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Sample records for hepatic stearoyl-coa desaturase

  1. Partial genetic characterization of Stearoyl Coa-Desaturase´s structural region in Bubalus bubalis

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    R.B. Thomazine

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs comprise a family of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. The main form of CLA, cis-9, trans-11-C18:2 show positive effects in cancer prevention and treatment. The major dietary sources of these fatty acids are derived from ruminant animals, in particular dairy products. In these animals, the endogenous synthesis mainly occurs in mammary gland by the action of enzyme Stearoyl CoA Desaturase (SCD. Different levels of expression and activity of SCD in mammary gland can explain partially the variation of CLA levels in fat milk. Considering a great fat concentration in bubaline milk and the benefit of a high and positive correlation between fat milk and CLA production, this study was carried on with the intention of sequencing and characterizing part of the gene that codifies SCD in buffaloes. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of lactating bubaline which begins to the breed Murrah. After the (acho que nao precisa desse the extractions, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction reactions were made by using primers Z43D1 and E143F1. The fragments obtained in PCR were cloned into “T” vectors and transformed in competent cells DH10B line. After this, three samples of each fragment were sequenced from 5’ and 3’ extremities using a BigDye kit in an automatic sequencer. Sequences were edited in a consensus of each fragment and were submitted to BLAST-n / NCBI for similarity comparisions among other species. The sequence obtained with Z43D1 primers shows 938 bp enclosing exons 1 and 2 and intron 1. The primers E143F1 show 70 bp corresponding to exon 3 of bubaline SCD gene. Similarities were obtained between 85% and 97% among bubaline sequences and sequences of SCD gene described in human, mouse, rat, swine, bovine, caprine and ovine species. This study has permitted the identification and partial characterization of SCD codifing region in Bubalus bubalis specie.

  2. Fatty Acid Desaturase 1 (FADS1) Gene Polymorphisms Control Human Hepatic Lipid Composition

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    Wang, Libo; Athinarayanan, Shaminie; Jiang, Guanglong; Chalasani, Naga; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) genes and their variants have been associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes including liver enzymes and hepatic fat accumulation but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to delineate the role of FADSs in modulating lipid composition in human liver. We performed a targeted lipidomic analysis of a variety of phospholipids, sphingolipids and ceramides among 154 human liver tissue samples. The associations between previously Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS)-identified six FADS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and these lipid levels as well as total hepatic fat content (HFC) were tested. The potential function of these SNPs in regulating transcription of 3 FADS genes (FADS1, FADS2 and FADS3) in the locus was also investigated. We found that while these SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium (r2 >0.8), the rare alleles of these SNPs were consistently and significantly associated with the accumulation of multiple very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), with C47H85O13P (C36:4), a phosphatidylinositol (PI) and C43H80O8PN (C38:3), a phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) reached the Bonferroni corrected significance (pFADS1 (p=0.0018 for rs174556), but not FADS2 or FADS3 (p>0.05). Conclusion Our findings revealed critical insight into the mechanism underlying FADS1 and its polymorphisms in modulating hepatic lipid deposition by altering gene transcription and controlling lipid composition in human livers. PMID:25123259

  3. Stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 is associated with hepatitis C virus replication complex and regulates viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, LN; Lim, YS; Pham, Long

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle is tightly regulated by lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have recently screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet...... formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. We selected and characterized the gene encoding stearoyl coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase 1 (SCD1). siRNA-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of SCD1 abrogated HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon and Jc1-infected cells, while...... exogenous supplementation of either oleate or palmitoleate, products of SCD1 activity, resurrected HCV replication in SCD1 knockdown cells. SCD1 was coimmunoprecipitated with HCV nonstructural proteins and colocalized with both double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and HCV nonstructural proteins, indicating that SCD1...

  4. Lipid redistribution by α-linolenic acid-rich chia seed inhibits stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and induces cardiac and hepatic protection in diet-induced obese rats.

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    Poudyal, Hemant; Panchal, Sunil K; Waanders, Jennifer; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-02-01

    Chia seeds contain the essential fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA). This study has assessed whether chia seeds attenuated the metabolic, cardiovascular and hepatic signs of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet [carbohydrates, 52% (wt/wt); fat, 24% (wt/wt) with 25% (wt/vol) fructose in drinking water] in rats. Diets of the treatment groups were supplemented with 5% chia seeds after 8 weeks on H diet for a further 8 weeks. Compared with the H rats, chia seed-supplemented rats had improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, reduced visceral adiposity, decreased hepatic steatosis and reduced cardiac and hepatic inflammation and fibrosis without changes in plasma lipids or blood pressure. Chia seeds induced lipid redistribution with lipid trafficking away from the visceral fat and liver with an increased accumulation in the heart. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 products were depleted in the heart, liver and the adipose tissue of chia seed-supplemented rats together with an increase in the substrate concentrations. The C18:1trans-7 was preferentially stored in the adipose tissue; the relatively inert C18:1n-9 was stored in sensitive organs such as liver and heart and C18:2n-6, the parent fatty acid of the n-6 pathway, was preferentially metabolized. Thus, chia seeds as a source of ALA induce lipid redistribution associated with cardioprotection and hepatoprotection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of different contents of extruded linseed in the sow diet on piglet fatty acid composition and hepatic desaturase expression during the post-natal period.

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    de Quelen, F; Boudry, G; Mourot, J

    2013-10-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) contribute to the normal growth and development of numerous organs in the piglet. The fatty acid composition of piglet tissues is linked to the fatty acid composition of sow milk and, consequently, to the composition of sow diet during the gestation and lactation period. In this study, we investigated the impact of different contents of extruded linseed in the sow diet on the fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression of piglets. Sows received a diet containing either sunflower oil (low 18:3n-3 with 18:3n-3 representing 3% of total fatty acids) or a mixture of extruded linseed and sunflower oil (medium 18:3n-3 with 9% of 18:3n-3) or extruded linseed (high 18:3n-3 with 27% of 18:3n-3) during gestation and lactation. Fatty acid composition was evaluated on sow milk and on different piglet tissues at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The postnatal evolution of delta5 (D5D) and delta6 (D6D) desaturase mRNA expression was also measured in the liver of low 18:3n-3 and high 18:3n-3 piglets. The milk of high 18:3n-3 sows had higher proportions of n-3PUFA than that of low 18:3n-3 and medium 18:3n-3 sows. Piglets suckling the high 18:3n-3 sows had greater proportions of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the liver, and of 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the brain than low 18:3n-3 and medium 18:3n-3 piglets. D5D and D6D mRNA expressions in piglet liver were not affected by the maternal diet at any age. In conclusion, extruded linseed in the sow diet modifies the n-3PUFA status of piglets during the postnatal period. However, a minimal content of 18:3n-3 in the sow diet is necessary to increase the n-3PUFA level in piglet liver and brain. Moreover, modifications in the n-3PUFA fatty acid composition of piglet tissue seem linked to the availability of 18:3n-3 in maternal milk and not to desaturase enzyme expression.

  6. Plasma sulfur amino acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in two caucasian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinknes, K.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Drevon, C.A.; Refsum, H.; Nurk, E.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Teerlink, T.; Tell, G.S.; Nygard, O.; Vollset, S.E.; Ueland, P.M.; Elshorbagy, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    In rats, dietary restriction of the cysteine precursor methionine suppresses hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 expression and activity, whereas cysteine supplementation reverses these effects. In 2 independent cohorts: Hordaland Health Study (HUSK; N=2021, aged 71-74. y), Norway, and Hoorn

  7. Hepatitis

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    ... yourself against hepatitis A is by vaccination. Other ways to protect yourself include avoiding rimming and other anal and oral contact. While condom use is essential in preventing the spread of HIV, hepatitis B and other STDs, it does not ...

  8. The Bacillus subtilis Acyl Lipid Desaturase Is a Δ5 Desaturase

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    Altabe, Silvia G.; Aguilar, Pablo; Caballero, Gerardo M.; de Mendoza, Diego

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis was recently reported to synthesize unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) with a double bond at positions Δ5, Δ7, and Δ9 (M. H. Weber, W. Klein, L. Muller, U. M. Niess, and M. A. Marahiel, Mol. Microbiol. 39:1321-1329, 2001). Since this finding would have considerable importance in the double-bond positional specificity displayed by the B. subtilis acyl lipid desaturase, we have attempted to confirm this observation. We report that the double bond of UFAs synthesized by B. subtilis is located exclusively at the Δ5 position, regardless of the growth temperature and the length chain of the fatty acids. PMID:12730185

  9. Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya.

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    Yan, P; Gao, X Z; Shen, W T; Zhou, P

    2011-02-01

    The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels were investigated in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties. CpPDS contains a 1749 bp open reading frame coding for 583 amino acids, while CpZDS contains a 1716 bp open reading frame coding for 572 amino acids. The deduced CpPDS and CpZDS proteins contain a conserved dinucleotide-binding site at the N-terminus and a carotenoid-binding domain at the C-terminus. Papaya genome sequence analysis revealed that CpPDS and CpZDS are single copy; the CpPDS was mapped to papaya chromosome LG6, and the CpZDS was mapped to chromosome LG3. Quantitative PCR showed that both CpPDS and CpZDS were expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression in maturing fruits, and that the expression of CpPDS and CpZDS were higher in red-fleshed fruits than in yellow-fleshed fruits. These results indicated that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties might be partly explained by the transcriptional level of CpPDS and CpZDS.

  10. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase – the lipid metabolism regulator

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    Mirosław Kucharski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is an enzyme from the class of oxidoreductase, which catalyzes the formation of a fatty acid double bond between C9 and C10. It plays a key role in composition of the fatty acid profile in adipose tissue and animal products such as meat and milk. Additionally, it is an important regulator of metabolic processes in the body, and it determines the maintenance of energy homeostasis. This enzyme is encoded by an SCD gene, which, depending on the species, may exist as different isoforms. mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase is dependent on many factors, including diet, hormones, and the activity of other genes. In previous studies, several mutations were characterized within the sequence of Δ9-desaturase, which may affect the activity of the protein in the tissues, as well as the value of breeding animals. Effects of particular mutations of the gene encoding the enzyme appears to be particularly important for diseases associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases or cancer in humans. Also, it seems that using sheep as a potential animal model could be helpful in uncovering and understanding the mechanisms regulated by stearoyl-CoA desaturase.

  11. Associated factors of estimated desaturase activity in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

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    Schiller, K; Jacobs, S; Jansen, E; Weikert, C; di Giuseppe, R; Boeing, H; Schulze, M B; Kröger, J

    2014-05-01

    Altered activity of desaturase enzymes may be involved in the development of metabolic diseases like type 2-diabetes. Desaturase activities might be modifiable by diet and lifestyle-related factors, but no study has systematically investigated such factors so far. We aimed to evaluate the association of demographic, anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle characteristics with estimated Δ5-, Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase activity. A subsample (n = 1782) of the EPIC-Potsdam study was used for a cross-sectional analysis, involving men and women, mainly aged 35-65 years. Fatty acid (FA) product-to-precursor ratios, derived from the FA composition of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids, were used to estimate desaturase activities. Multiple linear regression models were used with estimated Δ5-, Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase activity as outcome and demographic (age, sex), anthropometric (BMI, WHR), dietary intake (FAs, carbohydrates) and lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption) factors as exposure variables. Alcohol intake was positively associated with estimated Δ6- (explained variance in desaturase activity: 1.52%) and estimated Δ9-desaturase activity (explained variance: 5.53%). BMI and WHR showed a weak inverse association with estimated Δ5-desaturase activity (explained variance: BMI: 1.07%; WHR: 1.02%) and weak positive associations with estimated Δ6-(explained variance: BMI: 1.17%; WHR: 1.19%) and estimated Δ9-desaturase activities (explained variance: BMI: 0.70%; WHR: 0.96%). Age, sex, physical activity, smoking and dietary factors were only weakly associated with the estimated desaturase activities. Our findings suggest that alcohol intake as well as obesity measures are associated with the FA ratios reflecting desaturase activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting ^8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

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    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of ^8-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among ^8-sphingolipid desaturases and ^6-fatty acid desaturase from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb5 (cytochrome b5) HPGG motif and...

  13. Alternative transcripts of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes.

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    Brenna, J Thomas; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a major mechanism for increasing the range of products encoded by the genome. We recently reported positive identification of the first alternative transcripts (AT) of fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3) and FADS2 in fetal and neonatal baboons. FADS3, a putative polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) desaturase gene with no known function, has 7 AT that are expressed in at least twelve organs in an apparently constitutive manner. At least five of seven AT are expressed in several mammals and the chicken. FADS2, catalyzing 6 and 8 desaturation and having multiple PUFA substrates, has one AT that is missing two exons and portions of two others. Semi-quantitative expression estimates reveal at least 20-fold differential expression of FADS2 AT1 among neonatal baboon organs compared to 2-fold in the same organs for the classically spliced (CS) FADS2 transcript. Expression of four of the FADS3 AT, those with missing putatively active domains, is highly correlated among organs, suggesting coordinated coexpression. AT may serve as templates to generate protein isoforms or as signaling molecules, and their widespread detection and expression patterns suggest that they play an important role in PUFA biosynthesis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochemical and molecular characterizaton of house cricket (Acheta domesticus, Orthoptera: Gryllidae) Delta9 desaturase.

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    Riddervold, M H; Tittiger, C; Blomquist, G J; Borgeson, C E

    2002-12-01

    Studies of insect fatty acyl-CoA desaturases have heretofore concentrated on the Diptera and Lepidoptera. We report here the isolation and characterization of a fatty acyl-CoA Delta9 desaturase from the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera). Two desaturase cDNAs were isolated from a library, one of which contained two intron sequences. The clones were identical in their respective coding regions, but had divergent 5' and 3' untranslated regions. The cDNAs encode a 359 amino acid desaturase enzyme that could rescue a fatty acyl-CoA desaturase auxotrophic phenotype when expressed in yeast. Biochemical analysis of lipids from transformed yeast cells confirmed that the enzyme is a Delta9 desaturase with activity on both palmitic and stearic acid substrates. Southern blotting indicated multiple Delta9 desaturase genes within the genome. A single message that was up-regulated in fed insects vs. starved insects was observed on northern blots, indicating transcriptional regulation in response to diet.

  15. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 deficiency attenuates obesity and insulin resistance in leptin-resistant obese mice.

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    Miyazaki, Makoto; Sampath, Harini; Liu, Xueqing; Flowers, Matthew T; Chu, Kiki; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Ntambi, James M

    2009-03-20

    Obesity and adiposity greatly increase the risk for secondary conditions such as insulin resistance. Mice deficient in the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) are lean and protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In order to determine the effect of SCD1 deficiency on various mouse models of obesity, we introduced a global deletion of the Scd1 gene into leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, leptin-resistant Agouti (A(y)/a) mice, and high-fat diet-fed obese (DIO) mice. SCD1 deficiency lowered body weight, adiposity, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic lipogenic gene expression in all three mouse models. However, glucose tolerance, insulin, and leptin sensitivity were improved by SCD1 deficiency only in A(y)/a and DIO mice, but not ob/ob mice. These data uncouple the effects of SCD1 deficiency on weight loss from those on insulin sensitivity and suggest a beneficial effect of SCD1 inhibition on insulin sensitivity in obese mice that express a functional leptin gene.

  16. Regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase by polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ntambi, J M

    1999-01-01

    ..., immune disorders, and cancer. The regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase is therefore of considerable physiological importance and its activity is sensitive to dietary changes, hormonal imbalance, developmental...

  17. Effect of the ferredoxin electron donor on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-Calerón, M; Youssar, L; Salas, J J; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2009-08-01

    Ferredoxins are proteins that participate in photosynthesis and in other processes that require reducing equivalents, such as the reduction of nitrogen or fatty acid desaturation. Two classes of ferredoxins have been described in plants: light-regulated photosynthetic ferredoxins and heterotrophic ferredoxins whose activity is not influenced by light. Genes encoding the two forms of ferredoxin have been cloned and characterized in developing sunflower cotyledons. Here, these genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and they were purified by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography to study their capacity to supply electrons to two different sunflower desaturases: soluble stearoyl-ACP desaturase from sunflower cotyledons, and membrane bound desaturase FAD7 expressed in yeast. In both cases photosynthetic ferredoxin was the form that promoted the strongest desaturase activity.

  18. Stereochemistry of 10-sulfoxidation catalyzed by a soluble delta9 desaturase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, A.E.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, N.; Whittle, E.; Hodgson, D. J.; Dawson, B.; Buist, P. H.

    2010-03-21

    The stereochemistry of castor stearoyl-ACP 9 desaturase-mediated 10-sulfoxidation has been determined. This was accomplished by 19F NMR analysis of a fluorine-tagged product, 18-fluoro-10-thiastearoyl ACP S-oxide, in combination with a chiral solvating agent, (R)-AMA. Sulfoxidation proceeds with the same stereoselectivity as hydrogen removal from the parent stearoyl substrate. These data validate the use of thia probes to determine the stereochemistry and cryptoregiochemistry of desaturase-mediated oxidations.

  19. Genetic variation in lipid desaturases and its impact on the development of human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutch David M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Perturbations in lipid metabolism characterize many of the chronic diseases currently plaguing our society, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Thus interventions that target plasma lipid levels remain a primary goal to manage these diseases. The determinants of plasma lipid levels are multi-factorial, consisting of both genetic and lifestyle components. Recent evidence indicates that fatty acid desaturases have an important role in defining plasma and tissue lipid profiles. This review will highlight the current state-of-knowledge regarding three desaturases (Scd-1, Fads1 and Fads2 and their potential roles in disease onset and development. Although research in rodent models has provided invaluable insight into the regulation and functions of these desaturases, the extent to which murine research can be translated to humans remains unclear. Evidence emerging from human-based research demonstrates that genetic variation in human desaturase genes affects enzyme activity and, consequently, disease risk factors. Moreover, this genetic variation may have a trans-generational effect via breastfeeding. Therefore inter-individual variation in desaturase function is attributed to both genetic and lifestyle components. As such, population-based research regarding the role of desaturases on disease risk is challenged by this complex gene-lifestyle paradigm. Unravelling the contribution of each component is paramount for understanding the inter-individual variation that exists in plasma lipid profiles, and will provide crucial information to develop personalized strategies to improve health management.

  20. Identification and characterization of a novel delta6-fatty acid desaturase gene from Rhizopus nigricans.

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    Lu, He; Li, Jia-Na; Chai, You-Rong; Zhang, Xue-Kun

    2009-11-01

    Fatty acid composition of fungi is analysed through the gas chromatography technique. With specific activity a novel enzyme Delta6-fatty acid desaturase was screened and isolated from Rhizopus nigricans. In this study R. nigricans was identified as a fungal species that produced plentiful gamma-linolenic acid. A 1,475 bp full-length cDNA, designated as RnD6D here, with high homology to fungal Delta6-fatty acid desaturase genes was isolated from R. nigricans using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Sequence analysis indicated that this cDNA sequence had an open reading frame of 1,380 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 459 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis characterized the putative RnD6D protein as a typical membrane-bound desaturase, including three conserved histidine-rich motifs, hydropathy profile and a cytochrome b5-like domain in the N-terminus. The corresponding genomic sequence of RnD6D was 1,689 bp with 4 introns, which was at least one intron more than other fungal Delta6-fatty acid desaturase genes. To elucidate the function of this novel putative desaturase, the coding sequence was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScl. A novel peak corresponding to gamma-linolenic acid methyl ester standards was detected with the same retention time, which was absent in the cell transformed with empty vector. The result demonstrated that the coding produced Delta6-fatty acid desaturase activity of RnD6D which led to the accumulation of gamma-linolenic acid. The functionally active RnD6D gene cloned here defined a novel Delta6-fatty acid desaturase from R. nigricans.

  1. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians.

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    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure may affect serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by inhibiting desaturases ∆5 and ∆6 that drive their synthesis from precursor fatty acids. Such changes in the composition of fatty acids may affect cardiovascular disease risk, which is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and other relevant fatty acids. Ratios between precursor and metabolite fatty acids were used as proxies for ∆5 and ∆6 desaturase activity. Tertiles of serum-PCB concentrations were used in multiple regression analyses to determine the association between the exposure and desaturase activity. In multiple regression models, PCB exposure was inversely related to the estimated Δ6 desaturase activity resulting in accumulation of precursor fatty acids and decrease in the corresponding product PUFAs. A positive association between PCB and Δ5 desaturation was also found. A relative increase in EA was also observed, though only in the third tertile of PCB exposure. Non-linear relationships between the exposure and the desaturase activity were not found. Consuming fish and seafood may not be translated into beneficial fatty acid profiles if the diet simultaneously causes exposure to PCBs. Although the desaturase estimates were likely influenced by dietary intakes of product PUFAs, the association between PCB exposure and ∆6 desaturase activity is plausible and may affect cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatitis E

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    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Hepatitis E Fact sheet Updated July 2017 Key facts ... in 2005 . Report Global hepatitis report, 2017 World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  3. Viral Hepatitis

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    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  4. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or care for someone who has hepatitis A People who travel to developing countries are more likely to get hepatitis A. What are the complications of hepatitis A? People typically recover from hepatitis A without complications. In ...

  5. FADS Gene Polymorphisms, Fatty Acid Desaturase Activities, and HDL-C in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Chen, Fang-Pei; Huang, Ya-Fang; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Hwang, Shang-Jyh

    2017-05-28

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) correlate with risk of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modulate circulating PUFA concentrations. This study examined influence of FADS1 and FADS2 genetic variants on desaturase activities and blood lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetes patients, and further assessed their interrelationships. Selected SNPs (FADS1: rs174547, rs174548, rs174550; FADS2: rs174575, rs174576, rs174583, rs498793 and rs2727270) were genotyped in 820 type 2 diabetes patients and compared with those reported in the HapMap. Patient subgroups (n = 176) without taking lipid-lowering medicine were studied to assess influence of tag SNPs including rs174547, rs174575, rs498793 and rs2727270 on delta-5 desaturase (D5D: 20:4 (n-6)/20:3 (n-6)) and delta-6 desaturase (D6D:18:3 (n-6)/18:2 (n-6)) activities, and blood lipids. FADS1 rs174547 TT/TC/CC and FADS2 rs2727270 CC/CT/TT were significantly (p for trend FADS genetic variations interact with desaturase activities or PUFAs in the metabolism of lipoproteins in diabetic patients.

  6. Sesamin is a potent and specific inhibitor of delta 5 desaturase in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, S; Akimoto, K; Shinmen, Y; Kawashima, H; Sugano, M; Yamada, H

    1991-07-01

    Incubation with sesame oil increases the mycelial dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid content of an arachidonic acid-producing fungus, Mortierella alpina, but decreases its arachidonic acid content [Shimizu, S., K. Akimoto, H. Kawashima, Y. Shinmen and H. Yamada (1989) J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 66, 237-241]. The factor causing these effects was isolated and identified to be (+)-sesamin. The results obtained in experiments with both a cell-free extract of the fungus and with rat liver microsomes demonstrated that (+)-sesamin specifically inhibits delta 5 desaturase at low concentrations, but does not inhibit delta 6, delta 9 and delta 12 desaturases. Kinetic analysis showed that (+)-sesamin is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki for rat liver delta 5 desaturase, 155 microM). (+)-Sesamolin, (+)-sesaminol and (+)-episesamin also inhibited only delta 5 desaturases of the fungus and liver. These results demonstrate that (+)-sesamin and related lignan compounds present in sesame seeds or its oil are specific inhibitors of delta 5 desaturase in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in both microorganisms and animals.

  7. The front-end desaturase: structure, function, evolution and biotechnological use.

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    Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Qiu, Xiao

    2012-03-01

    Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) are essential components of cell membranes, and are precursors for a group of hormone-like bioactive compounds (eicosanoids and docosanoids) involved in regulation of various physiological activities in animals and humans. The biosynthesis of these fatty acids involves an alternating process of fatty acid desaturation and elongation. The desaturation is catalyzed by a unique class of oxygenases called front-end desaturases that introduce double bonds between the pre-existing double bond and the carboxyl end of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The first gene encoding a front-end desaturase was cloned in 1993 from cyanobacteria. Since then, front-end desaturases have been identified and characterized from a wide range of eukaryotic species including algae, protozoa, fungi, plants and animals including humans. Unlike front-end desaturases from bacteria, those from eukaryotes are structurally characterized by the presence of an N-terminal cytochrome b₅-like domain fused to the main desaturation domain. Understanding the structure, function and evolution of front-end desaturases, as well as their roles in the biosynthesis of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids offers the opportunity to engineer production of these fatty acids in transgenic oilseed plants for nutraceutical markets.

  8. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Bi-Bo

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to screen for and isolate a novel enzyme with the specific activity of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase from Rhizopus oryzae. In this study, R. oryzae was identified as a novel fungal species that produces large amounts of γ-linolenic acid. A full-length cDNA, designated here as RoD6D, with high homology to fungal Δ6-fatty acid desaturase genes was isolated from R. oryzae by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. It had an open reading frame of 1176 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 391 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis characterized the putative RoD6D protein as a typical membrane-bound desaturase, including three conserved histidine-rich motifs, a hydropathy profile, and a cytochrome b5 -like domain in the N terminus. When the coding sequence was expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScl, the encoded product of RoD6D exhibited Δ6-fatty acid desaturase activity that led to the accumulation of γ-linolenic acid. The corresponding genomic sequence of RoD6D was 1565 bp in length, with five introns. This is the first report on the characterization and gene cloning of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase of R. oryzae from Douchi. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of eicosapentaenoic acid, using a novel δ5-desaturase from Paramecium tetraurelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Andrade Pereira Tavares, Sabina; Grotkjær, Thomas; Obsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    . lucimarinus, O. tauri, and M. alpina are promiscuous toward the acyl carrier substrate but prefer phospholipid-bound substrates. In contrast, the Δ5-desaturase from L. major showed no activity on phospholipid-bound substrate and thus appears to be an exclusively acyl coenzyme A-dependent desaturase. ©American...

  10. The regulation of lipid droplet size and phospholipid composition by stearoyl-CoA desaturase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Xun; Li, Juan; Zou, Xiaoju

    2013-01-01

    desaturase mutants, independently, and in combination with mutants disrupted in conserved lipid metabolic pathways. C. elegans with impaired SCD activity displayed both reduced fat stores and decreased lipid droplet size. Mutants in the daf-2 (insulin-like growth factor receptor), rsks-1 (homolog of p70S6......-2;fat-6;fat-7 triple mutants, which had increased de novo fatty acid synthesis and wild type levels of fat stores. Notably, stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity is required for the formation of large-sized lipid droplets in all mutant backgrounds, as well as for normal ratios of phosphatidylcholine (PC......Fatty acid desaturation regulates membrane function and fat storage in animals. To determine the contribution of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity on fat storage and development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we analyzed the lipid composition and lipid droplet size in the fat-6;fat-7...

  11. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is an essential enzyme for the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloatti, Andres [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Gupta, Shreedhara; Gualdron-Lopez, Melisa; Nguewa, Paul A. [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute and Laboratory of Biochemistry, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Altabe, Silvia G. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Deumer, Gladys; Wallemacq, Pierre [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, LTAP, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Michels, Paul A.M. [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute and Laboratory of Biochemistry, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Uttaro, Antonio D., E-mail: toniuttaro@yahoo.com.ar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Inhibiting {Delta}9 desaturase drastically changes T. brucei's fatty-acid composition. {yields} Isoxyl specifically inhibits the {Delta}9 desaturase causing a growth arrest. {yields} RNA interference of desaturase expression causes a similar effect. {yields} Feeding T. brucei-infected mice with Isoxyl decreases the parasitemia. {yields} 70% of Isoxyl-treated mice survived the trypanosome infection. -- Abstract: Trypanosoma brucei, the etiologic agent of sleeping sickness, is exposed to important changes in nutrients and temperature during its life cycle. To adapt to these changes, the fluidity of its membranes plays a crucial role. This fluidity, mediated by the fatty-acid composition, is regulated by enzymes named desaturases. We have previously shown that the oleoyl desaturase is essential for Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei. In this work, we present experimental support for the relevance of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) for T. brucei's survival, in both its insect or procyclic-form (PCF) and bloodstream-form (BSF) stages. We evaluated this essentiality in two different ways: by generating a SCD knocked-down parasite line using RNA interference, and by chemical inhibition of the enzyme with two compounds, Isoxyl and a thiastearate with the sulfur atom at position 10 (10-TS). The effective concentration for 50% growth inhibition (EC{sub 50}) of PCF was 1.0 {+-} 0.2 {mu}M for Isoxyl and 5 {+-} 2 {mu}M for 10-TS, whereas BSF appeared more susceptible with EC{sub 50} values 0.10 {+-} 0.03 {mu}M (Isoxyl) and 1.0 {+-} 0.6 {mu}M (10-TS). RNA interference showed to be deleterious for both stages of the parasite. In addition, T. brucei-infected mice were fed with Isoxyl, causing a reduction of the parasitemia and an increase of the rodents' survival.

  12. The temperature-dependent expression of the desaturase gene desA in Synechocystis PCC6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, D; Horvath, I; Vigh, L; Murata, N

    1993-02-22

    We examined the temperature-dependent regulation of the expression of the desA gene, which encodes delta 12 desaturase of Synechocystis PCC6803. The level of desA transcript increased 10-fold within 1 h upon a decrease in temperature from 36 degrees C to 22 degrees C. This suggests that the low-temperature-induced desaturation of membrane lipid fatty acids is regulated at the level of the expression of the desaturase genes. The accumulation of the desA transcript depended on the extent of temperature change over a certain threshold level, but not on the absolute temperature.

  13. RGC-32 Deficiency Protects against Hepatic Steatosis by Reducing Lipogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Bing; Luan, Jun-Na; Chen, Shi-You

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome because of increased hepatic triglyceride content. We have reported previously that deficiency of response gene to complement 32 (RGC-32) prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. This study was conducted to determine the role of RGC-32 in the regulation of hepatic steatosis. We observed that hepatic RGC-32 was induced dramatically by both HFD challenge and ethanol administration. RGC-32 knockout (RGC32−/−) mice were resistant to HFD- and ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis. The hepatic triglyceride content of RGC32−/− mice was decreased significantly compared with WT controls even under normal chow conditions. Moreover, RGC-32 deficiency decreased the expression of lipogenesis-related genes, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1). RGC-32 deficiency also decreased SCD1 activity, as indicated by decreased desaturase indices of the liver and serum. Mechanistically, insulin and ethanol induced RGC-32 expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway, which, in turn, increased SCD1 expression in a SREBP-1c-dependent manner. RGC-32 also promoted SREBP-1c expression through activating liver X receptor. These results demonstrate that RGC-32 contributes to the development of hepatic steatosis by facilitating de novo lipogenesis through activating liver X receptor, leading to the induction of SREBP-1c and its target genes. Therefore, RGC-32 may be a potential novel drug target for the treatment of hepatic steatosis and its related diseases. PMID:26134570

  14. RGC-32 Deficiency Protects against Hepatic Steatosis by Reducing Lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Bing; Luan, Jun-Na; Chen, Shi-You

    2015-08-14

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome because of increased hepatic triglyceride content. We have reported previously that deficiency of response gene to complement 32 (RGC-32) prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. This study was conducted to determine the role of RGC-32 in the regulation of hepatic steatosis. We observed that hepatic RGC-32 was induced dramatically by both HFD challenge and ethanol administration. RGC-32 knockout (RGC32(-/-)) mice were resistant to HFD- and ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis. The hepatic triglyceride content of RGC32(-/-) mice was decreased significantly compared with WT controls even under normal chow conditions. Moreover, RGC-32 deficiency decreased the expression of lipogenesis-related genes, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1). RGC-32 deficiency also decreased SCD1 activity, as indicated by decreased desaturase indices of the liver and serum. Mechanistically, insulin and ethanol induced RGC-32 expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway, which, in turn, increased SCD1 expression in a SREBP-1c-dependent manner. RGC-32 also promoted SREBP-1c expression through activating liver X receptor. These results demonstrate that RGC-32 contributes to the development of hepatic steatosis by facilitating de novo lipogenesis through activating liver X receptor, leading to the induction of SREBP-1c and its target genes. Therefore, RGC-32 may be a potential novel drug target for the treatment of hepatic steatosis and its related diseases. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Neofunctionalization in an ancestral insect desaturase lineage led to rare Δ6 pheromone signals in the Chinese tussah silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Liénard, Marjorie A; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Löfstedt, Christer

    2010-10-01

    The Chinese tussah silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) produces a rare dienoic sex pheromone composed of (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-4,9-tetradecadienyl acetate, and for which the biosynthetic routes are yet unresolved. By means of gland composition analyses and in vivo labeling we evidenced that pheromone biosynthesis towards the immediate dienoic gland precursor, the (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienoic acid, involves desaturation steps with Δ(6) and Δ(11) regioselectivity. cDNA cloning of pheromone gland desaturases and heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that the 6,11-dienoic pheromone is generated from two biosynthetic routes implicating a Δ(6) and Δ(11) desaturase duo albeit with an inverted reaction order. The two desaturases first catalyze the formation of the (E)-6-hexadecenoic acid or (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, key mono-unsaturated biosynthetic intermediates. Subsequently, each enzyme is able to produce the (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienoic acid by accommodating its non-respective mono-unsaturated product. Besides elucidating an unusually flexible pheromone biosynthetic pathway, our data provide the first identification of a biosynthetic Δ(6) desaturase involved in insect mate communication. The occurrence of this novel Δ(6) desaturase function is consistent with an evolutionary scenario involving neo-functionalization of an ancestral desaturase belonging to a gene lineage different from the Δ(11) desaturases commonly involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatty acid desaturase gene variants, cardiovascular risk factors, and myocardial infarction in the costa rica study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, r...

  17. INHIBITION OF FATTY ACID DESATURASES IN Drosophila melanogaster LARVAE BLOCKS FEEDING AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; da Cruz, Tina Correia; Pulfemuller, Alicia; Grégoire, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid desaturases are metabolic setscrews. To study their systemic impact on growth in Drosophila melanogaster, we inhibited fatty acid desaturases using the inhibitor CAY10566. As expected, the amount of desaturated lipids is reduced in larvae fed with CAY10566. These animals cease feeding soon after hatching, and their growth is strongly attenuated. A starvation program is not launched, but the expression of distinct metabolic genes is activated, possibly to mobilize storage material. Without attaining the normal size, inhibitor-fed larvae molt to the next stage indicating that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers molting correctly. Nevertheless, after molting, expression of ecdysone-dependent regulators is not induced. While control larvae molt a second time, these larvae fail to do so and die after few days of straying. These effects are similar to those observed in experiments using larvae deficient for the fatty acid desaturase1 gene. Based on these data, we propose that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids adjusts a sensor system that directs feeding behavior. We also hypothesize that loss of fatty acid desaturase activity leads to a block of the genetic program of development progression indirectly by switching on a metabolic compensation program. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cloning of a novel stearoyl-acyl desaturase gene from white ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-10

    Dec 10, 2011 ... cryoreduction electron paramagnetic resonance/electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy. Biochemistry, 44: 1309-1315. De Palma M, Grillo S, Massarelli I, Costa A, Laszlo GB, Leone VA. (2008). Regulation of desaturase gene expression, changes in membrane lipid composition and freezing ...

  19. Effect of gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorella vulgaris had the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3) which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of this study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally expressed in mammalian cells and ...

  20. Expression of a coriander desaturase results in petroselinic acid production in transgenic tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Ohlrogge, J.B. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Little is known about the metabolic origin of petroselinic acid (18:1[Delta][sup 6cis]), the principal fatty acid of the seed oil of most Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, and Garryaceae species. To examine the possibility that petroselinic acid is the product of an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase, Western blots of coriander and other Umbelliferae seed extracts were probed with antibodies against the [Delta][sup 9]-stearoyl-ACP desaturase of avocado. In these extracts, proteins of 39 and 36 kDa were detected. Of these, only the 36-kDa peptide was specific to tissues which synthesize petroselinic acid. A cDNA encoding the 36-kDa peptide was isolated from a coriander endosperm cDNA library, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Expression of this cDNA in transgenic tobacco callus was accompanied by the accumulation of petroselinic acid and [Delta][sup 4]-hexadecenoic acid, both of which were absent from control callus. These results demonstrate the involvement of a 36-kDa putative acyl-ACP desaturase in the biosynthetic pathway of petroselinic acid and the ability to produce fatty acids of unusual structure in transgenic plants by the expression of the gene for this desaturase. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Identification and functional analysis of the genes encoding Δ6-desaturase from Ribes nigrum†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-Ying; Lu, Wan-Xiang; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Hao, Shan-Ting; Wang, Bai-Lin; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (γ-linolenic acid, GLA; C18:3 Δ6, 9, 12) belongs to the omega-6 family and exists primarily in several plant oils, such as evening primrose oil, blackcurrant oil, and borage oil. Δ6-desaturase is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of GLA. There have been no previous reports on the genes encoding Δ6-desaturase in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.). In this research, five nearly identical copies of Δ6-desaturase gene-like sequences, named RnD8A, RnD8B, RnD6C, RnD6D, and RnD6E, were isolated from blackcurrant. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and/or Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that RnD6C/D/E were Δ6-desaturases that could use both α-linolenic acids (ALA; C18:3 Δ9,12,15) and linoleic acid (LA; C18:2 Δ9,12) precursors in vivo, whereas RnD8A/B were Δ8-sphlingolipid desaturases. Expression of GFP tagged with RnD6C/D/E showed that blackcurrant Δ6-desaturases were located in the mitochondrion (MIT) in yeast and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in tobacco. GC-MS results showed that blackcurrant accumulated GLA and octadecatetraenoic acids (OTA; C18:4 Δ6,9,12,15) mainly in seeds and a little in other organs and tissues. RT-PCR results showed that RnD6C and RnD6E were expressed in all the tissues at a low level, whereas RnD6D was expressed at a high level only in seeds, leading to the accumulation of GLA and OTA in seeds. This research provides new insights to our understanding of GLA synthesis and accumulation in plants and the evolutionary relationship of this class of desaturases, and new clues as to the amino acid determinants which define precise enzyme activity. PMID:20231328

  2. Identification and functional analysis of the genes encoding Delta6-desaturase from Ribes nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-Ying; Lu, Wan-Xiang; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Hao, Shan-Ting; Wang, Bai-Lin; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2010-06-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (gamma-linolenic acid, GLA; C18:3 Delta(6, 9, 12)) belongs to the omega-6 family and exists primarily in several plant oils, such as evening primrose oil, blackcurrant oil, and borage oil. Delta(6)-desaturase is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of GLA. There have been no previous reports on the genes encoding Delta(6)-desaturase in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.). In this research, five nearly identical copies of Delta(6)-desaturase gene-like sequences, named RnD8A, RnD8B, RnD6C, RnD6D, and RnD6E, were isolated from blackcurrant. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and/or Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that RnD6C/D/E were Delta(6)-desaturases that could use both alpha-linolenic acids (ALA; C18:3 Delta(9,12,15)) and linoleic acid (LA; C18:2 Delta(9,12)) precursors in vivo, whereas RnD8A/B were Delta(8)-sphingolipid desaturases. Expression of GFP tagged with RnD6C/D/E showed that blackcurrant Delta(6)-desaturases were located in the mitochondrion (MIT) in yeast and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in tobacco. GC-MS results showed that blackcurrant accumulated GLA and octadecatetraenoic acids (OTA; C18:4 Delta(6,9,12,15)) mainly in seeds and a little in other organs and tissues. RT-PCR results showed that RnD6C and RnD6E were expressed in all the tissues at a low level, whereas RnD6D was expressed at a high level only in seeds, leading to the accumulation of GLA and OTA in seeds. This research provides new insights to our understanding of GLA synthesis and accumulation in plants and the evolutionary relationship of this class of desaturases, and new clues as to the amino acid determinants which define precise enzyme activity.

  3. Fatty Acid Desaturase 3 (Fads3) is a singular member of the Fads cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, H; Legrand, P; Pédrono, F

    2011-01-01

    Since its identification in 2000, no function has been attributed to the Fatty Acid Desaturase 3 (Fads3) gene. This gene is located within the Fads cluster, which also contains Fads1 and Fads2, coding respectively for the Δ5- and Δ6- desaturases. Based on the sequence homology between these three genes, Fads3 may be a new fatty acid desaturase. It is thus essential to understand its involvement in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in order to improve our knowledge on lipid metabolism. Gene expression studies provided evidences on the specificity of Fads3 compared to Fads1 and Fads2, concerning the tissue distribution, alternative splicing and regulation. These works also identified possible physiological functions in which Fads3 could be involved. Thus, the Fads3 gene was transcripted in many tissues, and displayed a weak expression in the liver compared to other organs such as the lung or spleen. Fads3 was also showed to be a target gene for NK-κB, MYCN or p63 transcription factors and could consequently be involved in cell survival mechanisms. Polymorphism analysis underlined the possible implication of Fads3 in lipid homeostasis, particularly by modulating cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels. In terms of proteins, FADS3 has been recently described in rodents. One of the identified isoforms may display the classical structure of a fatty acid desaturase but no enzymatic activity has been observed yet. Therefore, it is essential to consider the desaturase diversity in terms of catalysis and substrates to elucidate the FADS3 function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. FADS Gene Polymorphisms, Fatty Acid Desaturase Activities, and HDL-C in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA correlate with risk of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs modulate circulating PUFA concentrations. This study examined influence of FADS1 and FADS2 genetic variants on desaturase activities and blood lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetes patients, and further assessed their interrelationships. Selected SNPs (FADS1: rs174547, rs174548, rs174550; FADS2: rs174575, rs174576, rs174583, rs498793 and rs2727270 were genotyped in 820 type 2 diabetes patients and compared with those reported in the HapMap. Patient subgroups (n = 176 without taking lipid-lowering medicine were studied to assess influence of tag SNPs including rs174547, rs174575, rs498793 and rs2727270 on delta-5 desaturase (D5D: 20:4 (n-6/20:3 (n-6 and delta-6 desaturase (D6D:18:3 (n-6/18:2 (n-6 activities, and blood lipids. FADS1 rs174547 TT/TC/CC and FADS2 rs2727270 CC/CT/TT were significantly (p for trend < 0.05 associated with reduced HDL-C, D5D and D6D activities. Upon adjustment for confounders, D5D (p = 0.006 correlated significantly and D6D marginally (p = 0.07 correlated with increased HDL-C levels, whereas rs174547 and rs2727270 polymorphisms were not associated. D6D andD5D activities may play a role in modulating HDL-C levels in type 2 diabetes. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate how FADS genetic variations interact with desaturase activities or PUFAs in the metabolism of lipoproteins in diabetic patients.

  5. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels.

  6. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 2 vaccines for hepatitis B on the market. There is 1 combination vaccine on the market for hepatitis A and B together. Vaccination Schedule ... hepatitis B vaccine with no risk to their babies. Resources Products and Publications Hepatitis B Fact Sheets ...

  7. Effects of developmental age, ambient temperature, and dietary alterations on delta(12) desaturase activity in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcabe, J P; Howell, J D; Blomquist, G J; Borgeson, C E

    2000-07-01

    Double bond formation in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is mediated by desaturase enzymes. Certain insect species have been found to possess a Delta(12) desaturase, previously thought to occur exclusively in plants. We have begun to characterize this enzyme to determine its relatedness to those found in plants and animals. Desaturase activity can be altered significantly by a number of environmental factors in protozoa, cyanobacteria, plants, fish, and rats. We present evidence here that Delta(12) desaturase activity in Acheta domesticus is affected by developmental stage, starvation, dietary alterations, and fluctuations in ambient temperature. Highest activity is observed during the middle of the penultimate instar and 3 to 6 days after adult emergence. Starvation markedly decreases Delta(12) activity, whereas resumption of feeding on fat-free or low fat diets increases activity.

  8. Markers of endogenous desaturase activity and risk of coronary heart disease in the CAREMA cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchang Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially EPA (C20:5n-3 and DHA (C22:6n-3, are known to prevent fatal coronary heart disease (CHD. The effects of n-6 PUFAs including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6, however, remain unclear. δ-5 and δ-6 desaturases are rate-limiting enzymes for synthesizing long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. C20:4n-6 to C20:3n-6 and C18:3n-6 to C18:2n-6 ratios are markers of endogenous δ-5 and δ-6 desaturase activities, but have never been studied in relation to incident CHD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relation between these ratios as well as genotypes of FADS1 rs174547 and CHD incidence. METHODS: We applied a case-cohort design within the CAREMA cohort, a large prospective study among the general Dutch population followed up for a median of 12.1 years. Fatty acid profile in plasma cholesteryl esters and FADS1 genotype at baseline were measured in a random subcohort (n = 1323 and incident CHD cases (n = 537. Main outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs of incident CHD adjusted for major CHD risk factors. RESULTS: The AA genotype of rs174547 was associated with increased plasma levels of C204n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 and increased δ-5 and δ-6 desaturase activities, but not with CHD risk. In multivariable adjusted models, high baseline δ-5 desaturase activity was associated with reduced CHD risk (P for trend = 0.02, especially among those carrying the high desaturase activity genotype (AA: HR (95% CI = 0.35 (0.15-0.81 for comparing the extreme quintiles. High plasma DHA levels were also associated with reduced CHD risk. CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study, we observed a reduced CHD risk with an increased C20:4n-6 to C20:3n-6 ratio, suggesting that δ-5 desaturase activity plays a role in CHD etiology. This should be investigated further in other independent studies.

  9. Δ9 desaturase from Trypanosoma cruzi: Key enzyme in the parasite metabolism. Cloning and overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelke, Mariela R; Paulucci, Natalia S; Selva, Armentano; Garban, Hermes; de Lema, Mirta García

    2017-01-01

    Desaturases, key enzymes in the metabolism of fatty acids, regulate the physical and biochemical properties of membranes. They adjust the composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in response to changes in the environmental. We demonstrated the existence of Δ9 desaturase activity in epimastigotes of the Trypanosoma cruzi Tulahuen strain. In the present study, showed that this enzyme has an approximate molecular mass of 50kDa and a pI value of approximately 9. In order to characterize the Δ9 desaturase of Trypanosoma cruzi, (TcΔ9DES) we have cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene consists of 1300bp and encodes a peptide of 433 amino acids with a molecular weight of 50kDa. Analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed three clusters of histidine and two hydrophobic regions, characteristic of membrane-bound desaturases. Gene expression studies showed that TcΔ9DES was overexpressed as an active protein. Fatty acid analysis showed that the expressed protein was confirmed to be functional with Δ9 desaturase activity. This enzyme changed the fatty acid profile of TcΔ9DES-expressing E. coli, decreasing the levels of palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids and enhancing palmitoleic (16:1Δ9) and monounsaturated 18 carbons fatty acids. When [1-14C]palmitic or [1-14C]stearic acid was used as substrate, TcΔ9DES-expressing E. coli exhibited high desaturase activity associated with increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, suggesting that the TcΔ9DES enzyme was actively expressed in E. coli. To check the commitment of TcΔ9DES against sterol biosynthesis inhibitors we tested the activity under ketoconazole effect. Native TcΔ9DES, showed a significant activity inhibition. Since TcΔ9DES has shown active participation under different environmental factors, among them, ketoconazole, we consider that it plays a critical role in the metabolism of the parasite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloning and characterization of a delta-6 desaturase encoding gene from Nannochloropsis oculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Yu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Baohua; Pan, Kehou; Pan, Jin; Yang, Guanpin

    2011-03-01

    A gene ( NANOC-D6D) encoding a desaturase that removes two hydrogen atoms from fatty acids at delta 6 position was isolated from a cDNA library of Nannochloropsis oculata (Droop) D. J. Hibberd (Eustigmatophyceae). The unicellular marine microalga N. oculata synthesizes rich long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA). The deduced protein contains 474 amino acids that fold into 4 trans-membrane domains. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicates that NANOC-D6D is phylogenetically close to the delta-6 fatty acid desaturase of marine microalgae such as Glossomastix chrysoplasta, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The gene was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVScl to verify the substrate specificity of NANOC-D6D. Our results suggest that the recombinant NANOC-D6D simultaneously desaturates linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA).

  11. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure may affect serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by inhibiting desaturases ∆5 and ∆6 that drive their synthesis from precursor fatty acids. Such changes in the composition of fatty acids may affect cardiovascular disease risk, which...... is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic...... acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and other relevant fatty acids. Ratios between precursor and metabolite fatty acids were used as proxies for ∆5 and ∆6 desaturase activity. Tertiles of serum-PCB concentrations were used in multiple regression analyses to determine the association between the exposure...

  12. Effect of gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Chlorella vulgaris had the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3) which can synthesize the precursor of ... vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and expressed the n-3 Fad gene in mouse breast cancer cells (4T1 cells). Transfection of ..... altering dietary omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratios on prostate cancer membrane ...

  13. Analysis of docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis in Crypthecodinium cohnii by 13C labelling and desaturase inhibitor experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swaaf, Martin E; de Rijk, Theo C; van der Meer, Pieter; Eggink, Gerrit; Sijtsma, Lolke

    2003-06-12

    The lipids of the heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii contain the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) to a level of over 30%. The pathway of 22:6 synthesis in C. cohnii is unknown. The ability of C. cohnii to use 13C-labelled externally supplied precursor molecules for 22:6 biosynthesis was tested by 13C NMR analysis. Furthermore, the presence of desaturases (typical for aerobic PUFA synthesis) was studied by the addition of specific desaturase inhibitors in the growth medium. The addition of 1-(13)C acetate or 1-(13)C butyrate in the growth medium resulted in 22:6 with only the odd carbon atoms enriched. Apparently, two-carbon units were used as building blocks for 22:6 synthesis and butyrate was first split into two-carbon units prior to incorporation in 22:6. When 1-(13)C oleic acid was added to the growth medium, 1-(13)C oleic acid was incorporated into the lipids of C. cohnii but was not used as a precursor for the synthesis of 22:6. Specific desaturase inhibitors (norflurazon and propyl gallate) inhibited lipid accumulation in C. cohnii. The fatty acid profile, however, was not altered. In contrast, in the arachidonic acid-producing fungus, Mortierella alpina, these inhibitors not only decreased the lipid content but also altered the fatty acid profile. Our results can be explained by the presence of three tightly regulated separate systems for the fatty acid production by C. cohnii, namely for (1). the biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids, (2). the conversion of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids and (3). the de novo synthesis of 22:6 with desaturases involved.

  14. The role of desaturases in the biosynthesis of marking pheromones in bumblebee males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buček, Aleš; Vogel, Heiko; Matoušková, Petra; Prchalová, Darina; Záček, Petr; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Šebesta, Petr; Svatoš, Aleš; Jahn, Ullrich; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2013-08-01

    Bumblebee males (Hymenoptera) produce species-specific labial gland secretions called marking pheromones (MPs). MPs generally consist of terpenoids and fatty-acid-derived aliphatic compounds with various chain lengths predominantly containing one or no double bonds. The unsaturated fatty-acid-derived MP components were hypothesized to be produced by fatty acid desaturases (FADs) that exhibit diverse substrate specificities. To address this hypothesis, we isolated and functionally characterized FADs from three bumblebee species: Bombus lucorum, Bombus terrestris, and Bombus lapidarius. By employing RNA sequencing of the male labial glands and fat bodies of B. lucorum and B. terrestris, we identified five paralogous FAD-like sequences but only two FAD lineages were abundant and differentially expressed in the labial glands. We found that abundant FAD lineages were also expressed in the labial gland and fat body of Bombus lapidarius. Functional characterization of FADs in a yeast expression system confirmed that Δ4-FADs exhibited a unique Δ4-desaturase activity exclusively on 14-carbon fatty acyls and Δ9-FADs displayed Δ9-desaturase activity on 14- to 18-carbon fatty acyls. These results indicate that Δ9-FADs are involved in the biosynthesis of major unsaturated components of MPs in B. lucorum and B. lapidarius despite the diverse MP composition of these bumblebee species. The contribution of lipases, acyltransferases, esterases, and fatty acid reductases to production of the species-specific MP composition is also discussed in light of the transcriptomic data obtained in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Δ12-fatty acid desaturase is involved in growth at low temperature in yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezaki, Satoshi; Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2017-06-17

    We investigated the role of FAD2, which was predicted to encode a fatty acid desaturase of the n-alkane-assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Northern blot analysis suggested that FAD2 transcription was upregulated at low temperature or in the presence of n-alkanes or oleic acid. The FAD2 deletion mutant grew as well as the wild-type strain on glucose, n-alkanes, or oleic acid at 30 °C, but grew at a slower rate at 12 °C, when compared to the wild-type strain. The growth of the FAD2 deletion mutant at 12 °C was restored by the addition of 18:2, but not 18:1, fatty acids. The amount of 18:2 fatty acid in the wild-type strain was increased by the incubation at 12 °C and in the presence of n-octadecane. In contrast, 18:2 fatty acid was not detected in the deletion mutant of FAD2, confirming that FAD2 encodes the Δ12-fatty acid desaturase. These results suggest that Δ12-fatty acid desaturase is involved in the growth of Y. lipolytica at low temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disruption of a horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase abolishes carotenoid accumulation and diapause in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryon, Astrid; Kurlovs, Andre H; Dermauw, Wannes; Greenhalgh, Robert; Riga, Maria; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Osakabe, Masahiro; Vontas, John; Clark, Richard M; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2017-07-18

    Carotenoids underlie many of the vibrant yellow, orange, and red colors in animals, and are involved in processes ranging from vision to protection from stresses. Most animals acquire carotenoids from their diets because de novo synthesis of carotenoids is primarily limited to plants and some bacteria and fungi. Recently, sequencing projects in aphids and adelgids, spider mites, and gall midges identified genes with homology to fungal sequences encoding de novo carotenoid biosynthetic proteins like phytoene desaturase. The finding of horizontal gene transfers of carotenoid biosynthetic genes to three arthropod lineages was unprecedented; however, the relevance of the transfers for the arthropods that acquired them has remained largely speculative, which is especially true for spider mites that feed on plant cell contents, a known source of carotenoids. Pigmentation in spider mites results solely from carotenoids. Using a combination of genetic approaches, we show that mutations in a single horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase result in complete albinism in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, as well as in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri Further, we show that phytoene desaturase activity is essential for photoperiodic induction of diapause in an overwintering strain of T. urticae, consistent with a role for this enzyme in provisioning provitamin A carotenoids required for light perception. Carotenoid biosynthetic genes of fungal origin have therefore enabled some mites to forgo dietary carotenoids, with endogenous synthesis underlying their intense pigmentation and ability to enter diapause, a key to the global distribution of major spider mite pests of agriculture.

  17. Directed evolution increases desaturation of a cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase in eukaryotic expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuangyi; Wallis, James G; Denolf, Peter; Browse, John

    2016-07-01

    Directed evolution of a cyanobacterial Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (DSG) from Synechococcus elongatus, PCC6301 created new, more productive desaturases and revealed the importance of certain amino acid residues to increased desaturation. A codon-optimized DSG open reading frame with an endoplasmic-reticulum retention/retrieval signal appended was used as template for random mutagenesis. Increased desaturation was detected using a novel screen based on complementation of the unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant ole1Δ. Amino acid residues whose importance was discovered by the random processes were further examined by saturation mutation to determine the best amino acid at each identified location in the peptide chain and by combinatorial analysis. One frequently-detected single amino acid change, Q240R, yielded a nearly 25-fold increase in total desaturation in S. cerevisiae. Several other variants of the protein sequence with multiple amino acid changes increased total desaturation more than 60-fold. Many changes leading to increased desaturation were in the vicinity of the canonical histidine-rich regions known to be critical for electron transfer mediated by these di-iron proteins. Expression of these evolved proteins in the seed of Arabidopsis thaliana altered the fatty acid composition, increasing monounsaturated fatty acids and decreasing the level of saturated fatty acid, suggesting a potential application of these desaturases in oilseed crops. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1522-1530. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Linoleic acid biosynthesis and characterization of the. Delta. sup 12 desaturase in insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, C.

    1988-01-01

    De novo biosynthesis of linoleic acid was demonstrated in vivo in 8 of 32 insect species examined, including both holometabolous and hemimetabolous species. The incorporation of (1-{sup 14}C) acetate into linoleic acid was demonstrated by radio-gas-liquid chromatography (radio-GLC), and in selected species by radio-high-performance liquid chromatography, silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography, radio-GLC and GLC linked to mass spectrometry of ozonolysis products. Analysis of the ozonolysis products clearly demonstrated that the entire molecule was labeled and that synthesis of linoleate was de novo from acetate. The in vivo incorporation of (1-{sup 14}C)acetate into lipid was monitored during the final three stadia of both male and female house crickets, Acheta domesticus. Characterization of the {Delta}{sup 12}-desaturase showed that, in the house cricket, this enzyme is microsomal and requires a reduced pyridine dinucleotide as a cofactor, with NADPH the preferred electron donor. The optimal substrate concentration for desaturation is about 40 uM. Addition of the microsomal supernatant, MgCl{sub 2} or ATP did not enhance activity. The form of the substrate for the desaturase, oleic acid, was determined and appears to be a CoA derivative, as is true for most animal desaturases, rather than a complex lipid, as it is in plants.

  19. Functional characterization of two microsomal fatty acid desaturases from Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2013-10-15

    Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and major storage compounds in plant seed oils. Microsomal ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acid (FA) desaturases catalyze the synthesis of seed oil LA and ALA, respectively. Jatropha curcas L. seed oils contain large proportions of LA, but very little ALA. In this study, two microsomal desaturase genes, named JcFAD2 and JcFAD3, were isolated from J. curcas. Both deduced amino acid sequences possessed eight histidines shown to be essential for desaturases activity, and contained motif in the C-terminal for endoplasmic reticulum localization. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the isolated JcFAD2 and JcFAD3 proteins could catalyze LA and ALA synthesis, respectively. The results indicate that JcFAD2 and JcFAD3 are functional in controlling PUFA contents of seed oils and could be exploited in the genetic engineering of J. curcas, and potentially other plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. cDNA cloning and expression analyses of phytoene synthase 1, phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes from Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaya Supathaweewat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the cloning of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs encoding the enzymes responsible for lycopene biosynthesis,namely phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1, phytoene desaturase (PDS and -carotene desaturase (ZDS, respectively, from high-lycopene tomato cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003. DNA sequence analyses showed that the complete openreading frames of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs were 1,239, 1,752 and 1,767 base pairs in length and encoded proteins of 412,583 and 588 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic and the conserved domain analyses suggest that PSY1, PDS and ZDSfrom S. lycopersicum KKU-T34003 potentially have similar structures and biological functions to the corresponding proteinsfrom other plants. Gene expression studies showed that Psy1 was expressed only in the petal and the breaker fruit, whereasthe expressions of Pds and Zds were observed in the petal, the breaker fruit and the leaf. The highest expression level for allgenes was detected in the breaker-stage fruit, suggesting that carotenoid accumulation was developmentally regulated inthe chromoplast-containing tissues.

  1. Identification and functional analysis of delta-9 desaturase, a key enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, isolated from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Muto

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of Δ9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 Δ(9 desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative Δ(9 acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical Δ(9 desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these Δ(9 desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (Δole1. All the putative Δ(9 acyl-CoA desaturases showed Δ(9 desaturation activity for C16∶0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18∶0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of Δ(9 desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain.

  2. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  3. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight loss Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy) Spider-like blood vessels on your skin (spider angiomas) Every chronic hepatitis C infection starts with an acute phase. ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  5. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ... Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update. Hepatology . ...

  6. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doctors treat hepatitis C with antiviral medicines that attack the virus and can cure the disease in most cases. ... Doctors treat hepatitis C with antiviral medicines that attack the virus. You may need to take medicines for 12 ...

  7. Hepatitis C: Treatment

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    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  8. Alcohol and Hepatitis

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    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  9. [Lupus hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hadj, Yahia Chiraz; Chaabouni, Lilia; Montacer, Kchir Mohamed; Abid, Feriel; Zouari, Rafik

    2002-07-01

    We report the case of 42 year-old man who presents an acute polyarthritis associated with systemic manifestation and immunologic disorders related to systemic lupus erythematosus. Hepatic tests show cholostase and cytolysis. Hepatic involvement is linked with systemic lupus erythematosus after exclusion of hepatotoxic drugs, viral hepatitis and absence of anti mitochondrial and anti muscle antibodies. Lupus hepatitis seems to be correlated with autoantibodies to ribosomal P protein. Its treatment remains to be defined.

  10. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  11. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  12. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  13. The delta 12-desaturase from the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae): characterization and form of the substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, C; Borgeson, C; Blomquist, G J; de Renobales, M

    1990-04-01

    A novel delta 12-desaturase from animals, which converts oleic acid (18:1n-9) to linoleic acid (18:2n-6), was characterized in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus. The delta 12-desaturase product, linoleic acid, was determined by silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography, radio-gas-liquid chromatography and radio-high-performance liquid chromatography with the latter being used for routine analyses. Enzyme activity was located in the microsomal fraction of whole insect homogenates. NADPH or NADH was required for activity, with NADPH being the more efficient electron donor. In short incubation times with oleoyl-CoA as substrate, the highest amount of product, linoleic acid, was found as linoleoyl-CoA. With longer incubation periods, most of the linoleic acid was recovered in the polar lipid fraction containing phospholipid. Preincubation of the microsomal preparation in the absence of NADPH, which allowed 90% of the oleoyl moiety to be transacylated into complex lipid, resulted in no detectable desaturation upon addition of NADPH. These data indicate that the oleic acid moiety used as substrate was in the form of a CoA derivative and not in the form of a phospholipid, as it is for the plant delta 12-desaturase. This is the first characterization of a delta 12-desaturase from an animal system and the first report of a delta 12-desaturase that uses oleoyl-CoA as substrate.

  14. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the {Delta}{sup 9} desaturase is developmentally regulated.

  15. A Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy reveals two divergent allelic classes within the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Richard G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moth pheromone mating systems have been characterized at the molecular level, allowing evolutionary biologists to study how changes in protein sequence or gene expression affect pheromone phenotype, patterns of mating, and ultimately, the formation of barriers to gene exchange. Recent studies of Ostrinia pheromones have focused on the diversity of sex pheromone desaturases and their role in the specificity of pheromone production. Here we produce a Δ11 desaturase genealogy within Ostrinia nubilalis. We ask what has been the history of this gene, and whether this history suggests that changes in Δ11 desaturase have been involved in the divergence of the E and Z O. nubilalis pheromone strains. Results The Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy does not differentiate O. nubilalis pheromone strains. However, we find two distinct clades, separated by 2.9% sequence divergence, that do not sort with pheromone strain, geographic origin, or emergence time. We demonstrate that these clades do not represent gene duplicates, but rather allelic variation at a single gene locus. Conclusions Analyses of patterns of variation at the Δ11 desaturase gene in ECB suggest that this enzyme does not contribute to reproductive isolation between pheromone strains (E and Z. However, our genealogy reveals two deeply divergent allelic classes. Standing variation at loci that contribute to mate choice phenotypes may permit novel pheromone mating systems to arise in the presence of strong stabilizing selection.

  16. The desA gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 is the structural gene for delta 12 desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, H; Avelange-Macherel, M H; Murata, N

    1993-09-01

    The desA gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 was expressed in Escherichia coli, which does not contain any fatty acid desaturase. The product of the desA gene catalyzed the desaturation of fatty acids at the delta 12 position. This result demonstrates that desA is the structural gene for a delta 12 desaturase.

  17. Reduction of body weight, liver steatosis and expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 by the isoflavone daidzein in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespillo, A; Alonso, M; Vida, M; Pavón, F J; Serrano, A; Rivera, P; Romero-Zerbo, Y; Fernández-Llebrez, P; Martínez, A; Pérez-Valero, V; Bermúdez-Silva, F J; Suárez, J; de Fonseca, F R

    2011-12-01

    The lack of safe and effective treatments for obesity has increased interest in natural products that may serve as alternative therapies. From this perspective, we have analysed the effects of daidzein, one of the main soy isoflavones, on diet-induced obesity in rats. Rats made obese after exposure to a very (60%) high fat-content diet were treated with daidzein (50 mg·kg(-1)) for 14 days. The dose was selected on the basis of the acute effects of this isoflavone on a feeding test. After 14 days, animals were killed and plasma, white and brown adipose tissue, muscle and liver studied for the levels and expression of metabolites, proteins and genes relevant to lipid metabolism. A single treatment (acute) with daidzein dose-dependently reduced food intake. Chronic treatment (daily for 14 days) reduced weight gain and fat content in liver, accompanied by high leptin and low adiponectin levels in plasma. While skeletal muscle was weakly affected by treatment, both adipose tissue and liver displayed marked changes after treatment with daidzein, affecting transcription factors and lipogenic enzymes, particularly stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1, a pivotal enzyme in obesity. Expression of uncoupling protein 1, an important enzyme for thermogenesis, was increased in brown adipose tissue after daidzein treatment. These results support the use of isoflavones in diet-induced obesity, especially when hepatic steatosis is present and open a new field of use for these natural products. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Reduction of body weight, liver steatosis and expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 by the isoflavone daidzein in diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespillo, A; Alonso, M; Vida, M; Pavón, FJ; Serrano, A; Rivera, P; Romero-Zerbo, Y; Fernández-Llebrez, P; Martínez, A; Pérez-Valero, V; Bermúdez-Silva, FJ; Suárez, J; de Fonseca, FR

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The lack of safe and effective treatments for obesity has increased interest in natural products that may serve as alternative therapies. From this perspective, we have analysed the effects of daidzein, one of the main soy isoflavones, on diet-induced obesity in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats made obese after exposure to a very (60%) high fat-content diet were treated with daidzein (50 mg·kg−1) for 14 days. The dose was selected on the basis of the acute effects of this isoflavone on a feeding test. After 14 days, animals were killed and plasma, white and brown adipose tissue, muscle and liver studied for the levels and expression of metabolites, proteins and genes relevant to lipid metabolism. KEY RESULTS A single treatment (acute) with daidzein dose-dependently reduced food intake. Chronic treatment (daily for 14 days) reduced weight gain and fat content in liver, accompanied by high leptin and low adiponectin levels in plasma. While skeletal muscle was weakly affected by treatment, both adipose tissue and liver displayed marked changes after treatment with daidzein, affecting transcription factors and lipogenic enzymes, particularly stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1, a pivotal enzyme in obesity. Expression of uncoupling protein 1, an important enzyme for thermogenesis, was increased in brown adipose tissue after daidzein treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results support the use of isoflavones in diet-induced obesity, especially when hepatic steatosis is present and open a new field of use for these natural products. PMID:21557739

  19. Amino Acid Change in an Orchid Desaturase Enables Mimicry of the Pollinator's Sex Pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Whittle, Edward; Guthörl, Daniela; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Shanklin, John; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2016-06-06

    Mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology [1]. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species [2-4]. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females [2-7], especially their sex pheromones [8-11]. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly the 7-alkenes, in an insect sex pheromone to attract and elicit mating behavior in its pollinators, males of the cellophane bee Colletes cunicularius [11-13]. A difference in alkene double-bond positions is responsible for reproductive isolation between O. exaltata and closely related species, such as O. sphegodes [13-16]. We show that these 7-alkenes are likely determined by the action of the stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SAD) homolog SAD5. After gene duplication, changes in subcellular localization relative to the ancestral housekeeping desaturase may have allowed proto-SAD5's reaction products to undergo further biosynthesis to both 7- and 9-alkenes. Such ancestral coproduction of two alkene classes may have led to pollinator-mediated deleterious pleiotropy. Despite possible evolutionary intermediates with reduced activity, amino acid changes at the bottom of the substrate-binding cavity have conferred enzyme specificity for 7-alkene biosynthesis by preventing the binding of longer-chained fatty acid (FA) precursors by the enzyme. This change in desaturase function enabled the orchid to perfect its chemical mimicry of pollinator sex pheromones by escape from deleterious pleiotropy, supporting a role of pleiotropy in determining the possible trajectories of adaptive evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Desaturases of fatty acids (FADS) and their physiological and clinical implication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žák, Aleš; Slabý, Adolf; Tvrzická, Eva; Jáchymová, Marie; Macášek, Jaroslav; Vecka, Marek; Zeman, Miroslav; Staňková, Barbora

    States associated with insulin resistance, as overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), some cancers and neuropsychiatric diseases are characterized with a decrease of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) levels. Amounts of LC-PUFA depend on the exogenous intake of their precursors [linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA)] and by rate of their metabolism, which is influenced by activities of enzymes, such as Δ6-desaturase (D6D, FADS2), D5D, FADS1, elongases (Elovl2, -5, 6).Altered activities of D5D/D6D were described in plenty of diseases, e.g. neuropsychiatric (depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, dementia), metabolic (obesity, metabolic syndrome, DM2) and cardiovascular diseases (arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease), inflammatory states and allergy (Crohns disease, atopic eczema) or some malignancies. Similar results were obtained in studies dealing with the associations between genotypes/haplotypes of FADS1/FADS2 and above mentioned diseases, or interactions of dietary intake of LA and ALA on one hand and of the polymorphisms of minor allels of FADS1/FADS2, usually characterized by lower activities, on the other hand.The decrease of the desaturases activities leads to decreased concentrations of products with concomitant increased concentrations of substrates. Associations of some SNP FADS with coronary heart disease, concentrations of plasma lipids, oxidative stress, glucose homeostasis, and inflammatory reaction, were described. Experimental studies on animal models and occurrence of rare diseases, associated with missing or with marked fall activities of D5D/D6D emphasized the significance of desaturases for healthy development of organism as well as for pathogenesis of some disease.

  1. The cytoprotective effects of Δ-17 fatty acid desaturase on injured HUVECs and its underlying mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endothelium toxicity has been involved in early endothelial dysfunction to show the pathogenesis of multiple cardiovascular disease that shows atherosclerosis and its complications. Saturated free fatty acids are the main inducing factors of endothelial cell apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines. In humans, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1 is a restriction step to saturation to unsaturated fatty acid desaturation, which plays a beneficial role protecting endothelial cells against lipotoxicity. Δ-17 fatty acid desaturase (FAD is a newly identified FAD which shares 55% identity at the amino acid level with SCD-1. Whether Δ-17 FAD has similar beneficial effect remains poorly understood. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL was used to induce lipotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to establish a model of oxidative injury. Then HUVECs were transfected with FAD lentivirus to introduce cytoprotective effects. The alterations in cell proliferation and apoptosis, nitric oxide content, malonyldialdehyde (MDA content, SOD enzyme content, LDH content, GSH-PX level, vascular growth factor (VEGF expression were evaluated. Studies showed that ox-LDL-induced excess HUVEC apoptosis can be abrogated by upregulation of Δ-17 FAD. The nitric oxide content, GSH-PX content, and SOD enzyme content were increased and the activity of MDA was suppressed by upregulation of Δ-17 FAD. In addition, upregulation of Δ-17 FAD significantly increased VEGF expression. In vitro tube formation assay showed that Δ-17 FAD promoted angiogenesis to a significant degree. These results suggest that Δ-17 fatty acid desaturase may have beneficial action in the prevention of ox-LDL-induced cellular damage.

  2. Characterization of soluble acyl-ACP desaturases from Camelina sativa, Macadamia tetraphylla and Dolichandra unguis-cati.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Manuel Fernando Rodríguez; Sánchez-García, Alicia; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-04-15

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases (EC 1.14.19.2) are soluble enzymes that catalyse the insertion of a double bond into saturated fatty acid bound in saturated acyl chains bound to ACP in higher plants, producing cis-monounsaturated fatty acids. Three types of soluble acyl-ACP desaturases have been described: Δ(9)-acyl-ACP, Δ(6)-acyl-ACP and Δ(4)-acyl-ACP desaturases, which differ in the substrate specificity and the position in which the double bond is introduced. In the present work, Camelina sativa (CsSAD), Macadamia tetraphylla (MtSAD) and Dolichandra unguis-cati (DuSAD) desaturases were cloned, sequenced and characterized. Single copies of CsSAD, MtSAD and DuSAD with three, one and two different alleles, respectively, were found. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization in protein extracts. The recombinant CsSAD enzyme showed 300-fold higher specificity towards 18:0-ACP than 16:0-ACP. Similar profile exhibited MtSAD although the differences in the specificity were lower, around 170-fold higher for 18:0-ACP than 16:0-ACP. Furthermore, DuSAD presented a profile showing preference towards 16:0-ACP against 18:0-ACP, around twice more, being so a Δ(9) palmitoyl-ACP desaturase. Also, we reported the expression profile of CsSAD, which showed the highest levels of expression in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm. Moreover, the possibility to express a new desaturase in C. sativa (oilseed crop that store high levels of oil and is easy to transform) to create a new line rich in short monounsaturated fatty acid is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection in Europeans on fatty acid desaturases associated with dietary changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Matthew T.; Racimo, Fernando; Allentoft, Morten E.

    2017-01-01

    FADS genes encode fatty acid desaturases that are important for the conversion of short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to long chain fatty acids. Prior studies indicate that the FADS genes have been subjected to strong positive selection in Africa, South Asia, Greenland, and Europe...... PUFA synthesis and PUFA dietary intake: carriers of the derived allele display lower LDL cholesterol levels with a higher intake of PUFAs. We hypothesize that the selective patterns observed in Europeans were driven by a change in dietary composition of fatty acids following the transition...

  4. StearoylCoA desaturase-5: a novel regulator of neuronal cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora I Sinner

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that human stearoylCoA desaturase-1 (SCD1, a Δ9-desaturase that converts saturated fatty acids (SFA into monounsaturated fatty acids, controls the rate of lipogenesis, cell proliferation and tumorigenic capacity in cancer cells. However, the biological function of stearoylCoA desaturase-5 (SCD5, a second isoform of human SCD that is highly expressed in brain, as well as its potential role in human disease, remains unknown. In this study we report that the constitutive overexpression of human SCD5 in mouse Neuro2a cells, a widely used cell model of neuronal growth and differentiation, displayed a greater n-7 MUFA-to-SFA ratio in cell lipids compared to empty-vector transfected cells (controls. De novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterolesters was increased whereas phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol formation was reduced in SCD5-expressing cells with respect to their controls, suggesting a differential use of SCD5 products for lipogenic reactions. We also observed that SCD5 expression markedly accelerated the rate of cell proliferation and suppressed the induction of neurite outgrowth, a typical marker of neuronal differentiation, by retinoic acid indicating that the desaturase plays a key role in the mechanisms of cell division and differentiation. Critical signal transduction pathways that are known to modulate these processes, such epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRAkt/ERK and Wnt, were affected by SCD5 expression. Epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, Akt and ERK was markedly blunted in SCD5-expressing cells. Furthermore, the activity of canonical Wnt was reduced whereas the non-canonical Wnt was increased by the presence of SCD5 activity. Finally, SCD5 expression increased the secretion of recombinant Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt, whereas it reduced the cellular and secreted levels of canonical Wnt7b. Our data suggest that, by a coordinated modulation of key

  5. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  6. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Liver Transplant Definition & Facts Transplant Process Transplant Surgery Living with a Liver Transplant Clinical Trials Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH Definition & ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  10. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  11. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  12. The impact of fatty acid desaturase genotype on fatty acid status and cardiovascular health in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colette M; Minihane, Anne-Marie

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the impact of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype on plasma and tissue concentrations of the long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA, including EPA and DHA, which are associated with the risk of several diet-related chronic diseases, including CVD. In addition to dietary intakes, which are low for many individuals, tissue EPA and DHA are also influenced by the rate of bioconversion from α-linolenic acid (αLNA). Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, encoded for by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are key desaturation enzymes involved in the bioconversion of essential fatty acids (αLNA and linoleic acid (LA)) to longer chained PUFA. In general, carriers of FADS minor alleles tend to have higher habitual plasma and tissue levels of LA and αLNA, and lower levels of arachidonic acid, EPA and also to a lesser extent DHA. In conclusion, available research findings suggest that FADS minor alleles are also associated with reduced inflammation and CVD risk, and that dietary total fat and fatty acid intake have the potential to modify relationships between FADS gene variants and circulating fatty acid levels. However to date, neither the size-effects of FADS variants on fatty acid status, nor the functional SNP in FADS1 and 2 have been identified. Such information could contribute to the refinement and targeting of EPA and DHA recommendations, whereby additional LC n-3 PUFA intakes could be recommended for those carrying FADS minor alleles.

  13. Hypothalamic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 (SCD2) controls whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, R F; Nascimento, L F; Ignacio-Souza, L M; Morari, J; Razolli, D S; Solon, C; de Souza, G F P; Festuccia, W T; Velloso, L A

    2016-03-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 (SCD2) is the main δ9 desaturase expressed in the central nervous system. Because of its potential involvement in controlling whole-body adiposity, we evaluated the expression and function of SCD2 in the hypothalami of mice. Male mice of different strains were used in real-time PCR, immunoblot and metabolic experiments. In addition, antisense oligonucleotides and lentiviral vectors were used to reduce and increase the expression of SCD2 in the hypothalamus. The level of SCD2 in the hypothalamus is similar to other regions of the central nervous system and is ~10-fold higher than in any other region of the body. In the arcuate nucleus, SCD2 is expressed in proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide-Y neurons. Upon high fat feeding, the level of hypothalamic SCD2 increases. Inhibition of hypothalamic SCD2 as accomplished by two distinct approaches, an antisense oligonucleotide or a short-hairpin RNA delivered by a lentivirus, resulted in reduced body mass gain mostly due to increased energy expenditure and increased spontaneous activity. Increasing hypothalamic SCD2 by a lentivirus approach resulted in no change in body mass and food intake. Thus, SCD2 is highly expressed in the hypothalami of rodents and its knockdown reduces body mass due to increased whole-body energy expenditure.

  14. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schluter, P.M.; Shanklin, J.; Xu, S.; Gagliardini, V.; Whittle, E.; Grossniklaus, U.; Schiestl, F. P.

    2011-04-05

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 9} and a 16:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 4} desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.

  15. Phytoene Desaturase from Oryza sativa: Oligomeric Assembly, Membrane Association and Preliminary 3D-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gemmecker

    Full Text Available Recombinant phytoene desaturase (PDS-His6 from rice was purified to near-homogeneity and shown to be enzymatically active in a biphasic, liposome-based assay system. The protein contains FAD as the sole protein-bound redox-cofactor. Benzoquinones, not replaceable by molecular oxygen, serve as a final electron acceptor defining PDS as a 15-cis-phytoene (donor:plastoquinone oxidoreductase. The herbicidal PDS-inhibitor norflurazon is capable of arresting the reaction by stabilizing the intermediary FAD(red, while an excess of the quinone acceptor relieves this blockage, indicating competition. The enzyme requires its homo-oligomeric association for activity. The sum of data collected through gel permeation chromatography, non-denaturing polyacrylamide electrophoresis, chemical cross-linking, mass spectrometry and electron microscopy techniques indicate that the high-order oligomers formed in solution are the basis for an active preparation. Of these, a tetramer consisting of dimers represents the active unit. This is corroborated by our preliminary X-ray structural analysis that also revealed similarities of the protein fold with the sequence-inhomologous bacterial phytoene desaturase CRTI and other oxidoreductases of the GR2-family of flavoproteins. This points to an evolutionary relatedness of CRTI and PDS yielding different carotene desaturation sequences based on homologous protein folds.

  16. Hepatitis amebiana

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Mendoza, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Se ha considerado habitualmente la hepatitis amebiana como una inflamación del parénquima hepático causada por localización del parásito mismo en el hígado, distinguiéndose la forma supurada o absceso y el estado presupurativo o hepatitis aguda.

  17. A more desirable balanced polyunsaturated fatty acid composition achieved by heterologous expression of Δ15/Δ4 desaturases in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Zhu

    Full Text Available Arachidonic (ARA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids, but their biosyntheses in mammals are very limited. The biosynthesis of DHA is the most difficult, because this undergoes the Sprecher pathway--a further elongation step from docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, a Δ6-desaturase acting on a C24 fatty acid substrate followed by a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper reports the successful heterologous expression of two non-mammalian genes (with modification of codon usage, coding for Euglena gracilis Δ4-desaturase and Siganus canaliculatus Δ4-desaturase respectively, in mammalian cells (HEK293 cell line. Both of the Δ4-desaturases can efficiently function, directly converting DPA into DHA. Moreover, the cooperation of the E. gracilis Δ4-desaturase with C. elegans Δ15-desaturase (able to convert a number of n-6 PUFAs to their corresponding n-3 PUFAs in transgenic HEK293 cells made a more desirable fatty acid composition--a drastically reduced n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio and a high level of DHA as well as EPA and ARA. Our findings provide a basis for potential applications of the gene constructs for expression of Δ15/Δ4-desaturases in transgenic livestock to produce such a fatty acid profile in the related products, which certainly will bring benefit to human health.

  18. Contribution of two ζ-carotene desaturases to the poly-cis desaturation pathway in the cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, Jürgen; Bruns, Marius; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    The presence of two completely unrelated ζ-carotene desaturases CrtQa and CrtQb in some Nostoc strains is unique. CrtQb is the ζ-carotene desaturase, which was acquired by almost all cyanobacteria. The additional CrtQa can be regarded as an evolutionary relict of the CrtI desaturase present in non-photosynthetic bacteria. By reconstruction of the carotene desaturation pathway, we showed that both enzymes from Nostoc PCC 7120 were active. However, they differed in their preferred utilization of ζ-carotene Z isomers. CrtQa converted ζ-carotene isomers that were poorly metabolized by CrtQb. In this respect, CrtQa complemented the reactions of CrtQb, which is an advantage avoiding dead ends in the poly-cis desaturation pathway. In addition to ζ-carotene desaturation, CrtQa still possesses the Z to E isomerase function of the ancestral desaturase CrtI. Biochemical characterization showed that CrtQb is an enzyme with one molecule of tightly bound FAD and acts as a dehydrogenase transferring hydrogen to oxidized plastoquinone.

  19. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, P.; Vogel, H.; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weissflog, J.; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 41 (2015), s. 12586-12591 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fatty acid desaturase * Manduca sexta * sex pheromone biosynthesis * pheromone evolution * substrate specificity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  20. Comparison between stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression in milk somatic cells and in mammary tissue of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Dijkstra, J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Baal, van J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an important enzyme in the bovine mammary gland, where it inserts a cis-double bond at the ¿9 position in a wide range of fatty acids. Investigating SCD expression in the bovine mammary gland generally requires invasive biopsy to obtain mammary tissue. The aim of

  1. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianle; Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Lei; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-03-07

    Dairy cows are often fed a high-concentrate diet to meet lactating demands, yet long-term concentrate feeding induces subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and leads to a decrease in milk fat. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) participates in fatty acid biosynthesis in the liver of lactating ruminants. Here, we conducted this study to investigate the impact of lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen on SCD1 expression and on fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet. Eight multiparous mid-lactating Holstein cows (455 ± 28 kg) were randomly assigned into two groups in the experiment and were fed a low-concentrate diet (LC) or high-concentrate diet (HC) for 18 weeks. The results showed that the total volatile fatty acids and lactic acid accumulated in the rumen, leading to a decreased rumen pH and elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in the HC group. The long chain fatty acid profile in the rumen and hepatic vein was remarkably altered in the animals fed the HC diet. The triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total cholesterol (TCH) content in the plasma was significantly decreased, whereas plasma glucose and insulin levels were increased. The expression of SCD1 in the liver was significantly down-regulated in the HC group. In regards to transcriptional regulators, the expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBF1c, SREBF2) and SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP) was down-regulated, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was up-regulated. These data indicate that lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

  2. Dihydroceramide Desaturase Inhibition by a Cyclopropanated Dihydroceramide Analog in Cultured Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Brodesser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most mammalian sphingolipids contain a 4,5-(E-double bond. We report on the chemical synthesis of a dihydroceramide derivative that prevents the introduction of the double bond into sphingolipids. Minimal alteration of the parent structure by formally replacing the hydrogen atoms in the 5- and in the 6-position of the sphinganine backbone by a methylene group leads to an inhibitor of dihydroceramide desaturase in cultured cells. In the presence of 10–50 μM of compound (1, levels of biosynthetically formed dihydroceramide and—surprisingly—also of phytoceramide are elevated at the expense of ceramide. The cells respond to the lack of unsaturated sphingolipids by an elevation of mRNAs of enzymes required for sphingosine formation. At the same time, the analysis of proliferation and differentiation markers indicates that the sphingolipid double bond is required to keep the cells in a differentiated state.

  3. Analysis of an essential carotenogenic enzyme: ζ-carotene desaturase from unicellular Alga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi-Wei; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2010-11-10

    The green alga Dunaliella has become a valuable model organism for understanding the interesting mechanism of massive carotenoid accumulation. Previously, DNA sequences of several carotenogenic enzymes were obtained from Dunaliella. In this study, the cDNA of zds was isolated from Dunaliella salina using a polymerase chain reaction approach. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2178 base pairs (bp) containing a 1731 bp putative open reading frame which coded a 576 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose molecular weight was 63.9 kDa computationally. A complete homologous search displayed that the nucleotide and putative protein sequence have sequence identities of 69% and 66% with those of green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. It was predicted that this ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) may be located in the chloroplast of D. salina. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the D. salina Zds had a closer relationship with the Zds of algae and higher plants than with those of other species.

  4. Cloning and Characterization of the -Carotene Desaturase Gene from Chlorella protothecoides CS-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the lutein biosynthesis pathway in the lutein-producing alga, Chlorella protothecoides CS-41, the -carotene desaturase gene (zds was isolated from Chlorella protothecoides using the approach of rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2031 bp and contained 1755 bp putative open reading frame which encodes a 584 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computed molecular weight was 63.7 kDa. Sequence homology research indicated that the nucleotide and putative protein had sequence identities of 72.5% and 69.5% with those of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZDS from C. protothecoides CS-41 had a closer relationship with those of chlorophyta and higher plants than with those of other species. In addition, we also found that the zds gene expression was upregulated in response to light.

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... the Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE ... liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2017 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  10. Viral Hepatitis

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    ... Us FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers Homeless Veterans Chat VA » Health Care » Viral Hepatitis » Veterans and ... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans ...

  11. Hepatitis B

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    ... chemotherapy medicines have worked or lived in a prison had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before ... can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? ... portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Reading Webinars Caregivers The Role of a Caregiver Signs and Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver ... and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Are the Symptoms of HE? What Are the Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause ... may not be aware you have it. The stages of HE span from mild to severe and ...

  17. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person usually needs blood tests for an exact diagnosis because a person with autoimmune hepatitis can have the same symptoms as those of other liver diseases or metabolic disorders. Blood tests. A blood test involves drawing ...

  18. Hepatic hemangioma

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    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Hepatic hemangioma URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  19. Hepatic ischemia

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    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Hepatic ischemia URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  20. Hepatitis B

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    ... you need the vaccine The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Fact Sheet ... Suite 750 Bethesda, MD 20814 T: (301) 656-0003 | F: (301) 907-0878 Privacy Policy Disclaimer Link to ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Cirrhosis of the Liver & Symptoms Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of ... Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... ALF HE Materials Suggested Reading Webinars Caregivers The Role of a Caregiver Signs and Symptoms to look ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  4. Identification of three genes encoding microsomal oleate desaturases (FAD2) from the oilseed crop Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinling; Snapp, Anna R; Lu, Chaofu

    2011-02-01

    Camelina sativa is a re-emerging low-input oilseed crop that may provide economical vegetable oils for industrial applications. It is desirable to increase the monounsaturated oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid, 18:1), and to decrease polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic (cis, cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 18:2) and α-linolenic (all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 18:3) acids, in camelina oils to improve oxidative stability. 18:1 desaturation is mainly controlled by the microsomal oleate desaturase (FAD2; EC 1.3.1.35) encoded by the FAD2 gene. Three FAD2 genes, designated CsFAD2-1 to 3, were identified in camelina. Functional expression of these genes in yeast confirmed that they all encode microsomal oleate desaturases. Although the three CsFAD2 genes share very high sequence similarity, they showed different expression patterns. Expression of CsFAD2-1 was detected in all tissues examined, including developing seed, flower, as well as in vegetable tissues such as leaf, root, and stem. Transcripts of CsFAD2-2 and CsFAD2-3 were mainly detected in developing seeds, suggesting their major roles in storage oil desaturation in seed. The introns of the three CsFAD2 genes, which showed greater sequence variations, may provide additional resources for designing molecular markers in breeding. Furthermore, the roles of CsFAD2 in PUFA synthesis were demonstrated by mutant analysis and by antisense gene expression in camelina seed. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Identification of a novel bifunctional delta12/delta15 fatty acid desaturase from a basidiomycete, Coprinus cinereus TD#822-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Sakuradani, Eiji; Ito, Kuni; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2007-01-23

    A new gene encoding a delta12 fatty acid desaturase-related protein was cloned from a multicellular basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus TD#822-2. The 1326 bp full-length gene, designated as Cop-odeA, codes for a putative protein of 442 amino acids with a MW of 49224. The Cop-odeA yeast transformant accumulated four new fatty acids identified as 9,12-hexadecadienoic acid, 9,12,15-hexadecatrienoic acid, linoleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid, which comprised 8.8%, 1.0%, 29.0%, and 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The Cop-odeA protein was confirmed to be a novel bifunctional fatty acid desaturase with both high delta12 desaturase activity and unusual delta15 desaturase activity.

  6. Hepatitis B Foundation

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    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  7. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  8. Δ12-Fatty acid desaturase from Candida parapsilosis is a multifunctional desaturase producing a range of polyunsaturated and hydroxylated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Buček

    Full Text Available Numerous Δ12-, Δ15- and multifunctional membrane fatty acid desaturases (FADs have been identified in fungi, revealing great variability in the enzymatic specificities of FADs involved in biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Here, we report gene isolation and characterization of novel Δ12/Δ15- and Δ15-FADs named CpFad2 and CpFad3, respectively, from the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis. Overexpression of CpFad3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains supplemented with linoleic acid (Δ9,Δ12-18:2 and hexadecadienoic acid (Δ9,Δ12-16:2 leads to accumulation of Δ15-PUFAs, i.e., α-linolenic acid (Δ9,Δ12,Δ15-18:3 and hexadecatrienoic acid with an unusual terminal double bond (Δ9,Δ12,Δ15-16:3. CpFad2 produces a range of Δ12- and Δ15-PUFAs. The major products of CpFad2 are linoleic and hexadecadienoic acid (Δ9,Δ12-16:2, accompanied by α-linolenic acid and hexadecatrienoic acid (Δ9,Δ12,Δ15-16:3. Using GC/MS analysis of trimethylsilyl derivatives, we identified ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid as an additional product of CpFad2. These results demonstrate that CpFAD2 is a multifunctional FAD and indicate that detailed analysis of fatty acid derivatives might uncover a range of enzymatic selectivities in other Δ12-FADs from budding yeasts (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina.

  9. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  10. Effects of FADS and ELOVL polymorphisms on indexes of desaturase and elongase activities: results from a pre-post fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family are believed to influence enzyme activities after an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation. The objectives of the study are to test whether an n-3 supplementation is associated with indexes of desaturase and elongase activities in addition to verify whether SNPs in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family modulate enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases. A total 208 subjects completed a 6-week supplementation period with 5 g/day of fish oil (1.9-2.2 g/day of EPA + 1.1 g/day of DHA). FA profiles of plasma phospholipids were obtained by gas chromatography (n = 210). Desaturase and elongase indexes were estimated using product-to-precursor ratios. Twenty-eight SNPs from FADS1, FADS2, FADS3, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 were genotyped using TaqMan technology. Desaturase indexes were significantly different after the 6-week n-3 supplementation. The index of δ-5 desaturase activity increased by 25.7 ± 28.8 % (p FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family may play an important role in the enzyme activity of desaturases and elongases, suggesting that an n-3 FAs supplementation may affect PUFA metabolism.

  11. Enhancement of α-linolenic acid content in transgenic tobacco seeds by targeting a plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (fad7) gene of Sesamum indicum to ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Expression of sesame plastidial FAD7 desaturase modified with the endoplasmic reticulum targeting and retention signals, enhances the α-linolenic acid accumulation in seeds of Nicotiana tabacum. In plants, plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase-7 (FAD7) catalyzes the formation of C16 and C18 trienoic fatty acids using organellar glycerolipids and participate in the membrane lipid formation. The plastidial ω-3 desaturases (FAD7) share high sequence homology with the microsomal ω-3 desaturases (FAD3) at the amino acid level except the N-terminal organelle transit peptide. In the present study, the predicted N-terminal plastidial signal peptide of fad7 gene was replaced by the endoplasmic reticulum signal peptide and an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was placed at the C-terminal. The expression of the modified sesame ω-3 desaturase increases the α-linolenic acid content in the range of 4.78-6.77 % in the seeds of transgenic tobacco plants with concomitant decrease in linoleic acid content. The results suggested the potential of the engineered plastidial ω-3 desaturase from sesame to influence the profile of α-linolenic acid in tobacco plant by shifting the carbon flux from linoleic acid, and thus it can be used in suitable genetic engineering strategy to increase the α-linolenic acid content in sesame and other vegetable oils.

  12. Sphingolipid base modifying enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cloning and characterization of a C4-hydroxylase gene and a new paralogous Δ8-desaturase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2011-05-15

    Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids. These modifications are due to the action of C4-hydroxylases and Δ8-long chain base desaturases, and they are important for complex sphingolipids finally becoming functional. The long chain bases of sunflower sphingolipids have high levels of hydroxylated and unsaturated moieties. Here, a C4-long chain base hydroxylase was functionally characterized in sunflower plant, an enzyme that could complement the sur2Δ mutation when heterologously expressed in this yeast mutant deficient in hydroxylation. This hydroxylase was ubiquitously expressed in sunflower, with the highest levels found in the developing cotyledons. In addition, we identified a new Δ8-long base chain desaturase gene that displays strong homology to a previously reported desaturase gene. This desaturase was also expressed in yeast and was able to change the long chain base composition of the transformed host. We studied the expression of this desaturase and compared it with that of the other isoform described in sunflower. The desaturase form studied in this paper displayed higher expression levels in developing seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on liver fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Manglekar, Rupali R; Dangat, Kamini D; Kulkarni, Asmita V; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2012-01-01

    A disturbed fatty acid metabolism increases the risk of adult non-communicable diseases. This study examines the effect of maternal micronutrients on the fatty acid composition, desaturase activity, mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in the liver. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). The vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. An imbalance of maternal micronutrients reduces liver docosahexaenoic acid, increases Δ5 desaturase activity but decreases mRNA levels, decreases Δ6 desaturase activity but not mRNA levels as compared to control. mRNA level of Δ5 desaturase reverts back to the levels of the control group as a result of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. Our data for the first time indicates that maternal micronutrients differentially alter the activity and expression of fatty acid desaturases in the liver. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

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    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  15. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

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    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  16. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

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    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  17. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  18. Isolation and Functional Characterisation of a fads2 in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss with Δ5 Desaturase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khalidah Abdul Hamid

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, are intensively cultured globally. Understanding their requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA and the biochemistry of the enzymes and biosynthetic pathways required for fatty acid synthesis is important and highly relevant in current aquaculture. Most gnathostome vertebrates have two fatty acid desaturase (fads genes with known functions in LC-PUFA biosynthesis and termed fads1 and fads2. However, teleost fish have exclusively fads2 genes. In rainbow trout, a fads2 cDNA had been previously cloned and found to encode an enzyme with Δ6 desaturase activity. In the present study, a second fads2 cDNA was cloned from the liver of rainbow trout and termed fads2b. The full-length mRNA contained 1578 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1365 nucleotides that encoded a 454 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 52.48 kDa. The predicted Fads2b protein had the characteristic traits of the microsomal Fads family, including an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain containing the heme-binding motif (HPPG, histidine boxes (HDXGH, HFQHH and QIEHH and three transmembrane regions. The fads2b was expressed predominantly in the brain, liver, intestine and pyloric caeca. Expression of the fasd2b in yeast generated a protein that was found to specifically convert eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3 to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, and therefore functioned as a Δ5 desaturase. Therefore, rainbow trout have two fads2 genes that encode proteins with Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities, respectively, which enable this species to perform all the desaturation steps required for the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from C18 precursors.

  19. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Protects Cells against Lipotoxicity-Mediated Apoptosis in Proximal Tubular Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaki Iwai; Shinji Kume; Masami Chin-Kanasaki; Shogo Kuwagata; Hisazumi Araki; Naoko Takeda; Takeshi Sugaya; Takashi Uzu; Hiroshi Maegawa; Shin-ichi Araki

    2016-01-01

    Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), whose expression level significantly decreased in the ...

  20. A Δ-9 Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene in the Microalga Myrmecia incisa Reisigl: Cloning and Functional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Xue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The green alga Myrmecia incisa is one of the richest natural sources of arachidonic acid (ArA. To better understand the regulation of ArA biosynthesis in M. incisa, a novel gene putatively encoding the Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (FAD was cloned and characterized for the first time. Rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was employed to yield a full length cDNA designated as MiΔ9FAD, which is 2442 bp long in sequence. Comparing cDNA open reading frame (ORF sequence to genomic sequence indicated that there are 8 introns interrupting the coding region. The deduced MiΔ9FAD protein is composed of 432 amino acids. It is soluble and localized in the chloroplast, as evidenced by the absence of transmembrane domains as well as the presence of a 61-amino acid chloroplast transit peptide. Multiple sequence alignment of amino acids revealed two conserved histidine-rich motifs, typical for Δ9 acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP desaturases. To determine the function of MiΔ9FAD, the gene was heterologously expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain with impaired desaturase activity. Results of GC-MS analysis indicated that MiΔ9FAD was able to restore the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, generating palmitoleic acid and oleic acid through the addition of a double bond in the Δ9 position of palmitic acid and stearic acid, respectively.

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often starts slowly, and at first you may not be ...

  2. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stop drinking alcohol. People who continue to drink alcohol face a high risk of serious liver damage and death. Symptoms The ... amount of alcohol you consume. The amount of alcohol intake that puts a person at risk of alcoholic hepatitis isn't known. But most ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical ... mild to severe and symptoms vary depending on how bad your liver disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy ...

  4. Hepatitis C

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    ... liver diseases like hepatitis C. An occasional alcoholic drink may be okay, but check with your doctor first.What are the side ... family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on ... Urticaria Check Your Symptoms Find out what else could be ...

  5. Hepatic autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increased glycogenolysis, simulated by galactose's conversion to glucose, on the contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to hepatic glucose production (GP) was determined. The conversion of galactose to glucose is by the same pathway as glycogen's conversion to glucose, i.e., glucose 1...

  6. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lemon SM, Brown CO, Brookes OS, et al. Specific IgM response to hepatitis A virus determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Infect Immun 1980 ..... benefit from review by a specialist centre interested in liver disease. It is our experience that many patients referred to the Liver Clinic of the University of Cape Town for.

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Signs and Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to ... Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and Support program is provided by Salix Pharmaceuticals

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. ... reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  9. Fatty acid desaturase 1 knockout mice are lean with improved glycemic control and decreased development of atheromatous plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell DR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available David R Powell, Jason P Gay, Melinda Smith, Nathaniel Wilganowski, Angela Harris, Autumn Holland, Maricela Reyes, Laura Kirkham, Laura L Kirkpatrick, Brian Zambrowicz, Gwenn Hansen, Kenneth A Platt, Isaac van Sligtenhorst, Zhi-Ming Ding, Urvi Desai Metabolism Research, Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., The Woodlands, TX, USA Abstract: Delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, encoded by fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1 and FADS2 genes, respectively, are enzymes in the synthetic pathways for w3, w6, and w9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Although PUFAs appear to be involved in mammalian metabolic pathways, the physiologic effect of isolated D5D deficiency on these pathways is unclear. After generating >4,650 knockouts (KOs of independent mouse genes and analyzing them in our high-throughput phenotypic screen, we found that Fads1 KO mice were among the leanest of 3,651 chow-fed KO lines analyzed for body composition and were among the most glucose tolerant of 2,489 high-fat-diet-fed KO lines analyzed by oral glucose tolerance test. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high-fat-diet-fed Fads1 KO mice were leaner than wild-type (WT littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 38% and 31% lower in Fads1 male and female KO mice, respectively. Fads1 KO mice also had lower glucose and insulin excursions during oral glucose tolerance tests along with lower fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. In additional studies using a vascular injury model, Fads1 KO mice had significantly decreased femoral artery intima/media ratios consistent with a decreased inflammatory response in their arterial wall. Based on this result, we bred Fads1 KO and WT mice onto an ApoE KO background and fed them a Western diet for 14 weeks; in this atherogenic environment, aortic trees of Fads1 KO mice had 40% less atheromatous plaque compared to WT littermates. Importantly, PUFA levels

  10. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Sea Urchins: Molecular and Functional Characterisation of Three Fatty Acyl Desaturases from Paracentrotus lividus (Lamark 1816)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Stefano; Davie, Andrew; Oboh, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Sea urchins are broadly recognised as a delicacy and their quality as food for humans is highly influenced by their diet. Lipids in general and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in particular, are essential nutrients that determine not only the nutritional value of sea urchins but also guarantee normal growth and reproduction in captivity. The contribution of endogenous production (biosynthesis) of LC-PUFA in sea urchins remained unknown. Using Paracentrotus lividus as our model species, we aimed to characterise both molecularly and functionally the repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads), key enzymes in the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA, in sea urchins. Three Fads, namely FadsA, FadsC1 and FadsC2, were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the repertoire of Fads within the Echinodermata phylum varies among classes. On one hand, orthologues of the P. lividus FadsA were found in other echinoderm classes including starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, thus suggesting that this desaturase is virtually present in all echinoderms. Contrarily, the FadsC appears to be sea urchin-specific desaturase. Finally, a further desaturase termed as FadsB exists in starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, but appears to be missing in sea urchins. The functional characterisation of the P. lividus Fads confirmed that the FadsA was a Δ5 desaturase with activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA). Moreover, our experiments confirmed that FadsA plays a role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FA, a group of compounds typically found in marine invertebrates. On the other hand, both FadsC desaturases from P. lividus showed Δ8 activity. The present results demonstrate that P. lividus possesses desaturases that account for all the desaturation reactions required to biosynthesis the physiological essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids through the so-called “Δ8 pathway”. PMID:28052125

  11. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Sea Urchins: Molecular and Functional Characterisation of Three Fatty Acyl Desaturases from Paracentrotus lividus (Lamark 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeya, Naoki; Sanz-Jorquera, Alicia; Carboni, Stefano; Davie, Andrew; Oboh, Angela; Monroig, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Sea urchins are broadly recognised as a delicacy and their quality as food for humans is highly influenced by their diet. Lipids in general and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in particular, are essential nutrients that determine not only the nutritional value of sea urchins but also guarantee normal growth and reproduction in captivity. The contribution of endogenous production (biosynthesis) of LC-PUFA in sea urchins remained unknown. Using Paracentrotus lividus as our model species, we aimed to characterise both molecularly and functionally the repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads), key enzymes in the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA, in sea urchins. Three Fads, namely FadsA, FadsC1 and FadsC2, were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the repertoire of Fads within the Echinodermata phylum varies among classes. On one hand, orthologues of the P. lividus FadsA were found in other echinoderm classes including starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, thus suggesting that this desaturase is virtually present in all echinoderms. Contrarily, the FadsC appears to be sea urchin-specific desaturase. Finally, a further desaturase termed as FadsB exists in starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, but appears to be missing in sea urchins. The functional characterisation of the P. lividus Fads confirmed that the FadsA was a Δ5 desaturase with activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA). Moreover, our experiments confirmed that FadsA plays a role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FA, a group of compounds typically found in marine invertebrates. On the other hand, both FadsC desaturases from P. lividus showed Δ8 activity. The present results demonstrate that P. lividus possesses desaturases that account for all the desaturation reactions required to biosynthesis the physiological essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids through the so-called "Δ8 pathway".

  12. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Sea Urchins: Molecular and Functional Characterisation of Three Fatty Acyl Desaturases from Paracentrotus lividus (Lamark 1816.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Kabeya

    Full Text Available Sea urchins are broadly recognised as a delicacy and their quality as food for humans is highly influenced by their diet. Lipids in general and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in particular, are essential nutrients that determine not only the nutritional value of sea urchins but also guarantee normal growth and reproduction in captivity. The contribution of endogenous production (biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in sea urchins remained unknown. Using Paracentrotus lividus as our model species, we aimed to characterise both molecularly and functionally the repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads, key enzymes in the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA, in sea urchins. Three Fads, namely FadsA, FadsC1 and FadsC2, were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the repertoire of Fads within the Echinodermata phylum varies among classes. On one hand, orthologues of the P. lividus FadsA were found in other echinoderm classes including starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, thus suggesting that this desaturase is virtually present in all echinoderms. Contrarily, the FadsC appears to be sea urchin-specific desaturase. Finally, a further desaturase termed as FadsB exists in starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, but appears to be missing in sea urchins. The functional characterisation of the P. lividus Fads confirmed that the FadsA was a Δ5 desaturase with activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA. Moreover, our experiments confirmed that FadsA plays a role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FA, a group of compounds typically found in marine invertebrates. On the other hand, both FadsC desaturases from P. lividus showed Δ8 activity. The present results demonstrate that P. lividus possesses desaturases that account for all the desaturation reactions required to biosynthesis the physiological essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids through the so-called "Δ8 pathway".

  13. Associations between estimated fatty acid desaturase activities in serum lipids and adipose tissue in humans: links to obesity and insulin resistance

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    De Faire Ulf

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fatty acid composition of serum lipids and adipose tissue triacylglycerols (AT-TAG partly reflect dietary fatty acid intake. The fatty acid composition is, besides the diet, also influenced by desaturating enzymes that can be estimated using product-to-precursor fatty acid ratios. The interrelationships between desaturase indices derived from different serum lipid fractions and adipose tissue are unclear, as well as their associations with obesity and insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional correlations between desaturase indices as measured in serum lipid fractions (phospholipids; PL and free fatty acids; FFA and in adipose tissue (AT-TAG. In a population-based sample of 301 healthy 60-year-old men various desaturase indices were assessed: stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (16:1n-7/16:0; SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0; SCD-18, respectively, delta-6-desaturase (20:3n-6/18:2n-6; D6D and delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6; D5D. Correlations with BMI and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were also examined. SCD-16 and D5D were significantly correlated between fractions and tissues (all r > 0.30, whereas SCD-18 and D6D were not. Desaturase indices in serum FFA and AT-TAG were significantly correlated; SCD-16 (r = 0.63, SCD-18 (r = 0.37, and D5D (r = 0.43. In phospholipids, SCD-16 was positively correlated to BMI (r = 0.15, while D5D negatively to both BMI (r = -0.30 and HOMA-IR (r = -0.31, all p

  14. Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Polymorphisms and Metabolic Measures in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Patients Taking Antipsychotics

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    Kyle J. Burghardt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics have become a common therapeutic option in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, these medications come with a high risk of metabolic side effects, particularly dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Therefore, identification of patients who are at increased risk for metabolic side effects is of great importance. The genetics of fatty acid metabolism is one area of research that may help identify such patients. Therefore, in this present study, we aimed to determine the effect of one commonly studied genetic polymorphism from both fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1 and FADS2 gene on a surrogate measure of insulin resistance and lipid levels in a metabolically high-risk population of patients largely exposed to atypical antipsychotics. This study used a cross-sectional design, fasting blood draws, and genetic analysis to investigate associations between polymorphisms, haplotypes, and metabolic measures. A total of 320 subjects with schizophrenia (n=226 or bipolar disorder (n=94 were included in this study. The mean age of the population was 42.5 years and 45% were male. A significant association between FADS1 and FADS2 haplotypes was found with insulin resistance while controlling for confounders. Further investigation is required to replicate this finding.

  15. Small-molecule targeting of a diapophytoene desaturase inhibits S. aureus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Di, Hongxia; Wang, Youxin; Cao, Qiao; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xue; Yang, Nana; Liu, Guijie; Yang, Cai-Guang; Xu, Yong; Jiang, Hualiang; Lian, Fulin; Zhang, Naixia; Li, Jian; Lan, Lefu

    2016-03-01

    The surge of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has created a dire need for innovative anti-infective agents that attack new targets, to overcome resistance. In S. aureus, carotenoid pigment is an important virulence factor because it shields the bacterium from host oxidant killing. Here we show that naftifine, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antifungal drug, blocks biosynthesis of carotenoid pigment at nanomolar concentrations. This effect is mediated by competitive inhibition of S. aureus diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN), an essential enzyme for carotenoid pigment synthesis. We found that naftifine attenuated the virulence of a variety of clinical S. aureus isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, in mouse infection models. Specifically, we determined that naftifine is a lead compound for potent CrtN inhibitors. In sum, these findings reveal that naftifine could serve as a chemical probe to manipulate CrtN activity, providing proof of concept that CrtN is a druggable target against S. aureus infections.

  16. Inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase activity by the sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Francesca; Casasampere, Mireia; Sanllehí, Pol; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Fabrias, Gemma

    2014-08-01

    Sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SKI) II has been reported as a dual inhibitor of sphingosine kinases (SKs) 1 and 2 and has been extensively used to prove the involvement of SKs and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cellular processes. Dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1), the last enzyme in the de novo synthesis of ceramide (Cer), regulates the balance between dihydroceramides (dhCers) and Cers. Both SKs and Des1 have interest as therapeutic targets. Here we show that SKI II is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.3 μM) of Des1 activity with effect also in intact cells without modifying Des1 protein levels. Molecular modeling studies support that the SKI II-induced decrease in Des1 activity could result from inhibition of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. SKI II, but not the SK1-specific inhibitor PF-543, provoked a remarkable accumulation of dhCers and their metabolites, while both SKI II and PF-543 reduced S1P to almost undetectable levels. SKI II, but not PF543, reduced cell proliferation with accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. SKI II, but not PF543, induced autophagy. These overall findings should be taken into account when using SKI II as a pharmacological tool, as some of the effects attributed to decreased S1P may actually be caused by augmented dhCers and/or their metabolites. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Carotenoid content and expression of phytoene synthase and phytoene desaturase genes in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Nam Il; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-15

    Momordica charantia, a tropical plant, produces a fruit that has a β-carotene concentration five times higher than that of carrot. To elucidate the molecular basis of β-carotene accumulation in M. charantia, the gene expression levels of phytoene synthase (McPSY) and phytoene desaturase (McPDS) were determined. These levels were particularly high in the flowers of M. charantia. During fruit maturation, the expression levels of McPSY and McPDS decreased during the mid-stages but increased in the fully mature fruit. In addition, carotenoids accumulated as the peel changed from green to orange. Thus, McPSY and McPDS expression correlated with carotenoid accumulation during fruit maturation. Principal component analysis (PCA) also was used to evaluate the differences among the profiles of seven carotenoids identified in the fruit at several maturation stages. Riper fruits had higher carotenoid concentrations than less ripe fruits. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

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    Giuseppe Astarita

    Full Text Available The molecular bases of Alzheimer's disease (AD remain unclear. We used a lipidomic approach to identify lipid abnormalities in the brains of subjects with AD (N = 37 compared to age-matched controls (N = 17. The analyses revealed statistically detectable elevations in levels of non-esterified monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and mead acid (20:3n-9 in mid-frontal cortex, temporal cortex and hippocampus of AD patients. Further studies showed that brain mRNAs encoding for isoforms of the rate-limiting enzyme in MUFAs biosynthesis, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1, SCD-5a and SCD-5b, were elevated in subjects with AD. The monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ('desaturation index'--displayed a strong negative correlation with measures of cognition: the Mini Mental State Examination test (r = -0.80; P = 0.0001 and the Boston Naming test (r = -0.57; P = 0.0071. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for the lipogenic enzyme SCD in AD.

  19. Preliminary analysis of Stearoyl Co-A Desaturase gene transcripts in River buffalo

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    L. Ramunno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. In cattle, SCD gene extends over a DNA segment of ~17.0 Kb, and it is organized in 6 exons and 5 introns. The SCD gene has been indicated as the candidate gene to change the saturated/unsaturated FAs ratio and hence it has been suggested as the gene influencing the fat quality. In cattle, eight SNPs have been identified and one of them, (T→C at 231st nt of 5th exon, is responsible for the Val→Ala amino acid change. The C allele has been associated with higher content of MUFAs in carcasses, and it is positively related to a higher index of desaturation (C18:0/C18:1 and C16:0/C16:1 in the milk. In this study, we report on preliminary results of analysis of transcripts of the SCD encoding gene in river buffalo. The electrophoretic analysis of the RT-PCR products and the subsequent sequencing showed at least five different populations of mRNA. The most represented population is correctly assembled (~1300 bp, followed by the one which is deleted of ~750bp, corresponding to the 3rd, 4th and 5th exon and partially to the 2nd and 6th exon.

  20. Mutations in the maize zeta-carotene desaturase gene lead to viviparous kernel.

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    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Preharvest sprouting reduces the maize quality and causes a significant yield loss in maize production. vp-wl2 is a Mutator (Mu-induced viviparous mutant in maize, causing white or pale yellow kernels, dramatically reduced carotenoid and ABA content, and a high level of zeta-carotene accumulation. Here, we reported the cloning of the vp-wl2 gene using a modified digestion-ligation-amplification method (DLA. The results showed that an insertion of Mu9 in the first intron of the zeta-carotene desaturase (ZDS gene results in the vp-wl2 mutation. Previous studies have suggested that ZDS is likely the structural gene of the viviparous9 (vp9 locus. Therefore, we performed an allelic test using vp-wl2 and three vp9 mutants. The results showed that vp-wl2 is a novel allele of the vp9 locus. In addition, the sequences of ZDS gene were identified in these three vp9 alleles. The vp-wl2 mutant gene was subsequently introgressed into four maize inbred lines, and a viviparous phenotype was observed with yield losses from 7.69% to 13.33%.

  1. Analysis of codon use features of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene in Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lu-Lu; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jian-Hui; Ding, Zhao-Tang; Li, Chen

    2013-10-07

    The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) gene widely exists in all kinds of plants. In this paper, the Camellia sinensis SAD gene (CsSAD) sequence was firstly analyzed by Codon W, CHIPS, and CUSP programs online, and then compared with genomes of the tea plant, other species and SAD genes from 11 plant species. The results show that the CsSAD gene and the selected 73 of C. sinensis genes have similar codon usage bias. The CsSAD gene has a bias toward the synonymous codons with A and T at the third codon position, the same as the 73 of C. sinensis genes. Compared with monocotyledons such as Triticum aestivum and Zea mays, the differences in codon usage frequency between the CsSAD gene and dicotyledons such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tobacum are less. Therefore, A. thaliana and N. tobacum expression systems may be more suitable for the expression of the CsSAD gene. The analysis result of SAD genes from 12 plant species also shows that most of the SAD genes are biased toward the synonymous codons with G and C at the third codon position. We believe that the codon usage bias analysis presented in this study will be essential for providing a theoretical basis for discussing the structure and function of the CsSAD gene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of various biomarkers as potential mediators of the association between Δ5 desaturase, Δ6 desaturase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and incident type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Simone; Schiller, Katja; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B; Kröger, Janine

    2015-07-01

    An association between desaturase activity and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been found in epidemiologic studies, but little is known about potential mediators of this association. We aimed to investigate the potential role of diabetes-related biomarkers as mediators of the association between estimated Δ5 desaturase (D5D), Δ6 desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and T2D risk. We analyzed a case-cohort study (subcohort: n = 1533; verified incident T2D cases: n = 400), nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study involving 27,548 middle-aged participants. We evaluated the impact of adjustment for several T2D-related biomarkers reflecting liver fat accumulation [reflected by γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), fetuin-A, and the algorithm-based fatty liver index (FLI)], dyslipidemia (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides), inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)], and adiponectin on the association between D5D, D6D, and SCD activity, estimated with fatty acid product-to-precursor ratios derived from erythrocyte membrane proportions, and T2D risk. Estimated D5D activity was inversely associated with T2D risk, whereas D6D and SCD activities were positively associated with risk of T2D [HRs (95% CIs) (highest vs. lowest tertile): 0.51 (0.36, 0.73), 1.68 (1.18, 2.39), and 1.82 (1.29, 2.58), respectively]. The association between estimated D5D, D6D, and SCD activities and risk of T2D was statistically significantly and markedly attenuated after adjustment for the FLI and, to a lesser extent, after adjustment for triglycerides, whereas adjustment for other desaturase-associated biomarkers (CRP, fetuin-A, ALT, and GGT) did not lead to appreciable attenuations. Liver fat accumulation, as reflected by the FLI, and dyslipidemia, as reflected by triglycerides, may partly explain the association between estimated D5D, D6D, and SCD activity and T2D risk. © 2015 American

  3. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  4. FADS genotypes and desaturase activity estimated by the ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid are associated with inflammation and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; Malerba, Giovanni; Guarini, Patrizia; Illig, Thomas; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sandri, Marco; Friso, Simonetta; Pizzolo, Francesca; Schaeffer, Linda; Heinrich, Joachim; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Corrocher, Roberto; Olivieri, Oliviero

    2008-10-01

    The delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases, encoded by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are key enzymes in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism that catalyze the conversion of linoleic acid (LA) into arachidonic acid (AA) and that of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS1 and FADS2 have been associated with different concentrations of AA and LA, and those associations have possible functional consequences for desaturase activity. We aimed to evaluate the possible association among FADS genotypes, desaturase activity, inflammation, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Thirteen FADS SNPs and the ratio of AA to LA (AA/LA) on red blood cell (RBC) membranes, a marker of desaturase activity, were evaluated in 876 subjects with (n = 610) or without (n = 266) angiographically documented CAD. Both AA/LA and the ratio of EPA to ALA (EPA/ALA) were higher in patients with CAD than in those without CAD, but, in a multiple logistic regression model, only a higher AA/LA resulted an independent risk factor for CAD (odds ratio: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.61, 4.05 for higher compared with lower ratio tertile; P for trend FADS haplotypes, including the alleles associated with a higher ratio. In populations following a Western diet, subjects carrying FADS haplotypes that are associated with higher desaturase activity may be prone to a proinflammatory response favoring atherosclerotic vascular damage.

  5. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

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    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  6. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  7. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic ( ... or kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a ...

  8. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  9. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  10. Hepatitis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Yoshiro; Doi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasuharu; Tohya, Yoshikazu; Yanagi, Tadamichi

    1986-01-01

    115 patients (71 male and 44 female) with infectious hepatitis were hospitalized in Nagasaki University Hospital during 1974-1984. They were all the hospitalized patients in our pediatric department. The total patient was 8150 and that of hepatitis was 115, that is 1.4%. On the classification of hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis patients were the most. Next was HB hepatitis. HA hepatitis were less than we had expected. Generally in Japan, childrens HA hepatitis patients are less usual than ...

  11. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes hepatitis A? Hepatitis A is an infectious liver disease caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). How does hepatitis A virus ...

  12. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  13. Selection in Europeans on Fatty Acid Desaturases Associated with Dietary Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew T.; Racimo, Fernando; Allentoft, Morten E.; Jensen, Majken K.; Jonsson, Anna; Huang, Hongyan; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Sikora, Martin; Marnetto, Davide; Eskin, Eleazar; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Grarup, Niels; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Kraft, Peter; Willerslev, Eske

    2017-01-01

    Abstract FADS genes encode fatty acid desaturases that are important for the conversion of short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to long chain fatty acids. Prior studies indicate that the FADS genes have been subjected to strong positive selection in Africa, South Asia, Greenland, and Europe. By comparing FADS sequencing data from present-day and Bronze Age (5–3k years ago) Europeans, we identify possible targets of selection in the European population, which suggest that selection has targeted different alleles in the FADS genes in Europe than it has in South Asia or Greenland. The alleles showing the strongest changes in allele frequency since the Bronze Age show associations with expression changes and multiple lipid-related phenotypes. Furthermore, the selected alleles are associated with a decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids among Europeans; this is an opposite effect of that observed for selected alleles in Inuit from Greenland. We show that multiple SNPs in the region affect expression levels and PUFA synthesis. Additionally, we find evidence for a gene–environment interaction influencing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels between alleles affecting PUFA synthesis and PUFA dietary intake: carriers of the derived allele display lower LDL cholesterol levels with a higher intake of PUFAs. We hypothesize that the selective patterns observed in Europeans were driven by a change in dietary composition of fatty acids following the transition to agriculture, resulting in a lower intake of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, but a higher intake of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. PMID:28333262

  14. FGFR3 stimulates stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 activity to promote bladder tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiangnan; Wang, Qian-Rena; Chan, Emily; Merchant, Mark; Liu, Jinfeng; French, Dorothy; Ashkenazi, Avi; Qing, Jing

    2012-11-15

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) belongs to a family of receptor tyrosine kinases that control cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Aberrant activation of FGFR3 via overexpression or mutation is a frequent feature of bladder cancer; however, its molecular and cellular consequences and functional relevance to carcinogenesis are not well understood. Through transcriptional profiling of bladder carcinoma cells subjected to short hairpin RNA knockdown of FGFR3, we identified a gene-signature linking FGFR3 signaling with de novo sterol and lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. We found that FGFR3 signaling promotes the cleavage and activation of the master transcriptional regulator of lipogenesis, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1(SREBP1/SREBF1), in a PI3K-mTORC1-dependent fashion. In turn, SREBP1 regulates the expression of key lipogenic enzymes, including stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1/SCD). SCD1 is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids and is crucial for lipid homeostasis. In human bladder cancer cell lines expressing constitutively active FGFR3, knockdown of SCD1 by siRNA markedly attenuated cell-cycle progression, reduced proliferation, and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, inducible knockdown of SCD1 in a bladder cancer xenograft model substantially inhibited tumor progression. Pharmacologic inhibition of SCD1 blocked fatty acid desaturation and also exerted antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of FGFR3 in regulating lipid metabolism to maintain tumor growth and survival, and also identify SCD1 as a potential therapeutic target for FGFR3-driven bladder cancer. ©2012 AACR.

  15. The Acyl Desaturase CER17 Is Involved in Producing Wax Unsaturated Primary Alcohols and Cutin Monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianpeng; Zhao, Huayan; Kosma, Dylan K; Tomasi, Pernell; Dyer, John M; Li, Rongjun; Liu, Xiulin; Wang, Zhouya; Parsons, Eugene P; Jenks, Matthew A; Lü, Shiyou

    2017-02-01

    We report n-6 monounsaturated primary alcohols (C26:1, C28:1, and C30:1 homologs) in the cuticular waxes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stem, a class of wax not previously reported in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis cer17 mutant was completely deficient in these monounsaturated alcohols, and CER17 was found to encode a predicted ACYL-COENZYME A DESATURASE LIKE4 (ADS4). Studies of the Arabidopsis cer4 mutant and yeast variously expressing CER4 (a predicted fatty acyl-CoA reductase) with CER17/ADS4, demonstrated CER4's principal role in synthesis of these monounsaturated alcohols. Besides unsaturated alcohol deficiency, cer17 mutants exhibited a thickened and irregular cuticle ultrastructure and increased amounts of cutin monomers. Although unsaturated alcohols were absent throughout the cer17 stem, the mutation's effects on cutin monomers and cuticle ultrastructure were much more severe in distal than basal stems, consistent with observations that the CER17/ADS4 transcript was much more abundant in distal than basal stems. Furthermore, distal but not basal stems of a double mutant deficient for both CER17/ADS4 and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE1 produced even more cutin monomers and a thicker and more disorganized cuticle ultrastructure and higher cuticle permeability than observed for wild type or either mutant parent, indicating a dramatic genetic interaction on conversion of very long chain acyl-CoA precursors. These results provide evidence that CER17/ADS4 performs n-6 desaturation of very long chain acyl-CoAs in both distal and basal stems and has a major function associated with governing cutin monomer amounts primarily in the distal segments of the inflorescence stem. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Functional Desaturase Fads1 (Δ5) and Fads2 (Δ6) Orthologues Evolved before the Origin of Jawed Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luís Filipe Costa; Monroig, Óscar; Leaver, Michael J.; Wilson, Jonathan; Cunha, Isabel; Tocher, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are essential components of biomembranes, particularly in neural tissues. Endogenous synthesis of ARA, EPA and DHA occurs from precursor dietary essential fatty acids such as linoleic and α-linolenic acid through elongation and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturations. With respect to desaturation activities some noteworthy differences have been noted in vertebrate classes. In mammals, the Δ5 activity is allocated to the Fads1 gene, while Fads2 is a Δ6 desaturase. In contrast, teleosts show distinct combinations of desaturase activities (e.g. bifunctional or separate Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases) apparently allocated to Fads2-type genes. To determine the timing of Fads1-Δ5 and Fads2-Δ6 evolution in vertebrates we used a combination of comparative and functional genomics with the analysis of key phylogenetic species. Our data show that Fads1 and Fads2 genes with Δ5 and Δ6 activities respectively, evolved before gnathostome radiation, since the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula has functional orthologues of both gene families. Consequently, the loss of Fads1 in teleosts is a secondary episode, while the existence of Δ5 activities in the same group most likely occurred through independent mutations into Fads2 type genes. Unexpectedly, we also establish that events of Fads1 gene expansion have taken place in birds and reptiles. Finally, a fourth Fads gene (Fads4) was found with an exclusive occurrence in mammalian genomes. Our findings enlighten the history of a crucially important gene family in vertebrate fatty acid metabolism and physiology and provide an explanation of how observed lineage-specific gene duplications, losses and diversifications might be linked to habitat-specific food web structures in different environments and over geological timescales. PMID:22384110

  17. Functional desaturase Fads1 (Δ5 and Fads2 (Δ6 orthologues evolved before the origin of jawed vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe Costa Castro

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs such as arachidonic (ARA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids are essential components of biomembranes, particularly in neural tissues. Endogenous synthesis of ARA, EPA and DHA occurs from precursor dietary essential fatty acids such as linoleic and α-linolenic acid through elongation and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturations. With respect to desaturation activities some noteworthy differences have been noted in vertebrate classes. In mammals, the Δ5 activity is allocated to the Fads1 gene, while Fads2 is a Δ6 desaturase. In contrast, teleosts show distinct combinations of desaturase activities (e.g. bifunctional or separate Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases apparently allocated to Fads2-type genes. To determine the timing of Fads1-Δ5 and Fads2-Δ6 evolution in vertebrates we used a combination of comparative and functional genomics with the analysis of key phylogenetic species. Our data show that Fads1 and Fads2 genes with Δ5 and Δ6 activities respectively, evolved before gnathostome radiation, since the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula has functional orthologues of both gene families. Consequently, the loss of Fads1 in teleosts is a secondary episode, while the existence of Δ5 activities in the same group most likely occurred through independent mutations into Fads2 type genes. Unexpectedly, we also establish that events of Fads1 gene expansion have taken place in birds and reptiles. Finally, a fourth Fads gene (Fads4 was found with an exclusive occurrence in mammalian genomes. Our findings enlighten the history of a crucially important gene family in vertebrate fatty acid metabolism and physiology and provide an explanation of how observed lineage-specific gene duplications, losses and diversifications might be linked to habitat-specific food web structures in different environments and over geological timescales.

  18. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilan Xue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  19. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Wang, Qing [Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Hou, Lin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China)

    2012-09-14

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  20. DAF-16 and Δ9 desaturase genes promote cold tolerance in long-lived Caenorhabditis elegans age-1 mutants.

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    Fiona R Savory

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutants of the conserved insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS pathway are long-lived and stress resistant due to the altered expression of DAF-16 target genes such as those involved in cellular defence and metabolism. The three Δ(9 desaturase genes, fat-5, fat-6 and fat-7, are included amongst these DAF-16 targets, and it is well established that Δ(9 desaturase enzymes play an important role in survival at low temperatures. However, no assessment of cold tolerance has previously been reported for IIS mutants. We demonstrate that long-lived age-1(hx546 mutants are remarkably resilient to low temperature stress relative to wild type worms, and that this is dependent upon daf-16. We also show that cold tolerance following direct transfer to low temperatures is increased in wild type worms during the facultative, daf-16 dependent, dauer stage. Although the cold tolerant phenotype of age-1(hx546 mutants is predominantly due to the Δ(9 desaturase genes, additional transcriptional targets of DAF-16 are also involved. Surprisingly, survival of wild type adults following a rapid temperature decline is not dependent upon functional daf-16, and cellular distributions of a DAF-16::GFP fusion protein indicate that DAF-16 is not activated during low temperature stress. This suggests that cold-induced physiological defences are not specifically regulated by the IIS pathway and DAF-16, but expression of DAF-16 target genes in IIS mutants and dauers is sufficient to promote cross tolerance to low temperatures in addition to other forms of stress.

  1. Cessation of daily exercise dramatically alters precursors of hepatic steatosis in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P; Laye, Matthew J; Morris, R Tyler; Borengasser, Sarah J; Uptergrove, Grace M; Chakravarthy, Manu V; Booth, Frank W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate potential mechanisms initiating the onset of hepatic steatosis following the cessation of daily physical activity. Four-week-old, hyperphagic/obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were given access to voluntary running wheels for 16 weeks to prevent the development of hepatic steatosis. The animals were then suddenly transitioned to a sedentary condition as wheels were locked (wheel lock; WL) for 5 h (WL5), 53 h (WL53) or 173 h (WL173). Importantly after the cessation of daily exercise (5-173 h), no changes occurred in body weight, fat pad mass (omental and retroperitoneal), food intake, serum insulin, hepatic triglycerides or in the exercise-suppressed hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma protein content. However, complete hepatic fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial enzyme activities were highest at WL5 and WL53 and dropped significantly to SED levels by WL173. In addition, cessation of daily exercise quickly increased the hepatic protein contents of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), reduced ACC phosphorylation status, and dramatically increased hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration. This study is the first to show that the sudden cessation of daily exercise in a hyperphagic/obese model activates a subgroup of precursors and processes known to initiate hepatic steatosis, including decreased hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity, increased hepatic expression of de novo lipogenesis proteins, and increased hepatic malonyl CoA levels; each probably increasing the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  2. STEAROYL-CoA DESATURASE-1 DEFICIENCY ATTENUATES OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN LEPTIN-RESISTANT OBESE MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Makoto; Sampath, Harini; Liu, Xueqing; Flowers, Matthew T; Chu, Kiki; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Ntambi, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and adiposity greatly increase the risk for secondary conditions such as insulin resistance. Mice deficient in the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) are lean and protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In order to determine the effect of SCD1 deficiency on various mouse models of obesity, we introduced a global deletion of the Scd1 gene into leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, leptin-resistant Agouti (Ay/a) mice, and high-fat diet-fed obese (DIO) mice. SCD1 deficien...

  3. Identification and evaluation of ω-3 fatty acid desaturase genes for hyperfortifying α-linolenic acid in transgenic rice seed

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hua Liang; Yin, Zhi Jie; Xiao, Li; Xu, Yi Nong; Qu, Le Qing

    2012-01-01

    α-Linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed of ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio in the diet are a major explanation for the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. There is a need to enhance the ALA content and to reduce the ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to ALA. Six ω-3 (Δ-15) fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes were cloned from rice and soybean. The subcellular localizations of the proteins were identified. The FAD genes were introduced into rice under the control of...

  4. Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedernaes Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid (FA composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent desaturase activity in different lipid fractions contribute to obesity susceptibility. Our aim was to test whether desaturase activity and FA composition are linked to an obese phenotype in rats that are either obesity prone (OP or resistant (OR on a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods Two groups of Sprague–Dawley rats were given ad libitum (AL-HFD or calorically restricted (HFD-paired; pair fed to calories consumed by chow-fed rats access to a HFD. The AL-HFD group was categorized into OP and OR sub-groups based on weight gain over 5 weeks. Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1 product 16:1n-7. FA ratios were used to estimate activities of the delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6, delta-6-desaturase (18:3n-6/18:2n-6, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1; 16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0, SCD-18, de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n-6 and FA elongation (18:0/16:0. Fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were measured in plasma. Results After AL-HFD access, OP rats had a significantly higher SCD-16 index and 16:1n-7 proportion, but a significantly lower LA proportion, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT triacylglycerols, as well as significantly higher insulin and leptin concentrations, compared with OR rats. No differences were found between the two phenotypes in liver (phospholipids; triacylglycerols or plasma (cholesterol esters; phospholipids lipid fractions or for plasma glucose or adiponectin concentrations. For the desaturase indices of the HFD-paired rats, the only significant differences compared with the OP or OR rats were higher

  5. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... сский Español What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  6. Creation of glyphosate-resistant Brassica napus L. plants expressing DesC desaturase of cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus

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    Goldenkova-Pavlova I. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Creation of glyphosate-resistant canola plants expressing bifunctional hybrid desC::licBM3 gene. In the hybrid gene the sequence of DesC desaturase of cyanobacterium S. vulcanus without plastid targeting was fused with the sequence of thermostable lichenase reporter LicBM3 gene. Methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, PCR, quantitative and qualitative determination of lichenase activity, genetic analysis. Results. Transgenic canola plants, carring the enolpyruvat shikimat phosphate syntase gene (epsps, conferring on plants resistance to phosphonomethyl glycine herbicides (Roundup, as well as the desC::licBM3 gene, were selected. The presence of transgenes was confimed by multiplex PCR. The epsps gene expression in canola was shown at the transcription level, during in vitro growth and after greenhouse herbicide treatment. Activity of the licBM3 gene product as a part of hybrid protein allowed quantitative and qualitative estimation of the desaturase gene expression. Inheritance of heterologous genes and their expression in the first generation were investigated. Conclusions. Transgenic canola plants were obtained, the presence of trangenes in plant genome was proved and expression of the target genes was detected.

  7. An Evolutionary Relationship Between Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD Protein Sequences Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism

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    Mohammad Salmani Izadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is a key enzyme that converts saturated fatty acids (SFAs to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs in fat biosynthesis. Despite being crucial for interpreting SCDs’ roles across species, the evolutionary relationship of SCD proteins across species has yet to be elucidated. This study aims to present this evolutionary relationship based on amino acid sequences. Methods: Using Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA and phylogenetic construction methods, a hypothetical evolutionary relationship was generated between the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD protein sequences between 18 different species. Results: SCD protein sequences from Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee, and Pongo abelii (orangutan have the lowest genetic distances of 0.006 of the 18 species studied. Capra hircus (goat and Ovis aries (Sheep had the next lowest genetic distance of 0.023. These farm animals are 99.987% identical at the amino acid level. Conclusions: The SCD proteins are conserved in these 18 species, and their evolutionary relationships are similar.

  8. Identification of a novel delta9-fatty acid desaturase gene and its promoter from oil-producing fungus Rhizopus arrhizus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dongsheng; Zhou, Hao; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Xinxin; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2009-01-01

    Reverse Transcriptional Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Rapid Amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE) and Thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR were used successfully to clone the open reading frame (1,377 bp) of delta9-fatty acid desaturase gene (named as RAD9) and its promoter region from oil-producing fungi Rhizopus arrhizus. Functional identification of the protein was done by sub-cloning RAD9 into the expression vector pYES2.0 to generate a recombinant plasmid pYRAD9, which was then subsequently transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae delta9-fatty acid desaturase mutation strain L8-14C to be expressed under the control of GAL1 promoter. The transformant containing RAD9 named as L8-14C-pYRAD9 could grow on the synthetic minimal medium plate with out oleic acid supplement. Fatty acid analysis also showed that the transformant contained 16:1 and 18:1. This indicated that pYRAD9 could successfully complement the mutation of L8-14C. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequence of RAD9 promoter showed several basic transcriptional elements including a CAAT box, a GC box, a CACCC box, two TATA boxes and also several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Preliminary functional analysis of this promoter in S. cerevisiae was done using lacZ report gene.

  9. Hepatitis B in pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Arevalo, J A

    1989-01-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus can result in the development of serious liver disease such as chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Vertical transmission from infected mothers to infants is thought to be partially responsible for the high prevalence of infection in certain high-risk groups. Immunoprophylaxis using hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis immune globulin has been highly effective in decreasing the probability of chronic hepatitis B virus inf...

  10. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns.

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    Chun-Juan Dong

    Full Text Available Fatty acid desaturases (FADs introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber.

  11. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber.

  12. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing of Phytoene desaturase in Cassava

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    John Odipio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 has become a powerful genome-editing tool for introducing genetic changes into crop species. In order to develop capacity for CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the tropical staple cassava (Manihot esculenta, the Phytoene desaturase (MePDS gene was targeted in two cultivars using constructs carrying gRNAs targeting two sequences within MePDS exon 13. After Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 reagents into cassava cells, both constructs induced visible albino phenotypes within cotyledon-stage somatic embryos regenerating on selection medium and the plants regenerated therefrom. A total of 58 (cv. 60444 and 25 (cv. TME 204 plant lines were recovered, of which 38 plant lines (19 from each cultivar were analyzed for mutagenesis. The frequency of plant lines showing albino phenotype was high, ranging from 90 to 100% in cv. TME 204. Observed albino phenotypes were comprised of full albinos devoid of green tissue and chimeras containing a mixture of white and green tissues. Sequence analysis revealed that 38/38 (100% of the plant lines examined carried mutations at the targeted MePDS site, with insertions, deletions, and substitutions recorded. One putatively mono-allelic homozygous line (1/19 was found from cv. 60444, while 1 (1/19 and 4 (4/19 putatively bi-allelic homozygous lines were found in 60444 and TME204, respectively. The remaining plant lines, comprised mostly of the chimeras, were found to be putatively heterozygous. We observed minor (1 bp nucleotide substitutions and or deletions upstream of the 5′ and or downstream of the 3′ targeted MePDS region. The data reported demonstrates that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of cassava is highly efficient and relatively simple, generating multi-allelic mutations in both cultivars studied. Modification of MePDS described here generates visually detectable mutated events in a relatively short time frame of 6–8 weeks, and does not require sequencing to confirm editing at the

  13. Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after lifestyle intervention are related to changes in serum fatty acid profile and desaturase activities: the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Bruin, de T.W.A.; Blaak, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle intervention-induced changes in serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are related to improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND

  14. Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after lifestyle intervention are related to changes in serum fatty acid profile and desaturase activities : the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Mensink, M.; Saris, W. H. M.; de Bruin, T. W. A.; Blaak, E. E.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle intervention-induced changes in serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are related to improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes. Materials and

  15. Increasing dietary EPA and DHA influence estimated fatty acid desaturase activity in systemic organs which is reflected in the red blood cell in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Emily A; Pickens, C Austin; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2018-03-01

    Delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturase are key enzymes in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may alter tissue FA composition via D5D and D6D. The purpose was to determine the relationship between dietary EPA + DHA, estimated desaturase activities of various tissues and the reflection of desaturase activity in the red blood cell (RBC). Mice were fed diets with increasing percent of energy from EPA + DHA. Phospholipid FA composition of heart, muscle, spleen, lung, adipose tissues and RBC were analysed. D5D and D6D enzyme activity estimates (EAE) were calculated as the ratio of 20:4/20:3 and 20:3/18:2, respectively. D5D EAE decreased in all tissues, except muscle, with increasing dietary EPA + DHA. RBC D5D EAE positively correlated with D5D EAE in all tissues. RBC D6D EAE positively correlated with muscle and inversely correlated with adipose D6D EAE. Our findings suggest differential influence of dietary EPA + DHA upon tissue desaturase activities.

  16. Effects of short- and long-chain fatty acids on the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and other lipogenic genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Dijkstra, J.; Liesman, J.S.; VandeHaar, M.J.; Lock, A.L.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Baal, van J.

    2013-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the bovine mammary gland introduces a cis-double bond at the ¿9 position in a wide range of fatty acids (FA). Several long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit expression of SCD, but information on the effect of short-chain fatty acids on mammary SCD

  17. Genetic Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis Is Inherited Codominantly in Helicobacter hepaticus-Infected AB6F1 and B6AF1 Hybrid Male Mice, and Progression to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Linked to Hepatic Expression of Lipogenic Genes and Immune Function-Associated Networks▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexis; Ihrig, Melanie M.; Fry, Rebecca C.; Feng, Yan; Xu, Sandy; Boutin, Samuel R.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Muthupalani, Suresh; Samson, Leona D.; Fox, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus causes hepatitis in susceptible strains of mice. Previous studies indicated that A/JCr mice are susceptible and C57BL/6NCr mice are resistant to H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis. We used F1 hybrid mice derived from A/J and C57BL/6 matings to investigate their phenotype and determine their hepatic gene expression profile in response to H. hepaticus infection. F1 hybrid mice, as well as parental A/J and C57BL/6 mice, were divided equally into control and H. hepaticus-infected groups and euthanized at 18 months postinoculation. Hepatic lesions were evaluated histologically and the differential hepatic gene expression in F1 mice was determined by microarray-based global gene expression profiling analysis. H. hepaticus-infected parental strains including A/J and C57BL/6 mice, as well as F1 mice, developed significant hepatitis. Overall, hepatocellular carcinomas or dysplastic liver lesions were observed in 69% of H. hepaticus-infected F1 male mice and H. hepaticus was isolated from hepatic tissues of all F1 mice with liver tumors. Liver tumors, characterized by hepatic steatosis, developed in livers with high hepatitis scores. To identify gene expression specific to H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis and progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in F1 mice, a method using comparative group transcriptome analysis was utilized. The canonical pathway most significantly enriched was immunological disease. Fatty acid synthase and steaoryl-coenzyme A desaturase, the two rate-limiting enzymes in lipogenesis, were upregulated in neoplastic relative to dysplastic livers. This study suggests a synergistic interaction between hepatic steatosis and infectious hepatitis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. The use of AB6F1 and B6AF1 mice, as well as genetically engineered mice, on a C57BL/6 background will allow studies investigating the role of chronic microbial hepatitis and steatohepatitis in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. PMID:18285497

  18. Elucidation of the sex-pheromone biosynthesis producing 5,7-dodecadienes in Dendrolimus punctatus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) reveals Delta 11- and Delta 9-desaturases with unusual catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Wang, Hong-Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Piskur, Jure; Johansson, Tomas; Löfstedt, Christer

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromones produced by female moths of the Lasiocampidae family include conjugated 5,7-dodecadiene components with various oxygenated terminal groups. Here we describe the molecular cloning, heterologous expression and functional characterization of desaturases associated with the biosynthesis of these unusual chemicals. By homology-based PCR screening we characterized five cDNAs from the female moth pheromone gland that were related to other moth desaturases, and investigated their role in the production of the (Z)-5-dodecenol and (Z5,E7)-dodecadienol, major pheromone constituents of the pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus punctatus. Functional expression of two desaturase cDNAs belonging to the Delta 11-subfamily, Dpu-Delta 11(1)-APSQ and Dpu-Delta 11(2)-LPAE, showed that they catalysed the formation of unsaturated fatty acyls (UFAs) that can be chain-shortened by beta-oxidation and subsequently reduced to the alcohol components. A first (Z)-11-desaturation step is performed by Dpu-Delta 11(2)-LPAE on stearic acid that leads to (Z)-11-octadecenoic acyl, which is subsequently chain shortened to the (Z)-5-dodecenoic acyl precursor. The Dpu-Delta 11(1)-APSQ desaturase had the unusual property of producing Delta 8 mono-UFA of various chain lengths, but not when transformed yeast were grown in presence of (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acyl, in which case the biosynthetic intermediate (Z9,E11)-hexadecadienoic UFA was produced. In addition to a typical Z9 activity, a third transcript, Dpu-Delta 9-KPSE produced E9 mono-UFAs of various chain lengths. When provided with the (Z)-7-tetradecenoic acyl, it formed the (Z7,E9)-tetradecadienoic UFA, another biosynthetic intermediate that can be chain-shortened to (Z5,E7)-dodecadienoic acyl. Both Dpu-Delta 11(1)-APSQ and Dpu-Delta 9-KPSE thus exhibited desaturase activities consistent with the biosynthesis of the dienoic precursor. The combined action of three desaturases in generating a dienoic sex-pheromone component emphasizes the

  19. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid in Euglena gracilis: biochemical and molecular evidence for the involvement of a Delta4-fatty acyl group desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Astrid; Cirpus, Petra; Ott, Claudia; Schlecker, Rainer; Zähringer, Ulrich; Heinz, Ernst

    2003-08-19

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be synthesized via alternative routes from which only the omega3/omega6-pathways involve the action of a Delta4-fatty acid desaturase. We examined the suitability of Euglena gracilis, Thraustochytrium sp., Schizochytrium sp., and Crypthecodinium cohnii to serve as sources for cloning a cDNA encoding a Delta4-fatty acid desaturase. For this purpose we carried out in vivo labeling studies with radiolabeled C22 polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates. Schizochytrium sp. was unable to convert exogenously supplied [2-(14)C]-docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5(Delta)(7,10,13,16,19)) to DHA, while E. gracilis and Thraustochytrium sp. carried out this desaturation very efficiently. Hydrogenation and alpha-oxidation of the labeled DHA isolated from these two organisms showed that it was the result of direct Delta4-desaturation and not of substrate breakdown and resynthesis. To clone the desaturase gene, a cDNA library of E. gracilis was subjected to mass sequencing. A full-length clone with highest homology to the Delta4-desaturase of Thraustochytrium sp. was isolated, and its function was verified by heterologous expression in yeast. The desaturase efficiently converted DPA to DHA. Analysis of the substrate specificity demonstrated that the enzyme activity was not limited to C22 fatty acids, since it also efficiently desaturated C16 fatty acids. The enzyme showed strict Delta4-regioselectivity and required the presence of a Delta7-double bond in the substrate. Positional analysis of phosphatidylcholine revealed that the proportion of the Delta4-desaturated products was up to 20 times higher in the sn-2 position than in the sn-1 position.

  1. An N-terminal di-proline motif is essential for fatty acid-dependent degradation of Δ9-desaturase in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akira; Nagao, Kohjiro; Juni, Naoto; Hara, Yuji; Umeda, Masato

    2017-12-08

    The Δ9-fatty acid desaturase introduces a double bond at the Δ9 position of the acyl moiety of acyl-CoA and regulates the cellular levels of unsaturated fatty acids. However, it is unclear how Δ9-desaturase expression is regulated in response to changes in the levels of fatty acid desaturation. In this study, we found that the degradation of DESAT1, the sole Δ9-desaturase in the Drosophila cell line S2, was significantly enhanced when the amounts of unsaturated acyl chains of membrane phospholipids were increased by supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acids. In contrast, inhibition of DESAT1 activity remarkably suppressed its degradation. Of note, removal of the DESAT1 N-terminal domain abolished the responsiveness of DESAT1 degradation to the level of fatty acid unsaturation. Further truncation and amino acid replacement analyses revealed that two sequential prolines, the second and third residues of DESAT1, were responsible for the unsaturated fatty acid-dependent degradation. Although degradation of mouse stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) was unaffected by changes in fatty acid unsaturation, introduction of the N-terminal sequential proline residues into SCD1 conferred responsiveness to unsaturated fatty acid-dependent degradation. Furthermore, we also found that the Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease calpain is involved in the sequential proline-dependent degradation of DESAT1. In light of these findings, we designated the sequential prolines at the second and third positions of DESAT1 as a "di-proline motif," which plays a crucial role in the regulation of Δ9-desaturase expression in response to changes in the level of cellular unsaturated fatty acids. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  3. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  4. Fatty acid desaturase 1 knockout mice are lean with improved glycemic control and decreased development of atheromatous plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David R; Gay, Jason P; Smith, Melinda; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Harris, Angela; Holland, Autumn; Reyes, Maricela; Kirkham, Laura; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Zambrowicz, Brian; Hansen, Gwenn; Platt, Kenneth A; van Sligtenhorst, Isaac; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Desai, Urvi

    2016-01-01

    Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) and delta-6 desaturase (D6D), encoded by fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and FADS2 genes, respectively, are enzymes in the synthetic pathways for ω3, ω6, and ω9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although PUFAs appear to be involved in mammalian metabolic pathways, the physiologic effect of isolated D5D deficiency on these pathways is unclear. After generating >4,650 knockouts (KOs) of independent mouse genes and analyzing them in our high-throughput phenotypic screen, we found that Fads1 KO mice were among the leanest of 3,651 chow-fed KO lines analyzed for body composition and were among the most glucose tolerant of 2,489 high-fat-diet-fed KO lines analyzed by oral glucose tolerance test. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high-fat-diet-fed Fads1 KO mice were leaner than wild-type (WT) littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 38% and 31% lower in Fads1 male and female KO mice, respectively. Fads1 KO mice also had lower glucose and insulin excursions during oral glucose tolerance tests along with lower fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. In additional studies using a vascular injury model, Fads1 KO mice had significantly decreased femoral artery intima/media ratios consistent with a decreased inflammatory response in their arterial wall. Based on this result, we bred Fads1 KO and WT mice onto an ApoE KO background and fed them a Western diet for 14 weeks; in this atherogenic environment, aortic trees of Fads1 KO mice had 40% less atheromatous plaque compared to WT littermates. Importantly, PUFA levels measured in brain and liver phospholipid fractions of Fads1 KO mice were consistent with decreased D5D activity and normal D6D activity. The beneficial metabolic phenotype demonstrated in Fads1 KO mice suggests that selective D5D inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of human obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  5. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  6. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  7. Polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase genes and diet are important determinants of infant docosahexaenoic acid status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Harsløf, L.; Larsen, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in early infancy is supported by DHA in breast-milk and may thus decrease once complementary feeding takes over. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from alphalinolenic acid is low and polymorphisms in the genes that encodes the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has...... been shown to have little effect on DHA-status in adults. It is unclear to what extent endogenous DHA-synthesis contributes to infant DHAstatus. We aim to investigate the role of diet and FADS-polymorphisms on DHA-status at 9 months and 3 years. Methods: This cross-sectional study with Danish infants...... use data from two prospective studies (EFiON and the SKOTcohort). We measured erythrocyte (RBC) DHA-status at 9 months (n=409) and 3 years (n=176) and genotyped 4 FADS tagSNPs, rs3834458, rs1535, rs174575 and rs174448 (n=401)....

  8. Effect of cod liver oil supplementation on the stearoyl-CoA desaturase index in obese children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yukihiko; Okada, Tomoo; Abe, Yuriko; Kazama, Minako; Saito, Emiko; Kuromori, Yuki; Iwata, Fujihiko; Hara, Mitsuhiko; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Yohei; Shimizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity, we treated 10 obese children (mean age: 12.9 years) with cod liver oil once daily for 12 weeks. The effects of cod liver oil supplementation on SCD activity, as estimated by the palmitoleate/palmitate ratio, depended on the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents at baseline. Baseline DHA contents were negatively correlated with baseline SCD activity. After the treatment, baseline DHA contents were found to be significantly associated with the reduction of SCD activity. Cod liver oil supplementation may be a complementary treatment for obese children with low baseline contents of DHA. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloning and expression analysis of three cDNAs encoding omega-3 fatty acid desaturases from Descurainia sophia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyuan; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2007-09-01

    Three cDNAs of DsFAD3, DsFAD7 and DsFAD8, encoding omega-3 fatty acid desaturases, which are the key enzymes for the conversion of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), were isolated from Descurainia sophia using RACE-PCR. Tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that DsFAD3 and DsFAD7 genes were expressed in all tissues and at a high level in stems, leaves and young siliques, whereas DsFAD8 was moderately expressed in photosynthetic tissues including stems, leaves and young siliques. All three genes were significantly induced by wounding stress and DsFAD3 and DsFAD7 transcript levels were down-regulated by cold, whereas DsFAD8 was increased upon cold stress.

  10. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  11. Hepatitis A - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the day care center have had their hepatitis A vaccine. Inspect the area where diapers are changed to ensure that proper hygiene is followed. If your child gets hepatitis A, ...

  12. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  13. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  14. Cloning, functional characterization and nutritional regulation of Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase in the herbivorous euryhaline teleost Scatophagus argus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dizhi Xie

    Full Text Available Marine fish are generally unable or have low ability for the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA from C18 PUFA precursors, with some notable exceptions including the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus in which such a capability was recently demonstrated. To determine whether this is a unique feature of S. canaliculatus or whether it is common to the herbivorous marine teleosts, LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways were investigated in the herbivorous euryhaline Scatophagus argus. A putative desaturase gene was cloned and functionally characterized, and tissue expression and nutritional regulation were investigated. The full-length cDNA was 1972 bp, containing a 1338 bp open-reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 445 amino acids, which possessed all the characteristic features of fatty acyl desaturase (Fad. Functional characterization by heterologous expression in yeast showed the protein product of the cDNA efficiently converted 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 to 18:4n-3 and 18:3n-6, respectively, indicating Δ6 desaturation activity. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that highest Δ6 fad mRNA expression was detected in liver followed by brain, with lower expression in other tissues including intestine, eye, muscle, adipose, heart kidney and gill, and lowest expression in stomach and spleen. The expression of Δ6 fad was significantly affected by dietary lipid and, especially, fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in liver of fish fed a diet with a ratio of 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 of 1.72:1. The results indicated that S. argus may have a different LC-PUFA biosynthetic system from S. canaliculatus despite possessing similar habitats and feeding habits suggesting that LC-PUFA biosynthesis may not be common to all marine herbivorous teleosts.

  15. Cloning, functional characterization and nutritional regulation of Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase in the herbivorous euryhaline teleost Scatophagus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; Wang, Shuqi; You, Cuihong; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2014-01-01

    Marine fish are generally unable or have low ability for the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, with some notable exceptions including the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus in which such a capability was recently demonstrated. To determine whether this is a unique feature of S. canaliculatus or whether it is common to the herbivorous marine teleosts, LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways were investigated in the herbivorous euryhaline Scatophagus argus. A putative desaturase gene was cloned and functionally characterized, and tissue expression and nutritional regulation were investigated. The full-length cDNA was 1972 bp, containing a 1338 bp open-reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 445 amino acids, which possessed all the characteristic features of fatty acyl desaturase (Fad). Functional characterization by heterologous expression in yeast showed the protein product of the cDNA efficiently converted 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 to 18:4n-3 and 18:3n-6, respectively, indicating Δ6 desaturation activity. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that highest Δ6 fad mRNA expression was detected in liver followed by brain, with lower expression in other tissues including intestine, eye, muscle, adipose, heart kidney and gill, and lowest expression in stomach and spleen. The expression of Δ6 fad was significantly affected by dietary lipid and, especially, fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in liver of fish fed a diet with a ratio of 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 of 1.72:1. The results indicated that S. argus may have a different LC-PUFA biosynthetic system from S. canaliculatus despite possessing similar habitats and feeding habits suggesting that LC-PUFA biosynthesis may not be common to all marine herbivorous teleosts.

  16. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  17. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  18. Know More Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death. In fact, Hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver cancer and the #1 cause of liver transplants. Many people can get lifesaving care and treatment. Knowing you have Hepatitis C can help you make important decisions about your health. Successful treatments can eliminate the ... “Hepatitis C: Did You Know?” Watch this video ...

  19. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a ...

  20. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are infected never get rid of the hepatitis B virus. This is called chronic infection. These people keep the virus for the rest of their lives. They are known as carriers . Most carriers do not have ... and early death. Can hepatitis B virus infection be cured? There is no ...

  1. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an increasing public health concern. The most widely used

  2. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  3. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  4. Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa

    2016-10-02

    The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.

  5. Temperature and metal exposure affect membrane fatty acid composition and transcription of desaturases and elongases in fathead minnow muscle and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui, Mariem; Pierron, Fabien; Couture, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that metal exposure affected the normal thermal response of cell membrane FA composition and of elongase and desaturase gene transcription levels. To this end, muscle and brain membrane FA composition and FA desaturase (fads2, degs2 and scd2) and elongase (elovl2, elovl5 and elovl6) gene transcription levels were analyzed in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) acclimated for eight weeks to 15, 25 or 30°C exposed or not to cadmium (Cd, 6μg/l) or nickel (Ni, 450 6μg/l). The response of membrane FA composition to temperature variations or metal exposure differed between muscle and brain. In muscle, an increase of temperature induced a decrease of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and an increase of saturated FA (SFA) in agreement with the current paradigm. Although a similar response was observed in brain between 15 and 25°C, at 30°C, brain membrane unsaturation was higher than predicted. In both tissues, metal exposure affected the normal thermal response of membrane FA composition. The transcription of desaturases and elongases was higher in the brain and varied with acclimation temperature and metal exposure but these variations did not generally reflect changes in membrane FA composition. The mismatch between gene transcription and membrane composition highlights that several levels of control other than gene transcription are involved in adjusting membrane FA composition, including post-transcriptional regulation of elongases and desaturases and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Our study also reveals that metal exposure affects the mechanisms involved in adjusting cell membrane FA composition in ectotherms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Crystal Structure of the Ivy delta4-16:0-ACP Desaturase Reveals Structural Details of the Oxidized Active Site and Potential Determinants of Regioselectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy,J.; Whittle, E.; Kumaran, D.; Lindqvist, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2007-01-01

    The multifunctional acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase from Hedera helix (English ivy) catalyzes the {Delta}{sup 4} desaturation of 16:0-ACP and the{Delta}{sup 9} desaturation of 18:0-ACP and further desaturates{Delta}{sup 9}-16:1 or {Delta}{sup 9}-18:1 to the corresponding {Delta}{sup 4,9} dienes. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been solved to 1.95{angstrom} resolution, and both the iron-iron distance of 3.2{angstrom} and the presence of a {mu}-oxo bridge reveal this to be the only reported structure of a desaturase in the oxidized FeIII-FeIII form. Significant differences are seen between the oxidized active site and the reduced active site of the Ricinus communis (castor) desaturase; His{sup 227} coordination to Fe2 is lost, and the side chain of Glu{sup 224}, which bridges the two iron ions in the reduced structure, does not interact with either iron. Although carboxylate shifts have been observed on oxidation of other diiron proteins, this is the first example of the residue moving beyond the coordination range of both iron ions. Comparison of the ivy and castor structures reveal surface amino acids close to the annulus of the substrate-binding cavity and others lining the lower portion of the cavity that are potential determinants of their distinct substrate specificities. We propose a hypothesis that differences in side chain packing explains the apparent paradox that several residues lining the lower portion of the cavity in the ivy desaturase are bulkier than their equivalents in the castor enzyme despite the necessity for the ivy enzyme to accommodate three more carbons beyond the diiron site.

  7. FADS gene polymorphisms confer the risk of coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population through the altered desaturase activities: based on high-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Wei Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We explored the desaturase activities and the correlation of fatty acid desaturases (FADS gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with plasma fatty acid in coronary artery disease (CAD patients in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: Plasma fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in CAD patients (n = 505 and a control group (n = 510. Five SNPs in the FADS gene were genotyped with high-resolution melting (HRM methods. RESULTS: After adjustment, D6D activity, assessed as arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6/linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6, was higher in CAD patients (pT and rs174460 C>T were different between the two groups. The rs174537 T allele was associated with a lower risk of CAD [OR 0.743, 95% CI (0.624, 0.884, p = 0.001]. Carriers of the rs174460 C allele were associated with a higher risk of CAD [OR 1.357, 95% CI (1.106, 1.665, p = 0.003]. CONCLUSIONS: We firstly report that the rs174460 C allele is associated with a higher risk of CAD, and confirm that the rs174537 T allele is associated with a lower risk of CAD. Our results indicate that FADS gene polymorphisms are likely to influence plasma fatty acid concentrations and desaturase activities.

  8. FADS gene polymorphisms confer the risk of coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population through the altered desaturase activities: based on high-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Wei; Lin, Kun; Ma, Pei; Zhang, Zhen-Lu; Zhou, Yi-Dan; Lu, Shuang-Yan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Song-Mei

    2013-01-01

    We explored the desaturase activities and the correlation of fatty acid desaturases (FADS) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with plasma fatty acid in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients in a Chinese Han population. Plasma fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in CAD patients (n = 505) and a control group (n = 510). Five SNPs in the FADS gene were genotyped with high-resolution melting (HRM) methods. After adjustment, D6D activity, assessed as arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6)/linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6), was higher in CAD patients (pT and rs174460 C>T were different between the two groups. The rs174537 T allele was associated with a lower risk of CAD [OR 0.743, 95% CI (0.624, 0.884), p = 0.001]. Carriers of the rs174460 C allele were associated with a higher risk of CAD [OR 1.357, 95% CI (1.106, 1.665), p = 0.003]. We firstly report that the rs174460 C allele is associated with a higher risk of CAD, and confirm that the rs174537 T allele is associated with a lower risk of CAD. Our results indicate that FADS gene polymorphisms are likely to influence plasma fatty acid concentrations and desaturase activities.

  9. Characterization of 19 Genes Encoding Membrane-Bound Fatty Acid Desaturases and their Expression Profiles in Gossypium raimondii Under Low Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available To produce unsaturated fatty acids, membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases (FADs can be exploited to introduce double bonds into the acyl chains of fatty acids. In this study, 19 membrane-bound FAD genes were identified in Gossypium raimondii through database searches and were classified into four different subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis. All 19 membrane-bound FAD proteins shared three highly conserved histidine boxes, except for GrFAD2.1, which lost the third histidine box in the C-terminal region. In the G. raimondii genome, tandem duplication might have led to the increasing size of the FAD2 cluster in the Omega Desaturase subfamily, whereas segmental duplication appeared to be the dominant mechanism for the expansion of the Sphingolipid and Front-end Desaturase subfamilies. Gene expression analysis showed that seven membrane-bound FAD genes were significantly up-regulated and that five genes were greatly suppressed in G. raimondii leaves exposed to low temperature conditions.

  10. Identification of a Δ12 fatty acid desaturase from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) involved in the biosynthesis of linoleic acid by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruhao; Gao, Lingchao; Yu, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Xinguang

    2016-10-10

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the highest oil-yield crops in the world. A Δ12-desaturases associated with the primary steps of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis were successfully cloned from oil palm and their functions identified. The open reading frames (ORFs) of egFAD2 (GenBank accession: KT023602) consisted of 1176bp and code for 391 amino acids. Their deduced polypeptides showed 75-93% identity to microsomal Δ12-desaturases from other higher plants, and each contained the three histidine clusters typical of the catalytic domains of such enzymes. RT-PCR experiment indicated that the egFAD2 gene exhibited the highest accumulation in the mesocarp of fruits at 120-140 DAP (i.e. the fourth period of fruit development) and, despite having different expression levels, the other four stages were at significantly lower levels compared with the fourth stage. Plasmid pYES2-egFAD2 was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVSc1 using lithium acetate method for expression under the induction of galactose. Yeast cells transformed with plasmid constructs containing egFAD12 produced an appreciable amount of linoleic acids (18:2(Δ9,)(12)), not normally present in wild-type yeast cells, indicating that the genes encoded functional Δ12-desaturase enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic exposure to paclobutrazol causes hepatic steatosis in male rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus and the mechanism involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lingbin [State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Li Jinshou [Department of Biological Engineering, Ningde Normal University, Ningde City, Fujian (China); Zuo Zhenghong [State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chen Meng [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Wang Chonggang, E-mail: cgwang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2013-01-15

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a triazole-containing fungicide which is widely used in agriculture. Acute toxicity can follow its extensive use but it is generally weaker than traditional pesticides such as organochlorine and organophosphorus. However, its adverse effects on aquatic organisms need to be investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of PBZ exposure on the hepatic lipid metabolism of Sebastiscus marmoratus. After PBZ exposure for 50 days, hepatic lipid droplets were enlarged and the hepatic total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol and free fatty acid content had increased in a dose dependent manner compared to the control. The mRNA expression of lipid metabolism associated genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), androgen receptor, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthesis, fatty acid bing protein 4, liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase were up-regulated by PBZ exposure. These results indicated that triazole-containing fungicides might affect the metabolism and health of fish via the multi-signal pathways of nuclear receptors such as PPARs and LXR.

  12. Dietary freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract suppresses accumulation of hepatic lipids and increases in serum cholesterol and aminotransferase activities induced by dietary chloretone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chijimatsu, Takeshi; Umeki, Miki; Kobayashi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yutaro; Yamada, Koji; Oda, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the ameliorative effect of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone. Furthermore, we examined the effects of major FCE components (fat and protein fractions) to determine the active components in FCE. Chloretone increased serum aminotransferase activities and led to hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic lipid content were lower in rats fed total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE. Expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid desaturase genes was upregulated by chloretone. Total FCE and fat/protein fractions of FCE suppressed the increase in gene expression involved in fatty acid synthesis. Serum cholesterol levels increased twofold upon chloretone exposure. Total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE showed hypocholesterolemic effects in rats with hypercholesterolemia induced by chloretone. These suggest that FCE contains at least two active components against fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone.

  13. Effect of Δ9-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase-C mutants in a high oleic background on soybean seed oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddle, Paul; Whetten, Rebecca; Cardinal, Andrea; Upchurch, Robert G; Miranda, Lilian

    2014-02-01

    Two new sources of elevated seed stearic acid were identified and the feasibility of an elevated stearic acid, high oleic acid germplasm was studied. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil typically contains 2-4% stearic acid. Oil with at least 20% stearic acid is desirable because of its improved baking properties and health profile. This study identifies two new sources of high stearic acid and evaluates the interaction of high stearic and oleic acid alleles. TCHM08-1087 and TCHM08-755, high stearic acid 'Holladay' mutants, were crossed to FAM94-41-3, a line containing a point mutation in a seed-specific isoform of a Δ9-stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase (SACPD-C). F2-derived lines were evaluated for fatty acid content in four field environments. Sequencing of SACPDs in TCHM08-1087 and TCHM08-755 revealed distinct deletions of at least one megabase encompassing SACPD-C in both lines. After genotyping, the additive effect for stearic acid was estimated at +1.8% for the SACPD-C point mutation and +4.1% for the SACPD-C deletions. Average stearic acid in lines homozygous for the deletions was 12.2%. A FAM94-41-3-derived line and TCHM08-1087-11, a selection from TCHM08-1087, were crossed to S09-2902-145, a line containing missense mutations in two fatty acid desaturases (FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B). F1 plants were grown in a greenhouse and individual F2 seed were genotyped and phenotyped. No interaction was observed between either FAD2-1A or FAD2-1B and any of the SACPD-C mutant alleles. Seed homozygous mutant for SACPD-C/FAD2-1A/FAD2-1B contained 12.7% stearic acid and 65.5% oleic acid while seed homozygous for the SACPD-C deletion and mutant for FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B averaged 10.4% stearic acid and 75.9% oleic acid.

  14. Hepatic sarcoidosis complicating treatment-naive viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Gelson, William; Limbu, Anita; Brais, Rebecca; Richardson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic but rarely leads to adverse liver-related outcome. Co-existence of viral hepatitis and hepatic sarcoidosis is a rare, but recognised phenomenon. Obtaining a balance between immune suppression and anti-viral therapy may be problematic. Immunosuppression in the presence of viral hepatitis can lead to rapid deterioration of liver disease. Similarly, anti-viral therapy may exacerbate granulomatous hepatitis. Here we present two cases of viral hepatitis ...

  15. Autophagy in Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic fibrosis is usually associated with chronic liver diseases caused by infection, drugs, metabolic disorders, or autoimmune imbalances. Effective clinical therapies are still lacking. Autophagy is a cellular process that degrades damaged organelles or protein aggregation, which participates in many pathological processes including liver diseases. Autophagy participates in hepatic fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells and may participate as well through influencing other fibrogenic cells. Besides that, autophagy can induce some liver diseases to develop while it may play a protective role in hepatocellular abnormal aggregates related liver diseases and reduces fibrosis. With a better understanding of the potential effects of autophagy on hepatic fibrosis, targeting autophagy might be a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis in the near future.

  16. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

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    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  17. Hepatitis E Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Levick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a chronic infection in the immunosuppressed. Treatment is mostly supportive and prevention is by good water hygiene.

  18. [The isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase and insulin activity in the light of phylogenetic theory of pathology. Oleic fatty acid and realization of biologic functions of trophology and locomotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The formation of function of isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturases occured at the different stages of phylogeny under realization of biologic function of trophology (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1) and biologic function of locomotion, insulin system (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2) billions years later. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1 transforms in C 18:1 oleic fatty acid only exogenous C 16:0 palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms only endogenic palmitinic saturated fatty acid, synthesized form glucose. The biologic role of insulin is in energy support of biologic function of locomotion. Insulin through expressing stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms energetically non-optimal palmitinic variation of metabolism of substrates into highly effective oleic variation for cells' groundwork of energy (saturated fatty acid and mono fatty acid). The surplus of palmitinic saturated fatty acid in food is enabled in pathogenesis of resistance to insulin and derangement of synthesis of hormone by beta-cells of islets. The resistance to insulin and diabetes mellitus are primarily the derangement of metabolism of saturated fatty acids with mono fatty acids, energy problems of organism and only afterwards the derangement of metabolism of carbohydrates. It is desirable to restrict food intake of exogenous palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The reasons are low expression of independent of insulin stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2, marked lipotoxicity of polar form of palmitinic saturated fatty acid and synthesis of non-optimal palmitinic triglycerides instead of physiologic and more energetically more effective oleic triglycerides.

  19. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  20. Increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial efficiency in a model of obesity induced by diets rich in fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Coppola, Paola; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2013-03-01

    To assess hepatic de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial energetics as well as whole-body energy homeostasis in sedentary rats fed a fructose-rich diet. Male rats of 90 days of age were fed a high-fructose or control diet for 8 weeks. Body composition, energy balance, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, non-protein respiratory quotient, de novo lipogenesis and insulin resistance were measured. Determination of specific activity of hepatic enzymes of de novo lipogenesis, mitochondrial mass, oxidative capacity and degree of coupling, together with parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence, was also carried out. Body energy and lipid content as well as plasma insulin and non-esterified fatty acids were significantly higher in fructose-fed than in control rats. Significantly higher rates of net de novo lipogenesis and activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 were found in fructose-fed rats compared to controls. Mitochondrial protein mass and degree of coupling were significantly higher in fructose-fed rats compared to controls. Hepatic mitochondria showed oxidative damage, both in the lipid and in the protein component, together with decreased activity of antioxidant defence. Liver mitochondrial compartment is highly affected by fructose feeding. The increased mitochondrial efficiency allows liver cells to burn less substrates to produce ATP for de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. In addition, increased lipogenesis gives rise to whole body and ectopic lipid deposition, and higher mitochondrial coupling causes mitochondrial oxidative stress.

  1. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  2. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Protects Cells against Lipotoxicity-Mediated Apoptosis in Proximal Tubular Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Tamaki; Kume, Shinji; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Kuwagata, Shogo; Araki, Hisazumi; Takeda, Naoko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Uzu, Takashi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Araki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-11-09

    Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), whose expression level significantly decreased in the kidneys of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-diabetic mice. SCD1 is an enzyme that desaturates SFAs, converting them to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), leading to the formation of neutral lipid droplets. In culture, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of SCD1 or MUFA treatment significantly ameliorated SFA-induced apoptosis in PTECs by enhancing intracellular lipid droplet formation. In contrast, siRNA against SCD1 exacerbated the apoptosis. Both overexpression of SCD1 and MUFA treatment reduced SFA-induced apoptosis via reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured PTECs. Thus, HFD-induced decrease in renal SCD1 expression may play a pathogenic role in lipotoxicity-induced renal injury, and enhancing SCD1-mediated desaturation of SFA and subsequent formation of neutral lipid droplets may become a promising therapeutic target to reduce SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The present study provides a novel insight into lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Protects Cells against Lipotoxicity-Mediated Apoptosis in Proximal Tubular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Iwai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saturated fatty acid (SFA-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1, whose expression level significantly decreased in the kidneys of high-fat diet (HFD-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-diabetic mice. SCD1 is an enzyme that desaturates SFAs, converting them to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, leading to the formation of neutral lipid droplets. In culture, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of SCD1 or MUFA treatment significantly ameliorated SFA-induced apoptosis in PTECs by enhancing intracellular lipid droplet formation. In contrast, siRNA against SCD1 exacerbated the apoptosis. Both overexpression of SCD1 and MUFA treatment reduced SFA-induced apoptosis via reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured PTECs. Thus, HFD-induced decrease in renal SCD1 expression may play a pathogenic role in lipotoxicity-induced renal injury, and enhancing SCD1-mediated desaturation of SFA and subsequent formation of neutral lipid droplets may become a promising therapeutic target to reduce SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The present study provides a novel insight into lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Δ6-Desaturase (FADS2) deficiency unveils the role of ω3- and ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Wilhelm; Holz, Barbara; Jenke, Britta; Binczek, Erika; Günter, Robert Heinz; Kiss, Christine; Karakesisoglou, Iakowos; Thevis, Mario; Weber, Artur-Aron; Arnhold, Stephan; Addicks, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian cell viability is dependent on the supply of the essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic and α-linolenic acid. EFAs are converted into ω3- and ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are essential constituents of membrane phospholipids and precursors of eicosanoids, anandamide and docosanoids. Whether EFAs, PUFAs and eicosanoids are essential for cell viability has remained elusive. Here, we show that deletion of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase (FADS2) gene expression in the mouse abolishes the initial step in the enzymatic cascade of PUFA synthesis. The lack of PUFAs and eicosanoids does not impair the normal viability and lifespan of male and female fads2−/− mice, but causes sterility. We further provide the molecular evidence for a pivotal role of PUFA-substituted membrane phospholipids in Sertoli cell polarity and blood–testis barrier, and the gap junction network between granulosa cells of ovarian follicles. The fads2−/− mouse is an auxotrophic mutant. It is anticipated that FADS2 will become a major focus in membrane, haemostasis, inflammation and atherosclerosis research. PMID:19172737

  5. Systemic down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase promotes muscle oxidative metabolism and accelerates muscle function recovery following nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hussain

    Full Text Available The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles.

  6. Trans fat diet causes decreased brood size and shortened lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans delta-6-desaturase mutant fat-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Kaja; Lehtonen, Marko; Storvik, Markus; Jantson, Tanel; Lakso, Merja; Callaway, J C; Wong, Garry

    2011-01-01

    Trans-fatty acids (TFAs) enter the diet through industrial processes and can cause adverse human health effects. The present study was aimed to examine the effects of dietary cis- and trans-fatty acids on the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Cis- or trans-18:1n9 triglycerides (25 μM) caused no apparent changes in the numbers of viable progeny of wild-type N2 animals. However, in fat-3 mutants lacking delta-6-desaturase, the trans-isomer caused modest decreases in lifespan and progeny after three generations. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) profiles were significantly altered in fat-3 mutants compared to wild type but were not altered after exposure to dietary cis- or trans-18:1n9. Genome-wide expression analysis of fat-3 mutants revealed hundreds of changes. Several genes involved in fat metabolism (acs-2, fat-7, mdt-15) were significantly increased by cis- or trans-18:1n9 without discrimination between isomers. These results provide support for the hypothesis that dietary trans fats are detrimental to development and aging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cloning and characterization of the phytoene desaturase ( pds) gene — a key enzyme for carotenoids synthesis in Dunaliella (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohua; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2008-08-01

    The unicellular green alga Dunaliella is outstanding for its ability of massive accumulation of carotenoids. To elucidate the carotenoids synthesis pathway in this alga, phytoene desaturase ( pds) gene cDNA together with its DNA sequences were isolated and their structures and functions analyzed. The full-length pds cDNA of 2290 bp (GenBank Accession No. DQ243892) was deduced from RACE results, including untranslated 21 bp 5'-and 520 bp 3'-flanking regions and an open reading frame of 582 amino acids, coding a protein of 64.196 kDa. The DNA sequence of 2908 bp (GenBank Accession No. DQ845248) including five introns was obtained. The fifth intron was uncompleted and complex, including two bases’ perfect repeats (GT)10 and large different-sized repeats within the last 400 bp. The Southern blot hybridization result demonstrated that this gene occurred as a single copy in this species, and the quantitative RT-PCR result showed that the transcription of this gene was constitutive. The evolutional significance of pds was discussed.

  8. Systemic Down-Regulation of Delta-9 Desaturase Promotes Muscle Oxidative Metabolism and Accelerates Muscle Function Recovery following Nerve Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Alexandre; Lequeu, Thiebault; Rene, Frederique; Bindler, Françoise; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Oudart, Hugues; Palamiuc, Lavinia; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Helene; Dupuis, Luc; Marchioni, Eric; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles. PMID:23785402

  9. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  10. hy viral hepatitis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    randomized, controlled trial of interferon alfa-2b alone and after prednisone withdrawal for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The Hepatitis Interventional. Therapy Group. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 295-301. 14. Ncayiyana DJ. Coming to grips with the future of health care - the ANC National. Health Plan. 5 Air Med J 1994; ...

  11. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  12. Hepatitis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/hepatitis.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ List of All Topics All Hepatitis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B ... patients, people with chronic liver or kidney disease , people with ... drug treatment, and those who travel to countries where hepatitis B is common. Unless ...

  14. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis C virus can be spread when tattoo, body art, or piercing equipment has tiny amounts of blood on it. Many people get tattoos, piercings, or other marks ... if the Hepatitis C virus is still in the body. If this test is positive, it means a ...

  15. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  16. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with. Acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College ...

  17. New developments in hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink, H. W.; Bresters, D.; van der Poel, C. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Lelie, P. N.

    1992-01-01

    Since the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the 1960s and hepatitis A virus in the 1970s, a considerable proportion of infections of (probably viral) hepatitis could not be classified. About 90% of transfusion-related hepatitis was identified as non-A/non-B. In 1988 investigators from the

  18. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  19. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  20. Fructose supplementation worsens the deleterious effects of short-term high-fat feeding on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Tussellino, Margherita; Carotenuto, Rosa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the short-term effect of high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose feeding on hepatic lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in adult sedentary rats. Adult male rats were fed a high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose diet for 2 weeks. Body and liver composition, hepatic steatosis, plasma lipid profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity, together with whole-body and hepatic de novo lipogenesis, were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial mass, functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were also measured. Rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin and indexes of hepatic insulin resistance compared with rats fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet. Hepatic triglycerides and ceramide, as well as the degree of steatosis and necrosis, were significantly higher, while liver p-Akt was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet than in rats fed high-fat diet. A significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and hepatic fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase activity was found in rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet compared with those fed the high-fat diet. Significantly lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity but significantly higher oxidative stress was found in rats fed high-fat and high-fat-high-fructose diets compared with rats fed low-fat diet, while mitochondrial mass significantly increased only in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a Western diet, rich in saturated fats and fructose, is more conducive to the development of liver steatosis and deleterious to glucose homeostasis than a high-fat diet. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  1. The role of suppression of hepatic SCD1 expression in the metabolic effects of dietary methionine restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Laura A; Stone, Kirsten P; Wanders, Desiree; Ntambi, James M; Gettys, Thomas W

    2017-10-05

    Dietary methionine restriction (MR) produces concurrent increases in energy intake and expenditure, but the proportionately larger increase in energy expenditure (EE) effectively limits weight gain and adipose tissue accretion over time. Increased hepatic fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is essential to MR-dependent increases in EE, but it is unknown whether the downregulation of hepatic stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1) by MR could also be a contributing factor. Global deletion of SCD1 mimics cold exposure in mice housed at 23 °C by compromising the insular properties of the skin. The resulting cold stress increases EE, limits fat deposition, reduces hepatic lipids, and increases insulin sensitivity by activating thermoregulatory thermogenesis. To examine the efficacy of MR in the absence of SCD1 and without cold stress, the biological efficacy of MR in Scd1-/- mice housed near thermoneutrality (28 °C) was evaluated. Compared with wild-type mice on the control diet, Scd1-/- mice were leaner, had higher EE, lower hepatic and serum triglycerides, and lower serum leptin and insulin. Although dietary MR increased adipose tissue UCP1 expression, hepatic Fgf21 messenger RNA, 24 h EE, and reduced serum triglycerides in Scd1-/- mice, it failed to reduce adiposity or produce any further reduction in hepatic triglycerides, serum insulin, or serum leptin. These findings indicate that even when thermal stress is minimized, global deletion of SCD1 mimics and effectively masks many of the metabolic responses to dietary MR. However, the retention of several key effects of dietary MR in this model indicates that SCD1 is not a mediator of the biological effects of the diet.

  2. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance. PMID:25926841

  3. Relationship between a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster and eicosanoid generation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Austin G; Murphy, Robert C; Uhlson, Charis J; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Sergeant, Susan; Miller, Leslie R; Howard, Timothy D; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2014-08-08

    Dramatic shifts in the Western diet have led to a marked increase in the dietary intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA). Dietary LA can then be converted to arachidonic acid (ARA) utilizing three enzymatic steps. Two of these steps are encoded for by the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster (chromosome 11, 11q12.2-q13) and certain genetic variants within the cluster are highly associated with ARA levels. However, no study to date has examined whether these variants further influence pro-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase eicosanoid products. This study examined the impact of a highly influential FADS SNP, rs174537 on leukotriene, HETE, prostaglandin, and thromboxane biosynthesis in stimulated whole blood. Thirty subjects were genotyped at rs174537 (GG, n = 11; GT, n = 13; TT, n = 6), a panel of fatty acids from whole serum was analyzed, and precursor-to-product PUFA ratios were calculated as a marker of the capacity of tissues (particularly the liver) to synthesize long chain PUFAs. Eicosanoids produced by stimulated human blood were measured by LC-MS/MS. We observed an association between rs174537 and the ratio of ARA/LA, leukotriene B4, and 5-HETE but no effect on levels of cyclooxygenase products. Our results suggest that variation at rs174537 not only impacts the synthesis of ARA but the overall capacity of whole blood to synthesize 5-lipoxygenase products; these genotype-related changes in eicosanoid levels could have important implications in a variety of inflammatory diseases. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1: Is It the Link between Sulfur Amino Acids and Lipid Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Soraia; Blom, Henk J.; Schwartz, Ida V. D.

    2015-01-01

    An association between sulfur amino acids (methionine, cysteine, homocysteine and taurine) and lipid metabolism has been described in several experimental and population-based studies. Changes in the metabolism of these amino acids influence serum lipoprotein concentrations, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. However, recent evidence has suggested that the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) may be the link between these two metabolic pathways. SCD-1 is a key enzyme for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Its main substrates C16:0 and C18:0 and products palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and oleic acid (C18:1) are the most abundant fatty acids in triglycerides, cholesterol esters and membrane phospholipids. A significant suppression of SCD-1 has been observed in several animal models with disrupted sulfur amino acid metabolism, and the activity of SCD-1 is also associated with the levels of these amino acids in humans. This enzyme also appears to be involved in the etiology of metabolic syndromes because its suppression results in decreased fat deposits (regardless of food intake), improved insulin sensitivity and higher basal energy expenditure. Interestingly, this anti-obesogenic phenotype has also been described in humans and animals with sulfur amino acid disorders, which is consistent with the hypothesis that SCD-1 activity is influenced by these amino acids, in particularly cysteine, which is a strong and independent predictor of SCD-1 activity and fat storage. In this narrative review, we discuss the evidence linking sulfur amino acids, SCD-1 and lipid metabolism. PMID:26046927

  5. Effects of sterculic acid on stearoyl-CoA desaturase in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, F Enrique; Bauman, Dale E; Ntambi, James M; Fox, Brian G

    2003-01-10

    The effects of sterculic acid on cell size, adiposity, and fatty acid composition of differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes are correlated with stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) expression (mRNA and protein levels) and enzyme activity. Fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) analysis showed that adipocytes differentiated with methylisobutylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI) plus 100 microM sterculic acid comprised a population of predominantly large cells with reduced adiposity compared to MDI-treated cells. Although both groups had similar amounts of total fat, their fatty acid profiles were strikingly different: MDI-treated cells had high levels of the unsaturated palmitoleic (Delta(9)-16:1) and oleic (Delta(9)-18:1) acids, whereas the cells cultured with MDI plus sterculic acid accumulated palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids together with a marked reduction in Delta(9)-16:1. Although the cells treated with MDI plus sterculic acid had similar levels of scd1 and scd2 mRNAs and antibody-detectable SCD protein as the MDI-treated cells, the SCD enzyme activity was inhibited more than 90%. The accumulation of 16:0 and 18:0, together with normal levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and aP2 mRNAs, shows that de novo synthesis and elongation of fatty acids, as well as cell differentiation, were not affected by sterculic acid. Because of the increase in cell size in the sterculic acid-treated cells, the insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) uptake was determined. Compared to MDI-treated cells, the 2-DOG uptake in the cells treated with sterculic acid was not affected. These results indicate that sterculic acid directly inhibits SCD activity, possibly by a turnover-dependent reaction, without affecting the processes required for adipocyte differentiation, scd gene expression or SCD protein translation.

  6. Fatty Acid Composition of Tissue Cultured Breast Carcinoma and the Effect of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Fatemeh; Mosayebi, Gholamali; Montazeri, Vahid; Darabi, Maryam; Fayezi, Shabnam; Shaaker, Maghsod; Rahmati, Mohammad; Baradaran, Behzad; Mehdizadeh, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a novel therapeutic target in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the pharmacologic inhibition of SCD1 on fatty acid composition in tissue explant cultures of human breast cancer and to compare these effects with those in adjacent nonneoplastic breast tissue. Methods Paired samples of tumor and adjacent noncancerous tissue were isolated from 12 patients with infiltrating ductal breast cancer. Samples were explant cultured in vitro, exposed to the highly selective SCD1 inhibitor CAY10566, and examined for fatty acid composition by gas liquid chromatography. The cytotoxic and antigrowth effects were evaluated by quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release and by sulforhodamine B (SRB) measurement, respectively. Results Breast cancer tissue samples were found to have higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (passay revealed a higher rate of inhibition with the SCD1 inhibitor in breast cancer tissues than in normal-appearing tissues (p<0.01, 41% vs. 29%). The SCD1 inhibitor also elevated saturated fatty acid (1.46-fold, p=0.001) levels only in the tumor tissue explant. Conclusion The fatty acid composition and response to SCD1 inhibition differed between the explant cultures from breast cancer and the adjacent normal-appearing tissue. Altered fatty acid composition induced by SCD1 inhibition may also, in addition to Δ9 desaturation, modulate other reactions in de novo fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis, and subsequently affect the overall survival and progression of breast cancer. PMID:25013434

  7. Genome-Wide Survey and Characterization of Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Family in Brassica napus and Its Parental Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yufei; Chen, Baojun; Wang, Rui; Win, Aung Naing; Li, Jiana; Chai, Yourong

    2018-02-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oilseed crop worldwide, and fatty acid (FA) compositions determine the nutritional and economic value of its seed oil. Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) play a pivotal role in regulating FA compositions, but to date, no comprehensive genome-wide analysis of FAD gene family in rapeseed and its parent species has been reported. In this study, using homology searches, 84, 45, and 44 FAD genes were identified in rapeseed, Brassica rapa, and Brassica oleracea genomes, respectively. These FAD genes were unevenly located in 17 chromosomes and 2 scaffolds of rapeseed, 9 chromosomes and 1 scaffold of B. rapa, and all the chromosomes of B. oleracea. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the soluble and membrane-bound FADs in the three Brassica species were divided into four and six subfamilies, respectively. Generally, the soluble FADs contained two conserved histidine boxes, while three highly conserved histidine boxes were harbored in membrane-bound FADs. Exon-intron structure, intron phase, and motif composition and position were highly conserved in each FAD subfamily. Putative subcellular locations of FAD proteins in three Brassica species were consistent with those of corresponding known FADs. In total, 25 of simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were found in FAD genes of the three Brassica species. Transcripts of selected FAD genes in the three species were examined in various organs/tissues or stress treatments from NCBI expressed sequence tag (EST) database. This study provides a critical molecular basis for quality improvement of rapeseed oil and facilitates our understanding of key roles of FAD genes in plant growth and development and stress response.

  8. Identification and evaluation of ω-3 fatty acid desaturase genes for hyperfortifying α-linolenic acid in transgenic rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua Liang; Yin, Zhi Jie; Xiao, Li; Xu, Yi Nong; Qu, Le Qing

    2012-05-01

    α-Linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed of ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio in the diet are a major explanation for the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. There is a need to enhance the ALA content and to reduce the ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to ALA. Six ω-3 (Δ-15) fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes were cloned from rice and soybean. The subcellular localizations of the proteins were identified. The FAD genes were introduced into rice under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter, GluC, or a Ubi-1 promoter to evaluate their potential in increasing the ALA content in seeds. The ALA contents in the seeds of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized GmFAD3-1 and OsFAD3 overexpression lines increased from 0.36 mg g⁻¹ to 8.57 mg g⁻¹ and 10.06 mg g⁻¹, respectively, which was 23.8- and 27.9-fold higher than that of non-transformants. The trait of high ALA content was stably inheritable over three generations. Homologous OsFAD3 is more active than GmFAD3-1 in catalysing LA conversion to ALA in rice seeds. Overexpression of ER-localized GmFAD3-2/3 and chloroplast-localized OsFAD7/8 had less effect on increasing the ALA content in rice seeds. The GluC promoter is advantageous compared with Ubi-1 in this experimental system. The enhanced ALA was preferentially located at the sn-2 position in triacylglycerols. A meal-size portion of high ALA rice would meet >80% of the daily adult ALA requirement. The ALA-rich rice could be expected to ameliorate much of the global dietary ALA deficiency.

  9. Effect of a novel mutation in a Δ9-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase on soybean seed oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddle, Paul; Whetten, Rebecca; Cardinal, Andrea; Upchurch, Robert G; Miranda, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil typically contains 2-4% stearic acid. Seed oil with 20% stearic acid would be useful for solid fat applications, both for its cooking properties and health benefits. Breeding lines with high stearic acid have been developed, but many suffer from agronomic problems. This study identifies a new source of high stearic acid, determines its relationship with another high stearic locus and presents molecular markers for it is use in breeding. TCJWB03-806-7-19, a 'Holladay' mutant with high stearic acid, was crossed to two FAM94-41-derived lines that contained a point mutation in a seed-specific isoform of a Δ9-stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase (SACPD-C). Fatty acid analysis was performed over two growing seasons with F(2)-derived lines and transgressive segregation for stearic acid content was observed. Sequencing of SACPD isoforms in TCJWB03-806-7-19 revealed the deletion of an 'A' nucleotide in exon 3 of SACPD-B, which results in a protein whose final 28 amino acids are predicted to differ from Williams 82 SACPD-B. Sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) analysis revealed that this frameshift mutation may affect SACPD-B protein function. Allele-specific genotyping for the SACPD-C point mutation and SACPD-B nucleotide deletion was performed in both populations. Additive effects and R(2) for stearic acid were +3.3 and 0.55 for SACPD-C and +1.9 and 0.19 for SACPD-B. Average stearic acid in lines homozygous for both mutations was 14.6%. This SACPD-B mutation represents a novel high stearic allele.

  10. The Acyl Desaturase CER17 Is Involved in Producing Wax Unsaturated Primary Alcohols and Cutin Monomers1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianpeng; Zhao, Huayan; Kosma, Dylan K.; Dyer, John M.; Li, Rongjun; Liu, Xiulin; Wang, Zhouya; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    We report n-6 monounsaturated primary alcohols (C26:1, C28:1, and C30:1 homologs) in the cuticular waxes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stem, a class of wax not previously reported in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis cer17 mutant was completely deficient in these monounsaturated alcohols, and CER17 was found to encode a predicted ACYL-COENZYME A DESATURASE LIKE4 (ADS4). Studies of the Arabidopsis cer4 mutant and yeast variously expressing CER4 (a predicted fatty acyl-CoA reductase) with CER17/ADS4, demonstrated CER4’s principal role in synthesis of these monounsaturated alcohols. Besides unsaturated alcohol deficiency, cer17 mutants exhibited a thickened and irregular cuticle ultrastructure and increased amounts of cutin monomers. Although unsaturated alcohols were absent throughout the cer17 stem, the mutation’s effects on cutin monomers and cuticle ultrastructure were much more severe in distal than basal stems, consistent with observations that the CER17/ADS4 transcript was much more abundant in distal than basal stems. Furthermore, distal but not basal stems of a double mutant deficient for both CER17/ADS4 and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE1 produced even more cutin monomers and a thicker and more disorganized cuticle ultrastructure and higher cuticle permeability than observed for wild type or either mutant parent, indicating a dramatic genetic interaction on conversion of very long chain acyl-CoA precursors. These results provide evidence that CER17/ADS4 performs n-6 desaturation of very long chain acyl-CoAs in both distal and basal stems and has a major function associated with governing cutin monomer amounts primarily in the distal segments of the inflorescence stem. PMID:28069670

  11. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1: Is It the Link between Sulfur Amino Acids and Lipid Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Poloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An association between sulfur amino acids (methionine, cysteine, homocysteine and taurine and lipid metabolism has been described in several experimental and population-based studies. Changes in the metabolism of these amino acids influence serum lipoprotein concentrations, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. However, recent evidence has suggested that the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1 may be the link between these two metabolic pathways. SCD-1 is a key enzyme for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Its main substrates C16:0 and C18:0 and products palmitoleic acid (C16:1 and oleic acid (C18:1 are the most abundant fatty acids in triglycerides, cholesterol esters and membrane phospholipids. A significant suppression of SCD-1 has been observed in several animal models with disrupted sulfur amino acid metabolism, and the activity of SCD-1 is also associated with the levels of these amino acids in humans. This enzyme also appears to be involved in the etiology of metabolic syndromes because its suppression results in decreased fat deposits (regardless of food intake, improved insulin sensitivity and higher basal energy expenditure. Interestingly, this anti-obesogenic phenotype has also been described in humans and animals with sulfur amino acid disorders, which is consistent with the hypothesis that SCD-1 activity is influenced by these amino acids, in particularly cysteine, which is a strong and independent predictor of SCD-1 activity and fat storage. In this narrative review, we discuss the evidence linking sulfur amino acids, SCD-1 and lipid metabolism.

  12. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP desaturase (SAD. The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  13. Inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression induces CHOP-dependent cell death in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélaine Minville-Walz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer cells present a sustained de novo fatty acid synthesis with an increase of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA production. This change in fatty acid metabolism is associated with overexpression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1, which catalyses the transformation of saturated fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid. Several reports demonstrated that inhibition of Scd1 led to the blocking of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Nevertheless, mechanisms of cell death activation remain to be better understood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we demonstrated that Scd1 extinction by siRNA triggered abolition of de novo MUFA synthesis in cancer and non-cancer cells. Scd1 inhibition-activated cell death was only observed in cancer cells with induction of caspase 3 activity and PARP-cleavage. Exogenous supplementation with oleic acid did not reverse the Scd1 ablation-mediated cell death. In addition, Scd1 depletion induced unfolded protein response (UPR hallmarks such as Xbp1 mRNA splicing, phosphorylation of eIF2α and increase of CHOP expression. However, the chaperone GRP78 expression, another UPR hallmark, was not affected by Scd1 knockdown in these cancer cells indicating a peculiar UPR activation. Finally, we showed that CHOP induction participated to cell death activation by Scd1 extinction. Indeed, overexpression of dominant negative CHOP construct and extinction of CHOP partially restored viability in Scd1-depleted cancer cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that inhibition of de novo MUFA synthesis by Scd1 extinction could be a promising anti-cancer target by inducing cell death through UPR and CHOP activation.

  14. Cloning and characterization of ∆6/∆5 fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) gene promoter in the marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yewei; Zhao, Jianhong; Chen, Junliang; Wang, Shuqi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qinghao; You, Cuihong; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2018-01-09

    The rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus was the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the ability of biosynthesizing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, and all genes encoding the key enzymes for LC-PUFA biosynthesis have been cloned and functionally characterized, which provides us a potential model to study the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts. As the primary step to clarify such mechanisms, present research focused on promoter analysis of gene encoding ∆6/∆5 fatty acyl desaturase (Fad), a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the first step in the conversion of C18 PUFA to LC-PUFA. First, 2044 bp promoter sequence was cloned by genome walking, and the sequence from -456 bp to +51 bp was determined as core promoter by progressive deletion mutation. Moreover, binding sites of transcription factors (TF) such as CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), nuclear factor 1 (NF-1), stimulatory protein 1 (Sp1), nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), activated protein 1 (AP1), sterol regulatory element (SRE), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified in the core promoter by site-directed mutation and functional assays. Moreover, NF-1 and HNF4α were confirmed to interact with the core promoter region by gel shift assay and mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the promoter structure of a ∆6/∆5 Fad in a marine teleost, and a novel discovery of NF-1 and HNF4α binding to the ∆6/∆5 Fad promoter. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Determination of Stearoyl-Coenzyme A Desaturase 1 Gene Variants in South Anatolian Red and East Anatolian Red Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İjlal İpek PAYA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fat composition in ruminant’s milk is one of the factors that can affect human health in positive or adverse ways. Optimizing ruminant feed to achieve ideal fatty acid composition in milk has been an ongoing area of research in recent years, without satisfactory results to date. It has been argued that in addition to changes in feed, genetic information can also be utilized to improve milk fatty acid composition. The aim of the study is to investigate the incidence of stearoyl-CoA-desaturase 1 (SCD gene variants, which are claimed to affect fat content and quality of milk in Turkish native cattle breeds. Fifty South Anatolian Red (SAR and 50 East Anatolian Red (EAR cattle were used in the study. The 5th exon of SCD gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the PCR products were subjected to sequencing analysis. Among the samples sequenced polymorphism at three nucleotide positions have been observed on the 5th exon of the SCD gene, namely A702G, T762C and C878T. Of these three, the polymorphic position C878T was utilized to determine peptide variants of A (293Ala or the V (293 Val of individual samples. Frequency of A variant and AA genotype in SAR and EAR cattle breeds was 0.91 and 0.77 as well as 0.43 and 0.29, respectively. In particular the SAR exhibits a very low frequency of the V allele, believed to have been an ancestral allele. In both samples, 2 individuals were identified to have the VV genotype. The results suggested that high frequency of A allele and AA genotype which confers great advantage on milk composition and meat fatty acid composition was present in SAR and EAR cattle breeds

  16. Chronic exposure to chewing tobacco selects for overexpression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in normal oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Renuse, Santosh; Sathe, Gajanan J; Raja, Remya; Syed, Nazia; Radhakrishnan, Aneesha; Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Patil, Arun; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Somani, Babu L; Nair, Bipin; Kundu, Gopal C; Prasad, T Keshava; Califano, Joseph A; Gowda, Harsha; Sidransky, David; Pandey, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    Chewing tobacco is a common practice in certain socio-economic sections of southern Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent and has been well associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The molecular mechanisms of chewing tobacco which leads to malignancy remains unclear. In large majority of studies, short-term exposure to tobacco has been evaluated. From a biological perspective, however, long-term (chronic) exposure to tobacco mimics the pathogenesis of oral cancer more closely. We developed a cell line model to investigate the chronic effects of chewing tobacco. Chronic exposure to tobacco resulted in higher cellular proliferation and invasive ability of the normal oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT1). We carried out quantitative proteomic analysis of OKF6/TERT1 cells chronically treated with chewing tobacco compared to the untreated cells. We identified a total of 3,636 proteins among which expression of 408 proteins were found to be significantly altered. Among the overexpressed proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was found to be 2.6-fold overexpressed in the tobacco treated cells. Silencing/inhibition of SCD using its specific siRNA or inhibitor led to a decrease in cellular proliferation, invasion and colony forming ability of not only the tobacco treated cells but also in a panel of head and neck cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to chewing tobacco induced carcinogenesis in non-malignant oral epithelial cells and SCD plays an essential role in this process. The current study provides evidence that SCD can act as a potential therapeutic target in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, especially in patients who are users of tobacco.

  17. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  18. Restriction of dietary protein does not promote hepatic lipogenesis in lean or fatty pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Pinto, Rui M A; Prates, José A M

    2016-04-01

    The influence of genotype (lean v. fatty) and dietary protein level (normal v. reduced) on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid-sensitive factors is reported for the first time, using the pig as an experimental model. The experiment was conducted on forty entire male pigs (twenty lean pigs of Large White×Landrace×Pietrain cross-breed and twenty fatty pigs of Alentejana purebreed) from 60 to 93 kg of live weight. Each pig genotype was divided into two subgroups, which were fed the following diets: a normal protein diet (NPD) equilibrated for lysine (17·5 % crude protein and 0·7 % lysine) and a reduced protein diet (RPD) not equilibrated for lysine (13·1 % crude protein and 0·4 % lysine). The majority of plasma metabolites were affected by genotype, with lean pigs having higher contents of lipids, whereas fatty pigs presented higher insulin, leptin and urea levels. RPD increased plasma TAG, free fatty acids and VLDL-cholesterol compared with NPD. Hepatic total lipids were higher in fatty pigs than in the lean genotype. RPD affected hepatic fatty acid composition but had a slight influence on gene expression levels in the liver. Sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1 was down-regulated by RPD, and fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were affected by the interaction between genotype and diet. In pigs fed RPD, FADS1 was up-regulated in the lean genotype, whereas FABP4 increased in the fatty genotype. Although there is a genotype-specific effect of dietary protein restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism, lipogenesis is not promoted in the liver of lean or fatty pigs.

  19. Viral hepatitis and hepatitis B antigen: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Saul

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances in hepatitis research have shed new light on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of type B hepatitis infection. The so-called ‘Dane’ particle is probably the complete hepatitis B virion; its outer coat is the hepatitis B (Australia) antigen (HB Ag) and its inner core is an immunologically distinct particle. Subtypes of HB Ag (a, d, y, w and r) are useful indices for epidemiological surveys. Concepts of epidemiology have changed: type B hepatitis is transmissible by contact as well as by inoculation. The presence of HB Ag in blood is indicative of the presence of hepatitis B virus. Tests to detect antigen and use of voluntary blood donors have played a major role in the decreased incidence of post transfusion hepatitis. A special hepatitis B gammaglobulin preparation and a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine have proved to be effective in preliminary studies. PMID:4219230

  20. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  1. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood. This test shows how well your child's treatment is working. ... Acute hepatitis B does not need any special treatment. Your child's immune system will fight the disease. If there is no sign of the HBV infection after ...

  2. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers Homeless Veterans Chat VA » Health Care » Viral Hepatitis » Veterans and ... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans ...

  3. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  4. XTC-induced hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oranje, W A; von Pol, P; vd Wurff, A; Zeijen, R N; Stockbrügger, R W; Arends, J W

    1994-02-01

    An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports we describe an acute hepatitis due to occasional use of XTC in a 25-year-old woman.

  5. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  6. Messenger RNA levels and transcription rates of hepatic lipogenesis genes in genetically lean and fat chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaire Madeleine

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Levels of body fat content in commercial meat chickens have prompted research in order to control the development of this trait. Based on experimentally selected divergent lean and fat lines, many studies have shown that liver metabolism has a major role in the fatness variability. In order to identify which genes are involved in this variability, we investigated the expression of several genes implicated in the hepatic lipid metabolism. The studied genes code for enzymes of fatty acid synthesis [ATP citrate-lyase (ACL, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1], for an apolipoprotein [apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1], and for the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα, which is a transcription factor implied in the regulation of several genes of lipid metabolism. The results show that the fat-line chickens display significantly higher hepatic transcription rates and mRNA levels than the lean-line chickens for the ACL, ME and APOA1 genes. This suggests that these genes could be responsible for the phenotypic fatness variability.

  7. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  8. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  9. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  10. Expression of the genes encoding the CasK/R two-component system and the DesA desaturase during Bacillus cereus cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomandé, Sara Esther; Doublet, Bénédicte; Vasaï, Florian; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Broussolle, Véronique; Brillard, Julien

    2016-08-01

    Two-component systems (TCS) allow a cell to elaborate a variety of adaptive responses to environment changes. The recently discovered CasK/R TCS plays a role in the optimal unsaturation of fatty acids necessary for cold adaptation of the foodborne-pathogen Bacillus cereus Here, we showed that the promoter activity of the operon encoding this TCS was repressed during growth at low temperature in the stationary phase in the parental strain when compared to the casK/R mutant, suggesting that CasR negatively regulates the activity of its own promoter in these conditions. The promoter activity of the desA gene encoding the Δ5 fatty acid desaturase, providing unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) required for low temperature adaptation, was repressed in the casK/R mutant grown at 12°C versus 37°C. This result suggests that CasK/R activates desA expression during B. cereus growth at low temperature, allowing an optimal unsaturation of the fatty acids. In contrast, desA expression was repressed during the lag phase at low temperature in presence of UFAs, in a CasK/R-independent manner. Our findings confirm that the involvement of this major TCS in B. cereus cold adaptation is linked to the upregulation of a fatty acid desaturase. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effects of growth phase and nitrogen starvation on expression of fatty acid desaturases and fatty acid composition of Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerlimann, Roger; Steinig, Eike J; Loxton, Heather; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R; Heimann, Kirsten

    2014-07-15

    Very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) are important dietary requirements for maintaining human health. Many marine microalgae are naturally high in ω-3 VLC-PUFAs, however, the molecular mechanisms underpinning fatty acid (FA) desaturation and elongation in algae are poorly understood. An advanced molecular understanding would facilitate improvements of this nascent industry. We aimed to investigate expression responses of four front-end fatty acid desaturase genes and downstream effects on FA profiles to nitrogen limitation and cultivation growth stage in Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO). Cultures were grown in nitrogen-replete and -deplete medium; samples were harvested during logarithmic, late logarithmic and stationary growth phases to analyse FA content/composition and gene expression of ∆(6)-, ∆(8)-, ∆(5)- and ∆(4)-desaturases (d6FAD (putative), d8FAD, d5FAD and d4FAD, respectively). d6FAD (putative) exhibited no differential expression, while d8FAD, d5FAD and d4FAD were significantly upregulated during logarithmic growth of nutrient-replete cultures, coinciding with rapid cell division. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that expression of some FADs in I. aff. galbana varies with culture age and nitrogen status which has downstream consequences on FA desaturation levels. This has implications for the commercial production of VLC-PUFAs where a trade-off between total lipid yield and VLC-PUFAs has to be made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional Regulation of Δ6-Desaturase by Peroxisome Proliferative-Activated Receptor δ Agonist in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells: Role of MEK/ERK1/2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Darabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Δ6-desaturase (Δ6D, also known as fatty acid desaturase 2, is a regulatory enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which has been linked to obesity and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor δ (PPARδ agonist and MEK/ERK1/2-dependent pathway on the expression of Δ6D in human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1. PANC-1 cells cultured in RPMI-1640 were exposed to the commonly used ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor PD98059 and PPARδ agonist GW0742. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of Δ6D were then determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The expression of Δ6D (P40%, P25%, P<0.05 pretreatment. PPARδ and MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways affect differentially the expression of Δ6D in pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, there may be an inhibitory crosstalk between these two regulatory pathways on the mRNA expression of Δ6D and subsequently on Δ6D protein expression.

  13. On the structure and function of the phytoene desaturase CRTI from Pantoea ananatis, a membrane-peripheral and FAD-dependent oxidase/isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schaub

    Full Text Available CRTI-type phytoene desaturases prevailing in bacteria and fungi can form lycopene directly from phytoene while plants employ two distinct desaturases and two cis-tans isomerases for the same purpose. This property renders CRTI a valuable gene to engineer provitamin A-formation to help combat vitamin A malnutrition, such as with Golden Rice. To understand the biochemical processes involved, recombinant CRTI was produced and obtained in homogeneous form that shows high enzymatic activity with the lipophilic substrate phytoene contained in phosphatidyl-choline (PC liposome membranes. The first crystal structure of apo-CRTI reveals that CRTI belongs to the flavoprotein superfamily comprising protoporphyrinogen IX oxidoreductase and monoamine oxidase. CRTI is a membrane-peripheral oxidoreductase which utilizes FAD as the sole redox-active cofactor. Oxygen, replaceable by quinones in its absence, is needed as the terminal electron acceptor. FAD, besides its catalytic role also displays a structural function by enabling the formation of enzymatically active CRTI membrane associates. Under anaerobic conditions the enzyme can act as a carotene cis-trans isomerase. In silico-docking experiments yielded information on substrate binding sites, potential catalytic residues and is in favor of single half-site recognition of the symmetrical C(40 hydrocarbon substrate.

  14. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  15. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  16. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  17. Human Breast Cancer Tissues Contain Abundant Phosphatidylcholine(36∶1) with High Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Takahiro; Nishio, Tomohisa; Morita, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koizumi, Kei; Matsunuma, Ryoichi; Hosokawa, Yuko; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Shiiya, Norihiko; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer and mortality in women worldwide. Recent studies have argued that there is a close relationship between lipid synthesis and cancer progression because some enzymes related to lipid synthesis are overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. However, lipid distribution in breast cancer tissues has not been investigated. We aimed to visualize phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysoPCs (LPCs) in human breast cancer tissues by performing matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), which is a novel technique that enables the visualization of molecules comprehensively. Twenty-nine breast tissue samples were obtained during surgery and subjected to MALDI-IMS analysis. We evaluated the heterogeneity of the distribution of PCs and LPCs on the tissues. Three species [PC(32∶1), PC(34∶1), and PC(36∶1)] of PCs with 1 mono-unsaturated fatty acid chain and 1 saturated fatty acid chain (MUFA-PCs) and one [PC(34∶0)] of PCs with 2 saturated fatty acid chains (SFA-PC) were relatively localized in cancerous areas rather than the rest of the sections (named reference area). In addition, the LPCs did not show any biased distribution. The relative amounts of PC(36∶1) compared to PC(36∶0) and that of PC(36∶1) to LPC(18∶0) were significantly higher in the cancerous areas. The protein expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), which is a synthetic enzyme of MUFA, showed accumulation in the cancerous areas as observed by the results of immunohistochemical staining. The ratios were further analyzed considering the differences in expressions of the estrogen receptor (ER), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67. The ratios of the signal intensity of PC(36∶1) to that of PC(36∶0) was higher in the lesions with positive ER expression. The contribution of SCD1 and other enzymes to the formation of the observed phospholipid composition is discussed. PMID:23613812

  18. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate liver fatty acid desaturase (FADS) alternative transcript expression in suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Downs, Ian; Srigley, Cynthia Tyburczy; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S; Zimmer, J Paul; Butt, C M; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early post-natal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed one of six milk replacer formula diets (formula-reared groups, FR) with varying ARA and DHA content from days 3-28 of age. The ARA/DHA levels of the six formula diets were as follows (% total fatty acid, FA/FA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D2) 0.67/0.62; and (D1) 0.66/0.33. The control maternal-reared (MR) group remained with the dam. Fads1 expression was not significantly different between FR and MR groups. Fads2 expression was down-regulated significantly in diets with 1:1 ratio of ARA:DHA, compared to MR. Fads2 AT1 expression was highly correlated to Fads2 expression. Fads3 AT7 was the only Fads3 transcript sensitive to dietary LC-PUFA intake and was up-regulated in the formula diets with lowest ARA and DHA contents compared to MR. Thus, the present study provides evidence that the proportion of dietary ARA:DHA is a significant determinant of Fads2 expression and LC-PUFA metabolism during the early postnatal period. Further, the data suggest that Fads3 AT7 may have functional significance when dietary supply of ARA and DHA are low during early development. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contact with blood (and other body fluids) in the course ... Department of Public Health Dentistry, Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, 1Department of ... Keywords: Attitude, Health‑care workers, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Interns, Knowledge.

  20. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  1. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C

    2017-03-21

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1n-15 (∆520:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1n-9 (∆1120:1) to ∆5,1120:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5n-3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C24) PUFAs.

  2. Hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity and knowledge of Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Despite its staggering toll on health, diseases arising from hepatitis are largely unknown, unappreciated, undiagnosed and untreated. Many Nigerians are unaware of their hepatitis B status and often present late to hospital with advanced chronic liver disease. The objectives were to determine the hepatitis B ...

  3. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they are a major cause of both acute and chronic liver disease, as well as hepatocellular cancer. Persons at risk of acquisition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are also at risk of acquisition of infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ...

  4. Hepatic hemangioma -review-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajenaru, N; Balaban, V; Săvulescu, F; Campeanu, I; Patrascu, T

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic hemangiomas are benign tumors of the liver consisting of clusters of blood-filled cavities, lined by endothelial cells, fed by the hepatic artery. The vast majority of HH are asymptomatic, most often being discovered incidentally during imaging investigations for various unrelated pathologies. Typical hemangiomas, the so-called capillary hemangiomas, range from a few mm to 3 cm, do not increase in size over time and therefore are unlikely to generate future symptomatology. Small (mm-3 cm) and medium (3 cm-10 cm) hemangiomas are well-defined lesions, requiring no active treatment beside regular follow-ups. However, the so-called giant liver hemangiomas, of up to 10 cm (most commonly) and even 20+ cm in size (according to occasional reports) can, and usually will develop symptoms and complications that require prompt surgical intervention or other kind of therapy. HH belong to the class of hepatic "incidentalomas", so-called because they are diagnosed incidentally, on imaging studies performed as routine examinations or for other reasons than the evaluation of a possible liver mass. Less than half of HH present with overt clinical symptoms, consisting, most often, of upper abdominal pain (this is usually the case for large lesions, which cause the distension of Glisson's capsule). Hepatic hemangiomas require a careful diagnosis to differentiate from other focal hepatic lesions, co-occurring diagnoses are also possible.

  5. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  6. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  7. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  8. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  9. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jinbo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor is rare and poses a challenge for diagnosis and management. We presented a case of primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in a 53-year-old female with a complaint of right upper abdominal pain. Computer tomography scans revealed a hypervascular mass in segment 4 of the liver. An ultrasonography-guided biopsy showed a carcinoid tumor. No other lesions were found by the radiological investigations. Surgery resection was performed and histopathological examination revealed a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor. Three years later, recurrence was found and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed. After transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, the patient has been free of symptom and had no radiological disease progression for over 6 months. Surgical resection combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is effective to offer excellent palliation.

  10. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  11. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Halothane hepatitis in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenna, J G; Neuberger, J; Mieli-Vergani, G; Mowat, A P; Williams, R

    1987-01-01

    It is often stated that halothane hepatitis in children is nonexistent or extremely rare. This syndrome occurred in seven children aged between 11 months and 15 years, one of whom, a 3 1/2 year old boy, died with fulminant hepatic failure. All the children had received multiple halothane anaesthetics (range 2-6, median 3). In all cases other causes of liver diseases were excluded, and in all but one the diagnosis was confirmed serologically by antibodies to halothane altered liver cell membra...

  13. Prevention of Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV v...

  14. Menhaden oil, but not safflower or soybean oil, aids in restoring the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in the novel delta-6-desaturase null mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Jessica; Li, Feng-Jun; Maclennan, Mira; Rabalski, Alexandra; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Nakamura, Manabu T; Ma, David Wl

    2012-05-29

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have diverse biological effects, from promoting inflammation to preventing cancer and heart disease. Growing evidence suggests that individual PUFA may have independent effects in health and disease. The individual roles of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), have been difficult to discern from the actions of their highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) downstream metabolites. This issue has recently been addressed through the development of the Δ-6 desaturase knock out (D6KO) mouse, which lacks the rate limiting Δ-6 desaturase enzyme and therefore cannot metabolize LA or ALA. However, a potential confounder in this model is the production of novel Δ-5 desaturase (D5D) derived fatty acids when D6KO mice are fed diets containing LA and ALA, but void of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to characterize how the D6KO model differentially responds to diets containing the essential n-6 and n-3 PUFA, and whether the direct provision of downstream HUFA can rescue the phenotype and prevent the production of D5D fatty acids. Liver and serum phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition was examined in D6KO and wild type mice fed i) 10% safflower oil diet (SF, LA rich) ii) 10% soy diet (SO, LA+ALA) or iii) 3% menhaden oil +7% SF diet (MD, HUFA rich) for 28 days (n = 3-7/group). Novel D5D fatty acids were found in liver PL of D6KO fed SF or SO-fed mice, but differed in the type of D5D fatty acid depending on diet. Conversely, MD-fed D6KO mice had a liver PL fatty acid profile similar to wild-type mice. Through careful consideration of the dietary fatty acid composition, and especially the HUFA content in order to prevent the synthesis of D5D fatty acids, the D6KO model has the potential to elucidate the independent biological and health effects of the parent n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, LA and ALA.

  15. Loss of ULK1 increases RPS6KB1-NCOR1 repression of NR1H/LXR-mediated Scd1 transcription and augments lipotoxicity in hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Singh, Brijesh K; Zhou, Jin; Xie, Sherwin; Farah, Benjamin L; Lesmana, Ronny; Ohba, Kenji; Tripathi, Madhulika; Ghosh, Sujoy; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Yen, Paul M

    2017-01-02

    Lipotoxicity caused by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) induces tissue damage and inflammation in metabolic disorders. SCD1 (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1) converts SFAs to mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) that are incorporated into triglycerides and stored in lipid droplets. SCD1 thus helps protect hepatocytes from lipotoxicity and its reduced expression is associated with increased lipotoxic injury in cultured hepatic cells and mouse models. To further understand the role of SCD1 in lipotoxicity, we examined the regulation of Scd1 in hepatic cells treated with palmitate, and found that NR1H/LXR (nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H) ligand, GW3965, induced Scd1 expression and lipid droplet formation to improve cell survival. Surprisingly, ULK1/ATG1 (unc-51 like kinase) played a critical role in protecting hepatic cells from SFA-induced lipotoxicity via a novel mechanism that did not involve macroautophagy/autophagy. Specific loss of Ulk1 blocked the induction of Scd1 gene transcription by GW3965, decreased lipid droplet formation, and increased apoptosis in hepatic cells exposed to palmitate. Knockdown of ULK1 increased RPS6KB1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, polypeptide 1) signaling that, in turn, induced NCOR1 (nuclear receptor co-repressor 1) nuclear uptake, interaction with NR1H/LXR, and recruitment to the Scd1 promoter. These events abrogated the stimulation of Scd1 gene expression by GW3965, and increased lipotoxicity in hepatic cells. In summary, we have identified a novel autophagy-independent role of ULK1 that regulates NR1H/LXR signaling, Scd1 expression, and intracellular lipid homeostasis in hepatic cells exposed to a lipotoxic environment.

  16. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get some forms of viral hepatitis the same way you get HIV—through unprotected sexual contact and injection drug use. HAV, which causes a short-term but occasionally severe illness, is usually spread when the virus is ingested from contact with ...

  17. Hepatitis in HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Hepatitis, an infection in the liver, affects many people with HIV. Hepatitis A (HAV) is transmitted most often through sexual contact with an infected person or by ingesting contaminated food or drinks. Two ways of preventing HAV are by maintaining good personal hygiene or receiving a vaccination. There are no treatments for HAV, but most patients clear the infection without medication. Hepatitis B (HBV) is spread through blood, bodily fluids, or sexual contact. There is a vaccination to prevent HBV, but the only approved treatment for chronic HBV is Interferon Alfa-2b therapy. Several other drugs, however, are being tested as possible treatments for HBV. Hepatitis C (HCV) spreads similarly to HBV. Many people who are infected with HCV do not have any symptoms and unknowingly spread the disease. There is no vaccination for HCV. The treatment for HCV is the same as for HBV, but the medication may need to be taken indefinitely to avoid a relapse. People with HCV or HBV and HIV are at greater risk for developing chronic liver disease.

  18. Living with Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stressed by the hepatitis virus. Omit or severely limit alcohol use. Alcohol should not be taken with other ... Live-R Die © educational DVD addresses binge drinking, drug abuse and other liver ... to college age students with information specific to the functions of ...

  19. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions ...

  20. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  1. The prevention of hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaccine appears to depress the level of antibody response obtained.9 An additional booster dose of vaccine may therefore be necessary. There appears to be no interference in the immune response to both antigens when hepatitis B vaccine is given concomitantly, although different injection sites are advised. Havrix is an ...

  2. Hepatic hemangioma: atypical appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikulis, D.J.; Costello, P.; Clouse, M.E.

    1985-07-01

    Recent reports indicate that computed tomography (CT) after bolus injection of contrast material is diagnostically specific for hemangioma, replacing the need for angiography in a high percentage of patients. The authors report a unique hepatic hemangioma that showed early diffuse intense opacification by angiography and contrast-enhanced CT.

  3. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/whocdscsredc2007/en/index1.html through http://www.who.int . Accessed ...

  4. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/whocdscsrlyo20022/en/index3.html#serologicalmarkers through http://www.who.int . ...

  5. XTC-induced hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oranje, W.A.; van Pol, V.; van der Wurff, A.A.; Zeijen, R.N.; Stockbrügger, R.W.; Arends, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    XTC-induced hepatitis. Oranje WA, von Pol P, vd Wurff A, Zeijen RN, Stockbrugger RW, Arends JW. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Maastricht, Netherlands. An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports

  6. Hepatitis Testing - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Hepatitis Testing URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/hepatitistesting.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section A B C D E F G H I J K L M N ...

  7. Hepatitis A - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Hepatitis A URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/hepatitisa.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section A B C D E F G H I J K L M N ...

  8. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  9. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  10. Viral hepatitis in minority America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Renard A; Vega, Kenneth J

    2005-02-01

    Viral hepatitis continues as an important public health concern in the United States. Available data indicate that acute and chronic viral hepatitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this country despite the availability of immunization for hepatitis A and B and pharmacologic therapy for chronic hepatitis B and C. Minority populations within the United States are disproportionately affected by acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Many diseases, for example, Barrett's esophagus, affect ethnic groups differently. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C may demonstrate ethnic variation with regard to their epidemiology, natural history, clinicopatholgic findings, complications, and treatment outcomes. This report will review the literature regarding these areas in hepatitis A, B, and C among the African American, Hispanic American, and Native American populations of the United States.

  11. Accelerated bottom-up drug design platform enables the discovery of novel stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 inhibitors for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Roemeling, Christina A; Caulfield, Thomas R; Marlow, Laura; Bok, Ilah; Wen, Jiang; Miller, James L; Hughes, Robert; Hazlehurst, Lori; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Radisky, Derek C; Tun, Han W; Kim, Yon Son Betty; Lane, Amy L; Copland, John A

    2018-01-02

    Here we present an innovative computational-based drug discovery strategy, coupled with machine-based learning and functional assessment, for the rational design of novel small molecule inhibitors of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1). Our methods resulted in the discovery of several unique molecules, of which our lead compound SSI-4 demonstrates potent anti-tumor activity, with an excellent pharmacokinetic and toxicology profile. We improve upon key characteristics, including chemoinformatics and absorption/distribution/metabolism/excretion (ADME) toxicity, while driving the IC50 to 0.6 nM in some instances. This approach to drug design can be executed in smaller research settings, applied to a wealth of other targets, and paves a path forward for bringing small-batch based drug programs into the Clinic.

  12. A Candidate Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 3' Untranslated Region of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Gene for Fatness Quality and the Gene Expression in Berkshire Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Jun-Mo; Lee, Eun-A; Choe, Jee-Hwan; Hong, Ki-Chang

    2015-02-01

    Fatness qualities in pigs measured by the amount of fat deposition and composition of fatty acids (FAs) in pork have considerable effect on current breeding goals. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene plays a crucial role in the conversion of saturated FAs into monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), and hence, is among the candidate genes responsible for pig fatness traits. Here, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, c.*2041T>C) in the 3' untranslated region by direct sequencing focused on coding and regulatory regions of porcine SCD. According to the association analysis using a hundred of Berkshire pigs, the SNP was significantly associated with FA composition (MUFAs and polyunsaturated FAs [PUFAs]), polyunsaturated to saturated (P:S) FA ratio, n-6:n-3 FA ratio, and extent of fat deposition such as intramuscular fat and marbling (pC SNP plays a role in the gene regulation and affects the fatness qualities in Berkshire pigs.

  13. A Candidate Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 3′ Untranslated Region of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Gene for Fatness Quality and the Gene Expression in Berkshire Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sang Lim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatness qualities in pigs measured by the amount of fat deposition and composition of fatty acids (FAs in pork have considerable effect on current breeding goals. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene plays a crucial role in the conversion of saturated FAs into monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs, and hence, is among the candidate genes responsible for pig fatness traits. Here, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, c.*2041T>C in the 3′ untranslated region by direct sequencing focused on coding and regulatory regions of porcine SCD. According to the association analysis using a hundred of Berkshire pigs, the SNP was significantly associated with FA composition (MUFAs and polyunsaturated FAs [PUFAs], polyunsaturated to saturated (P:S FA ratio, n-6:n-3 FA ratio, and extent of fat deposition such as intramuscular fat and marbling (pC SNP plays a role in the gene regulation and affects the fatness qualities in Berkshire pigs.

  14. Improvement of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed oil quality through introduction of a soybean microsomal omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, T; Koga, M; Tanaka, H; Kinoshita, T; Rahman, S M; Takagi, Y

    2003-06-01

    Microsomal omega-3 fatty acid desaturase is an essential enzyme in the production of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid during the seed developing stage. We have constructed a chimeric gene consisting of a maize Ubi1-P-int and a soybean GmFAD3 cDNA, which was introduced into rice plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Ten transformants containing the chimeric gene were established and expression subsequently confirmed by Northern blotting. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid content of the T(1) seeds increased dramatically up to tenfold that of the control, and this phenotype was also stably inherited in the T(2) and T(3) progenies. These results demonstrate that the alpha-linolenic acid content of rice seed oil can easily be altered using the combination of a high-activity promoter and a GmFAD3 gene.

  15. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Thifault, Elisabeth; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-09-10

    Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition. To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation. 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g-2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA). Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03) was performed. Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2) had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008). For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456). For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively). RESULTS suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation.

  16. Upregulated mRNA expression of desaturase and elongase, two enzymes involved in highly unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis pathways during follicle maturation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyu Yee-Ling

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although unsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3 and arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6, collectively known as the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, play pivotal roles in vertebrate reproduction, very little is known about their synthesis in the ovary. The zebrafish (Danio rerio display capability to synthesize all three HUFA via pathways involving desaturation and elongation of two precursors, the linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3n-3. As a prerequisite to gain full understanding on the importance and regulation of ovarian HUFA synthesis, we described here the mRNA expression pattern of two enzymes; desaturase (fadsd6 and elongase (elovl5, involved in HUFA biosynthesis pathway, in different zebrafish ovarian follicle stages. Concurrently, the fatty acid profile of each follicle stage was also analyzed. Methods mRNA levels of fadsd6 and elovl5 in different ovarian follicle stages were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays. For analysis of the ovarian follicular fatty acid composition, gas chromatography was used. Results Our results have shown that desaturase displayed significant upregulation in expression during the oocyte maturation stage. Expression of elongase was significantly highest in pre-vitellogenic follicles, followed by maturation stage. Fatty acid composition analysis of different ovarian follicle stages also showed that ARA level was significantly highest in pre-vitellogenic and matured follicles. DHA level was highest in both late vitellogenic and maturation stage. Conclusion Collectively, our findings seem to suggest the existence of a HUFA synthesis system, which could be responsible for the synthesis of HUFA to promote oocyte maturation and possibly ovulation processes. The many advantages of zebrafish as model system to understand folliculogenesis will be

  17. Combined transgenic expression of Punica granatum conjugase (FADX) and FAD2 desaturase in high linoleic acid Arabidopsis thaliana mutant leads to increased accumulation of punicic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Miles, Robin; Wickramarathna, Aruna; Sahibollah, Ariff Firman; Greer, Michael S; Chen, Guanqun; Weselake, Randall J

    2014-09-01

    Arabidopsis was engineered to produce 21.2 % punicic acid in the seed oil. Possible molecular factors limiting further accumulation of the conjugated fatty acid were investigated. Punicic acid (18:3Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis) ) is a conjugated linolenic acid isomer and is a main component of Punica granatum (pomegranate) seed oil. Medical studies have shown that punicic acid is a nutraceutical with anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. It has been previously demonstrated that the conjugated double bonds in punicic acid are produced via the catalytic action of fatty acid conjugase (FADX), which is a homolog of the oleate desaturase. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of the Δ(12)-double bond of linoleic acid (18:2Δ(9cis,12cis) ) into conjugated Δ(11trans) and Δ(13cis) -double bonds. Previous attempts to produce punicic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seeds overexpressing P. granatum FADX resulted in a limited accumulation of punicic acid of up to 4.4 %, accompanied by increased accumulation of oleic acid (18:1∆(9cis) ), suggesting that production of punicic acid in some way inhibits the activity of oleate desaturase (Iwabuchi et al. 2003). In the current study, we applied a new strategy to enhance the production of punicic acid in a high linoleic acid A. thaliana fad3/fae1 mutant background using the combined expression of P. granatum FADX and FAD2. This approach led to the accumulation of punicic acid at the level of 21 % of total fatty acids and restored the natural proportion of oleic acid observed in the A. thaliana fad3/fae1 mutant. In addition, we provide new insights into the high oleate phenotype and describe factors limiting the production of punicic acid in genetically engineered plants.

  18. Does genetic variation in the Delta6-desaturase promoter modify the association between alpha-linolenic acid and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong; DiBello, Julia R; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2009-03-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with protection against components of the metabolic syndrome, but the role of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the metabolic precursor of EPA and DHA, has not been studied. The Delta(6)-desaturase enzyme converts ALA into EPA and DHA, and genetic variation in the Delta(6)-desaturase gene (FADS2) may affect this conversion. We hypothesize that high ALA is associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and that genetic variation in FADS2 modifies this association. We studied 1815 Costa Rican adults. Adipose tissue ALA was used as a biomarker of intake, and metabolic syndrome was identified with the definition from the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs were estimated from binomial regression models, and the likelihood ratio was used to test for effect modification. High concentrations of adipose tissue ALA were associated with lower PRs of the metabolic syndrome compared with low ALA (0.81; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.00, for the comparison between the highest and the lowest quintiles; P for trend < 0.02). Higher concentrations of adipose tissue ALA were associated with a lower PR among homozygote (0.67; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.86) and heterozygote (0.84; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.99) carriers of the FADS2 T allele, but not among homozygote carriers of the deletion variant allele (0.99; 95% CI: 0.78, 1.27; P for interaction: 0.08). Elevated ALA concentrations in adipose tissue are associated with lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. A lack of association among homozygote carriers of the FADS2 deletion allele suggests that this association may be due in part to the conversion of ALA into EPA.

  19. Loss of Function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 in Tomato Enhances Basal Aphid Resistance in a Salicylate-Dependent Manner1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Carlos A.; Arévalo-Soliz, Lirio M.; Jia, Lingling; Navarre, Duroy A.; Chen, Zhaorigetu; Howe, Gregg A.; Meng, Qing-Wei; Smith, Jonathon E.; Goggin, Fiona L.

    2012-01-01

    We report here that disruption of function of the ω-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 (FAD7) enhances plant defenses against aphids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which eliminates the function of FAD7, reduces the settling behavior, survival, and fecundity of the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). Likewise, the antisense suppression of LeFAD7 expression in wild-type tomato plants reduces aphid infestations. Aphid resistance in the spr2 mutant is associated with enhanced levels of salicylic acid (SA) and mRNA encoding the pathogenesis-related protein P4. Introduction of the Naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase transgene, which suppresses SA accumulation, restores wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility to spr2. Resistance in spr2 is also lost when we utilize virus-induced gene silencing to suppress the expression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1), a positive regulator of many SA-dependent defenses. These results indicate that FAD7 suppresses defenses against aphids that are mediated through SA and NPR1. Although loss of function of FAD7 also inhibits the synthesis of jasmonate (JA), the effects of this desaturase on aphid resistance are not dependent on JA; other mutants impaired in JA synthesis (acx1) or perception (jai1-1) show wild-type levels of aphid susceptibility, and spr2 retains aphid resistance when treated with methyl jasmonate. Thus, FAD7 may influence JA-dependent defenses against chewing insects and SA-dependent defenses against aphids through independent effects on JA synthesis and SA signaling. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants Atfad7-2 and Atfad7-1fad8 also show enhanced resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) compared with wild-type controls, indicating that FAD7 influences plant-aphid interactions in at least two plant families. PMID:22291202

  20. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the beta-carotene content in Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Babili, Salim; Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Schaub, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    To increase the beta-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimization of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden Rice events investigated. The low protein amounts observed may be caused by either weak cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter activity in the endosperm or by inappropriate codon usage. The protein level of CrtI was increased to explore its potential for enhancing the flux of metabolites through the pathway. For this purpose, a synthetic CrtI gene with a codon usage matching that of rice storage proteins was generated. Rice plants were transformed to express the synthetic gene under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter. In addition, transgenic plants expressing the original bacterial gene were generated, but the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter was employed instead of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Independent of codon optimization, the use of the endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a large increase in bacterial desaturase production in the T(1) rice grains. However, this did not lead to a significant increase in the carotenoid content, suggesting that the bacterial enzyme is sufficiently active in rice endosperm even at very low levels and is not rate-limiting. The endosperm-specific expression of CrtI did not affect the carotenoid pattern in the leaves, which was observed upon its constitutive expression. Therefore, tissue-specific expression of CrtI represents the better option.

  1. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Couture

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG and fasting insulin (FI responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA. Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03 was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2 had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008. For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456. For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively. Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation.

  2. Hepatitis and hepatitis A vaccine: a glimpse of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilleman, M R

    1993-01-01

    Human hepatitis has been recognized since the dawn of recorded history, but proof of infectious etiology and delineation of hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) from hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) were not established until the first half of the present century. Development of the present killed hepatitis A vaccine depended on a series of breakthrough discoveries made during the last 25 years. These were marmoset propagation (1967); definition of virus attributes (1974-1975); development of diagnostic tests and seroepidemiology (1974-1975); and the preparation and proof of efficacy of a prototype killed hepatitis A vaccine (1976). Successful cultivation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 quickly led to development of both live and killed hepatitis A vaccines for tests in human beings (1980-1990). The year 1991 marks the initiation of protective efficacy trials of two different killed virus vaccines in human beings. The safety and protective efficacy of the first vaccine (Merck) is reported in this symposium and the findings in tests of a second vaccine (SKB) are awaited. Hepatitis A is clearly a conquerable disease, initially in its elimination as an important disease entity and eventually in its eradication.

  3. Dietary Starfish Oil Prevents Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6N Mice Fed High-fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Fumiaki; Li, Haoqi; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Nagai, Toshiharu; Yoshinda, Akihiko; Kubo, Atsushi; Kanda, Jota; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-07-01

    Starfish oil (SO) is characterized by functional lipids, including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (both in the form of triacylglycerol and in the form of phospholipid), and carotenoids, which may exert beneficial effects on metabolic disorders in obesity-associated diseases. In the present study, the effect of SO on dysregulation of lipid metabolism was examined using C57BL/6N mice treated with high-fat (HF) diet. Mice were fed HF, HF with 2% SO, or HF with 5% SO diet for 8 weeks. Weight gain, blood glucose, serum and hepatic lipid contents, and hepatic fatty acid composition were measured. Fatty acid β-oxidation activity was monitored by measuring the catabolic rate of (13)C-labeled fatty acid, assessed as (13)CO2/(12)CO2 ratio using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS). Although there were no differences in body weight or white adipose tissue weight among the test groups, dietary SO reduced blood glucose, and dose-dependently improved hyperlipidemia and decreased hepatic lipid accumulation. Analysis of hepatic fatty acid composition revealed a significant decrease in the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid, which is attributed to stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity. IR-MS analysis suggested that β-oxidation activity was enhanced in the mice treated with 5% SO. These results demonstrate that dietary SO improves lipid metabolism measures in HF diet-induced obese mice, suggesting that SO holds promise as an agent for the prevention and treatment of lipid metabolism disorders in the liver.

  4. Erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity, and dietary fatty acids in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Janine; Zietemann, Vera; Enzenbach, Cornelia; Weikert, Cornelia; Jansen, Eugène Hjm; Döring, Frank; Joost, Hans-Georg; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B

    2011-01-01

    The long-term role of fatty acids (FAs) in the cause of diabetes remains largely unclear. We aimed to investigate erythrocyte membrane FAs, desaturase activity, and dietary FAs in relation to the incidence of type 2 diabetes. We applied a nested case-cohort design (n = 2724, including 673 incident diabetes cases) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study, which involves 27,548 middle-aged subjects. Thirty erythrocyte membrane FAs (percentage of total FAs) and FA intake (percentage of total fat) were measured at baseline, and physician-confirmed incident diabetes was assessed during a mean follow-up of 7.0 y. We evaluated Δ⁵ desaturase (D5D) and Δ⁶ desaturase (D6D) activity by using FA product-to-precursor ratios (traditional approach) and by investigating variants in FADS1 and FADS2 genes that encode these desaturases (Mendelian randomization approach). As a main finding, erythrocyte 16:1n-7 and 18:3n-6 and FA ratios, which reflect stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) and D6D activity, were directly related to diabetes risk in multivariable-adjusted models [relative risks (95% CIs) comparing extreme quintiles: 16:1n-7, 2.11 (1.46, 3.05); 18:3n-6, 2.00 (1.38, 2.88); SCD, 2.61 (1.75, 3.89); and D6D, 2.46 (1.67, 3.63)], whereas the FA ratio that reflects D5D activity was inversely associated with risk [0.46 (0.31, 0.70)]. The Mendelian randomization approach corroborated the direct relation for D6D activity and tended to support the inverse relation for D5D activity. Proportions of dietary FAs showed only modest to low correlations with erythrocyte FAs and were not significantly associated with risk. The FA profile of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and activity of desaturase enzymes are strongly linked to the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  6. Hepatitis in a patient with SLE: Is it autoimmune hepatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Kooy, Adriaan; Heide, L. J M; Engelkens, Herman; Mulder, Andries; HAGEN, MARTIN; Schalm, Solko

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we considered the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in view of raised serum aminotransferases, hypergammaglobulinaemia, antinuclear antibodies (titre 1:10240), seronegative of markers for viral hepatitis and absence of recent hepatotoxic drug usage. The diagnosis of AIH was supported by using the scoring system, recently developed by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group and the excellent response to treatment with...

  7. Characteristics of hepatitis viruses among Egyptian children with acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed; Yano, Yoshihiko; El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is hyperendemic in Egypt, western Asia and Africa. However, little is known about the status of hepatitis viruses among rural Egyptian children. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis viruses among symptomatic Egyptian children. Serological and molecular analyses of hepatitis viral infection were conducted in 33 children hospitalised at Mansoura University with symptomatic hepatic dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine aminotransferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti‑hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected in 9 (27%) and 7 (21%) children, respectively, indicating acute-on-chronic infection with hepatitis viruses. None of the children was positive for anti‑hepatitis B core antigen-IgM. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all HBVs belonged to genotype D (subgenotype D1) and that HCV belonged to genotypes 4a and 1g. HBV-DNA was detected in 9 children (27%) in the pre-S/S region and in 16 children (48%) in the core promoter/precore region. The Y134F amino acid mutation in the 'α' determinant region was detected in all of the patients. The A1762T/G1764A double mutation, and the T1846A and G1896A single mutations were common in children with occult HBV infection. In conclusion, hepatitis viral infection, including acute-on-chronic infection with HCV and HBV, is common in Egyptian children hospitalised with acute hepatitis.

  8. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  9. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  10. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

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    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  11. Prevention of hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-03-02

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV vaccine is effective, and a combination of both yields the best efficacy in preventing HBV infection. The impact of universal HBV immunization is huge, with 90%-95% effectiveness in preventing chronic HBV infection. It is the first cancer preventive vaccine with a protective efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ∼ 70%. Nevertheless, further effort is still needed to avoid vaccine failure and to increase the global coverage rate. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Hepatitis C in Haematological Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Y. Y.; Liang, R.H.S.

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus guideline concerning the management of chronic hepatitis C patients during chemotherapy, and immunosuppression. However, there are some suggestions in literature that hepatitis C viral load increases during chemotherapy and there is a risk of rebound immunity against hepatitis C after discontinuation of immunosuppression with a consequent liver injury. A close monitoring of liver function of these patients is prudent during treatment of haematological malignancy. Antivir...

  13. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused ...

  14. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  15. Hepatitis C in Haematological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Hwang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus guideline concerning the management of chronic hepatitis C patients during chemotherapy, and immunosuppression. However, there are some suggestions in literature that hepatitis C viral load increases during chemotherapy and there is a risk of rebound immunity against hepatitis C after discontinuation of immunosuppression with a consequent liver injury. A close monitoring of liver function of these patients is prudent during treatment of haematological malignancy. Antiviral treatment is deferred after the completion of chemotherapy and recovery of patients' immunity to minimize the toxicity of treatment. A combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is the standard therapy in hepatitis C infected haematological patients.

  16. Autochthonous hepatitis E in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Sandeep; Smith, Donald; Wellington, Louise; Vanek, Jeff; Simmonds, Peter; MacGilchrist, Alastair; Bathgate, Andrew; Simpson, Kenneth; Johannessen, Ingolfur

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus is well recognized cause of acute hepatitis. Traditionally hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections were generally associated with travel to Asia and Africa. Autochthonous hepatitis E is recognized as a major cause acute hepatitis in England and Wales. However, autochthonous hepatitis E has never been documented in Scotland. We attempted to determine if autochthonous HEV occurred in Scotland. Samples from 377 individuals in the South-East of Scotland presenting with acute hepatitis were tested over six years. Acute hepatitis E was confirmed by detecting viraemia or documenting seroconversion and ORF-2 region sequenced. Structured interviews were carried out to identify risk factors for infection. Sixteen individuals (4.2%) had evidence of past HEV infection. Twelve (3.2%) had acute HEV infection, 10 of whom had viraemia (genotype 1=3; genotype 3=7). Of these seven with genotype 3 infection, three had not travelled outside Scotland within the incubation period, while four had travelled to Spain (n=3) or Turkey (n=1). All three individuals with genotype 1 infection had travelled to the Indian subcontinent. A significant proportion of HEV genotype 3 infections was autochthonous (43%). HEV screening should hence be an integral part of acute hepatitis screening in Scotland, irrespective of the travel history. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  18. Ethnicity, sex, FADS genetic variation, and hormonal contraceptive use influence delta-5- and delta-6-desaturase indices and plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in young Canadian adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmagid, Salma A; Clarke, Shannon E; Roke, Kaitlin; Nielsen, Daiva E; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Mutch, David M; Ma, David Wl

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids and health. Yet, the combinatory effect of factors such as sex, ethnicity, genetic polymorphisms and hormonal contraceptives (HC) on the concentrations of these fatty acids is unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of FADS polymorphisms, and HC use in females, on aggregate desaturase indices (ADI), and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations in Caucasian and East Asian males and females. Fasting plasma samples were collected from subjects (Caucasian males: 113 and females: 298; East Asian males: 98 and females: 277) from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Fatty acid concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. ADI were estimated by dividing concentrations of arachidonic acid by linoleic acid (n-6 ADI) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by α-linolenic acid (n-3 ADI). [DHA/EPA] desaturase index was used to determine effects of FADS2 polymorphisms and HC use on EPA conversion to DHA. In Caucasians, associations between n-6 ADI and multiple SNP (FADS1 rs174547, FADS2 rs174576, and rs174611 in males; FADS1 rs174547, FADS2 rs174570, rs174576, rs174679, rs174611, rs174593, rs174626, rs2072114, rs2845573, and rs2851682 in females) withstood multiple testing. In East Asian females, 5 SNP-n-6 ADI associations (FADS2 rs174602, rs174626, rs2072114, rs2845573, and rs2851682) withstood multiple testing. One FADS2 SNP was associated with altered [DHA/EPA] desaturase index in Caucasian females only (rs174576, p FADS polymorphisms on desaturase indices, and ethnic-specific effect of HC use on plasma DHA concentrations.

  19. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  20. Hepatitis in a patient with SLE: Is it autoimmune hepatitis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kooy (Adriaan); L.J.M. de Heide (Loek); H.J.H. Engelkens (Herman); A.H. Mulder (Andries); M.P. van Hagen (Martin); S.W. Schalm (Solko)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we considered the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in view of raised serum aminotransferases, hypergammaglobulinaemia, antinuclear antibodies (titre 1:10240), seronegative of markers for viral hepatitis and absence of recent

  1. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are also among the commonest transfusiontransmissible infectious agents. Students of higher institutions are often used as voluntary unpaid donors by many ...

  2. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  3. Chronic hepatitis B associated with hepatic steatosis, insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on fatty liver disease is unclear.. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the viral and host causes of fatty liver in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. This study included 88 CHB patients of which 17 were not treated. Liver biopsy was performed in each ...

  4. How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Xiridou; Barbara Borkent-Raven; Joost Hulshof; Jacco Wallinga

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control measures for HBV may have also affected the spread of hepatitis D, as evidenced by the decline of hepatitis D in recent years. Since the presence of hepatitis D is associated with suppressed HBV replic...

  5. Extra-hepatic manifestations of autochthonous hepatitis E infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolson, K L; Forbes, A; Vine, L; Beynon, L; McElhinney, L; Panayi, V; Hunter, J G; Madden, R G; Glasgow, T; Kotecha, A; Dalton, H C; Mihailescu, L; Warshow, U; Hussaini, H S; Palmer, J; Mclean, B N; Haywood, B; Bendall, R P; Dalton, H R

    2014-12-01

    Autochthonous (locally acquired) hepatitis E is increasingly recognised in developed countries, and is thought to be a porcine zoonosis. A range of extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis E infection have been described, but have never been systematically studied. To report the extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus. Retrospective review of data of 106 cases of autochthonous hepatitis E (acute n = 105, chronic n = 1). Eight (7.5%) cases presented with neurological syndromes, which included brachial neuritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, neuromyopathy and vestibular neuritis. Patients with neurological syndromes were younger (median age 40 years, range 34-92 years, P = 0.048) and had a more modest transaminitis (median ALT 471 IU/L, P = 0.015) compared to cases without neurological symptoms [median age 64 years (range 18-88 years), median ALT 1135 IU/L]. One patient presented with a cardiac arrhythmia,twelve patients (11.3%) presented with thrombocytopenia, fourteen (13.2%) with lymphocytosis and eight (7.5%) with a lymphopenia, none of which had any clinical consequence. Serum electrophoresis was performed in 65 patients at presentation, of whom 17 (26%) had a monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance. Two cases developed haematological malignancies, acute myeloid leukaemia and duodenal plasmacytoma, 18 and 36 months after presenting with acute hepatitis E infection. A range of extra-hepatic manifestations can occur with hepatitis E. Neurological and haematological features of hepatitis E infection are relatively frequent in this UK cohort, and result in significant morbidity which warrants further study. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. HIV and hepatitis C coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highleyman, Liz

    2003-01-01

    Coinfection with HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a growing public health concern. Because the diseases are spread in similar ways--notably through shared use of needles to inject drugs and sexual activity--many people are coinfected with HIV and HCV, HIV and HBV, or even all three viruses. Hepatitis C and hepatitis B are viral infections of the liver; over time they can lead to serious consequences including liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Most studies show that HIV infection leads to more aggressive hepatitis C or hepatitis B and a higher risk of liver damage. Studies of how HCV and HBV affect HIV disease are less clear. Most research shows that HCV does not accelerate HIV disease progression, but HIV/HCV coinfection may impair immune system recovery after starting antiretroviral therapy. Coinfection can complicate treatment. People with liver damage due to chronic hepatitis are more likely to experience hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity) related to anti-HIV drugs. In addition, drugs used to treat HIV and hepatitis can interact and side effects may be exacerbated. Most experts recommend that HIV should be controlled first before a person begins HCV treatment. With careful management, most people with HIV/HCV or HIV/HBV coinfection can be successfully treated for both diseases. In fact, several recent studies suggest that HIV/HCV-coinfected people with well-controlled HIV disease and relatively high CD4 cell counts may do as well as those with HCV alone.

  7. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  8. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  9. Clinical features of hepatitis D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, Patrizia; Niro, Grazia Anna

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis D is caused by infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), a defective RNA virus that requires the obligatory helper function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its in vivo transmission. Thus, HDV is acquired only by coinfection with HBV or by superinfection of an HBV carrier. The clinical outcome of hepatitis D differs according to the modality of infection. Whereas coinfection evolves to chronicity in only 2% of the cases, superinfection results in chronic infection in over 90% of the cases. HDV is a highly pathogenic virus that causes acute, often fulminant hepatitis, as well as a rapidly progressive form of chronic viral hepatitis, leading to cirrhosis in 70 to 80% of the cases. The clinical picture of HDV disease is evolving as a consequence of a significant change in the epidemiology of HDV infection, which has led to a significant decline in incidence in Western countries, mainly as a result of universal HBV vaccination programs. However, in the face of a declining prevalence in areas of old endemicity like Europe, immigration poses a threat of HDV resurgence. The interaction of HDV with other hepatitis viruses or human immunodeficiency virus is complex and may lead to different patterns in terms of virologic expression and immunologic responses. Multiple viral infections are associated with rapid progression of liver fibrosis and eventually with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis D is not a vanishing disease, and continuous efforts should be made to improve its prevention and treatment. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in mid-1982. An inactivated hepatitis B vaccine that was licensed in the United States in November 1981 has been shown to be safe, immunogenic, and effective. When this vaccine becomes available for use in July 1982, it will be recommended for persons who are considered to be at increased risk of contracting hepatitis B infection. Future generations of hepatitis B vaccines may be prepared from hepatitis B surface antigen derived from DNA recombinant technology or by in vitro synthesis of HBs Ag determinants by chemical means. PMID:6295013

  11. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  12. [6]-gingerol dampens hepatic steatosis and inflammation in experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2015-04-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of [6]-gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone) in experimental models of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. HepG2 cells were exposed to 500 µmol/l oleic acid (OA) for 24 h and preincubated for an additional 24 h with [6]-gingerol (25, 50 or 100 µmol/l). [6]-Gingerol (100 µmol/l) inhibited OA-induced triglyceride and inflammatory marker accumulation in HepG2 cells. After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks, male golden hamsters were dosed orally with [6]-gingerol (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day) once daily for 8 weeks while maintained on HFD. [6]-Gingerol (100 mg/kg/day) alleviated liver steatosis, inflammation, and reversed plasma markers of metabolic syndrome in HFD-fed hamsters. The expression of inflammatory cytokine genes and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) were increased in the HFD group; these effects were attenuated by [6]-gingerol. The hepatic mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as liver X receptor-α, sterol regulating element binding protein-1c and its target genes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 in HFD-fed hamsters was also blocked by [6]-gingerol. [6]-Gingerol may attenuate HFD-induced steatohepatitis by downregulating NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses and reducing hepatic lipogenic gene expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J.; Janssen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly or...

  14. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  15. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavakhi, Ahmad; Norinayer, Babak; Esteghamat, Fateme Sadat; Seghatoleslami, Mohamad; Khodadustan, Mahsa; Somi, Mohamad Hosein; Masoodi, Mohsen; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients. METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women) were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique. RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%). No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05) and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission. PMID:21772856

  16. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    de Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; G. Sanna; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A.

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  17. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is also endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, ... of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis, and co‑infections among ..... Hou J, Liu Z, Gu F. Epidemiology and prevention of hepatitis. B virus infection. Int J Med Sci 2005;2:50‑7. 9. Ogunro PS, Adekanle DA, Fadero FF, Ogungbamigbe TO,.

  18. Use of PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism in the gene of the enzyme Stearoyl-CoA-Desaturase in Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The milk is an important food because it contents Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA. These fatty acids are synthesized in mammary gland under action of the enzyme Stearoyl CoA-Desaturase (SCD and have showed some positive effects in human disease prevention and treatments. A variation of CLA in milk fat exists and can be partially explained by the different levels of expression of SCD. The aim was to study part of the encoding regions of SCD´s gene using PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Genomic DNA was extracted from lactating Murrah females. After this, PCR reactions were made by using primers Z43D1 that encloses exon I, II and intron I. The fragments amplified are composed by 938 pb. Then, RFLP techniques were applied in the fragments using the restriction enzymes Pst I and Sma I. The enzyme Pst I has generated fragments of 788pb and 150bp and the Sma I has generated fragments of 693pb and 245pb. All the animals showed the same migration standard for both enzymes, characterizing a genetic monomorphism for this region of SCD gene. The analysis determined that there aren’t genetic differences between these animals in the studied regions by using Pst I and Sma I enzymes.

  19. Potential protective function of the sterol regulatory element binding factor 1-fatty acid desaturase 1/2 axis in early-stage age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Yuhei; Okabe, Shiko; Sato, Yumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Tada, Tomoko; Miyao, Haruka; Murakami, Soichiro; Kawaguchi, Koki; Sasagawa, Shota; Shimada, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Toshio

    2017-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of vision loss in elderly individuals throughout the developed world. Inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor have been successfully used to treat choroidal neovascularization in late-stage AMD. The pathogenesis of early-stage AMD, however, remains largely unknown, impairing efforts to develop effective therapies that prevent progression to late-stage AMD. To address this, we performed comparative transcriptomics of macular and extramacular retinal pigmented epithelium-choroid (RPE-choroid) tissue from early-stage AMD patients. We found that expression of fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), FADS2, and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) is increased in macular but not extramacular tissue, possibly through activation of sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 (SREBF1). Consistent with this, we also found that expression of Fads1 is increased in RPE-choroid in a mouse model of early-stage AMD. In zebrafish, deletion of fads2, which encodes a protein that functions as both Fads1 and Fads2 in other species, enhanced apoptosis in the retina upon exposure to intense light. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of Srebf1 enhanced apoptosis and reduced fads2 expression in zebrafish exposed to intense light. These results suggest that the SREBF1-FADS1/2 axis may be activated in macular RPE-choroid as a protective response during early-stage AMD and could thus be a therapeutic target for early-stage AMD.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster are associated with delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase activities estimated by serum fatty acid ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Szilvia; Dumont, Julie; Spinneker, Andre; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Nova, Esther; Widhalm, Kurt; Moschonis, George; Stehle, Peter; Amouyel, Philippe; De Henauw, Stefaan; Molnàr, Dènes; Moreno, Luis A; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Dallongeville, Jean

    2010-08-01

    Genetic variability in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster [encoding delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturases] has been associated with plasma long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and lipid levels in adults. To better understand these relationships, we further characterized the association between FADS1-FADS2 genetic variability and D5D and D6D activities in adolescents. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,144 European adolescents (mean +/- SD age: 14.7 +/- 1.4 y). Serum phospholipid fatty acid levels were analyzed using gas chromatography. D5D and D6D activities were estimated from the C20:4n-6/C20:3n-6 and C20:3n-6/C18:2n-6 ratios, respectively. Minor alleles of nine SNPs were associated with higher 18:2n-6 levels (1.9E-18 FADS1. In contrast, only the rs968567 minor allele was associated with higher D6D activity (P = 1.5E-6). This finding agrees with an earlier in vitro study showing that the minor allele of rs968567 is associated with a higher FADS2 promoter activity. These results suggest that rare alleles of several SNPs in the FADS gene cluster are associated with higher D6D activity and lower D5D activity in European adolescents.

  1. A ζ-carotene desaturase gene, IbZDS, increases β-carotene and lutein contents and enhances salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijie; Kang, Chen; Song, Xuejin; Yu, Ling; Liu, Degao; He, Shaozhen; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang

    2017-09-01

    ζ-Carotene desaturase (ZDS) is one of the key enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the ZDS gene has not been applied to carotenoid improvement of plants. Its roles in tolerance to abiotic stresses have not been reported. In this study, the IbZDS gene was isolated from storage roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Nongdafu 14. Its overexpression significantly increased β-carotene and lutein contents and enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato (cv. Kokei No. 14) plants. Significant up-regulation of lycopene β-cyclase (β-LCY) and β-carotene hydroxylase (β-CHY) genes and significant down-regulation of lycopene ε-cyclase (ε-LCY) and ε-carotene hydroxylase (ε-CHY) genes were found in the transgenic plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) and proline contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde (MDA) content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants under salt stress. The salt stress-responsive genes encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), SOD, CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and POD were found to be significantly up-regulated in the transgenic plants under salt stress. This study indicates that the IbZDS gene has the potential to be applied for improving β-carotene and lutein contents and salt tolerance in sweetpotato and other plants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group ( n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  3. A Novel Selective Inhibitor of Delta-5 Desaturase Lowers Insulin Resistance and Reduces Body Weight in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Hiroaki; Takagahara, Shuichi; Tamura, Yumiko Okano; Miyahisa, Ikuo; Matsui, Junji; Suzuki, Hideo; Ikeda, Shota; Watanabe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is now recognized as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and is called as metabolic inflammation. Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) is an enzyme that metabolizes dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) to arachidonic acid (AA). Thus, D5D inhibition increases DGLA (precursor to anti-inflammatory eicosanoids) while decreasing AA (precursor to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids), and could result in synergistic improvement in the low-grade inflammatory state. Here, we demonstrate reduced insulin resistance and the anti-obesity effect of a D5D selective inhibitor (compound-326), an orally active small-molecule, in a high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model. In vivo D5D inhibition was confirmed by determining changes in blood AA/DGLA profiles. In DIO mice, chronic treatment with compound-326 lowered insulin resistance and caused body weight loss without significant impact on cumulative calorie intake. Decreased macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue was expected from mRNA analysis. Increased daily energy expenditure was also observed following administration of compound-326, in line with sustained body weight loss. These data indicate that the novel D5D selective inhibitor, compound-326, will be a new class of drug for the treatment of obese and diabetic patients.

  4. A novel chemical synthesis of 1-O-hexadecyl-rac-[2-3H]glycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine and a simple assay for plasmanyl desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A K; Hajra, A K

    1996-12-01

    A simple and efficient method for chemical synthesis of lysophosphatidylethanolamine is described. 1-O-hexadecyl diazohydroxyacetone (A. K. Hajra, T. V. Saraswathi and A. K. Das. 1983. Chem. Phys. Lipids. 33: 179-193) was decomposed by benzyloxycarbonyl (CBZ) derivative of phosphorylethanolamine (I) to give 1-O-hexadecyl dihydroxyacetone-3-(N)-CBZ phosphorylethanolamine (II). Compound (II) was reduced by NaBH4 and the product (III), after catalytic transfer hydrogenolysis produced the final compound, 1-O-hexadecyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine (IV). The yield of (IV), starting from 1-O-hexadecyl diazohydroxyacetone was 53%. The identities of the compounds were verified by NMR and fast atom bombardment mass spectral (FAB-MS) analysis. 1-O-hexadecyl-rac[2-3H]glycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine prepared by the method above was shown to be a good in vitro substrate for plasmanyl delta 1'-desaturase (EC 1.14.99.19). Using this radioactive substrate, a simple and rapid solvent partition assay for this enzyme was developed with results comparable to those obtained by the two-dimensional thin-layer chromatographic assay method. The advantage of this rapid assay system and the applicability of the chemical synthetic method for other phosphoglycerides are discussed.

  5. bZIP67 regulates the omega-3 fatty acid content of Arabidopsis seed oil by activating fatty acid desaturase3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana; Kelly, Amélie A; van Erp, Harrie; Shaw, Eve; Powers, Stephen J; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J

    2013-08-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seed maturation is accompanied by the deposition of storage oil, rich in the essential ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA). The synthesis of ALA is highly responsive to the level of fatty acid desaturase3 (FAD3) expression, which is strongly upregulated during embryogenesis. By screening mutants in leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1)-inducible transcription factors using fatty acid profiling, we identified two mutants (lec1-like and bzip67) with a seed lipid phenotype. Both mutants share a substantial reduction in seed ALA content. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that bZIP67 binds G-boxes in the FAD3 promoter and enhances FAD3 expression but that activation is conditional on bZIP67 association with LEC1-like (L1L) and nuclear factor-YC2 (NF-YC2). Although FUSCA3 and abscisic acid insensitive3 are required for L1L and bZIP67 expression, neither protein is necessary for [bZIP67:L1L:NF-YC2] to activate FAD3. We conclude that a transcriptional complex containing L1L, NF-YC2, and bZIP67 is induced by LEC1 during embryogenesis and specifies high levels of ALA production for storage oil by activating FAD3 expression.

  6. Asthenia in Children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Lembryk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of own researches concerning peculiarities of the course of asthenic syndrome in school-aged children with chronic hepatitis B, C and mixed forms are provided. It is established that chronic hepatitis C as well as a mixed hepatitis are accompanied by more evident symptoms of deadaptation and somatogenic asthenia than hepatitis B in which psychogenic manifestations prevailed. The degree of endogenous intoxication was also higher at hepatitis C.

  7. Hepatitis C and cutaneous alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Rita Fachinelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While most of those infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV are asymptomatic or only develop liver manifestations, a significant percentage evolves with autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders, resulting in a clinical condition called HCV syndrome. This work involving case studies of six patients with hepatitis C and varied skin manifestation aimed to report skin lesions occurring with HCV infection and its treatment. Skin manifestations in hepatitis C have been based on epidemiological studies. This justifies the need for studies that correlate HCV infection and its treatment with skin manifestations.

  8. Chaparral-induced hepatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, W B; Heathcote, J; Wanless, I R

    1995-05-01

    Two patients with hepatic injury after ingestion of chaparral leaf are presented. The first patient, a 71-yr-old man, developed biopsy-proven hepatitis 3 months after ingesting chaparral leaf daily. His illness resolved with discontinuation of the herb and later recurred with rechallenge. The second patient is a 42-yr-old woman who developed hepatitis 2 months after chaparral leaf ingestion and recovered completely after discontinuation of the compound. Both patients have remained well with abstinence from chaparral. These reports provide evidence of the hepatotoxicity of this herb and stress the need for awareness of the potential harm from such nonprescription remedies.

  9. Lipiodol Accumulation in Hepatic Hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Sung; Park, Jeong Mi; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shim, Kyu Sik [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-04-15

    In order to establish different features of hemangioma, lipiodol was superselectively infused in three cases of hepatic hemangioma through the proper or a distal branch hepatic artery following hepatic angiogram. Thereafter a plain X-ray of the abdomen and CT were obtained. The present study revealed accumulation of lipiodol within abnormal vascular space of hemangioma to be multiple, stippled, dense and discrete. Follow-up plain abdomen and CT (6 months, 8 months, and 9 months, respectively) demonstrated very slow clearing of lipiodol accumulation without change in size. These findings are considered to be pathognomonic of hemangioma.

  10. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise M; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    production shifts to the kidney after birth. The liver maintains a production capacity of up to 10% of the total EPO synthesis in healthy controls, but can be up-regulated to 90-100%. However, the hepatic EPO synthesis has been shown not to be adequate for correction of anemia in the absence of renal......, which lead to arterial hypotension, hepatic nephropathy and anemia. An increase in EPO due to renal hypoperfusion, hypoxia and anemia or an EPO-mediated hepato-protective and regenerative mechanism is plausible. However, poor hepatic synthesis capacity, a decreasing co-factor level and inflammatory...

  11. Characteristics of hepatitis viruses among Egyptian children with acute hepatitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    YOUSSEF, AHMED; YANO, YOSHIHIKO; ZAKI, MAYSAA EL-SAYED; UTSUMI, TAKAKO; HAYASHI, YOSHITAKE

    2013-01-01

    ... ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine amino-transferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis...

  12. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hoc test and Pearsonfs correlation. Results: Although most of the interns were aware of the existence of hepatitis B and C infection, the level of awareness regarding the modes of transmission and vaccination was found to be dissatisfactory.

  13. Modulation of hepatic stellate cells and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu, E-mail: 1293363632@QQ.com [Faculty of Graduate Studies of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Deng, Xin, E-mail: Hendly@163.com [Ruikang Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, 10 East China Road, Nanning 530011, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Liang, Jian, E-mail: lj99669@163.com [Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China)

    2017-03-15

    Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is the pathological component of a variety of chronic liver diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver and their activation promotes HF. If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF occurrence and development can theoretically be reduced and even reversed. Over the past ten years, a number of studies have addressed this process, and here we present a review of HSC modulation and HF reversal. - Highlights: • We present a review of the modulation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis (HF). • HSC are the foci of HF occurrence and development, HF could be prevented and treated by modulating HSC. • If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF could theoretically be inhibited and even reversed. • Prevention or reversal of HSC activation, or promotion of HSC apoptosis, immune elimination, and senescence may prevent, inhibit or reverse HF.

  14. Acute hepatitis E presenting with clinical feature of autoimmune hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ishan; Ching Companioni, Rafael; Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Catalano, Carmine; Aron, Joshua; Walfish, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    A 32-year-old immigrant man presented with new onset jaundice. His past medical history was significant for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. His initial laboratory finding and liver biopsy were suggestive of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The plan was to start steroids pending negative results for viral serology, but it came back positive for hepatitis E virus. The patient’s liver function test and clinical condition improved significantly on conservative management ov...

  15. Metabonomic window into hepatitis B virus-related hepatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Qiang; Duan, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Metabonomics has recently been widely used to discover the pathogenesis and find potential metabolic markers with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, it develops new diagnosis and treatment methods, increases early phase diagnosis rates of certain diseases and provides a new basis for targeted therapy. This review mainly analyzes the research progress of the metabonomics of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatic diseases, hoping to discover some potential metabolic markers for ide...

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    roprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in Tripoli, Libya. J Infect Dev Ctries, 2010. 4(3): p. 168-70. 19. Vazquez-Martinez,J.L., Coreno-Juarez, M.O., Mon- tano-Estrada, L.F., Attlan, M.,Gomez-Dantes, H., Sero- prevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Mexi- co. Salud Publica Mex, 2003. 45(3): p. 165-70.

  17. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Prevention of hepatic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Rosa M; Sala, Marga; Planas, Ramon

    2014-06-06

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis which, in addition to producing a great social impact, deteriorates the quality of life of patients and is considered a sign of advanced liver disease and therefore a clinical indication for liver transplant evaluation. Patients who have had episodes of HE have a high risk of recurrence. Thus, after the HE episode resolves, it is recommended: control and prevention of precipitating factors (gastrointestinal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, use of diuretics with caution, avoid nervous system depressant medications), continued administration of non-absorbable disaccharides such as lactulose or lactitol, few or non-absorbable antibiotics such as rifaximin and assess the need for a liver transplant as the presence of a HE episode carries a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Markers of hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballería, Llorenç; Torán, Pere; Caballería, Joan

    2017-10-18

    Chronic liver diseases constitute a major health problem. Chronic liver inflammation, defined by the degree of hepatic fibrosis, is asymptomatic in a significant percentage of patients; hence, the disease often remains undiagnosed until it has reached very advanced phases and, frequently, when the damage is irreversible. Ideally, patients should be screened during the initial phases of chronic inflammation, thus allowing for the effective management of the natural evolution of the disease by stopping or delaying its course. Standard diagnostic methods (transaminase determination or abdominal ultrasonography) do not allow for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. A liver biopsy is the invasive method of choice to screen for fibrosis, however, due to its limitations, non-invasive diagnostic methods such as elastography or serological markers are increasingly used as a good alternative for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatic immune regulation and its involvement in viral hepatitis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Percy A; Thimme, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The liver has unique immune regulatory functions that promote the induction of tolerance rather than responses to antigens encountered locally. These functions are mediated by local expression of coinhibitory receptors and immunosuppressive mediators that help prevent overwhelming tissue damage. Over the years, we have gained more insight into the local regulatory cues that determine the functional complexity of immune responses regulated locally in the liver. Both the unique hepatic microenvironment and the particular liver sinusoidal cell populations, in addition to hepatocytes, actively modulate immune responses locally in the liver and thereby determine the outcome of hepatic immune responses. This is of high biological and clinical relevance in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections, which can cause acute and persistent infections associated with chronic inflammation in humans that eventually progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we review current knowledge about the balance between immunity and tolerance in the liver and how this may affect our understanding of the determinants of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus clearance, persistence, and virus-induced liver disease. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatitis E virus and fulminant hepatitis - a virus or host-specific pathology?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Donald B; Simmonds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fulminant hepatitis is a rare outcome of infection with hepatitis E virus. Several recent reports suggest that virus variation is an important determinant of disease progression.AIMS: To critically examine the evidence that virus-specific factors underlie the development of fulminant hepatitis following hepatitis E virus infection.METHODS: Published sequence information of hepatitis E virus isolates from patients with and without fulminant hepatitis was collected and analysed usin...

  2. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Kokki, I.; D. Smith; Simmonds, P; Ramalingam, S; Wellington, L.; Willocks, L.; Johannessen, I.; Harvala, H.

    2016-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis affects all ages worldwide. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is increasingly recognized as a major cause of acute hepatitis in Europe. Because knowledge of its characteristics is limited, we conducted a retrospective study to outline demographic and clinical features of acute HEV in comparison to hepatitis A, B and C in Lothian over 28 months (January 2012 to April 2014). A total of 3204 blood samples from patients with suspected acute hepatitis were screened for hepatitis A, B a...

  3. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  4. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Kaabi, Saad; Derbala, Moutaz; Al-Marri, Ajayeb; Rikabi, Ammar

    2009-03-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10). A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006). Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%), hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  5. Adult Living with Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Online Support Groups Fact Sheets #Just B Storytelling Campaign Video Library Podcast Library Other Helpful Links Oliver Travels Glossary Research & Programs Our Research Institute Education & Training Hep B United Coalition Hepatitis Delta Connect ...

  6. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  7. Workers' compensation and hepatitis C

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sfikas, P M

    2000-01-01

    Dentists may be required to pay workers' compensation benefits for an employee with hepatitis C even if the employee was not working at the dentist's office at the time he or she contracted the disease...

  8. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... of the trials followed participants after the end of treatment. Only one trial reported adequate bias control; the remaining four trials were considered to have high risk of bias. Random-effects model meta-analyses showed that dopamine agents had no beneficial or detrimental effect on hepatic encephalopathy...

  9. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  10. A Case of Cholestatic Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Junais

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloxacillin, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for MSSA, can rarely cause cholestatic hepatitis. Case fatalities have also been reported. Liver injury can be delayed upto several weeks after stopping the drug, thus causing difficulty in making the diagnosis and also an array of unnecessary investigations. Hence a high index of suspicion is required. We are presenting a case of cloxacillin induced cholestatic hepatitis which occurred in a young male after 4 weeks of taking the drug and persisted for 5 weeks.

  11. Hepatic sarcoidosis mimicking liver cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Kang-Kang; Liu, Han-Qiu; Zhou, Zhong-Wen; Chen, Ming-Quan

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 50-year-old woman with multiple occupations in the liver. Liver cancer was strongly suspected initially according to the results of imaging examination. However, sarcoidosis was confirmed subsequently by liver biopsy, so methylprednisolone was then prescribed and the patient showed favorable therapeutic response. This case report suggests that hepatic mass in Chinese patients without any history of hepatitis virus infection should be carefully investigated before giving...

  12. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMorrow, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only. PMID:29026534

  13. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  14. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... treatment? Other questions you want to ask: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  15. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... me? Other questions you want to ask: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  16. seroprevalence of hav, hbv, hcv, and hev among acute hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    00100, Nairobi, J. Ngaira, Jomo Kenyatta. University of ... (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus .... analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5 computer software.

  17. Identification of a Δ5-like fatty acyl desaturase from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier 1797) involved in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Oscar; Navarro, Juan C; Dick, James R; Alemany, Frederic; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-08-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) have been identified as essential compounds for common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), but precise dietary requirements have not been determined due, in part, to the inherent difficulties of performing feeding trials on paralarvae. Our objective is to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements for paralarval stages of the common octopus through characterisation of the enzymes of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, we isolated a cDNA with high homology to fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Functional characterisation in recombinant yeast showed that the octopus Fad exhibited Δ5-desaturation activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acyl substrates. Thus, it efficiently converted the yeast's endogenous 16:0 and 18:0 to 16:1n-11 and 18:1n-13, respectively, and desaturated exogenously added PUFA substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6 to 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA), respectively. Although the Δ5 Fad enables common octopus to produce EPA and ARA, the low availability of its adequate substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6, either in the diet or by limited endogenous synthesis from C(18) PUFA, might indicate that EPA and ARA are indeed EFA for this species. Interestingly, the octopus Δ5 Fad can also participate in the biosynthesis of non-methylene-interrupted FA, PUFA that are generally uncommon in vertebrates but have been found previously in marine invertebrates, including molluscs, and now also confirmed to be present in specific tissues of common octopus.

  18. Walnut oil increases cholesterol efflux through inhibition of stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillies Peter J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walnuts significantly decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normo- and hypercholesterolemic individuals. No study to date has evaluated the effects of walnuts on cholesterol efflux, the initial step in reverse cholesterol transport, in macrophage-derived foam cells (MDFC. The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms by which walnut oil affects cholesterol efflux. Methods The extract of English walnuts (walnut oil was dissolved in DMSO and applied to cultured THP-1 MDFC cells (0.5 mg/mL. THP-1 MDFC also were treated with human sera (10%, v:v taken from subjects in a walnut feeding study. Cholesterol efflux was examined by liquid scintillation counting. Changes in gene expression were quantified by real time PCR. Results Walnut oil treatment significantly increased cholesterol efflux through decreasing the expression of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 in MDFC. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in walnuts, recaptured SCD1 reduction in MDFC, a mechanism mediated through activation of nuclear receptor farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR. Postprandial serum treatment also increased cholesterol efflux in MDFC. When categorized by baseline C-reactive protein (CRP; cut point of 2 mg/L, subjects in the lower CRP sub-group benefited more from dietary intervention, including a more increase in cholesterol efflux, a greater reduction in SCD1, and a blunted postprandial lipemia. Conclusion In conclusion, walnut oil contains bioactive molecules that significantly improve cholesterol efflux in MDFC. However, the beneficial effects of walnut intake may be reduced by the presence of a pro-inflammatory state. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00938340

  19. Can polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster alter the effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profiles? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Guicheng; Heaton, Alexandra E M; D'Vaz, Nina; Manz, Judith; Reischl, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold V; Prescott, Susan L; Simmer, Karen

    2017-09-19

    The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes determine the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). We investigated if haplotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS gene cluster can influence LCPUFA status in infants who received either fish oil or placebo supplementation. Children enrolled in the Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS) were randomly allocated to receive either fish oil or placebo from birth to 6 months of age. Blood was collected at 6 months of age for the measurement of fatty acids and for DNA extraction. A total of 276 participant DNA samples underwent genotyping, and 126 erythrocyte and 133 plasma fatty acid measurements were available for analysis. Twenty-two FADS SNPs were selected on the basis of literature and linkage disequilibrium patterns identified from the HapMap data. Haplotype construction was completed using PHASE. For participants allocated to the fish oil group who had two copies of the FADS1 haplotype consisting of SNP minor alleles, DHA levels were significantly higher compared to other haplotypes. This finding was not observed for the placebo group. Furthermore, for members of the fish oil group only, the minor homozygous carriers of all the FADS1 SNPs investigated had significantly higher DHA than other genotypes (rs174545, rs174546, rs174548, rs174553, rs174556, rs174537, rs174448, and rs174455). Overall results of this preliminary study suggest that supplementation with fish oil may only significantly increase DHA in minor allele carriers of FADS1 SNPs. Further research is required to confirm this novel finding.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster are associated with delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase activities estimated by serum fatty acid ratios[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Szilvia; Dumont, Julie; Spinneker, Andre; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Nova, Esther; Widhalm, Kurt; Moschonis, George; Stehle, Peter; Amouyel, Philippe; De Henauw, Stefaan; Molnàr, Dènes; Moreno, Luis A.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Dallongeville, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variability in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster [encoding delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturases] has been associated with plasma long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and lipid levels in adults. To better understand these relationships, we further characterized the association between FADS1-FADS2 genetic variability and D5D and D6D activities in adolescents. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,144 European adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.7 ± 1.4 y). Serum phospholipid fatty acid levels were analyzed using gas chromatography. D5D and D6D activities were estimated from the C20:4n-6/C20:3n-6 and C20:3n-6/C18:2n-6 ratios, respectively. Minor alleles of nine SNPs were associated with higher 18:2n-6 levels (1.9E-18 ≤ P ≤ 6.1E-5), lower C20:4n-6 levels (7.1E-69 ≤ P ≤ 1.2E-12), and lower D5D activity (7.2E-44 ≤ P ≤ 4.4E-5). All haplotypes carrying the rs174546 minor allele were associated with lower D5D activity, suggesting that this SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with a functional SNP within FADS1. In contrast, only the rs968567 minor allele was associated with higher D6D activity (P = 1.5E-6). This finding agrees with an earlier in vitro study showing that the minor allele of rs968567 is associated with a higher FADS2 promoter activity. These results suggest that rare alleles of several SNPs in the FADS gene cluster are associated with higher D6D activity and lower D5D activity in European adolescents. PMID:20427696

  1. Umbilical cord PUFA are determined by maternal and child fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genetic variants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M; Steer, Colin D

    2013-04-14

    Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno-fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism.

  2. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Vohl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02 with plasma triglyceride (TG levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA.

  3. A study of associations between early DHA status and fatty acid desaturase (FADS) SNP and developmental outcomes in children of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Karina R; Harsløf, Laurine B S; Schnurr, Theresia M; Hansen, Torben; Hellgren, Lars I; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    DHA from diet or endogenous synthesis has been proposed to affect infant development, however, results are inconclusive. In this study, we aim to verify previously observed fatty acid desaturase gene cluster (FADS) SNP-specific associations with erythrocyte DHA status in 9-month-old children and sex-specific association with developmental outcomes. The study was performed in 166 children (55 % boys) of obese mothers. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was analysed in blood-samples obtained at 9 months of age, and developmental outcomes assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years. Erythrocyte DHA level ranged from 4·4 to 9·9 % of fatty acids, but did not show any association with FADS SNP or other potential determinants. Regression analysis showed associations between erythrocyte DHA and scores for personal-social skills (β 1·8 (95 % CI 0·3, 3·3), P=0·019) and problem solving (β 3·4 (95 % CI 1·2, 5·6), P=0·003). A tendency was observed for an association in opposite direction between minor alleles (G-variant) of rs1535 and rs174575 and personal-social skills (P=0·062 and 0·068, respectively), which became significant when the SNP were combined based on their previously observed effect on erythrocyte DHA at 9 months of age (β 2·6 (95 % CI 0·01, 5·1), P=0·011). Sex-SNP interaction was indicated for rs174575 genotype on fine motor scores (P=0·016), due to higher scores among minor allele carrying girls (P=0·043), whereas no effect was seen among boys. In conclusion, DHA-increasing FADS SNP and erythrocyte DHA status were consistently associated with improved personal-social skills in this small cohort of children of obese mothers irrespective of sex, but the sample was too small to verify potential sex-specific effects.

  4. Gene expression profiling in skeletal muscle of Zucker diabetic fatty rats: implications for a role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M D; Beha, A; Tennagels, N; Tschank, G; Herling, A W; Quint, M; Gerl, M; Metz-Weidmann, C; Haun, G; Korn, M

    2005-12-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we sought to identify and validate genes involved in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Differentially regulated genes in skeletal muscle of male obese insulin-resistant, and lean insulin-sensitive Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were determined using Affymetrix microarrays. Based on these data, various aspects of glucose disposal, insulin signalling and fatty acid composition were analysed in a muscle cell line overexpressing stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1). Gene expression profiling in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle revealed the most pronounced changes in gene expression for genes involved in lipid metabolism. Among these, Scd1 showed increased expression in insulin-resistant animals, correlating with increased amounts of palmitoleoyl-CoA. This was further investigated in a muscle cell line that overexpressed SCD1 and accumulated lipids, revealing impairments of glucose uptake and of different steps of the insulin signalling cascade. We also observed differential effects of high-glucose and fatty acid treatment on glucose uptake and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA profiles, and in particular an accumulation of palmitoleoyl-CoA in cells overexpressing SCD1. Insulin-resistant skeletal muscle of ZDF rats is characterised by a specific gene expression profile with increased levels of Scd1. An insulin-resistant phenotype similar to that obtained by treatment with palmitate and high glucose can be induced in vitro by overexpression of SCD1 in muscle cells. This supports the hypothesis that elevated SCD1 expression is a possible cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  5. A polymorphism in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter influences monounsaturated fatty acid content of Duroc × Iberian hams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriquez-Rodriguez, E.; Tor, M.; Pena, R.N.; Estany, J.

    2015-07-01

    Data on 74 dry-cured hams from Duroc × Iberian pigs were used to examine whether the tag polymorphism AY487830:g.2228T>C in the promoter region of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase [SCD] gene affect fat desaturation and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) as previously described in purebred Duroc hams. Samples were taken from sliced trays of dry-cured hams marketed as Jamón Ibérico de cebo, which were randomly purchased from the same supplier in different stores of the same supermarket chain. Genomic DNA was isolated from each sample to genotype for SCD and gender. Also, a sample of two slices was used to determine fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition by gas chromatography. The effect of the genotype (TT and CT) and gender (barrows and gilts) was estimated under a Bayesian setting. Results showed that the SCD polymorphism was associated to fat composition but not to fat content, with TT hams showing increased C18:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C20:1n-9 and MUFA (probability between 0.92-0.98) and decreased C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) (probability between 0.91-0.99) as compared to the CT. As a result, the TT hams had more MUFA (0.95%) and a higher MUFA/PUFA ratio (0.43) than the CT. Barrows had more saturated FA (SFA) and less PUFA than gilts. No differences in MUFA content were found between genders. The SCD polymorphism had a greater impact on MUFA than using hams from barrows instead of gilts. It is concluded that the SCD polymorphism is a good tool to increase MUFA and MUFA/PUFA ratio in Duroc crossbred dry-cured hams. (Author)

  6. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting the milk fatty acid profile on sheep chromosome 22: role of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene in Spanish Churra sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, M; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; García-Gámez, E; Sánchez, J P; Arranz, J J

    2010-01-01

    Sheep milk fat contains several components that may provide human health benefits, such as monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Most of the CLA in ruminant milk is synthesized in the mammary gland by the action of the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) on circulating vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:2; VA). Previous studies have found significant associations between polymorphisms in the SCD gene and the fatty acid composition of ruminant products, including sheep milk. Based on this, we performed a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of an ovine chromosome (22) that harbors the SCD gene for effects on milk fatty acid composition traits and classical milk production traits. We identified a suggestive QTL influencing the CLA/VA ratio with the maximum statistic at position 26 cM of the studied chromosome, whereas the SCD gene has been mapped to position 41.6 cM. The individual introduction of 4 SCD single nucleotide polymorphisms in the QTL model did not cause a reduction of the variance explained by the QTL, which suggests that the SCD gene is not directly responsible for the detected effect in the Churra population studied herein. This conclusion was supported by the lack of any significant association identified between the 4 SCD single nucleotide polymorphisms and the CLA/VA ratio. This association analysis suggested a possible effect of the SCD gene on milk fat percentage in Churra sheep. An independent confirmation of these primary results will be required before attempting its practical implementation in selection programs. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary fish oil replacement by linseed oil: Effect on growth, nutrient utilization, tissue fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Madhusmita; Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Samanta, Mrinal; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33.3%, 50%, 66.7% and 100% LO. Final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, SGR decreased linearly (p0.05) affect the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and whole body proximate composition. Furthermore, enhanced level of LO increased α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) in muscle and liver. To understand the molecular mechanism of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase (Δ6 fad) cDNA and investigated its expression in various organs/tissues following replacement of FO with LO in the diet. The full-length Δ6 fad cDNA was 2056bp encoding 444 amino acids and was widely expressed in various organs/tissues. Replacement of FO with LO increased the expression of Δ6 fad mRNA in liver, muscle and intestine but no significant difference was found in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey of the total fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition and content of 30 duckweed species and cloning of a Δ6-desaturase responsible for the production of γ-linolenic and stearidonic acids in Lemna gibba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Duckweeds, i.e., members of the Lemnoideae family, are amongst the smallest aquatic flowering plants. Their high growth rate, aquatic habit and suitability for bio-remediation make them strong candidates for biomass production. Duckweeds have been studied for their potential as feedstocks for bioethanol production; however, less is known about their ability to accumulate reduced carbon as fatty acids (FA) and oil. Results Total FA profiles of thirty duckweed species were analysed to assess the natural diversity within the Lemnoideae. Total FA content varied between 4.6% and 14.2% of dry weight whereas triacylglycerol (TAG) levels varied between 0.02% and 0.15% of dry weight. Three FA, 16:0 (palmitic), 18:2Δ9,12 (Linoleic acid, or LN) and 18:3Δ9,12,15 (α-linolenic acid, or ALA) comprise more than 80% of total duckweed FA. Seven Lemna and two Wolffiela species also accumulate polyunsaturated FA containing Δ6-double bonds, i.e., GLA and SDA. Relative to total FA, TAG is enriched in saturated FA and deficient in polyunsaturated FA, and only five Lemna species accumulate Δ6-FA in their TAG. A putative Δ6-desaturase designated LgDes, with homology to a family of front-end Δ6-FA and Δ8-spingolipid desaturases, was identified in the assembled DNA sequence of Lemna gibba. Expression of a synthetic LgDes gene in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the accumulation of GLA and SDA, confirming it specifies a Δ6-desaturase. Conclusions Total accumulation of FA varies three-fold across the 30 species of Lemnoideae surveyed. Nine species contain GLA and SDA which are synthesized by a Δ6 front-end desaturase, but FA composition is otherwise similar. TAG accumulates up to 0.15% of total dry weight, comparable to levels found in the leaves of terrestrial plants. Polyunsaturated FA is underrepresented in TAG, and the Δ6-FA GLA and SDA are found in the TAG of only five of the nine Lemna species that produce them. When present, GLA is enriched and SDA diminished

  9. Ontogeny of hepatic energy metabolism genes in mice as revealed by RNA-sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J Renaud

    Full Text Available The liver plays a central role in metabolic homeostasis by coordinating synthesis, storage, breakdown, and redistribution of nutrients. Hepatic energy metabolism is dynamically regulated throughout different life stages due to different demands for energy during growth and development. However, changes in gene expression patterns throughout ontogeny for factors important in hepatic energy metabolism are not well understood. We performed detailed transcript analysis of energy metabolism genes during various stages of liver development in mice. Livers from male C57BL/6J mice were collected at twelve ages, including perinatal and postnatal time points (n = 3/age. The mRNA was quantified by RNA-Sequencing, with transcript abundance estimated by Cufflinks. One thousand sixty energy metabolism genes were examined; 794 were above detection, of which 627 were significantly changed during at least one developmental age compared to adult liver. Two-way hierarchical clustering revealed three major clusters dependent on age: GD17.5-Day 5 (perinatal-enriched, Day 10-Day 20 (pre-weaning-enriched, and Day 25-Day 60 (adolescence/adulthood-enriched. Clustering analysis of cumulative mRNA expression values for individual pathways of energy metabolism revealed three patterns of enrichment: glycolysis, ketogenesis, and glycogenesis were all perinatally-enriched; glycogenolysis was the only pathway enriched during pre-weaning ages; whereas lipid droplet metabolism, cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and lipid metabolism were all enriched in adolescence/adulthood. This study reveals novel findings such as the divergent expression of the fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, indicating a switch from mitochondrial to peroxisomal β-oxidation after weaning; as well as the dynamic ontogeny of genes implicated in obesity such as Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 and Elongation of very long chain fatty

  10. Hepatitis C and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassio, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a well-recognized risk factor for occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Europe, Oceania and America, chronic hepatitis C and alcoholic cirrhosis are the main risk factors for HCC. In Latin America, a few retrospective and one prospective study have also shown the predominant role played by hepatitis C in this setting. Furthermore, the incidence of HCC has been increasing in industrialized countries in the last decades; partially as a consequence of the increase in HCV-related cirrhosis (as the long-term sequel of the peak of infections occurring 2-4 decades ago). The main risk factor for HCC development in patients with hepatitis C is the presence of cirrhosis. Among patients with hepatitis C and cirrhosis, the annual incidence rate of HCC ranges between 1-8%, being higher in Japan (4-8%) intermediate in Italy (2-4%) and lower in USA (1.4%). Some studies have also found that HCC may be the first complication to develop and the more frequent cause of death in the compensated HCV-associated cirrhosis. Other risk factors for HCC occurrence are older age at infection, male gender, decreased platelet count, esophageal varices, presence of porphyria cutanea tarda, liver steatosis or diabetes, infection with genotype 1b, coinfection with hepatitis B virus or with HIV and chronic alcoholism. Many studies and also meta-analysis have reported that antiviral therapy based on interferon may reduce the incidence of HCC in chronic hepatitis C, especially in patients with sustained virologic response. Patients with HCV-related cirrhosis should undergo surveillance for HCC.

  11. Hepatitis C Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    Viruses use synthetic mechanism and organelles of the host cells to facilitate their replication and make new viruses. Host's ATP provides necessary energy. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. Like other positive-strand RNA viruses, the HCV genome is thought to be synthesized by the replication complex, which consists of viral- and host cell-derived factors, in tight association with structurally rearranged vesicle-like cytoplasmic membranes. The virus-induced remodeling of subcellular membranes, which protect the viral RNA from nucleases in the cytoplasm, promotes efficient replication of HCV genome. The assembly of HCV particle involves interactions between viral structural and nonstructural proteins and pathways related to lipid metabolisms in a concerted fashion. Association of viral core protein, which forms the capsid, with lipid droplets appears to be a prerequisite for early steps of the assembly, which are closely linked with the viral genome replication. This review presents the recent progress in understanding the mechanisms for replication and assembly of HCV through its interactions with organelles or distinct organelle-like structures.

  12. A minimal model for hepatic fatty acid balance during fasting: application to PPAR alpha-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavy, P; Gondret, F; Guillou, H; Lagarrigue, S; Martin, P G P; van Milgen, J; Radulescu, O; Siegel, A

    2009-11-21

    The purpose of this study is to identify the hierarchy of importance amongst pathways involved in fatty acid (FA) metabolism and their regulators in the control of hepatic FA composition. A modeling approach was applied to experimental data obtained during fasting in PPARalpha knockout (KO) mice and wild-type mice. A step-by-step procedure was used in which a very simple model was completed by additional pathways until the model fitted correctly the measured quantities of FA in the liver. The resulting model included FA uptake by the liver, FA oxidation, elongation and desaturation of FA, which were found active in both genotypes during fasting. From the model analysis we concluded that PPARalpha had a strong effect on FA oxidation. There were no indications that this effect changes during the fasting period, and it was thus considered to be constant. In PPARalpha KO mice, FA uptake was identified as the main pathway responsible for FA variation in the liver. The models showed that FA were oxidized at a constant and small rate, whereas desaturation of FA also occurred during fasting. The latter observation was rather unexpected, but was confirmed experimentally by the measurement of delta-6-desaturase mRNA using real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR). These results confirm that mathematical models can be a useful tool in identifying new biological hypotheses and nutritional routes in metabolism.

  13. Western diet changes cardiac acyl-CoA composition in obese rats: a potential role for hepatic lipogenesis[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmancey, Romain; Wilson, Christopher R.; Wright, Nathan R.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    The “lipotoxic footprint” of cardiac maladaptation in diet-induced obesity is poorly defined. We investigated how manipulation of dietary lipid and carbohydrate influenced potential lipotoxic species in the failing heart. In Wistar rats, contractile dysfunction develops at 48 weeks on a high-fat/high-carbohydrate “Western” diet, but not on low-fat/high-carbohydrate or high-fat diets. Cardiac content of the lipotoxic candidates—diacylglycerol, ceramide, lipid peroxide, and long-chain acyl-CoA species—was measured at different time points by high-performance liquid chromatography and biochemical assays, as was lipogenic capacity in the heart and liver by qRT-PCR and radiometric assays. Changes in membranes fluidity were also monitored using fluorescence polarization. We report that Western feeding induced a 40% decrease in myocardial palmitoleoyl-CoA content and a similar decrease in the unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio. These changes were associated with impaired cardiac mitochondrial membrane fluidity. At the same time, hepatic lipogenic capacity was increased in animals fed Western diet (+270% fatty acid elongase activity compared with high-fat diet), while fatty acid desaturase activity decreased over time. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of lipogenesis is a significant component of heart failure in diet-induced obesity. PMID:20093477

  14. Bivalent inactivated hepatitis A and recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Jiri

    2007-12-01

    Hepatitis A and B remain serious global public health problems. Monovalent vaccines against hepatitis A and B have been available for many years. Since 1996, licenses have been gradually introduced for different formulations and immunization schedules of the first combined vaccines against both diseases. Twinrix Adult (with conventional and accelerated schedules) is available for the immunization of individuals aged 16 years or older in Europe and 18 years or older the USA. Twinrix Pediatric, with its three-dose schedule, and AmBirix, with its two-dose schedule, are licensed in Europe for ages 1-15 years. These vaccines offer a single injection for satisfactory protection against hepatitis A and B and an excellent safety and reactogenicity profile in comparison with monovalent vaccines. This article focuses on immunogenicity of the vaccines and proposes expert opinion and future directions in this field.

  15. How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridiou, M.; Borkent-Raven, B.; Hulshof, J.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control

  16. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  17. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.......To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen....

  18. [Insulin edema in hepatic glycogenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahévas, T; Gobert, D; Gatfossé, M; Mekinian, A; Fain, O

    2017-03-01

    Hepatic glycogenosis is a rare syndrome, which includes poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, hepatomegaly, delayed puberty, and growth delay. Insulin edema is sometimes associated. An 18-year-old woman presented with diffuse edema, hepatomegaly, amenorrhea, uncontrolled diabetes, and elevated transaminases and cholestasis. Hepatic ultrasonography and abdominal computed tomographic scan confirmed the hepatomegaly. The liver biopsy showed a massive glycogenosis and the diagnosis of hepatic glycogenosis was confirmed. Too large doses of insulin were responsible of diffuse edema. Diabetes equilibration and diminution of insulin intakes allow correction of this disorder. Excess of insulin can lead to excessive hepatic glycogen storage by activation of glycogenosis enzymes. Biological manifestations consist on elevated liver enzymes and hyperlactatemia. There is a link between administration of high dose of insulin and edema. Hepatic glycogenosis should be suspected when diabetes is uncontrolled and be considered as a differential diagnosis of steatosis. It may be associated and revealed by insulin edema directly related to excessive insulin intakes. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. American Cocker Spaniel Chronic Hepatitis in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanemoto, H.; Sakai, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Spee, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830925

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: American Cocker Spaniels are predisposed to chronic hepatitis. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and histological features of chronic hepatitis in Japanese American Cocker Spaniels. ANIMALS: Thirteen cases examined from 2003 to 2009. METHODS: Retrospective study. Medical

  20. Hepatitis Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Hepatitis Testing (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Social Norm, Family Communication, and HBV Screening among Asian Americans. Article: Hepatitis ...

  1. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv herpes overview ... links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing ...

  2. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety about bucking the ... to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B We provide this video ...

  3. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv ... morrow scholarship links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule ...

  4. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  5. Hepatite C Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Strauss

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que cerca de 3% da população mundial esteja infectada pelo vírus da hepatite C. Todos os que receberam transfusão de sangue ou seus componentes e os usuários de drogas podem estar infectados. Procedimentos odontológicos, médicos, tatuagem ou acupuntura também constituem fatores de risco. A infecção se cronifica em até 85% dos indivíduos, com evolução assintomática durante anos ou décadas e apresentação clínica variada. Para o diagnóstico, a determinação do anti-VHC revela-se muito sensível e a confirmação se faz pela determinação do RNA-VHC no sangue; o estadiamento da doença e a avaliação da atividade inflamatória pela biópsia hepática. O tratamento objetiva deter a progressão da doença hepática através da inibição da replicação viral. Devido à baixa eficácia terapêutica aliada a importantes efeitos colaterais do interferon e da ribavirina, esses medicamentos encontram indicações e contra-indicações específicas. Vários fatores preditivos de resposta ao tratamento, principalmente a carga viral e o genótipo do VHC, mostram-se úteis na avaliação dos pacientes.It has been estimated that 3% of the world population is infected with the hepatitis C virus. Those who are blood product recipients or have been illicit drug users are at risk. Dental and medical procedures as well as tattooing and acupuncture are also risk factors. Chronic infection occurs in up to 85% of infected cases but they may remain without symptoms during years or even decades, and clinical presentation varies. Determination of anti-HCV in sera is a fairly sensitive tool for the diagnosis, and confirmation requires the identification of HCV-RNA. Staging of the liver disease as well as definition of its present activity can be graded by liver biopsy. The aim of treatment is to stop the progression of the hepatic disease by inhibiting viral replication. Due to the low therapeutic efficacy combined with important side

  6. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  7. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  8. Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Around 3% of the world's population (approximately 160 million people) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. The proportion of infected people who develop clinical symptoms varies between 5% and 40%. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin...... response in genotype 1 infected patients to at least 70%. There is therefore an unmet need for drugs that can achieve a higher proportion of sustained virological response. Aminoadamantanes are antiviral drugs used for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial...... and harmful effects of aminoadamantanes for patients with chronic hepatitis C infection by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials, as well as trial sequential analyses. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled...

  9. Biliary Stricture Following Hepatic Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Matthews

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic distortion and displacement of hilar structures due to liver lobe atrophy and hypertrophy occasionally complicates the surgical approach for biliary stricture repair. Benign biliary stricture following hepatic resection deserves special consideration in this regard because the inevitable hypertrophy of the residual liver causes marked rotation and displacement of the hepatic hilum that if not anticipated may render exposure for repair difficult and dangerous. Three patients with biliary stricture after hepatectomy illustrate the influence of hepatic regeneration on attempts at subsequent stricture repair. Following left hepatectomy, hypertrophy of the right and caudate lobes causes an anteromedial rotation and displacement of the portal structures. After right hepatectomy, the rotation is posterolateral, and a thoracoabdominal approach may be necessary for adequate exposure. Radiographs obtained in the standard anteroposterior projection may be deceptive, and lateral views are recommended to aid in operative planning.

  10. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise M; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels V

    2016-01-01

    and reduced concentrations of EPO in cirrhosis. Increased EPO concentrations could be expected due to anemia, hypoxia, renal hypoperfusion, or EPO-mediated hepatoprotective mechanisms. In contrast, poor hepatic production capacity may cause reduced EPO concentrations in cirrhosis. In the present paper we...... aimed to study hepatic and renal venous concentrations of EPO in relation to the severity of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 24 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and eight age-matched healthy controls. All had a full catheterization performed with the determination of EPO concentrations...... in the hepatic, renal and femoral veins and artery. All patients were clinically, biochemically, and hemodynamically characterized. RESULTS: The median arterial EPO concentrations in the cirrhotic patients and controls were 7.1 mIU/mL (range 3.5-179) and 7.2 mIU/mL (range 3.8-15.3), respectively. In the patient...

  11. Zoonotic origin of hepatitis E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavio, Nicole; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Doceul, Virginie

    2015-02-01

    The concept of zoonotic viral hepatitis E has emerged a few years ago following the discovery of animal strains of hepatitis E virus (HEV), closely related to human HEV, in countries where sporadic cases of hepatitis E were autochthonous. Recent advances in the identification of animal reservoirs of HEV have confirmed that strains circulating in domestic and wild pigs are genetically related to strains identified in indigenous human cases. The demonstration of HEV contamination in the food chain or pork products has indicated that HEV is frequently a foodborne zoonotic pathogen. Direct contacts with infected animals, consumption of contaminated animal meat or meat products are all potential means of zoonotic HEV transmission. The recent identification of numerous other genetically diverse HEV strains from various animal species poses additional potential concerns for HEV zoonotic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rheumatologic manifestations associated with Hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide burden whose seroprevalence is higher in developing countries with Cameroon being the third most affected country in Africa. HCV both a hepatotropic and lymphotropic infection is responsible for a great number of hepatic and extra hepatic disorders some of ...

  13. Know thy hepatitis: A through TT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, M

    1999-05-01

    Several viruses have been identified as causative agents of hepatitis in humans. Other hepatotropic viruses have been implicated as potentially disease-causing. This article reviews hepatitis A virus through the newly discovered hepatitis TT virus and their implication for the profession of dentistry.

  14. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9001 of July 25, 2013 World Hepatitis Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each year, we mark World Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver cancer and...

  15. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  16. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... August 1, 2011 Part VI The President Proclamation 8696--World Hepatitis Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Hepatitis Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Across our Nation, millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis. As many as three-fourths of Americans living with...

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is transmitted to a large population through blood transfusion or by exposure to other body fluids. HBV is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae and also a DNA virus. In this study, the prevalence of hepatitis B infection ...

  18. Studies on Hepatitis B vaccination in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. del Canho (Riwka)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1982-1989, 705 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers entered the Dutch neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program and received passive-active hepatitis B immunization, according to 6 schedules, varying in time of onset vaccination, dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBlg) and type

  19. Direct acting antiviral therapy is curative for chronic hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sahebjam, Farhad; Hajdu, Cristina H; Nortey, Esther; Sigal, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune phenomena are common in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Management of chronic hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis syndrome has until recently been problematic due to the adverse effects of interferon on autoimmune processes and immunosuppression on viral replication. In this report we describe 3 patients with chronic hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome who responded rapidly to direct acting anti-viral therapy. The resolution of the autoimmune process supports a direct...

  20. INFEKSI VIRUS HEPATITIS B DAN HEPATITIS C PADA PENDERITA HEPATITIS KRONIS DAN HEMODIALISIS DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Yuwono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hepatitis C dan Hepatitis B merupakan penyebab hepatitis kronik aktif yang dapat berkembang menjadi hepatoselular karsinoma. Untuk mengetahui peranan kedua jenis virus tersebut sebagai penyebab hepatoselular karsinoma, telah dilakukan pemeriksaan HbsAg, anti-VHC dan RNA-VHC pada 17 penderita hepatitis kronis. 19 Pasien hemodialisis dan 198 donor darah PMI. Pemeriksaan HbsAg dilakukan dengan RPHA Cell: pemeriksaan anti-VHC dengan dipstik anti-VHC kit diagnotik produksi NTB Mataram, Lombok. Deteksi RNA-VHC dilakukan dengan teknik RT-PCR, menggunakan primer spesifik untuk daerah 5'NCR. Hasil pemeriksaan menunjukkan bahwa pada penderita hepatitis kronis ditemukan 5 orang (23,5% positif HbsAg dan 1 orang (5,8% anti-VHC. Pada penderita hemodialisis ditemukan 14 orang (73,6% positif anti-VHC, persentase anti-VHC meningkat sesuai dengan meningkatnya frekuensi hemodialisis. Pada donor darah PMI ditemukan 5 orang (2,2% positif HbsAg dan tidak satupun ditemukan anti-VHC positif.

  1. Hepatic adenomatosis in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Gordic

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA is a benign liver tumor most frequently occurring in women using oral contraception. HCA develops in normal or nearly normal livers and is extremely rare in cirrhosis. The authors present magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic findings in a 57-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and hepatic adenomatosis.As the differentiation between HCA and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC can be difficult with imaging, we would like to highlight the importance of ancillary findings such as the presence of iron on MRI, which can be observed in HCA. Keywords: Hepatocellular adenoma, Hepatic adenomatosis, Liver cirrhosis, Magnetic resonance imaging

  2. Adipokines and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Recent studies have shown that these factors might provide a molecular link between increased adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity. Since hepatic insulin resistance plays the key role in the whole body insulin resistance, clarification of the regulatory processes about hepatic insulin resistance by adipokines in rodents and human would seem essential in order to understand the mechanism of type 2 diabetes and for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat it. PMID:23762871

  3. More than simple hepatic cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tabacelia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Caroli diseaseis a rare congenital disorder that classically causes saccular dilatation of the bile ducts. The complications of Caroli include choledochal cysts with recurrent cholangitis, abscess formation, septicaemia, intrahepatic lithiasis and amyloidosis.We report a rare case of a young female with Caroli disease pointing out the intrahepatic lithiasis as a rare complication of the disease. Learning points Caroli disease is an uncommon condition that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatic essential cysts. Clinically, it is characterized of recurrent episodes of fever and pain. The correct and early diagnostic is important because of the different complications and treatment unlike the essential hepatic cysts.

  4. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert S.

    2005-08-01

    Liver transplantation is a life-saving therapy to correct liver failure, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C infection. But despite the successful use of living donors and improvements in immunosuppression and antiviral therapy, organ demand continues to outstrip supply and recurrent hepatitis C with accelerated progression to cirrhosis of the graft is a frequent cause of graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Appropriate selection of candidates and timing of transplantation, coupled with better pre- and post-transplant antiviral therapy, are needed to improve outcomes.

  5. [Hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Kaisa; Nuutinen, Pauliina; Raili, Kauppinen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms Cutaneous symptoms of porphyrias are initiated from a phototoxic reaction caused by sunlight and circulating porphyrins in the vascular walls of the skin. This leads in fragility, blistering and scarring of the skin on light-exposed areas. There are approximately 200 patients having hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms in Finland. Cutaneous symptoms of variegate porphyria and porphyria cutanea tarda are indistinguishable, but an effective treatment is available only for the latter. Differential diagnosis is important due to acute episodes occurring in variegate porphyria.

  6. Mangiferin treatment inhibits hepatic expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rats: a link to amelioration of fatty liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Xiaomang; Li, Danyang; Chen, Dilong; Zhou, Liang [Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 China (China); Chonan, Ritsu [Koei Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 101-0063 Japan (Japan); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto, 602-8136 Japan (Japan); Wang, Jianwei, E-mail: wangjianwei1968@gmail.com [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 China (China); Li, Yuhao, E-mail: yuhao@sitcm.edu.au [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences/Sydney Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Mangiferin, a xanthone glucoside, and its associated traditional herbs have been demonstrated to improve abnormalities of lipid metabolism. However, its underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study investigated the anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)s that have a mutation in sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1. The results showed that co-administration of mangiferin (15 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 7 weeks dramatically diminished fructose-induced increases in hepatic triglyceride content and Oil Red O-stained area in SHRs. However, blood pressure, fructose and chow intakes, white adipose tissue weight and metabolic parameters (plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids) were unaffected by mangiferin treatment. Mechanistically, mangiferin treatment suppressed acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in the liver. In contrast, mangiferin treatment was without effect on hepatic mRNA and/or protein expression of SREBP-1/1c, carbohydrate response element binding protein, liver pyruvate kinase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, DGAT-1, monoacyglycerol acyltransferase-2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Collectively, our results suggest that mangiferin treatment ameliorates fatty liver in fructose-fed SHRs by inhibiting hepatic DGAT-2 that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride biosynthesis. The anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin may occur independently of the hepatic signals associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. - Highlights: • We investigated the anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin (MA) in fructose-fed SHR. • MA (15 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks) ameliorated fructose-induced fatty liver in

  7. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis is an inflammatory disease of the liver. In sever cases, it may lead to permanent liver damage including liver cirrhosis or hepato‑cellular carcinoma and may ultimately lead to death. Health‑care workers (HCWs), due to their regular contact with patients are at a high‑risk of acquiring this disease.

  8. Profile of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Markers in Asymptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was to determine the profile of viral markers of HBV and HCV among asymptomatic individuals with chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Methods: Seventy one subjects who were chronic HBsAg positive were recruited as cases and thirty three apparently normal individuals who were negative for HBsAg served as ...

  9. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interns) was duly filled by 255 participants including, 100 dental, 100 ... control and prevention. Patients with hepatitis C may sometimes experience ... the major health care delivery facilities of the Punjab State and caters to medical needs of a large ...

  10. Transcriptome analysis of H2O2-treated wheat seedlings reveals a H2O2-responsive fatty acid desaturase gene participating in powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 plays important roles in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, the effect of H(2O(2 stress on the bread wheat transcriptome is still lacking. To investigate the cellular and metabolic responses triggered by H(2O(2, we performed an mRNA tag analysis of wheat seedlings under 10 mM H(2O(2 treatment for 6 hour in one powdery mildew (PM resistant (PmA and two susceptible (Cha and Han lines. In total, 6,156, 6,875 and 3,276 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PmA, Han and Cha respectively. Among them, 260 genes exhibited consistent expression patterns in all three wheat lines and may represent a subset of basal H(2O(2 responsive genes that were associated with cell defense, signal transduction, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and transport. Among genes specific to PmA, 'transport' activity was significantly enriched in Gene Ontology analysis. MapMan classification showed that, while both up- and down- regulations were observed for auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolides signaling genes, the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway genes were all up-regulated, suggesting H(2O(2-enhanced JA/Et functions in PmA. To further study whether any of these genes were involved in wheat PM response, 19 H(2O(2-responsive putative defense related genes were assayed in wheat seedlings infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt. Eight of these genes were found to be co-regulated by H(2O(2 and Bgt, among which a fatty acid desaturase gene TaFAD was then confirmed by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS to be required for the PM resistance. Together, our data presents the first global picture of the wheat transcriptome under H(2O(2 stress and uncovers potential links between H(2O(2 and Bgt responses, hence providing important candidate genes for the PM resistance in wheat.

  11. Heterogeneity of the Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) gene and metabolic risk factors in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Maria; Buijsse, Brian; Stefan, Norbert; Corella, Dolores; Fisher, Eva; di Giuseppe, Romina; Coltell, Oscar; Knüppel, Sven; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Joost, Hans-Georg; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism. In mice and humans its activity has been associated with traits of the metabolic syndrome, but also with the prevention of saturated fatty acids accumulation and subsequent inflammation, whereas for liver fat content inconsistent results have been reported. Thus, variants of the gene encoding SCD1 (SCD1) could potentially modify metabolic risk factors, but few human studies have addressed this question. In a sample of 2157 middle-aged men and women randomly drawn from the Potsdam cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, we investigated the impact of 7 SCD1 tagging-single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1502593, rs522951, rs11190480, rs3071, rs3793767, rs10883463 and rs508384) and 5 inferred haplotypes with frequency >5% describing 90.9% of the genotype combinations in our population, on triglycerides, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and fetuin-A. No significant associations between any of the SNPs or haplotypes and BMI, WC, fetuin-A and hs-CRP were observed. Associations of rs10883463 with triglycerides, GGT and HbA1c as well as of rs11190480 with ALT activity, were weak and became non-significant after multiple-testing correction. Also associations of the haplotype harbouring the minor allele of rs1502593 with HbA1c levels, the haplotype harbouring the minor alleles of rs11190480 and rs508384 with activity of ALT, and the haplotype harbouring the minor alleles of rs522951, rs10883463 and rs508384 with triglyceride and HbA1C levels and GGT activities did not withstand multiple-testing correction. These findings suggest that there are no associations between common variants of SCD1 or its inferred haplotypes and the investigated metabolic risk factors. However, given the results from animal models

  12. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in healthy Korean men: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Long In

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship between fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance (IR in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA composition in healthy Korean men. Methods Healthy men (n = 576, 30 ~ 79 years old were genotyped for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1-10154G>T, FADS2 (rs174575C>G, rs2727270C>T, and FADS3 (rs1000778C>T SNPs. Dietary intake, serum phospholipid FA composition and HOMA-IR were measured. Results Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the rs174575G allele carriers than the CC homozygotes, but lower in the rs2727270T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. The proportion of linoleic acid (18:2ω-6, LA was higher in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154G>T, rs174575C>G and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3ω-6, DGLA and arachidonic acid (20:4ω-6, AA in serum phospholipids were significantly lower in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154 G>T carriers and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes respectively. AA was also significantly lower in the rs1000778T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. HOMA-IR positively correlated with LA and DGLA and negatively with AA/DGLA in total subjects. Interestingly, rs174575G allele carriers showed remarkably higher HOMA-IR than the CC homozygotes when subjects had higher proportions of DLGA (≥1.412% in total serum phospholipid FA composition (P for interaction = 0.009 or of AA (≥4.573% (P for interaction = 0.047. Conclusion HOMA-IR is associated with FADS gene cluster as well as with FA composition in serum phospholipids. Additionally, HOMA-IR may be modulated by the interaction between rs174575C>G and the proportion of DGLA or AA in serum phospholipids.

  13. Differences in Arachidonic Acid Levels and Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Variants in African Americans and European Americans with Diabetes/Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Susan; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Rudock, Megan E.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Ivester, Priscilla; Ainsworth, Hannah C.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Case, L. Douglas; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Chilton, Floyd H.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, increases in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as linoleic acid, have been hypothesized to cause or exacerbate chronic inflammatory diseases. This study examines an individual’s innate capacity to synthesize n-6-long chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), with respect to the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) locus in Americans of African and European descent with diabetes/metabolic syndrome. Compared to European Americans (EAm), African Americans (AfAm) exhibited markedly higher serum levels of arachidonic acid (AA) (EAm 7.9±2.1; AfAm 9.8±1.9 % of total fatty acids, mean ± sd; pFADS1 activity (EAm 5.4±2.2, AfAm 6.9±2.2; p=1.44×10−5). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) mapping to the FADS locus revealed strong association with AA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and dihomogamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) in the EAm. Importantly, EAm homozygous for the minor allele (T) had significantly lower AA levels (TT: 6.3±1.0; GG: 8.5±2.1; p=3.0×10−5) and AA/DGLA ratios (TT: 3.4±0.8; GG: 6.5±2.3; p=2.2×10−7) but higher DGLA levels (TT: 1.9±0.4; GG: 1.4±0.4; p=3.3×10−7) compared to those homozygous for the major allele (GG). Allele frequency patterns suggest that the GG genotype at rs174537 (associated with higher circulating levels of AA) is much higher in AfAm (0.81) compared to EAm (0.46). Similarly, marked differences in rs174537 genotypic frequencies were observed in HapMap populations. These data suggest that there are likely important differences in the capacity of different populations to synthesize LC-PUFAs. These differences may provide a genetic mechanism contributing to health disparities between populations of African and European descent. PMID:21733300

  14. Differences in arachidonic acid levels and fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene variants in African Americans and European Americans with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Susan; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Rudock, Megan E; Ziegler, Julie T; Ivester, Priscilla; Ainsworth, Hannah C; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Case, L Douglas; Langefeld, Carl D; Freedman, Barry I; Bowden, Donald W; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2012-02-01

    Over the past 50 years, increases in dietary n-6 PUFA, such as linoleic acid, have been hypothesised to cause or exacerbate chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study examines an individual's innate capacity to synthesise n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) with respect to the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) locus in Americans of African and European descent with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Compared with European Americans (EAm), African Americans (AfAm) exhibited markedly higher serum levels of arachidonic acid (AA) (EAm 7·9 (sd 2·1), AfAm 9·8 (sd 1·9) % of total fatty acids; P FADS1 activity (EAm 5·4 (sd 2·2), AfAm 6·9 (sd 2·2); P = 1·44 × 10⁻⁵). In all, seven SNP mapping to the FADS locus revealed strong association with AA, EPA and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) in the EAm. Importantly, EAm homozygous for the minor allele (T) had significantly lower AA levels (TT 6·3 (sd 1·0); GG 8·5 (sd 2·1); P = 3·0 × 10⁻⁵) and AA:DGLA ratios (TT 3·4 (sd 0·8), GG 6·5 (sd 2·3); P = 2·2 × 10⁻⁷) but higher DGLA levels (TT 1·9 (sd 0·4), GG 1·4 (sd 0·4); P = 3·3 × 10⁻⁷) compared with those homozygous for the major allele (GG). Allele frequency patterns suggest that the GG genotype at rs174537 (associated with higher circulating levels of AA) is much higher in AfAm (0·81) compared with EAm (0·46). Similarly, marked differences in rs174537 genotypic frequencies were observed in HapMap populations. These data suggest that there are probably important differences in the capacity of different populations to synthesise LC-PUFA. These differences may provide a genetic mechanism contributing to health disparities between populations of African and European descent.

  15. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in healthy Korean men: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Lim, Hyo Hee; Yang, Long In; Chae, Jey Sook; Lee, Jong Ho

    2011-04-23

    We investigated the relationship between fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance (IR) in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) composition in healthy Korean men. Healthy men (n = 576, 30 ~ 79 years old) were genotyped for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1-10154G>T), FADS2 (rs174575C>G, rs2727270C>T), and FADS3 (rs1000778C>T) SNPs. Dietary intake, serum phospholipid FA composition and HOMA-IR were measured. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the rs174575G allele carriers than the CC homozygotes, but lower in the rs2727270T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. The proportion of linoleic acid (18:2ω-6, LA) was higher in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154G>T, rs174575C>G and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3ω-6, DGLA) and arachidonic acid (20:4ω-6, AA) in serum phospholipids were significantly lower in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154 G>T carriers and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes respectively. AA was also significantly lower in the rs1000778T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. HOMA-IR positively correlated with LA and DGLA and negatively with AA/DGLA in total subjects. Interestingly, rs174575G allele carriers showed remarkably higher HOMA-IR than the CC homozygotes when subjects had higher proportions of DLGA (≥1.412% in total serum phospholipid FA composition) (P for interaction = 0.009) or of AA (≥4.573%) (P for interaction = 0.047). HOMA-IR is associated with FADS gene cluster as well as with FA composition in serum phospholipids. Additionally, HOMA-IR may be modulated by the interaction between rs174575C>G and the proportion of DGLA or AA in serum phospholipids.

  16. Maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 coding regions modify the impact of prenatal supplementation with DHA on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Rzehak, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D; Garcia Feregrino, Raquel; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Demmelmair, Hans; Romieu, Isabelle; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Koletzko, Berthold; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2016-04-01

    Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene affect the activity and efficiency of enzymes that are responsible for the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into their long-chain active form. A high prevalence of SNPs that are associated with slow PUFA conversion has been described in Hispanic populations. We assessed the heterogeneity of the effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on birth weight across selected FADS SNPs in a sample of Mexican women and their offspring. We obtained information on the maternal genotype from stored blood samples of 654 women who received supplementation with 400 mg DHA/d or a placebo from weeks 18 to 22 of gestation through delivery as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We selected 4 tag SNPs (rs174455, rs174556, rs174602, and rs498793) in the FADS region for analysis. We used an ANOVA to test for the heterogeneity of the effect on birth weight across each of the 4 SNPs. The mean ± SD birth weight was 3210 ± 470 g, and the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) was -0.24 ± 1.00. There were no intention-to-treat differences in birth weights. We showed significant heterogeneity by SNP rs174602 (P= 0.02); offspring of carriers of alleles TT and TC in the intervention group were heavier than those in the placebo group (WAZ: -0.13 ± 0.14 and -0.20 ± 0.08 compared with -0.55 ± 0.15 and -0.39 ± 0.09, respectively); there were no significant differences in offspring of rs174602 CC homozygotes (WAZ: -0.26 ± 0.09 in the intervention group compared with -0.04 ± 0.09 in the placebo group). We showed no significant heterogeneity across the other 3 FADS SNPs. Differential responses to prenatal DHA supplementation on the basis of the genetic makeup of target populations could explain the mixed evidence of the impact of DHA supplementation on birth weight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00646360. © 2016

  17. Multiple genes for functional 6 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): gene and cDNA characterization, functional expression, tissue distribution and nutritional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Oscar; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Morais, Sofia; Leaver, Michael J; Taggart, John B; Tocher, Douglas R

    2010-09-01

    Fish are the primary source in the human food basket of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoate (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoate (DHA; 22:6n-3), that are crucial to the health of higher vertebrates. Atlantic salmon are able to synthesize EPA and DHA from 18:3n-3 through reactions catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad) and elongases of very long chain fatty acids. Previously, two cDNAs encoding functionally distinct Delta5 and Delta6 Fads were isolated, but screening of a genomic DNA library revealed the existence of more putative fad genes in the Atlantic salmon genome. In the present study, we show that there are at least four genes encoding putative Fad proteins in Atlantic salmon. Two genes, Delta6fad_a and Delta5fad, corresponded to the previously cloned Delta6 and Delta5 Fad cDNAs. Functional characterization by heterologous expression in yeast showed that the cDNAs for both the two further putative fad genes, Delta6fad_b and Delta6fad_c, had only Delta6 activity, converting 47 % and 12 % of 18:3n-3 to 18:4n-3, and 25 and 7 % of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-6, for 6Fad_b and Delta6fad_c, respectively. Both 6fad_a and 6fad_b genes were highly expressed in intestine (pyloric caeca), liver and brain, with 6fad_b also highly expressed in gill, whereas 6fad_c transcript was found predominantly in brain, with lower expression levels in all other tissues. The expression levels of the 6fad_a gene in liver and the 6fad_b gene in intestine were significantly higher in fish fed diets containing vegetable oil compared to fish fed fish oil suggesting up-regulation in response to reduced dietary EPA and DHA. In contrast, no significant differences were found between transcript levels for 6fad_a in intestine, 6fad_b in liver, or 6fad_c in liver or intestine of fish fed vegetable oil compared to fish fed fish oil. The observed differences in tissue expression and nutritional regulation of the fad genes are discussed in relation to gene structures and fish

  18. Inhibition of stearoyl-coA desaturase selectively eliminates tumorigenic Nanog-positive cells: improving the safety of iPS cell transplantation to myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Pan, Yaohua; Qin, Gangjian; Chen, Lijuan; Chatterjee, Tapan K; Weintraub, Neal L; Tang, Yaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) can differentiate into cardiomyocytes (CM) and represent a promising form of cellular therapy for heart regeneration. However, residual undifferentiated iPS derivates (iPSD), which are not fully eliminated by cell differentiation or purification protocols, may form tumors after transplantation, thus compromising therapeutic application. Inhibition of stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD) has recently been reported to eliminate undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells, which share many features with iPSD. Here, we tested the effects of PluriSin#1, a small-molecule inhibitor of SCD, on iPS-derived CM. We found that plurisin#1 treatment significantly decreased the mRNA and protein level of Nanog, a marker for both cell pluripotency and tumor progression; importantly, we provide evidence that PluriSin#1 treatment at 20 µM for 1 day significantly induces the apoptosis of Nanog-positive iPSD. In addition, PluriSin#1 treatment at 20 µM for 4 days diminished Nanog-positive stem cells in cultured iPSD while not increasing apoptosis of iPS-derived CM. To investigate whether PluriSin#1 treatment prevents tumorigenicity of iPSD after cell transplantation, we intramyocardially injected PluriSin#1- or DMSO-treated iPSD in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). DMSO-treated iPSD readily formed Nanog-expressing tumors 2 weeks after injection, which was prevented by treatment with PluriSin#1. Moreover, treatment with PluriSin#1 did not change the expression of cTnI, α-MHC, or MLC-2v, markers of cardiac differentiation (P>0.05, n = 4). Importantly, pluriSin#1-treated iPS-derived CM exhibited the ability to engraft and survive in the infarcted myocardium. We conclude that inhibition of SCD holds the potential to enhance the safety of therapeutic application of iPS cells for heart regeneration.

  19. Heterogeneity of the Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1 gene and metabolic risk factors in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Arregui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1 is an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism. In mice and humans its activity has been associated with traits of the metabolic syndrome, but also with the prevention of saturated fatty acids accumulation and subsequent inflammation, whereas for liver fat content inconsistent results have been reported. Thus, variants of the gene encoding SCD1 (SCD1 could potentially modify metabolic risk factors, but few human studies have addressed this question. METHODS: In a sample of 2157 middle-aged men and women randomly drawn from the Potsdam cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, we investigated the impact of 7 SCD1 tagging-single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1502593, rs522951, rs11190480, rs3071, rs3793767, rs10883463 and rs508384 and 5 inferred haplotypes with frequency >5% describing 90.9% of the genotype combinations in our population, on triglycerides, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and fetuin-A. RESULTS: No significant associations between any of the SNPs or haplotypes and BMI, WC, fetuin-A and hs-CRP were observed. Associations of rs10883463 with triglycerides, GGT and HbA1c as well as of rs11190480 with ALT activity, were weak and became non-significant after multiple-testing correction. Also associations of the haplotype harbouring the minor allele of rs1502593 with HbA1c levels, the haplotype harbouring the minor alleles of rs11190480 and rs508384 with activity of ALT, and the haplotype harbouring the minor alleles of rs522951, rs10883463 and rs508384 with triglyceride and HbA1C levels and GGT activities did not withstand multiple-testing correction. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that there are no associations between common variants of SCD1 or its inferred haplotypes and the investigated metabolic risk factors

  20. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  1. Rubinstein Taybi syndrome with hepatic hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, U M; Senel, S; Erkek, N; Karacan, C; Yoney, A

    2009-01-01

    It was the aim of our study to present a case of Rubinstein Taybi syndome (RTS) associated with hepatic hemangioma. A 6.5-year-old boy was diagnosed with RTS. He had large areas of cutaneous capillary hemangiomas. Radiological examination revealed a hepatic hemangioma. A multidisciplinary follow-up program was commenced and hepatic ultrasound examinations were performed periodically. No progression and complication have since occurred. This case shows an association between RTS and hepatic hemangioma, and hence, we recommend regular hepatic ultrasound examination when RTS is suspected or diagnosed. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Hepatitis A Virus in Transplants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-17

    Dr. Monique Foster, a CDC epidemiologist, discusses an unusual case of hepatitis A virus in a transplant patient.  Created: 5/17/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/17/2017.

  3. Hepatitis viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    personal communication).' There is little justification for the use of immunoglobulin preparations in family contacts of patients, as the donated serum is almost invariably from. First-World countries where most of the population has not been exposed to HEY.' Hepatitis E is a self-limiting disease. Liver biopsies taken years after ...

  4. Evaluation of hepatic cystic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantinga, M.A.; Gevers, T.J.G.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic cysts are increasingly found as a mere coincidence on abdominal imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These cysts often present a diagnostic challenge. Therefore, we performed a review of the recent literature and

  5. Viral hepatitis B- an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-08-08

    Aug 8, 1994 ... Hepatitis B e antigen. (HBeAg) is a soluble non-structural, enigmatic antigen which is often detected in the blood of patients infected with replicating HBV which results in massive viral load in the blood. Both HBe and HBc are derived from the same section of HBV DNA but the HBe transcript contains an.

  6. [Autoimmune hepatitis and CREST syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo Mandag, N; Van Gossum, M; Rickaert, F; Golstein, M

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of an autoimmune hepatitis in a 59-year old woman who was referred for a progressive jaundice. The patient had an history of CREST syndrome. The particularity of this case report is the rare association between these two autoimmune diseases.

  7. Complex therapy for hepatic trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hepatic trauma were the use of Gelatine sponge or the omentum packing lacerated wound repair. Grade 111 and IV injuries were managed with thorough debridement and ligation of the blood vessels and intrahepatic bile ducts of the lacerated sections under the Pringle's maneuver; if bleeding is excessive, added selective ...

  8. induced hepatic injury in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicological evaluation of Thymelaea hirsuta and protective effect against CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury in rats. ... There were no significant differences in red blood cells count (p<0.05), in Hemoglobin and Hematocrit serum levels but a significant increase in white blood cells count (p<0.001) and in platelets (p< 0.05) for all ...

  9. Hepatitis E: an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2014-03-01

    Currently, the infection with the hepatitis E virus represents the most frequent cause for acute hepatitis and jaundice in the world. According to WHO estimations, around two billion people, representing one third of the world's population, live in endemic areas for HEV and, therefore, are at risk of infection. In developed countries, the circulation of the virus in both human and animal (swine, boar, deer) sewage has been confirmed; however, the incidence rate is low compared to that of developing countries where outbreaks of acute hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route are originated, more frequently in the flooding season or after natural disasters, combined with deficient sanitary conditions. There are currently 4 known genotypes of HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 are isolated in all human epidemic outbreaks in developing countries, while genotypes 3 and 4 are isolated not only in humans but also in animals, in both developing and industrialized countries. These data support genotypes 3 and 4 having zoonotic nature. The diagnosis of this disease is based in the detection of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in blood serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent methods. However, the method that best confirms the diagnosis is the RT-PCR, which detects HEV RNA in blood serum and also provides the genotype. The clinical course is generally that of an acute hepatitis which in some cases may require hospitalization and that, in transplant patients or HIV infected individuals can become a chronic hepatitis. Furthermore, the virus constitutes an important risk for pregnant women. The hepatitis E can present a wide range of symptoms, from a subclinical case to chronic liver disease with extrahepatic manifestations. For this reason, the diagnostic is challenging if no differential diagnosis is included. There is no specific antiviral drug for hepatitis E, but satisfactory results have been observed in some patients treated with pegylated interferon alfa2a and/or ribavirin. This revision is

  10. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Characterization of the fatty acyl elongase (elovl) gene family, and hepatic elovl and delta-6 fatty acyl desaturase transcript expression and fatty acid responses to diets containing camelina oil in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xi; Feng, Charles Y; Hixson, Stefanie M; Johnstone, Kim; Anderson, Derek M; Parrish, Christopher C; Rise, Matthew L

    2014-09-01

    For aquaculture to become sustainable, there is a need to substitute fish oil [FO, rich in ω3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as 20:5ω3 (EPA) and 22:6ω3 (DHA)] in aquafeed with plant oils such as camelina oil [CO, rich in C18 PUFA such as 18:3ω3 (ALA) and 18:2ω6 (LNA)]. The LC-PUFA are essential components in fish diets for maintaining optimal health, physiology and growth. However, most marine fish including Atlantic cod are inefficient at producing LC-PUFA from shorter chain precursors. Since elovl genes encode enzymes that play key roles in fatty acid biosynthesis, we hypothesized that they may be involved in Atlantic cod responses to diets rich in 18:3ω3 and 18:2ω6. Ten members of the cod elovl gene family were characterized at the mRNA level. RT-PCR was used to study constitutive expression of elovl transcripts in fifteen tissues. Some transcripts (e.g. elovl5) were ubiquitously expressed, while others had tissue-specific expression (e.g. elovl4a in brain and eye). Cod fed a CO-containing diet (100% CO replacement of FO and including solvent-extracted fish meal) had significantly lower weight gain, with significant up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6 transcripts in the liver as shown by QPCR analysis, compared with cod on a FO control diet after a 13-week trial. Multivariate statistical analyses (SIMPER and PCA) indicated that high 18:3ω3 and/or low ω3 LC-PUFA levels in the liver were associated with the up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6, which are involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in cod. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Usefulness of screening ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma detection: chronic hepatitis versus hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sam Uel; Choi, Don Gil; Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of screening liver ultrasonography (US) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection in patients with chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). A retrospective study was performed with 1,189 patients with clinical hepatopathy caused by HBV who underwent screening liver US for HCC detection at least twice. All patients were followed up with liver US examinations (mean, 8.3 times), CT, or MR for at least 3 months (range, 3-102 months; mean, 47 months) for the detection of HCC. The study population was divided into two groups: chronic hepatitis (n=492) and hepatic cirrhosis (n=697), which was further divided into two groups with (n=156) or without (n=541) evident shrinkage. The radiologic examinations that had detected HCC for the first time were analyzed and compared between the groups. Among 20 (4.1%) patients with chronic hepatitis and 132 (18.9%) patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosed as HCC, screening US was the modality of detection in 17 (85.0%) of 20 patients with chronic hepatitis and 76 (57.6%) of 132 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (p=0.038, Chi-square test). The detection rate of HCC on screening US between the chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage (51.4%, 19/37) showed a significant difference (p=0.027, Chi-square test). For chronic liver disease caused by HBV, screening US for HCC detection is more useful in patients with chronic hepatitis than with hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage.

  13. Autoimmune Hepatitis and Seronegative Hepatitis Associated With Myelodysplastic Syndrome in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Line K; Stenbøg, Elisabeth V; Kerndrup, Gitte B; Hasle, Henrik

    2016-11-01

    An association between hepatitis and aplastic anemia (AA) is known as hepatitis-associated AA, and is characterized by an acute attack of hepatitis followed by the development of AA. We report 2 clinical cases of acute seronegative hepatitis in which pancytopenia with mild dysplasia developed after 3 months; however, neither of our cases fulfilled the histological criteria of AA, but rather myelodysplastic syndrome. This novel association bears considerable resemblance to hepatitis-associated AA, and raises the question of whether hepatitis-associated dysmyelopoiesis should be included in the spectrum of hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome.

  14. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Acquired aplastic anemia(aAA is a severe and rare disease, characterized by hematopoietic bone marrow failure and peripheral cytopenia. The pathophysiology is immune mediated in most cases, activated T1 lymphocytes have been identified as effector cells . The disease can be successfully treated with combined immunosuppressive therapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA  is a syndrome of bone marrow failure following the development of acute seronegative hepatitis. HAA syndrome most often affects young males who presented severe pancytopenia two to three months after an episode of acute hepatitis. The clinical course of hepatitis is more frequently benign but a fulminant severe course is also described. The bone marrow failure can be explosive and severe and it is usually fatal if untreated, no correlations have been observed between severity of hepatitis and AA.

    In none of the  studies a specific virus could be identified and most cases are seronegative for known hepatitis viruses. The clinical characteristics  and response to immunotherapy indicate a central role for immune-mediated mechanism in the pathogenesis of HAA. The initial

  15. Hepatitis C: What to Expect When Getting Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C What to Expect When Getting Tested Getting tested for Hepatitis C • A blood test, called a Hepatitis C Antibody Test, is used to find out if someone has ever been infected with Hepatitis C. • The Hepatitis C Antibody Test, sometimes called ...

  16. Herbal hepatitis: subacute hepatic necrosis secondary to chaparral leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M; Saibil, F

    1990-04-01

    A 33-year-old woman developed subacute hepatic necrosis after several months of ingestion of Chaparral Leaf, an herbal product. Symptoms first appeared 3 months after she began taking the tablets. The patient unwittingly carried out a clinical challenge by reducing, then increasing, the dose of pills. The public and the medical profession must be wary of all "harmless" nonprescription medications, whether purchased in pharmacies or elsewhere.

  17. Hepatic steatosis associated with hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornianu, Marioara; Dema, Alis; Tăban, Sorina; Lazăr, Daniela; Lazăr, Elena; Costi, Simona

    2005-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis (including microvesicular and macrovesicular fat) is a significant histologic feature associated to the chronic hepatitis C (HCV). The purpose of this paper was to analyze the incidence of hepatocyte steatosis in patients with HCV and the potential role of some the known variables as risk factors possibly involved in the occurrence of steatosis: age, sex, obesity, biological parameters, diabetes mellitus, degree of necroinflammation (NI) and stage of fibrosis. 96 of 125 (76.8%) patients had hepatic steatosis (mild 76%, moderate and severe 24%); in comparison with patients without steatosis, those with HCV and steatosis were more frequently women (males/females: 1/1.9) of older age (49.97 vs. 47.7 years), with a greater ICM (index of corporal mass) (26.55 sqm vs. 23.52 sqm), with raised glycemic values (13 of the 14 patients with HCV and diabetes mellitus had steatosis), an average value of serum ALT significantly raised (95.38 U/l vs. 78.96 U/l), and an average score of NI activity significantly higher (9.39 vs. 6.75).

  18. Contrast enhanced ultrasound features of hepatic cystadenoma and hepatic cystadenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Mao, Feng; Fan, Mei; Ignee, Andre; Serra, Carla; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Braden, Barbara; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2017-03-01

    Hepatic (biliary) cystic tumor (HBCT) is a rare focal cystic liver lesion, which has been rarely described in the literature. In our current multicenter, retrospective study, we aimed to analyze contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features and its diagnostic performance in histologically proved HBCT. Twenty-three patients with single HBCT were retrospectively analyzed. Histologically, 17 (73.9%) were benign hepatic (biliary) cystadenoma (HBCA), 6 (26.1%) were hepatic (biliary) cystadenocarcinoma (HBCAC). All CEUS examinations were assessed by two independent radiologists in consensus. Criteria of CEUS imaging evaluation included the contrast enhancement pattern of lesion (hypoenhancing, hyperenhancing, isoenhancing in comparison to the surrounding liver parenchyma) during the arterial, portal venous and late phases. After injection of ultrasound contrast agents, most of the HBCTs (78.3%, 18/23) had typical honeycomb enhancement pattern of the cystic wall, septa or mural nodules. Comparing between HBCA and HBCAC, hyperenhancement of the honeycomb septa during the arterial phase was more common in HBCA (p = .047). However, hypoenhancement during the portal venous and late phases was the characteristic of HBCAC (p = .041). The EFSUMB algorithm for CEUS for characterization of solid focal liver lesions is also applicable to HBCT. CEUS evaluation can avoid further diagnostic investigations or invasive biopsy procedure.

  19. Avian hepatitis E virus, vaccines and methods of protecting against avian hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome and mammalian hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel isolated avian hepatitis E virus having a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or its complementary strand. The invention further concerns immunogenic compositions comprising this new virus or recombinant products such as the nucleic acid and vaccines that protect an avian or mammalian species from viral infection or hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome caused by the hepatitis E virus. Also included in the scope of the invention is a method for prop...

  20. Cytokine Signatures Discriminate Highly Frequent Acute Hepatitis a Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfections from Monoinfections in Mexican Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe-Quintero, Mauricio; Copado-Villagrana, Edgar Daniel; Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge Luis; Alvarez, Angel Hilario; Panduro, Arturo; Fierro, Nora Alma

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus infections and their cytokine profiles were analyzed in Mexican pediatric patients with acute hepatitis. A high frequency of coinfections was found. Significant overexpression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13 and interferon-gamma during hepatitis A virus monoinfections and limited secretion of cytokines in hepatitis E virus infections were observed.