compared with controls. The 11β-HSD1, GR, PEPCK, G6Pase, and GSK3α proteins were increased in the liver of rats treated with ethanol compared with controls. Ethanol-exposed Hepa 1–6 cells also showed higher expression of 11β-HSD1, GR, PEPCK, G6Pase, and GSK3α proteins than control cells. After treatment of Hepa 1–6 cells exposed to ethanol with the GR inhibitor RU486, the expression of 11β-HSD1 and GR was significantly decreased. At the same time the increases in PEPCK, G6Pase, and GSK3α levels induced by ethanol in Hepa 1–6 cells were also attenuated by RU486. The results indicate that ethanol causes glucose intolerance by increasing hepatic expression of 11β-HSD1 and GR, which leads to increased expression of gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic enzymes.

  16. Primary biliary acids inhibit hepatitis D virus (HDV entry into human hepatoma cells expressing the sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira

    Full Text Available The sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP is both a key bile acid (BA transporter mediating uptake of BA into hepatocytes and an essential receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis D virus (HDV. In this study we aimed to characterize to what extent and through what mechanism BA affect HDV cell entry.HuH-7 cells stably expressing NTCP (HuH-7/NTCP and primary human hepatocytes (PHH were infected with in vitro generated HDV particles. Infectivity in the absence or presence of compounds was assessed using immunofluorescence staining for HDV antigen, standard 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 assays and quantitative PCR.Addition of primary conjugated and unconjugated BA resulted in a dose dependent reduction in the number of infected cells while secondary, tertiary and synthetic BA had a lesser effect. This effect was observed both in HuH-7/NTCP and in PHH. Other replication cycle steps such as replication and particle assembly and release were unaffected. Moreover, inhibitory BA competed with a fragment from the large HBV envelope protein for binding to NTCP-expressing cells. Conversely, the sodium/BA-cotransporter function of NTCP seemed not to be required for HDV infection since infection was similar in the presence or absence of a sodium gradient across the plasma membrane. When chenodeoxycolic acid (15 mg per kg body weight was administered to three chronically HDV infected individuals over a period of up to 16 days there was no change in serum HDV RNA.Primary BA inhibit NTCP-mediated HDV entry into hepatocytes suggesting that modulation of the BA pool may affect HDV infection of hepatocytes.

  17. A base substitution in the promoter associated with the human haptoglobin 2-1 modified phenotype decreases transcriptional activity and responsiveness to interleukin-6 in human hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.J.; Maeda, N. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))

    1993-05-01

    An A-to-C base substitution at nucleotide position -61 in the promoter region of the human haptoglobin gene (Hp) has been shown to be strongly associated with the haptoglobin 2-1 modified (Hp2-1mod) phenotype. In order to investigate whether this base substitution is the cause of reduced expression of the Hp[sup 2] allele relative to the Hp[sup 1] allele in individuals with the Hp2-1mod phenotype, the authors used the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) expression system to evaluate promoter function. In HepG2 cells, which normally express their endogenous haptoglobin genes, CAT plasmid constructs with the -61C base change in the promoter had about 10-fold-lower transcriptional activity after transfection than did the Hp control construct. The -61C substitution also rendered the construct unresponsive to treatment by interleukin-6 after transfection into Hep3B2 cells, which normally do not express haptoglobin but do so in response to stimulation by acute-phase reactants. In addition, two base substitutions, T to A and A to G, at positions -104 and -55G, respectively, in the promoter region of the Hp[sup 1] allele, are also associated with the Hp2-1mod phenotype. CAT constructs with both substitutions (-104A-55G) and with one substitution (-55G) showed activity similar to that in the Hp control when transfected into both HepG2 and Hep3B2 cells, although interleukin-6 induction was less than with the Hp control construct. These results further support the hypothesis that the Hp2-1mod phenotype results, in part, from the -61C mutation in the promoter region of the Hp[sup 2] gene.

  18. Risk stratification of plasma cell neoplasm: insights from plasma cell-specific cytoplasmic immunoglobulin fluorescence in situ hybridization (cIg FISH) vs. conventional FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Henry; Yang, Hai-Su; Jagannath, Sundar; Stephenson, Christine F; Brenholz, Pauline; Mazumder, Amitabha; Chari, Ajai

    2012-10-01

    We directly compared the results of routine fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and plasma cell-specific cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) FISH from 75 paired samples for myeloma risk stratification. CIg FISH improves test specificity and sensitivity and tends to eliminate borderline results. It proves that most plasma cells (PCs) consistently carry the abnormality in myelomas with an IGH translocation, whereas routine FISH detects these cells only at variably low levels. Routine cytogenetic analysis of plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs) has a low sensitivity. Conventional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is not plasma cell (PC) specific and results are diluted by other cells in the sample. Although PC-specific FISH testing has been recommended for multiple myeloma (MM) risk stratification, eg, by combining cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) staining with FISH, the benefits of cIg FISH have never been directly demonstrated in a controlled study. Seventy-five samples from patients with PCNs were analyzed by concomitant conventional FISH and cIg FISH with probes for t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16), -13, 17p-, and +3. The results were compared for their reliability, specificity, and consistency. Apart from marginally improving detection threshold in samples with low PC burden, cIg FISH identified more abnormal cases (50 vs. 47 cases) and more chromosome abnormalities (113 vs. 103 events) than did conventional FISH. It differentiated del(13q) in myelodysplasia from MM. Remarkably, cIg FISH consistently identified a high percentage of abnormal PCs in all cases. It detected IGH translocation in 78% to 100% of PCs in all but 2 positive cases, whereas conventional FISH detected 0% to 46% in these cases (median, 91% vs. 9%). The abnormal cells found in patients with 17p- were 19% to 96% by cIg FISH vs. 0% to 13% by conventional FISH (median, 54% vs. 9%). Cases with insufficient PCs for cIg FISH had only normal conventional FISH results. CIg FISH improves reliability of

  19. Exposure to chlorpyrifos increases neutral lipid accumulation with accompanying increased de novo lipogenesis and decreased triglyceride secretion in McArdle-RH7777 hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, George Eli; Mulligan, Charlee; Young, Darian; Kondakala, Sandeep

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with hepatic insulin resistance as well as hypertriglyceridemia. Recent studies have determined exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides can cause dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. However, the mechanisms through which OPs induced hepatic steatosis are not completely understood. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine if direct exposure to an OP insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPS), could promote hepatic steatosis and identify putative mechanisms of CPS-induced steatosis. To determine if CPS exposure increased intracellular lipid accumulation, McA-RH7777 cells were incubated with CPS for 48 h then lipid accumulation was determined by Oil Red O staining. Exposure to CPS significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase in Oil Red O staining appears to be due to increased intracellular triglyceride accumulation. In addition to increasing neutral lipid accumulation under normal growth conditions, exposure to CPS increased free fatty acid-induced intracellular neutral lipid accumulation. CPS induced increases in intracellular neutral lipid/triglyceride accumulation appear to be due to increased extracellular free fatty acid accumulation, increased de novo lipogenesis, and decreased fatty acidinduced triglyceride secretion. In summary, the present studies indicate exposure to CPS can have a direct effect on the hepatocyte to promote hepatic steatosis by increasing intracellular lipid/triglyceride accumulation through increased extracellular free fatty acid accumulation, increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and decreased triglyceride efflux. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and characterization of hematopoietic stem cells in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Isao; Katakura, Fumihiko; Moritomo, Tadaaki

    2016-05-01

    Despite 400 million years of evolutionary divergence, hematopoiesis is highly conserved between mammals and teleost fish. All types of mature blood cells including the erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid lineages show a high degree of similarity to their mammalian counterparts at the morphological and molecular level. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are cells that are capable of self-renewal and differentiating into all hematopoietic lineages over the lifetime of an organism. The study of HSCs has been facilitated through bone marrow transplantation experiments developed in the mouse model. In the last decade, the zebrafish and clonal ginbuna carp (Carassius auratus langsdorfii) have emerged as new models for the study of HSCs. This review highlights the recent progress and future prospects of studying HSCs in teleost fish. Transplantation assays using these teleost models have demonstrated the presence of HSCs in the kidney, which is the major hematopoietic organ in teleost fish. Moreover, it is possible to purify HSCs from the kidney utilizing fluorescent dyes or transgenic animals. These teleost models will provide novel insights into the universal mechanisms of HSC maintenance, homeostasis, and differentiation among vertebrates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside Present in Lettuce Extracts Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Production and Viral Replication by Human Hepatoma Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xian Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in Asia and chronic hepatitis B (CHB is a major public health issue worldwide. Current treatment strategies for CHB are not satisfactory as they induce a low rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg loss. Extracts were prepared from lettuce hydroponically cultivated in solutions containing glycine or nitrate as nitrogen sources. The lettuce extracts exerted potent anti-HBV effects in HepG2 cell lines in vitro, including significant HBsAg inhibition, HBV replication and transcription inhibition, without exerting cytotoxic effects. When used in combination interferon-alpha 2b (IFNα-2b or lamivudine (3TC, the lettuce extracts synergistically inhibited HBsAg expression and HBV replication. By using differential metabolomics analysis, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified and confirmed as a functional component of the lettuce extracts and exhibited similar anti-HBV activity as the lettuce extracts in vitro. The inhibition rate on HBsAg was up to 77.4%. Moreover, both the lettuce extracts and luteolin-7-O-glucoside functioned as organic antioxidants and, significantly attenuated HBV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside also normalized ROS-induced mitochondrial membrane potential damage, which suggests luteolin-7-O-glucoside inhibits HBsAg and HBV replication via a mechanism involving the mitochondria. Our findings suggest luteolin-7-O-glucoside may have potential value for clinical application in CHB and may enhance HBsAg and HBV clearance when used as a combination therapy.

  2. Fetal calf serum-free culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells employing fish serum

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, M.; Tsukada, R.; Tsujinaga, Y.; Takagi, M

    2007-01-01

    The effects of fish serum on cell growth and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) production in an adhesion culture of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells DR1000L4N were investigated and compared with those of fetal calf serum (FCS). Although fish serum did not stimulate the initial adhesion of CHO cells to culture dishes, it prompted cell growth after cell adhesion with FCS for 24 h. The cell density in the fish serum medium reached 75% that in the FCS medium. Fish ...

  3. Animal cell cultures in microsporidial research: their general roles and their specific use for fish microsporidia

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, S. Richelle; Michael L. Kent; Watral, Virginia G.; Kaufman, R. John; Lee, Lucy E. J.; Bols, Niels C

    2009-01-01

    The use of animal cell cultures as tools for studying the microsporidia of insect and mammals is briefly reviewed, along with an in depth review of the literature on using fish cell cultures to study the microsporidia of fish. Fish cell cultures have been used less often but have had some successes. Very short-term primary cultures have been used to show how microsporidia spores can modulate the activities of phagocytes. The most successful microsporidia/fish cell culture system has been rela...

  4. Differentially profiling the low-expression transcriptomes of human hepatoma using a novel SSH/microarray approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi-Shin; Lee, Yun-Shien; Lee, Yung-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chen; Hsieh, Sen-Yung

    2006-05-31

    The main limitation in performing genome-wide gene-expression profiling is the assay of low-expression genes. Approaches with high throughput and high sensitivity for assaying low-expression transcripts are urgently needed for functional genomic studies. Combination of the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray techniques using the subtracted cDNA clones as probes printed on chips has greatly improved the efficiency for fishing out the differentially expressed clones and has been used before. However, it remains tedious and inefficient sequencing works for identifying genes including the great number of redundancy in the subtracted amplicons, and sacrifices the original advantages of high sensitivity of SSH in profiling low-expression transcriptomes. We modified the previous combination of SSH and microarray methods by directly using the subtracted amplicons as targets to hybridize the pre-made cDNA microarrays (named as "SSH/microarray"). mRNA prepared from three pairs of hepatoma and non-hepatoma liver tissues was subjected to the SSH/microarray assays, as well as directly to regular cDNA microarray assays for comparison. As compared to the original SSH and microarray combination assays, the modified SSH/microarray assays allowed for much easier inspection of the subtraction efficiency and identification of genes in the subtracted amplicons without tedious and inefficient sequencing work. On the other hand, 5015 of the 9376 genes originally filtered out by the regular cDNA microarray assays because of low expression became analyzable by the SSH/microarray assays. Moreover, the SSH/microarray assays detected about ten times more (701 vs. 69) HCC differentially expressed genes (at least a two-fold difference and P SSH/microarray approaches resulted in identifying many differentially expressed genes implicated in the regulation of cell cycle, cell death, signal transduction and cell morphogenesis, suggesting the involvement of multi

  5. The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (黃連解毒湯 Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Tzung Lin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (黃連解毒湯 Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang; HLJDT against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed.

  6. [Application of interphase FISH on cell smears in detection of hematological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Ling; Liu, Cong-Yan; Li, Hui; He, Jing-Juan; Sun, Xue-Jing; Xu, Juan

    2010-02-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the application value of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on cell smears in hematological diseases. Both interphase FISH on peripheral blood smears and bone marrow smears treated by methanol/acetic acid, and routine interphase FISH of bone marrow cells dropped on slides were done at the same time, in order to detect Ph chromosome by BCR/ABL dual color, dual fusion probe in 20 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia which had been proven to display Ph chromosome positive. The results indicated that as compared with routine interphase FISH, the interphase FISH on cell smears could also offer reliable result. It is concluded that interphase FISH on cell smears is a kind of reliable and time-saving technique, which is also suitable for retrospective research and worthy to further apply in clinic.

  7. Silver nanoparticles disrupt regulation of steroidogenesis in fish ovarian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degger, Natalie; Tse, Anna C K; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2015-12-01

    Despite the influx of silver nanoparticles (nAg) into the marine environment, their effects on fish reproduction remain completely unexplored. Using ovarian primary cells from marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), in vitro studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of two differently coated nAg particles (Oleic Acid, (OA) nAg and Polyvinylpyrrolidone, (PVP) nAg) on fish ovarian tissues, using AgNO3 as a positive control. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and expression of key genes regulating steroidogenesis (StAR, CYP 19a, CYP 11a, 3βHSD and 20βHSD) were determined by Q-RT-PCR. EC50 values for PVP nAg, OA nAg and AgNO3 were 7.25μgL(-1), 924.4μgL(-1), and 42.0μgL(-1) respectively, showing that toxicity of silver was greatly enhanced in the PVP coated nano-form. Down regulation of CYP 19a was observed in both nAg and AgNO3 treatments, while down regulation of 3βHSD was only found in the OA nAg and AgNO3 treatments. For the first time, our results demonstrated that nAg can affect specific genes regulating steroidogenesis, implicating nAg as a potential endocrine disruptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Methemoglobin reductase activity in intact fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank B; Nielsen, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Hb reductase activity in fish offsets their higher Hb autoxidation and higher likelihood of encountering elevated nitrite. Deoxygenation significantly raised the rates of RBC metHb reduction, and more so in rainbow trout than in carp. The temperature sensitivity of metHb reduction in rainbow trout RBCs......Red blood cells (RBCs) possess methemoglobin reductase activity that counters the ongoing oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (metHb), which in circulating blood is caused by Hb autoxidation or reactions with nitrite. We describe an assay for determining metHb reductase activity in intact...... of counteracting oxidation. This assay was used to compare metHb reduction in rainbow trout and carp RBCs under both oxygenated and deoxygenated conditions. Washing resulted in effective wash-out of nitrite to low and safe values (~2μM). The subsequent decline in [metHb] with time followed first-order kinetics...

  9. Cultures of astroglial cells derived from brain of adult cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Andreas F; Tiedemann, Karin

    2013-01-30

    Astroglial cells in teleost fish occur mostly as radial glia. We established a culture system derived from brain tissue of mature cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni to study fish astroglial cells in more detail. Cells were passaged several times to expand the cultures, and could be kept in vitro for several months. The cell identity was tested by the presence of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); in addition, cells expressed the tight junction adaptor protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) known to be present on astroglial cells in fish brain. This is consistent with the radial and epithelial nature of fish astroglial cells derived from neuroepithelium. To characterize the properties of cultured astroglial cells we challenged them in hypo-osmotic conditions. Cells reacted with volume increase, slower but similar to mammalian astrocytes. We also tested whether astroglial cells support growth during axonal elongation. We placed retinal explants on astroglial cultures and found neurites extending readily on these cells, compared to controls which showed no or little growth. Thus, we established a culture system for astroglial cells from the mature fish brain that demonstrates their neuroepithelial properties. This culture system will be useful to study functions in which glial cells are thought to play an important role: e.g. regulation of water homeostasis and supporting axonal regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Up-regulation of hepatoma-derived growth factor facilitates tumor progression in malignant melanoma [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-En Tsai

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the fastest increasing malignancy in humans. Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF is a novel growth factor identified from human hepatoma cell line. HDGF overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis in various types of cancer including melanoma. However, the underlying mechanism of HDGF overexpression in developing melanoma remains unclear. In this study, human melanoma cell lines (A375, A2058, MEL-RM and MM200 showed higher levels of HDGF gene expression, whereas human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn expressed less. Exogenous application of HDGF stimulated colony formation and invasion of human melanoma cells. Moreover, HDGF overexpression stimulated the degree of invasion and colony formation of B16-F10 melanoma cells whereas HDGF knockdown exerted opposite effects in vitro. To evaluate the effects of HDGF on tumour growth and metastasis in vivo, syngeneic mouse melanoma and metastatic melanoma models were performed by manipulating the gene expression of HDGF in melanoma cells. It was found that mice injected with HDGF-overexpressing melanoma cells had greater tumour growth and higher metastatic capability. In contrast, mice implanted with HDGF-depleted melanoma cells exhibited reduced tumor burden and lung metastasis. Histological analysis of excised tumors revealed higher degree of cell proliferation and neovascularization in HDGF-overexpressing melanoma. The present study provides evidence that HDGF promotes tumor progression of melanoma and targeting HDGF may constitute a novel strategy for the treatment of melanoma.

  11. Comparison of betanodavirus replication efficiency in ten Indian fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath Babu, V; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Madan, N; Sundar Raj, N; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2013-06-01

    Ten cell lines established from Indian marine, brackishwater and freshwater fish were tested for their susceptibility to fish nodavirus. In addition, the efficiency of betanodavirus replication was tested in these cell lines. Multiple vacuolation, a typical cytopathic effect for virus infection, was observed in infected SISK, SISS, SIGE and ICF cells. Infection of the different fish cell lines was confirmed by RT-PCR, immunodot blot assay and indirect ELISA. The virus concentration in culture supernatant collected from infected sea bass and grouper cell lines increased progressively from 10(3) at day 1 postinfection to 10(8) TCID50 ml(-1) at day 9. The amount of virus in different cell lines was also quantified by real-time PCR. These results indicate the suitability of the SISK, SISS, and SIGE cell lines for fish nodavirus propagation for developing viral diagnostics and vaccines.

  12. Animal cell cultures in microsporidial research: their general roles and their specific use for fish microsporidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, S Richelle; Kent, Michael L; Watral, Virginia G; Kaufman, R John; Lee, Lucy E J; Bols, Niels C

    2009-01-01

    The use of animal cell cultures as tools for studying the microsporidia of insects and mammals is briefly reviewed, along with an in depth review of the literature on using fish cell cultures to study the microsporidia of fish. Fish cell cultures have been used less often but have had some success. Very short-term primary cultures have been used to show how microsporidia spores can modulate the activities of phagocytes. The most successful microsporidia/fish cell culture system has been relatively long-term primary cultures of salmonid leukocytes for culturing Nucleospora salmonis. Surprisingly, this system can also support the development of Enterocytozoon bienusi, which is of mammalian origin. Some modest success has been achieved in growing Pseudoloma neurophilia on several different fish cell lines. The eel cell line, EP-1, appears to be the only published example of any fish cell line being permanently infected with microsporidia, in this case Heterosporis anguillarum. These cell culture approaches promise to be valuable in understanding and treating microsporidia infections in fish, which are increasingly of economic importance.

  13. Interaction of silver nanoparticles with algae and fish cells: a side by side comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yang; Li, Xiaomei; Sigg, Laura; Suter, Marc J-F; Pillai, Smitha; Behra, Renata; Schirmer, Kristin

    2017-02-28

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely applied and can, upon use, be released into the aquatic environment. This raises concerns about potential impacts of AgNP on aquatic organisms. We here present a side by side comparison of the interaction of AgNP with two contrasting cell types: algal cells, using the algae Euglena gracilis as model, and fish cells, a cell line originating from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill (RTgill-W1). The comparison is based on the AgNP behavior in exposure media, toxicity, uptake and interaction with proteins. (1) The composition of exposure media affected AgNP behavior and toxicity to algae and fish cells. (2) The toxicity of AgNP to algae was mediated by dissolved silver while nanoparticle specific effects in addition to dissolved silver contributed to the toxicity of AgNP to fish cells. (3) AgNP did not enter into algal cells; they only adsorbed onto the cell surface. In contrast, AgNP were taken up by fish cells via endocytic pathways. (4) AgNP can bind to both extracellular and intracellular proteins and inhibit enzyme activity. Our results showed that fish cells take up AgNP in contrast to algal cells, where AgNP sorbed onto the cell surface, which indicates that the cell wall of algae is a barrier to particle uptake. This particle behaviour results in different responses to AgNP exposure in algae and fish cells. Yet, proteins from both cell types can be affected by AgNP exposure: for algae, extracellular proteins secreted from cells for, e.g., nutrient acquisition. For fish cells, intracellular and/or membrane-bound proteins, such as the Na+/K+-ATPase, are susceptible to AgNP binding and functional impairment.

  14. Production of reproductively sterile fish: A mini-review of germ cell elimination technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zohar, Yonathan

    2015-09-15

    As seafood consumption shifts from fisheries harvests to artificially propagated aquatic species, the increase of aquaculture activities poses a biological threat to our environment. Selectively bred, non-native and (eventually) genetically engineered farmed fish may escape from aquaculture operations, propagate and/or interbreed with wild stocks and subsequently alter the genetic makeup of populations in the environment. Thus, an effective strategy for bio-containment of farmed fish is critically needed. Farming reproductively sterile fish is the most environmentally sustainable approach to ensure complete bio-containment in large-scale aquaculture operations. Chromosome set manipulations to produce sterile fish, including polyploidy and hybridization, are currently the most common practices in the aquaculture industry. However, they do not always result in 100% sterility of the treated fish. Moreover, triploid fish typically do not perform as well as the non-manipulated diploids under commercial culture conditions. In the last half decade, several genetic engineering methods have been developed to produce sterile fish. In this review, we will address the latest technologies that use transgenic approaches to eliminate germ cells, resulting in the production of sterile fish. These latest advances also led us to the development of egg/embryo immersion methodologies to deliver and screen compounds that can be used to eliminate primordial germ cells and produce sterile fish. This emerging non-transgenic strategy for the production of reproductively sterile fish in aquaculture will also be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular switch of Cre/loxP for radiation modulated gene therapy on hepatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Chen, Fu-Du; Wang, Fu Hui; Ke, Chien Chih; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2007-02-01

    For the purpose of enhancement of AFP promoter for the use of radiation modulated gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we combined hepatitis B virus (HBV) enhancer II with AFP promoter which shows the selectivity to the target cells to control the Cre/loxP system. Different gene constructs, pE4luc, pE4Tk, EIIAPA-Cre, E4CMV-STOP-Tk and chimeric promoters combined with HBV enhancer were constructed and transfected into HepG2, HeLa and NIH-3T3 cell lines. Cell experiments revealed that E4 enhancer responses to radiation best after 60 h irradiation at a dose range of 5-7 Gy in HepG2 stable clone. The EIIAPA promoter provided high specificity to hepatoma and activated the Cre downstream and removed the stop cassette only in hepatoma cells. After removal of the stop cassette, the E4 response to radiation could encode more Tk protein and kill more tumor cells. In summary, the chimeric EIIAPA promoter can stringently control the expression of Cre recombinase only in HCC. The radiation effect of the EIIAPA-Cre and E4CMV-STOP-Tk system shows promising results in terms of cell survival of HCC.

  16. Mos1 transposon-based transformation of fish cell lines using baculoviral vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoo, Masako [Laboratory of Applied Molecular Entomology, Division of Applied Bioscience, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Fujita, Ryosuke [Laboratory of Applied Molecular Entomology, Division of Applied Bioscience, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Innate Immunity Laboratory, Graduate School of Life Science and Creative Research Institution, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Nakajima, Yumiko [Functional Genomics Group, COMB, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Kasai, Hisae [Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate 041-8611 (Japan); Asano, Shin-ichiro [Laboratory of Applied Molecular Entomology, Division of Applied Bioscience, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Bando, Hisanori, E-mail: hban@abs.agr.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Molecular Entomology, Division of Applied Bioscience, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •The baculovirus vector infiltrates the cells of economic important fishes. •Drosophila Mos1 transposase expressed in fish cells maintains its ability to localize to the nucleus. •The baculoviral vector carrying Mos1 is a useful tool to stably transform fish cells. -- Abstract: Drosophila Mos1 belongs to the mariner family of transposons, which are one of the most ubiquitous transposons among eukaryotes. We first determined nuclear transportation of the Drosophila Mos1-EGFP fusion protein in fish cell lines because it is required for a function of transposons. We next constructed recombinant baculoviral vectors harboring the Drosophila Mos1 transposon or marker genes located between Mos1 inverted repeats. The infectivity of the recombinant virus to fish cells was assessed by monitoring the expression of a fluorescent protein encoded in the viral genome. We detected transgene expression in CHSE-214, HINAE, and EPC cells, but not in GF or RTG-2 cells. In the co-infection assay of the Mos1-expressing virus and reporter gene-expressing virus, we successfully transformed CHSE-214 and HINAE cells. These results suggest that the combination of a baculovirus and Mos1 transposable element may be a tool for transgenesis in fish cells.

  17. Development, characterization, conservation and storage of fish cell lines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, W S; Swaminathan, T Raja; Joy, K P

    2011-03-01

    Cell lines provide an important biological tool for carrying out investigations into physiology, virology, toxicology, carcinogenesis and transgenics. Teleost fish cell lines have been developed from a broad range of tissues such as ovary, fin, swim bladder, heart, spleen, liver, eye muscle, vertebrae, brain, skin. One hundred and twenty-four new fish cell lines from different fish species ranging from grouper to eel have been reported since the last review by Fryer and Lannan (J Tissue Culture Methods 16: 87-94, 1994). Among the cell lines listed, more than 60% were established from species from Asia, which contributes more than 80% of total fish production. This includes 59 cell lines from 19 freshwater, 54 from 22 marine and 11 from 3 brackish water fishes. Presently, about 283 cell lines have been established from finfish around the world. In addition to the listing and a scientific update on new cell lines, the importance of authentication, applications, cross-contamination and implications of overpassaged cell lines has also been discussed in this comprehensive review. The authors feel that the review will serve an updated database for beginners and established researchers in the field of fish cell line research and development.

  18. The enhanced expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) mediated by HBV X protein through NF-kappaB pathway is associated with cell apoptosis induced by (TNF-α related apoptosis inducing ligand) TRAIL in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanyun; You, Hongjuan; Zhao, Jinjin; Liu, Wen; Hu, Lei; Luo, Wenya; Hu, Wei; Tang, Renxian; Zheng, Kuiyang

    2015-11-17

    HBV X protein (HBX) is associated with cell apoptosis mediated by TNF-α related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), while the role of HBX on the expressions of TRAIL receptors death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5 are unclear. In this study, we detected the cell apoptosis induced by TRAIL as well as gene and protein expressions of DR4 and DR5 in Huh-7 cells steadily transfected with HBX (Huh-7-HBX cells). In addition, we investigated the activation of different pathways associated with the expressions of TRAIL receptors in Huh-7-HBX cells. The apoptosis of Huh-7-HBX cells induced by TRAIL was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. The levels of DR4 and DR5 expression in cells were determined by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. The activities of JNK pathway and NF-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway were demonstrated by western blotting assay. Compared to control cells, the percentage of cell apoptosis was increased in Huh-7-HBX cells. The increased expressions of DR4 and DR5 on gene and protein levels were observed in Huh-7-HBX cells. Further researches suggested that activation of JNK pathway was increased but not involved in the expression of TRAIL receptors in HBX positive cells. The activation of NF-κB pathway increased and was responsible for DR5 expression and cell apoptosis in HBX positive cells. These results demonstrate that increased apoptosis induced by TRAIL is associated with increased expression of DR5 that mediated by HBX through NF-κB pathway. This finding provides a critical insight into the mechanism of hepatocyte apoptosis mediated by HBX in HBV infection.

  19. Fucoxanthin Attenuates Rifampin-Induced Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4 and Multiple Drug Resistance 1 (MDR1 Gene Expression Through Pregnane X Receptor (PXR-Mediated Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Colon Adenocarcinoma LS174T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Lin Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnane X receptor (PXR has been reported to regulate the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A family and transporters, such as multiple drug resistance 1 (MDR1. Fucoxanthin, the major carotenoid in brown sea algae, is a putative chemopreventive agent. In this study, we determined whether fucoxanthin could overcome drug resistance through attenuation of rifampin-induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by PXR-mediated pathways in HepG2 hepatoma cells. We found that fucoxanthin (1–10 μM significantly attenuated rifampin (20 μM-induced CYP3A4, MDR1 mRNA and CYP3A4 protein expression at 24 h of incubation. Mechanistically, fucoxanthin strongly attenuated the PXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In addition, fucoxanthin attenuated constitutive androstane receptor (CAR- and rPXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activity in this cell line. Using the mammalian two-hybrid assay, we found that fucoxanthin significantly decreased the interaction between PXR and SRC-1, a PXR co-activator. Thus, fucoxanthin can decrease rifampin-induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression through attenuation of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activation and interaction between PXR and co-activator. These findings could lead to potentially important new therapeutic and dietary approaches to reduce the frequency of adverse drug reactions.

  20. Fish cell culture characteristics of a cell line from the silver perch Bairdiella chrysura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, J H; Ellender, R D; Middlebrooks, B L; Stocks, P K; Lawler, A R; Howse, H D

    1977-06-01

    A cell designated SP-1 was established from tissue of the silver perch, Bairdiella chrysura. Cells were fibroblast-like and grew best at 26 degrees C in Leibovitz medium (L-15) containing 15% fetal bovine serum and 0.150 M sodium chloride. Passage 1 to passage 9 SP-1 cells contained a chromosome number of 48; at passages 27 and 50 the modal numbers were 51 and 54, respectively. Confirmation of the origin of SP-1 cells was made by the cytotoxic antibody dye-exclusion test. This cell line supported the growth of lymphocystis virus from the silver perch but was not found to replicate various other fish and mammalian viruses.

  1. Galactose-functionalized multi-responsive nanogels for hepatoma-targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shaofeng; Gao, Shan; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Chun; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-d-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using a combination of enzymatic transesterification and emulsion copolymerization for intracellular drug delivery. The nanogel exhibited redox, pH and temperature-responsive properties, which can be adjusted by varying the monomer feeding ratio. Furthermore, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the nanogels was close to body temperature and can result in rapid thermal gelation at 37 °C. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed that the P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel showed uniform spherical monodispersion. With pyrene as a probe, the fluorescence excitation spectra demonstrated nanogel degradation in response to glutathione (GSH). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed an amorphous property of DOX within the nanogel, which was used in this study as a model anti-cancer drug. Drug-releasing characteristics of the nanogel were examined in vitro. The results showed multi-responsiveness of DOX release by the variation of environmental pH values, temperature or the availability of GSH, a biological reductase. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed a higher anti-tumor activity of the galactose-functionalized DOX-loaded nanogels against human hepatoma HepG2 cells, which was, at least in part, due to specific binding between the galactose segments and the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-Rs) in hepatic cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometric profiles further confirmed elevated cellular uptake of DOX by the galactose-functionalised nanogels. Thus, we report here a multi-responsive P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel with a hepatoma-specific targeting ability for anti-cancer drug delivery.We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-d-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using

  2. Potentiation of LPS-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells by Aspirin via ROS and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Protection by N-Acetyl Cysteine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity and inflammation-associated toxic responses have been observed to be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS in vitro and in vivo respectively. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as aspirin, has been reported to be beneficial in inflammation-associated diseases like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Their precise molecular mechanisms, however, are not clearly understood. Our previous studies on aspirin treated HepG2 cells strongly suggest cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we have further demonstrated that HepG2 cells treated with LPS alone or in combination with aspirin induces subcellular toxic responses which are accompanied by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production, oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and apoptosis. The LPS/Aspirin induced toxicity was attenuated by pre-treatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC. Alterations in oxidative stress and glutathione-dependent redox-homeostasis were more pronounced in mitochondria compared to extra- mitochondrial cellular compartments. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with NAC exhibited a selective protection in redox homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that the altered redox metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in HepG2 cells play a critical role in LPS/aspirin-induced cytotoxicity. These results may help in better understanding the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic properties of NSAIDs in cancer cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins.

  3. Antitumor activity and mechanisms of action of total glycosides from aerial part of Cimicifuga dahurica targeted against hepatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shilin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plant is a main source of cancer drug development. Some of the cycloartane triterpenoids isolated from the aerial part of Cimicifuga dahurica showed cytotoxicity in several cancer cell lines. It is of great interest to examine the antiproliferative activity and mechanisms of total triterpenoid glycosides of C. dahurica and therefore might eventually be useful in the prevention or treatment of Hepatoma. Methods The total glycosides from the aerial part (TGA was extracted and its cytotoxicity was evaluated in HepG2 cells and primary cultured normal mouse hepatocytes by an MTT assay. Morphology observation, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, cell cycle analysis and western blot were used to further elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of TGA. Implanted mouse H22 hepatoma model was used to demonstrate the tumor growth inhibitory activity of TGA in vivo. Results The IC50 values of TGA in HepG2 and primary cultured normal mouse hepatocytes were 21 and 105 μg/ml, respectively. TGA induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest at lower concentration (25 μg/ml, and triggered G2/M arrest and apoptosis at higher concentrations (50 and 100 μg/ml respectively. An increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was implicated in TGA-induced apoptosis. In addition, TGA inhibited the growth of the implanted mouse H22 tumor in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion TGA may potentially find use as a new therapy for the treatment of hepatoma.

  4. Galactose-functionalized multi-responsive nanogels for hepatoma-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shaofeng; Gao, Shan; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Chun; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-02-21

    We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-D-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using a combination of enzymatic transesterification and emulsion copolymerization for intracellular drug delivery. The nanogel exhibited redox, pH and temperature-responsive properties, which can be adjusted by varying the monomer feeding ratio. Furthermore, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the nanogels was close to body temperature and can result in rapid thermal gelation at 37 °C. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed that the P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel showed uniform spherical monodispersion. With pyrene as a probe, the fluorescence excitation spectra demonstrated nanogel degradation in response to glutathione (GSH). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed an amorphous property of DOX within the nanogel, which was used in this study as a model anti-cancer drug. Drug-releasing characteristics of the nanogel were examined in vitro. The results showed multi-responsiveness of DOX release by the variation of environmental pH values, temperature or the availability of GSH, a biological reductase. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed a higher anti-tumor activity of the galactose-functionalized DOX-loaded nanogels against human hepatoma HepG2 cells, which was, at least in part, due to specific binding between the galactose segments and the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-Rs) in hepatic cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometric profiles further confirmed elevated cellular uptake of DOX by the galactose-functionalised nanogels. Thus, we report here a multi-responsive P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel with a hepatoma-specific targeting ability for anti-cancer drug delivery.

  5. Opsonisation of nanoparticles prepared from poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(trimethylene carbonate)-b-poly(malic acid) amphiphilic diblock copolymers: Impact on the in vitro cell uptake by primary human macrophages and HepaRG hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vene, Elise; Barouti, Ghislaine; Jarnouen, Kathleen; Gicquel, Thomas; Rauch, Claudine; Ribault, Catherine; Guillaume, Sophie M; Cammas-Marion, Sandrine; Loyer, Pascal

    2016-11-20

    The present work reports the investigation of the biocompatibility, opsonisation and cell uptake by human primary macrophages and HepaRG cells of nanoparticles (NPs) formulated from poly(β-malic acid)-b-poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PMLA-b-PHB) and poly(β-malic acid)-b-poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PMLA-b-PTMC) diblock copolymers, namely PMLA800-b-PHB7300, PMLA4500-b-PHB4400, PMLA2500-b-PTMC2800 and PMLA4300-b-PTMC1400. NPs derived from PMLA-b-PHB and PMLA-b-PTMC do not trigger lactate dehydrogenase release and do not activate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines demonstrating the excellent biocompatibility of these copolymers derived nano-objects. Using a protein adsorption assay, we demonstrate that the binding of plasma proteins is very low for PMLA-b-PHB-based nano-objects, and higher for those prepared from PMLA-b-PTMC copolymers. Moreover, a more efficient uptake by macrophages and HepaRG cells is observed for NPs formulated from PMLA-b-PHB copolymers compared to that of PMLA-b-PTMC-based NPs. Interestingly, the uptake in HepaRG cells of NPs formulated from PMLA800-b-PHB7300 is much higher than that of NPs based on PMLA4500-b-PHB4400. In addition, the cell internalization of PMLA800-b-PHB7300 based-NPs, probably through endocytosis, is strongly increased by serum pre-coating in HepaRG cells but not in macrophages. Together, these data strongly suggest that the binding of a specific subset of plasmatic proteins onto the PMLA800-b-PHB7300-based NPs favors the HepaRG cell uptake while reducing that of macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative study on the effect of algal and fish oil on viability and cell proliferation of Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beelen, Vincent A; Roeleveld, Johannes; Mooibroek, Hans; Sijtsma, Lolke; Bino, Raoul J; Bosch, Dirk; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Alink, Gerrit M

    2007-05-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) rich micro-algal oil was tested in vitro and compared with fish oil for antiproliferative properties on cancer cells in vitro. Oils derived from Crypthecodinium cohnii, Schizochytrium sp. and Nitzschia laevis, three commercial algal oil capsules, and menhaden fish oil were used in cell viability and proliferation tests with human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. With these tests no difference was found between algal oil and fish oil. The nonhydrolysed algal oils and fish oil showed a much lower toxic effect on cell viability, and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells than the hydrolysed oils and the free fatty acids (FFAs). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) were used as samples for comparison with the tested hydrolysed and nonhydrolysed oils. The hydrolysed samples showed comparative toxicity as the free fatty acids and no difference between algal and fish oil. Oxidative stress was shown to play a role in the antiproliferative properties of EPA and DHA, as alpha-tocopherol could partially reverse the EPA/DHA-induced effects. The results of the present study support a similar mode of action of algal oil and fish oil on cancer cells in vitro, in spite of their different PUFA content.

  7. Identification, visualization and clonal analysis of intestinal stem cells in fish.

    OpenAIRE

    Aghaallaei, N.; Gruhl, F; Schaefer, C.Q.; Wernet, T.; Weinhardt, V.; Centanin, L; Loosli, F; Baumbach, T.; Wittbrodt, J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a stochastic model of symmetrical stem cell division followed by neutral drift has been proposed for intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which has been suggested to represent the predominant mode of stem cell progression in mammals. In contrast, stem cells in the retina of teleost fish show an asymmetric division mode. To address whether the mode of stem cell division follows phylogenetic or ontogenetic routes, we analysed the entire gastrointestinal tract of the teleost medaka (Oryzias l...

  8. Computed tomographic evaluation of the portal vein in the hepatomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Hyung; Lee, Seung Chul; Bae, Man Gil; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk; Park, Kyung Nam [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Computed tomography and pornographic findings of 63 patients with hepatoma, undergone hepatic angiography and superior mesenteric pornography for evaluation of tumor and thrombosis of portal vein and determination of indication of transcatheter arterial embolization for palliative treatment of hepatoma from April, 85 to June, 86 in Hanyang university hospital, were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. In 36 cases, portal vein thrombosis was detected during photography. Nineteen of 37 cases which revealed localized hepatoma in the right lobe of the liver showed portal vein thrombosis; 9 of 11 cases of the left lobe; 8 of 14 cases which were involved in entire liver revealed thrombosis. One case localized in the caudate lobe showed no evidence of invasion to portal vein. 2. Twenty-four of 34 cases with diffuse infiltrative hepatoma revealed portal vein thrombosis and the incidence of portal vein thrombosis in this type were higher than in the cases of the nodular type. 3. The portal vein thrombosis appeared as filling defects of low density in the lumen of the portal veins in CT and they did not reveal contrast enhancement. 4. CT revealed well the evidence of obstructions in the cases of portal vein thrombosis and the findings were well-corresponded to the findings of the superior mesenteric photography. 5. Five of the cases of the portal vein thrombosis were missed in the CT and the causes were considered as due to partial volume effect of enhanced portal vein with partial occlusion or arterioportal shunts. 6. Six of 13 cases with occlusion of main portal vein showed cavernous transformation and they were noted as multiple small enhanced vascularities around the porta hepatis in the CT. According to the results, we conclude that CT is a useful modality to detect the changes of the portal veins in the patients of the hepatoma.

  9. Development of a fish cell culture model to investigate the impact of fish oil replacement on lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Melissa K; King, Hamish W; Bain, Peter A; Gibson, Robert A; Tocher, Douglas R; Schuller, Kathryn A

    2011-08-01

    Fish oils are rich in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), predominantly 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, whereas vegetable oils contain abundant C(18)-PUFA, predominantly 18:3n-3 or 18:2n-6. We hypothesized that replacement of fish oils with vegetable oils would increase the oxidative stability of fish lipids. Here we have used the long established and easily cultivated FHM cell line derived from the freshwater fish species fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to test this hypothesis. The FHM cells were readily able to synthesize 20:5n-3 and 24:6n-3 from 18:3n-3 but 22:6n-3 synthesis was negligible. Also, they were readily able to synthesize 20:3n-6 from 18:2n-6 but 20:4n-6 synthesis was negligible. Mitochondrial β-oxidation was greatest for 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 and the rates for 16:0, 18:2n-6, 22:6n-3 and 18:1n-9 were significantly lower. Fatty acid incorporation was predominantly into phospholipids (79-97%) with very little incorporation into neutral lipids. Increasing the fatty acid concentration in the growth medium substantially increased the concentrations of 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 in the cell phospholipids but this was not the case for 20:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. When they were subjected to oxidative stress, the FHM cells supplemented with either 20:5n-3 or 22:6n-3 (as compared with 18:3n-3 or saturated fatty acids) exhibited significantly higher levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) indicating higher levels of lipid peroxidation. The results are discussed in relation to the effects of fatty acid unsaturation on the oxidative stability of cellular lipids and the implications for sustainable aquaculture.

  10. Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) checkpoint blockade in combination with a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor restrains hepatocellular carcinoma growth induced by hepatoma cell-intrinsic PD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Shuang; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Jubo; Ye, Qinghai

    2017-12-01

    Inhibitors of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) administered as single agents have resulted in durable tumor regression in advanced cancer patients. However, only a minority of cancer patients respond to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Here, we show that PD-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes tumor growth independently of adaptive immunity. Knockdown of PD-1 suppresses tumor growth, whereas PD-1 overexpression enhances tumorigenesis in immunodeficient xenografted mice. Mechanistically, PD-1 binds the downstream mammalian target of rapamycin effectors eukaryotic initiation factor 4E and ribosomal protein S6, thus promoting their phosphorylation. Moreover, combining mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition with anti-PD-1 antibody treatment results in more durable and synergistic tumor regression than either single agent alone, each of which presents only modest efficacy. Targeting mammalian target of rapamycin pathways in combination with PD-1 may result in increased antitumor efficacy in cancer patients. (Hepatology 2017;66:1920-1933). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. B Cell-Activating Factor Regulates Different Aspects of B Cell Functionality and Is Produced by a Subset of Splenic B Cells in Teleost Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafalla, Carolina; González, Lucia; Castro, Rosario; Granja, Aitor G

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, B cell functionality is greatly influenced by cytokines released by innate cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, upon the early recognition of common pathogen patterns through invariant receptors. B cell-activating factor (BAFF) is one of these innate B cell-helper signals and plays a key role in the survival and differentiation of B cells. Although, evolutionarily, teleost fish constitute the first animal group in which adaptive immunity based on Ig receptors is present, fish still rely greatly on innate responses. In this context, we hypothesized that BAFF would play a key role in the control of B cell responses in fish. Supporting this, our results show that teleost BAFF recapitulates mammalian BAFF stimulating actions on B cells, upregulating the expression of membrane MHC II, improving the survival of fish naïve B cells and antibody-secreting cells, and increasing the secretion of IgM. Surprisingly, we also demonstrate that BAFF is not only produced in fish by myeloid cells but is also produced by a subset of splenic B cells. Thus, if this B cell-produced BAFF proves to be actively regulating this same B cell subset, our findings point to an ancient mechanism to control B cell differentiation and survival in lower vertebrates, which has been silenced in mammals in physiological conditions, but reemerges under pathological conditions, such as B cell lymphomas and autoimmune diseases.

  12. Inhibition of Reporter Genes by Small Interfering RNAs in Cell Culture and Living Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Larashati, Sekar; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference is a mechanism for silencing specific genes. It has been applied in cell culture to inhibit expression of genes involved in disease including viral genes as recently shown for the fish pathogenic rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus or VHSV (Bohle et al., 2011). But evidence of specific siRNA inhibition in living fish is still needed. Using the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), messenger RNA (mRNA) can be targeted resulting in degradation of targeted transcript or ...

  13. FISH 'N' Chips : a single cell genomic analyzer for the human microbiome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Yooli Kim; Perroud, Thomas D.; Hugenholtz, Philip (Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA); Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.; Malamud, Daniel (New York University, New York, NY); Saxena, Deepak (New York University, New York, NY); Liu, Peng

    2010-09-01

    Uncultivable microorganisms likely play significant roles in the ecology within the human body, with subtle but important implications for human health. Focusing on the oral microbiome, we are developing a processor for targeted isolation of individual microbial cells, facilitating whole-genome analysis without the need for isolation of pure cultures. The processor consists of three microfluidic modules: identification based on 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), fluorescence-based sorting, and encapsulation of individual selected cells into small droplets for whole genome amplification. We present here a technique for performing microscale FISH and flow cytometry, as a prelude to single cell sorting.

  14. Fetal calf serum-free suspension culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells employing fish serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masashi; Aizu, Yu; Shioya, Itaru; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2010-03-01

    The effects of heat treatment and concentration of fish serum (FS) on cell growth in a suspension culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) 1-15(500) (ATCC CRL-9606) cells were investigated. An increase in FS concentration from 1% to 4% markedly increased cell density. On the other hand, heat treatment of FS showed nearly no effect on cell density. Copyright 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Voltage-gated sodium channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells of mormyrid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. de Ruiter (Martijn); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); C.R.W. Hansel (Christian)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCerebellar Purkinje cells of mormyrid fish differ in some morphological as well as physiological parameters from their counterparts in mammals. Morphologically, Purkinje cells of mormyrids have larger dendrites that are characterized by a lower degree of branching in the molecular layer.

  16. MiL-FISH: Multilabeled Oligonucleotides for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Improve Visualization of Bacterial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Manuel; Wetzel, Silke; Liebeke, Manuel; Dubilier, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a vital tool for environmental and medical microbiology and is commonly used for the identification, localization, and isolation of defined microbial taxa. However, fluorescence signal strength is often a limiting factor for targeting all members in a microbial community. Here, we present the application of a multilabeled FISH approach (MiL-FISH) that (i) enables the simultaneous targeting of up to seven microbial groups using combinatorial labeling of a single oligonucleotide probe, (ii) is applicable for the isolation of unfixed environmental microorganisms via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and (iii) improves signal and imaging quality of tissue sections in acrylic resin for precise localization of individual microbial cells. We show the ability of MiL-FISH to distinguish between seven microbial groups using a mock community of marine organisms and its applicability for the localization of bacteria associated with animal tissue and their isolation from host tissues using FACS. To further increase the number of potential target organisms, a streamlined combinatorial labeling and spectral imaging-FISH (CLASI-FISH) concept with MiL-FISH probes is presented here. Through the combination of increased probe signal, the possibility of targeting hard-to-detect taxa and isolating these from an environmental sample, the identification and precise localization of microbiota in host tissues, and the simultaneous multilabeling of up to seven microbial groups, we show here that MiL-FISH is a multifaceted alternative to standard monolabeled FISH that can be used for a wide range of biological and medical applications. PMID:26475101

  17. Fish consumption, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Liese, A; Wagenknecht, L; Lorenzo, C; Haffner, S; Hanley, A

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the association between fish consumption and incident type 2 diabetes has been inconclusive. In addition, few studies have investigated how fish consumption may be related to the metabolic abnormalities underlying diabetes. Therefore, we examined the association of fish consumption with measures of insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in a multi-ethnic population. We examined the cross-sectional association between fish consumption and measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion in 951 non-diabetic participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Fish consumption, categorized as consumption was independently associated with lower S(I)-adjusted AIR (β = -0.13 [-0.25, -0.016], p = 0.03, comparing ≥2 vs. consumption was positively associated with intact and split proinsulin/C-peptide ratios, however, these associations were confounded by ethnicity (multivariable-adjusted β = 0.073 [-0.014, 0.16] for intact proinsulin/C-peptide ratio, β = 0.031 [-0.065, 0.13] for split proinsulin/C-peptide ratio). We also observed a significant positive association between fish consumption and fasting blood glucose (multivariable-adjusted β = 2.27 [0.68, 3.86], p = 0.005). We found no association between fish consumption and S(I) (multivariable-adjusted β = -0.015 [-0.083, 0.053]) or fasting insulin (multivariable-adjusted β = 0.016 [-0.066, 0.10]). Fish consumption was not associated with measures of insulin sensitivity in the multi-ethnic IRAS cohort. However, higher fish consumption may be associated with pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Reporter Genes by Small Interfering RNAs in Cell Culture and Living Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larashati, Sekar; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    RNA interference is a mechanism for silencing specific genes. It has been applied in cell culture to inhibit expression of genes involved in disease including viral genes as recently shown for the fish pathogenic rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus or VHSV (Bohle et al., 2011......). But evidence of specific siRNA inhibition in living fish is still needed. Using the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), messenger RNA (mRNA) can be targeted resulting in degradation of targeted transcript or translational repression. Reporter genes such as luciferase and green fluorescence protein (GFP) can...... be used to observe the knock down effect by siRNAs designed to target these reporters. One aim of this project is to verify the specific knock down effect of siRNAs in cell culture and in living fish and to establish easy-read out models for testing the effect especially in vivo. Cell culture from human...

  19. Bifidobacterium lactis 420 and fish oil enhance intestinal epithelial integrity in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkala, Kati; Laitinen, Kirsi; Röytiö, Henna

    2016-03-01

    Increased intestinal permeability is a predisposing factor for low-grade inflammation-associated conditions, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Dietary components may influence intestinal barrier integrity. We hypothesized that the dietary supplements Bifidobacterium lactis 420, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, and fish oil have beneficial impacts on intestinal barrier integrity. In addition, we hypothesized that the coadministration of these components results in synergistic benefits to the integrity of the intestinal barrier. To study this, we investigated the impact of cell-free culture supernatant from dietary supplements B lactis 420 and L rhamnosus HN001, and fish oil, separately and in combination, on intestinal permeability in a CaCo-2 cell model. Administered separately, both B lactis 420 supernatant and fish oil significantly increased the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier, as determined by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), whereas L rhamnosus did not. The TEER increase with B lactis 420 was dose dependent. Interestingly, a combination of B lactis 420 supernatant and fish oil negated the increase in TEER of the single components. mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, was not altered, but the mRNA expression of myosin light chain kinase increased after fish oil treatment. To conclude, single dietary components, namely, B lactis 420 and fish oil, induced beneficial effects on intestinal barrier integrity in vitro, whereas a combination of 2 beneficial test compounds resulted in a null effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of fish cell lines for evaluating the chromium induced cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, we hypothesize that cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress play a key role in chromium induced toxicity in SISS, SISK, IEE, IEK, IEG, SICH and ICG cell lines after 24 h exposure. Three fish species namely Lates calcarifer, Etroplus suratensis and Catla catla were exposed to the concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/L of chromium for 96 h under static conditions for conducting acute toxicity tests. LC50 was then calculated. The percentage cell survival was assessed by multiple endpoints such as MTT, NR, AB and CB assays in the seven fish cell lines exposed to different concentrations of chromium and EC50 values of all the four endpoints were calculated. High significances were noted in the correlations between each in vitro cytotoxicity assays and in vivo mortality data. Cell shrinkage, cell detachment, vacuolations and cell swelling at the highest concentration of chromium (50 mg/L) were seen on microscopic examination of cell morphology. Comet assay and Hoechst staining were carried out to assess DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation in the seven fish lines exposed to chromium. The results of antioxidant parameters obtained indicate a significant reduction in the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and Glutathione peroxidase, and increased level of lipid peroxidation in all the cell lines exposed to chromium. These results confirm that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole fish for cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress assessment in chromium toxicity studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    compare susceptibility between cell lines and between lineages within a laboratory and between laboratories (Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test). The objective being that the most sensitive cell line and lineages are routinely selected for diagnostic purposes.In comparing cell lines, we simulated "non......-cell-culture-adapted" virus by propagating the virus in heterologous cell lines to the one tested. A stock of test virus was produced and stored at - 80 °C and tests were conducted biannually. This procedure becomes complicated when several cell lines are in use and does not account for variation among lineages. In comparing...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...

  2. Simultaneous detection of FISH signals and bromo-deoxyuridine incorporation in fixed tissue cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moralli

    Full Text Available FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization is a powerful technique that detects and localises specific DNA sequences on metaphase chromosomes, interphase nuclei or chromatin fibres. When coupled to BrdU (5-Bromo 2-deoxy-uridine labeling of newly replicated DNA, the replication properties of different DNA sequences can be analysed. However, the technique for the detection of BrdU incorporation is time consuming, and relies on acidic pH buffer treatments, that prevent use of pH sensitive fluorochromes such as FITC (Fluoro-isothiocianate during FISH. In this work, we describe a simplified protocol that allows the simultaneous detection of FISH signals and BrdU incorporation. Since the technique does not involve paraformaldehyde for cell fixation, or formamide for denaturation of the target DNA and in post-hybridisation washes, it represents a safer alternative to classical FISH techniques.

  3. Mitomycin C induces bystander killing in homogeneous and heterogeneous hepatoma cellular models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Amrendra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common cancers worldwide that is particularly refractory to chemotherapy. Several studies have proposed combination chemotherapy regimen for HCC treatment. However, these therapies are not effective in regressing tumor and prolonging survival of patient's suffering from HCC. Therefore, the development of more effective therapeutic tools and new strategies for the treatment of HCC are urgently needed. Over the last decade much attention has been focused on "bystander effect" as a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of certain human tumors. Interest in this therapeutic approach originated from numerous reports describing the radiation induced bystander effect. However, the knowledge about chemotherapy induced bystander effect is still limited. Hence, chemotherapy induced bystander phenomenon in hepatoma cells was explored by utilizing Mitomycin C (MMC. Results MMC induced bystander killing was observed only in hepatoma cells and it did not occur in cervical cancer cells. MMC induced bystander killing was transferable via medium. It occurred in co-cultured cells indicating the involvement of secreted as well as membrane bound factors. FasL and TRAIL were detected in the conditioned medium from treated cells. In medium transfer experiment, pre-treatment with EDTA (a broad range protease inhibitor diminished MMC induced bystander killing. Following drug exposure, expression of Fas and TRAIL receptors increased and treatment with neutralizing antibodies against FasL and TRAIL inhibited bystander killing. Conclusion Our results highlight the therapeutic importance of MMC in the treatment of HCC and implicate role of membrane bound and secreted forms of FasL and TRAIL in MMC induced bystander killing.

  4. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Snakehead Fish Cell Line upon Snakehead Fish Vesiculovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in mediating multiple biological processes in eukaryotes and are being increasingly studied to evaluate their roles associated with cellular changes following viral infection. Snakehead fish Vesiculovirus (SHVV has caused mass mortality in snakehead fish during the past few years. To identify specific miRNAs involved in SHVV infection, we performed microRNA deep sequencing on a snakehead fish cell line (SSN-1 with or without SHVV infection. A total of 205 known miRNAs were identified when they were aligned with the known zebrafish miRNAs, and nine novel miRNAs were identified using MiRDeep2 software. Eighteen and 143 of the 205 known miRNAs were differentially expressed at three and 24 h post-infection (poi, respectively. From the differentially-expressed miRNAs, five were randomly selected to validate their expression profiles using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and their expression profiles were consistent with the microRNA sequencing results. In addition, the target gene prediction of the SHVV genome was performed for the differentially-expressed host miRNAs, and a total of 10 and 58 differentially-expressed miRNAs were predicted to bind to the SHVV genome at three and 24 h poi, respectively. The effects of three selected miRNAs (miR-130-5p, miR-214 and miR-216b on SHVV multiplication were evaluated using their mimics and inhibitors via qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that all three miRNAs were able to inhibit the multiplication of SHVV; whereas the mechanisms underlying the SHVV multiplication inhibited by the specific miRNAs need to be further characterized in the future.

  5. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  6. In vitro growth of microsporidia Anncaliia algerae in cell lines from warm water fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, S Richelle; Rumney, Rebecca L; Vo, Nguyen T K; Bols, Niels C; Lee, Lucy E J

    2011-02-01

    Anncaliia algerae is an aquatic microsporidium that most commonly infects mosquitoes but can be grown on the rabbit kidney cell line, RK-13. Spores were purified from RK-13 cultures and added to cell lines from warm water fish and from an insect. The cell lines were GFSK-S1 and GFB3C-W1 from goldfish skin and brain respectively, ZEB2J from zebrafish embryos, FHMT-W1 from fathead minnow testis, and Sf9 from ovaries of a fall armyworm moth. All cultures were maintained at 27°C. Infection was judged to have taken place by the appearance of sporonts and/or spores in cells and occurred in all cell lines. Spores were also isolated from ZEB2J cultures and used to successfully infect new cultures of ZEB2J, RK-13 and Sf9. These results suggest that cells of a wide range of vertebrates support A. algerae growth in vitro and fish cells can produce spores infectious to cells of mammals, fish, and insects.

  7. Early fish myoseptal cells: insights from the trout and relationships with amniote axial tenocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoann Bricard

    Full Text Available The trunk muscle in fish is organized as longitudinal series of myomeres which are separated by sheets of connective tissue called myoseptum to which myofibers attach. In this study we show in the trout that the myoseptum separating two somites is initially acellular and composed of matricial components such as fibronectin, laminin and collagen I. However, myoseptal cells forming a continuum with skeletogenic cells surrounding axial structures are observed between adjacent myotomes after the completion of somitogenesis. The myoseptal cells do not express myogenic markers such as Pax3, Pax7 and myogenin but express several tendon-associated collagens including col1a1, col5a2 and col12a1 and angiopoietin-like 7, which is a secreted molecule involved in matrix remodelling. Using col1a1 as a marker gene, we observed in developing trout embryo an initial labelling in disseminating cells ventral to the myotome. Later, labelled cells were found more dorsally encircling the notochord or invading the intermyotomal space. This opens the possibility that the sclerotome gives rise not only to skeletogenic mesenchymal cells, as previously reported, but also to myoseptal cells. We furthermore show that myoseptal cells differ from skeletogenic cells found around the notochord by the specific expression of Scleraxis, a distinctive marker of tendon cells in amniotes. In conclusion, the location, the molecular signature and the possible sclerotomal origin of the myoseptal cells suggest that the fish myoseptal cells are homologous to the axial tenocytes in amniotes.

  8. B Cell-Activating Factor Regulates Different Aspects of B Cell Functionality and Is Produced by a Subset of Splenic B Cells in Teleost Fish

    OpenAIRE

    TAFALLA, carolina; González, Lucia; Castro, Rosario; Granja, Aitor G.

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, B cell functionality is greatly influenced by cytokines released by innate cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, upon the early recognition of common pathogen patterns through invariant receptors. B cell-activating factor (BAFF) is one of these innate B cell-helper signals and plays a key role in the survival and differentiation of B cells. Although, evolutionarily, teleost fish constitute the first animal group in which adaptive immunity based on Ig receptors is present,...

  9. Exercise performance, red blood cell deformability, and lipid peroxidation: effects of fish oil and vitamin E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G. S.; Mensink, R. P.; Hardeman, M. R.; de Vries, T.; Brouns, F.; Hornstra, G.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell (RBC) deformability, which may improve exercise performance. Exercise alone, or in combination with an increase in fatty acid unsaturation, however, may enhance lipid peroxidation. Effects of a bicycle time trial

  10. Inhibition of Reporter Genes by Small Interfering RNAs in Cell Culture and Living Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larashati, Sekar; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    as it provides low background compared to other reporter genes such as green fluorescence protein (GFP). In cell culture, the luciferase can be used as reporter gene to see the effect of gene silencing. In the living fish, the bioluminescence signal detected is influenced by the melanin pigment. Timing between...

  11. Antiviral functions of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somamoto, Tomonori; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Fischer, Uwe

    2014-04-01

    Cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) play a pivotal role in eliminating viruses in mammalian adaptive immune system. Many recent studies on T-cell immunity of fish have suggested that teleost CTLs are also important for antiviral immunity. Cellular functional studies using clonal ginbuan crucian carp and rainbow trout have provided in vivo and in vitro evidence that in many respects, virus-specific CTLs of fish have functions similar to those of mammalian CTLs. In addition, mRNA expression profiles of CTL-related molecules, such as CD8, TCR and MHC class I, have shown that in a wide range of fish species, CTLs are involved in antiviral adaptive immunity. These findings are a basis to formulate possible vaccination strategies to trigger effective antiviral CTL responses in teleost fish. This review describes recent advances in our understanding of antiviral CTL functions in teleost fish and discusses vaccination strategies for efficiently inducing CTL activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gábelová, Alena, E-mail: alena.gabelova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Poláková, Veronika [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Prochazka, Gabriela [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Segerbäck, Dan [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  13. Inhibitory effect of human recombinant interferon gamma on synthesis of acute phase proteins in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells stimulated by leukocyte cytokines, TNF alpha and IFN-beta 2/BSF-2/IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magielska-Zero, D; Bereta, J; Czuba-Pelech, B; Pajdak, W; Gauldie, J; Koj, A

    1988-07-01

    Supernatants from endotoxin-stimulated human leukemic cells and human recombinant interferon-beta 2 similarly enhance synthesis of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and haptoglobin but suppress synthesis of albumin in cultured Hep G2 cells. Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor only slightly affects production of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and albumin in a similar manner as leukocyte cytokines. In distinction, recombinant human interferon-gamma profoundly inhibits synthesis of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and especially of haptoglobin, but stimulates production of alpha 2-macroglobulin thus modulating the acute phase response of these cells.

  14. In vitro germ cell differentiation during sex differentiation in a teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the sexually dimorphic mechanisms of gonadal sex differentiation, we established an in vitro culture system for gonadal sex differentiation using the teleost fish Oreochromis niloticus. In vivo, the entry of germ cells into meiosis occurs around 35 days after hatching (dah) in XX gonads, whereas in XY gonads, meiotic cells became differentiated around 85 dah. In our in vitro culture system using gonads from young fry at 23 dah, the meiotic cells in the XX gonads appeared after 21 days of culture. In contrast, in the XY gonads, no meiotic cells were detected after 21 days. These results indicate that germ cell differentiation in this culture system progresses in a manner similar to that in vivo. To identify the gene products that are involved in the entry of germ cells into meiosis or in the arrest of germ cells at the gonial stage of gonadal sex differentiation, we performed subtractive hybridization screening with this in vitro culture system. From the screening process, we identified the female-related gene, FR-3, which is a homolog of zebrafish nanos-related gene (nos). The nos gene was expressed after gonadal formation around 35 dah in XX gonads, but not in XY gonads. In situ hybridization indicated that nos is expressed in oogenic meiotic cells, but not in spermatogenic meiotic cells. Further examination revealed that nos was expressed in oogenic meiotic cells after gonadal formation, specifically in teleost fish. Together, nos may be also involved in oogenic meiosis, with the exception of primordial germ cell migration.

  15. Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Linares Ana; Torres Carolina; Morales Rogelio; Alejandre Ma; Perales Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Nutritional control of gene regulation guides the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress has been reported in areas of lipid accumulation, activating proliferation genes. Suppression of oxidative stress by antioxidant administration reduces this activation and the progression of lesions. We hypothesized that fish oil consumption may protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The study objective was to determi...

  16. Assessment of metabolic capabilities of PLHC-1 and RTL-W1 fish liver cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Rémi; Schnell, Sabine; Porte, Cinta

    2009-12-01

    Metabolic capabilities of PLHC-1 and RTL-W1 cell lines were investigated since to date, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and glutathione-S-transferase have been almost the unique biotransformation enzymes reported in these cells. Functionality of CYP3A-, CYP2M- and CYP2K-like enzymes was assessed by studying the hydroxylation of testosterone (T) and lauric acid (LA), and glucuronidation and sulfation capacity was assessed by looking at 1-naphthol (1-N) and T conjugation. Only PLHC-1 cells showed the ability to hydroxylate T at 6beta-position (a CYP3A-like catalysed pathway) and LA at (omega-1)-position (a CYP2K-like catalysed pathway). Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and steroid reductase enzymes showed comparatively higher activities than CYPs: 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione and 3beta-androstanediol were the major metabolites of T detected in both cell lines. Regarding phase II activities, both cell lines metabolised 1-N to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. In contrast, when using T as substrate, RTL-W1 formed the glucuronide, whilst PLHC-1 formed the corresponding sulfate. Overall, the observed enzymatic activities are much lower (up to 17.5 x 10(3) times) than those reported in primary cultures of fish hepatocytes. The present study highlights the need of developing new fish cell lines that could be used as alternative in vitro tools for studying xenobiotic metabolism and toxicity in fish.

  17. Mos1 transposon-based transformation of fish cell lines using baculoviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Masako; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nakajima, Yumiko; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Kasai, Hisae; Asano, Shin-ichiro; Bando, Hisanori

    2013-09-13

    Drosophila Mos1 belongs to the mariner family of transposons, which are one of the most ubiquitous transposons among eukaryotes. We first determined nuclear transportation of the Drosophila Mos1-EGFP fusion protein in fish cell lines because it is required for a function of transposons. We next constructed recombinant baculoviral vectors harboring the Drosophila Mos1 transposon or marker genes located between Mos1 inverted repeats. The infectivity of the recombinant virus to fish cells was assessed by monitoring the expression of a fluorescent protein encoded in the viral genome. We detected transgene expression in CHSE-214, HINAE, and EPC cells, but not in GF or RTG-2 cells. In the co-infection assay of the Mos1-expressing virus and reporter gene-expressing virus, we successfully transformed CHSE-214 and HINAE cells. These results suggest that the combination of a baculovirus and Mos1 transposable element may be a tool for transgenesis in fish cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene transfer and genome-wide insertional mutagenesis by retroviral transduction in fish stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizhi Liu

    Full Text Available Retrovirus (RV is efficient for gene transfer and integration in dividing cells of diverse organisms. RV provides a powerful tool for insertional mutagenesis (IM to identify and functionally analyze genes essential for normal and pathological processes. Here we report RV-mediated gene transfer and genome-wide IM in fish stem cells from medaka and zebrafish. Three RVs were produced for fish cell transduction: rvLegfp and rvLcherry produce green fluorescent protein (GFP and mCherry fluorescent protein respectively under control of human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter upon any chromosomal integration, whereas rvGTgfp contains a splicing acceptor and expresses GFP only upon gene trapping (GT via intronic in-frame integration and spliced to endogenous active genes. We show that rvLegfp and rvLcherry produce a transduction efficiency of 11~23% in medaka and zebrafish stem cell lines, which is as 30~67% efficient as the positive control in NIH/3T3. Upon co-infection with rvGTgfp and rvLcherry, GFP-positive cells were much fewer than Cherry-positive cells, consistent with rareness of productive gene trapping events versus random integration. Importantly, rvGTgfp infection in the medaka haploid embryonic stem (ES cell line HX1 generated GTgfp insertion on all 24 chromosomes of the haploid genome. Similar to the mammalian haploid cells, these insertion events were presented predominantly in intergenic regions and introns but rarely in exons. RV-transduced HX1 retained the ES cell properties such as stable growth, embryoid body formation and pluripotency gene expression. Therefore, RV is proficient for gene transfer and IM in fish stem cells. Our results open new avenue for genome-wide IM in medaka haploid ES cells in culture.

  19. Characterizing responses to gamma radiation by a highly clonogenic fish brain endothelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Nguyen T K; Sokeechand, Bibi S H; Seymour, Colin B; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2017-07-01

    The clonogenic property and radiobiological responses of a fish brain endothelial cell line, eelB, derived from the American eel were studied. Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the plating efficiency of the eelB cells and to evaluate the clonogenic survival fractions after direct irradiation to low-dose low-LET gamma radiation or receiving irradiated cell conditioned medium in the bystander effect experiments. eelB had the second highest plating efficiency ever reported to date for fish cell lines. Large eelB macroscopic colonies could be formed in a short period of time and were easy to identify and count. Unlike with other fish clonogenic cell lines, which had a relatively slow proliferation profile, clonogenic assays with the eelB cells could be completed as early as 12 days in culture. After direct irradiation with gamma rays at low doses ranging from 0.1Gy to 5Gy, the dose-clonogenic survival curve of the eelB cell line showed a linear trend and did not develop a shoulder region. A classical radio-adaptive response was not induced with the clonogenic survival endpoint when the priming dose (0.1 or 0.5Gy) was delivered 6h before the challenge dose (3 or 5Gy). However, a radio-adaptive response was observed in progeny cells that survived 5Gy and developed lethal mutations. eelB appeared to lack the ability to produce damaging radiation-induced bystander signals on both eelB and HaCaT recipient cells. eelB cell line could be a very useful cell model in the study of radiation impacts on the aquatic health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene transfer and genome-wide insertional mutagenesis by retroviral transduction in fish stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qizhi; Wang, Yunzhi; Lin, Fan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yan; Ge, Ruowen; Hong, Yunhan

    2015-01-01

    Retrovirus (RV) is efficient for gene transfer and integration in dividing cells of diverse organisms. RV provides a powerful tool for insertional mutagenesis (IM) to identify and functionally analyze genes essential for normal and pathological processes. Here we report RV-mediated gene transfer and genome-wide IM in fish stem cells from medaka and zebrafish. Three RVs were produced for fish cell transduction: rvLegfp and rvLcherry produce green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mCherry fluorescent protein respectively under control of human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter upon any chromosomal integration, whereas rvGTgfp contains a splicing acceptor and expresses GFP only upon gene trapping (GT) via intronic in-frame integration and spliced to endogenous active genes. We show that rvLegfp and rvLcherry produce a transduction efficiency of 11~23% in medaka and zebrafish stem cell lines, which is as 30~67% efficient as the positive control in NIH/3T3. Upon co-infection with rvGTgfp and rvLcherry, GFP-positive cells were much fewer than Cherry-positive cells, consistent with rareness of productive gene trapping events versus random integration. Importantly, rvGTgfp infection in the medaka haploid embryonic stem (ES) cell line HX1 generated GTgfp insertion on all 24 chromosomes of the haploid genome. Similar to the mammalian haploid cells, these insertion events were presented predominantly in intergenic regions and introns but rarely in exons. RV-transduced HX1 retained the ES cell properties such as stable growth, embryoid body formation and pluripotency gene expression. Therefore, RV is proficient for gene transfer and IM in fish stem cells. Our results open new avenue for genome-wide IM in medaka haploid ES cells in culture.

  1. Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Sonia; Alejandre, Ma José; Morales, Rogelio Palomino; Torres, Carolina; Linares, Ana

    2010-07-14

    Nutritional control of gene regulation guides the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress has been reported in areas of lipid accumulation, activating proliferation genes. Suppression of oxidative stress by antioxidant administration reduces this activation and the progression of lesions. We hypothesized that fish oil consumption may protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The study objective was to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol and fish-oil intake on the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) in SMC cultures. An in vivo/in vitro cell model was used, culturing SMC isolated from chicks exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet with 5% of cholesterol (SMC-Ch) alone or followed by an anti-atherogenic fish oil-rich diet with 10% of menhaden oil (SMC-Ch-FO) and from chicks on standard diet (SMC-C). Cells were exposed to 25-HC, studying apoptosis levels by flow cytometry (Annexin V) and expressions of caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Exposure to 25-HC produced apoptosis in all three SMC cultures, which was mediated by increases in caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 gene expression. Changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C, indicating that dietary cholesterol makes SMC more susceptible to 25-HC-mediated apoptosis. Expression of p53 gene was elevated in SMC-Ch-FO. This supports the proposition that endogenous levels of p53 protect SMC against apoptosis and possibly against the development of atherosclerosis. Fish oil attenuated the increase in c-myc levels observed in SMC-C and SMC-Ch, possibly through its influence on the expression of antioxidant genes. Replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of the cholesterol-induced changes, increasing the resistance of SMC to apoptosis.

  2. Cell Culture Isolation of Piscine Nodavirus (Betanodavirus) in Fish-Rearing Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Shinnosuke; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Piscine nodavirus (betanodavirus) is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in a variety of cultured fish species, particularly marine fish. In the present study, we developed a sensitive method for cell culture isolation of the virus from seawater and applied the method to a spontaneous fish-rearing environment. The virus in seawater was concentrated by an iron-based flocculation method and subjected to isolation with E-11 cells. A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the virus in water. After spiking into seawater was performed, a betanodavirus strain (red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus [RGNNV] genotype) was effectively recovered in the E-11 cells at a detection limit of approximately 10(5)copies (equivalent to 10(2)50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50])/liter seawater. In an experimental infection of juvenile sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) with the virus, the virus was isolated from the drainage of a fish-rearing tank when the virus level in water was at least approximately 10(5)copies/liter. The application of this method to seven band grouper-rearing floating net pens, where VNN prevailed, resulted in the successful isolation of the virus from seawater. No differences were found in the partial sequences of the coat protein gene (RNA2) between the clinical virus isolates of dead fish and the cell-cultured virus isolates from seawater, and the viruses were identified as RGNNV. The infection experiment showed that the virus isolates from seawater were virulent to seven band grouper. These results showed direct evidence of the horizontal transmission of betanodavirus via rearing water in marine aquaculture. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Dnd Is a Critical Specifier of Primordial Germ Cells in the Medaka Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cell (PGC specification occurs early in development. PGC specifiers have been identified in Drosophila, mouse, and human but remained elusive in most animals. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein Dnd as a critical PGC specifier in the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes. Dnd depletion specifically abolished PGCs, and its overexpression boosted PGCs. We established a single-cell culture procedure enabling lineage tracing in vitro. We show that individual blastomeres from cleavage embryos at the 32- and 64-cell stages are capable of PGC production in culture. Importantly, Dnd overexpression increases PGCs via increasing PGC precursors. Strikingly, dnd RNA forms prominent particles that segregate asymmetrically. Dnd concentrates in germ plasm and stabilizes germ plasm RNA. Therefore, Dnd is a critical specifier of fish PGCs and utilizes particle partition as a previously unidentified mechanism for asymmetric segregation. These findings offer insights into PGC specification and manipulation in medaka as a lower vertebrate model.

  4. Biochemical And Environmental Studies On Hepatoma Patients In Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zakhary, Nadia I.; El-Aaser, Abdelbaset A.; Michael, Michael S.; El-Demerdash, Salwa; Kamel, Refaat; Hamza, Mohamed R.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was carried out on 102 hepatoma patients collected mainly from the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during the period 1988-1991 . Environmental and personal data were collected for each patient. These data included their age, sex and occupation. Previous history of fertilisers were also considered. The study revealed a peak of age of primary liver cancer, among Egyptians, between the fifth and sixth decades, since 32.4% and 28.4% of patients were aging from 50-60...

  5. Effects of heat treatment and concentration of fish serum on cell growth in adhesion culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Masashi; Tsukada, Ryohei; Shioya, Itaru; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment and concentration of fish serum (FS) on cell growth and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) production in an adhesion culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, DR1000L4N, were investigated. The addition of heat treated FS instead of non-heat-treated FS improved cell growth in terms of cell density, which reached 60% that in 10% fetal calf serum (FCS)-containing medium (FCS medium). A decrease in FS concentration from 1...

  6. Applications and potential uses of fish gill cell lines: examples with RTgill-W1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L E J; Dayeh, V R; Schirmer, K; Bols, N C

    2009-01-01

    Gills are unique structures involved in respiration and osmoregulation in piscinids as well as in many aquatic invertebrates. The availability of the trout-derived gill cell line, RTgill-W1, is beginning to make impacts in fish health and toxicology. These cells are available from the American Type Culture Collection as ATCC CRL 2523. The cells have an epithelioid morphology and form tight monolayer sheets that can be used for testing epithelial resistance. The cells can be grown in regular tissue culture surfaces or in transwell membranes in direct contact with water on their apical surfaces. The ability of RTgill-W1 to withstand hypo- and hyper-osmotic conditions and their optimal growth capacity at room temperature, make these cells ideal sentinel models for in vitro aquatic toxicology as well as model systems to study fish gill function and gill diseases. RTgill-W1 support growth of paramyxoviruses and orthomyxoviruses like salmon anemia virus. RTgill-W1 also support growth of Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis, the causative agent of amoebic gill disease. The cells have been used to understand mechanisms of toxicity, ranking the potencies of toxicants, and evaluating the toxicity of environmental samples. These cells are also valuable for high throughput toxicogenomic and toxicoproteomic studies which are easier to achieve with cell lines than with whole organisms. RTgill-W1 cell line could become a valuable complement to whole animal studies and in some cases as gill replacements in aquatic toxicology.

  7. Gold-FISH: A correlative approach to microscopic imaging of single microbial cells in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seki, David; Woebken, Dagmar; Eickhorst, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is routinely used for the phylogenetic identification, detection, and quantification of single microbial cells environmental microbiology. Oligonucleotide probes that match the 16S rRNA sequence of target organisms are generally applied and the resulting signals are visualized via fluorescence microscopy. Consequently, the detection of the microbial cells of interest is limited by the resolution and the sensitivity of light microscopy where objects smaller than 0.2 µm can hardly be represented. Visualizing microbial cells at magnifications beyond light microscopy, however, can provide information on the composition and potential complexity of microbial habitats - the actual sites of nutrient cycling in soil and sediments. We present a recently developed technique that combines (1) the phylogenetic identification and detection of individual microorganisms by epifluorescence microscopy, with (2) the in situ localization of gold-labelled target cells on an ultrastructural level by SEM. Based on 16S rRNA targeted in situ hybridization combined with catalyzed reporter deposition, a streptavidin conjugate labeled with a fluorescent dye and nanogold particles is introduced into whole microbial cells. A two-step visualization process including an autometallographic enhancement of nanogold particles then allows for either fluorescence or electron microscopy, or a correlative application thereof. We will present applications of the Gold-FISH protocol to samples of marine sediments, agricultural soils, and plant roots. The detection and enumeration of bacterial cells in soil and sediment samples was comparable to CARD-FISH applications via fluorescence microscopy. Examples of microbe-surface interaction analysis will be presented on the basis of bacteria colonizing the rhizoplane of rice roots. In principle, Gold-FISH can be performed on any material to give a snapshot of microbe-surface interactions and provides a promising tool for

  8. Dose rate effects of low-LET ionizing radiation on fish cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Nguyen T.K. [McMaster University, Radiation Sciences Program, School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Seymour, Colin B.; Mothersill, Carmel E. [McMaster University, Radiation Sciences Program, School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Hamilton, ON (Canada); McMaster University, Department of Biology, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    Radiobiological responses of a highly clonogenic fish cell line, eelB, to low-LET ionizing radiation and effects of dose rates were studied. In acute exposure to 0.1-12 Gy of gamma rays, eelB's cell survival curve displayed a linear-quadratic (LQ) relationship. In the LQ model, α, β, and α/β ratio were 0.0024, 0.037, and 0.065, respectively; for the first time that these values were reported for fish cells. In the multi-target model, n, D{sub o}, and D{sub q} values were determined to be 4.42, 2.16, and 3.21 Gy, respectively, and were the smallest among fish cell lines being examined to date. The mitochondrial potential response to gamma radiation in eelB cells was at least biphasic: mitochondria hyperpolarized 2 h and then depolarized 5 h post-irradiation. Upon receiving gamma rays with a total dose of 5 Gy, dose rates (ranging between 83 and 1366 mGy/min) had different effects on the clonogenic survival but not the mitochondrial potential. The clonogenic survival was significantly higher at the lowest dose rate of 83 mGy/min than at the other higher dose rates. Upon continuous irradiation with beta particles from tritium at 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 mGy/day for 7 days, mitochondria significantly depolarized at the three higher dose rates. Clearly, dose rates had differential effects on the clonogenic survival of and mitochondrial membrane potential in fish cells. (orig.)

  9. Optimization of Betanodavirus culture and enumeration in striped snakehead fish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, Paul; Tweedie, Alison; Whittington, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    An optimized culture method for detection of infection of fish with the Red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype of betanodavirus in striped snakehead (SSN-1, Channa striatus) cells is described. Inoculation of fish tissue homogenates at the same time or within 4 hr of seeding the SSN-1 cells was as sensitive as the method recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health, where homogenates were adsorbed onto an established cell monolayer. Such modification halved the time required and the costs of consumables, and reduced the potential for error when processing large numbers of samples. Positive culture results were obtained from 88.3% of 392 fish tissue homogenates in which RGNNV was detected using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay; 99.7% of 943 tissue homogenates, which were qRT-PCR negative, were cell culture negative. Cytopathic effect (CPE) was characterized by large intracytoplasmic vacuoles in 0.1-60% of cells. Detachment of affected cells from the culture surface resulting in progressive disruption of the monolayer occurred in 46.4% of primary cultures and 96.0% of subcultures of positive samples. Identification of CPE that did not disrupt the cell monolayer increased estimates of the 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) by 1.07-2.79 logs (95% confidence interval). The predicted mean TCID(50)/ml was 3.3 logs higher when cells were inoculated less than 36 hr after subculture at less than 80% confluence compared to cells inoculated at greater than 80% confluence and more than 36 hr after subculture (P < 0.05). © 2011 The Author(s)

  10. DNA vaccination in fish promotes an early chemokine-related recruitment of B cells to the muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, R.; Martínez-Alonso, S.; Fischer, U.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA encoding viral proteins has proved as the most effective vaccination strategy against many viral pathogens. The efficacy of DNA vaccination in teleost fish is based on a high level of viral antigen expression in muscle cells inducing a strong and long......-lasting protection. However, the mechanisms through which this protection is conferred in fish are still not understood. Moreover, similarities to mammalian models can not be established since DNA vaccination in mammals induces much lower responses. In this work, we have focused on the characterization of immune...... cells that infiltrate the muscle at the site of DNA delivery in vaccinated fish and the chemokines that may be involved in their infiltration. It was observed that B lymphocytes, both IgM+ and IgT+, represent a major infiltrating cell type in fish vaccinated with a viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus...

  11. Application of an immune-magnetic cell sorting method for CD138-positive plasma cells in FISH analysis of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S Y; Jang, S; Park, C-J; Chi, H-S; Lee, J-H; Lee, J H; Lee, K H; Suh, C; Lim, S E; Seo, E-J

    2012-10-01

    Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of multiple myeloma (MM) may indiscriminately count signals of nonplasma cells, thus decreasing specificity and sensitivity. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of an immune-magnetic sorting method for plasma cells in FISH analysis of MM and define optimal sample preparation conditions. Plasma cells were purified using EasySep(®) CD138 Positive Selection Cocktail and Magnetic Nanoparticles (Invitrogen). We compared FISH results with and without plasma cell purification for three sample preparation methods: direct harvest, 24-h culture, and 96-h culture with interleukin-4 in five newly diagnosed MM patients. Archived fixed bone marrow cells of 17 MM patients were also studied. The percentage of abnormal cells identified was significantly higher with plasma cell purification than without purification (median, 88.0%; range, 84.0-100.0%vs. 15.0%, 12.5-29.5%, respectively). The three sample preparation methods showed comparable results. Immune-magnetic sorting also significantly increased the percentage of abnormal cells identified in FISH analysis of archived fixed bone marrow cells (P cell sorting significantly increased the percentage of abnormal cells identified in FISH analysis of MM samples for all sample preparation methods. This method could also be applied for retrospective FISH analysis of archived fixed bone marrow cells. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Testing nanomaterial toxicity in unicellular eukaryotic algae and fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Alexandra; Kühnel, Dana; Schirmer, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Nanoecotoxicology as a sub-discipline of ecotoxicology aims to identify and predict effects elicited on ecosystems by nano-sized materials (NM). Two key groups of model organisms in this context are algae and fish. In this chapter, we present considerations for testing NM with respect to their impact on unicellular algae and cell lines derived from various organs of fish.Based on currently available literature on NM effects in unicellular algae and fish cell lines, and our own experience, we provide guidance on test design, including principle test considerations, materials, NM presentation to cells, exposure, bioavailability, and effect assessment. Assessment needs to be based on a meaningful choice of exposure scenario(s) related to the research question. As a first step, one needs to address whether effects of NMs are to be investigated under environmentally relevant or probable conditions, which may include processes such as agglomeration, or whether NM effects from mono-dispersed particles are of interest, which may require special steps to ensure stable NM suspension. Moreover, whether effects on cells are to be studied in the short- or long-term is important with regard to experimental design. Preparation of NM suspensions, which can be done in aqueous media different from the exposure medium, is addressed with regard to energy input, sterility (as required for algae and fish cell exposure) and particle purity.Specified for the two model systems, algae and fish cell lines, availability and choice of culture media are presented and discussed with regard to impact on NM behavior. Light, temperature, and agitation, which are variables during exposure, are discussed. We further provide guidance on the characterization of the NM in the chosen aqueous exposure media regarding size, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility. The state of NM in exposure media is decisive for their bioavailability and therefore for potential particle effects. Therefore, we present

  13. Unraveling the chromosome 17 patterns of FISH in interphase nuclei: an in-depth analysis of the HER2 amplicon and chromosome 17 centromere by karyotyping, FISH and M-FISH in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón-Lagos, Milena; Verdun Di Cantogno, Ludovica; Rangel, Nelson; Mele, Teresa; Ramírez-Clavijo, Sandra R; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Marchiò, Caterina; Sapino, Anna

    2014-12-07

    In diagnostic pathology, HER2 status is determined in interphase nuclei by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for the HER2 gene and for the chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17). The latter probe is used as a surrogate for chromosome 17 copies, however chromosome 17 (Chr17) is frequently rearranged. The frequency and type of specific structural Chr17 alterations in breast cancer have been studied by using comparative genomic hybridization and spectral karyotyping, but not fully detailed. Actually, balanced chromosome rearrangements (e.g. translocations or inversions) and low frequency mosaicisms are assessable on metaphases using G-banding karyotype and multicolor FISH (M-FISH) only. We sought to elucidate the CEP17 and HER2 FISH patterns of interphase nuclei by evaluating Chr17 rearrangements in metaphases of 9 breast cancer cell lines and a primary culture from a triple negative breast carcinoma by using G-banding, FISH and M-FISH. Thirty-nine rearranged chromosomes containing a portion of Chr17 were observed. Chromosomes 8 and 11 were the most frequent partners of Chr17 translocations. The lowest frequency of Chr17 abnormalities was observed in the HER2-negative cell lines, while the highest was observed in the HER2-positive SKBR3 cells. The MDA-MB231 triple negative cell line was the sole to show only non-altered copies of Chr17, while the SKBR3, MDA-MB361 and JIMT-1 HER2-positive cells carried no normal Chr17 copies. True polysomy was observed in MDA-MB231 as the only Chr17 alteration. In BT474 cells polysomy was associated to Chr17 structural alterations. By comparing M-FISH and FISH data, in 8 out of 39 rearranged chromosomes only CEP17 signals were detectable, whereas in 14 rearranged chromosomes HER2 and STARD3 genes were present without CEP17 signals. HER2 and STARD3 always co-localized on the same chromosomes and were always co-amplified, whereas TOP2A also mapped to different derivatives and was co-amplified with HER2 and STARD3 on SKBR3

  14. Hydrolyzed fish collagen induced chondrogenic differentiation of equine adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, O; Reich, C; Wenisch, S; Hild, A; Burg-Roderfeld, M; Siebert, H-C; Arnhold, S

    2010-12-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are multipotent cells which, in the presence of appropriate stimuli, can differentiate into various lineages such as the osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic. In this study, we investigated the effect of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in comparison to hydrolyzed fish collagen in terms of the chondrogenic differentiation potential of ADSCs. ADSCs were isolated from subcutaneous fat of horses by liposuction. Chondrogenesis was investigated using a pellet culture system. The differentiation medium was either supplemented with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) or fish collagen (0.5 mg/ml) for a 3 week period. After the 3 weeks in vitro differentiation, RT-PCR and histological staining for proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen were performed to evaluate the degree of chondrogenic differentiation and the formation of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM). The differentiation of ADSCs induced by TGF-β1 showed a high expression of glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Histological analysis of cultures stimulated by hydrolyzed fish collagen demonstrated an even higher GAG expression than cultures stimulated under standard conditions by TGF-β1. The expression of cartilage-specific type II collagen and Sox9 was about the same in both stimulated cultures. In this study, chondrogenesis was as effectively induced by hydrolyzed fish collagen as it was successfully induced by TGF-β1. These findings demonstrated that hydrolyzed fish collagen alone has the potential to induce and maintain ADSCs-derived chondrogenesis. These results support the application of ADSCs in equine veterinary tissue engineering, especially for cartilage repair.

  15. Synthesis of cholic-acid-carrying polymer and in-vitro evaluation of hepatoma-targeting nanoparticles decorated with the polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiantao; Yu, Changjun; Jiang, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    The specific interaction between bile acids and the bile acids transporters provides a promising way for hepatoma-targeted drug delivery. We synthesized an amphipathic polymer containing cholic acid (CA), the main bile acids in body, and prepared CA-functionalized nanoparticles to target hepatoma cells. Poly-[3-(4-vinylbenzonate)-7, 12-dihydroxy-5-cholan-24-oic acid] (PVBCA) was synthesized by introducing methyl cholate onto polyvinyl benzoate polymer backbone, and was characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR, and GFC. PVBCA can be incorporated onto PLGA nanoparticles surface via the emulsion-solvent evaporation procedure, resulting in the nanoparticles carrying CA moieties on their surface. The binding of CA moieties to the bile acids' transporters on the cell membrane enhances the cellular uptake of the nanoparticles significantly. The SMMC-7721 cell uptake of PVBCA-decorated nanoparticles increases with amount of incorporated PVBCA and is 2- to 2.8-fold higher than that of the normal PLGA nanoparticles. By exclusion of specific endocytosis pathways using chemical inhibitors, we found that the uptake mechanism of PVBCA-decorated nanoparticles was mainly attributed to clathrin-and-caveolae-independent endocytosis, which was distinct from that of PLGA nanoparticles. The present study provides a simple and versatile method for hepatoma-targeted delivery of nanoparticles.

  16. DNA vaccination against a fish rhabdovirus promotes an early chemokine-related recruitment of B cells to the muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Rosario; Martínez-Alonso, Susana; Fischer, Uwe; Haro, Neila Álvarez de; Soto-Lampe, Verónica; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J; Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-02-26

    In fish, intramuscular (i.m) injection of plasmid DNA encoding viral proteins has proved a highly effective vaccination strategy against some viral pathogens. The efficacy of DNA vaccination in teleost fish is based on the high level of viral antigen expression in muscle cells inducing a strong and long-lasting protection. However, the mechanisms through which this protection is established and effectuated in fish are still not fully understood. Moreover, similarities to mammalian models cannot be established since DNA vaccination in mammals usually induces much weaker responses. In this work, we have focused on the characterization of the immune cells that infiltrate the muscle at the site of DNA injection in vaccinated fish and the chemokines and chemokine receptors that may be involved in their infiltration. We have demonstrated through diverse techniques that B lymphocytes, both IgM⁺ and IgT⁺ cells, represented a major infiltrating cell type in fish vaccinated with a viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein-encoding DNA vaccine, whereas in control fish injected with an oil adjuvant mainly granulocyte/monocyte-type cells were attracted. Among twelve chemokine genes studied, only CXCL11_L1, CK5B and CK6 mRNA levels were up-regulated in DNA vaccinated fish compared to fish injected with the corresponding vector backbone. Furthermore, the transcription of CXCR3B, a possible receptor for CXCL11_L1 was also significantly up-regulated in vaccinated fish. Finally, experiments performed with recombinant trout CK5B and CK6 and chemokine expression plasmids revealed that these chemokines have chemotactic capacities which might explain the recruitment of B cells to the site of DNA injection. Altogether, our results reveal that there is an early chemokine-related B cell recruitment triggered by i.m. DNA vaccination against VHSV which might play an important role in the initial phase of the immune response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. New tools to study RNA interference to fish viruses: Fish cell lines permanently expressing siRNAs targeting the viral polymerase of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, S.; Schyth, Brian Dall; Encinas, P.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that low transfection efficiency can be a major problem when gene inhibition by the use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is attempted in fish cells. This may especially be true when targeting genes of viruses which are fast replicating and which can still infect...... cells that have not been transfected with the antiviral siRNAs. To increase the amount of antiviral siRNAs per cell a different strategy than transfection was taken here. Thus, we describe carp epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cell clones expressing siRNAs designed to target the L polymerase gene...... of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus affecting fish. Eight siRNA sequences were first designed, synthesized and screened for inhibition of in vitro VHSV infectivity. Small hairpin (sh) DNAs corresponding to three selected siRNAs were then cloned into pRNA-CMV3.1/puro plasmids...

  18. Pros and cons of fish skin cells in culture: long-term full skin and short-term scale cell culture from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakers, Sebastian; Klinger, Matthias; Kruse, Charli; Gebert, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Here, we report the establishment of a permanent skin cell culture from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The cells of the fish skin cell culture could be propagated over 60 passages so far. Furthermore, we show for the first time that it is possible to integrate freshly harvested rainbow trout scales into this new fish skin cell culture. We further demonstrated that epithelial cells derived from the scales survived in the artificial micro-environment of surrounding fibroblast-like cells. Also, antibody staining indicated that both cell types proliferated and started to build connections with the other cell type. It seems that it is possible to generate an 'artificial skin' with two different cell types. This could lead to the development of a three-dimensional test system, which might be a better in vitro representative of fish skin in vivo than individual skin cell lines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Discrimination of bacteriophage infected cells using locked nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (LNA-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas Boas, Diana; Almeida, Carina; Sillankorva, Sanna; Nicolau, Ana; Azeredo, Joana; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage-host interaction studies in biofilm structures are still challenging due to the technical limitations of traditional methods. The aim of this study was to provide a direct fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method based on locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes, which targets the phage replication phase, allowing the study of population dynamics during infection. Bacteriophages specific for two biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter, were selected. Four LNA probes were designed and optimized for phage-specific detection and for bacterial counterstaining. To validate the method, LNA-FISH counts were compared with the traditional plaque forming unit (PFU) technique. To visualize the progression of phage infection within a biofilm, colony-biofilms were formed and infected with bacteriophages. A good correlation (r = 0.707) was observed between LNA-FISH and PFU techniques. In biofilm structures, LNA-FISH provided a good discrimination of the infected cells and also allowed the assessment of the spatial distribution of infected and non-infected populations.

  20. Establishment of a cell line with high transfection efficiency from zebrafish Danio rerio embryos and its susceptibility to fish viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y L; Chen, L M; Le, Y; Li, Y L; Hong, Y H; Jia, K T; Yi, M S

    2017-10-01

    A cell line ZBE3 isolated from a continuous cell culture derived from zebrafish Danio rerio blastomeres by clonal growth was characterized. ZBE3 cells had been subcultured for >120 passages since the initial primary culture of the blastomeres. The ZBE3 cells grow stably at temperature from 20 to 32° C with an optimum temperature of 28° C in ESM2 or ESM4 medium with 15% foetal bovine serum (FBS). The optimum FBS concentration for ZBE3 cell growth ranged from 15 to 20%. Cytogenetical analysis indicated that the modal chromosome number of ZBE3 cells was 50, the same as the diploid chromosome number of D. rerio. Significant cytopathic effect was observed in ZBE3 cells after infection with redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, Singapore grouper iridovirus and grass carp reovirus, and the viral replication in the cells was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and transmission electron microscopy, indicating the susceptibility of ZBE3 cells to the three fish viruses. After transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid, ZBE3 cells showed a transfection efficiency of about 40% which was indicated by the percentage of cells expressing green fluorescence protein. The stable growth, susceptibility to fish viruses as well as high transfection efficiency make ZBE3 cells be a useful tool in transgenic manipulation, fish virus-host cell interaction and immune response in fish. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Immunomodulatory Effectiveness of Fish Oil and omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Non-melanoma Skin Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khurram; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Yuen, Ng Pei; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil is composed of various fatty acids among which omega-3 fatty acids are considered as most beneficial. The effects of fish oil on the activity of a topical anticancer drug, imiquimod, and the immunomodulatory activity of omega-3 fatty acids was investigated in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Imiquimod-fish oil mixture exhibited higher carcinoma cell growth inhibition and immunomodulatory activity than imiquimod alone, especially against squamous cell carcinoma cells. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibited growth inhibition of both basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and modulated the immune response. Omega-3 fatty acids of fish oil serve as inducers of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and as suppressors of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which not only depress tumor growth but also adequately control the inflammatory side effects of imiquimod. Thus, imiquimod administration with fish oil could be beneficial for inhibition of non-melanoma skin carcinoma cells but further in vivo studies are needed to understand their role in skin cancer.

  2. A study on the thermochemotherapy effect of nanosized As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes on experimental hepatoma in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Li; Zhang Jia; Wang Ziyu; Liu Jing; Li Yutao; Zhang Dongsheng [School of Medicine, Southeast University, NO. 87 Ding jia qiao, Nanjing 210009 (China); An Yanli, E-mail: wangli040418@163.com, E-mail: zdszds1222@163.com [Affiliated Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-08-05

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanosized, thermosensitive magnetoliposome encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (MZFs) and antitumor drugs (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The nanoliposomes were spherical and mostly single volume, with an average diameter of 128.2 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed a liposome phase transition temperature of 42.71 deg. C. After that, we studied the liposomes' anti-hepatoma effect in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of the nanoliposomes on human hepatoma cells, SMMC-7721, and changes in expression of apoptosis-related proteins were examined in vitro. The results show that As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes combined with hyperthermia had a great impact on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which increased to 1.914 and exhibited a rapid response to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. An in situ rabbit liver tumor model was established and used to evaluate the antitumor effect of combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy following transcatheter arterial embolization with As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes. The results demonstrated a strong anti-hepatoma effect, with a tumor volume inhibition rate of up to 85.22%. Thus, As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes may play a great role in the treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

  3. A study on the thermochemotherapy effect of nanosized As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes on experimental hepatoma in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Jia; An, Yanli; Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Jing; Li, Yutao; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanosized, thermosensitive magnetoliposome encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (MZFs) and antitumor drugs (As2O3). The nanoliposomes were spherical and mostly single volume, with an average diameter of 128.2 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed a liposome phase transition temperature of 42.71 °C. After that, we studied the liposomes' anti-hepatoma effect in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of the nanoliposomes on human hepatoma cells, SMMC-7721, and changes in expression of apoptosis-related proteins were examined in vitro. The results show that As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes combined with hyperthermia had a great impact on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which increased to 1.914 and exhibited a rapid response to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. An in situ rabbit liver tumor model was established and used to evaluate the antitumor effect of combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy following transcatheter arterial embolization with As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes. The results demonstrated a strong anti-hepatoma effect, with a tumor volume inhibition rate of up to 85.22%. Thus, As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes may play a great role in the treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

  4. [Analysis on anti-hepatoma effect of medicine invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis based on warm-pungent-liver efficiency network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hao; Ma, Li; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency network is a complicated network for revealing the efficient mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and relations among efficiencies. The efficiency-property relations were used to establish a warm-pungent-liver efficiency network to explain the principle of treating hepatoma with medicines invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis. Safflower, a warm-pungent medicine distributing along the live meridian, was taken for example to discuss the efficiency network' s application in the identification of active ingredients of TCMs and the combination. In the early stage of this study, combined warm-pungent-liver medicines distributed along the liver meridian and invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis were taken as the study objects to collect the pharmacological effect data of warm-pungent-liver medicines and obtain the pharmacological effect combinations with the highest blood circulation-invigorating association by the association rules and the chi-square test. The pharmacological target data recorded in the DrugBank database is used to establish the warm-pungent-liver efficiency network according to the principle line of "efficiency-property-pharmacology-target-protein interaction" under the background of the protein interaction network. The blood circulation-invigorating medicines could directly treat hepatoma by impacting protooncogene, cancer suppressor gene, cell apoptosis and anti-inflammation, and indirectly treat hepatoma by resisting coagulation and adhesion, regulating local blood circulation, preventing cancer cell metastasis and enhancing the tissues' sensitivity to the anticancer drugs. Among the active ingredients of safflower screened based on the blood circulation-invigorating network targets, carthamin yellow, quercetin and luteolin have been proved to have the anti-hepatoma effect in literatures, which indicated the reliability of this study's results and the purpose of the efficiency

  5. Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linares Ana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional control of gene regulation guides the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMC into foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress has been reported in areas of lipid accumulation, activating proliferation genes. Suppression of oxidative stress by antioxidant administration reduces this activation and the progression of lesions. We hypothesized that fish oil consumption may protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The study objective was to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol and fish-oil intake on the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC in SMC cultures. Methods An in vivo/in vitro cell model was used, culturing SMC isolated from chicks exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet with 5% of cholesterol (SMC-Ch alone or followed by an anti-atherogenic fish oil-rich diet with 10% of menhaden oil (SMC-Ch-FO and from chicks on standard diet (SMC-C. Cells were exposed to 25-HC, studying apoptosis levels by flow cytometry (Annexin V and expressions of caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Exposure to 25-HC produced apoptosis in all three SMC cultures, which was mediated by increases in caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 gene expression. Changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C, indicating that dietary cholesterol makes SMC more susceptible to 25-HC-mediated apoptosis. Expression of p53 gene was elevated in SMC-Ch-FO. This supports the proposition that endogenous levels of p53 protect SMC against apoptosis and possibly against the development of atherosclerosis. Fish oil attenuated the increase in c-myc levels observed in SMC-C and SMC-Ch, possibly through its influence on the expression of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of the cholesterol-induced changes, increasing the resistance of SMC to apoptosis.

  6. Induction of antiviral state in fish cells by Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, interferon regulatory factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) mediates an antiviral state in cells by regulating the expression of the interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) system. To elucidate the role of IRF-1 in fish during virus infections, we constructed a recombinant plasmid of the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus IRF-1 (JF IRF-1) under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate/early enhancer promoter. The antiviral mechanism of JF IRF-1 was studied using transfection experiments in a homologous cell line. Here, we show that cell supernatants obtained from transiently transfected cells enhanced cell viability of a heterologous cell line upon incubation, reduced the titers of hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and possessed cytokine-like activity, as shown by their ability to protect cells against virus infections. The supernatants also inhibited the replication of the rhabdoviruses during the early stages of infection as indicated by the reduction of viral titers in the presence of the supernatants obtained from the transfected cells. Further analysis showed that the cell culture supernatants contain cytokine-like substances that possess acid-labile and temperature-resistant properties. These results indicate that JF IRF-1 induces an antiviral state in cells by mediating the production of cytokine-like substances. Thus, JF IRF-1 might be useful as an adjuvant in the development of DNA vaccines against commercially important viral pathogens in Japanese flounder aquaculture.

  7. Partial formation of sperm dimorphism from spermatocytes of the cottoid fish, Hemilepidotus gilberti in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y; Takayama-Watanabe, E; Watanabe, A; Kobayashi, M; Munehara, H; Onitake, K

    2007-11-01

    Polymorphism of sperm is considered to be significant for the reproductive strategy in some animal species. The phenomenon is thought to occur in the species-specific stage of spermatogenesis, but how the identical germ cells are differentiated towards polymorphic sperm remains unknown. We here performed a germ cell culture in the cottoid fish, Hemilepidotus gilberti, whose sperm exhibit dimorphism with fertilizable eusperm and unfertilizable parasperm. In the culture, germ cells, which were obtained with an identical morphology, a spherical shape of 5-7 microm in diameter, differentiated into smaller spherical cells with a single nucleus, a moving flagellum and localized mitochondria. In addition, large retroflex-shaped cells with two elongated nuclei were also observed in the cell culture. Germ cells that had each morphological feature were histologically also observed in some cysts of the spermatogenetic testis, suggesting that the former type of cell corresponded to developing eusperm and the latter corresponded to developing parasperm. When BrdU was incorporated into germ cells in the culture, it was detected in both cells with eusperm-like and those with parasperm-like morphologies. These findings suggest that DNA-duplicating spermatocytes are potent to autonomously progress a part of spermatogenesis to form dimorphic sperm.

  8. Isolation of mast cells from the peritoneal exudate of the teleost fish gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-González, Nuria Esther; García-García, Erick; Montero, Jana; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; García-Ayala, Alfonsa; Mulero, Victoriano

    2014-09-01

    Inflammation is the first response of animals to infection or tissue damage. Sparus aurata (Perciformes) was the first fish species shown to possess histamine-containing mast cells at mucosal tissues. We report a separation protocol for obtaining highly enriched (over 95% purity) preparations of fish mast cells in high numbers (5-20 million mast cells per fish). The peritoneal exudate of S. aurata is composed of lymphocytes, acidophilic granulocytes, macrophages and mast cells. We separated the lymphocyte fraction through discontinuous density gradient centrifugation. The remaining cells were cultivated overnight in RPMI-1640 culture medium containing 5% fetal calf serum, which allowed macrophages to adhere to the cell culture flasks. Finally, acidophilic granulocytes were separated from the mast cells though a Magnetic-Activated Cell Separation (MACS) protocol, using a monoclonal antibody against these cells. The purity of mast cells-enriched fractions was analyzed by flow cytometry and by transmission electron microscopy. The functionality of purified mast cells was confirmed by the detection of histamine release by ELISA after stimulation with compound 48/80 and the induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8 following stimulation with bacterial DNA. This fish mast cells separation protocol is a stepping stone for further studies addressing the evolution of vertebrate inflammatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Autophagy induced by snakehead fish vesiculovirus inhibited its replication in SSN-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Chen, Nan; Hegazy, Abeer M; Liu, Xiaodan; Wu, Zhixin; Liu, Xueqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Qin, Qiwei; Lan, Jiangfeng; Lin, Li

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in host protection against pathogen infection through activating innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, we observed that the infection of snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV) could induce apparent autophagy in striped snakehead fish cell line (SSN-1), including clear double-membrane vesicles, fluorescent punctate pattern of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (SSN-LC3B) and the conversion of SSN-LC3B-Ⅰ to SSN-LC3B-Ⅱ. Furthermore, we verified that autophagy inhibited the replication of SHVV by assessing mRNA and protein level of nucleoprotein as well as virus titer in the supernatant. These results will shed a new light on the prevention of the infection of SHVV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxic cyanobacterial cells containing microcystins induce oxidative stress in exposed tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jos, Angeles; Pichardo, Silvia; Prieto, Ana I; Repetto, Guillermo; Vázquez, Carmen M; Moreno, Isabel; Cameán, Ana M

    2005-04-30

    The effects of microcystins from cyanobacterial cells on various oxidative stress biomarkers in liver, kidney and gill tissues in freshwater tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Microcystins are a family of cyclic peptide toxins produced by species of freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Fish were exposed to the cyanobacterial cells in two ways: mixed with a commercial fish food or crushed into a commercial fish food so that the toxins were released. Two different exposure times were studied: 14 and 21 days. The oxidative status of fish was evaluated by analyzing the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). The findings of the present investigation show that microcystins induce oxidative stress in a time-dependent manner and that the type of administration of the cyanobacterial cells influences the extent of these effects. Thus, the crushed cyanobacterial cells (released toxins) induced the antioxidant defences studied and increased the LPO level to a greater extent than the non-crushed cells. The liver was the most affected organ followed by kidney and gills. These results together with reports that fish can accumulate microcystins mean that cyanobacterial blooms are an important health, environmental and economic problem.

  11. Aneuploidy studies in human cells exposed in vitro to GSM-900 MHz radiofrequency radiation using FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourthoumieu, Sylvie; Terro, Faraj; Leveque, Philippe; Collin, Alice; Joubert, Vanessa; Yardin, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    Since previous research found an increase in the rate of aneuploidies in human lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequencies, it seems important to perform further studies. The objective of this study was then to investigate whether the exposure to RF (radiofrequency) radiation similar to that emitted by mobile phones of a second generation standard, i.e., Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) may induce aneuploidy in cultured human cells. The potential induction of genomic instability by GSM-900 MHz radiofrequency (GSM-900) was investigated after in vitro exposure of human amniotic cells for 24 h to average-specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.25, 1, 2 and 4 W/kg in the temperature range of 36.3-39.7°C. The exposures were carried out in a wire-patch cell (WPC). The rate of aneuploidy of chromosomes 11 and 17 was determined by interphase FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation) immediately after independent exposure of three different donors for 24 h. At least 100 interphase cells were analysed per assay. No significant change in the rate of aneuploidy of chromosomes 11 and 17 was found following exposure to GSM-900 for 24 h at average SAR up to 4 W/kg. Our study did not show any in vitro aneuploidogenic effect of GSM using FISH and is not in agreement with the results of previous research.

  12. Silver nanoparticles inhibit fish gill cell proliferation in protein-free culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yang; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura; Schirmer, Kristin

    2016-10-01

    While short-term exposures of vertebrate cells, such as from fish, can be performed in defined, serum-free media, long-term cultures generally require addition of growth factors and proteins, normally supplied with a serum supplement. However, proteins are known to alter nanoparticle properties by binding to nanoparticles. Therefore, in order to be able to study nanoparticle-cell interactions for extended periods, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill cell line, RTgill-W1, was adapted to proliferate in a commercial, serum-free medium, InVitrus VP-6. The newly adapted cell strain was named RTgill-W1-pf (protein free). These cells proliferate at a speed similar to the RTgill-W1 cells cultured in a fully supplemented medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum. As well, they were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and fully recovered after thawing. Yet, senescence set in after about 10 passages in InVitrus VP-6 medium, revealing that this medium cannot fully support long-term culture of the RTgill-W1 strain. The RTgill-W1-pf cell line was subsequently applied to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on cell proliferation over a period of 12 days. Indeed, cell proliferation was inhibited by 10 μM AgNP. This effect correlated with high levels of silver being associated with the cells. The new cell line, RTgill-W1-pf, can serve as a unique representation of the gill cell-environment interface, offering novel opportunities to study nanoparticle-cell interactions without serum protein interference.

  13. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Lun Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gradual accommodation to a commercially available synthetic medium, UltraMEM™-ITES. Here we show that ZFL cells are able to synthesize taurine and be maintained in medium without taurine. This has allowed for the investigation of the effects of taurine supplementation on cell growth, cellular amino acid pools, as well as the expression of the taurine biosynthetic pathway and taurine transporter genes in a defined fish cell type. After taurine supplementation, cellular taurine levels increase but hypotaurine levels stay constant, suggesting little suppression of taurine biosynthesis. Cellular methionine levels do not change after taurine addition, consistent with maintenance of taurine biosynthesis. The addition of taurine to cells grown in taurine-free medium has little effect on transcript levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD, or cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO. In contrast, supplementation with taurine causes a 30% reduction in transcript levels of the taurine transporter, TauT. This experimental approach can be tailored for the development of cell lines from aquaculture species for the elucidation of their taurine biosynthetic capacity.

  14. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goś, Daria; Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9-11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is "healthy as a fish" meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of "healthy fish" results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords-health and fish-which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program.

  15. Chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on fish scale collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Han-Hsiu; Uemura, Toshimasa; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo

    2016-08-01

    Fish collagen has recently been reported to be a novel biomaterial for cell and tissue culture as an alternative to conventional mammalian collagens such as bovine and porcine collagens. Fish collagen could overcome the risk of zoonosis, such as from bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Among fish collagens, tilapia collagen, the denaturing temperature of which is near 37°C, is appropriate for cell and tissue culture. In this study, we investigated chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on tilapia scale collagen fibrils compared with porcine collagen and non-coated dishes. The collagen fibrils were observed using a scanning electronic microscope. Safranin O staining, glycosaminoglycans (GAG) expression, and real-time PCR were examined to evaluate chondrogenesis of hMSCs on each type of collagen fibril. The results showed that hMSCs cultured on tilapia scale collagen showed stronger Safranin O staining and higher GAG expression at day 6. Results of real-time PCR indicated that hMSCs cultured on tilapia collagen showed earlier SOX9 expression on day 4 and higher AGGRECAN and COLLAGEN II expression on day 6 compared with on porcine collagen and non-coated dishes. Furthermore, low mRNA levels of bone gamma-carboxyglutamate, a specific marker of osteogenesis, showed that tilapia collagen fibrils specifically enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs in chondrogenic medium, as well as porcine collagen. Accordingly, tilapia scale collagen may provide an appropriate collagen source for hMSC chondrogenesis in vitro. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Female versus male biological identities of nanoparticles determine the interaction with immune cells in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Murugadoss, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    and myeloid populations of the blood cells preferentially accumulated the nanoparticles with a female biological identity, irrespective of the sex of the fish from which the cells were obtained. The concept of repertoire differences in the corona proteome therefore deserves further attention, as various...... can acquire a differential biological identity. Here we examined whether a unique biological identity acquired from sex-specific protein repertoires could alter the degree of nanoparticle uptake by cognate immune cells. We chose zebrafish as a model species of which blood plasma is sexually contrasted...... by the unique presence/absence of the egg yolk precursor protein vitellogenin. Sex-specific protein coronas were thus formed around 70 nm SiO2 nanoparticles using female/male blood plasma from zebrafish or fetal bovine serum as a non-native reference. In contrast to protein coronas formed of male blood plasma...

  17. ESSA1 embryonic stem like cells from gilthead seabream: a new tool to study mesenchymal cell lineage differentiation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Vijayakumar; Laizé, Vincent; Gavaia, Paulo J; Leonor Cancela, M

    2012-10-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are a promising tool for generation of transgenic animals and an ideal experimental model for in vitro studies of embryonic cell development, differentiation and gene manipulation. Here we report the development and initial characterization of a pluripotent embryonic stem like cell line, designated as ESSA1, derived from blastula stage embryos of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, L). ESSA1 cells are cultured in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum and, unlike other ES cells, without a feeder layer. They have a round or polygonal morphology, grow exponentially in culture and form dense colonies. ESSA1 cells also exhibit intense alkaline phosphatase activity, normal karyotype and are positive for stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA1) and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) markers for up to 30 passages. Upon treatment with all-trans retinoic acid, ESSA1 cells differentiate into neuron-like, oligodendritic, myocyte and melanocyte cells; they can also form embryoid bodies when seeded in bacteriological plates, a characteristic usually associated with pluripotency. The capacity of ESSA1 cells to differentiate into osteoblastic, chondroblastic or osteoclastic cell lineages and to produce a mineralized extracellular matrix in vitro was demonstrated through histochemical techniques and further confirmed by immunocytochemistry using lineage-specific markers. Furthermore, ESSA1 cells can be used to produce chimera, where they contribute to the development of a variety of tissues including the trunk and gut of zebrafish embryos and fry. Thus, ESSA1 cells represent a promising model for investigating bone-lineage cell differentiation in fish and also highlight the potential of piscine stem cell research. Copyright © 2012 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differentially profiling the low-expression transcriptomes of human hepatoma using a novel SSH/microarray approach

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    Lee Yung-Lin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main limitation in performing genome-wide gene-expression profiling is the assay of low-expression genes. Approaches with high throughput and high sensitivity for assaying low-expression transcripts are urgently needed for functional genomic studies. Combination of the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH and cDNA microarray techniques using the subtracted cDNA clones as probes printed on chips has greatly improved the efficiency for fishing out the differentially expressed clones and has been used before. However, it remains tedious and inefficient sequencing works for identifying genes including the great number of redundancy in the subtracted amplicons, and sacrifices the original advantages of high sensitivity of SSH in profiling low-expression transcriptomes. Results We modified the previous combination of SSH and microarray methods by directly using the subtracted amplicons as targets to hybridize the pre-made cDNA microarrays (named as "SSH/microarray". mRNA prepared from three pairs of hepatoma and non-hepatoma liver tissues was subjected to the SSH/microarray assays, as well as directly to regular cDNA microarray assays for comparison. As compared to the original SSH and microarray combination assays, the modified SSH/microarray assays allowed for much easier inspection of the subtraction efficiency and identification of genes in the subtracted amplicons without tedious and inefficient sequencing work. On the other hand, 5015 of the 9376 genes originally filtered out by the regular cDNA microarray assays because of low expression became analyzable by the SSH/microarray assays. Moreover, the SSH/microarray assays detected about ten times more (701 vs. 69 HCC differentially expressed genes (at least a two-fold difference and P Conclusion The modified SSH/microarray approach is a simple but high-sensitive and high-efficient tool for differentially profiling the low-expression transcriptomes. It is most

  19. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTION OF SINGLE CELL PROTEIN FROM FISH PROTEIN ISOLATE WASTAGE AND ULTRA FILTERED CHEESE WHEY

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    Soroush Haghighi-Manesh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish protein isolate wastage and ultra filtered cheese whey were used as substrates for fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus to produce single cell protein, under batch and aerobic condition in which pH and temperature were adjusted to 4.5 and 35°C. The produced biomass was analyzed for protein content in different periods of time during fermentation. About 82% and 75% of total protein was produced in the first 18 h of 96 h fermentation of ultra filtered cheese whey and protein isolate wastage respectively, which can be an indication of the exponential phase of the yeast growth. The results of biomass yield measurements during 96 h process also confirm this finding. Moreover, since ultra filtered cheese whey was higher in single cell protein yield, solubility, water holding capacity, water absorption and power of biological and chemical oxygen demand reduction, and also was lower in foam overrun and stability than fish protein isolate wastage, it was selected as the suitable substrate for single cell protein production.

  20. Dnd Is a Critical Specifier of Primordial Germ Cells in the Medaka Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Mingyou; Yuan, Yongming; Wang, Tiansu; Yi, Meisheng; Xu, Hongyan; Zeng, Huaqiang; Song, Jianxing; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-03-08

    Primordial germ cell (PGC) specification occurs early in development. PGC specifiers have been identified in Drosophila, mouse, and human but remained elusive in most animals. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein Dnd as a critical PGC specifier in the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Dnd depletion specifically abolished PGCs, and its overexpression boosted PGCs. We established a single-cell culture procedure enabling lineage tracing in vitro. We show that individual blastomeres from cleavage embryos at the 32- and 64-cell stages are capable of PGC production in culture. Importantly, Dnd overexpression increases PGCs via increasing PGC precursors. Strikingly, dnd RNA forms prominent particles that segregate asymmetrically. Dnd concentrates in germ plasm and stabilizes germ plasm RNA. Therefore, Dnd is a critical specifier of fish PGCs and utilizes particle partition as a previously unidentified mechanism for asymmetric segregation. These findings offer insights into PGC specification and manipulation in medaka as a lower vertebrate model. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in primary kidney cell culture of a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, João Luiz Coelho; da Silva, Cesar A; de Andrade, Lucas; Galvan, Gabrieli Limberger; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Trindade, Edvaldo S; Zampronio, Aleksander R; de Assis, Helena C Silva

    2014-09-01

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to evaluate toxic effects of some representative drugs of this pharmaceutical group on primary culture of monocytic lineage of Hoplias malabaricus anterior kidney. The effects of diclofenac, acetaminophen and ibuprofen in cell viability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production and genotoxicity were evaluated. Cytometry analysis CD11b(+) cells showed 71.5% of stem cells, 19.5% of macrophages and 9% of monocytes. Cell viability was lower in the ficoll compared to percoll separation. LPS-induced NO production by these cells was blocked after treatment with dexamethasone and NG-Methyl-L-Arginine (L-NMMA). Exposure of the cells to diclofenac (0.2-200 ng/mL), acetaminophen (0.025-250 ng/mL) ibuprofen (10-1000 ng/mL) reduced basal NO production and inhibited LPS-induced NO production at all concentrations after 24 h of exposure. Genotoxicity occurred at the highest concentration of diclofenac and at the intermediary concentration of acetaminophen. Genotoxicity was also observed by ibuprofen. In summary, the pharmaceuticals influenced NO production and caused DNA damage in monocytic cells suggesting that these drugs can induce immunosuppression and genotoxicity in fish. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Reduction of splenic immunosuppressive cells and enhancement of anti-tumor immunity by synergy of fish oil and selenium yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Wang

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs abnormally increase in cancer cachectic patients. Suppressions of Tregs and MDSCs may enhance anti-tumor immunity for cancer patients. Fish oil and selenium have been known to have many biological activities such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Whether fish oil and/or selenium have an additional effect on population of immunosuppressive cells in tumor-bearing hosts remained elusive and controversial. To gain insights into their roles on anti-tumor immunity, we studied the fish oil- and/or selenium-mediated tumor suppression and immunity on lung carcinoma, whereof cachexia develops. Advancement of cachexia in a murine lung cancer model manifested with such indicative symptoms as weight loss, chronic inflammation and disturbed immune functionality. The elevation of Tregs and MDSCs in spleens of tumor-bearing mice was positively correlated with tumor burdens. Consumption of either fish oil or selenium had little or no effect on the levels of Tregs and MDSCs. However, consumption of both fish oil and selenium together presented a synergistic effect--the population of Tregs and MDSCs decreased as opposed to increase of anti-tumor immunity when both fish oil and selenium were supplemented simultaneously, whereby losses of body weight and muscle/fat mass were alleviated significantly.

  3. [Pickled food, fish, seafood intakes and oral squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J F; Qiu, Y; Cai, L; Liu, F P; Chen, F; Yan, L J; Wu, J F; Bao, X D; Liu, F Q; Zheng, X Y; Lin, L S; He, B C

    2017-08-06

    Objective: To investigate the effects between fish, seafood and pickled food intakes on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Fujian area during September 2010 to December 2016, in which 604 newly diagnosed primary OSCC cases confirmed by pathological diagnosis were collected from hospital and 1 343 control subjects were enrolled from community and healthy hospital population. Demographic data, history of smoking drinking and tea drinking, oral hygiene status and dietary behaviors (fish, seafood and pickled food intakes) were collected by in-person interviews using a standard questionnaire.Using unconditional logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the effects of fish, seafood and pickled food intakes on OSCC. Analysis stratified by smoking, alcohol drinking and bad prosthesis to explore the possible difference in association between subgroups. Multiplicative interactions and additive interactions between fish and bad prosthesis, seafood and alcohol drinking, pickled food and bad prosthesis were assessed by unconditional logistic regression, relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) and synergy index (S). Results: The average age of case group and control group were separately (58.69±13.92) years old and (59.27±11.37) years old (χ(2)=4.75, P=0.191). The people whose fish and seafood intakes ≥3 times/week had the lower risk of OSCC, the adjusted OR (95%CI) values were 0.63 (0.52-0.77) and 0.51 (0.41-0.64); The stratified analysis indicated that the people having bad prosthesis had the lower risk of OSCC if they eating fish ≥3 times/week, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) values was 0.53 (0.39-0.71); the people having bad prosthesis had the higher risk of OSCC if they eating pickled food ≥3 times/week, the adjusted OR (95%CI) values was 1.37 (1.02-1.88). Regularly eating seafood can

  4. Bioactive fish collagen/polycaprolactone composite nanofibrous scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning for 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Da Jeong; Choi, Seung Mi; Kang, Hae Yeong; Min, Hye-Jin; Lee, Rira; Ikram, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazli; Jin, Song Wan; Jeong, Young Hun; Kwak, Jong-Young; Yoon, Sik

    2015-07-10

    One of the most challenging objectives of 3D cell culture is the development of scaffolding materials with outstanding biocompatibility and favorable mechanical strength. In this study, we fabricated a novel nanofibrous scaffold composed of fish collagen (FC) and polycaprolactone (PCL) blends by using the electrospinning method. Nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and it was revealed that the diameter of nanofibers decreased as FC content was increased in the FC/PCL composite nanofibers. The cytocompatibility of the FC/PCL scaffolds was evaluated by SEM, WST-1 assay, confocal microscopy, western blot, and RT-PCR. It was found that the scaffolds not only facilitated the adhesion, spreading, protrusions, and proliferation of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), but also stimulated the expression of genes and proteins involved in cell adhesion and T-cell development. Thus, these results suggest that the FC/PCL composite nanofibrous scaffolds will be a useful model of 3D cell culture for TECs and may have wide applicability in the future for engineering tissues or organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosis of hepatoma using grayscale and Doppler ultrasound in patients with chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wasim A Memon, Zishan Haider, Mirza Amanullah Beg, Muhammad Idris, Tanveer-ul-Haq, Waseem Akhtar, Sidra IdrisRadiology Department, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Every author contributed equally to the workObjective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of liver ultrasound for the detection of hepatoma in chronic liver disease (CLD patients by either taking histopathology or serum α-fetoprotein levels or a biphasic computed tomography (CT scan (whichever is available as the gold standard.Study design: Cross-sectional.Place and duration of study: Radiology Department, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2007 to January 2010.Methods: A total of 239 patients (156 males and 83 females with clinical suspicion or surveillance of hepatoma in CLD referred to the radiology department for ultrasound evaluation followed by either liver biopsy and histopathology or serum α-fetoprotein level or biphasic CT scan.Results: The sensitivity of ultrasound for hepatoma detection in CLD was 65%, specificity was 85%, and accuracy was 70%, and positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 92% and 45%, respectively.Conclusion: Ultrasound is a relatively quick, safe, reasonably accurate, and noninvasive imaging modality for the detection of hepatoma in CLD and can be complemented with clinical assessment of screening high-risk patients.Keywords: hepatoma, ultrasound, radiology, chronic liver disease

  6. p53 gene targeting by homologous recombination in fish ES cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene targeting (GT provides a powerful tool for the generation of precise genetic alterations in embryonic stem (ES cells to elucidate gene function and create animal models for human diseases. This technology has, however, been limited to mouse and rat. We have previously established ES cell lines and procedures for gene transfer and selection for homologous recombination (HR events in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report HR-mediated GT in this organism. We designed a GT vector to disrupt the tumor suppressor gene p53 (also known as tp53. We show that all the three medaka ES cell lines, MES1∼MES3, are highly proficient for HR, as they produced detectable HR without drug selection. Furthermore, the positive-negative selection (PNS procedure enhanced HR by ∼12 folds. Out of 39 PNS-resistant colonies analyzed, 19 (48.7% were positive for GT by PCR genotyping. When 11 of the PCR-positive colonies were further analyzed, 6 (54.5% were found to be bona fide homologous recombinants by Southern blot analysis, sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization. This produces a high efficiency of up to 26.6% for p53 GT under PNS conditions. We show that p53 disruption and long-term propagation under drug selection conditions do not compromise the pluripotency, as p53-targeted ES cells retained stable growth, undifferentiated phenotype, pluripotency gene expression profile and differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that medaka ES cells are proficient for HR-mediated GT, offering a first model organism of lower vertebrates towards the development of full ES cell-based GT technology.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic gene delivery and magnetic-inducing heating on hepatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chenyan; An, Yanli; Zhang, Jia; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treating cancers, but their clinical applications are being hampered due to uncontrolled gene delivery and expression. To develop a targeted, safe and efficient tumor therapy system, we constructed a tissue-specific suicide gene delivery system by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers for the combination of gene therapy and hyperthermia on hepatoma. The suicide gene was hepatoma-targeted and hypoxia-enhanced, and the MNPs possessed the ability to elevate temperature to the effective range for tumor hyperthermia as imposed on an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The tumoricidal effects of targeted gene therapy associated with hyperthermia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The experiment demonstrated that hyperthermia combined with a targeted gene therapy system proffer an effective tool for tumor therapy with high selectivity and the synergistic effect of hepatoma suppression.

  8. Identification of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) DC-SCRIPT, a Specific Molecular Marker for Dendritic Cells in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccola, Emmanuelle; Delamare-Deboutteville, Jérôme; Barnes, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Antigen presentation is a critical step bridging innate immune recognition and specific immune memory. In mammals, the process is orchestrated by dendritic cells (DCs) in the lymphatic system, which initiate clonal proliferation of antigen-specific lymphocytes. However, fish lack a classical lymphatic system and there are currently no cellular markers for DCs in fish, thus antigen-presentation in fish is poorly understood. Recently, antigen-presenting cells similar in structure and function to mammalian DCs were identified in various fish, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). The present study aimed to identify a potential molecular marker for DCs in fish and therefore targeted DC-SCRIPT, a well-conserved zinc finger protein that is preferentially expressed in all sub-types of human DCs. Putative dendritic cells were obtained in culture by maturation of spleen and pronephros-derived monocytes. DC-SCRIPT was identified in barramundi by homology using RACE PCR and genome walking. Specific expression of DC-SCRIPT was detected in barramundi cells by Stellaris mRNA FISH, in combination with MHCII expression when exposed to bacterial derived peptidoglycan, suggesting the presence of DCs in L. calcarifer. Moreover, morphological identification was achieved by light microscopy of cytospins prepared from these cultures. The cultured cells were morphologically similar to mammalian and trout DCs. Migration assays determined that these cells have the ability to move towards pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns, with a preference for peptidoglycans over lipopolysaccharides. The cells were also strongly phagocytic, engulfing bacteria and rapidly breaking them down. Barramundi DCs induced significant proliferation of responder populations of T-lymphocytes, supporting their role as antigen presenting cells. DC-SCRIPT expression in head kidney was higher 6 and 24 h following intraperitoneal challenge with peptidoglycan and

  9. Identification of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer DC-SCRIPT, a Specific Molecular Marker for Dendritic Cells in Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Zoccola

    Full Text Available Antigen presentation is a critical step bridging innate immune recognition and specific immune memory. In mammals, the process is orchestrated by dendritic cells (DCs in the lymphatic system, which initiate clonal proliferation of antigen-specific lymphocytes. However, fish lack a classical lymphatic system and there are currently no cellular markers for DCs in fish, thus antigen-presentation in fish is poorly understood. Recently, antigen-presenting cells similar in structure and function to mammalian DCs were identified in various fish, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and zebrafish (Danio rerio. The present study aimed to identify a potential molecular marker for DCs in fish and therefore targeted DC-SCRIPT, a well-conserved zinc finger protein that is preferentially expressed in all sub-types of human DCs. Putative dendritic cells were obtained in culture by maturation of spleen and pronephros-derived monocytes. DC-SCRIPT was identified in barramundi by homology using RACE PCR and genome walking. Specific expression of DC-SCRIPT was detected in barramundi cells by Stellaris mRNA FISH, in combination with MHCII expression when exposed to bacterial derived peptidoglycan, suggesting the presence of DCs in L. calcarifer. Moreover, morphological identification was achieved by light microscopy of cytospins prepared from these cultures. The cultured cells were morphologically similar to mammalian and trout DCs. Migration assays determined that these cells have the ability to move towards pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns, with a preference for peptidoglycans over lipopolysaccharides. The cells were also strongly phagocytic, engulfing bacteria and rapidly breaking them down. Barramundi DCs induced significant proliferation of responder populations of T-lymphocytes, supporting their role as antigen presenting cells. DC-SCRIPT expression in head kidney was higher 6 and 24 h following intraperitoneal challenge with

  10. Rapid detection of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes and hematopoietic progenitor cells by mFISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.M.; Rhein, A.P.; Brueckner, M.; Molls, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, D-81675 Munich (Germany); Kreja, L. [Institute for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Heinze, B. [Department of Medical Genetics, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Weier, H.-U.G. [Life Sciences Division, E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, P. [Vysis GmbH, Bergisch-Gladbach (Germany)

    2000-07-20

    Structural chromosome aberrations (SCAs) are sensitive indicators of a preceding exposure of the hematopoietic system to ionizing radiation. Cytogenetic investigations have therefore become routine tools for an assessment of absorbed radiation doses and their biological effects after occupational exposure or radiation accidents. Due to its speed and ease of use, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome painting (WCP) probes has become a method of choice to visualize SCAs. Until recently, this technique was limited to a rather small number of chromosomes, which could be tested simultaneously. As a result, only a fraction of the structural aberrations present in a sample could be detected and the overall dose effect had to be calculated by extrapolation. The recent introduction of two genome-wide screening techniques in tumor research, i.e., Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) and multicolor FISH (mFISH) now allows the detection of translocations involving any two non-homologous chromosomes. The present study was prompted by our desire to bring the power of mFISH to bear for the rapid identification of radiation-induced SCAs. We chose two model systems to investigate the utility of mFISH: lymphocytes that were exposed in vitro to 3 Gy photons and single hematopoietic progenitor cell colonies isolated from a Chernobyl victim 9 years after in vivo exposure to 5.4 Sv. In lymphocytes, we found up to 15 different chromosomes involved in rearrangements indicating complex radiation effects. Stable aberrations detected in hematopoietic cell colonies, on the other hand, showed involvement of up to three different chromosomes. These results demonstrated that mFISH is a rapid and powerful approach to detect and characterize radiation-induced SCAs in the hemopoietic system. The application of mFISH is expected to result in a more detailed and, thus, more informative picture of radiation effects. Eventually, this technique will allow researchers to rapidly delineate

  11. RNA expression in a cartilaginous fish cell line reveals ancient 3' noncoding regions highly conserved in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, David; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J; Barnes, David W

    2007-01-23

    We have established a cartilaginous fish cell line [Squalus acanthias embryo cell line (SAE)], a mesenchymal stem cell line derived from the embryo of an elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark S. acanthias. Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) first appeared >400 million years ago, and existing species provide useful models for comparative vertebrate cell biology, physiology, and genomics. Comparative vertebrate genomics among evolutionarily distant organisms can provide sequence conservation information that facilitates identification of critical coding and noncoding regions. Although these genomic analyses are informative, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. Using ESTs defining mRNAs derived from the SAE cell line, we identified lengthy and highly conserved gene-specific nucleotide sequences in the noncoding 3' UTRs of eight genes involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Conserved noncoding 3' mRNA regions detected by using the shark nucleotide sequences as a starting point were found in a range of other vertebrate orders, including bony fish, birds, amphibians, and mammals. Nucleotide identity of shark and human in these regions was remarkably well conserved. Our results indicate that highly conserved gene sequences dating from the appearance of jawed vertebrates and representing potential cis-regulatory elements can be identified through the use of cartilaginous fish as a baseline. Because the expression of genes in the SAE cell line was prerequisite for their identification, this cartilaginous fish culture system also provides a physiologically valid tool to test functional hypotheses on the role of these ancient conserved sequences in comparative cell biology.

  12. Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Wurtz, Anne Mette Lund; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Weikert, Steffen; Steffen, Annika; Kuehn, Tilman; Li, Kuanrong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hjartaker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Molina-Montes, Esther; Alonso de la Torre, Ramon; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Borje; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into

  13. Hydrolytic activity of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a starter culture of fish sauce fermentation, and its cell-bound proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuwan, Sornchai; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2012-08-01

    Fish sauce production relies on a natural fermentation process requiring 12-18 months for process completion. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 has been shown to be a potential strain for fish sauce acceleration. However, hydrolytic activity of proteinases bound at cell surface of this strain has not been well elucidated. Addition of 0.2 % CaCl(2) (w/w) in conjunction with starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 increased protein hydrolysis as measured by α-amino group content throughout fermentation (P bound proteinases from Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 were extracted into a free form by incubating the washed cells in Ca(2+)-free buffer at 37 °C for 2 h. Cell-bound proteinases revealed molecular mass of 19, 20, 22, 32, 34, and 44 kDa based on a synthetic peptide zymogram. The proteinases showed subtilisin-like serine characteristics with the highest activity at 50 °C and pH 8 and 11. Activity of the extracted proteinases increased ~4 times at ≥100 mM CaCl(2). In addition, CaCl(2) enhanced thermal stability of the extracted proteinases. Enzymes showed proteolytic activity in either the absence or presence of 10 and 25 % NaCl toward fish muscle, soy protein isolate, and casein substrates. Cell-bound proteinases were likely to play an important role in protein hydrolysis during fish sauce fermentation.

  14. Germ cell transplantation using sexually competent fish: an approach for rapid propagation of endangered and valuable germlines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip K Majhi

    Full Text Available The transplantation of germ cells into adult recipient gonads is a tool with wide applications in animal breeding and conservation of valuable and/or endangered species; it also provides a means for basic studies involving germ cell (GC proliferation and differentiation. Here we describe the establishment of a working model for xenogeneic germ cell transplantation (GCT in sexually competent fish. Spermatogonial cells isolated from juveniles of one species, the pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atherinopsidae, were surgically transplanted into the gonads of sexually mature Patagonian pejerrey O. hatcheri, which have been partially depleted of endogenous GCs by a combination of Busulfan (40 mg/kg and high water temperature (25 degrees C treatments. The observation of the donor cells' behavior showed that transplanted spermatogonial cells were able to recolonize the recipients' gonads and resume spermatogenesis within 6 months from the GCT. The presence of donor-derived gametes was confirmed by PCR in 20% of the surrogate O. hatcheri fathers at 6 months and crosses with O. bonariensis mothers produced hybrids and pure O. bonariensis, with donor-derived germline transmission rates of 1.2-13.3%. These findings indicate that transplantation of spermatogonial cells into sexually competent fish can shorten considerably the production time of donor-derived gametes and offspring and could play a vital role in germline conservation and propagation of valued and/or endangered fish species.

  15. Effects of fish collagen peptides on collagen post-translational modifications and mineralization in an osteoblastic cell culture system

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Shizuka; Nagaoka, Hideaki; Terajima, Masahiko; Tsuda, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshihiko; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Collagen is one of the most widely used biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Fish collagen peptides (FCP) have been used as a dietary supplement, but their effects on the cellular function are still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of FCP on collagen synthesis, quality and mineralization using an osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell culture system. Cells treated with FCP significantly upregulated the gene expression of several colla...

  16. [The use of the R1-fish cell culture for detection of toxicity of waste water according to the German Waste Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Halder, M.

    1990-01-01

    A fibroblastic cell line (R1) established in 1981 from the liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been used for cytotoxicity testing of 301 waste water samples. The results obtained were compared with the results of the fish test performed parallely according to the German Waste Water Act. 54% of the samples proved to be neither fish toxic nor cytotoxic, 22% were fish and cytotoxic, 5% only fish toxic and 19% only cytotoxic. The results show that the R1-cell culture is useful to determine cytotoxicity of aquatic pollutants.

  17. Cytotoxicity of cuprous oxide nanoparticles to fish blood cells: hemolysis and internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liqiang, E-mail: chenlq@ynu.edu.cn; Kang Bin [Yunnan University, Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Trans-boundary Eco-security (China); Ling Jian [Yunnan University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2013-03-15

    Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu{sub 2}O NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties which are employed in a broad variety of applications. However, little is known about the adverse effects of Cu{sub 2}O NPs on organisms. In the current study, in vitro cytotoxicity of Cu{sub 2}O NPs (ca. 60 nm in diameter) to the blood cells of freshwater fish Carassius auratus was evaluated. A concentration-dependent hemolytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O NPs to red blood cells (RBCs) and the phagocytosis of Cu{sub 2}O NPs by leukocytes were revealed. The results showed that dosages of Cu{sub 2}O NPs greater than 40 {mu}g/mL were toxic to blood cells, and could cause serious membrane damage to RBCs. The EC{sub 50} value of Cu{sub 2}O NPs as obtained from RBCs and whole blood exposure was 26 and 63 {mu}g/mL, respectively. The generation of reactive oxygen species and the direct interaction between Cu{sub 2}O NPs and the cell membrane were suggested as the possible mechanism for cytotoxicity, and the intrinsic hemolytic active of Cu{sub 2}O NPs was the main contributor to the toxicity rather than solubilized copper ions. The adsorption of plasma proteins on the surfaces of Cu{sub 2}O NPs led to their aggregation in whole blood, and aggregate formation can significantly alleviate the hemolytic effect and subsequently mediate the phagocytosis of Cu{sub 2}O NPs by leukocytes.

  18. FISH scoring on paraffin sections versus single-cell suspension for chromophobe renal carcinoma and renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Matteo; Segala, Diego; Delahunt, Brett; Parolini, Claudia; Bersani, Samantha; Cheng, Liang; Eble, John N; Chilosi, Marco; Gobbo, Stefano; Martignoni, Guido

    2011-10-01

    Sectioning of the nuclei on tissue sections may give an overestimate of monosomy, a feature diagnostic of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma versus renal oncocytoma. The aim of the study was to assess whether or not nuclear sectioning may distort the results obtained from interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) comparing the data obtained from analysis of isolated nuclei derived from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections with histological sections from the adjacent sections from the same tumors. Five chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and five renal oncocytomas were recruited. Sections of 5 μm and 30 μm were cut for FISH to investigate chromosomes 1, 2, 6 10 and 17. FISH of isolated nuclei from renal oncocytomas showed a mean increase of 3.0% for nuclei with two signals when compared to tissue sections. For chromosomes 2, 6, 10 and 17, isolated nuclei showed a mean increase of 4.9% of fluorescent signals over nuclei from tissue sections. FISH analysis of isolated nuclei from chromophobe renal cell carcinoma showed a similar counts. When a tumor section exhibits a borderline percentage of nuclei with single signals around the cut-off level on tissue sections, the test should be repeated on isolated nuclei to confirm chromosomal loss, diagnostic of chromophobe renal carcinoma.

  19. FISH+CD34+CD38- cells detected in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients can predict the clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libing; Gao, Lei; Xu, Sheng; Gong, Shenglan; Chen, Li; Lü, Shuqing; Chen, Jie; Qiu, Huiying; Xu, Xiaoqian; Ni, Xiong; Song, Xianmin; Zhang, Weiping; Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Min; Hu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jianmin

    2013-11-07

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the leukemia initiating cells (LICs) or leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is found within the CD34+CD38- cell compartment. The LICs subpopulation survives chemotherapy and is most probable the cause of minimal residual disease (MRD), which in turn is thought to cause relapse. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of the percentage of LICs in blasts at diagnosis. The percentage of LICs in the blast population was determined at diagnosis using a unique Flow-FISH analysis, which applies fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on flow cytometry sorted cells to distinguish LICs within the CD34+CD38- cell compartment. Fourty-five AML patients with FISH-detectable cytogenetic abnormalities treated with standardized treatment program were retrospectively included in the study. Correlations with overall survival (OS), events-free survival (EFS) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analysis. The percentage of LICs is highly variable in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, ranged from 0.01% to 52.8% (median, 2.1%). High LIC load (≥1%) negatively affected overall survival (2-year OS: 72.57% vs. 16.75%; P = 0.0037) and events-free survival (2-year EFS: 67.23% vs. 16.33%; P = 0.0018), which was due to an increased cumulative incidence of relapse (2-year CIR: 56.7% vs. 18.0%; P = 0.021). By multivariate analysis, high LIC load retained prognostic significance for OS and EFS. In the present study, we established the Flow-FISH protocol as a useful method to distinguish normal and leukemic cells within the CD34+CD38- cell subpopulation. The high percentage of LICs at diagnosis was significantly correlated with increased risk of poor clinical outcome.

  20. Synthesis of a novel adamantyl nitroxide derivative with potent anti-hepatoma activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Wang, Shan; Bu, Wei; Wei, Meng-Ying; Li, Wei-Wei; Yao, Min-Na; Ma, Zhong-Ying; Lu, Cheng-Tao; Li, Hui-Hui; Hu, Na-Ping; Zhang, En-Hu; Yang, Guo-Dong; Wen, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel adamantyl nitroxide derivative was synthesized and its antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The adamantyl nitroxide derivative 4 displayed a potent anticancer activity against all the tested human hepatoma cells, especially with IC50 of 68.1 μM in Bel-7404 cells, compared to the positive control 5-FU (IC50=607.7 μM). The significant inhibition of cell growth was also observed in xenograft mouse model, with low toxicity. Compound 4 suppressed the cell migration and invasion, induced the G2/M phase arrest. Further mechanistic studies revealed that compound 4 induced cell death, which was accompanied with damaging mitochondria, increasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, cleavages of caspase-9 and caspase-3, as well as activations of Bax and Bcl-2. These results confirmed that adamantyl nitroxide derivative exhibited selective antitumor activities via mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in Bel-7404 cells, and would be a potential anticancer agent for liver cancer.

  1. Toxicity assessment of 2,4-D and MCPA herbicides in primary culture of fish hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Lígia M; Malucelli, Maria Ivette C; da Silva, José Roberto M C; Alberton, Geraldo C; Silva De Assis, Helena C

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used primary cultures of fish hepatic cells as a tool for evaluating the effects of environmental contamination. Primary hepatic cell cultures derived from the subtropical fish Metynnis roosevelti were exposed to different concentrations (0.275, 2.75 and 27.5 μg L(-1)) of the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). Cellular respiratory activity was evaluated by polarography using three substrates: 0.5 M glucose, 0.5 M succinate and 0.5 M α-ketoglutarate. Significant changes were observed in cellular oxygen consumption with 0.5 M α-ketoglutarate. Even at low concentrations, 2,4-D and MCPA were potent uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Primary cultures of M. roosevelti liver cells may provide a useful tool for the evaluation of environmental contaminant effects. A review of regulations regarding permitted concentrations of these herbicides is needed.

  2. Detection of single-copy functional genes in prokaryotic cells by two-pass TSA-FISH with polynucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shuji; Hasegawa, Takuya; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Kubota, Kengo

    2012-02-01

    In situ detection of functional genes with single-cell resolution is currently of interest to microbiologists. Here, we developed a two-pass tyramide signal amplification (TSA)-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol with PCR-derived polynucleotide probes for the detection of single-copy genes in prokaryotic cells. The mcrA gene and the apsA gene in methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, respectively, were targeted. The protocol showed bright fluorescence with a good signal-to-noise ratio and achieved a high efficiency of detection (>98%). The discrimination threshold was approximately 82-89% sequence identity. Microorganisms possessing the mcrA or apsA gene in anaerobic sludge samples were successfully detected by two-pass TSA-FISH with polynucleotide probes. The developed protocol is useful for identifying single microbial cells based on functional gene sequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Up-regulation of ALG-2 in hepatomas and lung cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens; Winding, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis of 15 different adult mouse tissues demonstrated that ALG-2 is ubiquitously expressed. We found that ALG-2 was more than threefold overexpressed in rat liver hepatoma compared to normal rat liver using Western blot analysis...

  4. FISHing Out the Hidden Enemy: Advances in Detecting and Measuring Latent HIV-Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinayaka R; Kalpana, Ganjam V

    2017-09-19

    The indomitable aspect of HIV-1 infection is not that HIV-1 proviral DNA is integrated into host DNA but that it can also turn itself off, remaining invisible to drug or immune surveillance. Thus, the goals of eradication include ways to precisely excise HIV-1 DNA or wake up the silent HIV-1 provirus and eliminate the infected cells thus identified. Methods to identify and fish out the latently infected cells or to delineate their characteristics are being rapidly developed. In 2016, Baxter et al. (A. E. Baxter, J. Niessl, R. Fromentin, J. Richard, F. Porichis, R. Charlebois, M. Massanella, N. Brassard, N. Alsahafi, G. G. Delgado, J. P. Routy, B. D. Walker, A. Finzi, N. Chomont, and D. E. Kaufmann, Cell Host Microbe 20:368-380, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.07.015) and Martrus et al. (G. Martrus, A. Niehrs, R. Cornelis, A. Rechtien, W. García-Beltran, M. Lütgehetmann, C. Hoffmann, and M. Altfeld, J Virol 90:9018-9028, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01448-16) reported using the fluorescence in situ hybridization-flow cytometry technique to identify and quantify cells expressing HIV-1 RNA and Gag protein, as well as bearing unique cell surface markers. In a recent article in mBio , Grau-Expósito et al. (J. Grau-Expósito, C. Serra-Peinado, L. Miguel, J. Navarro, A. Curran, J. Burgos, I. Ocaña, E. Ribera, A. Torrella, B. Planas, R. Badía, J. Castellví, V. Falcó, M. Crespo, and M. J. Buzon, mBio 8:e00876-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00876-17) reported a similar method that they claim to be more sensitive. With these methods, researchers are one step closer to measuring latent reservoirs and eliminating critical barriers to HIV eradication. Copyright © 2017 Prasad and Kalpana.

  5. Visual receptive field properties of cells in the optic tectum of the archer fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ben-Tov (Mor); I. Kopilevich (Ivgeny); O. Donchin (Opher); O. Ben-Shahar (Ohad); C. Giladi (Chen); R. Segev (Ronen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe archer fish is well known for its extreme visual behavior in shooting water jets at prey hanging on vegetation above water. This fish is a promising model in the study of visual system function because it can be trained to respond to artificial targets and thus to provide valuable

  6. Profiling bioenergetics and metabolic stress in cells derived from commercially important fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    As organisms intimately associated with their environment, fish are sensitive to numerous environmental insults which can negatively affect their cellular physiology. For our purposes, fish subject to intensive farming practices can experience a host of acute and chronic stressors such as changes in...

  7. Bioenergetic phenotypes and metabolic stress responses in cells derived from ecologically and commercially important fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    As organisms intimately associated with their environment, fish are sensitive to numerous environmental insults which can negatively affect their cellular physiology. For our purposes, fish subject to intensive farming practices can experience a host of acute and chronic stressors such as changes in...

  8. Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Joergensen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE(1). Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human...

  9. Ex vivo transfection of trout pronephros leukocytes, a model for cell culture screening of fish DNA vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Villaizan, M; Martinez-Lopez, A; Garcia-Valtanen, P; Chico, V; Perez, L; Coll, J M; Estepa, A

    2012-09-07

    DNA vaccination opened a new era in controlling and preventing viral diseases since DNA vaccines have shown to be very efficacious where some conventional vaccines have failed, as it occurs in the case of the vaccines against fish novirhabdoviruses. However, there is a big lack of in vitro model assays with immune-related cells for preliminary screening of in vivo DNA vaccine candidates. In an attempt to solve this problem, rainbow trout pronephros cells in early primary culture were transfected with two plasmid DNA constructions, one encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and another encoding the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein G (G(VHSV)) - the only viral antigen which has conferred in vivo protection. After assessing the presence of GFP- and G(VHSV)-expressing cells, at transcription and protein levels, the immune response in transfected pronephros cells was evaluated. At 24h post-transfection, G(VHSV) up-regulated migm and tcr transcripts expression, suggesting activation of B and T cells, as well, a high up-regulation of tnfα gene was observed. Seventy-two hours post-transfection, we detected the up-regulation of mx and tnfα genes transcripts and Mx protein which correlated with the induction of an anti-VHSV state. All together we have gathered evidence for successful transfection of pronephros cells with pAE6G, which correlates with in vivo protection results, and is less time-consuming and more rapid than in vivo assays. Therefore, this outcome opens the possibility to use pronephros cells in early primary culture for preliminary screening fish DNA vaccines as well as to further investigate the function that these cells perform in fish immune response orchestration after DNA immunisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Copper Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    copper in the cell nucleus and with decreasing DNA (ToussaintandNederbragt 1993). Mutagenicity Grasshoppers {Oxya velox) injected intra-abdominally...less-than-additive in action, as judged by DNA , RNA, and protein contents of newly hatched fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed for 4 days...needs to be verified (ATSDR 1990). Sensitivity of cancerous cells to copper may reflect cell DNA content. Two closely related rat hepatoma cell lines

  11. pH-Responsive Hyaluronic Acid-Based Mixed Micelles for the Hepatoma-Targeting Delivery of Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Liang Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumor targetability and stimulus responsivity of drug delivery systems are crucial in cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, hepatoma-targeting mixed micelles composed of a hyaluronic acid–glycyrrhetinic acid conjugate and a hyaluronic acid-l-histidine conjugate (HA–GA/HA–His were prepared through ultrasonic dispersion. The formation and characterization of the mixed micelles were confirmed via 1H-NMR, particle size, and ζ potential measurements. The in vitro cellular uptake of the micelles was evaluated using human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. The antitumor effect of doxorubicin (DOX-loaded micelles was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that the DOX-loaded HA–GA/HA–His micelles showed a pH-dependent controlled release and were remarkably absorbed by HepG2 cells. Compared with free DOX, the DOX-loaded HA–GA/HA–His micelles showed a higher cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. Moreover, the micelles effectively inhibited tumor growth in H22 cell-bearing mice. These results suggest that the HA–GA/HA–His mixed micelles are a good candidate for drug delivery in the prevention and treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

  12. WNK1 and p38-MAPK distribution in ionocytes and accessory cells of euryhaline teleost fish implies ionoregulatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W S; Cozzi, R R F; Spieker, M

    2017-07-15

    Ionocytes of euryhaline teleost fish secrete NaCl, under regulation by serine and threonine kinases, including with-no-lysine kinase (WNK1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus L.) were acclimated to freshwater (FW), full strength seawater (SW) and hypersaline conditions (2SW). Immunocytochemistry of ionocytes in opercular epithelia of fish acclimated to SW and 2SW revealed that WNK1-anti-pT58 phosphoantibody localized strongly to accessory cells and was present in the cytosol of ionocytes, close to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in the apical membrane and the sodium potassium 2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC) in the basolateral membrane. In FW acclimated fish, WNK1 localized to a sub-apical zone, did not colocalize with apical membrane-located sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), and typically was present in one cell of paired ionocytes and in some single ionocytes. Forskolin treatment (10 μM, 30 min) increased WNK1 immunofluorescence in SW ionocytes only, while hypertonicity had little effect, compared to controls. Anti-p38-MAPK antibody localized to the cytosolic compartment. The distribution of WNK1 and p38MAPK is consistent with a proximal position in regulatory cascades, rather than directly affecting transporters. The strong staining of accessory cells by WNK1 phosphoantibody infers an osmoregulatory function for WNK. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum.

  14. Assessing Proteinase K Resistance of Fish Prion Proteins in a Scrapie-Infected Mouse Neuroblastoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Salta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The key event in prion pathogenesis is the structural conversion of the normal cellular protein, PrPC, into an aberrant and partially proteinase K resistant isoform, PrPSc. Since the minimum requirement for a prion disease phenotype is the expression of endogenous PrP in the host, species carrying orthologue prion genes, such as fish, could in theory support prion pathogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the development of abnormal protein deposition in sea bream brain, following oral challenge of the fish with natural prion infectious material. In this study, we used a prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cell line for the expression of three different mature fish PrP proteins and the evaluation of the resistance of the exogenously expressed proteins to proteinase K treatment (PK, as an indicator of a possible prion conversion. No evidence of resistance to PK was detected for any of the studied recombinant proteins. Although not indicative of an absolute inability of the fish PrPs to structurally convert to pathogenic isoforms, the absence of PK-resistance may be due to supramolecular and conformational differences between the mammalian and piscine PrPs.

  15. Total Saponin from Root of Actinidia valvata Dunn Inhibits Hepatoma 22 Growth and Metastasis In Vivo by Suppression Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The root of Actinidia valvata dunn has been widely used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, proved to be beneficial for a longer and better life in China. In present work, total saponin from root of Actinidia valvata Dunn (TSAVD was extracted, and its effects on hepatoma H22-based mouse in vivo were observed. Primarily transplanted hypodermal hepatoma H22-based mice were used to observe TSAVD effect on tumor growth. The microvessel density (MVD, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF are characterized factors of angiogenesis, which were compared between TSAVD-treated and control groups. Antimetastasis effect on experimental pulmonary metastasis hepatoma mice was also observed in the study. The results demonstrated that TSAVD can effectively inhibit HCC growth and metastasis in vivo, inhibit the formation of microvessel, downregulate expressions of VEGF and bFGF, and retrain angiogenesis of hepatoma 22 which could be one of the reasons.

  16. Establishment and characterization of a fish-cell line from the brain of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Peng, L M; You, F; Zou, Y X; Zhang, P J; Chen, S L

    2015-07-01

    A new brain-cell line derived from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (POBC) was established. POBC was subcultured for 67 passages over the course of 420 days. The cultured cells were primarily epithelioid-like. Chromosome analysis revealed the cell line to possess the normal P. olivaceus diploid karyotype of 2n = 48t (telocentric chromosomes). The cells exhibited the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein by immunocytochemistry, and significant fluorescent signals were observed when the cells were transfected with green fluorescent protein reporter plasmid. The established POBC would be ideal material for the study of function of fish ependyma, the central neuroendocrine system and endocrine disruptors in the marine environment. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Elucidating fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy sheep: Milk somatic cell transcriptome analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aroa Suárez-vega; Pablo G Toral; Beatriz Gutiérrez-gil; Gonzalo Hervás; Juan José Arranz; Pilar Frutos

    2017-01-01

    In this study, RNA sequencing was used to obtain a comprehensive profile of the transcriptomic changes occurring in the mammary gland of lactating sheep suffering from fish oil-induced milk fat depression (FO-MFD...

  18. Validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH for multiple myeloma using CD138 positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kiyomi Kishimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm with acquired genetic abnormalities of clinical and prognostic importance. Multiple myeloma differs from other hematologic malignancies due to a high fraction of low proliferating malignant plasma cells and the paucity of plasma cells in bone marrow aspiration samples, making cytogenetic analysis a challenge. An abnormal karyotype is found in only one-third of patients with multiple myeloma and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization is the most useful test for studying the chromosomal abnormalities present in almost 90% of cases. However, it is necessary to study the genetic abnormalities in plasma cells after their identification or selection by morphology, immunophenotyping or sorting. Other challenges are the selection of the most informative FISH panel and determining cut-off levels for FISH probes. This study reports the validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization using CD138 positive cells, according to proposed guidelines published by the European Myeloma Network (EMN in 2012. METHOD: Bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma were used to standardize a panel of five probes [1q amplification, 13q14 deletion, 17p deletion, t(4;14, and t(14;16] in CD138+ cells purified by magnetic cell sorting. RESULTS: This test was validated with a low turnaround time and good reproducibility. Five of six samples showed genetic abnormalities. Monosomy/deletion 13 plus t(4;14 were found in two cases. CONCLUSION: This technique together with magnetic cell sorting is effective and can be used in the routine laboratory practice. In addition, magnetic cell sorting provides a pure plasma cell population that allows other molecular and genomic studies.

  19. Development of iPS (induced pluripotent stem cells) using natural product from extract of fish oocyte to provide stem cell for regenerative therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilany, Sofy; Firdausiyah, Qonitha S.; Naroeni, Aroem

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we developed a method to induce pluripotency of adult cells (fibroblast) into stem cells using a natural product, extract of fish oocyte, by comparing the extract concentration, 1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml. The analyses were done by measuring the Nanog gene expression in cells using qPCR and detecting fibroblast marker anti H2-KK. The results revealed existence of a colony of stem cells in the cell that was induced with 2mg/ml concentration of oocytes. Nanoggene expression was analyzed by qPCR and the results showed expression of Nanog gene compared to the control. Analysis of result of fibroblast using Tali Cytometer and anti H2KK antibody showed loss of expression of Anti H2KK meaning there was transformation from fibroblast type cell to pluripotent cell type.

  20. Environmental monitoring of urban streams using a primary fish gill cell culture system (FIGCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Sabine; Bawa-Allah, Kafilat; Otitoloju, Adebayo; Hogstrand, Christer; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Bury, Nic R

    2015-10-01

    The primary fish gill cell culture system (FIGCS) is an in vitro technique which has the potential to replace animals in whole effluent toxicity tests. In the current study FIGCS were transported into the field and exposed to filtered (0.2μm) river water for 24h from 4 sites, on 2 different sampling dates. Sites 1 and 2 are situated in an urban catchment (River Wandle, London, UK) with site 1 downstream of a sewage treatment work; site 3 is located in a suburban park (River Cray, Kent, UK), and site 4 is more rural (River Darent, Kent, UK). The change in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), the expression of the metal responsive genes metallothionein A (mta) and B (mtb), cytochrome P450 1A1 (cyp1a1) and 3A27 (cyp3a27), involved in phase 1 metabolism, were assessed following exposure to sample water for 24h. TER was comparable between FIGCS exposed to 0.2μm filtered river water and those exposed to synthetic moderately soft water for 24h. During the first sampling time, there was an increase in mta, cyp1a1 and cyp3a27 gene expression in epithelium exposed to water from sites 1 and 2, and during the second sampling period an increase in cyp3a27 gene expression at sites 1 and 4. Urban river water is a complex mixture of contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) and the increase in the expression of genes encoding mta, cyp1a1 and cyp3a27 in FIGCS is indicative of the presence of biologically active pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluctuation localization imaging-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (fliFISH) for accurate detection and counting of RNA copies in single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yi; Hu, Dehong; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Ansong, Charles K.; Sussel, Lori; Orr, Galya

    2018-01-25

    Quantitative gene expression analysis in intact single cells can be achieved using single molecule- based fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH). This approach relies on fluorescence intensity to distinguish between true signals, emitted from an RNA copy hybridized with multiple FISH sub-probes, and background noise. Thus, the precision in smFISH is often compromised by partial or nonspecific binding of sub-probes and tissue autofluorescence, limiting its accuracy. Here we provide an accurate approach for setting quantitative thresholds between true and false signals, which relies on blinking frequencies of photoswitchable dyes. This fluctuation localization imaging-based FISH (fliFISH) uses blinking frequency patterns, emitted from a transcript bound to multiple sub-probes, which are distinct from blinking patterns emitted from partial or nonspecifically bound sub-probes and autofluorescence. Using multicolor fliFISH, we identified radial gene expression patterns in mouse pancreatic islets for insulin, the transcription factor, NKX2-2, and their ratio (Nkx2-2/Ins2). These radial patterns, showing higher values in β cells at the islet core and lower values in peripheral cells, were lost in diabetic mouse islets. In summary, fliFISH provides an accurate, quantitative approach for detecting and counting true RNA copies and rejecting false signals by their distinct blinking frequency patterns, laying the foundation for reliable single-cell transcriptomics.

  2. Influence of cholesterol and fish oil dietary intake on nitric oxide-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Sonia; Alejandre, Ma José; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Torres, Carolina; Linares, Ana

    2010-04-01

    Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) is critically involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that dietary cholesterol intake induces changes in SMC at molecular and gene expression levels. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the differential response to nitric oxide of vascular SMC obtained from chicks after cholesterol and fish oil dietary intake and to examine effects on the main pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes. Dietary cholesterol intake reduced the Bcl-2/Bax (anti-apoptotic/pro-apoptotic) protein ratio in SMC, making them more susceptible to apoptosis. When cholesterol was withdrawn and replaced with a fish oil-enriched diet, the Bcl-xl/Bax protein ratio significantly increased, reversing the changes induced by cholesterol. The decrease in c-myc gene expression after apoptotic stimuli and the increase in Bcl-xl/Bax ratio indicate that fish oil has a protective role against apoptosis in SMC. Nitroprussiate-like nitric oxide donors exerted an intensive action on vascular SMC cultures. However, SMC-C (isolated from animals fed with control diet) and SMC-Ch (isolated from animals fed with cholesterol-enriched diet) responded differently to nitric oxide, especially in their bcl-2 and bcl-xl gene expression. SMC isolated from animals fed with cholesterol-enriched and then fish oil-enriched diet (SMC-Ch-FO cultures) showed an intermediate apoptosis level (Bcl-2/Bax ratio) between SMC-C and SMC-Ch, induction of c-myc expression and elevated p53 expression. These findings indicate that fish oil protects SMC against apoptosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignardi, Caroline P., E-mail: carolpatvig@usp.br [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Hasue, Fabio M., E-mail: humbigutis@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Sartório, Priscila V., E-mail: pri.sartorio@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Cardoso, Caroline M., E-mail: camargonato@gmail.com [Department of Biological Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanogáfico 191, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508900 (Brazil); Machado, Alex S.D., E-mail: mamiferomarinho@gmail.com [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Integrated College North of Minas Osmane Barbosa Avenue, 11111, JK, Montes Claros, MG 39404006 (Brazil); and others

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}–NP cytogenotoxicity and cell uptake in marine fish was studied. • TiO{sub 2}–NP suspension was in primary particle, agglomerated and aggregated form. • TiO{sub 2}–NP genotoxicity was time/dose dependent and may induce cell uptake. • Methodology proved to be efficient for evaluating the toxic effect of TiO{sub 2}–NP. - Abstract: Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO{sub 2}–NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5 μg and 3.0 μg–TiO{sub 2}–NP g{sup −1} by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH > 13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72 h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO{sub 2}–NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72 h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO{sub 2}–NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO{sub 2}–NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO{sub 2}–NP in a marine fish.

  4. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A A ... Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  5. Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignardi, Caroline P; Hasue, Fabio M; Sartório, Priscila V; Cardoso, Caroline M; Machado, Alex S D; Passos, Maria J A C R; Santos, Thais C A; Nucci, Juliana M; Hewer, Thiago L R; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Gomes, Vicente; Phan, Ngan V

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO2-NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5 μg and 3.0 μg-TiO2-NP g(-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH>13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72 h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO2-NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72 h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO2-NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO2-NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO2-NP in a marine fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Value of an hepatobiliary imaging agent for diagnosing hepatoma. Example of diethyl-IDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguet, P.; Estable, P.; Herry, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study was performed using two hepatic tracers, a Tc 99m labelled colloid and an hepatobiliary agent Tc 99m labelled diethyl-IDA. In some patients with isolated primary hepatocarcinoma the uptake of the hepatobiliary agent was observed but the colloid was not taken up. In the contrary, the hepatobiliary agent has proved to be of limited value for the diagnosis of hepatomas coexisting with cirrhosis and for the detection of secondary hepatocarcinoma.

  7. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Columbia River and its tributaries: spatial and temporal trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Bartish, T.M.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Dethloff, G.M.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Fish were collected from 16 sites on rivers in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998 to document temporal and spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Columbia River and on the Snake, Willamette, Yakima, Salmon, and Flathead Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from lower CRB sites and elemental concentrations were greatest in fish from upper CRB sites. These patterns reflected land uses. Lead (Pb) concentrations in fish from the Columbia River at Northport and Grand Coulee, Washington (WA) exceeded fish and wildlife toxicity thresholds (> 0.4 ??g/g). Selenium (Se) concentrations in fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, Idaho (ID), the Columbia River at Vernita Bridge, WA, and the Yakima River at Granger, WA exceeded toxicity thresholds for piscivorous wildlife (> 0.6 ??g/g). Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the basin but were greatest (> 0.4 ??g/g) in predatory fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, ID, the Yakima River at Granger, WA, and the Columbia River at Warrendale, Oregon (OR). Residues of p,p???-DDE were greatest (> 0.8 ??g/g) in fish from agricultural areas of the Snake, Yakima, and Columbia River basins but were not detected in upper CRB fish

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pipingas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  9. Establishment and characterization of a new marine fish cell line from ovary of barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Fan, Tingjun; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Xiuxia

    2015-12-01

    A novel continuous ovary cell line from barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri) (BFO cell line) was established with its primitive application in transgenic expression demonstrated in this study. Primarily cultured cells grew well at 22°C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (DMEM/F12, 1:1; pH 7.2) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), carboxymethyl chitooligosaccharide, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The primary BFO cells in fibroblastic morphology proliferated into a confluent monolayer about 2 weeks later, and were able to be subcultured. Impacts of medium and temperature on the growth of the cells were examined. The optimum growth was found in DMEM/F12 with 20% FBS and at 22°C. The BFO cells can be continuously subcultured to Passage 120 steadily with a population doubling time of 32.7 h at Passage 60. Chromosome analysis revealed that 72% of BFO cells at Passage 60 maintained the normal diploid chromosome number (46) with a normal karyotype of 2st+44t. The results of gene transformation indicated that green fluorescence protein (GFP) positively expressed in these cells after being transformed with pcDNA3.1-GFP. Therefore, a continuous and transformable BFO cell line was successfully established, which may serve as a useful tool for cytotechnological manipulation and transgenic modification of this fish.

  10. Enhanced detection of infectious salmon anaemia virus using a low-speed centrifugation technique in three fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S D; Thomas, E; Hoyt, K; Bouchard, D A

    2013-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), caused by ISA virus (ISAV), is a serious disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Recently, molecular- and immunofluorescent-based techniques have become powerful diagnostic tools for ISAV detection, but culture-based techniques remain the gold standard. A disadvantage of ISAV culture is that the incubation time required before cytopathic effect (CPE) is observed in cell monolayers. To decrease time until CPE is observed, a low-speed centrifugation technique was applied to existing standard operating procedures for ISAV culture in three fish cell lines. Time until CPE observation was compared in CHSE, SHK and ASK cells, treated or not treated with low-speed centrifugation after inoculation with ISAV. Low-speed centrifugation treatment significantly enhanced observable cell infection. Compared to control cells, the length of time until ISAV CPE observation decreased in centrifuged ASK and CHSE cells. Low-speed centrifugation was also incorporated into a modified clinical shell vial assay. At 48 h post-inoculation with approximately 20 viral particles, ISAV was detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test in treated ASK and SHK1 cells but not in control cells. Finally, this enhanced viral adsorption assay performed in ASK cells demonstrated higher sensitivity than a real-time RT-PCR assay performed on RNA isolated from ISAV-spiked salmon kidney homogenates. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Preparation of novel butyryl galactose ester-modified coix component microemulsions and evaluation on hepatoma-targeting in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming Jian; Qu, Ding; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cong Yan; Liu, Yu Ping; Ding, Xue Fang

    2016-11-01

    The butyryl galactose ester-modified coix component microemulsions (But-Gal-CMEs) was developed for enhanced liver tumor-specific targeting. The study was aimed to evaluate the hepatoma-targeting potential of But-Gal-CMEs in vitro and in vivo. But-Gal-CMEs with a uniform spherical shape exhibited a small particle size (56.68 ± 0.07 nm), a narrow polydispersity (PDI, 0.144 ± 0.005) and slightly negative surface charge (-0.102 ± 0.008 mV). In the cell uptake studies, But-Gal-CMEs showed a significant enhancement on the intracellular fluorescent intensity on HepG2 cells model, which was 1.93-fold higher relative to coix component microemulsions (CMEs). The IC50 of But-Gal-CMEs against HepG2 cells was 64.250 μg/mL, which was notably stronger than that of CMEs. In the cell apoptosis studies, compared with CMEs, But-Gal-CMEs (50 μg/mL) treatment resulted in a 1.34-fold rise in total apoptosis cells of HepG2. In the biodistribution studies in vivo, the intratumorous fluorescence of Cy5-loaded But-Gal-CMEs was 1.43-fold higher relative to that of Cy5-loaded CMEs, suggesting an obviously enhanced accumulation in the tumor sites. Taken as together, But-Gal could be incorporated into the coix component microemulsions as a novel ligand for realizing hepatoma-targeting drugs delivery.

  12. In vivo PET imaging with {sup 18}F-FHBG of hepatoma cancer gene therapy using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and ganciclovir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, TaeSup; Kim, JunYoup; Moon, ByungSeok; Kang, JooHyun; Song, Inho; Kwon, HeeChung; Kim, KyungMin; Cheon, GiJeong; Choi, ChangWoon; Lim, SangMoo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Monitoring gene expression in vivo to evaluate the gene therapy efficacy is a critical issue for scientists and physicians. Non-invasive nuclear imaging can offer information regarding the level of gene expression and its location when an appropriate reporter gene is constructed in the therapeutic gene therapy. Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene (HSV1-tk) is the most common reporter gene and is used in cancer gene therapy by activating relatively nontoxic compounds, such as acyclovir or ganciclovir (GCV), to induce cell death. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of monitoring cancer gene therapy using retroviral vector transduced HSV1-tk and GCV, in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo animal studies, including biodistribution and small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, were performed in HSV1-tk and luciferase (Luc)-transduced MCA-TK/Luc and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-transduced MCA-eGFP hepatoma cell lines.

  13. Genotoxic effect induced by hydrogen peroxide in human hepatoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a common reactive oxygen intermediate generated by various forms of oxidative stress. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage capacity of H2O2 in HepG2 cells. Methods: Cells were treated with ...

  14. Effects of fish collagen peptides on collagen post-translational modifications and mineralization in an osteoblastic cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shizuka; Nagaoka, Hideaki; Terajima, Masahiko; Tsuda, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshihiko; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Collagen is one of the most widely used biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Fish collagen peptides (FCP) have been used as a dietary supplement, but their effects on the cellular function are still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of FCP on collagen synthesis, quality and mineralization using an osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell culture system. Cells treated with FCP significantly upregulated the gene expression of several collagen modifying enzymes and more collagen was deposited in the cultures. Collagen in the treated group showed a greater extent of lysine hydroxylation, higher levels of hydroxylysine-aldehyde derived cross-links and accelerated cross-link maturation compared with the untreated group. Furthermore, the treated group showed accelerated matrix mineralization. These results indicate that FCP exerts a positive effect on osteoblastic cells in terms of collagen synthesis, quality and mineralization, thereby suggesting the potential utility of FCP for bone tissue engineering.

  15. FuseFISH : robust detection of transcribed gene fusions in single cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semrau, Stefan; Crosetto, Nicola; Bienko, Magda; Boni, Marina; Bernasconi, Paolo; Chiarle, Roberto; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Transcribed gene fusions are key biomarkers in many hematologic and solid tumors, often representing the primary oncogenic driver mutation. Here, we report an experimental and computational pipeline for detecting fusion transcripts using single-molecule RNA FISH and unbiased correlation analysis

  16. A FISH-based method for assessment of HER-2 amplification status in breast cancer circulating tumor cells following CellSearch isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frithiof H

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Frithiof,1 Kristina Aaltonen,1 Lisa Rydén2,3 1Division of Oncology and Pathology, 2Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, 3Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Introduction: Amplification of the HER-2/neu (HER-2 proto-oncogene occurs in 10%–15% of primary breast cancer, leading to an activated HER-2 receptor, augmenting growth of cancer cells. Tumor classification is determined in primary tumor tissue and metastatic biopsies. However, malignant cells tend to alter their phenotype during disease progression. Circulating tumor cell (CTC analysis may serve as an alternative to repeated biopsies. The Food and Drug Administration-approved CellSearch system allows determination of the HER-2 protein, but not of the HER-2 gene. The aim of this study was to optimize a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based method to quantitatively determine HER-2 amplification in breast cancer CTCs following CellSearch-based isolation and verify the method in patient samples. Methods: Using healthy donor blood spiked with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2-positive breast cancer cell lines, SKBr-3 and BT-474, and a corresponding negative control (the HER-2-negative MCF-7 cell line, an in vitro CTC model system was designed. Following isolation in the CellSearch system, CTC samples were further enriched and fixed on microscope slides. Immunocytochemical staining with cytokeratin and 4',6-diamidino-2'-phenylindole dihydrochloride identified CTCs under a fluorescence microscope. A FISH-based procedure was optimized by applying the HER2 IQFISH pharmDx assay for assessment of HER-2 amplification status in breast cancer CTCs. Results: A method for defining the presence of HER-2 amplification in single breast cancer CTCs after CellSearch isolation was established using cell lines as positive and negative controls. The method was validated in blood from breast cancer patients

  17. The influence of snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract to increase hyperglycemic mice fertility based on spermatogenic cell composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Lukitasari, Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is recognized as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. Previous study revealed that snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract can repairing the pancreas histological structure which by that decreasing the blood glucose levels. Further research was conducted to determine the influence of snakehead fish extract (SHFE) to increasing the fertility of hyperglycemic mice based on spermatogenic cell composition. Twenty five adult mice (Mus musculus) were induced intraperitoneally to be hyperglycemic using alloxan monohydrate single dose of 190 mg/kg body weight. Hyperglycemic mice treated orally for 14 days using SHFE which grouped into five treatment dosages. Testicular histology were prepared using the paraffin methods and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. According to ANOVA and Tukey's test, it was found that spermatogenic cells population as well as its composition in the testis of mice that treated with SHFE are significantly higher than hyperglichemic mice. The highest dose of SHFE (0.15 ml/day), showed highest spermatogenic cell. All hyperglichemic mice that treated with SHFE exhibited the ratio composition of spermatogonia: spermatocytes: spermatids as same as with control (healthy mice) i.e. 1:1:3 respectively.

  18. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Progress report, August 1977--August 1978. [Role of DNA repair mechanisms in uv mutagenesis in cultured frog and fish cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, J.J.

    1978-09-01

    Studies in progress on cultured frog and fish cells, exploring the relation between the frequency of mutation after ultraviolet irradiation and the pathway through which DNA repair takes place are reported. The rationale is that the mutation frequency induced by a uv exposure is determined not only by the dose delivered but by the fidelity of the DNA repair process. Since frog cells express photoreversal enzyme, whether repair takes place by error-free photoreversal or by other, error-prone, mechanisms can be determined experimentally. An important question is whether an inducible, error-prone mutagenic form of repair is demonstrable. During the past year, methods necessary to determine uv survival and mutation frequency over a range of uv exposures were worked out. Using these methods, we have tested for alteration of the uv survival curve by previous conditioning exposures in frog cells was studied and uv survival and photoreversal capacity in fish cells were determined. The relation between uv survival and induction of ouabain resistance by an alkylating agent (MNNG) was examined as a background for further studies with uv. A procedure intended to accomplish DNA-mediated transfer of frog DNA photolyase enzyme to Chinese hamster cells is described.

  19. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction mediated herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase gene treats hepatoma in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jianping

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The purpose of the study was to explore the anti-tumor effect of ultrasound -targeted microbubble destruction mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK suicide gene system on mice hepatoma. Methods Forty mice were randomly divided into four groups after the models of subcutaneous transplantation tumors were estabilished: (1 PBS; (2 HSV-TK (3 HSV-TK+ ultrasound (HSV-TK+US; (4 HSV-TK+ultrasound+microbubbles (HSV-TK+US+MB. The TK protein expression in liver cancer was detected by western-blot. Applying TUNEL staining detected tumor cell apoptosis. At last, the inhibition rates and survival time of the animals were compared among all groups. Results The TK protein expression of HSV-TK+MB+US group in tumor-bearing mice tissues were significantly higher than those in other groups. The tumor inhibitory effect of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction mediated HSV-TK on mice transplantable tumor was significantly higher than those in other groups (p Conclusion Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction can effectively transfect HSV-TK gene into target tissues and play a significant inhibition effect on tumors, which provides a new strategy for gene therapy in liver cancer.

  20. Identification of immunoreactive FSH and LH cells in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus during the ontogeny and sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Matías; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Shimizu, Akio; Pozzi, Andrea G; Meijide, Fernando J; Vazquez, Graciela Rey; Maggese, M Cristina

    2006-10-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) expressing cells were detected in pituitary, brain and ovary of the Perciform cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. This detection was carried out by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot techniques using antisera of the Cyprinodontiform Fundulus heteroclitus raised against the conservative region of the teleost betaFSH and the betaLH subunits. The estimated molecular weights were 24 kDa for LH and 19 and 15 kDa for FSH. In the adult pituitary, both cell types were distributed along mid and ventral zones of the proximal pars distalis (PPD, mid-immunoreactive cells), and along the ventral and dorsal external border of the pars intermedia (PI, high-immunoreactive cells). Double IHC showed that FSH and LH are mainly expressed in different pituitary cells. FSH cells were detected in the pituitary around day 21 after hatching (ah) (prior to sex differentiation), while LH cells were detected by day 60 ah (during the sexual differentiation period). A correlation between gonadal sex differentiation and FSH was demonstrated in a 15 days organ culture system. FSH and LH neurons were localized in the nucleus lateralis tuberis and their fibers project through the ventral hypothalamus, preoptic area and neurohypophysis. FSH neurons differentiated on day 21 ah, while LH neurons appeared on day 15 ah. In the ovary, the immunoreactivity for both FSH and LH was restricted to the cytoplasm of previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes.

  1. Genotoxic effect induced by hydrogen peroxide in human hepatoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-13

    Jan 13, 2010 ... Background: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a common reactive oxygen intermediate generated by various forms of oxidative stress. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage capacity of H2O2 in HepG2 cells. Methods: Cells were treated with H2O2 at concentrations of 25 mM or 50 mM ...

  2. Analysis of the chromosomal aneuploidy by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in Jammu region of J and K state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotra, Roopali; Gupta, Shashi; Koul, Sumit; Gupta, Subash

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to analyze the chromosomal changes obtained by using FISH. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful technique used in the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. During the present study, FISH technique was carried out in 26 cases of Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix using Centromere Enumeration Probes, CEP for chromosome 3 and 17. Statistical tests including ANOVA and Chi square tests were used to analyze the numerical chromosome aberration data obtained by FISH analysis. FISH technique was also carried out in 10 healthy samples (control) by using both CEP 3 and CEP 17 probe. FISH results of CEP 3 in the present study showed the frequent gains of chromosome 3 in Squamous cell carcinoma over the chromosome 17. ANOVA results were found to be significant for both CEP 3 and CEP-17 in Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Chi square test (disease v/s control) was also used to study the significant difference between the patients and the controls and it was found to be significant for both chromosomes 3 and 17.

  3. The ultrastructure of prolactin cells in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei during its life cycle. A morphometric study in freshwater- and saltwater-reared fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, J. M.; Creuwels, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) cells were studied electron-microscopically and morphometrically in the annual cyprinodont fish, Cynolebias whitei during its life cycle. In prehatching larvae, PRL cells possessed small secretory granules, giant mitochondria and a well-developed Golgi apparatus. During hatching, no

  4. Amiloride causes changes in the mechanical properties of hair cell bundles in the fish lateral line similar to those induced by dihydrostreptomycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga-Post, JEC; van Netten, SM

    1998-01-01

    Amiloride is a known blocker of the mechano-electrical transduction current in sensory hair cells. Measurements of cupular motion in the lateral line organ of fish now show that amiloride concurrently changes the micromechanical properties of the hair cell bundles. The effects of amiloride on the

  5. Development of an Efficient Genome Editing Method by CRISPR/Cas9 in a Fish Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehler, Carola E; Boudinot, Pierre; Martin, Samuel A M; Collet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used widely in animals and plants to direct mutagenesis. To date, no such method exists for fish somatic cell lines. We describe an efficient procedure for genome editing in the Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha CHSE. This cell line was genetically modified to firstly overexpress a monomeric form of EGFP (cell line CHSE-E Geneticin resistant) and additionally to overexpress nCas9n, a nuclear version of Cas9 (cell line CHSE-EC, Hygromycin and Geneticin resistant). A pre-validated sgRNA was produced in vitro and used to transfect CHSE-EC cells. The EGFP gene was disrupted in 34.6 % of cells, as estimated by FACS and microscopy. The targeted locus was characterised by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of PCR products; inactivation of the EGFP gene by deletions in the expected site was validated in 25 % of clones. This method opens perspectives for functional genomic studies compatible with high-throughput screening.

  6. Cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field effects on the locomotor behaviors of the fishes Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Lee, Joshua; Lee, Imshik

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor behavior of small fish was characterized under a cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF). The trajectory of movement of 10 pairs of guppy (Poecilia reticulate) and 15 pairs of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a fish tank was recorded and tracked under the presence of a cell phone-generated RF EMF. The measures were based on spatial and temporal distributions. A time-series trajectory was utilized to emphasize the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Fish movement was recorded in real-time. Their spatial, velocity, turning angle and sinuosity distribution were analyzed in terms of F(v,x), P[n(x,t)], P(v), F (θ) and F(s), respectively. In addition, potential temperature elevation caused by a cellular phone was also examined. We demonstrated that a cellular phone-induced temperature elevation was not relevant, and that our measurements reflected RF EMF-induced effects on the locomotor behavior of Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio. Fish locomotion was observed under normal conditions, in the visual presence of a cell phone, after feeding, and under starvation. Fish locomotor behavior was random both in normal conditions and in the presence of an off-signaled cell phone. However, there were significant changes in the locomotion of the fish after feeding under the RF EMF. The locomotion of the fed fish was affected in terms of changes in population and velocity distributions under the presence of the RF EMF emitted by the cell phone. There was, however, no significant difference in angular distribution.

  7. Insulin Secretion in Bantu with Siderosis or Hepatoma | De Bruin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their IR was furthermore delayed, possibly due to impaired destruction of insulin by the damaged liver. Since these patients were seemingly not siderotic, their relatively low IR apparently cannot be ascribed to iron deposits in the pancreas. It could, however, be due to exhaustion of the ,β-cells caused by the persistent ...

  8. Cloning of a new fibroblast cell line from an early primary culture from mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) fry for efficient proliferation of megalocytiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanfu; Shuang, Fan; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2014-12-01

    Megalocytiviruses are important emerging pathogens in both freshwater and marine finfish aquaculture. However, a limited number of piscine cell lines are persistently susceptible to these viruses, which greatly limits the study of megalocytiviruses. In this study, a new fibroblast-like cell line was established from an early primary culture from mandarin fish fry by a single cell cloning and was designated as MFF-8C1. The MFF-8C1 cells grow well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum and had been subcultured more than 60 passages since the initial recovery culture in October 2009. Chromosomal analysis revealed that 91 % of the MFF-8C1 cells maintained a normal diploid chromosome number (2n = 48) in the 46th passage. Infection experiments showed that both freshwater-borne and marine-borne megalocytiviruses induce severe cytopathic effects in infected MFF-8C1 cells characterized by the rounding and enlargement of cells, which are highly consistent with the previous description of the infection in other susceptible cells with megalocytivirus. Megalocytivirus infections were further confirmed by a transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the MFF-8C1-cultured megalocytiviral suspension was highly virulent to infected mandarin fish. In summary, a new fibroblast cell line from mandarin fish fry that was highly permissive to megalocytiviruses was established. The MFF-8C1 cell line is a promising cellular substrate candidate for cell-cultured vaccine production of megalocytivirus.

  9. Cell Culture Evaluation of the Semliki Forest Virus Expression System As a Novel Approach for Antigen Delivery and Expression in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenix; McKenna; Fitzpatrick; Vaughan; Atkins; Liljestrom; Todd

    2000-01-01

    Heterologous gene expression by Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expression vectors was investigated in fish cell culture. Experiments performed using an infectious strain of SFV, replication-defective SFV particles, and recombinant SFV RNA constructs encoding the Escherchia coli LacZ or firefly luciferase reporter genes indicated that levels of SFV-mediated expression in fish cells were dependent on cell type and temperature. Maximal expression levels were observed in the two salmonid-derived cell lines CHSE-214 and F95/9 at 25 degrees C and 20 degrees C. As the temperature was lowered to 15 degrees C or below, levels of reporter gene expression were reduced up to 1000-fold, indicating that the SFV replication complex functioned inefficiently at low temperatures. The ability of SFV expression systems to function in fish cells was further investigated by analyzing the expression of the protective VP2 antigen of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) from the various constructs, including a novel DNA-based SFV plasmid. The VP2 protein produced in CHSE-214 and F95/9 cells transfected or infected with the recombinant SFV-IPNV VP2 constructs appeared to be synthesized in an antigenically correct form, as evidenced by the ability to react with several conformation-dependent IPNV-specific monoclonal antibodies. Whether the temperature-restricted replication and expression displayed by SFV-based constructs in fish cell culture also occurs in vivo remains to be determined.

  10. Effect of Marine Omega 3 Fatty Acids on Methylmercury-Induced Toxicity in Fish and Mammalian Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Nøstbakken

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant which bioaccumulates in marine biota. Fish constitute an important part of a balanced human diet contributing with health beneficial nutrients but may also contain contaminants such as MeHg. Interactions between the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA with MeHg-induced toxicity were investigated. Different toxic and metabolic responses were studied in Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK cell line and the mammalian kidney-derived HEK293 cell line. Both cell lines were preincubated with DHA or EPA prior to MeHg-exposure, and cell toxicity was assessed differently in the cell lines by MeHg-uptake in cells (ASK and HEK293, proliferation (HEK293 and ASK, apoptosis (ASK, oxidation of the red-ox probe roGFP (HEK293, and regulation of selected toxicological and metabolic transcriptional markers (ASK. DHA was observed to decrease the uptake of MeHg in HEK293, but not in ASK cells. DHA also increased, while EPA decreased, MeHg-induced apoptosis in ASK. MeHg exposure induced changes in selected metabolic and known MeHg biomarkers in ASK cells. Both DHA and MeHg, but not EPA, oxidized roGFP in HEK293 cells. In conclusion, marine n-3 fatty acids may ameliorate MeHg toxicity, either by decreasing apoptosis (EPA or by reducing MeHg uptake (DHA. However, DHA can also augment MeHg toxicity by increasing oxidative stress and apoptosis when combined with MeHg.

  11. Validation of a qPCR assay for the detection of Ictalurid herpesvirus-2 (IcHV-2) in fish tissues and cell culture supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, A E; Marecaux, E

    2010-04-01

    Ictalurid herpesvirus-2 (IcHV-2) is a pathogen of cultured black bullhead, Ameiurus melas (Rafinesque), and has been shown to produce high mortality in experimental exposures of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). During acute infections, the virus grows readily in cell cultures but produces a cytopathic effect (CPE) similar to that of Ictalurid herpesvirus-1 (IcHV-1) and the channel catfish reovirus. We have developed a quantitative PCR assay that can be used to detect IcHV-2 in fish tissues and cell culture supernatants. The assay does not amplify other fish herpesviruses tested or host DNA. It is quantitative over a range of eight logs, and the limit of detection is cell cultures, and for the detection of latent infections in carrier fish.

  12. Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Sandra Mariza, E-mail: smonteir@utad.pt [Department of Biology and Environment-CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Santos, Nuno M.S. dos [Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto (Portugal); Calejo, Margarida [Lab Cell Biology - ICBAS, University of Porto (Portugal); Fontainhas-Fernandes, Antonio [Department of Biology and Environment-CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Sousa, Mario [Lab Cell Biology - ICBAS, University of Porto (Portugal); Centre for Reproductive Genetics Alberto Barros, Porto (Portugal)

    2009-09-14

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 {mu}g L{sup -1} of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

  13. Protective role of fish oil (Maxepa on early events of rat mammary carcinogenesis by modulation of DNA-protein crosslinks, cell proliferation and p53 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Basabi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish oil is known to protect from many types of cancers of the colon, liver, breast, prostate and lung 123. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of fish oil [Maxepa, supplemented at a dose of 0.5 ml is equivalent to 90 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 60 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA] on cell proliferation, expression of p53 tumor suppressor protein and DNA protein crosslinks (DPCs in a defined model of chemical rat mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary carcinogenesis was initiated by a single, intravenous (i.v. tail vein injection of 7,12 dimethylbenz(αanthracene (DMBA at a dose of 5 mg DMBA/2 ml corn oil/kg body weight in female Sprague-Dawley rats at 7 weeks of age. Fish oil supplementation was started daily, 2 weeks prior to DMBA injection and continued for 24 (31 weeks of animal age weeks and 35 (42 weeks of animal age weeks of post DMBA injection, for histopathological and immunohistochemical and for morphological studies, respectively. Results Our results indicate the chemopreventive effect of fish oil (Maxepa on DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Administration of fish oil further showed a prominent reduction of cell proliferation (24.34%, P = 0.001; DPCs (25%, P Conclusion Our study thus provides evidence for the anticarcinogenic effect of fish oil (Maxepa in limiting mammary preneoplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  14. Studies of the Ecophysiology of Single Cells in Microbial Communities by (Quantitative) Microautoradiography and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MAR-FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    Microautoradiography (MAR) in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method of obtaining information about the ecophysiology of probe-defined single cells in mixed microbial communities. The incorporation of radiolabelled substrates can be quantified by automated...... image analysis (MARQuant). Quantification of MAR signals can answer more specific questions regarding metabolic activity and function of the microbes. Here, we give an overview of how to use MAR-FISH in various ecosystems and provide a detailed protocol for MAR-FISH, including sampling, incubation...... with radiotracers, the MAR procedure in combination with FISH and other staining techniques, microscopy, and troubleshooting. A description of the MARQuant image analysis tool, including examples of its application, is also provided....

  15. Dietary Factors and Hepatoma in Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri). I. Aflatoxins in Vegetable Protein Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnhuber, R.O.; Wales, J.H.; Ayers, J.L.; Engebrecht, R.H.; Amend, D.F.

    1968-01-01

    Aflatoxins (toxic metabolites of the mold Aspergillus flavus) were present in a commercial trout ration causing hepatoma in rainbow trout. Cottonseed meal and solvent extracts of cottonseed meal and of rations containing cottonseed meal and peanut meal were found by chemical assay and confirmed by duckling assay to contain aflatoxins. Diets containing these materials and a purified test diet to which aflatoxins had been added produced microscopic tumors in 6 months and gross lesions of hepatocarcinoma in 9 months. Similar diets without aflatoxin were negative.

  16. Cell fate establishment during early development of cyprinid fishes, with special emphasis on the formation of the primordial germ cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, P.

    1992-01-01

    Cell fates can be established either by preformation or by epigenesis. With respect to primordial germ cells (PGCs) it has been shown that the Amphibia exhibit both types of cell fate establishment. Therefore, it is important to study the germ cell origin of the evolutionary lower class of

  17. Artificial fish skin of self-powered micro-electromechanical systems hair cells for sensing hydrodynamic flow phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2015-10-06

    Using biological sensors, aquatic animals like fishes are capable of performing impressive behaviours such as super-manoeuvrability, hydrodynamic flow 'vision' and object localization with a success unmatched by human-engineered technologies. Inspired by the multiple functionalities of the ubiquitous lateral-line sensors of fishes, we developed flexible and surface-mountable arrays of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) artificial hair cell flow sensors. This paper reports the development of the MEMS artificial versions of superficial and canal neuromasts and experimental characterization of their unique flow-sensing roles. Our MEMS flow sensors feature a stereolithographically fabricated polymer hair cell mounted on Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 micro-diaphragm with floating bottom electrode. Canal-inspired versions are developed by mounting a polymer canal with pores that guide external flows to the hair cells embedded in the canal. Experimental results conducted employing our MEMS artificial superficial neuromasts (SNs) demonstrated a high sensitivity and very low threshold detection limit of 22 mV/(mm s(-1)) and 8.2 µm s(-1), respectively, for an oscillating dipole stimulus vibrating at 35 Hz. Flexible arrays of such superficial sensors were demonstrated to localize an underwater dipole stimulus. Comparative experimental studies revealed a high-pass filtering nature of the canal encapsulated sensors with a cut-off frequency of 10 Hz and a flat frequency response of artificial SNs. Flexible arrays of self-powered, miniaturized, light-weight, low-cost and robust artificial lateral-line systems could enhance the capabilities of underwater vehicles. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Artificial fish skin of self-powered micro-electromechanical systems hair cells for sensing hydrodynamic flow phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Triantafyllou, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Using biological sensors, aquatic animals like fishes are capable of performing impressive behaviours such as super-manoeuvrability, hydrodynamic flow ‘vision’ and object localization with a success unmatched by human-engineered technologies. Inspired by the multiple functionalities of the ubiquitous lateral-line sensors of fishes, we developed flexible and surface-mountable arrays of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) artificial hair cell flow sensors. This paper reports the development of the MEMS artificial versions of superficial and canal neuromasts and experimental characterization of their unique flow-sensing roles. Our MEMS flow sensors feature a stereolithographically fabricated polymer hair cell mounted on Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 micro-diaphragm with floating bottom electrode. Canal-inspired versions are developed by mounting a polymer canal with pores that guide external flows to the hair cells embedded in the canal. Experimental results conducted employing our MEMS artificial superficial neuromasts (SNs) demonstrated a high sensitivity and very low threshold detection limit of 22 mV/(mm s−1) and 8.2 µm s−1, respectively, for an oscillating dipole stimulus vibrating at 35 Hz. Flexible arrays of such superficial sensors were demonstrated to localize an underwater dipole stimulus. Comparative experimental studies revealed a high-pass filtering nature of the canal encapsulated sensors with a cut-off frequency of 10 Hz and a flat frequency response of artificial SNs. Flexible arrays of self-powered, miniaturized, light-weight, low-cost and robust artificial lateral-line systems could enhance the capabilities of underwater vehicles. PMID:26423435

  19. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers in fish from the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Timothy S.; Echols, Kathy R.; Davis, Anne P.; May, Tom W.; Orazio, Carl E.; Coyle, James J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    Seven fish species were collected from 14 sites on rivers in the Colorado River Basin (CDRB) from August to October 2003. Spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants were documented and contaminant effects on the fish were assessed. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Colorado River and on the Yampa, Green, Gunnison, San Juan, and Gila Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using performance-based and instrumental methods. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) was measured using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations were elevated throughout the CDRB, and pesticides concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 ?g/g ww) at all sites except from the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 ?g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 ?g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 ?g/g ww). Concentrations of other banned pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds

  20. Fish-oil supplementation induces antiinflammatory gene expression profiles in human blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, M.; Rest, van de O.; Dellschaft, N.; Grootte Bromhaar, M.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Müller, M.R.; Afman, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids can have beneficial effects on human immune cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). However, the mechanisms of action of polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune cells are still largely unknown. Objective: The objective was to examine the

  1. Fish oil suppresses cell growth and metastatic potential by regulating PTEN and NF-κB signaling in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevali Kansal

    Full Text Available Homeostasis in eukaryotic tissues is tightly regulated by an intricate balance of the prosurvival and antisurvival signals. The tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10, a dual-specificity phosphatase, plays a functional role in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. NF-κB and its downstream regulators (such as VEGF play a central role in prevention of apoptosis, promotion of inflammation and tumor growth. Therefore, we thought to estimate the expression of PTEN, Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, NF-κBp50, NF-κBp65 and VEGF to evaluate the effect of supplementation of fish oil on apoptotic and inflammatory signaling in colon carcinoma. Male wistar rats in Group I received purified diet while Group II and III received modified diet supplemented with FO∶CO(1∶1&FO∶CO(2.5∶1 respectively. These were further subdivided into controls receiving ethylenediamine-tetra acetic-acid and treated groups received dimethylhydrazine-dihydrochloride (DMH/week for 4 weeks. Animals sacrificed 48 hours after last injection constituted initiation phase and that sacrificed after 16 weeks constituted post-initiation phase. We have analysed expression of PTEN, NF-κBp50, NF-κBp65 by flowcytometer and nuclear localization of NF-κB by immunofluorescence. PARP and VEGF were assessed by immunohistochemistry. In the initiation phase, animals receiving DMH have shown increased % of apoptotic cells, PTEN, PARP, NF-κBp50, NF-κBp65 and VEGF however in post-initiation phase no significant alteration in apoptosis with decreased PTEN and increased PARP, NF-κBp50, NF-κBp65 and VEGF were observed as compared to control animals. On treatment with both ratios of fish oil in both the phases, augmentation in % of apoptotic cells, decreased PTEN, PARP, NF-κBp50, NF-κBp65 and VEGF were documented with respect to DMH treated animals with effect being more exerted with higher ration in post-initiation phase. Hence, fish oil activates

  2. Morphological characterization of testicular cells, spermatogenesis and formation of spermatophores in a fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anirban; Manna, Subha; Saha, Samar Kumar

    2014-02-01

    The present study has been carried out to describe the cell morphology of the developing male gametes in a fish ectoparasite, Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951. With respect to cell volume and nucleoplasmic index, spermatogonia are the smallest and primary spermatocytes are the largest in this lineage. The spermatogonia and the differentiating spermatogenic cells are in separate niches and confined to different enclaves within each testicular lobe. Spermiogenesis occurs within the inner enclave of each testicular lobe. During this process the nucleus becomes streamlined; an acrosome is formed, axoneme is originated, and residual cytoplasm is discarded through the flagellum. The sperm cell morphology displays a general pattern comprising head, mid-piece, and a full length flagellum. In the axoneme 9+2 arrangement of the microtubule is conserved. In addition to the axoneme, some more singlet microtubules are found surrounding a fiber sheath and around one of the mitochondria adjacent to the axoneme. This arrangement indicates a close phylogenetic relationship with pentastomida. In the present study, structure and formation of spermatophore are described in this branchiuran parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. FISH-Flow, a protocol for the concurrent detection of mRNA and protein in single cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigucci, Riccardo; Bushkin, Yuri; Radford, Felix; Lakehal, Karim; Vir, Pooja; Pine, Richard; Martin, December; Sugarman, Jeffrey; Zhao, Yanlin; Yap, George S; Lardizabal, Alfred A; Tyagi, Sanjay; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2017-01-01

    We describe a flow-cytometry-based protocol for intracellular mRNA measurements in nonadherent mammalian cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. The method, which we call FISH-Flow, allows for high-throughput multiparametric measurements of gene expression, a task that was not feasible with earlier, microscopy-based approaches. The FISH-Flow protocol involves cell fixation, permeabilization and hybridization with a set of fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes. In this protocol, surface and intracellular protein markers can also be stained with fluorescently labeled antibodies for simultaneous protein and mRNA measurement. Moreover, a semiautomated, single-tube version of the protocol can be performed with a commercially available cell-wash device that reduces cell loss, operator time and interoperator variability. It takes ~30 h to perform this protocol. An example of FISH-Flow measurements of cytokine mRNA induction by ex vivo stimulation of primed T cells with specific antigens is described. PMID:28518171

  4. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Aoki, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2016-02-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15 K and 1 atm). The changes in the membrane properties induced by hepatic canceration were investigated and were compared with previous MD calculations included in our previous study of the changes in membrane properties induced by murine thymic canceration. The calculated model membranes for normal hepatocytes and hepatomas comprised 23 and 24 kinds of lipids, respectively. These included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. We referred to previously published experimental values for the mole fraction of the lipids adopted in the present calculations. The calculated structural and dynamic properties of the membranes such as lateral structure, order parameters, lateral self-diffusion constants, and rotational correlation times all showed that hepatic canceration causes plasma membranes to become more ordered laterally and less fluid. Interestingly, this finding contrasts with the less ordered structure and increased fluidity of plasma membranes induced by thymic canceration observed in our previous MD study.

  5. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  6. Treatment of hepatoma with liposome-encapsulated adriamycin administered into hepatic artery of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Jiang-Hao; Ling, Rui; Yao, Qing; Wang, Ling; Ma, Zhong; Li, Yu

    2006-08-07

    To observe the therapeutic effects of liposome-encapsulated adriamycin (LADM) on hepatoma in comparison with adriamycin solution (FADM) and adriamycin plus blank liposome (ADM + BL) administered into the hepatic artery of rats. LADM was prepared by pH gradient-driven method. Normal saline, FADM (2 mg/kg), ADM+BL (2 mg/kg), and LADM (2 mg/kg) were injected via the hepatic artery in rats bearing liver W256 carcinosarcoma, which were divided into four groups randomly. The therapeutic effects were evaluated in terms of survival time, tumor enlargement ratio, and tumor necrosis degree. The difference was determined with ANOVA and Dunnett test and log rank test. Compared to FADM or ADM + BL, LADM produced a more significant tumor inhibition (tumor volume ratio: 1.243 +/- 0.523 vs 1.883 +/- 0.708, 1.847 +/- 0.661, P LADM compared with FADM or ADM+BL (231.48 vs 74.66, 94.70) (P < 0.05). The anticancer efficacies of adriamycin on hepatoma can be strongly improved by liposomal encapsulation through hepatic arterial administration.

  7. Screening and quantification of anticancer compounds in traditional Chinese medicine by hollow fiber cell fishing and hollow fiber liquid/solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caiyun; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiaohong

    2016-05-01

    Hollow fiber cell fishing, based on HepG-2, SKOV-3, and ACHN cancer cells, and hollow fiber liquid/solid microextraction with HPLC were developed and introduced for researching the anticancer activity of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, Radix Curcumae, and Rhizoma Curcumae. The structures of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin screened were identified and their contents were determined. The compound target fishing factors and cell apoptosis rates under the effect of the three medicines were determined. The binding sites (cell membrane and cell organelle) and binding target (phospholipase C) on the cell were researched. Hollow fiber liquid/solid-phase microextraction mechanism was analyzed and expounded. Before the application, cell seeding time, growth state and survival rate, compound nonspecific binding, positive and negative controls, repeatability in hollow fiber cell fishing with high-performance liquid chromatography; extraction solvent, sample pH, salt concentration, agitation speed, extraction time, temperature and sample volume in hollow fiber liquid/solid-phase microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography were investigated. The results demonstrated that the proposed strategy is a simple and quick method to identify bioactive compounds at the cellular level as well as determine their contents (particularly trace levels of the bioactive compounds), analyze multicompound and multitarget entirety effects, and elucidate the efficacious material base in traditional medicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2-chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Due to the extensive use of chlorophenols (CPs) in anthropogenic activities, 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP), among other CPs, can enter aquatic ecosystems and can be harmful to a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fish and humans, that are exposed directly and/or indirectly to such contaminated environments. Based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-CP using a combination of bioassays. The tests include the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and micronuclei induction in the erythrocytes of Carassius auratus as well as in cultured human lymphocytes. The results obtained reveal that 2-CP is able to induce dose-dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on the selected tested concentrations under the specific experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain of the Pulse Type Weakly Electric Fish, Gymnotus omarorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Pasilio, Valentina; Lasserre, Moira; Castelló, María E.

    2017-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, an essential mechanism of brain plasticity, enables brain development along postnatal life, constant addition of new neurons, neuronal turnover, and/or regeneration. It is amply distributed but negatively modulated during development and along evolution. Widespread cell proliferation, high neurogenic, and regenerative capacities are considered characteristics of teleost brains during adulthood. These anamniotes are promising models to depict factors that modulate cell proliferation, migration, and neurogenesis, and might be intervened to promote brain plasticity in mammals. Nevertheless, the migration path of derived cells to their final destination was not studied in various teleosts, including most weakly electric fish. In this group adult brain morphology is attributed to sensory specialization, involving the concerted evolution of peripheral electroreceptors and electric organs, encompassed by the evolution of neural networks involved in electrosensory information processing. In wave type gymnotids adult brain morphology is proposed to result from lifelong region specific cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Consistently, pulse type weakly electric gymnotids and mormyrids show widespread distribution of proliferation zones that persists in adulthood, but their neurogenic potential is still unknown. Here we studied the migration process and differentiation of newborn cells into the neuronal phenotype in the pulse type gymnotid Gymnotus omarorum. Pulse labeling of S-phase cells with 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine thymidine followed by 1 to 180 day survivals evidenced long distance migration of newborn cells from the rostralmost telencephalic ventricle to the olfactory bulb, and between layers of all cerebellar divisions. Shorter migration appeared in the tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. In many brain regions, derived cells expressed early neuronal markers doublecortin (chase: 1–30 days) and HuC/HuD (chase: 7–180 days). Some newborn

  10. Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain of the Pulse Type Weakly Electric Fish, Gymnotus omarorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Olivera-Pasilio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, an essential mechanism of brain plasticity, enables brain development along postnatal life, constant addition of new neurons, neuronal turnover, and/or regeneration. It is amply distributed but negatively modulated during development and along evolution. Widespread cell proliferation, high neurogenic, and regenerative capacities are considered characteristics of teleost brains during adulthood. These anamniotes are promising models to depict factors that modulate cell proliferation, migration, and neurogenesis, and might be intervened to promote brain plasticity in mammals. Nevertheless, the migration path of derived cells to their final destination was not studied in various teleosts, including most weakly electric fish. In this group adult brain morphology is attributed to sensory specialization, involving the concerted evolution of peripheral electroreceptors and electric organs, encompassed by the evolution of neural networks involved in electrosensory information processing. In wave type gymnotids adult brain morphology is proposed to result from lifelong region specific cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Consistently, pulse type weakly electric gymnotids and mormyrids show widespread distribution of proliferation zones that persists in adulthood, but their neurogenic potential is still unknown. Here we studied the migration process and differentiation of newborn cells into the neuronal phenotype in the pulse type gymnotid Gymnotus omarorum. Pulse labeling of S-phase cells with 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine thymidine followed by 1 to 180 day survivals evidenced long distance migration of newborn cells from the rostralmost telencephalic ventricle to the olfactory bulb, and between layers of all cerebellar divisions. Shorter migration appeared in the tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. In many brain regions, derived cells expressed early neuronal markers doublecortin (chase: 1–30 days and HuC/HuD (chase: 7–180 days

  11. Proanthocyanidin and fish oil potent activity against cisplatin-induced renal cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Edrees, Gamal M; El-Gamel, Ezz M; El-Sayed, Elsamra A

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent that displays dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. In the present study, the efficacy of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE: 100 mg/kg/day) and fish oil (FO: 5 mL/kg/day) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was evaluated in terms of DNA damage, histopathological changes and expression levels of molecular markers of apoptosis. The administration of cisplatin (CP) (7 mg/kg) results in an increasing percentage of S-phase, G2/M and apoptosis. Furthermore, CP induces apoptosis as indicated by an elevation of renal caspase-3 and reduction in the expression of BCL-2. In addition to occurred renal histopathological changes as manifested by tubular degeneration, degenerative glomerulus, necrotic tubular cells, and cell debris. On the other hand, the administration of GSPE or FO pre-cisplatin treatment can be ameliorated the current DNA cell cycle alterations by the restoration of expression of proteins related to apoptosis and reduced the undesirable renal histopathological changes. So, it can be concluded that the consumption of GSPE or FO might be useful for minimizing nephrotoxicity caused by cisplatin chemotherapy through their anti-apoptotic and antioxidant properties.

  12. NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias; Kristensen, Torsten

    Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cell...

  13. First identification of regulatory B cell subsets expressing IL-10 in teleost fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    IL-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine with a potent anti-inflammatory activity, thus inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines as well as processes of antigen presentation. IL-10 is produced by variety of cells, including antigen presentation cells (i.e., monocytes, macrophages and den...

  14. SUPPLEMENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH HOMOZYGOUS SICKLE-CELL DISEASE WITH ZINC, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, VITAMIN-C, SOYBEAN OIL, AND FISH OIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester

  15. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present......Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...

  16. Glyco-nanoparticles with sheddable saccharide shells: A unique and potent platform for hepatoma-targeting delivery of anticancer drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Zou, Yan; Meng, Fenghua; Cheng, Ru; Deng, Chao; Feijen, Jan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Reduction-sensitive shell-sheddable glyco-nanoparticles were designed and developed based on poly(ε-caprolactone)-graft-SS-lactobionic acid (PCL-g-SS-LBA) copolymer for efficient hepatoma-targeting delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). PCL-g-SS-LBA was prepared by ring-opening copolymerization of

  17. Cell Migration Analysis: A Low-Cost Laboratory Experiment for Cell and Developmental Biology Courses Using Keratocytes from Fish Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Daniel; Aparicio, Gonzalo; Sotelo-Silveira, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    Cell and developmental processes are complex, and profoundly dependent on spatial relationships that change over time. Innovative educational or teaching strategies are always needed to foster deep comprehension of these processes and their dynamic features. However, laboratory exercises in cell and developmental biology at the undergraduate level…

  18. FISH Detection of X and Y Chromosomes in Combination with Immunofluorescence to Study Contribution of Transplanted Cells to Skeletal Muscle Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Anna; Jansson, Monika

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, several studies in animals have displayed the ability of cells from the bone marrow (BM) to participate in regeneration of various tissues including skeletal muscle tissue. Studies in mice have demonstrated that regular physical activity is sufficient to induce contribution of BM derived cells to the skeletal muscle tissue, suggesting that this is part of the physiological remodeling of skeletal muscle. To analyze whether BM-derived cells participate in skeletal muscle remodeling in human, we developed a protocol of immunofluorescence in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that enables the detection of male donor bone marrow cell contribution to female skeletal muscle tissue.

  19. Toxicological assessment of indium nitrate on aquatic organisms and investigation of the effects on the PLHC-1 fish cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurita, Jorge L. [National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences, Av. Dr Fedriani s/n, 41009, Seville (Spain); Jos, Angeles [Area of Toxicology, University of Seville, Prof. Garcia Gonzalez 2, 41012, Seville (Spain); Peso, Ana del; Salguero, Manuel [National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences, Av. Dr Fedriani s/n, 41009, Seville (Spain); Camean, Ana M. [Area of Toxicology, University of Seville, Prof. Garcia Gonzalez 2, 41012, Seville (Spain); Lopez-Artiguez, Miguel [National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences, Av. Dr Fedriani s/n, 41009, Seville (Spain); Repetto, Guillermo [National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences, Av. Dr Fedriani s/n, 41009, Seville (Spain); Area of Toxicology, University of Seville, Prof. Garcia Gonzalez 2, 41012, Seville (Spain)], E-mail: repetto@us.es

    2007-11-15

    Indium nitrate is mainly used as a semiconductor in batteries, for plating and other chemical and medical applications. There is a lack of available information about the adverse effects of indium compounds on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the toxic effects on systems from four trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystem were investigated. Firstly, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the alga Chlorella vulgaris and the cladoceran Daphnia magna were used in the toxicological evaluation of indium nitrate. The most sensitive model was V. fischeri, with a NOAEL of 0.02 and an EC{sub 50} of 0.04 mM at 15 min. Although indium nitrate should be classified as harmful to aquatic organisms, it is not expected to represent acute risk to the aquatic biota. Secondly, PLHC-1 fish cell line was employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of toxicity. Although protein content, neutral red uptake, methylthiazol metabolization, lysosomal function and acetylcholinesterase activity were reduced in cells, stimulations were observed for metallothionein levels and succinate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. No changes were observed in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. To clarify the main events in PLHC-1 cell death induced by indium nitrate, nine modulators were applied. They were related to oxidative stress ({alpha}-tocopherol succinate, mannitol and sodium benzoate), disruption of calcium homeostasis (BAPTA-AM and EGTA), thiol protection (1,4-dithiotreitol), iron chelation (deferoxiamine) or regulation of glutathione levels (2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and malic acid diethyl ester). The main morphological alterations were hydropic degeneration and loss of cells. At least, in partly, toxicity seems to be mediated by oxidative stress, and particularly by NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation.

  20. Zebrafish anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xL can prevent aquatic birnavirus-induced cell death in fish cells without affecting expression of viral proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Yen-Ting; Chen, Ming-Chyuan; Wu, Jen-Leih; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2011-12-01

    The aquatic birnavirus induces mitochondria-mediated cell death in fish; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that aquatic birnavirus-induced mitochondria-mediated cell death is regulated by the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, zfBcl-xL, which is anti-apoptotic and enhances host cell viability. First, CHSE-214 cells carrying EGFP-zfBcl-xL fused genes were selected, established in culture, and used to examine the involvement of zfBcl-xL in host cell protection from the effects of viral infection. EGFP-zfBcl-xL was found to prevent infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)-induced phosphatidylserine exposure up to 40% at 12 h and 24 h post-infection (p.i.), block IPNV-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and enhance host viability at the middle and late replication stages. In addition, zfBcl-xL overexpression prevented IPNV-induced caspase-9 activation up to 25% and 85% at the middle (12 h p.i.) and late (24 h p.i.) replication stages without affecting expression of viral proteins such as VP3 (as a viral death protein) protein. In the present study, we demonstrated that aquatic birnavirus-induced cell death is prevented by the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, zfBcl-xL, which enhances host cell viability through blockage of mitochondrial disruption and caspase-9 activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.